WorldWideScience

Sample records for central phencyclidine pcp

  1. Substance use -- phencyclidine (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get through daily life. Addiction can lead to tolerance. Tolerance means you need more and more PCP to ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Club Drugs Browse the ...

  2. Effect of chronic nicotine pre-treatment on phencyclidine (PCP) disposition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1983-09-01

    Disposition of [3H] phencyclidine (5 mg kg-1 i.p.) in brain, liver and plasma of rats treated chronically with 0.9% saline or nicotine (1 mg kg-1 s.c. twice a day for 11 days) was studied using a method possessing high sensitivity and specificity for PCP. No significant differences were observed in the values of PCP in plasma and tissues and in brain or liver to plasma PCP concentration ratios in the 2 groups 0.5, 1, 2 hr after [3H] PCP injection. With the exception of the value of PCP metabolites in plasma at 0.5 hr, the PCP metabolites concentrations were also not significantly different in the 2 groups. Data suggested that chronic nicotine pretreatment of rats did not affect the disposition of PCP and the potentiation of PCP-induced locomotor stimulant effects by nicotine possibly involves the additive pharmacodynamic interaction of 2 compounds at the level of the central nervous system. PMID:6651404

  3. Effect of acute and chronic ethanol pre-treatment on the disposition of phencyclidine (PCP) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1982-05-01

    Disposition of [H] Phencyclidine in brain, plasma and adipose tissue of rats acutely and chronically-treated with ethanol was studied using a method possessing high sensitivity and specificity for PCP. In rats acutely-treated with ethanol (5 g/kg PO dose) and PCP (10 mg/kg IP dose), dispositional factors did not play a role in the intensifies pharmacological and behavioral effects of PCP. However in rats chronically-treated with 2.5 g/kg PO dose of ethanol twice a day for 19 days, the disposition of PCP (5 mg/kg IP dose) was significantly altered and the values of PCP in brain, plasma and adipose tissue were significantly higher than those in the control group. Although inhibition of PCP metabolism and a comparatively slower rate of its elimination appear to account for the potentiation of drug effects in animals chronically-treated with ethanol, interaction of drugs at the level of the central nervous system cannot be ruled out. PMID:7089042

  4. Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP) as a Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia Pathophysiology and Symptomatology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, B; Barnes, S A; Markou, A; Piercy, C; Podda, G; Neill, J C

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Therefore, it is essential that new treatments and approaches are developed to recover the cognitive and social impairments that are seen in patients with schizophrenia. These may only be discovered through the use of carefully validated, aetiologically relevant and translational animal models. With recent renewed interest in the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, postnatal administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) has been proposed as a model that can mimic aspects of schizophrenia pathophysiology. The purpose of the current review is to examine the validity of this model and compare it with the adult subchronic PCP model. We review the ability of postnatal PCP administration to produce behaviours (specifically cognitive deficits) and neuropathology of relevance to schizophrenia and their subsequent reversal by pharmacological treatments. We review studies investigating effects of postnatal PCP on cognitive domains in schizophrenia in rats. Morris water maze and delayed spontaneous alternation tasks have been used for working memory, attentional set-shifting for executive function, social novelty discrimination for selective attention and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle for sensorimotor gating. In addition, we review studies on locomotor activity and neuropathology. We also include two studies using dual hit models incorporating postnatal PCP and two studies on social behaviour deficits following postnatal PCP. Overall, the evidence we provide supports the use of postnatal PCP to model cognitive and neuropathological disturbances of relevance to schizophrenia. To date, there is a lack of evidence to support a significant advantage of postnatal PCP over the adult subchronic PCP model and full advantage has not been taken of its neurodevelopmental component. When thoroughly characterised, it is likely

  5. Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP) as a Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia Pathophysiology and Symptomatology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, B; Barnes, S A; Markou, A; Piercy, C; Podda, G; Neill, J C

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Therefore, it is essential that new treatments and approaches are developed to recover the cognitive and social impairments that are seen in patients with schizophrenia. These may only be discovered through the use of carefully validated, aetiologically relevant and translational animal models. With recent renewed interest in the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, postnatal administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) has been proposed as a model that can mimic aspects of schizophrenia pathophysiology. The purpose of the current review is to examine the validity of this model and compare it with the adult subchronic PCP model. We review the ability of postnatal PCP administration to produce behaviours (specifically cognitive deficits) and neuropathology of relevance to schizophrenia and their subsequent reversal by pharmacological treatments. We review studies investigating effects of postnatal PCP on cognitive domains in schizophrenia in rats. Morris water maze and delayed spontaneous alternation tasks have been used for working memory, attentional set-shifting for executive function, social novelty discrimination for selective attention and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle for sensorimotor gating. In addition, we review studies on locomotor activity and neuropathology. We also include two studies using dual hit models incorporating postnatal PCP and two studies on social behaviour deficits following postnatal PCP. Overall, the evidence we provide supports the use of postnatal PCP to model cognitive and neuropathological disturbances of relevance to schizophrenia. To date, there is a lack of evidence to support a significant advantage of postnatal PCP over the adult subchronic PCP model and full advantage has not been taken of its neurodevelopmental component. When thoroughly characterised, it is likely

  6. Impaired GABAergic Inhibition in the Prefrontal Cortex of Early Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP)-Treated Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe;

    2014-01-01

    A compromised ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system is hypothesized to be part of the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction during neurodevelopment is proposed to disrupt maturation of interneurons causing an impaired GABAergic transmission...... in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl...

  7. PCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in liquids but has a distinctive, bitter chemical taste. Most PCP sold in the United States comes ... It affects the user's memory, ability to process emotion, and learning ability. At lower doses, the effects ...

  8. Comparative effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on glucose oxidation in the rat testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, S.; Bauer, V.

    1986-03-05

    Glucose and fructose are important fuels of cellular energetics in organs like testis and brain. The previous in-vitro studies indicated that THC may disrupt many gonadal functions by inhibiting energy metabolism in the testis. PCP is sold on the street as any one of a variety of psychoactive drugs. Most commonly it is misrepresented as THC. Therefore, to compare the effects of PCP and THC on glucose utilization, in-vitro radiorespirometric experiments were conducted in rat testicular tissues. The /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from 5.5 mM radiolabelled glucose was followed in the presence and absence of 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 mM PCP. PCP produced a dose-dependent biphasic effect, stimulating /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production by 6.2, 17 and 5.8% and then inhibiting it by 13.2, 15.4 and 8.9% with respective concentrations of PCP. This is in contrast to THC which produced a dose-related inhibition of 15.2, 18.1, 20.1 and 25.3% in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM THC. These observations are significant due to the possible abuse of PCP together with THC either deliberately or by misrepresentation.

  9. Translational aspects of the novel object recognition task in rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP): effects of modafinil and relevance to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    JohnPRedrobe

    2010-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) induces a behavioural syndrome in rodents that bears remarkable similarities to some of the core symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients, among those cognitive deficits. The successful alleviation of cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) has become a major focus of research efforts as they remain largely untreated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selected antipsychotic and cognition enhancing drugs, namely haloperidol...

  10. The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark exploration test are age dependent, sexually dimorphic, and task dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Sarah M; Kim, Daniel; Pritchard, Melissa; Salgado, Sanjay; Thaler, Alison

    2011-11-01

    Previous research in our laboratory revealed sexually dimorphic effects of prior exposure to phencyclidine (PCP) on elevated plus maze behavior. In an attempt to examine the developmental time course of this effect and determine the extent to which it generalizes to other anxiety paradigms, young adult (61-64 days old) and adult (96-107 days old) male and female rats were treated with PCP (15 mg/kg) or saline. Following a two week withdrawal period, animals were tested in either the elevated plus maze (EPM) or a light-dark exploration (LD) test. In adults, both tests revealed a sexually dimorphic effect driven by PCP-induced decreases in anxiety in females as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the EPM and in the lit compartment of the LD test and increased anxiety in males as indicated by decreased time spent in the lit compartment of the LD. In young animals, PCP pretreatment decreased open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze, indicating increased anxiety. However, PCP increased time spent in the light compartment in the light-dark exploration test, indicating decreased anxiety. Corticosterone levels measured 15 min after the onset of the EPM failed to reveal an association between the behavioral effects of PCP and corticosterone levels. The results in adults substantiate the previously observed sexually dimorphic effect of PCP on elevated plus maze behavior in adults and indicate that the effect generalizes to another anxiety paradigm. The results in the younger animals suggest an age dependent effect of PCP on anxiety in general and indicate that behaviors in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark exploration test reflect dissociable psychobiological states.

  11. Translational aspects of the novel object recognition task in rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP: effects of modafinil and relevance to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Redrobe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phencyclidine (PCP induces a behavioural syndrome in rodents that bears remarkable similarities to some of the core symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients, among those cognitive deficits. The successful alleviation of cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS has become a major focus of research efforts as they remain largely untreated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selected antipsychotic and cognition enhancing drugs, namely haloperidol, risperidone, donepezil, and modafinil in an animal model widely used in preclinical schizophrenia research. To this end, the novel object recognition (NOR task was applied to rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with PCP. Rats were administered either PCP (5 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle twice a day for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout period, before testing in NOR. Upon testing, vehicle-treated rats successfully discriminated between novel and familiar objects, an effect abolished in rats that had previously been exposed to PCP-treatment. Acute treatment with modafinil (64 mg/kg, p.o. ameliorated the PCP-induced deficit in novel object exploration, whereas haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., risperidone (0.2 mg/kg, i.p. and donepezil (3 mg/kg, p.o. were without significant effect. Given the negligible efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone, and the contradictory data with donepezil to treat CIAS in the clinic, together with the promising preliminary pro-cognitive effects of modafinil in certain subsets of schizophrenic patients, the sub-chronic PCP-NOR abstinence paradigm may represent an attractive option for the identification of potential novel treatments for CIAS.

  12. PCP-induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain: blockade by metaphit, a PCP-receptor-acylating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminga, C.A.; Tanimoto, K.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T.N.; Contreras, P.C.; Rice, K.C.; Jackson, A.E.; O' Donohue, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on regional cerebral glucose utilization was determined by using quantitative autoradiography with (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose. PCP increased brain metabolism in selected areas of cortex, particularly limbic, and in the basal ganglia and thalamus, whereas the drug decreased metabolism in areas related to audition. These results are consistent with the known physiology of central PCP neurons and may help to suggest brain areas involved in PCP-mediated actions. Moreover, based on the behavioral similarities between PCP psychosis and an acute schizophrenic episode, these data may be relevant to the understanding of schizophrenia. The PCP-receptor-acylating agent, metaphit, blocked most of these PCP actions. In addition, metaphit by itself was found to diminish glucose utilization rather uniformly throughout brain. These results indicate an antagonist effect of metaphit on the PCP system and suggest a widespread action of metaphit, putatively at a PCP-related site, possibly in connection with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.

  13. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  14. Repeated potentiation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates behavioural and GABAergic deficits induced by early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Fejgin, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of the GABAergic deficits observed in schizophrenia has been proposed to involve NMDA receptor hypofunction. An emerging treatment strategy therefore aims at enhancing GABAergic signalling by increasing the excitatory transmission onto interneurons. We wanted to determine......GluR5), ADX47273, and the partial agonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), SSR180711. Adolescent rats (4-5 weeks) subjected to PCP treatment during the second postnatal week displayed a consistent deficit in prepulse inhibition (PPI), which was reversed by a one-week treatment...... treatment, pyramidal neurons displayed a reduced mIPSC frequency and up-regulation of extrasynaptic THIP-induced current. ADX47273 treatment restored this up-regulation of THIP-induced current. Reduced receptor function seems to be the underlying cause of the reported changes, since repeated treatment...

  15. Opposite effect of phencyclidine on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in juvenile and adult limbic rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    The psychotomimetic effect of NMDA antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) in humans spurred the hypoglutamatergic theory of schizophrenia. This theory is supported by animal studies demonstrating schizophrenia-like behavioral and molecular changes following PCP administration to adult or neonatal...

  16. The dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, selectively reduce excitation of central mammalian neurones by N-methyl-aspartate.

    OpenAIRE

    Anis, N. A.; Berry, S. C.; Burton, N. R.; Lodge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of two dissociative anaesthetics, ketamine and phencyclidine, with the responses of spinal neurones to the electrophoretic administration of amino acids and acetylcholine was studied in decerebrate or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats and rats. Both ketamine and phencyclidine selectively blocked excitation by N-methyl-aspartate (NMA) with little effect on excitation by quisqualate and kainate. Ketamine reduced responses to L-aspartate somewhat more than those of L-glutamate; t...

  17. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 515 Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP) WHAT IS PCP? HOW IS PCP TREATED? ... BEST? THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS PCP? Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP or pneumocystis) is the most common opportunistic ...

  18. Disposition of phencyclidine in mice after smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, A.S.; Martin, B.R.

    Mice were exposed to the smoke from placebo marihuana cigarettes treated with phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP . HCl). A dose-related decrement in motor performance was observed after exposure to the smoke from cigarettes containing 10-15 mg of PCP . HCl. Tissue levels of /sup 3/H-PCP, /sup 3/H-PC (pyrolysis product), and /sup 3/H-metabolites were measured in several tissues up to 7 days after exposure to 50 mg of /sup 3/H-PCP . HCl. /sup 3/H-PCP levels were highest in liver followed by lung, brain, fat, and plasma for the first 10 min after exposure. The /sup 3/H-PCP concentration in all tissues, except fat, declined during the subsequent 50 min. Liver and lung contained the highest levels of /sup 3/H-metabolites during this hour, followed by plasma, fat, and brain. Brain levels of /sup 3/H-PCP correlated well with the magnitude and duration of behavioral effects observed (r . 0.98). /sup 3/H-PC was also well absorbed from smoke as evidenced by initial tissue levels comparable to those of /sup 3/H-PCP, but they declined more rapidly than /sup 3/H-PCP levels. Excellent correlations were obtained between /sup 3/H-PCP and /sup 3/H-PC concentrations in plasma and those in liver, lung, and brain. /sup 3/H-PCP was not detected in any tissue 3 days after smoke exposure. At 1 and 3 days, radioactivity corresponding to metabolites persisted in liver and lung, but had largely disappeared by 7 days.

  19. Disposition of phencyclidine in mice after smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice were exposed to the smoke from placebo marihuana cigarettes treated with phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP . HCl). A dose-related decrement in motor performance was observed after exposure to the smoke from cigarettes containing 10-15 mg of PCP . HCl. Tissue levels of 3H-PCP, 3H-PC (pyrolysis product), and 3H-metabolites were measured in several tissues up to 7 days after exposure to 50 mg of 3H-PCP . HCl. 3H-PCP levels were highest in liver followed by lung, brain, fat, and plasma for the first 10 min after exposure. The 3H-PCP concentration in all tissues, except fat, declined during the subsequent 50 min. Liver and lung contained the highest levels of 3H-metabolites during this hour, followed by plasma, fat, and brain. Brain levels of 3H-PCP correlated well with the magnitude and duration of behavioral effects observed (r . 0.98). 3H-PC was also well absorbed from smoke as evidenced by initial tissue levels comparable to those of 3H-PCP, but they declined more rapidly than 3H-PCP levels. Excellent correlations were obtained between 3H-PCP and 3H-PC concentrations in plasma and those in liver, lung, and brain. 3H-PCP was not detected in any tissue 3 days after smoke exposure. At 1 and 3 days, radioactivity corresponding to metabolites persisted in liver and lung, but had largely disappeared by 7 days

  20. SEROTONERGIC/GLUTAMATERGIC INTERACTIONS: POTENTIATION OF PHENCYCLIDINE-INDUCED STIMULUS CONTROL BY CITALOPRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, J. C.; Eckler, J.R.; Rice, K. C.; Rabin, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Previous investigations in our laboratory have found that the stimulus effects of the hallucinogenic serotonergic agonists DOM and LSD are potentiated by phencyclidine [PCP], a non-competitive NMDA antagonist. Also suggestive of behaviorally significant serotonergic/glutamatergic interactions is our finding that stimulus control by both PCP and LSD is partially antagonized by the mGlu2/3 agonist, LY 379268. These observations coupled with the fact that the stimulus effects of LSD and DOM are ...

  1. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia--early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Dias, Rebecca; Glenthøj, Birte Yding;

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel finding...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of phencyclidine and his derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nataša C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phencyclidine (PCP or 1-phenyl-cyclohexylpiperidine is the best known representative drug from the compound class of arylcyclohexylamines. On an account of pharmacological activities it belongs to the family of drugs known as a dissociative anesthetics. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the investigation of the substances that have been abused, including PCP. PCP is the synthetic drug with stimulant and hallucinogens effects (street name “angel dust” and it's situated on the Schedule Substances List, in Serbia and worldwide. In the beginning, PCP has been sold in pharmacies as local anesthetic, but very quickly it was pulled from sale because of the unwanted effects on consumer´s health causing psychoactive addiction. Taking into the account that today a great attention has been given to the substances that are subject of abuse, in this paper, biological and pharmacological effect of PCP and it's derivative is described. It is shown that PCP is antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and that it causes antiglutamateric hallucinations. Unlike BTCP which agonist is NMDA receptor and is obtained by modifying the structure of PCP. This paper presents a PCP metabolism and provides an overview of the methods for their identification and quantification in the biological samples. Immunological tests of PCP in the biological samples can provide a quick but wrong result because of the possible interference with the other substances of abuse as opposed to instrumental methods. Based on the presented method and the results it was concluded that the method of choice for the examinations of biological samples for the presence of PCP is gas chromatography in combination with mass spectroscopy.

  3. Tetrahydrocannabinol interactions with phencyclidine and methaqualone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lame, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the effects of ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of phencyclidine (PCP) or methaqualone (MTQ), both in vivo and in vitro studies were conducted using Sprague Dawley rats. In the in vivo studies, plasma levels of /sup 3/H-PCP.HCl equivalents were significantly altered by the administration of THC, with the test curve elevated and parallel to the control. Tissue data followed the same pattern as plasma. The urinary, fecal, and biliary excretion of /sup 3/H-PCP.HCl equivalents for the most part did not show significant perturbation with the coadministration of THC. With respect of MTQ, plasma studies indicated that THC could significantly elevate /sup 14/C-MTQ equivalents for the first 4.5 hours, reduce these levels from approximately 6.5 to 16.5 hours, and again elevate the levels above controls for the period from 19.5 to 22.5 hours. All significant changes in tissue levels mirrored plasma value differences seen between test and control animals. Biliary excretion data indicated that THC showed a trend towards altering the active excretion of /sup 14/C-MTQ equivalents. In vitro microsomal metabolism studies indicated that THC production of phenylcyclohexylamine, 1-(1-phenyl-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)piperidine, and 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine. Similar studies conducted with MTQ revealed that THC at the 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 mM levels also inhibited the metabolism of this compound.

  4. A schizophrenia rat model induced by early postnatal phencyclidine treatment and characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Plath, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    administration of phencyclidine (PCP) induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers and exacerbates symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI) was used to evaluate if rats treated with 20mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 (neo......Better animal models are needed to aid the development of new medications to alleviate the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Growing evidence suggests neurodevelopmental insults and disturbances in NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling to be involved in the schizophrenia etiology. Acute...... structures in both neoPCP:acutePCP and neoVeh:acutePCP rats compared to acute saline treatment (Vehicle control group). AcutePCP injection significantly increased the rCBV response in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens compared to the Vehicle control group, without distinguishing neo...

  5. Phencyclidine in the social interaction test: an animal model of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1999-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a hallucinogenic drug that can mimic several aspects of the schizophrenic symptomatology in healthy volunteers. In a series of studies PCP was administered to rats to determine whether it was possible to develop an animal model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The rats were tested in the social interaction test and it was found that PCP dose-dependently induces stereotyped behaviour and social withdrawal, which may correspond to certain aspects of the positive and negative symptoms, respectively. The effects of PCP could be reduced selectively by antipsychotic drug treatment, whereas drugs lacking antipsychotic effects did not alleviate the PCP-induced behaviours. Together these findings indicate that PCP effects in the rat social interaction test may be a model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity and that it may be useful for the evaluation of novel antipsychotic compounds.

  6. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia--early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Dias, Rebecca; Glenthøj, Birte Yding;

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel findin...... is reminiscent of the impairment observed in schizophrenia patients, and supports the validity of the early postnatal PCP regimen as a disease-like model....

  7. Differential expression of parvalbumin interneurons in neonatal phencyclidine treated rats and socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaalund, Sanne Simone; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian;

    2013-01-01

    of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical......Decreased parvalbumin expression is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and has been associated with abnormal cognitive processing and decreased network specificity. It is not known whether this decrease is due to reduced expression of the parvalbumin protein or degeneration...... phencyclidine (PCP) treatment, we suggest that the decreased number of counted PV(+) interneurons represents a reduced parvalbumin protein expression below immunohistochemical detection limit rather than a true cell loss. Furthermore, these results indicate that the effect of neonatal PCP treatment...

  8. Identification and quantification of phencyclidine pyrolysis products formed during smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of frequent phencyclidine (PCP) abuse, pyrolysis studies were conducted to further investigate its fate during smoking. Marijuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with 3H-PCP HCl and burned under conditions simulating smoking. Mainstream smoke was passed through glass wool filters as well as acidic and basic traps. Approximately 90% of the starting material could be accounted for in the first glass wool trap and cigarette holder. HPLC and GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of these glass wool traps revealed the presence of 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (47% of the starting material) > PCP (40%) > piperidine (15%) > N-acetylpiperidine (9%). It was not possible to fully account for the remainder of the piperidine moiety. It has been reported that at high temperatures PCP is converted to numerous polynuclear aromatic compounds which include styrene, α-methylstyrene, naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, cyclohexylbenzene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These compounds were not formed from PCP under smoking conditions

  9. Relationship between the development of behavioral tolerance and the biodisposition of phencyclidine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A S; Martin, B R; Balster, R L

    1984-03-01

    Mice trained on a differential reinforcement of low rate 10-sec schedule (DRL 10) were treated daily with either IP saline or 10 mg/kg of phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP). After 21 consecutive days of treatment, dose-effect determinations for PCP were obtained in both groups. Chronic treatment with PCP resulted in approximately 1.5-fold development of tolerance to the PCP-induced reduction of reinforcement rate. Following completion of the dose-effect determinations, the mice were treated for an additional 13 days with either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg, IP). On the fourteenth day, the biodisposition of 3H-PCP-HCl (10 mg/kg, IP) was studied in both groups. The ratio of the brain levels of PCP in the saline-trained animals to that in the PCP-trained animals was 1.3 to 1 which accounted in large part for the development of tolerance. It appears that dispositional factors are involved in the development of tolerance of mice to the disruptive effects of PCP on DRL performance.

  10. Phencyclidine Induced Oculogyric Crisis Responding Well to Conventional Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oculogyric crisis is a form of acute dystonic reaction characterized by involuntary upward deviation of eye ball. Its causes are broad with antipsychotics and antiemetics as the most common causes. Case Presentation. A 25-year-old man with the past medical history of marijuana use presented to ED with involuntary upward deviation of eye 1 day after using phencyclidine (PCP for the first time. He did not have any other symptoms and was hemodynamically stable. All laboratory investigations were normal except urine drug screen which was positive for PCP. Patient was treated with IV diphenhydramine which improved his symptoms. Conclusion. Illicit drug abuse is a growing problem in our society with increasingly more patients presenting to ED with its complications. The differential diagnosis of acute dystonic reactions should be extended to include illicit drugs as the potential cause of reversible acute dystonias especially in high risk patients.

  11. Phencyclidine Induced Oculogyric Crisis Responding Well to Conventional Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oculogyric crisis is a form of acute dystonic reaction characterized by involuntary upward deviation of eye ball. Its causes are broad with antipsychotics and antiemetics as the most common causes. Case Presentation. A 25-year-old man with the past medical history of marijuana use presented to ED with involuntary upward deviation of eye 1 day after using phencyclidine (PCP) for the first time. He did not have any other symptoms and was hemodynamically stable. All laboratory investigations were normal except urine drug screen which was positive for PCP. Patient was treated with IV diphenhydramine which improved his symptoms. Conclusion. Illicit drug abuse is a growing problem in our society with increasingly more patients presenting to ED with its complications. The differential diagnosis of acute dystonic reactions should be extended to include illicit drugs as the potential cause of reversible acute dystonias especially in high risk patients. PMID:26101673

  12. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia - Early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, B.V.; Dias, R.; Olsen, C.K.;

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel findin...... is reminiscent of the impairment observed in schizophrenia patients, and supports the validity of the early postnatal PCP regimen as a disease-like model. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  13. Localized double-array stacking analysis of PcP: D″ and ULVZ structure beneath the Cocos plate, Mexico, central Pacific, and north Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutko, Alexander R.; Lay, Thorne; Revenaugh, Justin

    2009-01-01

    A large, high quality P-wave data set comprising short-period and broadband signals sampling four separate regions in the lowermost mantle beneath the Cocos plate, Mexico, the central Pacific, and the north Pacific is analyzed using regional one-dimensional double-array stacking and modelling with reflectivity synthetics. A data-screening criterion retains only events with stable PcP energy in the final data stacks used for modelling and interpretation. This significantly improves the signal stacks relative to including unscreened observations, allows confident alignment on the PcP arrival and allows tight bounds to be placed on P-wave velocity structure above the core–mantle boundary (CMB). The PcP reflections under the Cocos plate are well modelled without any ultra-low velocity zone from 5 to 20°N. At latitudes from 15 to 20°N, we find evidence for two P-wave velocity discontinuities in the D″ region. The first is ∼182 km above the CMB with a δln Vp of +1.5%, near the same depth as a weaker discontinuity (<+0.5%) observed from 5 to 15°N in prior work. The other reflector is ∼454 km above the CMB, with a δln Vp of +0.4%; this appears to be a shallower continuation of the joint P- and S-wave discontinuity previously detected south of 15° N, which is presumed to be the perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition. The data stacks for paths bottoming below Mexico have PcP images that are well matched with the simple IASP91 structure, contradicting previous inferences of ULVZ presence in this region. These particular data are not very sensitive to any D″ discontinuities, and simply bound them to be <∼2%, if present. Data sampling the lowermost mantle beneath the central Pacific confirm the presence of a ∼15-km thick ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) just above the CMB, with δln Vp and δln Vs of around −3 to −4% and −4 to −8%, respectively. The ULVZ models predict previous S-wave data stacks well. The data for this region

  14. The Effect of Phencyclidine New Derivatives on Anxiety Behaviors in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Hajkhani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s Anxiety is a common disorder which afflicts many people in any society and is often accompanied by physiological sensations such as tachycardia, chest pain, shortness of breath, insensitivity, etc. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the putative anxiolytic-like effects of phencyclidine (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl piperidine, CAS 956-90-1, PCP, I and its methyl and methoxy hydroxyl derivatives (II, III using elevated plus maze test of anxiety. Materials and Methods Phencyclidine as well as its methyl and methoxy hydroxyl derivatives (I, II, III (hydrochloride, 1, 2, 5 mg/kg were synthesized and administrated intraperitoneally (IP on adult male Wistar rats.ResultsThe results of this study demonstrated that, intraperitoneal (IP administration of PCP analogues (I, II, III hydrochloride (1, 2, 5 mg/kg increases the percentage of open arm time (OAT% and percentage of open arm entries (OAE%.ConclusionThis study revealed that both derivatives of phencyclidine (II, III were more effective than PCP (I itself in modulation of anxiety behavior in rats.

  15. Fatal Intoxication Involving 3-MeO-PCP: A Case Report and Validated Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Erica; Arndt, Crystal; Romoser, Amelia A; Wilson, Stephen K

    2016-09-01

    We present in this case report a validated method for accurate quantitative analysis of 3-methoxy phencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) to determine postmortem blood concentrations of this PCP analog. A 29-year-old male with a history of illicit drug use was found unresponsive in his bed with a bag of white powder next to him. Resuscitation efforts were unsuccessful and the individual was pronounced dead 9 minutes after arrival to the hospital. Initial ELISA screening suggested the presence of PCP in the decedent's blood. However, confirmatory testing revealed no detectable PCP. Instead, a large peak corresponding to a m/z 274.218 species with retention time similar to PCP was present on a LC-TOF-MS drug screen, suggesting a possible PCP analog. This mass corresponds specifically to a methoxy-PCP analog, several of which are available for purchase online. Standards for 3-MeO-PCP and 4-MeO-PCP were obtained and injected on the same instrument. Although the 3- and 4-MeO-PCP analogs have identical masses and retention times, they are still distinguishable through their mass spectra. The peak from the decedent's sample matched both the mass spectrum and the retention time of 3-MeO-PCP. A quantitative LC-MS-MS method was subsequently developed and validated for casework. Analysis using this method revealed a concentration of 139 ± 41 µg/L 3-MeO-PCP in the decedent's blood. Diphenhydramine (4.1 ± 0.7 mg/L), marijuana metabolite (presumptive positive, confirmation not performed) and a small amount of amphetamine (<0.10 mg/L) were also found in the decedent's blood. The cause of death was determined to be combined 3-MeO-PCP, diphenhydramine and amphetamine toxicity. The manner of death was certified as an accident. PMID:27339479

  16. Acute phencyclidine treatment induces extensive and distinct protein phosphorylation in rat frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmowski, Pawel; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Williamson, James;

    2014-01-01

    data sets to date of a preclinical model of schizophrenia. Our findings contribute to the understanding of alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia and provide a foundation for discovery of novel targets for pharmacological intervention. © 2014 American Chemical Society.......Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, induces psychotomimetic effects in humans and animals. Administration of PCP to rodents is used as a preclinical model for schizophrenia; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the symptoms remain largely unknown....... Acute PCP treatment rapidly induces behavioral and cognitive deficits; therefore, post-translational regulation of protein activity is expected to play a role at early time points. We performed mass-spectrometry- driven quantitative analysis of rat frontal cortex 15, 30, or 240 min after...

  17. Subchronic phencyclidine treatment in adult mice increases GABAergic transmission and LTP threshold in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Toshihiro; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Fernandes, Herman B; Remmers, Christine L; Xu, Jian; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Contractor, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Repeated administration of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) to rodents causes long-lasting deficits in cognition and memory, and has effects on behaviors that have been suggested to be models of the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Despite this being a widely studied animal model, little is known about the long lasting changes in synapses and circuits that underlie the altered behaviors. Here we examined synaptic transmission ex-vivo in the hippocampus of mice after a subchronic PCP (scPCP) administration regime. We found that after at least one week of drug free washout period when mice have impaired cognitive function, the threshold for long-term potentiation (LTP) of CA1 excitatory synapses was elevated. This elevated LTP threshold was directly related to increased inhibitory input to CA1 pyramidal cells through increased activity of GABAergic neurons. These results suggest repeated PCP administration causes a long-lasting metaplastic change in the inhibitory circuits in the hippocampus that results in impaired LTP, and could contribute to the deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory in PCP-treated mice. Changes in GABA signaling have been described in patients with schizophrenia, therefore our results support using scPCP as a model of CIAS. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Synaptopathy--from Biology to Therapy'. PMID:25937215

  18. Intravenous self-administration of phencyclidine and related compounds in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, M E

    1982-06-01

    Beagle dogs were given access to response-contingent i.v. infusions of phenycyclidine (PCP) and eight related compound. The infusions of phencyclidine (PCP) and eight related compounds. The infusions were available during short (1- or 4-hr) daily sessions when each pedal-press produced a drug or vehicle infusion. All nine compounds maintained consistent, dose-related pedal-pressing at rates considerably above those maintained by their respective vehicles. For each compound there was an inverted, U-shaped relationship between dose (microgram per kilogram per infusion) and number of infusions self-administered per session. By comparing the descending portions of the dose-response curves obtained with each compound, estimates of their relative potencies to maintain equal rates of drug-taking behavior were calculated. The thiophene analog was the most potent compound, followed in order by PCP, the N-ethyl, pyrrolidino, 4-methyl and N-propyl analogs, the two monohydroxylated metabolites and ketamine. The rank-order of these potency estimates is similar to those obtained with a variety of other animal paradigms used to assess the effects of PCP and its analogs. All nine compounds produced varying degrees of ataxia, vocalizations and salivation in the dogs. The results suggest that several compounds related to PCP may have an abuse potential like that of PCP. PMID:7086678

  19. Effects of hallucinogenic agents mescaline and phencyclidine on zebrafish behavior and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Collins, Christopher; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Green, Jeremy; Roth, Andrew; Monnig, Louie; El-Ounsi, Mohamed; Davis, Ari; Freeman, Andrew; Capezio, Nicholas; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-04-27

    Mescaline and phencyclidine (PCP) are potent hallucinogenic agents affecting human and animal behavior. As their psychotropic effects remain poorly understood, further research is necessary to characterize phenotypes they evoke in various animal models. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as a new model organism for neuroscience research. Here, we examine the effects of mescaline (5-20mg/l) and PCP (0.5-3mg/l) in several zebrafish paradigms, including the novel tank, open field and shoaling tests. Mescaline and PCP dose-dependently increased top activity in the novel tank test, also reducing immobility and disrupting the patterning of zebrafish swimming, as assessed by ethograms. PCP, but not mescaline, evoked circling behavior in the open field test. At the highest doses tested, mescaline markedly increased, while PCP did not affect, zebrafish shoaling behavior. Finally, 20mg/l mescaline did not alter, and 3mg/l PCP elevated, whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our studies indicate high sensitivity of zebrafish models to hallucinogenic compounds with complex behavioral and physiological effects.

  20. Relation between hippocampal gamma waves and behavioral disturbances induced by phencyclidine and methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Leung, L S

    2000-06-15

    The relationship between hippocampal electrical activity and behavioral hyperactivity induced by either phencyclidine (PCP) or methamphetamine (MAP) was examined in freely behaving rats. The EEGs at the hippocampal CA1 region were simultaneously recorded with the animal's behavior for 2 h after administration of either PCP or MAP. PCP (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) significantly increased locomotor activity including rearing, walking, head-weaving and circling. Spectral analysis of the EEG showed that hippocampal gamma waves (30-70 Hz), but not other frequency bands, were significantly increased from 5 to 120 min after systemic injection of PCP. Inactivation of the medial septum with muscimol, a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A agonist, 15 min prior to injection of PCP, suppressed both hippocampal gamma waves and locomotor activity. MAP (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased locomotor activity for longer than 2 h. During the behavioral hyperactivity induced by MAP, hippocampal EEG showed θ and gamma rhythms that were not significantly different from those during walking before MAP. However, MAP-induced behavioral activity was suppressed by pre-injection of muscimol in the medial septum, which also decreased hippocampal gamma activity. It is suggested that the medial septum plays a role in mediating behavioral disturbances induced by both PCP and MAP through control of the hippocampal electrical activity, and that hippocampal gamma waves may play a permissible role in the expression of behaviors.

  1. The gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP-induced model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Redrobe, John Paul; Pedersen, Tina Brønnum;

    Introduction: Evidence is accumulating that the gut microbiota (GM) impact on the individual to a degree, which were not previously believed. We investigated the impact of the GM on behavior in the subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) induced model of Schizophrenia. Materials and methods: Three batches...... capabilities, but also on activity. This relationship was evident in the vehicle treated group, but also in the PCP treated group, were the GM composition was changed and correlated to the degree of schizophrenia-like symptoms expressed. The results indicate the relevans of including the variation of the gut...... microbiota in the analysis of studies using this model....

  2. Effect of an NCAM mimetic peptide FGL on impairment in spatial learning and memory after neonatal phencyclidine treatment in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth;

    2008-01-01

    , including cognitive impairment relevant to schizophrenia. The present study investigated the effect of FGL on spatial learning and memory deficits induced by neonatal PCP treatment. Rat pups were treated with 30mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11. Additionally, the rats were subjected to a chronic FGL......The FGL peptide is a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor agonist. FGL has both neurotrophic and memory enhancing properties. Neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 has been shown to result in long-lasting behavioral abnormalities...... treatment regimen where FGL was administered throughout development. Rats were tested as adults for spatial reference memory, reversal learning, and working memory in the Morris water maze. The PCP-treated rats demonstrated a robust impairment in working memory and reversal learning. However, the long...

  3. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Shirai

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV, which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP. Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood.

  4. Has an Angel Shown the Way? Etiological and Therapeutic Implications of the PCP/NMDA Model of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Javitt, Daniel C.; Zukin, Stephen R.; Heresco-Levy, Uriel; Umbricht, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, glutamatergic models of schizophrenia have become increasingly accepted as etiopathological models of schizophrenia, based on the observation that phencyclidine (PCP) induces a schizophrenia-like psychosis by blocking neurotransmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors. This article reviews developments in two key predictions of the model: first, that neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia should follow the pattern of deficit predicted based on ...

  5. Effects of the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia and nicotine on total and categorized ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalve, Natashia; Mulholland, Michele M; Schulz, Tiffany D; Li, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia smoke cigarettes at a higher rate than the general population. We hypothesized that a factor in this comorbidity is sensitivity to the reinforcing and reinforcement-enhancement effects of nicotine. Phencyclidine (PCP) was used to model behavioral changes resembling negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rats. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats have been used to measure emotional states, with 50 kHz USVs indicating positive states and 22 kHz USVs indicating negative states. Total and categorized numbers of 22 and 50 kHz USVs and USVs during a visual stimulus (e.g. a potential measure of reinforcement-enhancement) were examined in rats following injection of PCP (2.0 mg/kg) and/or nicotine (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. PCP was then discontinued and all rats received nicotine (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) and PCP (2.0 mg/kg) on three challenge days. PCP acutely decreased 50 kHz vocalizations, whereas repeated nicotine potentiated rates of vocalizations, with similar patterns during light presentations. Rats in the PCP and nicotine combination groups made more 50 kHz vocalizations compared with rats in the control groups on challenge days. We conclude that PCP may produce a reward deficit, which is shown by decreased 50 kHz USVs, and behaviors post-PCP exposure may best model the comorbidity between schizophrenia and nicotine. PMID:26479849

  6. Pyrolytic fate of piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile, a contaminant of phencyclidine, during smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyrolysis products of 1-(1-piperidino)cyclo-hexanecarbonitrile (PCC), the major contaminant of illicit phencyclidine (PCP), have not been previously reported. In order to quantify PCC in mainstream smoke as well as to identify the pyrolysis products, [3H]piperidino-[14C]cyano-PCC was synthesized. Marijuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with this double-labeled PCC and burned with an apparatus that simulated smoking. The mainstream smoke was passed through a series of traps containing glass wool, H2SO4, or NaOH. Approximately 75% of the 3H was collected in these traps, and 46, 11, and 5% of the 14C was found in the glass wool, H2SO4, and NaOH traps, respectively. Contents of the traps were analyzed by GC/MS. The glass wool trap contained 1-(1-piperidino)-1-cyclo-hexene, PCC, piperidine, and N-acetylpiperidine, and cyanide ion was detected in all three traps. Approximately 47% of the PCC was found intact in mainstream smoke. Approximately 58% was cleaved to form cyanide and 1-(1-piperidino)-1-cyclohexene. The latter was further broken down to cyclohexanone (which represented 21% of the starting material), piperidine (29%), and N-acetylpiperidine (7%), and about 2% remained intact

  7. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine in adolescence leads to impaired exploratory behavior in adult rats without altering social interaction or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, A; Willems, R; Kooijman, E J M; Renjaän, V A; Klein, P J; Windhorst, A D; Donck, L Ver; Leysen, J E; Berckel, B N M van

    2014-11-01

    Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence. Male 35-42-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously administered either saline (10 ml · kg(-1) ) or PCP hydrochloride (10 mg · kg(-1) ) once daily for a period of 14 days (n = 6/group). The animals were allowed to withdraw from treatment for 2 weeks, and their social and exploratory behaviors were subsequently assessed in adulthood by using the social interaction test. To examine the effects of adolescent PCP administration on the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), quantitative autoradiography was performed on brain sections of adult, control and PCP-withdrawn rats by using 20 nM (3) H-MK-801. Prior subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence had no enduring effects on the reciprocal contact and noncontact social behavior of adult rats. Spontaneous rearing in response to the novel testing arena and time spent investigating its walls and floor were reduced in PCP-withdrawn animals compared with control. The long-term behavioral effects of PCP occurred in the absence of persistent deficits in spontaneous locomotion or self-grooming activity and were not mediated by altered NMDAR density. Our results document differential effects of adolescent PCP administration on the social and exploratory behaviors of adult rats, suggesting that distinct neurobiological mechanisms are involved in mediating these behaviors. PMID:24953757

  8. a7 nicotinic receptor agonism mitigates phencyclidine-induced changes in synaptophysin and Arc gene expression in the mouse prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    Repeated phencyclidine (PCP) administration in mice reproduces several histopathological features of schizophrenia, such as reduced synaptophysin and parvalbumin mRNA expression in the frontal cortex. These changes can be prevented by co-administering the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nACh...... of synaptophysin and/or Arc levels in the frontal cortex. These data lend support to the potential for development of a7 nAChR agonists for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.......Repeated phencyclidine (PCP) administration in mice reproduces several histopathological features of schizophrenia, such as reduced synaptophysin and parvalbumin mRNA expression in the frontal cortex. These changes can be prevented by co-administering the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (n......, of the molecular dysregulations induced by repeated PCP administration with an a7 nAChR agonist. They also suggest that the previously demonstrated cognitive improvement with SSR180711 subsequent to PCP treatment does not require normalization of parvalbumin expression, but may instead be related to a restoration...

  9. The ketamine analogue methoxetamine and 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine are high affinity and selective ligands for the glutamate NMDA receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L Roth

    Full Text Available In this paper we determined the pharmacological profiles of novel ketamine and phencyclidine analogues currently used as 'designer drugs' and compared them to the parent substances via the resources of the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program. The ketamine analogues methoxetamine ((RS-2-(ethylamino-2-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanone and 3-MeO-PCE (N-ethyl-1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanamine and the 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine, (1-[1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine and 1-[1-(4-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine, were all high affinity ligands for the PCP-site on the glutamate NMDA receptor. In addition methoxetamine and PCP and its analogues displayed appreciable affinities for the serotonin transporter, whilst the PCP analogues exhibited high affinities for sigma receptors. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor is thought to be the key pharmacological feature underlying the actions of dissociative anaesthetics. The novel ketamine and PCP analogues had significant affinities for the NMDA receptor in radioligand binding assays, which may explain their psychotomimetic effects in human users. Additional actions on other targets could be important for delineating side-effects.

  10. Effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists on PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in the rat social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1998-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) can induce a model psychosis in humans that resembles an acute schizophrenic psychosis. In animal models of schizophrenia, PCP induces locomotor hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviour and social isolation, and the purpose of the present study was to describe the ability of dopamine agonists and antagonists to mimic or interact with these PCP-induced behaviours in rats. The compounds were administered daily for 3 days in combination with vehicle or 2.0 mg/kg PCP and the rats were tested in the social interaction test on the last day of drug administration. The study showed that D1-agonists with relative differences in efficacy at the DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase had limited effects on the PCP-induced behaviours, whereas the D1-antagonist SCH 23391 could alleviate the PCP-induce social isolation following daily treatment for 3 days. However, following long-term treatment for 21 days, the rats develop tolerance to this effect. These data thus suggested that the D1-receptor system only had a modulatory effect on PCP. In contrast, the D2-receptor family may be more directly involved, because the D2/D3/D4-agonist quinpirole could mimic and potentiate the PCP-induced deficits in social behaviour, and the D2/D3-antagonist (-)sulpiride could alleviate the PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation. However, a D4-antagonist did not affect the behaviour of vehicle- and PCP-treated rats, suggesting that this system plays a less direct role in the behavioural effects of PCP. In general, however, the effects of SCH 23391, quinpirole and (-)sulpiride on the PCP-induced behaviours were mirrored in the vehicle-treated control groups and it is therefore possible that non-specific effects may have been important.

  11. Phencyclidine affects firing activity of ventral tegmental area neurons that are related to reward and social behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, T; Okamoto, M; Suzuki, Y; Hoshino, K-Y; Jodo, E

    2013-06-14

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in motivation and affect, which suggests an impairment in the reward system. The psychotomimetic drug, phencyclidine (PCP), also induces schizophrenia-like negative symptoms, such as reduced motivation, blunted affect, and social withdrawal in both humans and animals. Previous studies have indicated that the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a pivotal role in the development of reward-associated learning and motivation. However, how PCP affects the activity of VTA neurons during performance of a reward-related task and social interaction with others in unanesthetized animals remains unclear. Here, we recorded the unit activity of VTA neurons in freely moving rats before and after systemic administration of PCP in a classical conditioning paradigm, and during social interaction with an unfamiliar partner. In the classical conditioning task, two different tones were sequentially presented, one of which accompanied electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle as an unconditioned stimulus. After identifying the response properties of recorded neurons in the classical conditioning task and social interaction, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PCP. Our study demonstrated that most VTA neurons responsive to reward-associated stimuli were also activated during social interaction. Such activation of neurons was considerably suppressed by systemic administration of PCP, thus, PCP may affect the firing activity of VTA neurons that are involved in motivation, learning, and social interaction. Disruption of the response of VTA neurons to reward stimuli and socially interactive situations may be involved in PCP-induced impairments similar to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  12. Effect of novel antipsychotic drugs on phencyclidine-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in the rat social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1997-06-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) induces stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in rats; comparisons with clinical observations have suggested that these behaviours may mimic certain aspects of the positive and the negative symptoms, respectively, of an acute schizophrenic episode. Novel antipsychotics are effective in treating the positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients and have also shown some promise in treating the negative symptoms. In the present study the effects of the novel antipsychotics remoxipride (2.5-20 mg/kg), risperidone (0.02-0.63 mg/kg), sertindole (0.01-2.5 mg/kg), olanzapine (0.16-2.5 mg/kg) and quetiapine (0.16-10 mg/kg) on PCP-induced behaviours were determined. The drugs were administered daily for 3 or 21 days in combination with vehicle or 2.0 mg/kg of PCP for the last 3 days of the administration regime, and the rats were tested using the social interaction test. The antipsychotic drugs all reliably reduced the level of PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and had distinct effects on PCP-induced social isolation. Comparison with clinical findings suggests that the PCP-induced behaviours respond to treatment with antipsychotic drugs in a manner that correlates well with clinical observations, and that this animal model of schizophrenia may be useful for evaluating novel drug candidates. However, the study also showed that additional experiments are required to determine the specificity by which antipsychotic drugs alleviate PCP-induced behaviours because most of the drugs also affected considerably the behaviour of the control animals.

  13. Differences in responsiveness of mediodorsal thalamic and medial prefrontal cortical neurons to social interaction and systemically administered phencyclidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodo, E; Katayama, T; Okamoto, M; Suzuki, Y; Hoshino, K; Kayama, Y

    2010-11-10

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a psychotomimetic drug that induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals and behavioral abnormalities with corresponding symptoms of schizophrenia in non-human animals. Our previous studies showed that systemically administered PCP produces tonic activation of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats and that this activation is mainly via excitatory inputs from regions outside the mPFC. Such long-lasting activation of PFC neurons is now considered to be a pivotal factor in PCP-induced behavioral abnormalities. Although our previous study identified the ventral hippocampus as a possible source of the excitatory inputs, it is not the only source innervating the mPFC. Several regions such as the thalamus also have monosynaptic projections to the mPFC. Recently, increased c-fos expression by systemic PCP administration was reported in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) and the centromedial nucleus of the thalamus (CM), which have strong reciprocal innervations with the mPFC. However, few studies have reported effects of PCP on the firing activity of MD/CM neurons in unanesthetized animals. In the current study in freely moving rats, we examined effects of systemically administered PCP on the spontaneous firing activity of the MD/CM, after identifying the response properties of recorded neurons in social interaction with an unfamiliar partner. About 30% of MD/CM neurons recorded exhibited tonic excitation following systemic PCP administration, whereas only a few neurons (7%) were inhibited by PCP. The proportion of MD neurons activated by systemic PCP administration was about half of that in the mPFC. Although the proportion of neurons responsive to social interaction did not differ between the two regions (40%), neurons activated during social interaction in the mPFC (90%) were more likely to be affected by systemic PCP administration than those in the MD/CM (45%). These results suggest that neurons

  14. α7 nicotinic receptor agonism mitigates phencyclidine-induced changes in synaptophysin and Arc gene expression in the mouse prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    Repeated phencyclidine (PCP) administration in mice reproduces several histopathological features of schizophrenia, such as reduced synaptophysin and parvalbumin mRNA expression in the frontal cortex. These changes can be prevented by co-administering the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (n......, of the molecular dysregulations induced by repeated PCP administration with an α7 nAChR agonist. They also suggest that the previously demonstrated cognitive improvement with SSR180711 subsequent to PCP treatment does not require normalization of parvalbumin expression, but may instead be related to a restoration...... of synaptophysin and/or Arc levels in the frontal cortex. These data lend support to the potential for development of α7 nAChR agonists for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia....

  15. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  16. Differential effects of subchronic phencyclidine on anxiety in the light-enhanced startle-, light/dark exploration- and open field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkel, Thomas; Thomas, Mara; Bartsch, Dusan

    2013-04-15

    Subchronic treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) is a valuable approach to model the symptomatology of schizophrenia, a multi-facetted psychiatric disorder, in rodents. We addressed the question whether subchronic PCP (scPCP) treatment (5 mg/kg bidaily for 7 days) would affect anxiety in rats, since contradictory findings have been reported so far. Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using the light-enhanced startle paradigm (LES), a method which measures the effect of the natural aversion to light on the startle reflex and does not depend on motivated behaviour or exploratory drive. For comparison, anxiety-like behaviour was measured in the light-dark exploration test (LDT) and in an open field environment (OFT). The scPCP-treatment did not affect baseline startle reactivity or light-enhanced startle, suggesting normal anxiety levels in treated animals. Further, normal anxiety-like behaviour was also found in the OFT. In the LDT, scPCP treated rats displayed shorter latencies to enter the lit compartment and shuttled more between the dark and lit compartments, behaviours indicative of decreased anxiety and/or increased exploratory activity. Our findings therefore suggest that the effects of scPCP-treatment on anxiety-like behaviour are task-dependent and recommend the additional use of tests independent from exploratory drive or other motivated behaviours, such as the LES paradigm.

  17. GLYX-13 (rapastinel) ameliorates subchronic phencyclidine- and ketamine-induced declarative memory deficits in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Burgdorf, Jeffrey S.; Moskal, Joseph R.; Meltzer, Herbert Y.

    2016-01-01

    GLYX-13 (rapastinel), a tetrapeptide (Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr-amide), has been reported to have fast acting antidepressant properties in man based upon its N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine site functional partial agonism. Ketamine, a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, also reported to have fast acting antidepressant properties, produces cognitive impairment in rodents and man, whereas rapastinel has been reported to have cognitive enhancing properties in rodents, without impairing cognition in man, albeit clinical testing has been limited. The goal of this study was to compare the cognitive impairing effects of rapastinel and ketamine in novel object recognition (NOR), a measure of declarative memory, in male C57BL/6J mice treated with phencyclidine (PCP), another NMDAR noncompetitive antagonist known to severely impair cognition, in both rodents and man. C57BL/6J mice given a single dose or subchronic ketamine (30 mg/kg. i.p.) showed acute or persistent deficits in NOR, respectively. Acute i.v. rapastinel (1.0 mg/kg), did not induce NOR deficit. Pre-treatment with rapastinel significantly prevented acute ketamine-induced NOR deficit. Rapastinel (1.0 mg/kg, but not 0.3 mg/kg, iv) significantly reversed both subchronic ketamine- and subchronic PCP-induced NOR deficits. Rapastinel also potentiated the atypical antipsychotic drug with antidepressant properties, lurasidone, to restore NOR in subchronic ketamine-treated mice. These findings indicate that rapastinel, unlike ketamine, does not induce a declarative memory deficit in mice, and can prevent or reverse the ketamine-induced NOR deficit. Further study is required to determine if these differences translate during clinical use of ketamine and rapastinel as fast acting antidepressant drugs and if rapastinel could have non-ionotropic effects as an add-on therapy with antipsychotic/antidepressant medications. PMID:26632337

  18. Serum type III procollagen peptide in patients with Pneumocystis carinii infection. The Copenhagen-Amsterdam PCP-Prednisolone Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, K D; Nielsen, T L; Eaftinck Schattenkerk, J K;

    1993-01-01

    Inflammation may play a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Serum levels of the amino-terminal propeptide of Type III procollagen (PIIINP) reflect inflammatory activity in granulation tissue and in chronic rheumatic and liver disorders. To...... investigate changes in PIIINP serum levels during an episode of HIV-related PCP, consecutive serum samples were taken from 48 HIV-infected patients with PCP in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effect of adjunctive methylprednisolone therapy (26 in corticosteroid [CS] group and 22 in control group...... steroid was administered. At Days 21 to 28 there were no difference in the levels of PIIINP between the two groups. PIIINP serum levels may predict the clinical outcome of PCP. The antimicrobial therapy may exacerbate the inflammatory reaction in HIV-related PCP, leading to respiratory failure. CS...

  19. Effects of diazepam, citalopram, methadone and naloxone on PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in the rat social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1998-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) can induce a model psychosis in humans that mimics the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In the social interaction test PCP induces stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in rats, and these behaviours can be inhibited by antipsychotic drugs. In order to further evaluate the predictive validity of this model of schizophrenia the anxiolytic diazepam (0.02-17.5 micromol/kg; 0.005-5.0 mg/kg), the antidepressant citalopram (0.62-19.8 micromol/kg; 0.3-4.0 mg/kg), the opioid agonist methadone (0.36-5.8 micromol/kg; 0.13-2.0 mg/kg) and the opioid antagonist naloxone (0.34-22.0 micromol/kg; 0.13-8.0 mg/kg) were tested as examples of drugs without antipsychotic activity. The experiments demonstrated that these compounds did not specifically inhibit the behavioural effects of PCP. So far only antipsychotic drugs have been able to specifically inhibit the PCP-induced behaviours.

  20. Identification of developmentally regulated PCP-responsive non-coding RNA, prt6, in the rat thalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironao Takebayashi

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and similar psychoses induced by NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP and ketamine, usually develop after adolescence. Moreover, adult-type behavioral disturbance following NMDA receptor antagonist application in rodents is observed after a critical period at around 3 postnatal weeks. These observations suggest that the schizophrenic symptoms caused by and psychotomimetic effects of NMDA antagonists require the maturation of certain brain neuron circuits and molecular networks, which differentially respond to NMDA receptor antagonists across adolescence and the critical period. From this viewpoint, we have identified a novel developmentally regulated phencyclidine-responsive transcript from the rat thalamus, designated as prt6, as a candidate molecule involved in the above schizophrenia-related systems using a DNA microarray technique. The transcript is a non-coding RNA that includes sequences of at least two microRNAs, miR132 and miR212, and is expressed strongly in the brain and testis, with trace or non-detectable levels in the spleen, heart, liver, kidney, lung and skeletal muscle, as revealed by Northern blot analysis. The systemic administration of PCP (7.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c. significantly elevated the expression of prt6 mRNA in the thalamus at postnatal days (PD 32 and 50, but not at PD 8, 13, 20, or 24 as compared to saline-treated controls. At PD 50, another NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c., and a schizophrenomimetic dopamine agonist, methamphetamine (4.8 mg/kg, s.c., mimicked a significant increase in the levels of thalamic prt6 mRNAs, while a D2 dopmamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, partly inhibited the increasing influence of PCP on thalamic prt6 expression without its own effects. These data indicate that prt6 may be involved in the pathophysiology of the onset of drug-induced schizophrenia-like symptoms and schizophrenia through the possible

  1. Phencyclidine/Schizophrenia: One View Toward the Past, The Other to the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Domino, Edward F.; Luby, Elliot D.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the chemical synthesis and animal/human pharmacology of phencyclidine is documented. From its early use as a general anesthetic, chemical model of schizophrenia, and drug of abuse, phencyclidine has had a checkered history. Research with this agent and its chemical derivatives like ketamine have provided a solid foundation for just a beginning to understanding the neuropathology of schizophrenia.

  2. Structural basis of interaction between protein tyrosine phosphatase PCP-2 and β-catenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Yaqin; YAN; Hexin; DONG; Hui; ZHANG; Peng; TANG; Liang

    2005-01-01

    PCP-2 is a member of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase of the MAM domain family. To investigate which part of PCP-2 was involved in its interaction with β-catenin, we constructed various deletion mutants of PCP-2. These PCP-2 mutants and wild-type PCP-2 were co-transfected into BHK-21 cells with β-catenin individually. An in vivo binding assay revealed that the expression of wild-type PCP-2, PCP-2△C1C2 (deleted PCP-2 without both PTP domains) and PCP-2△C2 (deleted PCP-2 without the second PTP domain) could be immunoprecipitated by anti-catenin antibody in every co-transfection, but PCP-2 EXT (deleted PCP-2 without the juxtamembrane region and both PTP domains) was missing, which implied that PCP-2 and β-catenin could associate directly and the juxtamembrane region in PCP-2 was sufficient for the process.

  3. Radiolysis of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution by gamma radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Jun; WANG Jianlong

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state radiolysis experiments were performed to investigate the y-irradiation treatment of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueoussolution. The effect of initial concentration on the PCP degradation was also investigated. The experimental results showed that γ-irradiation was able to degrade PCP in aqueous solution successfully, and the radiolytical degradation process of PCP could be describedby the first-order kinetic model. When the initial concentration of PCP was 25 and 50 mg/L and the radiation dose was 4 and 6 kGy,respectively, the degradation efficiency was 100%. A luminescence bacterial test was used for evaluating the toxicity of the radiolyticintermediate products. Total detoxification of a 75 mg/L PCP solution could be achieved by carrying out the irradiation procedure at the dose of 15 kGy.

  4. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... taking care of yourself. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...

  5. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... help address your problems. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...

  6. Transcriptional changes common to human cocaine, cannabis and phencyclidine abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Lehrmann

    Full Text Available A major goal of drug abuse research is to identify and understand drug-induced changes in brain function that are common to many or all drugs of abuse. As these may underlie drug dependence and addiction, the purpose of the present study was to examine if different drugs of abuse effect changes in gene expression that converge in common molecular pathways. Microarray analysis was employed to assay brain gene expression in postmortem anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC from 42 human cocaine, cannabis and/or phencyclidine abuse cases and 30 control cases, which were characterized by toxicology and drug abuse history. Common transcriptional changes were demonstrated for a majority of drug abuse cases (N = 34, representing a number of consistently changed functional classes: Calmodulin-related transcripts (CALM1, CALM2, CAMK2B were decreased, while transcripts related to cholesterol biosynthesis and trafficking (FDFT1, APOL2, SCARB1, and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER functions (SEMA3B, GCC1 were all increased. Quantitative PCR validated decreases in calmodulin 2 (CALM2 mRNA and increases in apolipoprotein L, 2 (APOL2 and semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B mRNA for individual cases. A comparison between control cases with and without cardiovascular disease and elevated body mass index indicated that these changes were not due to general cellular and metabolic stress, but appeared specific to the use of drugs. Therefore, humans who abused cocaine, cannabis and/or phencyclidine share a decrease in transcription of calmodulin-related genes and increased transcription related to lipid/cholesterol and Golgi/ER function. These changes represent common molecular features of drug abuse, which may underlie changes in synaptic function and plasticity that could have important ramifications for decision-making capabilities in drug abusers.

  7. Exploring metabolic pathway disruption in the subchronic phencyclidine model of schizophrenia with the Generalized Singular Value Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brian J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of experimentally-induced alterations in biological pathways remains a major challenge in systems biology. One example of this is the quantitative characterization of alterations in defined, established metabolic pathways from complex metabolomic data. At present, the disruption of a given metabolic pathway is inferred from metabolomic data by observing an alteration in the level of one or more individual metabolites present within that pathway. Not only is this approach open to subjectivity, as metabolites participate in multiple pathways, but it also ignores useful information available through the pairwise correlations between metabolites. This extra information may be incorporated using a higher-level approach that looks for alterations between a pair of correlation networks. In this way experimentally-induced alterations in metabolic pathways can be quantitatively defined by characterizing group differences in metabolite clustering. Taking this approach increases the objectivity of interpreting alterations in metabolic pathways from metabolomic data. Results We present and justify a new technique for comparing pairs of networks--in our case these networks are based on the same set of nodes and there are two distinct types of weighted edges. The algorithm is based on the Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (GSVD, which may be regarded as an extension of Principle Components Analysis to the case of two data sets. We show how the GSVD can be interpreted as a technique for reordering the two networks in order to reveal clusters that are exclusive to only one. Here we apply this algorithm to a new set of metabolomic data from the prefrontal cortex (PFC of a translational model relevant to schizophrenia, rats treated subchronically with the N-methyl-D-Aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP. This provides us with a means to quantify which predefined metabolic pathways (Kyoto

  8. Optimization of enrichment processes of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from water samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; LIU Jun-xin

    2004-01-01

    The method of enriching PCP (pentachlorophenol) from aquatic environment by solid phase extraction (SPE) was studied.Several factors affecting the recoveries of PCP, including sample pH, eluting solvent, eluting volume and flow rate of water sample, were optimized by orthogonal array design(OAD). The optimized results were sample pH 4; eluting solvent, 100% methanol; eluting solvent volume, 2 mi and flow rate of water sample, 4 mi/min. A comparison is made between SPE and liquid-liquid extraction(LLE) method. The recoveries of PCP were in the range of 87.6 % 133.6 % and 79 %- 120.3 % for S PE and LLE, respectively. Important advantages of the SPE compared with the LLE include the short extraction time and reduced consumption of organic solvents. SPE can replace LLE for isolating and concentrating PCP from water samples.

  9. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation microorganism community structure under microaeration condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuancai; Hao Yuan; Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of pentachlorophenol (PCP)degradation was conducted under micro-aeration and anaerobic condition with three series of batch experiment,results of which indicated that during micro-aeration condition co-immobilized of anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial species could enhance the efficiency of PCP reduction through the synergism of aerobes and anaerobes reductive dechlorination and exchange of metabolites within the co-immobilized granular sludge.While during anaerobic condition,there was no great difference in the three series.The specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes were not affected over the presence of micro aeration environment.Microorganism community construction of co-immobilized anaerobic granular sludge and the mixed isolated aerobic community was also deduced.By the efficient cooperation of aerobes and anaerobes,the high efficiency removal rate of PCP was implemented.

  10. Project W-320, WRSS PCP: Procedure implementation verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides verification that the methodology for the safe retrieval of high-heat waste from Tank 241-C-106 as specified in the WRSS Process Control Plan HNF-SD-PCP-013, Revision 1, has been adequately implemented into the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operational procedures. Tank 241-C-106 is listed on the High Heat Load Watch List.

  11. Towards a Transformation Model of a Pedagogy Collaborative Project (PCP) Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Maroua AULAD BEN TAHAR; Az-eddine NASSEH; Khaldi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a meta-model for Pedagogy Collaborative Project (PCP) allows the teacher to develop a PCP scenario. The latter is able to be applied into a PCP scenario for a training platform that is not a priori designed for this teaching method. We describe an MDA (Model Driven Architecture) approach to develop transformation rules between the meta-model and the PCP training platform. To illustrate this proposal, the Moodle platform is chosen as a case study.

  12. Health risk assessment of pentachlorophenol (pcp) in California drinking water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.A.; Encomienda, I.; Beltran, L.; Araba-Owoyele, L.

    1990-03-08

    The purpose of the document is to review the toxicology of PCP and to estimate the exposure of California residents to PCP found in drinking water. The information provided will help the California Dept. of Health Services develop drinking water standards for PCP.

  13. Hippocampal serotonin depletion unmasks differences in the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine and MK-801: quantitative versus qualitative analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy K Adams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors by phencyclidine is thought to underlie its ability to induce a schizophrenia-like syndrome in humans, yet evidence indicates it has a broader pharmacological profile. Our previous lesion studies highlighted a role for serotonergic projections from the median, but not dorsal, raphe nucleus in mediating the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine, without changing the action of the more selective NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Here we compared locomotor responses to phencyclidine and MK 801 in rats that were administered 5,7 dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT into either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus, which are preferentially innervated by median and dorsal raphe, respectively. Dorsal hippocampus lesions potentiated phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion (0.5, 2.5 mg/kg, but not the effect of MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg. Ventral hippocampus lesions did not alter the hyperlocomotion elicited by either compound. Given that phencyclidine and MK-801 may induce different spatiotemporal patterns of locomotor behavior, together with the known role of the dorsal hippocampus in spatial processing, we also assessed whether the 5,7-DHT-lesions caused any qualitative differences in locomotor responses. Treatment with phencyclidine or MK-801 increased the smoothness of the path travelled (reduced spatial d and decreased the predictability of locomotor patterns within the chambers (increased entropy. 5,7-DHT-lesions of the dorsal hippocampus did not alter the effects of phencyclidine on spatial d or entropy—despite potentiating total distance moved—but caused a slight reduction in levels of MK-801-induced entropy. Taken together, serotonergic lesions targeting the dorsal hippocampus unmask a functional differentiation of the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine and MK 801. These findings have implications for studies utilising NMDA receptor antagonists in modeling glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  14. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Debaprasad; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    In this report we have studied the implication of a parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating interaction in varying alpha theory. Due to this interaction, the state of photon polarization can change when it passes through a strong background magnetic field. We have calculated the optical rotation and ellipticity of the plane of polarization of an electromagnetic wave and tested our results against different laboratory experiments. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter {beta} and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. By analyzing the laboratory experimental data, we found the most stringent constraints on our model parameters to be 1 {le} {omega} {le} 10{sup 13} GeV{sup 2} and -0.5 {le} {beta} {le} 0.5. We also found that with the existing experimental input parameters it is very difficult to detect the ellipticity in the near future.

  15. Imaging the PCP site of the NMDA ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rikki N. E-mail: rnw7@columbia.edu

    2003-11-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ion channel plays a role in neuroprotection, neurodegeneration, long-term potentiation, memory, and cognition. It is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Chorea, schizophrenia, alcoholism and stroke. The development of effective radiotracers for the study of NMDA receptors is critical for our understanding of their function, and their modulation by endogenousr substances or therapeutic drugs. Since the NMDA/PCP receptor lies within the channel, it is a unique target and is theoretically accessible only when the channel is in the active and 'open' state, but not when it is in the inactive or 'closed' state. The physical location of the NMDA/PCP receptor not only makes it an important imaging target but also complicates the development of suitable PET and SPECT radiotracers for this site. An intimate understanding of the biochemical, pharmacological, physiological and behavioral processes associated with the NMDA ion channel is essential to develop improved imaging agents. This review outlines progress made towards the development of radiolabeled agents for PCP sites of the NMDA ion channel. In addition, the animal and pharmacological models used for in vitro and in vivo assessment of NMDA receptor targeted agents are discussed.

  16. Imaging the PCP site of the NMDA ion channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ion channel plays a role in neuroprotection, neurodegeneration, long-term potentiation, memory, and cognition. It is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Chorea, schizophrenia, alcoholism and stroke. The development of effective radiotracers for the study of NMDA receptors is critical for our understanding of their function, and their modulation by endogenousr substances or therapeutic drugs. Since the NMDA/PCP receptor lies within the channel, it is a unique target and is theoretically accessible only when the channel is in the active and 'open' state, but not when it is in the inactive or 'closed' state. The physical location of the NMDA/PCP receptor not only makes it an important imaging target but also complicates the development of suitable PET and SPECT radiotracers for this site. An intimate understanding of the biochemical, pharmacological, physiological and behavioral processes associated with the NMDA ion channel is essential to develop improved imaging agents. This review outlines progress made towards the development of radiolabeled agents for PCP sites of the NMDA ion channel. In addition, the animal and pharmacological models used for in vitro and in vivo assessment of NMDA receptor targeted agents are discussed

  17. Bioremediation of PCP by Trichoderma and Cunninghamella Strains Isolated from Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngieng Ngui Sing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates, SD12, SD14, SD19 and SD20 isolated from the aged sawdust grew on agar plates supplemented with PCP up to a concentration of 100 mg L-1. At high PCP concentration, isolate SD12 showed the highest radial growth rate of 10 mm day-1, followed by SD14 and SD19 both with 4.5 mm day-1 and SD20 with 4.2 mm day-1. Ultrastructural study on the effect of PCP on the PCP tolerant fungi using scanning electron microscope showed that high concentration of PCP caused the collapse of both fungal hyphae and spores. Among the four PCP tolerant fungi examined, isolate SD12 showed the least structural damage at high PCP concentration of 100 mg L-1. This fungal isolate was further characterized and identified as Cunninghamella sp. UMAS SD12. Preliminary PCP biodegradation trial performed in liquid minimal medium supplemented with 20 mg L-1 of PCP using Cunninghamella sp. UMAS SD12 showed that the degradation up to 51.7% of PCP in 15 days under static growth condition.

  18. Appetite for danger - genetic potential for PCP degradation at historically polluted groundwater sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Yläranta, Kati; Tiirola, Marja; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant of exclusively anthropogenic origin. Formerly used commonly in timber preservatives, PCP has persisted at polluted groundwater sites decades after its use was banned, typically as the last detectable contaminant component. Notorious for its toxicity and poor biodegradability, little is known about the genetic potential and pathways for PCP degradation in the environment. The only fully characterized mineralization pathway is initiated by the enzyme coded by chromosomal pcpB gene, previously detected in PCP degrading Sphingomonadaceae bacteria isolated at two continents. However, there is no information about the abundance or diversity of any PCP degradation related gene at contaminated sites in situ. Our aim was to assess whether pcpB and/or sphingomonads seem to play a role in in situ degradation of PCP, by studying whether pcpB i) is detectable at chlorophenol-polluted groundwater sediments, ii) responds to PCP concentration changes, and iii) shows correlation with the abundance of sphingomonads or a specific sphingomonad genus. Novel protocols for quantification and profiling of pcpB, with primers covering full known diversity, were developed and tested at two sites in Finland with well-documented long-term chlorophenol contamination history: Kärkölä and Pursiala. High throughput sequencing complemented characterization of the total bacterial community and pcpB gene pool. The relative abundance of pcpB in bacterial community was associated with spatial variability in groundwater PCP concentration in Pursiala, and with temporal differences in groundwater PCP concentration in Kärkölä. T-RFLP fingerprinting results indicated and Ion Torrent PGM and Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a single phylotype of pcpB at both geographically distant, historically contaminated sites, matching the one detected previously in Canadian bioreactor clones and Kärkölä bioreactor isolates. Sphingomonad abundance

  19. Controlling a toxic shock of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to anaerobic digestion using activated carbon addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yeyuan; De Araujo, Cecilia; Sze, Chun Chau; Stuckey, David C

    2015-04-01

    Several powdered and granular activated carbons (PACs and GACs) were tested for adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in bench-scale anaerobic digestion reactors to control the toxicity of PCP to acetoclastic methanogenesis. Results showed that the adsorption capacities of PAC were reduced by 21-54%, depending on the PAC addition time, in the presence of the methanogenic sludge compared to the controls without sludge. As a preventive measure, PAC at a low dose of 20% (mass ratio to the VSS) added 24 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the addition of PCP could completely eliminate the toxic effects of PCP. At the same dose, PAC also enabled methanogenesis to recover immediately after the sludge had been exposed to PCP for 24h. GAC was not effective in enabling the recovery of methanogenesis due to its slow adsorption kinetics; however, at a dose of 80% it could partially ameliorate the toxic shock of PCP. PMID:25665874

  20. Hexakis (PCP-Platinum and -Ruthenium) Complexes by the Transcyclometalation Reaction and Their Use in Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Dijkstra, H.P.; Albrecht, M.; Medici, S.; Klink, G.P.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Hexakis(PCP-pincer) complexes [C6{PtBr(PCP)}6] (5d) and [C6{RuCl(PCP)(PPh3)}6] (5e) were synthesized via the transcyclometalation (TCM) procedure. Mixing the hexakis(PCHP-arene) ligand 7 with six equivalents of [PtBr(NCN)] (1a) or [RuCl(NCN)(PPh3)] (1b), respectively, resulted in the selective metal

  1. Towards a Transformation Model of a Pedagogy Collaborative Project (PCP Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua AULAD BEN TAHAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a meta-model for Pedagogy Collaborative Project (PCP allows the teacher to develop a PCP scenario. The latter is able to be applied into a PCP scenario for a training platform that is not a priori designed for this teaching method. We describe an MDA (Model Driven Architecture approach to develop transformation rules between the meta-model and the PCP training platform. To illustrate this proposal, the Moodle platform is chosen as a case study.

  2. Polyphasic characterization of a PCP-to-phenol dechlorinating microbial community enriched from paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Naoko [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)]. E-mail: ysd75@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Yukina [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Handa, Yuko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kim, Hyo-Keun [Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute, Taejon 305-345 (Korea, Republic of); Ichihara, Shigeyuki [Faculty of Agriculture, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Katayama, Arata [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    Dechlorination of PCP has been observed previously under anaerobic condition in paddy soil. However, there is poor information about the dechlorination pathway of PCP and the microbial community associated with the PCP dechlorination in paddy soil. In this study, an anaerobic microbial community dechlorinating PCP was enriched by serial transfers from a paddy soil using a medium containing PCP, lactate and the steam-sterilized paddy soil. The enriched microbial community dechlorinated PCP completely to phenol under the anaerobic condition by a dechlorinating pathway as follows; PCP {sup {yields}} 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3,4,5-trichlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3,5-dichlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3-chlorophenol {sup {yields}} phenol. Intermediate products such as 3-chlorophenol were not accumulated, which were immediately dechlorinated to phenol. The enriched microbial community was characterized physiologically by testing the effects of electron donors and electron acceptors on the dechlorinating activity. The dechlorinating activity was promoted with lactate, pyruvate, and hydrogen as electron donors but not with acetate. Electron acceptors, nitrate and sulphate, inhibited the dechlorinating activity competitively but not iron (III). The microbial group associated with the anaerobic dechlorination was characterized by the effect of specific inhibitors on the PCP dechlorination. Effects of specific metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics indicated the involvement of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria with the PCP dechlorinating activity, which was represented as bacteria of phylum Firmicutes. The structure of the microbial community was characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization, quinone profiling, and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis). The combined results indicated the predominance of Clostridium species of phylum Firmicutes in the microbial community. Desulfitobacterium spp. known as anaerobic Gram-positive spore

  3. Assessment of the ability of sludge to degrade PCP under anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. L. Bolaños

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of sludge from different sources to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP was evaluated. Three 2.5 liter reactors (R1, R2, and R3 were inoculated with different anaerobic sludges, semi continuously fed and maintained in orbital motion at 30±1°C. R1 was inoculated with aerobic sludge and river sediment collected downstream from a pulp and paper plant. R2 received sludge from an anaerobic reactor treating effluents from a paper recycling plant and R3 received anaerobic sludge from a biodigestor treating industrial and domestic effluents. The sludges were first acclimatized to a culture medium generally recommended for organochloride anaerobic degradation studies. The reactors were then subjected to increasing concentrations of PCP from 0.05 to 10.0 mg.l-1. PCP degradation and metabolite formation were monitored using gas chromatography, and the effects of PCP on the anaerobic process were verified by monitoring pH, volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, total suspended solids, and chemical oxygen demand. It was found that PCP did not affect reactor performance. All the sludges displayed the best PCP degradation capacity at a concentration of 0.2 mg.l-1, producing fewer chlorinated metabolites than when higher PCP concentrations were applied. R1 consistently produced fewer chlorinated metabolites, confirming the hypothesis that pre exposure to chlorinated compounds improves the sludge's capacity to degrade PCP.

  4. Roles of noncanonical Wnt/PCP pathway genes in neuronal migration and neurulation in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hironori; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2009-03-01

    Noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways regulate oriented cell movement during development in both Drosophila and vertebrates. Recent studies have revealed similarities and differences between these pathways in the tissues on which they act. In zebrafish, PCP pathway genes regulate the directional migration of a specific population of motor neurons in the hindbrain, as well as morphogenesis of the neuroepithelium. In the present review, neuronal and neuroepithelial defects in zebrafish PCP pathway mutants are compared, and the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypes are discussed. Future analyses of zebrafish PCP mutants will reveal the general mechanisms underlying the development of the neuroepithelium and provide novel insights into both conserved and diverse functions of PCP pathway genes in vertebrate development.

  5. alpha(7) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation prevents behavioral and molecular changes induced by repeated phencyclidine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Christensen, Ditte Z; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2009-01-01

    in a modified Y-maze test. Polymorphisms in the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene have been linked to schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that acute administration of the selective alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist SSR180711 dose-dependently reversed the behavioral impairment induced by PCP...

  6. Radiolabeling of [18F]-fluoroethylnormemantine and initial in vivo evaluation of this innovative PET tracer for imaging the PCP sites of NMDA receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) is an ionotropic receptor that mediates excitatory transmission. NMDAr overexcitation is thought to be involved in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia. We synthesized [18F]-fluoroethylnormemantine ([18F]-FNM), a memantine derivative that binds to phencyclidine (PCP) sites within the NMDA channel pore. These sites are primarily accessible when the channel is in the active and open state. Methods: Radiosynthesis was carried out using the Raytest® SynChrom R&D fluorination module. Affinity of this new compound was determined by competition assay. We ran a kinetic study in rats and computed a time–activity curve based on a volume-of-interest analysis, using CARIMAS® software. We performed an ex vivo autoradiography, exposing frozen rat brain sections to a phosphorscreen. Adjacent sections were used to detect NMDAr by immunohistochemistry with an anti-NR1 antibody. As a control of the specificity of our compound for NMDAr, we used a rat anesthetized with ketamine. Correlation analysis was performed with ImageJ software between signal of autoradiography and immunostaining. Results: Fluorination yield was 10.5% (end of synthesis), with a mean activity of 3145 MBq and a specific activity above 355 GBq/μmol. Affinity assessment allowed us to determine [19F]-FNM IC50 at 6.1 10−6 M. [18F]-FMN concentration gradually increased in the brain, stabilizing at 40 minutes post injection. The brain-to-blood ratio was 6, and 0.4% of the injected dose was found in the brain. Combined ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated colocalization of NMDAr and [18F]-FNM (r = 0.622, p < 0.0001). The highest intensity was found in the cortex and cerebellum, and the lowest in white matter. A low and homogeneous signal corresponding to unspecific binding was observed when PCP sites were blocked with ketamine. Conclusions: [18F]-FNM appears to be a promising

  7. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  8. Dishevelled genes mediate a conserved mammalian PCP pathway to regulate convergent extension during neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Hamblet, Natasha S; Mark, Sharayne; Dickinson, Mary E; Brinkman, Brendan C; Segil, Neil; Fraser, Scott E; Chen, Ping; Wallingford, John B; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2006-05-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is conserved throughout evolution, but it mediates distinct developmental processes. In Drosophila, members of the PCP pathway localize in a polarized fashion to specify the cellular polarity within the plane of the epithelium, perpendicular to the apicobasal axis of the cell. In Xenopus and zebrafish, several homologs of the components of the fly PCP pathway control convergent extension. We have shown previously that mammalian PCP homologs regulate both cell polarity and polarized extension in the cochlea in the mouse. Here we show, using mice with null mutations in two mammalian Dishevelled homologs, Dvl1 and Dvl2, that during neurulation a homologous mammalian PCP pathway regulates concomitant lengthening and narrowing of the neural plate, a morphogenetic process defined as convergent extension. Dvl2 genetically interacts with Loop-tail, a point mutation in the mammalian PCP gene Vangl2, during neurulation. By generating Dvl2 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenes and introducing different domain deletions and a point mutation identical to the dsh1 allele in fly, we further demonstrated a high degree of conservation between Dvl function in mammalian convergent extension and the PCP pathway in fly. In the neuroepithelium of neurulating embryos, Dvl2 shows DEP domain-dependent membrane localization, a pre-requisite for its involvement in convergent extension. Intriguing, the Loop-tail mutation that disrupts both convergent extension in the neuroepithelium and PCP in the cochlea does not disrupt Dvl2 membrane distribution in the neuroepithelium, in contrast to its drastic effect on Dvl2 localization in the cochlea. These results are discussed in light of recent models on PCP and convergent extension.

  9. The PCP pathway regulates Baz planar distribution in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Le Bivic, André

    2016-01-01

    The localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins along the Z-axis of epithelial cells is well understood while their distribution in the plane of the epithelium is poorly characterised. Here we provide a systematic description of the planar localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins in the Drosophila ommatidial epithelium. We show that the adherens junction proteins Shotgun and Armadillo, as well as the baso-lateral complexes, are bilateral, i.e. present on both sides of cell interfaces. In contrast, we report that other key adherens junction proteins, Bazooka and the myosin regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash) are unilateral, i.e. present on one side of cell interfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate that planar cell polarity (PCP) and not the apical determinants Crumbs and Par-6 control Bazooka unilaterality in cone cells. Altogether, our work unravels an unexpected organisation and combination of apico-basal, cytoskeletal and planar polarity proteins that is different on either side of cell-cell interfaces and unique for the different contacts of the same cell. PMID:27624969

  10. The PCP pathway regulates Baz planar distribution in epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Le Bivic, André

    2016-01-01

    The localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins along the Z-axis of epithelial cells is well understood while their distribution in the plane of the epithelium is poorly characterised. Here we provide a systematic description of the planar localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins in the Drosophila ommatidial epithelium. We show that the adherens junction proteins Shotgun and Armadillo, as well as the baso-lateral complexes, are bilateral, i.e. present on both sides of cell interfaces. In contrast, we report that other key adherens junction proteins, Bazooka and the myosin regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash) are unilateral, i.e. present on one side of cell interfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate that planar cell polarity (PCP) and not the apical determinants Crumbs and Par-6 control Bazooka unilaterality in cone cells. Altogether, our work unravels an unexpected organisation and combination of apico-basal, cytoskeletal and planar polarity proteins that is different on either side of cell-cell interfaces and unique for the different contacts of the same cell. PMID:27624969

  11. Commuting Local Hamiltonians on Expanders, Locally Testable Quantum codes, and the qPCP conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonov, Dorit; Eldar, Lior

    2013-01-01

    Understanding commuting local Hamiltonians (CLHs) is at the heart of many questions in quantum computational complexity and quantum physics: quantum error correcting codes, quantum NP, the PCP conjecture, topological order and more.

  12. Spectrum of the Reductive Dehalogenation Activity of Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1

    OpenAIRE

    Dennie, D.; Gladu, I.; Lépine, F; Villemur, R; Bisaillon, J.-G.; Beaudet, R

    1998-01-01

    Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1 was induced for ortho- and para-dechlorinating activities by different chlorophenols. Dehalogenation rates ranging from 25 to 1,158 nmol/min/mg of cell protein were observed according to the chlorophenol tested and the position of the chlorine removed. D. frappieri shows a broad substrate specificity; in addition to tetrachloroethylene and pentachloropyridine, strain PCP-1 can dehalogenate at ortho, meta, and para positions a large variety of aromatic molecu...

  13. Synthesis and catalytic activities of porphyrin-based PCP pincer complexes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Keisuke; Yoneda, Tomoki; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    2,18-Bis(diphenylphosphino)porphyrins undergo peripheral cyclometalation with group 10 transition-metal salts to afford the corresponding porphyrin-based PCP pincer complexes. The porphyrinic plane and the PCP-pincer unit are apparently coplanar, with small strain. The catalytic activities of the porphyrin-based pincer complexes at the periphery were investigated in the allylation of benzaldehyde with allylstannane and in the 1,4-reduction of chalcone to discover the electronic interplay betw...

  14. Expression of a novel splicing variant of Pcp2 in closely related laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyła, M A; Nowacka-Chmielewska, M M; Barski, J J

    2016-01-01

    Purkinje cell protein-2 (PCP2), also known as L7, is a member of the GoLoco protein family with highly cell-specific expression, being restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells and retinal bipolar neurons in various species. However, its function in these tissues is unknown. Previous studies have suggested that PCP2 is a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, or a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The Pcp2 gene is known to have many splice variants in both cerebellar Purkinje cells and retinal bipolar neurons. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a novel Pcp2 splice variant is conserved in closely related laboratory rodents (mice, rats, and hamsters). After analyzing alternative splicing of this gene in the Purkinje cells and retinas of these rodent species, we confirmed the presence of the novel longer transcript in mice. However, assessment of Pcp2 transcripts using polymerase chain reaction amplification of complementary DNA revealed this long splice variant containing the additional exon 3B to be absent from rats and hamsters. Thus, the novel Pcp2 transcript is particular to mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells and retinal bipolar neurons. It is likely to have arisen in this species, as a result of spontaneous mutation or de novo rearrangements. This gene presumably serves a very specific and, as yet, unknown function in the eyes and/or Purkinje cells of mice. PMID:27525924

  15. Combover/CG10732, a novel PCP effector for Drosophila wing hair formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy K Fagan

    Full Text Available The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP, the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh and Rho Kinase (Rok are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC, similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh.

  16. Structures of the Inducer-Binding Domain of Pentachlorophenol-Degrading Gene Regulator PcpR from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Hayes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available PcpR is a LysR-type transcription factor from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum L-1 that is responsible for the activation of several genes involved in polychlorophenol degradation. PcpR responds to several polychlorophenols in vivo. Here, we report the crystal structures of the inducer-binding domain of PcpR in the apo-form and binary complexes with pentachlorophenol (PCP and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP. Both X-ray crystal structures and isothermal titration calorimetry data indicated the association of two PCP molecules per PcpR, but only one 2,4,6-TCP molecule. The hydrophobic nature and hydrogen bonds of one binding cavity allowed the tight association of both PCP (Kd = 110 nM and 2,4,6-TCP (Kd = 22.8 nM. However, the other cavity was unique to PCP with much weaker affinity (Kd = 70 μM and thus its significance was not clear. Neither phenol nor benzoic acid displayed any significant affinity to PcpR, indicating a role of chlorine substitution in ligand specificity. When PcpR is compared with TcpR, a LysR-type regulator controlling the expression of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation in Cupriavidus necator JMP134, most of the residues constituting the two inducer-binding cavities of PcpR are different, except for their general hydrophobic nature. The finding concurs that PcpR uses various polychlorophenols as long as it includes 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, as inducers; whereas TcpR is only responsive to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  17. Use of EAF dust as heterogeneous catalyst in Fenton oxidation of PCP contaminated wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, R; Di Palma, L; Pilone, D; Cerboni, L

    2006-09-21

    In this study, chemical oxidation tests using H2O2 were performed on a solution contaminated with 100 mg l(-1) of pentachlorophenol (PCP). The effectiveness of electric arc furnace dust and hematite as heterogeneous catalysts was evaluated. Reactions were conducted at pH 2 for 24 h. Either H2O2 stabilized with KH2PO4 or un-stabilized H2O2 was used. Total organic carbon (T.O.C.) removal and chloride release from PCP molecule were monitored. Results showed that the maximum removal yields for electric arc furnace (EAF) dust (49.2% T.O.C., 56.7% Cl) were achieved when H2O2:PCP ratio was 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 = 1:5 for unstabilized H2O2 and when H2O2:PCP = 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 = 1:1 for stabilized H2O2 (48% T.O.C., 60.6% Cl). The maximum yield using hematite (45.2% T.O.C., 55.2% Cl) was obtained when H2O2:PCP ratio was 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 was 1:2. When EAF dust was used and Fe:H2O2 > 1:5, Cl release was higher than the one expected from T.O.C. removal.

  18. Application of LPME/GC-ECD for determination of PCP in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ping(李萍); LIU; Junxin(刘俊新)

    2003-01-01

    Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) followed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with an electron capture detector (ECD) was applied for the analysis of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous samples. After alkalization with Na2CO3 solution, PCP was acetylated with acetic anhydride. The pentachlorophenyl acetate derivative was then extracted with n-hexane by LPME. 1.5 μL organic drop exposed to the aqueous sample solution at 15℃ for 5 min, stirring rate at 100 r/min was chosen as the optimum extraction condition. Under this condition, LPME provided a very simple, fast and solvent-less procedure to collect PCP from aqueous sample for GC determination. The linearity of LPME/GC-ECD for PCP in distilled water was investigated at the range of 2-200 μg/L with a coefficient of correlation 0.998. The repeatability of this method was determined at the level of 50 μg/L with the average of relative standard deviations (RSDs) 7%. Detection limit was obtained at less than 0.5 μg/L levels. When LPME/GC-ECD was applied to the determination of PCP in municipal sewage, the average of relative recoveries and RSDs were 70% and 6.5%, respectively.

  19. The emerging role of Wnt/PCP signaling in organ formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rodney M; Sisson, Barbara E; Topczewski, Jacek

    2009-03-01

    Over the last two decades zebrafish has been an excellent model organism to study vertebrate development. Mutant analysis combined with gene knockdown and other manipulations revealed an essential role of Wnt signaling, independent of beta-catenin, during development. Especially well characterized is the function of Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in the regulation of gastrulation movements and neurulation, described in other reviews within this special issue. Here, we set out to highlight some of the new and exciting research that is being carried out in zebrafish to elucidate the role that Wnt/PCP signaling plays in the formation of specific organs, including the lateral line, craniofacial development, and regeneration. We also summarized the emerging connection of the Wnt/PCP pathway with primary cilia function, an essential organelle in several organ activities.

  20. Wnt/PCP signaling: a veritable polar star in establishing patterns of polarity in embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Jeffery R

    2006-04-01

    Embryonic patterning has traditionally been viewed as the establishment of spatially significant gene expression in response to secreted signals. Recent work has highlighted the role of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in patterning tissues. Rather than establishing characteristic arrays of gene expression, however, this pathway functions to institute uniform polarity of cells within a tissue. Cells thus polarized can undergo directed migrations, cell divisions, etc., which are essential for normal morphogenesis. In this review, I will highlight the similarities between mechanisms that establish patterns of polarity between Drosophila and vertebrates. Further, I will discuss recent advances with regard to Wnt/PCP signaling in vertebrates.

  1. The gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyndt, Bettina Merete; Redrobe, Paul; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina;

    The gut microbiota has major impact on the individual. Here we show that the gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia. The gut microbiota were changed in the group treated subchronic with PCP, and restoration coincided with normalisation...... of memory performance in lister hooded rats. Furthermore the individual gut microbiota correlated to the individual behavior abserved in the tests conducted. In conclusion results show an influence of the gut microbiota on behavior in this model, and therefore it might be relavant to include the information...... from the gut in analyses of studies using this model in the future....

  2. PcpA Promotes Higher Levels of Infection and Modulates Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa M; Novak, Lea; Widener, Rebecca; Grubbs, James Aaron; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha Y; Ochs, Martina M; Myers, Lisa E; Briles, David E; Deshane, Jessy

    2016-03-01

    We used two different infection models to investigate the kinetics of the PcpA-dependent pneumococcal disease in mice. In a bacteremic pneumonia model, we observed a PcpA-dependent increase in bacterial burden in the lungs, blood, liver, bronchoalveolar lavage, and spleens of mice at 24 h postinfection. This PcpA-dependent effect on bacterial burden appeared earlier (within 12 h) in the focal pneumonia model, which lacks bacteremia or sepsis. Histological changes show that the ability of pneumococci to make PcpA was associated with unresolved inflammation in both models of infection. Using our bacteremic pneumonia model we further investigated the effects of PcpA on recruitment of innate immune regulatory cells. The presence of PcpA was associated with increased IL-6 levels, suppressed production of TRAIL, and reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pneumococci to make PcpA negatively modulated both the infiltration and apoptosis of macrophages and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells. The latter have been shown to facilitate the clearance and control of bacterial pneumonia. Taken together, the ability to make PcpA was strongly associated with increased bacterial burden, inflammation, and negative regulation of innate immune cell recruitment to the lung tissue during bacteremic pneumonia. PMID:26829988

  3. Dissecting the PCP pathway: one or more pathways?: Does a separate Wnt-Fz-Rho pathway drive morphogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapébie, Pascal; Borchiellini, Carole; Houliston, Evelyn

    2011-10-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP), the alignment of cells within 2D tissue planes, involves a set of core molecular regulators highly conserved between animals and cell types. These include the transmembrane proteins Frizzled (Fz) and VanGogh and the cytoplasmic regulators Dishevelled (Dsh) and Prickle. It is widely accepted that this core forms part of a 'PCP pathway' for signal transduction, which can affect cell morphology through activation of an evolutionary ancient regulatory module involving Rho family GTPases and Myosin II, and/or the JNK kinase cascade. We have re-examined the evidence for interactions between the proposed PCP pathway components, and question the placing of the cell morphology regulators in the same pathway as the PCP core. While Fz and Dsh are clearly involved in both PCP and Rho-based cell morphology regulation, available evidence cannot currently discriminate whether these processes are linked mechanistically by a shared Fz/Dsh population, or pass by two distinct pathways.

  4. IFT88 plays a cilia- and PCP-independent role in controlling oriented cell divisions during vertebrate embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovina, Antonia; Ciruna, Brian

    2013-10-17

    The role for cilia in establishing planar cell polarity (PCP) is contentious. Although knockdown of genes known to function in ciliogenesis has been reported to cause PCP-related morphogenesis defects in zebrafish, genetic mutations affecting intraflagellar transport (IFT) do not show PCP phenotypes despite the requirement for IFT in cilia formation. This discrepancy has been attributed to off-target effects of antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) injection, confounding maternal effects in zygotic mutant embryos, or an inability to distinguish between cilia-dependent versus cilia-independent protein functions. To determine the role of cilia in PCP, we generated maternal + zygotic IFT88 (MZift88) mutant zebrafish embryos, which never form cilia. We clearly demonstrate that cilia are not required to establish PCP. Rather, IFT88 plays a cilia-independent role in controlling oriented cell divisions at gastrulation and neurulation. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of cilia gene function in normal development and in disease.

  5. Predictors of PCP, OH-PCBs, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in a general female Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Charlotta; Lund, Eiliv; Frøyland, Livar; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess plasma concentrations and predictors of halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in a representative group of postmenopausal Norwegian women (n=311, mean age: 56 years). In addition to delivering a blood sample, the participants had also filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding their current health status, use of medication and dietary habits, etc. The association between a large number of dietary variables, lifestyle factors and plasma concentration of organic pollutants were investigated using multivariate statistics. Within the current study group, p,p'-DDE (median: 903 ng/L w.w.) and pentachlorophenol (PCP, median: 711 ng/L w.w.) were the dominating compounds on a wet weight basis and were present in considerable higher concentrations than the PCBs, the hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and the remaining chlorinated pesticides. Of the PCBs, PCB 153 was detected in highest concentrations, whereas 4-OH-PCB187 was present in highest concentration of the selected OH-PCBs. The ratio of ΣOH-PCB to ΣPCB varied between 0.06 and 0.77 ng/L and were significantly lower in individuals with higher ΣPCB concentration. PCP did not co-vary with the other contaminants, indicating a different route of exposure. No clear food cluster was positively associated with PCP exposure; however intake of marine food was negatively linked to PCP concentration and age and being a non-smoker were positive predictors of PCP. The other investigated contaminants co-varied and were positively associated with age, plasma concentrations of marine derived omega-3 fatty acids and a traditional Norwegian fish and bread based diet. The difference in contaminant concentration between high, medium and low consumers of total marine food were however marginal for the dominating PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. The current results indicate however that marine food in itself could be a source of some of

  6. Predictors of PCP, OH-PCBs, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in a general female Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Charlotta; Lund, Eiliv; Frøyland, Livar; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess plasma concentrations and predictors of halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in a representative group of postmenopausal Norwegian women (n=311, mean age: 56 years). In addition to delivering a blood sample, the participants had also filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding their current health status, use of medication and dietary habits, etc. The association between a large number of dietary variables, lifestyle factors and plasma concentration of organic pollutants were investigated using multivariate statistics. Within the current study group, p,p'-DDE (median: 903 ng/L w.w.) and pentachlorophenol (PCP, median: 711 ng/L w.w.) were the dominating compounds on a wet weight basis and were present in considerable higher concentrations than the PCBs, the hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and the remaining chlorinated pesticides. Of the PCBs, PCB 153 was detected in highest concentrations, whereas 4-OH-PCB187 was present in highest concentration of the selected OH-PCBs. The ratio of ΣOH-PCB to ΣPCB varied between 0.06 and 0.77 ng/L and were significantly lower in individuals with higher ΣPCB concentration. PCP did not co-vary with the other contaminants, indicating a different route of exposure. No clear food cluster was positively associated with PCP exposure; however intake of marine food was negatively linked to PCP concentration and age and being a non-smoker were positive predictors of PCP. The other investigated contaminants co-varied and were positively associated with age, plasma concentrations of marine derived omega-3 fatty acids and a traditional Norwegian fish and bread based diet. The difference in contaminant concentration between high, medium and low consumers of total marine food were however marginal for the dominating PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. The current results indicate however that marine food in itself could be a source of some of

  7. Changes in dopamine D2 and GluR-1 glutamate receptor mRNAs in the rat brain after treatment with phencyclidine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita,Hiroaki

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization of slide-mounted brain sections from rats subjected to acute and chronic phencyclidine treatment was carried out using synthetic oligonucleotides complementary to dopamine D2-receptor and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate-receptor-subunit (GluR-1 mRNAs. There was no significant difference in either the D2-receptor or the GluR-1 mRNA levels in any brain region of the acute phencyclidine (10 mg/kg-treated and control groups. However, chronic administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg/day, 14 days significantly decreased the dopamine D2-receptor mRNA level in the caudate-putamen (by 27%, P < 0.01 and significantly increased the GluR-1 mRNA level in the prefrontal cortex (by 29%, P < 0.001. These results suggest that the chronic pharmaco-behavioral effects of phencyclidine may involve expression of both dopamine- and non-NMDA glutamate-receptor mRNAs.

  8. Cultivation and characters of aerobic granules for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Hui-xia; CHEN Yuan-cai; CHEN Zhong-hao; CHEN Rong

    2005-01-01

    Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation under microaerobic condition ( DO concentration was controlled at 0.2-0.7 mg/L) was studied in this paper. Anaerobic granules were selected as inoculum. The changes of appearance were observed and the variations of SVI, VSS/TSS, PN/PS and the size of sludge were measured during cultivating. The capabilities for degradation of PCP, AOX and CODcr were also studied. Observations on mature granules were carried out by scanning electron microscope, and the results indicated bacillus was dominant on the surface of granules while in the inner of granules both bacillus and coccus were the dominant microorganisms. K, Na, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ni, Co, Mn, Cu and Zn were detected in the granules by element analysis.

  9. Establishment of PCP composition diagrams for cementations of borate wastes using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of quality assurance, it is requested by the regulatory authority in the solidification of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) to implement the 'process control program (PCP)', in which the condition of solidification should be decided in advance of solidification according to the so-called 'PCP composition diagrams', to assure that the condition of solidification is within established process parameters and that the quality of solidified LLRW meets quality criteria. In this paper, PCP composition diagrams for the cementation of radioactive liquid borate wastes were established with response surface methodology, including using the simplex centroid design to allocate experimental conditions and statistical curve-fitting techniques to construct quality models. The constructed models were verified to have a confidence level higher than 95% by doing the lack-of-fit test on them. Quality contours of solidified borate wastes were thus established based on mathematical and statistical principles and have been used as composition diagrams in the process control program of radioactive borate wastes solidification at Ma-An-Shan nuclear power station of Taiwan Power Company. The solidification agent used in this study was a mixture of Portland type-II cement and lime powder with a weight ratio of 1/0.22. Quality contours for solidified borate wastes including free-standing water content, compressive strength, water resistance, thawing and freezing resistance, irradiation resistance, and leaching resistance were established. Characteristics of these quality contours were also discussed. With these contours, the performance of the final waste form can be assured and consequently a volume reduction will also be achieved, when the PCP is implemented. (author)

  10. Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution on novel Pd-loaded electrode modified with PPy-SDBS composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhirong; Wei, Xuefeng; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a persistent pollutant and a suspected human carcinogen. It can be found in the air, water, and soil and enters the environment through evaporation from treated wood surfaces, industrial spills, and disposal at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Ecotoxicity of PCP necessitates the development of rapid and reliable remediation techniques. Electrocatalytic hydrogenolysis (ECH) has been proven as a promising method for detoxification of halogenated wastes, due to its rapid reaction rate, low apparatus cost, mild reaction conditions, and absence of secondary contaminants. Challenge for the application of ECH is to prepare a Pd-coated cathode with high stability, high catalytic activity, and low Pd loading level. In this work, Pd/polypyrrole-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate/meshed Ti (Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti) electrode was prepared and was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Electrochemically reductive dechlorination of PCP on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode in aqueous solution was investigated. Pd microparticles were uniformly dispersed on PPy-SDBS film which was previously electrodeposited on the meshed Ti supporting electrode. The loading of Pd on the electrode was 0.72 mg cm(-2). Electrocatalytic dechlorination of PCP was performed in a two-compartment cell separated by cation-exchange membrane. The PCP removal on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode could reach 100 % within 70 min with dechlorination current 3 mA when PCP initial concentration was 10 mg L(-1) and initial pH was 2.4. Conversion of PCP on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the apparent activation energy was 13.0 kJ mol(-1). The removal of PCP still kept 100 % after 70 min dechlorination when the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti cathode was reused ten times. The electrode exhibited promising dechlorination potential with high electrocatalytic activity, good stability

  11. Characterization of pPCP1 Plasmids in Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from the Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chythanya Rajanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete sequences of 9.5-kb pPCP1 plasmids in three Yersinia pestis strains from the former Soviet Union (FSU were determined and compared with those of pPCP1 plasmids in three well-characterized, non-FSU Y. pestis strains (KIM, CO92, and 91001. Two of the FSU plasmids were from strains C2614 and C2944, isolated from plague foci in Russia, and one plasmid was from strain C790 from Kyrgyzstan. Sequence analyses identified four sequence types among the six plasmids. The pPCP1 plasmids in the FSU strains were most genetically related to the pPCP1 plasmid in the KIM strain and least related to the pPCP1 plasmid in Y. pestis 91001. The FSU strains generally had larger pPCP1 plasmid copy numbers compared to strain CO92. Expression of the plasmid's pla gene was significantly (P≤.05 higher in strain C2944 than in strain CO92. Given pla's role in Y. pestis virulence, this difference may have important implications for the strain's virulence.

  12. Automation of the social interaction test by a video-tracking system: behavioural effects of repeated phencyclidine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1995-07-01

    The social interaction test is a valuable behavioural model for testing anxiolytic and neuroleptic drugs. The test quantifies the level of social behaviour between pairs of rats and it is usually based on manual analysis of behaviour. Advances in computer technology have made it possible to track the movements of pairs of rats in an arena, and the present paper describes the automation of the social interaction test by the commercial video-tracking programme, the EthoVision system. The ability of the automated system to correctly measure the social behaviour of rats is demonstrated by determining a dose-response relationship in the social interaction test for phencyclidine, a psychotomimetic drug that reduces social behaviour between pairs of rats. These data are subsequently analysed by the manual and automated data-acquisition methods and the results are compared. The study shows that the automated data-acquisition method best describes the behavioural effects of phencyclidine in the social interaction test by the locomotor activity of the rats, how much time the rats spend in different sections of the testing arena, and the level of social behaviour. Correlation analysis of the results from the manual and automated data-acquisition methods shows that the social behaviour measured by the automated system corresponds correctly to the social behaviour measured by the manual analysis. The present study has shown that the automated data-acquisition method can quantify locomotor activity, how rats use a testing arena and the level of social behaviour between rats in the social interaction test. The system cannot distinguish between social and aggressive behaviours, and therefore the rats should be tested in an unfamiliar arena to reduce territorial behaviour. Taking this limitation into consideration, the social interaction test can be automated by this computer-based video-tracking system and can be used as a routine test for quantifying the effects of drugs on the

  13. Opposite effect of phencyclidine on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in juvenile and adult limbic rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    animals. However, schizophrenia is believed to develop in part due to neurodevelopmental dysfunction during adolescence. Therefore, the effects of PCP in juvenile animals may better reflect the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here, we compare the effect of PCP (5mg/kg/day for 5 days) on activity......-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) and parvalbumin mRNA expression in juvenile and adult rats. Arc is a marker for excitatory neurotransmission. Parvalbumin is a marker for GABAergic neurotransmission, known to be reduced in postmortem brains of schizophrenics. PCP reduced parvalbumin mRNA expression...

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnostic options for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP is challenging, particularly in developing countries. Highly sensitive diagnostic methods are costly, while less expensive methods often lack sensitivity or specificity. Cost-effectiveness comparisons of the various diagnostic options have not been presented. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared cost-effectiveness, as measured by cost per life-years gained and proportion of patients successfully diagnosed and treated, of 33 PCP diagnostic options, involving combinations of specimen collection methods [oral washes, induced and expectorated sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL] and laboratory diagnostic procedures [various staining procedures or polymerase chain reactions (PCR], or clinical diagnosis with chest x-ray alone. Our analyses were conducted from the perspective of the government payer among ambulatory, HIV-infected patients with symptoms of pneumonia presenting to HIV clinics and hospitals in South Africa. Costing data were obtained from the National Institutes of Communicable Diseases in South Africa. At 50% disease prevalence, diagnostic procedures involving expectorated sputum with any PCR method, or induced sputum with nested or real-time PCR, were all highly cost-effective, successfully treating 77-90% of patients at $26-51 per life-year gained. Procedures using BAL specimens were significantly more expensive without added benefit, successfully treating 68-90% of patients at costs of $189-232 per life-year gained. A relatively cost-effective diagnostic procedure that did not require PCR was Toluidine Blue O staining of induced sputum ($25 per life-year gained, successfully treating 68% of patients. Diagnosis using chest x-rays alone resulted in successful treatment of 77% of patients, though cost-effectiveness was reduced ($109 per life-year gained compared with several molecular diagnostic options. CONCLUSIONS: For diagnosis of PCP, use of PCR technologies, when

  15. Assessment of the ability of sludge to degrade PCP under anaerobic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. L. Bolaños; M. H. R. Z. Damianovic; ZAIAT M.; E. Foresti

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of sludge from different sources to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated. Three 2.5 liter reactors (R1, R2, and R3) were inoculated with different anaerobic sludges, semi continuously fed and maintained in orbital motion at 30±1°C. R1 was inoculated with aerobic sludge and river sediment collected downstream from a pulp and paper plant. R2 received sludge from an anaerobic reactor treating effluents from a paper recycling plant and R3 received anaerobic sludge...

  16. Frizzled-Induced Van Gogh Phosphorylation by CK1ε Promotes Asymmetric Localization of Core PCP Factors in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay K. Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial tissues are polarized along two axes. In addition to apical-basal polarity, they are often polarized within the plane of the epithelium, so-called Planar Cell Polarity (PCP. PCP depends upon Wnt/Frizzled (Fz signaling factors, including Fz itself and Van Gogh (Vang/Vangl. We sought to understand how Vang interaction with other core PCP factors affects Vang function. We find that Fz induces Vang phosphorylation in a cell-autonomous manner. Vang phosphorylation occurs on conserved N-terminal serine/threonine residues, is mediated by CK1ε/Dco, and is critical for polarized membrane localization of Vang and other PCP proteins. This regulatory mechanism does not require Fz signaling through Dishevelled and thus represents a cell-autonomous upstream interaction between Fz and Vang. Furthermore, this signaling event appears to be related to Wnt5a-mediated Vangl2 phosphorylation during mouse limb patterning and may thus be a general mechanism underlying Wnt-regulated PCP establishment.

  17. IFT88 Plays a Cilia- and PCP-Independent Role in Controlling Oriented Cell Divisions during Vertebrate Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Borovina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The role for cilia in establishing planar cell polarity (PCP is contentious. Although knockdown of genes known to function in ciliogenesis has been reported to cause PCP-related morphogenesis defects in zebrafish, genetic mutations affecting intraflagellar transport (IFT do not show PCP phenotypes despite the requirement for IFT in cilia formation. This discrepancy has been attributed to off-target effects of antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO injection, confounding maternal effects in zygotic mutant embryos, or an inability to distinguish between cilia-dependent versus cilia-independent protein functions. To determine the role of cilia in PCP, we generated maternal + zygotic IFT88 (MZift88 mutant zebrafish embryos, which never form cilia. We clearly demonstrate that cilia are not required to establish PCP. Rather, IFT88 plays a cilia-independent role in controlling oriented cell divisions at gastrulation and neurulation. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of cilia gene function in normal development and in disease.

  18. CAFET algorithm reveals Wnt/PCP signature in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hu

    Full Text Available We analyzed the gene expression patterns of 138 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC samples and developed a new algorithm called Coverage Analysis with Fisher's Exact Test (CAFET to identify molecular pathways that are differentially activated in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma (AC subtypes. Analysis of the lung cancer samples demonstrated hierarchical clustering according to the histological subtype and revealed a strong enrichment for the Wnt signaling pathway components in the cluster consisting predominantly of SCC samples. The specific gene expression pattern observed correlated with enhanced activation of the Wnt Planar Cell Polarity (PCP pathway and inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling branch. Further real time RT-PCR follow-up with additional primary tumor samples and lung cancer cell lines confirmed enrichment of Wnt/PCP pathway associated genes in the SCC subtype. Dysregulation of the canonical Wnt pathway, characterized by increased levels of β-catenin and epigenetic silencing of negative regulators, has been reported in adenocarcinoma of the lung. Our results suggest that SCC and AC utilize different branches of the Wnt pathway during oncogenesis.

  19. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy for breast cancer: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Adrienne G; Tolaney, Sara M; Galar, Alicia; Arnaout, Amal; Porter, Julie B; Marty, Francisco M; Winer, Eric P; Hammond, Sarah P; Baden, Lindsey R

    2015-11-01

    Opportunistic infection with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) has not been recognized as a significant complication of early-stage breast cancer treatment. However, we have observed an increase in PCP incidence among patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Herein we identify risk factors for and calculate incidence of PCP in this population. We identified all cases of PCP at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital (DFCI/BWH) from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2013 in patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated with an adriamycin/cyclophosphamide (AC)-containing regimen. Nineteen cases of PCP in non-metastatic breast cancer patients were identified. All patients with PCP were diagnosed after receipt of either three or four cycles of AC chemotherapy on a dose-dense schedule. Patients who developed PCP were treated with median 16.4 mg prednisone equivalents/day as nausea prophylaxis for a median 64 days. The overall incidence of PCP among 2057 patients treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant dose-dense AC for three or more cycles was 0.6 % (95 % confidence interval 0.3-1.0 %). No PCP was diagnosed in 1001 patients treated with non-dose-dense AC. There was one death from PCP. Women receiving dose-dense AC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer are at risk for PCP. Administering the same chemotherapy and corticosteroid dose over an 8-week versus 12-week non-dose-dense schedule appears to have created a novel infectious vulnerability. Replacing dexamethasone with alternative anti-emetics may mitigate this risk.

  20. Involvement of β3A Subunit of Adaptor Protein-3 in Intracellular Trafficking of Receptor-like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PCP-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui DONG; Hong YUAN; Weirong JIN; Yan SHEN; Xiaojing XU; Hongyang WANG

    2007-01-01

    PCP-2 is a human receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase and a member of the MAM domain family cloned in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Previous studies showed that PCP-2 directly interacted with β-catenin through the juxtamembrane domain, dephosphorylated β-catenin and played an important role in the regulation of cell adhesion. Recent study showed that PCP-2 was also involved in the repression of β-catenin-induced transcriptional activity. Here we describe the interactions of PCP-2 with the β3A subunit of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and sorting nexin (SNX) 3. These protein complexes were detected using the yeast two-hybrid assay with the juxtamembrane and membrane-proximal catalytic domain of PCP-2 as "bait". Both AP-3 and SNX3 are molecules involved in intracellular trafficking of membrane receptors. The association between the β3A subunit of AP-3 and PCP-2 was further confirmed in mammalian cells. Our results suggested a possible mechanism of intracellular trafficking of PCP-2 mediated by AP-3 and SNX3 which might participate in the regulation of PCP-2 functions.

  1. Kinetics and thermodynamics of small molecule binding to pincer-PCP rhodium(I) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Doherty, Mark D.

    2013-04-15

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the binding of several small molecules, L (L = N2, H2, D2, and C2H 4), to the coordinatively unsaturated pincer-PCP rhodium(I) complexes Rh[tBu2PCH2(C6H3)CH 2PtBu2] (1) and Rh[tBu 2P(CH2)2(CH)(CH2)2P tBu2] (2) in organic solvents (n-heptane, toluene, THF, and cyclohexane-d12) have been investigated by a combination of kinetic flash photolysis methods, NMR equilibrium studies, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Using various gas mixtures and monitoring by NMR until equilibrium was established, the relative free energies of binding of N2, H2, and C2H4 in cyclohexane-d12 were found to increase in the order C 2H4 < N2 < H2. Time-resolved infrared (TRIR) and UV-vis transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that 355 nm excitation of 1-L and 2-L results in the photoejection of ligand L. The subsequent mechanism of binding of L to 1 and 2 to regenerate 1-L and 2-L is determined by the structure of the PCP ligand framework and the nature of the solvent. In both cases, the primary transient is a long-lived, unsolvated species (τ = 50-800 ns, depending on L and its concentration in solution). For 2, this so-called less-reactive form (LRF) is in equilibrium with a more-reactive form (MRF), which reacts with L at diffusion-controlled rates to regenerate 2-L. These two intermediates are proposed to be different conformers of the three-coordinate (PCP)Rh fragment. For 1, a similar mechanism is proposed to occur, but the LRF to MRF step is irreversible. In addition, a parallel reaction pathway was observed that involves the direct reaction of the LRF of 1 with L, with second-order rate constants that vary by almost 3 orders of magnitude, depending on the nature of L (in n-heptane, k = 6.7 × 10 5 M-1 s-1 for L = C2H4; 4.0 × 106 M-1 s-1 for L = N2; 5.5 × 108 M-1 s-1 for L = H2). Experiments in the more coordinating solvent, THF, revealed the binding of THF to 1 to generate 1-THF, and its subsequent reaction with L, as a

  2. A density functional theory for vapor-liquid interfaces using the PCP-SAFT equation of state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, J.

    2009-01-01

    A Helmholtz energy functional for inhomogeneous fluid phases based on the perturbed-chain polar statistical associating fluid theory (PCP-SAFT) equation of state is proposed. The model is supplemented with a capillary wave contribution to the surface tension to account for long-wavelength fluctuatio

  3. AMERICAN CREOSOTE SITE CASE STUDY: SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF DIOXINS, PCP, AND CREOSOTE FOR $64 PER CUBIC YARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study describes the development of solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulas and their application to rededicate the American Creosote site in Jackson, Tennessee. During 1998 and 1999, 45,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with Creosote, PCP, and Dioxins were treat...

  4. Complete DNA sequence and gene analysis of the virulence plasmid pCP301 of Shigella flexneri 2a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继瑜; 刘红; 张笑兵; 杨剑; 杨帆; 杨国威; 沈岩; 侯云德; 金奇

    2003-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the large virulence plasmid pCP301 (termed by us) of Shigella flexneri 2a strain 301 were determined and analyzed. The result showed that the entire DNA sequence of pCP301 is composed of 221618 bp which form a circular plasmid. Sequence analysis identified 272 open reading frames (ORFs), among which, 194 correspond to the proteins described previously, 61 have low identity (<60%) to known proteins and the rest 17 have no regions of significant homology with proteins in database. The genes of pCP301 mainly include the genes associated with bacterial virulence, the genes associated with regulation and the genes relating to plasmid maintenance, stability and DNA metabolism. Insertion sequence (IS) elements are 68 kb in length and account for 30 percent of complete sequence of the plasmid which indicates that gene multiple rearrangements of the pCP301 have taken place in Shigella flexneri evolution history. The research result is helpful for interpreting the pathogenesis of Shigella, as well as the genetics and evolution of the plasmid.

  5. The effect of rhizosphere on growth of Sphingomonas chlorophenolica ATCC 39723 during pentachlorophenol (PCP biodegradation in batch culture and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Killhan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the influence of the rhizosphere on the growth of Sphingomonas chlorophenolica during Pentacholophenol (PCP degradation in batch culture and in soil were carried out. In batch culture, a basal minimal medium with or without rhizosphere exudates extracted from winter wheat was used. In soil systems, degradation experiments were performed in the presence and absence of plants. Measurements of PCP concentrations were made using high performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC. Bacterial analyses of S. chlorophenolica were carried out by plating on MSM medium. The results showed that the rhizosphere exudates stimulated the growth of the cells of S. chlorophenolica at concentrations of 50 and 80mg kg dry wt soil –1 as well as stimulating the ability of S. chlorophenolica to degrade PCP at a concentration of 80mg Kg dry wt soil -1. In addition, pentachlorophenol had an adverse effect on the growth of S. chlorophenolica. The introduction of S.chlorophenolica into the loamy soil with plants showed a faster degradation when compared to the inoculated soil without plants. There was a significant increase of S. chlorophenolica in the roots in comparison to those in the soil. This study showed that the presence of the inoculum S. chlorophenolica enhanced the PCP degradation in a loamy soil and it indicates the potential for a treatment process under a appropriate environmental conditions such as there present in soil systems.

  6. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escobar, Beatriz; Cano, David A.; Rojas, Anabel; de Felipe, Beatriz; Palma, Francisco; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.; Henderson, Deborah; Ybot-González, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia) that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos. PMID:25540130

  7. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz López-Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1 and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of PCP-Na with TiO2 photocatalysis loaded with platinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Titanium dioxide(TiO2 ) samples of different crystal forms were prepared by hydrolysis tetrabutyl titanate in various water to alkoxide ratios and sintering the hydrolysis product at different temperatures.The photocatalysts coated on hollow glass beads and loaded with platinum varying from 0.2% to 2.4% by weight.The photecatalytic degradation rate of sodium pentachlorophenolate (PCP- Na) depends on the preparing conditions such as.:sintering temperatures,water to alkoxide ratios(R),platinum content and the size.The proper conditions of preparation photoeatalysts are as follows:the ratio of TiO2:sodium silicate :hollow glass beads :platinum is 10:5:20:0.15(w/w),R is 100,sintering temperature is 650℃,and the size of hollow glass is 0.5 - 1 mm.Under these conditions,the ratio between aeatase and rutile of the photocatalyst is 2:1,and the photocatalytie activity is high.

  9. Mitotic Spindle Asymmetry: A Wnt/PCP-Regulated Mechanism Generating Asymmetrical Division in Cortical Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Delaunay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of asymmetric cell division (ACD during corticogenesis is incompletely understood. We document that spindle-size asymmetry (SSA between the two poles occurs during corticogenesis and parallels ACD. SSA appears at metaphase and is maintained throughout division, and we show it is necessary for proper neurogenesis. Imaging of spindle behavior and division outcome reveals that neurons preferentially arise from the larger-spindle pole. Mechanistically, SSA magnitude is controlled by Wnt7a and Vangl2, both members of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP-signaling pathway, and relayed to the cell cortex by P-ERM proteins. In vivo, Vangl2 and P-ERM downregulation promotes early cell-cycle exit and prevents the proper generation of late-born neurons. Thus, SSA is a core component of ACD that is conserved in invertebrates and vertebrates and plays a key role in the tight spatiotemporal control of self-renewal and differentiation during mammalian corticogenesis.

  10. Prevalence and clonal distribution of pcpA, psrP and Pilus-1 among pediatric isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and clonal type variability of three potential vaccine antigens: Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP, Pilus-1, and Pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA among pneumococcal isolates from children with invasive pneumococcal disease and healthy nasopharyngeal carriers. We studied by Real-Time PCR a total of 458 invasive pneumococcal isolates and 89 nasopharyngeal pneumococcal isolates among children (total = 547 strains collected in Barcelona, Spain, from January 2004 to July 2010. pcpA, psrP and pilus-1 were detected in 92.8%, 51.7% and 14.4% of invasive isolates and in 92.1%, 48.3% and 18% of carrier isolates, respectively. Within individual serotypes the prevalence of psrP and pilus-1 was highly dependent on the clonal type. pcpA was highly prevalent in all strains with the exception of those belonging to serotype 3 (33.3% in serotype 3 isolates vs. 95.1% in other serotypes; P<.001. psrP was significantly more frequent in those serotypes that are less apt to be detected in carriage than in disease; 58.7% vs. 39.1% P<.001. Antibiotic resistance was associated with the presence of pilus-1 and showed a negative correlation with psrP. These results indicate that PcpA, and subsequently Psrp and Pilus-1 together might be good candidates to be used in a next-generation of multivalent pneumococcal protein vaccine.

  11. Extraction of weak PcP phases using the slant-stacklet transform - II: constraints on lateral variations of structure near the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Resolving the topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the structure and composition of the D″ region is key to improving our understanding of the interaction between the Earth's mantle and core. Observations of traveltimes and amplitudes of short-period teleseismic body waves sensitive to lowermost mantle provide essential constraints on the properties of this region. Major challenges are low signal-to-noise ratio of the target phases and interference with other mantle phases. In a previous paper (Part I), we introduced the slant-stacklet transform to enhance the signal of the core-reflected (PcP) phase and to isolate it from stronger signals in the coda of the P wave. Then we minimized a linear misfit between P and PcP waveforms to improve the quality of PcP-P traveltime difference measurements as compared to standard cross-correlation methods. This method significantly increases the quantity and the quality of PcP-P traveltime observations available for the modelling of structure near the CMB. Here we illustrate our approach in a series of regional studies of the CMB and D″ using PcP-P observations with unprecedented resolution from high-quality dense arrays located in North America and Japan for events with magnitude Mw>5.4 and distances up to 80°. In this process, we carefully analyse various sources of errors and show that mantle heterogeneity is the most significant. We find and correct bias due to mantle heterogeneities that is as large as 1 s in traveltime, comparable to the largest lateral PcP-P traveltime variations observed. We illustrate the importance of accurate mantle corrections and the need for higher resolution mantle models for future studies. After optimal mantle corrections, the main signal left is relatively long wavelength in the regions sampled, except at the border of the Pacific large-low shear velocity province (LLSVP). We detect the northwest border of the Pacific LLSVP in the western Pacific from array observations in

  12. Long-term changes in brain following continuous phencyclidine administration: An autoradiographic study using flunitrazepam, ketanserin, mazindol, quinuclidinyl benzilate, piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP, and AMPA receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Gaylord; Keys, Alan; Noguchi, Kevin [Univ. of California Los Angeles, Dept. of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Phencyclidine induces a model psychosis which can persist for prolonged periods and presents a strong drug model of schizophrenia. When given continuously for several days to rats, phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists induce neural degeneration in a variety of limbic structures, including retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, septohippocampal projections, and piriform cortex. In an attempt to further clarify the mechanisms underlying these degeneration patterns, autoradiographic studies using a variety of receptor ligands were conducted in animals 21 days after an identical dosage of the continuous phencyclidine administration employed in the previous degeneration studies. The results indicated enduring alterations in a number of receptors: these included decreased piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP (TCP), flunitrazepam, and mazindol binding in many of the limbic regions in which degeneration has been reported previously. Quinuclidinyl benzilate and (AMPA) binding were decreased in anterior cingulate and piriform cortex, and in accumbens and striatum. Piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP binding was decreased in most hippocampal regions. Many of these long-term alterations would not have been predicted by prior studies of the neurotoxic effects of continuous phencyclidine, and these results do not suggest a unitary source for the neurotoxicity. Whereas retrosplenial cortex, the structure which degenerates earliest, showed minimal alterations, some of the most consistent, long term alterations were in structures which evidence no immediate signs of neural degeneration, such as anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In these structures, some of the receptor changes appeared to develop gradually (they were not present immediately after cessation of drug administration), and thus were perhaps due to changed input from regions evidencing neurotoxicity. Some of these findings, particularly in anterior cingulate, may have implications for models of

  13. High-resolution mapping of D16led-1, Gart, Gas-4, Cbr, Pcp-4, and Erg on distal mouse chromosome 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaatvedt, A E; Citron, M P; Reeves, R H

    1993-08-01

    More than 500 backcross progeny from four intersubspecific backcrosses were typed for six markers on distal mouse chromosome 16. Five of these represented genes that mapped within the Sod-1 to Ets-2 interval, which was shown previously to contain the weaver (wv) gene. The map order, including previously mapped reference markers, is (cen)-D16H21S16-D16Led-1-App-Sod-1-Gart-Gas-4-Cbr++ +-wv-Pcp-4-Erg-Ets-2. This gene order recapitulates the order of the genes on human chromosome 21 where known. Two of these markers further define the region containing the weaver gene to a 3.9-cM segment between Cbr and Pcp-4. In addition, Pcp-4 was localized to human chromosome 21 by the presence of a human-specific restriction fragment in WAV-17, a mouse-human somatic cell hybrid with human chromosome 21 as the only human contribution.

  14. PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, S.

    2011-08-23

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels

  15. In-situ generated H2O2 induced efficient visible light photo-electrochemical catalytic oxidation of PCP-Na with TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: We demonstrate a novel PEC system where the cathodic in-situ generated H2O2 interacts with TiO2 particles to form interfacial TiIV−OOH species which endow TiO2 with visible light photocatalytic activity for efficient PCP-Na degradation for the first time. - Highlights: • We demonstrate a novel visible light driven PEC system for efficient PCP-Na degradation. • The in-situ generated H2O2 reacts with TiO2 suspensions to form interfacial TiIV−OOH species. • TiIV−OOH species endow TiO2 with visible light photocatalytic activity. • ·O2− and ·OH are responsible for the dechlorination and mineralization of PCP-Na, respectively. - Abstract: In this study, we developed a novel photo-electrochemical catalytic oxidation wastewater treatment system by interacting the cathodic in-situ generated H2O2 with TiO2 suspension to form interfacial ≡TiIV−OOH species, which endowed the PEC system with superior efficiency for degrading sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na) under visible light irradiation at neutral pH. The apparent PCP-Na degradation rate constant of the PEC system was more than 10 times that of the electrochemical oxidation counterpart. In the PEC system, the interfacial ≡TiIV−OOH species injected electrons to the conduction band of TiO2 to initiate the activation of O2 and the in-situ generated H2O2 adsorbed on the surface of TiO2, lead to producing reactive oxygen species of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which were responsible for the dechlorination and mineralization of PCP-Na during the PEC process, respectively. The dosage of TiO2 catalyst and the current intensity applied on PCP-Na degradation were optimized. This study develops a high efficient PEC oxidation system for wastewater treatment and provides new insight into the role of cathodic in-situ generated H2O2 on PEC oxidation of PCP-Na with TiO2 under visible light irradiation

  16. Enhancement of social novelty discrimination by positive allosteric modulators at metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors: adolescent administration prevents adult-onset deficits induced by neonatal treatment with phencyclidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Nicholas E; Morisot, Nadège; Girardon, Sylvie; Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence

    2013-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGluR5), which physically and functionally interact with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, likewise control cognitive processes and have been proposed as targets for novel classes of antipsychotic agent. Since social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia and disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists like dizocilpine, we evaluated its potential modulation by mGluR5. Acute administration (0.63-40 mg/kg) of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) and ADX47273, reversed a delay-induced impairment in social novelty discrimination (SND) in adult rats. The action of CDPPB was blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (2.5-10 mg/kg), and was also expressed upon microinjection into frontal cortex (0.63-10 μg/side), but not striatum. Supporting an interrelationship between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors, enhancement of SND by CDPPB was blocked by dizocilpine (0.08 mg/kg) while, reciprocally, dizocilpine-induced impairment in SND was attenuated by CDPPB (10 mg/kg). The SND deficit elicited by post-natal administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg, days 7-11) was reversed by CDPPB or ADX47273 in adults at week 8. This phencyclidine-induced impairment in cognition emerged in adult rats from week 7 on, and chronic, pre-symptomatic treatment of adolescent rats with CDPPB over weeks 5-6 (10 mg/kg per day) prevented the appearance of SND deficits in adults until at least week 13. In conclusion, as evaluated by a SND procedure, mGluR5 PAMs promote social cognition via actions expressed in interaction with NMDA receptors and exerted in frontal cortex. MGluR5 PAMs not only reverse but also (when given during adolescence) prevent the emergence of cognitive impairment associated with a developmental model of schizophrenia.

  17. PCP-induced deficits in murine nest building activity: employment of an ethological rodent behavior to mimic negative-like symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Christian Spang; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Parachikova, Anna I; Plath, Niels

    2014-10-15

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by three symptom domains, positive (hallucinations, obsession), negative (social withdrawal, apathy, self-neglect) and cognitive (impairment in attention, memory and executive function). Whereas current medication ameliorates positive symptomatology, negative symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunctions remain untreated. The development of improved therapies for negative symptoms has proven particularly difficult, in part due to the inability of mimicking these in rodents. Here, we address the predictive validity of combining an ethologically well preserved behavior in rodents, namely nest building activity, with an established animal model of schizophrenia, the sub-chronic PCP model, for negative symptoms. Decline in rodent nesting activity has been suggested to mirror domains of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including social withdrawal, anhedonia and self-neglect, whereas repeated treatment with the NMDAR antagonist PCP induces and exacerbates schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents and human subjects. Using a back-translational approach of pharmacological validation, we tested the effects of two agents targeting the nicotinic α7 receptor (EVP-6124 and TC-5619) that were reported to exert some beneficial effect on negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Sub-chronic PCP treatment resulted in a significant nest building deficit in mice and treatment with EVP-6124 and TC-5619 reversed this PCP-induced deficit. In contrast, the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone remained ineffective in this assay. In addition, EVP-6124, TC-5619 and risperidone were tested in the Social Interaction Test (SIT), an assay suggested to address negative-like symptoms. Results obtained in SIT were comparable to results in the nest building test (NEST). Based on these findings, we propose nest building in combination with the sub-chronic PCP model as a novel approach to assess negative-like symptoms of schizophrenia

  18. PCP: P2P-based computing resource sharing and aggregation platform%基于P2P的计算资源共享与聚集平台PCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞辉

    2009-01-01

    构造了一个基于P2P的计算资源共享与聚集平台(PCP).PCP平台可以把Internet上空闲的异构计算资源高效地聚集起来,完成大规模的并行分布式计算.PCP平台具有对等性、易用性、高效率等特点.该平台的对等性得益于建立在对等网络JXTA协议上的应用层覆盖网络及节点组织机制;易用性得益于建立在JXTA协议通信库上的并行编程库,通过作业管理子系统来完成并行应用程序的提交管理与监控.模拟实验结果表明,PCP平台在处理主/从类型的并行应用问题上,吞吐量、加速比等方面有较好的性能.

  19. New designed device allows significant savings in PCP completions, in the Zuata Field, Junin block of the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, T.; Brunings, C. [PDVSA (Venezuela); Grisoni, J. [TIET, C.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the Zuata principal field in the Orinoco oil belt, PDVSA has implemented a new device named FMB-TIET. This device is a retrievable mechanically activated tool designed with a torque anchor which converts a tubular PCP into an insertable PCP. In the Zuata principal field, the insertable PCPs have been used since 2001 but, given the intent of PDVSA to increase its oil production rates and decrease its operational expenditure, the FMB-TIET device was tried in well ZPZ0047 in February, 2010. This implementation along with Flush by unit resulted in a considerable saving: the operational expenditure for replacement service was reduced by 63%, rig time was reduced by two days and production delays were also reduced by two days. The test of the FMB-TIET device in one well of the Orinoco oil belt has proved to be successful and PDVSA is planning to install twenty devices in the short term.

  20. Positive modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors reverses subcronic PCP-induced deficits in the novel object recognition task in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Damgaard; Larsen, Dorrit Bjerg; Hansen, Suzanne Lisbet;

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are a major clinical unmet need in schizophrenia. The psychotomimetic drug phencyclicline (PCP) is widely applied in rodents to mimic symptoms of schizophrenia, including cognitive deficits. Precious studies have shown that sub-chronic PCP induces an enduring episodic memory...... deficit in female Lister hooded rats in teh novel object recognition (NOR) task. Here we show that positive modulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) mediated glutamate transmission alleviates cognitive deficits induced by sub-chronic PCP treatment. Female Lister hooded rats were treated sub......-cbronic PCP treatment induced a significant decrease in the discrimination index (DI) and both ampakines CX546 and CX516 were able to reverse this diruption of object memory in rats in the novel object recognition task. These data suggest that positive AMPAR modulation may represent a mechanism for treatment...

  1. The analysis of PCP in renal transplantation recipients and HIV-infected patients%HIV阳性PCP及肾移植术后PCP患者诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦洋; 董宇超; 黄怡; 李强; 周道银

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨HIV阳性PCP及肾移植术后PCP患者的临床特点.方法 对我院呼吸科收治的4例HIV阳性PCP及4例肾移植术后PCP患者的临床症状、影像学、治疗经过进行总结分析.结果 7例患者为男性,1例为女性,发热、无痰性咳嗽及气促是常见的临床表现.影像学主要表现为两肺弥漫性磨玻璃影.肾移植术后PCP患者的确诊时间小于HIV阳性PCP患者(P<0.05)、CRP及CD+4T淋巴细胞绝对值均高于HIV阳性PCP患者(P>0.05).结论 肾移植患者在术后半年内容易发生PCP.早期诊断,及时TMP-SMZ治疗,对疾病的预防和控制有重要作用.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia ( PCP ) alter HIV-infected and renal transplantation patients. Methods The clinical data of four HIV-infected PCP and four renal transplantal PCP were analyzed, inclu ding the clinical profiles, immunological status, and chest radiological characteristics. Results Seven of the patients were men, and one was women. The most common clinical symptoms were level', cough without sputum and breathless, and the typical imaging finding was bi lateral diffuse ground glass opacities distributing in perihilar regions. Compared with HIV-infected patients, the number of white blood cell, neumophila and CD4+ T cell were higher in renal tiansplantal patients than that of HIV-infected ones with significant difference. Con clusion More and more PCP happens in HIV-negative patients because of the use of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive agents. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of TMP-SMZ are important in treating the disease.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of the Relative Transcript Levels of Four Chlorophenol Reductive Dehalogenase Genes in Desulfitobacterium hafniense PCP-1 Exposed to Chlorophenols ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bisaillon, Ariane; Beaudet, Réjean; Lépine, François; Villemur, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Relative to those of unexposed cultures, the transcript levels of the four CprA-type reductive dehalogenase genes (cprA2, cprA3, cprA4, and cprA5) in Desulfitobacterium hafniense PCP-1 were measured in cultures exposed to chlorophenols. In 2,4,6-trichlorophenol-amended cultures, cprA2 and cprA3 were upregulated, as was cprA5, but concomitantly with the appearance of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP). In 3,5-DCP-amended cultures, only cprA5 was upregulated. In pentachlorophenol-amended cultures grown f...

  3. 49 CFR 199.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812): marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, and phencyclidine (PCP). Refuse to submit, refuse, or refuse to take means behavior consistent...

  4. A PCP Pincer Ligand for Coordination Polymers with Versatile Chemical Reactivity: Selective Activation of CO2 Gas over CO Gas in the Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junpeng; Waggoner, Nolan W; Dunning, Samuel G; Steiner, Alexander; Lynch, Vincent M; Humphrey, Simon M

    2016-09-26

    A tetra(carboxylated) PCP pincer ligand has been synthesized as a building block for porous coordination polymers (PCPs). The air- and moisture-stable PCP metalloligands are rigid tetratopic linkers that are geometrically akin to ligands used in the synthesis of robust metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here, the design principle is demonstrated by cyclometalation with Pd(II) Cl and subsequent use of the metalloligand to prepare a crystalline 3D MOF by direct reaction with Co(II) ions and structural resolution by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Pd-Cl groups inside the pores are accessible to post-synthetic modifications that facilitate chemical reactions previously unobserved in MOFs: a Pd-CH3 activated material undergoes rapid insertion of CO2 gas to give Pd-OC(O)CH3 at 1 atm and 298 K. However, since the material is highly selective for the adsorption of CO2 over CO, a Pd-N3 modified version resists CO insertion under the same conditions.

  5. Effect of Se-PCP-B and ketamine on enduration of oxygen deficiency in mice%板党硒多糖与氯氨酮对小鼠低氧耐受性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志鑫

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Se-Polysaccharides in Codonopsis Pilosula from Banqiao(Se-PCP-B) on enduration of oxygen deficiency and amino acid in the brain tissue. Methods The mice were divided into four groups:control group, ketamine group,Se-PCP-B group and ketamine+Se-PCP-B group,respectively treated with 0.9% Nacl,ketamine,Se-PCP-B and ketamine+Se-PCP-B,then the endurance of oxygen deficiency experiment model was established. To observe the time of the endurance of oxygen deficiency, to measured the content of Glu, Asp, GABA and Gly in brain tissue. Results Compared with control group: the time of the endurance of oxygen deficiency obviously extended in the Se-PCP-B group, ketamine group and ketamine+ Se-PCP-B group mice(P<0.05); The content of Glu and Asp obviously decreased in the Se-PCP-B group and ketamine+Se-PCP-B group mice(P<0.05). Conclusion Se-PCP-B and ketamine can increase the enduration of oxygen deficiency in mice; Se PCP B can decrease the content of Glu and Asp also.%目的 探讨板党硒多糖对小鼠低氧耐受性和脑内氨基酸类递质含量的影响.方法 将小鼠随机分为4组:生理盐水对照组、氯氨酮组、板党硒多糖组和氯氨酮加板党硒多糖组,分别用生理盐水、氯氨酮、板党硒多糖和氯氨酮加板党硒多糖处理后,建立小鼠急性重复低氧耐受模型,观察各组小鼠低氧耐受时间和脑组织中谷氨酸(Glu)、天冬氨酸(Asp)、γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)和甘氨酸(Gly)含量的变化.结果 与生理盐水对照组比较,板党硒多糖组小鼠各次低氧耐受时间明显延长(P<0.05),脑组织中Glu和Asp含量明显减少(P<0.05),GABA和Gly无明显变化;氯氨酮组小鼠各次低氧耐受时间明显延长(P<0.01),脑组织中氨基酸无明显变化;氯氨酮加板党硒多糖组小鼠各次低氧耐受时间明显延长(P<0.01),且明显长于氯氨酮组和板党硒多糖组,脑组织中Glu和Asp含量明显减少(P<0.05),GABA

  6. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (Pfarm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

  7. Evaluation of the information and support services in the voluntary sector using a new P-C-P (pivotal-core-peripheral) attributes model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, G; Stewart, J

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes the development and use of a modified SERVQUAL research instrument for measuring the service quality of voluntary organizations from the perspective of their 'customers'. A series of focus group meetings were run with providers and users of the services to identify the appropriate dimensions of service quality. These were structured meetings led by the researchers addressing set questions in a group setting. The meeting enabled the identification of six different dimensions of service quality which neatly mapped on to the pivotal-core-peripheral (P-C-P attributes model [Philip and Hazlett, 1997]), which was developed after extensive research of existing models such as SERVQUAL. These dimensions were used to develop a questionnaire to assess service quality within the voluntary sector. The questionnaire was distributed to 2005 service users, representing eight voluntary organizations from across Northern Ireland. The research resulted in the development of a methodology and research instrument suitable for measuring service quality in the voluntary sector.

  8. Ni2+-Dependent and PsaR-Mediated Regulation of the Virulence Genes pcpA, psaBCA, and prtA in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Manzoor

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the transcriptional regulator PsaR regulates the expression of the PsaR regulon consisting of genes encoding choline binding protein (PcpA, the extracellular serine protease (PrtA, and the Mn2+-uptake system (PsaBCA, in the presence of manganese (Mn2+, zinc (Zn2+, and cobalt (Co2+. In this study, we explore the Ni2+-dependent regulation of the PsaR regulon. We have demonstrated by qRT-PCR analysis, metal accumulation assays, β-galactosidase assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that an elevated concentration of Ni2+ leads to strong induction of the PsaR regulon. Our ICP-MS data show that the Ni2+-dependent expression of the PsaR regulon is directly linked to high, cell-associated, concentration of Ni2+, which reduces the cell-associated concentration of Mn2+. In vitro studies with the purified PsaR protein showed that Ni2+ diminishes the Mn2+-dependent interaction of PsaR to the promoter regions of its target genes, confirming an opposite effect of Mn2+ and Ni2+ in the regulation of the PsaR regulon. Additionally, the Ni2+-dependent role of PsaR in the regulation of the PsaR regulon was studied by transcriptome analysis.

  9. Análise do PCP pelas lentes da complexidade Production planning and control analyzed from a complexity point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma análise do sistema de Planejamento e Controle da Produção (PCP de uma empresa agroindustrial avícola, pelas lentes da teoria da complexidade. O método adotado buscou verificar como as atividades de planejamento estratégico da produção, planejamento da produção, programação e controle são realizadas em um ambiente complexo. Trata-se de um estudo de caso de caráter qualitativo, que fez uso das técnicas de coleta de dados, entrevista e observação. A análise inovadora adotada permitiu o vislumbre de um processo no qual ocorrem interações, adaptações, aprendizado e coevolução. Foi possível evidenciar que, via de regra, são adotadas ações de single loop e feedback negativo, o que indica o emprego, majoritariamente, de um receituário linear e seqüencial. Ademais, autonomia, auto-organização, double loop e feedbacks positivos foram manifestados tão-somente em situações peculiares.A poultry farm was analyzed using the Complexity Theory to understand strategic activities of production, production planning, programming and control carried out in this complex environment. A qualitative case study made use of information collecting, interview and observation techniques. The innovative analysis adopted disclosed how interaction, adjustment, learning and group development took place. Single loop and negative feedback actions were usual for a predominantly linear and sequential approach. Further, autonomy, self-organization, double loop and positive feedback were also noted but only in exceptional situations.

  10. A phenotypic screen in zebrafish identifies a novel small-molecule inducer of ectopic tail formation suggestive of alterations in non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Gebruers

    Full Text Available Zebrafish have recently emerged as an attractive model for the in vivo bioassay-guided isolation and characterization of pharmacologically active small molecules of natural origin. We carried out a zebrafish-based phenotypic screen of over 3000 plant-derived secondary metabolite extracts with the goal of identifying novel small-molecule modulators of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways. One of the bioactive plant extracts identified in this screen - Jasminum gilgianum, an Oleaceae species native to Papua New Guinea - induced ectopic tails during zebrafish embryonic development. As ectopic tail formation occurs when BMP or non-canonical Wnt signaling is inhibited during the tail protrusion process, we suspected a constituent of this extract to act as a modulator of these pathways. A bioassay-guided isolation was carried out on the basis of this zebrafish phenotype, identifying para-coumaric acid methyl ester (pCAME as the active compound. We then performed an in-depth phenotypic analysis of pCAME-treated zebrafish embryos, including a tissue-specific marker analysis of the secondary tails. We found pCAME to synergize with the BMP-inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 in inducing ectopic tails, and causing convergence-extension defects in compound-treated embryos. These results indicate that pCAME may interfere with non-canonical Wnt signaling. Inhibition of Jnk, a downstream target of Wnt/PCP signaling (via morpholino antisense knockdown and pharmacological inhibition with the kinase inhibitor SP600125 phenocopied pCAME-treated embryos. However, immunoblotting experiments revealed pCAME to not directly inhibit Jnk-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun, suggesting additional targets of SP600125, and/or other pathways, as possibly being involved in the ectopic tail formation activity of pCAME. Further investigation of pCAME's mechanism of action will help determine this compound's pharmacological utility.

  11. In vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]N-(2-chloro-5-thiomethylphenyl)-N'- (3-methoxy-phenyl)-N'-methylguanidine ([{sup 11}C]GMOM) as a potential PET radiotracer for the PCP/NMDA receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rikki N. E-mail: rnw7@columbia.edu; Slifstein, Mark; Dumont, Filip; Zhao Jun; Chang, Raymond C.; Sudo, Yasuhiko; Sultana, Abida; Balter, Andrew; Laruelle, Marc

    2004-10-01

    The development of imaging methods to measure changes in NMDA ion channel activation would provide a powerful means to probe the mechanisms of drugs and device based treatments (e.g., ECT) thought to alter glutamate neurotransmission. To provide a potential NMDA/PCP receptor PET tracer, we synthesized the radioligand [{sup 11}C]GMOM (K{sub i} = 5.2 {+-}0.3 nM; log P = 2.34) and evaluated this ligand in vivo in awake male rats and isoflurane anesthetized baboons. In rats, the regional brain uptake of [{sup 11}C]GMOM ranged from 0.75{+-}0.13% ID/g in the medulla and pons to 1.15{+-}0.17% ID/g in the occipital cortex. MK801 (1 mg/kg i.v.) significantly reduced (24-28%) [{sup 11}C]GMOM uptake in all regions. D-serine (10 mg/kg i.v.) increased [{sup 11}C]GMOM %ID/g values in all regions (10-24%) reaching significance in the frontal cortex and cerebellum only. The NR2B ligand RO 25-6981 (10 mg/kg i.v.) reduced [{sup 11}C]GMOM uptake significantly (24-38%) in all regions except for the cerebellum and striatum. Blood activity was 0.11{+-}0.03 %ID/g in the controls group and did not vary significantly across groups. PET imaging in isoflurane-anesthetized baboons with high specific activity [{sup 11}C]GMOM provided fairly uniform regional brain distribution volume (V{sub T}) values (12.8-17.1 ml g{sup -1}). MK801 (0.5 mg/kg, i.v., n = 1, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.v., n = 1) did not significantly alter regional V{sub T} values, indicating a lack of saturable binding. However, the potential confounding effects associated with ketamine induction of anesthesia along with isoflurane maintenance must be considered because both agents are known to reduce NMDA ion channel activation. Future and carefully designed studies, presumably utilizing an optimized NMDA/PCP site tracer, will be carried out to further explore these hypotheses. We conclude that, even though [{sup 11}C]GMOM is not an optimized PCP site radiotracer, its binding is altered in vivo in awake rats as expected by modulation of

  12. Two-phase flow simulation inside a tubing string with artificial lift system PCP based; Simulacao do escoamento bifasico em uma coluna de producao com sistema de elevacao artificial por BCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, F.J.T.; Salazar, A.O.; Maitelli, A.L. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: francisco@dca.ufrn.br; andres@dca.ufrn.br; maitelli@dca.ufrn.br; Assmann, B.W. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios]. E-mail: benno@petrobras.com.br; Lima, J.A. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: jalima@dem.ufrn.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the present work is the computational simulation of the vertical two-phase flow within a tubing string in the production of oil equipped with a PCP artificial lift system (Progressive Cavity Pumping). By initially adopting the homogeneous model for the two-phase mixture (oil and gas), the fields of velocity and pressure are evaluated for prediction of pressure loss along the tubing, as well as the spatial and temporal behavior of typical parameters as gas-oil ratio, bubble pressure, solubility ratio, void fraction, gas and oil formation volume factors, among others. Prediction of these properties is an integral part of pressure loss calculations, as well as they constitute essential parameters for optimization of any artificial lift system. The numerical simulation is based on the transport equations (continuity and momentum equations) for a pseudo-fluid through the finite difference method, and the mixture properties are evaluated by employing the black-oil fluid model. Behavior analyses of the main flow variables are made and results for a typical artificial lift system PCP based are discussed. (author)

  13. Clinical analysis of 45 patients with geratic pancytopenia(PCP)%45例老年的全血细胞减少症的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵靖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology of the geratic pancytopenia( PCP). Methods Forty-five patients with geratic Pancytopenia collected from January 2009 to January 2013 in our hospital were selected and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among the 45 cases of geratic Pancytopenia, 31cases were non-hematologic systemic diseases, 12 cases were hematologic systemic diseases, and the other 2 cases were of other reasons. The clinical symptoms of the non-hematologic systemic diseases were mild or moderate leucopenia and anaemia, while moderate or severe decreases of three-line blood cells happened in the hematologic systemic diseases. There was a significant difference between the decrease degree of the three-line blood cells in two kinds of diseases(P<0. 05). Conclusion The geratic Pancytopenia should be paid attention to. Both hematologic systemic diseases and non-hematologic systemic diseases might be its causes. The pathogenesis should be analyzed so as to reduce the rate of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.%目的:探讨老年全血细胞减少症的病因分析。方法选取2009年1月至2013年1月在江苏省常州市第七人民医院治疗的45例老年全血细胞减少症患者作为研究对象,回顾性分析老年全血细胞减少症患者的的临床资料。结果45例老年全血细胞减少症患者中,非血液系统疾病31例,血液系统疾病12例,不明原因2例。非血液系统疾病白细胞减少和贫血多表现为轻、中度,血液系统疾病的白细胞和红细胞减少多为中、重度,血小板减少为极重度,三系血细胞减少程度差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应重视老年全血细胞减少的原因,除造血系统疾病的原因以外,非造血系统疾病占相当比例,分析其病因,以便减少其误诊率和漏诊率,进一步提高诊断准确率。

  14. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  15. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  16. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  17. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ..., marijuana, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), and certain amphetamines, opiates, barbiturates, and... accidents (50 FR 31508, August 2, 1985). If an accident meets FRA's criteria for post-accident testing (see... substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse...

  18. 14 CFR 120.109 - Types of drug testing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the employer's Substance Abuse Professional conducted in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR part... CFR part 40). (a) Pre-employment drug testing. (1) No employer may hire any individual for a safety..., cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines, or a metabolite of those drugs in the...

  19. 78 FR 14217 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ..., cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), and selected opiates, amphetamines, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines). This... (DEA) as controlled substances because of their potential for abuse or addiction. See the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention Substances Act of 1970 (CSA, 21...

  20. Expression of presynaptic markers in a neurodevelopmental animal model with relevance to schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anna S; Kaalund, Sanne Simone; Møller, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) to rat pups at postnatal day (PND) 7, 9, and 11 [neonatal PCP (neoPCP) model] induces cognitive deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Expression of presynaptic SNARE protein, synaptosomal-associated prot......Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) to rat pups at postnatal day (PND) 7, 9, and 11 [neonatal PCP (neoPCP) model] induces cognitive deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Expression of presynaptic SNARE protein, synaptosomal......-associated protein of 25 kDa (Snap25), has been shown to be downregulated in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia. The present study was designed to investigate the long-term effects of neoPCP administration on expression of presynaptic markers altered in schizophrenia. Using radioactive in....... Stereological estimation of the number of neurons and volume was used to exclude potential bias in cell numbers. A significant reduction in the expression of Snap25 in the hippocampal CA4 region was observed in adult neoPCP rats (PND 80, P...

  1. A chord recognition method based on joint feature of MFCC and PCP%一种基于MFCC与PCP联合特征的和弦识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锵; 秦媛媛

    2015-01-01

    结合乐理理论和信号处理理论,针对传统和弦识别仅考虑音高特性的音级轮廓特征PCP(pitch class profile)造成正确识别率较低的问题,提出一种以反映听觉特性的MFCC(mel frequency cepstral coefficent)与PCP的联合特征和稀疏表示分类器(sparse representation classification,SRC)的和弦识别方法。通过对两特征矢量的叠加构成新的和弦特征,然后利用SRC进行和弦识别。实验结果表明,与传统方法的识别率相比,本方法的识别率大幅提高。%Combined with music and signal process theory, the paper proposes a new chord recognition approach which utilizes the MFCC (Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficent) reflecting auditory perception properties jointly with the traditional PCP (Pitch Class Profile) as the combined feature and SRC (Sparse Representation classification) to improve the recognition rate. The experimental results show that the recognition rata of the new method is much better in average than that of the traditional methods.

  2. To centralize or not to centralize?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Andrew; Kunisch, Sven; Müller-Stewens, Günter

    2011-01-01

    The CEO's dilemma-were the gains of centralization worth the pain it could cause?-is a perennial one. Business leaders dating back at least to Alfred Sloan, who laid out GM's influential philosophy of decentralization in a series of memos during the 1920s, have recognized that badly judged centralization can stifle initiative, constrain the ability to tailor products and services locally, and burden business divisions with high costs and poor service.1 Insufficient centralization can deny bus...

  3. Differential control of dopamine ascending pathways by serotonin2B receptor antagonists: New opportunities for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Haddjeri, Nasser; Rovera, Renaud; Vallée, Monique; Drago, Filippo; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Spampinato, Umberto

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that the central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) could be an interesting pharmacological target for treating neuropsychiatric disorders related to dopamine (DA) dysfunction, such as schizophrenia. Thus, the present study was aimed at characterizing the role of 5-HT2BRs in the control of ascending DA pathway activity. Using neurochemical, electrophysiological and behavioral approaches, we assessed the effects of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on in vivo DA outflow in DA-innervated regions, on mesencephalic DA neuronal firing, as well as in behavioral tests predictive of antipsychotic efficacy and tolerability, such as phencyclidine (PCP)-induced deficit in novel object recognition (NOR) test, PCP-induced hyperlocomotion and catalepsy. Both RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) and LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) increased DA outflow in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). RS 127445, devoid of effect in the striatum, decreased DA outflow in the nucleus accumbens, and potentiated haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced increase in mPFC DA outflow. Also, RS 127445 decreased the firing rate of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area, but had no effect in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Finally, both RS 127445 and LY 266097 reversed PCP-induced deficit in NOR test, and reduced PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, without inducing catalepsy. These results demonstrate that 5-HT2BRs exert a differential control on DA pathway activity, and suggest that 5-HT2BR antagonists could represent a new class of drugs for improved treatment of schizophrenia, with an ideal profile of effects expected to alleviate cognitive and positive symptoms, without eliciting extrapyramidal symptoms. PMID:27260325

  4. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  5. Central and peripheral demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Man Mohan Mehndiratta; Natasha Singh Gulati

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to ad...

  6. Hollow sucker rod for PCP systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasante, J.A.; Ernst, H.A. [Tenaris Research and Development, Campana (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described a new hollow sucker rod technology designed for use with progressive cavity pumps (PCPs). The technology provided a high torque load to yielding ratio, as well as high backspin resistance and pumping rates. The technology was also designed to allow for the injection of other fluids such as corrosion inhibitors or diluents via its hollow sucker rod. Torsion, axial, and bending load stress analyses were conducted to determine critical zones in a top hollow rod connection at the well head and a bottom hollow rod connection at the well bottom. The study showed that the ratio between the equivalent stress and ultimate tensile stress was a function of torsional load. Backspin analyses were conducted to determine the release of energy accumulated in the hollow rod and traditional pumping system. The evaluation showed that the elastic torsional deformation was lower in the hollow rod system, while backspin resistance was higher. Multiple make and break operations were conducted to determine torsional load values. Results from the study were used to optimize the hollow rod technology. It was concluded that the hollow sucker rod system is now being used in various configurations at sites around the world. 8 tabs., 14 figs.

  7. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  8. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Collin Blattner; Dennis C Polley; Frank Ferritto; Elston, Dirk M

    2013-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as “hot comb alopecia,” “follicular degeneration syndrome,” “pseudopelade” in African Americans and “central elliptical pseudopelade” in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  9. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  10. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.B. van der Cruijsen; S.C.W. Eijffinger; L. Hoogduin

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  11. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.B. van der Cruijsen; S.C.W. Eijffinger; L.H. Hoogduin

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  12. Central pontine myelinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from one nerve to another. The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is a quick change in the body's sodium ... The nerve damage caused by central pontine myelinolysis is usually ... The disorder can cause serious long-term (chronic) disability.

  13. Central Diffraction at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Lämsä, Jerry W

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  14. Central diffraction at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemsae, J W; Orava, R, E-mail: risto.orava@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Insitute of Physics, and Division of Elementary Particle Physics, Department of Physics, PL 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-02-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  15. Organizational centralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, hospitals have a radiology department, where images are taken and interpretation occurs. Teleradiology makes it possible to capture images in one location and transmit them elsewhere for interpretation. Organizational centralization of radiology interpretations is therefore of interest. Empirical data have been collected in qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons with substantial experience with picture archiving and communication systems and teleradiology, from 12 departments of radiology in Norway. The response rate was 90%. A total of 21 theoretically possible types of centralization of image interpretation were identified, representing combinations of three categories of geographical centralization, and seven categories of centralization according to function. Various advantages and disadvantages of centralization were identified. Organizational changes may be decisive for the future of teleradiology, but it may be wise to plan for change in small steps, since we know little about how broad future organizational changes based on teleradiology will be, or what will decide how far particular organizations will go. PMID:16438776

  16. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  17. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  18. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  19. Central Data Exchange

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Central Data Exchange (CDX) enables fast, efficient and more accurate environmental data submissions from state and local governments, industry and tribes to...

  20. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  1. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  2. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  3. Centralization and political accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Jean; Lockwood, Ben

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we abstract from the usual gains and costs of decentralization (e.g. preference matching, spillovers and economies of scale). Instead we compare the political accountability of decentralized governments relative to centralized ones when there is a risk of "bad" governance. We study both the selection and incentive effects of accountability. A key aspect of centralization is to make the politician answerable to multiple constituencies subject to a common budget constraint. Our ma...

  4. Central Bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...

  5. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  6. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  7. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  8. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  9. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  10. Hale Central Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  11. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  12. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  13. ORIC central region calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  14. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.

  15. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  16. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744

  17. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    2016-01-01

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they a

  18. Central areolar choroidal dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zonneveld-Vrieling, M.N.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, follow-up data and molecular genetic background in a large group of patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred three patients with CACD from the Netherlands. METHODS

  19. Métodos de auxílio multicritério à decisão aplicados a problemas de PCP: mapeamento da produção em periódicos publicados no Brasil Multicriteria decision aid methods applied to PPC problems: a mapping of papers published in Brazilian journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Salvador Sanchez Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estabelecer um mapeamento da produção científica divulgada em importantes periódicos publicados no Brasil sobre a aplicação de Métodos de Auxílio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD à modelagem de problemas de Planejamento e Controle da Produção. O mapeamento contemplou 32 artigos, que foram selecionados criteriosamente, tendo como base a lista de periódicos científicos oferecida no Scielo e em importantes sociedades científicas brasileiras no âmbito da Engenharia de Produção. Os resultados permitiram indicar, entre outros aspectos, os periódicos que mais publicam neste contexto, os métodos de AMD mais usados nesta interface, os setores de produção nos quais as aplicações ocorreram e os tópicos de PCP mais abordados. Também foram destacados os aspectos de PCP que ainda carecem de estudos que envolvam métodos multicritério.The objective of this study is to map the Brazilian scientific production based on Brazilian journal publications on the implementation of Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA to model Production Planning and Control problems. It consisted of 32 papers that were systematically selected from journals indexed in the Scielo database and also from a list of journals suggested by major Brazilian Industrial Engineering research societies. The results revealed, among other aspects, the journals that publish the most on this topic, the most often used MCDA methods in this interface, the production sectors in which the applications took place, and the most commonly discussed PPC topics. This paper also highlights the PPC aspects that need further research including MCDA methods.

  20. Forward central jets correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The azimuthal correlation between forward and central jets has been measured in pp collisions with the CMS detector at the LHC at the centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The forward jet is required to be reconstructed in the hadronic forward calorimeter, within the pseudo-rapidity 3.2t>35 GeV. The measurement of the azimuthal angle between the jets is performed for different separations in pseudo-rapidity between the jets, with the largest separation being 7.5 units. The measurement is repeated for two subsamples of events, one in which an additional jet is required between the forward and the central jet, and one where the additional jet is vetoed. The measurement is compared to several different Monte Carlo models and tunes.

  1. Central simple Poisson algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai; XU; Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  2. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  3. Measuring Central Bank Communication:

    OpenAIRE

    David Lucca; Francesco Trebbi

    2008-01-01

    We present a new automated, objective and intuitive scoring method to measure the content of central bank communication about future policy rate moves. We apply the methodology to statements released by the Federal Open Market Commitee (FOMC) after monetary policy meetings. Using high-frequency financial data, we find that yields on short-term risk-free nominal rates respond both to changes in policy rates and the content of the statements, whereas, medium and long-term rates only respond to ...

  4. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  5. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...

  6. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.

    2016-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...

  7. Centrality Measures in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Francis; Tebaldi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We show that although the prominent centrality measures in network analysis make use of different information about nodes' positions, they all process that information in an identical way: they all spring from a common family that are characterized by the same simple axioms. In particular, they are all based on a monotonic and additively separable treatment of a statistic that captures a node's position in the network.

  8. Psychosis: Atypical Limbic Epilepsy versus Limbic Hyperexcitability with Onset at Puberty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Frank R.; Hendren, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP), Ketamine (Special K) and MK-801 are non-competitive NMDA antagonists that produce acute psychosis in humans. The psychosis produced by these psychomimetic drugs is indistinguishable from schizophrenia and includes both positive and negative symptoms. This drug-induced psychosis occurs after puberty in humans. This brief review argues that this psychosis is an atypical form of limbic epilepsy based upon MK-801 induced spike-and-wave activity in rats and based upon increase...

  9. Central effects of fingolimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  10. [Central anticholinergic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Urretavizcaya, P; Cenoz Osinaga, J C; Jáuregui Garía, M L; Gállego Culleré, J

    1991-10-01

    Two new cases of anticolinergic central syndrome are described. The first case, a 8 year old girl, suffered a severe encefalopathy after topical application of mydriatic cholirio as an aid in a rutine study of ocular refraction. The second case, 67 year old man presented a severe neurological picture after accidental intake of a silvester plantground (Atropa belladonna). His neurological condition returned quickly to normal whith administration of physostigmine. Differents aspects of the etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis are discussed with special emphasis in patients with delirium or acute confusional states. Finally, attention is drawn in the necessity of a properly use of anticholinergic drugs overcoat in aged or children.

  11. Flooding in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax m...... manipulation instrument -, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  13. en los pivotes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Roque Rodés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión y comentarios sobre las ventajas y limitantes del empleo del LEPA (Low Enery Precision Aplication en los sistemas de riego de pivotes centrales. Estos sistemas o filosofía de manejo del agua para condiciones de escasez o mala calidad del líquido es una alternativa viable para la producción de alimentos. Introducida en la década del 80 en las planicies del sur de Texas, donde la alta evaporación del agua y la necesidad de regar grandes áreas con pivotes centrales obligaba a la búsqueda de una alternativa para incrementar al máximo la eficiencia de aplicación del riego. Aún en fase de estudio e introducción en Cuba para áreas específicas, puede ser una solución de incremento de los rendimientos de los cultivos, empleando menos agua y aguas con calidad limitada

  14. Central Sumatra enjoys success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsosantiko, A.

    1977-05-02

    The Sihapas group contains the most prolific oil producing zones in the Central Sumatra Basin. It represents the transgressive, coarse clastic sequence deposited during the early Miocene. Some of these sandstone grade laterally into siltstones and shales of the Telisa Formation, believed to be a major source of rock for Central Sumatra oil. Recent exploratory wells drilled between the mountain front and coastal plain areas have provided more data for stratigraphic studies. These have resulted in subdivision of the lower Miocene transgressive sequence into discrete rock-stratigraphic units. The former Sihapas Formation has subsequently been elevated to group rank and now consists of several formations with the Duri Formation as the uppermost sand unit. This study covers Caltex's areas of operation, which includes the area between the Kampar River of the south, the Barumum River to the north, the Malacca Straits to the east, and the Barisan Mt. to the west. A basic map shows the regional scene, while a stratigraphic chart shows the lithology.

  15. The role of the central histaminergic system on schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Chihiro

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia resistant to treatments with D(2) antagonists is thought to have the changes of extradopaminergic systems. In addition, histamine has been suggested to be a neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain that regulates many brain functions. We have recently found evidence of the role of brain histamine in schizophrenia in basic and clinical studies. Methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, which has been well established as the animal model of schizophrenia, induced the enhanced histamine release, and histamine agonists inhibited the development of behavioral sensitization. As another animal model of schizophrenia, phencyclidine also increased the histamine release. In clinical studies, the levels of N-tele-methylhistamine, a major brain histamine metabolite, were elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenics. Moreover, H(1) receptor binding sites decreased in schizophrenics. Many atypical antipsychotics also increased histamine turnovers. Therefore, the dysfunction of the histamine neuron system may participate in the extradopaminergic brain dysfunction of schizophrenia, and histamine agents may improve the refractory schizophrenia.

  16. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  17. Centralizer for well casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an improved centralizer for centering a well casing in a wellbore. It comprises: a first anchor adapted to fit around and be securely fixed to the casing, the first anchor being threaded on its external surface; a first collar adapted to fit around and be threadedly engaged by the first anchor; a second collar adapted to fit around and free to rotate and move axially with respect to the casing; a second anchor adapted to fit around and be securely fixed to the casing spaced from the first anchor and comprising a bearing surface for restraining axial movement of the second collar along the casing; and metallic straps extending between the first collar and the second collar, and being securely fixed to each

  18. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  19. Central solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  20. Flooding in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  1. UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  2. Hope for Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cities surrounding Changsha and Wuhan in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River will ally to form a new pilot zone to boost regional economic development China’s fourth pilot zone for compre- hensive and coordinated economic reform will soon debut in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River,open- ing a new area to attract foreign investment. The application has been submitted to the State Council for approval. The pilot zone will include two clusters of cities in central China:One consists of Wuhan,capital of Hubei Province,and eight surrounding cities in Hubei,and the other is composed of Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,three major cities in Hunan Province.

  3. Sucker rod centralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  4. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation trends during 1961-2010 in Hubei province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranghui; Li, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is an important climatic parameter, and its variability severely affects regional hydrological processes and water resource management. In order to explore the changing spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation-related indices, including precipitation amounts indices, extreme precipitation indices, and precipitation concentration indices, in Hubei province, central China during 1961-2010, several precipitation-related indices series were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test, and inverse distance weighted interpolation method in this paper. The results are as follows: (1) A clear south-north gradient is apparent in the spatial distribution of the majority of precipitation-related indices, while the distribution of other indices (i.e., CDD, PCD, and PCP) is just the opposite. Most part of Hubei province can experience mixed positive and negative trends in precipitation-related indices. (2) The majority of precipitation-related indices exhibit an increasing trend, but most of which are not significant. July has the largest positive trend, with a regional average of 14.76 mm/decade. As for extreme precipitation indices, there exist large variations in Hubei, especially in R95pTOT. Besides, no obvious trends are shown in precipitation concentration indices. (3) With the exception of consecutive dry days (CDD), most of extreme precipitation indices are strongly correlated with annual mean precipitation (AMP) in Hubei. And the extreme precipitation indices are well correlated with each other except CDD and consecutive wet days (CWD). For six precipitation-related indices (i.e., SDII, RX1day, RX5day, R95pTOT R99pTOT, and PCD), there are significant positive relationships with Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High (NHSH) but significant negative relationships with Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex (NHPV). Furthermore, the majority of precipitation-related indices have significant negative correlations with East Asian summer monsoon

  5. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  6. Central pontine myelinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, M A; King, M; Burns, R J

    1999-03-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) was initially associated with alcoholism. Subsequently other factors, including rapid reversal of hyponatraemia and extreme serum hypoosmolality associated with severe burns, have been identified as other important factors in its pathogenesis. Extra-pontine lesions have also been described. CPM may be found at autopsy, either having been overlooked during life or as an incidental finding. Its precise incidence is not known but the ability to diagnose it during life has been helped by modern neuroimaging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain stem. In the past the prognosis for CPM was thought to be invariably fatal. It is clear now that with the greater general awareness of the disorder and the ability to diagnose it during life that some degree of recovery is possible. However, the number who do recover and the degree of recovery is not known. We report a 40-year-old man who developed CPM presenting with quadriparesis and inability to speak and swallow. There were risk factors for CPM and the diagnosis was confirmed by MRI scanning. He made a complete recovery although he remains ataxic. We are reporting this case as we believe it is important to make clinicians aware of the potential for recovery of CPM. While no specific treatment has been shown to influence the degree and rate of recovery of the demyelination, the fact that the quadriplegia and bulbar paralysis can recover fully is of considerable importance. In particular, it means that when the diagnosis is made, complete and vigorous nursing and medical care is warranted. PMID:18639140

  7. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  8. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  9. y Banca Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel García Banchs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las teorías monetarias modernas, ortodoxas y heterodoxas, han pasado por alto el hecho de que posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial el mundo quedó dividido entre economías emisoras y receptoras de reservas, pasando el sistema monetario internacional desde entonces a ser completamente asimétrico. De allí que, desde el punto de vista teórico, señalemos la necesidad de tomar en cuenta si las economías emiten o no una moneda de reserva internacional, pues ello explicaría la existencia de diversas prácticas monetarias a nivel mundial. Este trabajo propone, y calcula, indicadores basados en datos provenientes de los balances de activos y pasivos de quince bancos centrales pertenecientes a Norteamérica, Suramérica, Europa y Asia. Los hallazgos con respecto a las diversas estructuras de activos y pasivos confirman la hipótesis acerca de la presencia de tales asimetrías. Se infiere en consecuencia que la política monetaria es menos flexible pero más influyente en las economías receptoras de reservas, y a la vez más flexible pero menos influyente en las economías emisoras. En pocas palabras, la exogeneidad de la tasa de interés de corto plazo es más débil en el caso de las economías receptoras de reservas las cuales se ven obligadas a acumular divisas y a procurar la estabilidad del tipo de cambio, debido a que sus monedas locales no son aceptadas en el exterior. Así, aunque la oferta crediticia es endógena en esas economías, las mismas no han sido capaces de librarse aún de la necesidad de mantener reservas monetarias en divisas extranjeras

  10. Central bank independence and ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Farvaque, Etienne; Héricourt, Jérôme; Lagadec, Gaël

    2008-01-01

    We contrast the influence of demography and central bank independence on inflation. The recent demographic trends in developed countries are shown to weight more on inflation than central bank independence, while the contrary stands for the period from 1960 to 1979.

  11. Pharmacological Investigations of the Dissociative 'Legal Highs' Diphenidine, Methoxphenidine and Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Jason; Kang, Heather; Colestock, Tristan; Morris, Hamilton; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Collingridge, Graham L; Lodge, David; Halberstadt, Adam L; Brandt, Simon D; Adejare, Adeboye

    2016-01-01

    1,2-Diarylethylamines including lanicemine, lefetamine, and remacemide have clinical relevance in a range of therapeutic areas including pain management, epilepsy, neurodegenerative disease and depression. More recently 1,2-diarylethylamines have been sold as 'legal highs' in a number of different forms including powders and tablets. These compounds are sold to circumvent governmental legislation regulating psychoactive drugs. Examples include the opioid MT-45 and the dissociative agents diphenidine (DPH) and 2-methoxy-diphenidine (2-MXP). A number of fatal and non-fatal overdoses have been linked to abuse of these compounds. As with many 'legal highs', little is known about their pharmacology. To obtain a better understanding, the effects of DPH, 2-MXP and its 3- and 4-MeO- isomers, and 2-Cl-diphenidine (2-Cl-DPH) were investigated using binding studies at 46 central nervous system receptors including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine, and sigma receptors as well as the reuptake transporters for serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. Reuptake inhibition potencies were measured at serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporters. NMDAR antagonism was established in vitro using NMDAR-induced field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) experiments. Finally, DPH and 2-MXP were investigated using tests of pre-pulse inhibition of startle (PPI) in rats to determine whether they reduce sensorimotor gating, an effect observed with known dissociative drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine. The results suggest that these 1,2-diarylethylamines are relatively selective NMDAR antagonists with weak off-target inhibitory effects on dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. DPH and 2-MXP significantly inhibited PPI. DPH showed greater potency than 2-MXP, acting with a median effective dose (ED50) of 9.5 mg/kg, which is less potent than values reported for other commonly abused dissociative drugs such as PCP and

  12. SQUARE AND RHOMBUS CENTRAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the flat central configurations of bodies using the characteristic set method. We completely solve two special cases of four planets, namely,the square and the rhombus. For the square case, we obtain that a square is a central configuration only in the case where the masses are equal and there exactly are two different square central configurations determined by the mass and the angular velocity; for the rhombus case, we obtain that if a rhombus is a central configuration, then the masses of the diagonal vertices must be equal. Furthermore, there are two or three or four different rhombus central configurations determined by the masses and the angular velocity.

  13. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  14. Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke

    This paper brings into question whether information systems should be centralized or decentralized in order to provide greater support for different business processes. During the last century companies and organizations have used different approaches for centralization and decentralization; a simple answer to the question does not exist. This paper provides a survey of the evolution of centralized and decentralized approaches, mainly in a Nordic perspective. Based on critical reflections on the situation in the end of the century we can discuss what we can learn from history to achieve alignment between centralized and decentralized systems and the business structure. The conclusion is that theories, management and practice for decisions on centralization or decentralization of information systems must be improved. A conscious management and control of centralization /decentralization of IT support is a vital question in the company or the organization, and this is not a task that can be handled only by IT-specialists. There is a need for business oriented IT management of centralization/decentralization.

  15. Betweenness centrality profiles in trees

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Benjamin; Turan, Gyorgy

    2016-01-01

    Betweenness centrality of a vertex in a graph measures the fraction of shortest paths going through the vertex. This is a basic notion for determining the importance of a vertex in a network. The k-betweenness centrality of a vertex is defined similarly, but only considers shortest paths of length at most k. The sequence of k-betweenness centralities for all possible values of k forms the betweenness centrality profile of a vertex. We study properties of betweenness centrality profiles in trees. We show that for scale-free random trees, for fixed k, the expectation of k-betweenness centrality strictly decreases as the index of the vertex increases. We also analyze worst-case properties of profiles in terms of the distance of profiles from being monotone, and the number of times pairs of profiles can cross. This is related to whether k-betweenness centrality, for small values of k, may be used instead of having to consider all shortest paths. Bounds are given that are optimal in order of magnitude. We also pre...

  16. Central chemoreceptors: locations and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattie, Eugene; Li, Aihua

    2012-01-01

    Central chemoreception traditionally refers to a change in ventilation attributable to changes in CO2/H(+) detected within the brain. Interest in central chemoreception has grown substantially since the previous Handbook of Physiology published in 1986. Initially, central chemoreception was localized to areas on the ventral medullary surface, a hypothesis complemented by the recent identification of neurons with specific phenotypes near one of these areas as putative chemoreceptor cells. However, there is substantial evidence that many sites participate in central chemoreception some located at a distance from the ventral medulla. Functionally, central chemoreception, via the sensing of brain interstitial fluid H(+), serves to detect and integrate information on (i) alveolar ventilation (arterial PCO2), (ii) brain blood flow and metabolism, and (iii) acid-base balance, and, in response, can affect breathing, airway resistance, blood pressure (sympathetic tone), and arousal. In addition, central chemoreception provides a tonic "drive" (source of excitation) at the normal, baseline PCO2 level that maintains a degree of functional connectivity among brainstem respiratory neurons necessary to produce eupneic breathing. Central chemoreception responds to small variations in PCO2 to regulate normal gas exchange and to large changes in PCO2 to minimize acid-base changes. Central chemoreceptor sites vary in function with sex and with development. From an evolutionary perspective, central chemoreception grew out of the demands posed by air versus water breathing, homeothermy, sleep, optimization of the work of breathing with the "ideal" arterial PCO2, and the maintenance of the appropriate pH at 37°C for optimal protein structure and function.

  17. Action of hallucinogens on raphe-evoked dorsal root potentials (DRPs) in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, A A; Anderson, E G

    1986-02-01

    The dorsal root potential (DRP) evoked by stimulation of the inferior central nucleus (ICN) of the cat is affected by administration of a variety of hallucinogenic agents. It has been previously shown that a single low dose of LSD is unique in that it potentiates this DRP, while injections of 5-methoxy-N,N- dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT), ketamine or phencyclidine (PCP) inhibit its production. Tolerance develops to the facilitatory effect of low doses of LSD on the DRP, but not to the inhibitory action of 5-MeODMT. Repeated injections of ketamine every 30 minutes also fail to produce tachyphylaxis to the inhibitory effect of this dissociative anesthetic. The raphe-evoked DRP is a long latency potential that is inhibited by a wide variety of putative serotonin antagonists and has therefore been traditionally thought to be mediated by serotonin. However, in light of the inability of either tryptophan or fluoxetine to potentiate this DRP, and the resistance of this DRP to blockade by parachlorophenylalanine, reserpine or intrathecally administered 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, it appears that this potential may in fact be mediated, at least in part, by a non-serotonergic transmitter. PMID:3952125

  18. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative.

  19. Inmunoterapias para las adicciones a las drogas Immunotherapies for Drug Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Iván D.

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapies in the form of vaccines (active immunization) or monoclonal antibodies (passive immunization) appear safe and a promising treatment approaches for some substance-related disorders. The mechanism of action of the antibody therapy is by preventing the rapid entry of drugs of abuse into the central nervous system. In theory, immunotherapies could have several clinical applications. Monoclonal antibodies may be useful to treat drug overdoses and prevent the neurotoxic effects of drugs by blocking the access of drugs to the brain. Vaccines may help to prevent the development of addiction, initiate drug abstinence in those already addicted to drugs, or prevent drug use relapse by reducing the pharmacological effects and rewarding properties of the drugs of abuse on the brain. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies has been investigated for cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and phencyclidine (PCP). Active immunization with vaccines has been studied for cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine. These immunotherapies seem promising therapeutic tools and are at different stages in their development before they can be approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of substance-related disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the current immunotherapy approaches with emphasis on the risks and benefits for the treatment of these disorders. PMID:18551223

  20. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  1. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors

  2. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  3. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  4. Audit Committees in Central Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Sullivan; Marie-Therese Camilleri; Tonny Lybek

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the tasks and design of audit committees, increasingly recommended as a way to strengthen financial accountability and good central bank governance. It outlines the motivations for the establishment of audit committees in commercial corporations and public sector entities, and explains how audit committees interact with other governance bodies within a central bank. The paper focuses on the functions of an audit committee, since the terminology of the governance structure i...

  5. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  6. Rogoff's 'Conservative' Central Banker Restored

    OpenAIRE

    Herrendorf, Berthold; Lockwood, Ben

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows that delegation of monetary policy to a weight-conservative central banker is optimal, although the government can also use an inflation contract, an employment target, an inflation target, or any combination of these, to control the central banker. The key feature of our model is a stochastic inflation bias, arising when wage-setters receive some information about a supply shock prior to signing nominal wage contracts. Weight-conservatism is shown to be desirable if the stoc...

  7. Congenital nystagmus and central hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaert, Nele; Braat, Elke; de Zegher, Francis

    2015-01-01

    We observed a male newborn with bilateral nystagmus and central hypothyroidism without hypoprolactinemia due to a deletion of chromosome band Xq26.1q26.2, containing FRMD7 and IGSF1. These two loss-of function mutations are known to cause, respectively, congenital nystagmus and the ensemble of central hypothyroidism, hypoprolactinemia and testicular enlargement. These latter two features may not yet be present in early life.

  8. Nicotine blocks apomorphine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle in rats: possible involvement of central nicotinic α7 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Suemaru, Katsuya; Yasuda, Kayo; Umeda, Kenta; Araki, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Choshi, Tominari; Hibino, Satoshi; Gomita, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine has been reported to normalize deficits in auditory sensory gating in the cases of schizophrenia, suggesting an involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in attentional abnormalities. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the effects of nicotine on the disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response induced by apomorphine or phencyclidine in rats.Over the dose range tested, nicotine (0.05–1 mg kg−1, s.c.) did not disrup...

  9. Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Soil Organic Matter in the Mixed Plantations of Alder and Cypress in the Hilly Areas of Central Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Pengfei; ZHU Bo; YANG Yuanli; WANG Xiaoguo

    2006-01-01

    The investigation was conducted on the spatial and temporal distributions of soil organic mater (SOM) in the mixed plantations of alder (Aluns cremastogyne) and cypress (Cupressus funebris) (MPAC),which distributed in the hilly areas of central Sichuan Basin (HACSB). The results show that:① the spatial distribution of SOM among different sites at the same age are not significant before 15-year-old, but significant at 20-year-old, and not significant again after 25-year-old; ② the SOM contents in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm layers increase sharply from 10- to 15-year-old, and decline gradually from 15- to 30-year-old; the SOM contents of the 30-year-old PCP were 80.38% and 78.42% higher than that of the 10-year-old, but 29.16% and 53.37% lower than that of 15-year-old in the 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm layers, respectively. The decrease of SOM contents would lead to the degradation of soil fertility and the decline of forest productivity.

  10. Redução do lead time e entregas no prazo em pequenas e médias empresas que fabricam sob encomenda: a abordagem Worload Control (WLC para o Planejamento e Controle da Produção (PCP Lead time reduction and improved tardiness performance in small and medium sized Make-to-Order Companies: the Workload Control (WLC approach, a solution for Production Planning and Control (PPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Thurer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A maior parte da literatura a respeito de Planejamento e Controle da Produção (PCP é focada em estudar e desenvolver aplicativos para grandes empresas, principalmente de ambiente repetitivo. Nesse contexto, são as poucas as alternativas para o PCP para pequenas e médias empresas que fabricam sob encomenda, as quais têm papel fundamental na atual economia brasileira. Em resposta a essa demanda, o presente trabalho objetiva apresentar uma abordagem para o PCP denominada Controle de Carga (Workload Control - WLC. Essa abordagem é reconhecidamente um método com potencial para trazer melhorias no lead time, no estoque em processo e na pontualidade de entregas em ambientes que fabricam sob encomenda (Make-To-Order - MTO. Primeiramente, o artigo apresenta a abordagem WLC, revisando e discutindo os principais assuntos tratados pela literatura internacional na área. Após isso, o desempenho do WLC é avaliado por meio de simulação. Os resultados mostram o potencial de melhorias no lead time e nas ordens em atraso que o WLC pode trazer a pequenas e médias empresas que fabricam sob encomenda. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho pretende contribuir tanto para a teoria a respeito de tal abordagem, praticamente introduzindo tal assunto na literatura brasileira, como para a prática, fornecendo e demonstrando, por meio de simulação, aos gerentes de PCP, uma alternativa para suas empresas trabalharem rumo a baixos lead times e de acordo com modernos paradigmas de produção, tais como o Lean Manufacturing e o Quick Response Manufacturing.The majority of Production Planning and Control (PPC literature is focused on the study and development of solutions for large companies, especially in repetitive environments. Therefore, there are few specific PPC solutions available in the literature for small and medium sized companies (SMC operating in a Make -to-Order (MTO environment. This paper presents the Workload Control (WLC, which is a useful PPC approach

  11. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  12. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  13. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  14. Coverage centralities for temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex by the proportion of (normal) vertex pairs, the quickest routes between which can (or should) use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bo...

  15. Pathophysiology of central sleep apneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Adam B; Patil, Susheel P

    2016-05-01

    The transition from wake to sleep is accompanied by a host of physiologic changes, which result in major alterations in respiratory control and may result in sleep-related breathing disorders. The central sleep apneas are a group of sleep-related breathing disorders that are characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow reduction or cessation due to a temporary reduction or absence of central respiratory drive. The fundamental hallmark of central sleep apnea (CSA) disorders is the presence of ventilatory control instability; however, additional mechanisms play a role in one or more specific manifestations of CSA. CSA may manifest during conditions of eucapnia/hypocapnia or chronic hypercapnia, which is a useful clinical classification that lends understanding to the underlying pathophysiology and potential therapies. In this review, an overview of normal breathing physiology is provided, followed by a discussion of pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote CSA and the mechanisms that are specific to different manifestations of CSA. PMID:26782104

  16. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of central clearing of over-the-counter (OTC) transactions on counterparty exposures in a market with OTC transactions across several asset classes with heterogeneous characteristics. The impact of introducing a central counterparty (CCP) on expected interdealer exposure...... is determined by the tradeoff between multilateral netting across dealers on one hand and bilateral netting across asset classes on the other hand. We find this tradeoff to be sensitive to assumptions on heterogeneity of asset classes in terms of `riskyness' of the asset class as well as correlation...... of exposures across asset classes. In particular, while an analysis assuming independent, homogeneous exposures suggests that central clearing is efficient only if one has an unrealistically high number of participants, the opposite conclusion is reached if differences in riskyness and correlation across asset...

  17. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sybil Derrible

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the e...

  18. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  19. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  20. Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…

  1. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a e...

  2. New Economy, Old Central Banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, Jan Marc

    2002-01-01

    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inf1ation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a r

  3. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  4. Centrality Metric for Dynamic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Kristina; Kang, Jeon Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Centrality is an important notion in network analysis and is used to measure the degree to which network structure contributes to the importance of a node in a network. While many different centrality measures exist, most of them apply to static networks. Most networks, on the other hand, are dynamic in nature, evolving over time through the addition or deletion of nodes and edges. A popular approach to analyzing such networks represents them by a static network that aggregates all edges observed over some time period. This approach, however, under or overestimates centrality of some nodes. We address this problem by introducing a novel centrality metric for dynamic network analysis. This metric exploits an intuition that in order for one node in a dynamic network to influence another over some period of time, there must exist a path that connects the source and destination nodes through intermediaries at different times. We demonstrate on an example network that the proposed metric leads to a very different ...

  5. A First for Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FTA gives impetus to China’s trade with Costa Rica and other countries in the region The free trade agreement (FTA) between China and Costa Rica, signed in April 2010,came into effect on August 1.It was the first free trade pact between China and a Central

  6. The MEANING multilingual central repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atserias, J.; Villarejo, L.; Rigau, G.; Agirre, E.; Carroll, J.; Magnini, B.; Vossen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of the Multilingual Central Repository, a lexical knowledge base developed in the framework of the MEANING project. Currently the MCR integrates into the EuroWordNet framework five local wordnets (including four versions of the English WordNet from Princeton),

  7. Central Libraries in Uncertain Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses security and safety issues for public libraries, especially high-profile central facilities, in light of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Highlights include inspecting bags as patrons enter as well as exit; the need for security guidelines for any type of disaster or emergency; building design; and the importance of communication.…

  8. From Centrality to Temporary Fame: Dynamic Centrality in Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new approach to the study of the dynamics of link utilization in complex networks using records of communication in a large social network. Counter to the perspective that nodes have particular roles, we find roles change dramatically from day to day. "Local hubs" have a power law degree distribution over time, with no characteristic degree value. Our results imply a significant reinterpretation of the concept of node centrality in complex networks, and among other conclusions su...

  9. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...

  10. Person Centered Planning : Handleiding over benaderingen en uitvoering van PCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nas, M.; Leerden, L. van der; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Kranendonk, A.; Bruijn, R. de; Sax, C.

    2012-01-01

    Deze handleiding is het product van een afstudeeropdracht van studenten Toegepaste Psychologie van de Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen. De handlediing is ontwikkeld i.s.m. de RIBW, NITransition, San Diego State University en het Lectoraat Levensloopbegeleiding bij Autisme (HAN). De handleiding bes

  11. PCP-ML: Protein characterization package for machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Eickholt, Jesse; Wang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Machine Learning (ML) has a number of demonstrated applications in protein prediction tasks such as protein structure prediction. To speed further development of machine learning based tools and their release to the community, we have developed a package which characterizes several aspects of a protein commonly used for protein prediction tasks with machine learning. Findings A number of software libraries and modules exist for handling protein related data. The package we present ...

  12. Noncanonical Wnt/PCP signaling during vertebrate gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masazumi; Kai, Masatake

    2009-03-01

    The branch of the Wnt pathway, related to planar cell polarity signaling in Drosophila, is fundamental not only to the establishment of tissue polarity but also to a variety of morphogenetic processes in vertebrates. The genetic pathway has been noted for its similarity as well as divergence of between vertebrates and Drosophila. This review focuses on issues related to the complexity of the output of the planar cell polarity pathway during gastrulation in zebrafish and Xenopus and, to a lesser extent, during gastrulation/neurulation in mice.

  13. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  14. Centrality in Interconnected Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Omodei, Elisa; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases, they require to be modeled by interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions on several levels simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology, from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network. However, defining the centrality of actors in an interconnected structure is not trivial. In this paper, we capitalize on the tensorial formalism, recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, to show how several centrality measures -- well-known in the case of standard ("monoplex") networks -- can be extended naturally to the realm of interconnected multiplexes. We consider diagnostics widely used in different fields, e.g., computer science, biology, communication and social sciences, to cite only some of them. We show, both theoretically and numerically, that using the weighted monoplex obta...

  15. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  16. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  17. Celtic Sites of Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, Manuel

    This chapter concerns the astronomy practiced by Celtic peoples in some parts of central Iberia, specifically the Vetton and Celtiberian peoples, inhabitants of the so-called Late Iron Age. The construction of some elements of religion or worship was perfectly determined by geometry, topography, and especially astronomy, because their spatial orientation occurs in locations of great interest for maintaining the local calendar. The maintenance of this calendar was probably the primary objective of some of the elements studied.

  18. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  19. Wine markets in central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Š BOJNEC

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases...

  20. Central collisions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project was performed

  1. Plague in Central Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.E.; Hudson, B. W.; Turner, R W; Saroso, J. Sulianti; Cavanaugh, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Plague in man occurred from 1968 to 1970 in mountain villages of the Boyolali Regency in Central Java. Infected fleas, infected rats, and seropositive rats were collected in villages with human plague cases. Subsequent isolations of Yersinia pestis and seropositive rodents, detected during investigations of rodent plague undertaken by the Government of Indonesia and the WHO, attested to the persistence of plague in the region from 1972 to 1974.

  2. Central Asian drug trafficking dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    McGowen, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Tajikistan, a state that is completely landlocked, consists of very rough terrain that is comprised of mountains, cliffs and glaciers. There are very few transportation links through the area that gives Tajikistan limited access to neighboring countries. Security problems resulting from the increasing flow of narcotics illegally smuggled across the 1200 km Tajikistan- Afghanistan border have become critical in understanding the nature of political instability within Central Asia. This thesis ...

  3. Optimal Central Counterparty Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Haene; Andy Sturm

    2009-01-01

    In order to protect themselves against the potential losses in case of a participant's default and to contain systemic risk, central counterparties (CCPs) need to maintain sufficient financial resources. Typically, these financial resources consist of margin requirements and contributions to a collective default fund. Based on a stylized model of CCP risk management, this article analyzes the main factors affecting the trade-off between margins and default fund. The optimal balance between th...

  4. Political centralization and government accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Boffa, Federico; Piolatto, Amedeo; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains why decentralization can undermine accountability and answers three questions: what determines if power should be centralized or decentralized when regions are heterogeneous? How many levels of government should there be? How should state borders be drawn? We develop a model of political agency in which voters differ in their ability to monitor rent-seeking politicians. We find that rent extraction is a decreasing and convex function of the share of informed...

  5. Kalmanovitz y la Banca central / Kalmanovitz and central banking

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Muñoz, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Salomón Kalmanovitz, Codirector del Banco de la República (B de la R) hasta enero de 2005, uno de los economistas colombianos más brillantes, publicó un libro titulado Ensayos sobre Banca Central, Comportamiento, Independencia e Historia (Norma, 2003). Si los estudiantes de economía de los años 70 y 80 estudiaron a un Kalmanovitz marxista, los estudiantes de hoy estudian a un economista ortodoxo y liberal, igualmente brillante. Kalmanovitz es un partidario de la independencia de la BC para la...

  6. From Centrality to Temporary Fame: Dynamic Centrality in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, D; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new approach to the study of the dynamics of link utilization in complex networks using records of communication in a large social network. Counter to the perspective that nodes have particular roles, we find roles change dramatically from day to day. "Local hubs" have a power law degree distribution over time, with no characteristic degree value. Our results imply a significant reinterpretation of the concept of node centrality in complex networks, and among other conclusions suggest that interventions targeting hubs will have significantly less effect than previously thought.

  7. CHINA AND ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Pan

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.

  8. Central diffractive resonance production at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central production of resonances resulting from the scattering of Pomerons in the central rapidity region of proton-proton scattering is studied. Estimates for relevant cross sections are presented.

  9. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  10. The ZEUS central tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of ZEUS covers a wide angular range, whilst the Forward Detector - comprising the Forward Tracking Detector (FTD) and electron identification by transition radiation - concentrates on the important forward cone. The RTD (Rear Tracking Detector) provides accurate angle measurement of the recoil electron and the vertex detector (VXD) aims to find particles from heavy flavour decay. To measure momentum accurately the CTD sits in a high magnetic field (B=1,8 T) within the ZEUS calorimeter. (orig./HSI)

  11. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; J. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  12. Accountability of central banks: aspects and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DE HAAN

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The work examines the relationship between central bank independence and accountability. The authors do this by using an indicator for central bank accountability based on the laws of 16 central banks. Central bank accountability is identified as having three distinct features, namely, the explicit definition and ranking of the objectives of monetary policy, the transparency of the actual monetary policy, and the final responsibility to monetary policy.

  13. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  14. Central bank independence and inflation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the relationship between central bank independence (CBI), proxied by the central bank governor's turnover rate and an indicator based on central bank laws in place, and inflation using a random coefficient model with the Hildreth-Houck estimator for more than 100 countries in the perio

  15. Accountability of Central Banks : Aspects and Quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Amtenbrink, F.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper starts with a discussion of the various aspects of accountability of central banks. On the basis of this discussion we construct an indicator for accountability for 16 central banks, including the European Central Bank. It is shown that the degree of accountability differs considerably an

  16. "Christofest" New Yorgi Central Parkis / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    12. II 2005. a. avatakse Christo ja Jeanne-Claude'i keskkonnainstallatsioon "The Gates" New Yorgi Central Parkis. Paralleelselt toimub Metropolitan Muuseumis näitus "Christo and Jeanne-Claude : The Gates, Central Park, New York", kus eksponeeritakse Central Parki installatsiooni ettevalmistavaid materjale: joonistusi, diagramme, fotosid jne

  17. Central and forward tracking collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this subsystem R ampersand D project is to carry out a detailed study and design of a complete wire chamber tracking system covering pseudorapidity |η| ≤ 2.5 in a solenoidal detector for the SSC. Most of our group are now part of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC), so the work has evolved into developing a tracking system conceptual design for the SDC detector. The design discussed in this report uses straw tube drift chambers for the central tracking region. Because of the high rates in the SSC environment, a small cell design is needed for wire chambers in the central region. Straw tubes as small cells offer many advantages because the sense wire is enclosed in a continuous cathode, and the wire tension due to the sense wire only can be supported without a massive structure. The straw tubes are grouped together to form superlayers in order to provide local track segments. The superlayers are composed of modules consisting of about two hundred straw tubes enclosed in a carbon fiber composite shell. Straw tubes have been used in previous experiments for small vertex drift chambers. However, they have never before been used for a large tracking system

  18. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  19. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  20. Glial involvement in trigeminal central sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that trigeminal neurons exhibit central sensitization, an increase in the excitability of neurons within the central nervous system to the extent that a normally innocuous stimulus begins to produce pain after inflamma-tion or injury, and that glial activities play a vital role in this central sensitization. The involvement of glial cells in trigeminal central sensitization contains multiple mechanisms, including interaction with glutamatergic and purinergic receptors. A better understanding of the trigeminal central sensitization mediated by glial cells will help to find potential therapeutic targets and lead to developing new analge-sics for orofacial-specific pain with higher efficiency and fewer side-effects.

  1. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  2. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    for maintaining the MBOR system including setting requirements and recommendations for the design and use of performance contracts, which means that a common central government framework for performance contracting exists. Despite of this common framework, differences in the contract content (scale and focus......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible...

  3. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  4. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  5. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  6. Central solar-energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  7. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    McNulty, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a unique process at hadron machines in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. LHCb have measured the cross-sections for the CEP of vector mesons, $J/\\psi,\\psi(2S),\\Upsilon(1S),\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(3S)$, which are photo-produced. In the double pomeron exchange process, preliminary measurements have been made of $\\chi_{c0},\\chi_{c1}, \\chi_{c2}$ meson production while the first observations of the CEP of pairs of charmonia, $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $J/\\psi \\psi(2S)$, have been made and limits obtained on the pair production of other charmonia.

  8. CST-01-Central Standard Timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    薄如蝉翼名为CentralStandardTiming的工作室推出了E—ink材质代号为CST-01的手表,其厚度仅为0.8mm,号称全球最薄。一次充电10分钟便可连续使用15年。该手表屏幕由多层柔性材料构成。整体十分轻巧并且可弯曲,腕带则采用了柔性不锈钢材质。CST-01的预售价格为129美元。约合人民币800元,目前已经在著名的集资网站Kickstarter上创建项目。

  9. Wooden Calendars from Central Rhodopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, V.

    2008-10-01

    Four wooden calendars from the village of Polkovnik Serafimovo, Smolyan region, in the Central Rhodopes are presented here, and three of them - for the first time. The shape and size, the kind of the signs and structure of the calendar record bear the characteristic features of the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The short notches on the edges represent the days of the year in the Julian (solar) calendar. The special signs on the sides mark the fixed festivals of the Orthodox Church calendar and are also influenced by the local tradition. The type of the signs confirms that the wooden sticks belong to the group of calendars from the Central Rhodopes. According to the beginning date of the calendar record on the sticks, two of the calendars are of the April (May) or October (November) type which corresponds to the very popular economic division of the year in the folk calendar into two periods -- warm and cold. The other two sticks, which are very similar to each other, make an exception in this respect among the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The months are divided into four groups (seasons) on each of the four edges of the stick (only one calendar from Burgas region has the same structure). The most interesting thing about the two sticks is that this is the only case among all known Bulgarian calendars that the beginning of the calendar record coincides with the beginning of the civil year on 1st January (January type) like some wooden calendars from Western Europe. Nowadays it is getting harder and harder to find wooden calendars in Bulgaria and in the neighbouring Balkan countries. The thorough knowledge about them could be helpful in various scientific fields, e.g. history of religion, ethnology, history of astronomy and mathematics, as well as semiotics.

  10. Behavioral consequences of NMDA antagonist-induced neuroapoptosis in the infant mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M Yuede

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to NMDA glutamate antagonists during the brain growth spurt period causes widespread neuroapoptosis in the rodent brain. This period in rodents occurs during the first two weeks after birth, and corresponds to the third trimester of pregnancy and several years after birth in humans. The developing human brain may be exposed to NMDA antagonists through drug-abusing mothers or through anesthesia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the long-term neurobehavioral effects of mice exposed to a single dose of the NMDA antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP, or saline, on postnatal day 2 (P2 or P7, or on both P2 and P7. PCP treatment on P2 + P7 caused more severe cognitive impairments than either single treatment. Histological examination of acute neuroapoptosis resulting from exposure to PCP indicated that the regional pattern of degeneration induced by PCP in P2 pups was different from that in P7 pups. The extent of damage when evaluated quantitatively on P7 was greater for pups previously treated on P2 compared to pups treated only on P7. CONCLUSIONS: These findings signify that PCP induces different patterns of neuroapoptosis depending on the developmental age at the time of exposure, and that exposure at two separate developmental ages causes more severe neuropathological and neurobehavioral consequences than a single treatment.

  11. Analytical evaluation of a rapid on-site oral fluid drug test

    OpenAIRE

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Pil, Kristof; Veramme, Jolien; Verstraete, Alain

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable rapid on-site oral fluid test that can be used in police controls to detect impaired drivers. We evaluated the Varian OralabA (R) 6 and collected two oral fluid samples from 250 subjects, one with the Varian OralabA (R) 6 and one with the StatSure (TM) SalivaaEuro cent Sampler (TM). The OralabA (R) 6 can detect six drug types: amphetamines, methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and phencyclidine (PCP). On-site results were obtaine...

  12. Hirsch index as a network centrality measure

    CERN Document Server

    Campiteli, Monica G; Soles, Paulo R C; Soares, Leonardo H D; Kinouchi, Osame

    2010-01-01

    We study the h Hirsch index as a local node centrality measure for complex networks in general. The h index is compared with the Degree centrality (a local measure), the Betweenness and Eigenvector centralities (two non-local measures) in the case of a biological network (Yeast interaction protein-protein network) and a linguistic network (Moby Thesaurus II) as test environments. In both networks, the Hirsch index has poor correlation with Betweenness centrality but correlates well with Eigenvector centrality, specially for the more important nodes that are relevant for ranking purposes, say in Search Machine Optimization. In the thesaurus network, the h index seems even to outperform the Eigenvector centrality measure as evaluated by simple linguistic criteria.

  13. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I;

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  14. Transpleural central venous catheter discovered during thoracotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Malhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an uncommon complication of subclavian central venous catheterization, discovered at thoracotomy. The central venous catheter (CVC was placed by left infraclavicular route after induction of general anesthesia. CVC was secured after aspiration of blood and satisfactory central venous tracing. On thoracotomy, CVC was noticed to traverse the pleural cavity while the tracing was normal. CVC was thus removed consequent to which bleeding from each puncture site was noticed, that were secured surgically.

  15. Central sleep apnea – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dybala Andrzej; Dyczko Monika; Makaruk Boguslaw; Kicinski Pawel; Bartoszek Elzbieta; Myslinski Wojciech; Rahnama Mansur; Mosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a disease characterized by repetitive episodes of the socalled central apneas during sleep. The disease has a very complex etiology. In clinical practice, the most important causes of CSA are disorders of the central nervous system, congestive heart failure or certain pathological changes of the respiratory muscles. We present a case of a 43-year-old male with severe CSA, who was successfully treated with BiPAP ST equipment.

  16. Central sleep apnea – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybala Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central sleep apnea (CSA is a disease characterized by repetitive episodes of the socalled central apneas during sleep. The disease has a very complex etiology. In clinical practice, the most important causes of CSA are disorders of the central nervous system, congestive heart failure or certain pathological changes of the respiratory muscles. We present a case of a 43-year-old male with severe CSA, who was successfully treated with BiPAP ST equipment.

  17. Central Neurogenic Respiratory Failure: A Challenging Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Flávio A.; Bernardino, Tenille; Maciel, Ricardo O.H.; Felizola, Sérgio F.A.; Costa, Eduardo L.V.; Silva, Gisele S

    2011-01-01

    Background Central nervous system lesions are rare causes of respiratory failure. Simple observation of the breathing pattern can help localize the lesion, but the examiner needs to be aware of potential pitfalls such as metabolic or pulmonary alterations. Methods We describe 3 cases in which central neurogenic respiratory failure occurred simultaneously with other alterations or in an unusual presentation. Results All patients were diagnosed with central neurogenic respiratory failure and tr...

  18. Transparency in Central Bank Financial Statement Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Sullivan

    2000-01-01

    The IMF's development of the Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies and the introduction of safeguards assessments have increased emphasis on transparency of the disclosures made in central bank financial statements. This paper, which updates WP/00/186, looks at the disclosure requirements for central banks under International Financial Reporting Standards and provides practical guidance for those responsible for preparing central bank financial statements.

  19. On the Central Coefficients of Riordan Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We use the Lagrange-Bürmann inversion theorem to characterize the generating function of the central coefficients of the elements of the Riordan group of matrices. We apply this result to calculate the generating function of the central elements of a number of explicit Riordan arrays, defined by rational expressions, and in two cases we use the generating functions thus found to calculate the Hankel transforms of the central elements, which are themselves expressible as combinatorial polynomi...

  20. Clarity of Central Bank Communication About Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ales Bulir; David-Jan Jansen; Martin Cihak

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether the clarity of central bank communication about inflation has changed with the economic environment. We use readability statistics and content analysis to study the clarity of communication on the inflation outlook by seven central banks between 1997 and 2010. Overall, we find no strong indications that central banks were less clear in explaining their policies when faced with higher uncertainty or a less favorable inflation outlook. The global financial crisis, ho...

  1. 2. The Central American gang phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Does, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    2.1. Differentiating between pandillas and maras Youth gangs have existed since the 1960s and 1970s in Central America. However, there are different types of Central American gangs and thus one has to distinguish between pandillas and maras. The former are localized, homegrown gangs, which are “direct inheritors” (Jütersonke, Rodgers & Muggah 2009: 379) of the gangs that have historically characterized Central American societies, while the latter are a more recent phenomenon with transnationa...

  2. Urban history and modernity in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klautke, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    This historiographical review discusses recent literature on cities in modern Central Europe – mainly on Berlin and Vienna – which reflects the great variety of approaches to urban history and underlines the importance of urban history for the study of modernity. The history of urbanisation was a central event in the history of modernity. Especially in the Central European capitals of Berlin and Vienna, where modernisation and urban growth started later and then advanced quicker than in West ...

  3. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  4. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Given the distributed nature of the grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and scared around the globe, VOs are facing the challenge to monitor the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard SSB (Site Status Board) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be set. During the integration of the CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were implemented; all in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can use them as well. Alongside these enhancements, there were a few changes to the core of the SSB framework from which the CMS production team was able to benefit. We will present the details of the implementation and the adva...

  5. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunov, I. [CERN; Andreeva, J. [CERN; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P. [CERN

    2014-01-01

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required, They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  6. Maximal switchability of centralized networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2016-08-01

    We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.

  7. A Central Theory of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The history of physiologic cellular–molecular interrelationships can be traced all the way back to the unicellular state by following the pathway formed by lipids ubiquitously accommodating calcium homeostasis, and its consequent adaptive effects on oxygen uptake by cells, tissues and organs. As a result, a cohesive, mechanistically integrated view of physiology can be formulated by recognizing the continuum comprising conception, development, physiologic homeostasis and death mediated by soluble growth factor signaling. Seeing such seemingly disparate processes as embryogenesis, chronic disease and dying as the gain and subsequent loss of cell–cell signaling provides a novel perspective for physiology and medicine. It is emblematic of the self-organizing, self-referential nature of life, starting from its origins. Such organizing principles obviate the pitfalls of teleologic evolution, conversely providing a way of resolving such seeming dichotomies as holism and reductionism, genotype and phenotype, emergence and contingence, proximate and ultimate causation in evolution, cells and organisms. The proposed approach is scale-free and predictive, offering a Central Theory of Biology. PMID:25911556

  8. The Centrality of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Miles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available I am excited about this new journal focused on the subject of organization design. In my view, organization design is a central issue in the field of management. Designing an organization requires an understanding of strategy, as we pointed out some time ago (Miles & Snow, 1978. For example, if you want to be a prospector (a first-mover strategy, you have to design your firm to move quickly in new directions, which is likely to require that it be arranged so that various kinds of teams can interact across organizational units and levels. Designing an organization to follow a first-mover strategy also requires both an understanding of leadership and a commitment to the free flow of information throughout the organization. Leaders must understand how cross-functional teams pursue ideas and opportunities, and they must facilitate collaborative knowledge sharing to drive innovations that help the firm operate entrepreneurially. Because an organization is a complex, dynamic system, perhaps no other single topic is so deeply implanted at the core of management, organization theory, and organizational behavior as organization design. Moreover, organization design once was, and could be again, the topic of an ongoing dialogue between managers and academics focused on business organizations.

  9. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhunov, I.; Andreeva, J.; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P.

    2014-06-01

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required; They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  10. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required; They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  11. A partitioned central solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  12. A global central banker competency model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Brits

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: No comprehensive, integrated competency model exists for central bankers. Due to the importance of central banks in the context of the ongoing global financial crisis, it was deemed necessary to design and validate such a model.Research purpose: To craft and validate a comprehensive, integrated global central banker competency model (GCBCM and to assess whether central banks using the GCBCM for training have a higher global influence.Motivation for the study: Limited consensus exists globally about what constitutes a ‘competent’ central banker. A quantitatively validated GCBCM would make a significant contribution to enhancing central banker effectiveness, and also provide a solid foundation for effective people management.Research approach, design and method: A blended quantitative and qualitative research approach was taken. Two sets of hypotheses were tested regarding the relationships between the GCBCM and the training offered, using the model on the one hand, and a central bank’s global influence on the other.Main findings: The GCBCM was generally accepted across all participating central banks globally, although some differences were found between central banks with higher and lower global influence. The actual training offered by central banks in terms of the model, however, is generally limited to technical-functional skills. The GCBCM is therefore at present predominantly aspirational. Significant differences were found regarding the training offered.Practical/managerial implications: By adopting the GCBCM, central banks would be able to develop organisation-specific competency models in order to enhance their organisational capabilities and play their increasingly important global role more effectively.Contribution: A generic conceptual framework for the crafting of a competency model with evaluation criteria was developed. A GCBCM was quantitatively validated.

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  14. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries created for a previously published report about the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area...

  15. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant recharge value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses...

  17. Central bank independence and financial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that central bank independence (CBI) may not only be beneficial for reaching the objective of price stability, but also for maintaining financial stability. Greater independence from external pressure implies that central banks are less politically constrained in acting to prevent

  18. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  19. Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 98, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional Meeting for Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 63 articles from Slovenia, sorounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: Research Reactors, Nuclear Methods, Reactor Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Structural Analysis, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Severe Accidents, NPP Operation and Nuclear Waste disposal

  20. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

  1. The Cartan Matrix of a Centralizer Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umesh V Dubey; Amritanshu Prasad; Pooja Singla

    2012-02-01

    The centralizer algebra of a matrix consists of those matrices that commute with it. We investigate the basic representation-theoretic invariants of centralizer algebras, namely their radicals, projective indecomposable modules, injective indecomposable modules, simple modules and Cartan matrices. With the help of our Cartan matrix calculations we determine their global dimensions. Many of these algebras are of infinite global dimension.

  2. The economic impact of central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades a lot of central banks have become more transparent about their monetary policy. The research question that is addressed in this book is whether central bank transparency is desirable from an economic viewpoint. It is shown that transparency increases have been beneficial. Th

  3. The European Central Bank and financial supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing ongoing changes in the design of regulatory and supervisory authorities over the banking and financial industry in Europe, this comprehensive Handbook pays particular attention to the role of national central banks, the new financial supervisory authorities and the European Central Bank (ECB).

  4. China-Central Asia Power Cooperation Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo

    2010-01-01

    After analyzing the basic information,distribution of energy resources and condition of power industry in Central Asia, the high feasibility for China to cooperate closely with Central Asia in transnational power interconnection, power investment and technology exchanges, etc. is studied. Furthermore, the forms, mechanisms, existing problems and suggestions for the improvement of current policies related to the power cooperation are proposed.

  5. An unusual Complication of Central Venous Cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheter (CVC hub fracture is a rare complication of central venous cannulation. We report a case where catheter hub fracture was detected immediately after CVC insertion. Causes of catheter hub fracture and its complications are discussed.

  6. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults from...

  7. A SCALED CENTRAL PATH FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-xiang Yuan

    2001-01-01

    Interior point methods are very efficient methods for solving large scale linear programming problems. The central path plays a very important role in interior point methods. In this paper we propose a new central path, which scales the variables. Thus it has the advantage of forcing the path to have roughly the same distance from each active constraint boundary near the solution.

  8. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  9. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  10. Guidance and Orientation Manual : Internal Diseases Ward 11 - Central Finland Central Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Hirjaba, Marina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis is to create an initiation manual for the foreign students, foreign visitors or anyone else interested about Internal Diseases ward 11, Central Finland Central Hospital. The aim of the guidance material is to help the foreign students, who are practicing on ward 11, to become acquainted with the Finnish Healthcare System, Central Finland Central Hospital and to offer orientation upon the nursing and organisation of Internal Diseases ward 11. It is taken i...

  11. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  12. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  13. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry.

  14. Central differences, Euler numbers and symbolic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I relate some coefficients encountered when computing the functional determinants on spheres to the central differentials of nothing. In doing this I use some historic works, in particular transcribing the elegant symbolic formalism of Jeffery (1861) into central difference form which has computational advantages for Euler numbers, as discovered by Shovelton (1915). I derive sum rules for these, and for the central differentials, the proof of which involves an interesting expression for powers of sech x as multiple derivatives. I present a more general, symbolic treatment of central difference calculus which allows known, and unknown, things to be obtained in an elegant and compact fashion gaining, at no cost, the expansion of the powers of the inverse sinh, a basic central function. Systematic use is made of the operator 2 asinh(D/2). Umbral calculus is employed to compress the operator formalism. For example the orthogonality/completeness of the factorial numbers, of the first and second kinds, translates, ...

  15. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I;

    1989-01-01

    was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  16. The central curve in linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    De Loera, Jesús A; Vinzant, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The central curve of a linear program is an algebraic curve specified by linear and quadratic constraints arising from complementary slackness. It is the union of the various central paths for minimizing or maximizing the cost function over any region in the associated hyperplane arrangement. We determine the degree, arithmetic genus and defining prime ideal of the central curve, thereby answering a question of Bayer and Lagarias. These invariants, along with the degree of the Gauss image of the curve, are expressed in terms of the matroid of the input matrix. Extending work of Dedieu, Malajovich and Shub, this yields an instance-specific bound on the total curvature of the central path, a quantity relevant for interior point methods. The global geometry of central curves is studied in detail.

  17. Actual versus Perceived Central Bank Transparency : The Case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency lit- erature the distinction between actual and perceived central bank trans- parency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the ac- tions of economic a

  18. FROM CENTRAL ASIA TO GREAT CENTRAL ASIA: THE GOALS AND ADJUSTMENTS OF U.S. CENTRAL ASIAN STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Robert

    2009-01-01

    To penetrate and maintain peaceful development of the Central Asian region is a consistent goal of the United States for its international interests. With the 9/11 event as the baseline, since 2001 America's awareness of the strategic importance of Central Asia and the latter's weight in U.S. global strategy has been greatly changed. According to Charles Manes, the 9/11 terrorist attack enabled the U.S. to "discover Central Asia. As a result of this discovery the United States effectively gai...

  19. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles.

  20. Central black hole masses of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊军辉

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the stellar velocity dispersions in the host galaxies are used to estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of elliptical galaxies. We find that the central black hole masses are in the range of 10(5.5-9.5) M(○). Based on the estimated masses in this paper and those by Woo & Urry (2002) and the measured host galaxy absolute magnitude,a relation, log(MBH/M(○)) = -(0.25 ± 4.3 × 10-3)MR + (2.98 4 0.208) is found for central black hole mass and the host galaxy magnitude. Some discussions are presented.

  1. Betweenness Centrality in Some Classes of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raghavan Unnithan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several centrality measures that have been introduced and studied for real-world networks. They account for the different vertex characteristics that permit them to be ranked in order of importance in the network. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the influence of a vertex over the flow of information between every pair of vertices under the assumption that information primarily flows over the shortest paths between them. In this paper we present betweenness centrality of some important classes of graphs.

  2. Central versus institutional self-archiving

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2006-01-01

    NIH's, PLoS's, the Wellcome Trust's and now the UK MRC's unreflective support for PubMed Central (PMC), a Central Repository (CR), as the locus for direct self-archiving by authors is very unfortunate for Institutional Repositories (IRs), for self-archiving, and for Open Access (OA) progress in general. Alma Swan has published key papers on both OA self-archiving policy and institutional versus central self-archiving (IRs vs. CRs) analysing the reasons. (a) Institutional self-archiving and ce...

  3. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  4. Searchability of central nodes in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Social networks are discrete systems with a large amount of heterogeneity among nodes (individuals). Measures of centrality aim at a quantification of nodes' importance for structure and function. Here we ask to which extent the most central nodes can be found by purely local search. We find that many networks have close-to-optimal searchability under eigenvector centrality, outperforming searches for degree and betweenness. Searchability of the strongest spreaders in epidemic dynamics tends to be substantially larger for supercritical than for subcritical spreading.

  5. Francis Crick, DNA, and the Central Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olby, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This essay describes how Francis Crick, ex-physicist, entered the field of biology and discovered the structure of DNA. Emphasis is upon the double helix, the sequence hypothesis, the central dogma, and the genetic code. (VW)

  6. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  7. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  8. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  9. Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...

  10. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  11. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  12. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  13. New Neanurinae (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ru; Wang, Wen-Bin; Jiang, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, two of Vitronura and one of Lobellina of subfamily Neanurinae (Neanuridae, Collembola) from Central China are described. In addition a key for valid Lobellina species is included. PMID:27470797

  14. Earthquakes in Central California, 1980-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in central California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Livermore, 1980, Coalinga,...

  15. Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; De Domenico, Manlio; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-06-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.

  16. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  17. Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.L.

    1992-03-01

    This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

  18. EXPLAINING TRAFFIC FLOW PATTERNS USING CENTRALITY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jayasinghe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the capability of centrality parameters of the road network to explain and predict traffic flow by types of vehicles. The case study was conducted in Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka. Study used four centrality parameters i.e. connectivity, global integration, local integration and choice; and three analysis methods i.e. topological, metric and angular which introduced by space syntax analysis method to compute network centrality of the road network. Findings of this study stress that, (1 human beings perceive the space mostly from geometrical distance (topological and angular distance in comparison to metric distance. Further to this, it was found that angular distance is more powerful in global level whereas topological distance is more powerful in local level; (2 it is more appropriate to consider the multiple influences from multiple centrality parameters rather being confined to a single best parameter and influence of each parameter varies based on type of vehicles.

  19. NCPC Central Files Information System (CFIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — This dataset contains records from NCPC's Central Files Information System (CFIS), which is a comprehensive database of projects submitted to NCPC for design review...

  20. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  1. Central California 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3-second Central California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  2. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  3. Initial TMX central-cell ICRH experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four topics are discussed in this report: the feasibility of applying ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in the TMX central cell, some applications of heating, the results of preliminary experiments, and plans for further ICRH experiments

  4. Entrapment of guidewire during central venous catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is common in the setting of ICU for various reasons like monitoring of CVP, fluid administration and vasopressor or drug infusions. Guidewires are routinely used in the Seldinger technique during central venous catheter placement CVC placement is not innocuous as numerous complications may occur, with varying frequency and severity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3080-3081

  5. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. PMID:26632483

  6. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI; ALKA KARWA

    2010-01-01

    Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species)...

  7. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  8. Central Institute for Nuclear Research (1956 - 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Institute for Nuclear Research (ZfK) of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR is presented. This first overall survey covers the development of the ZfK since 1956, the main research activities and results, a description of the departments responsible for the complex implementation of nuclear research, the social services for staff and the activities of different organizations in the largest central institute of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR. (author)

  9. Central diffractive resonance production at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Schicker, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    Central production of resonances resulting from the scattering of Pomerons in the central rapidity region of proton-proton scattering is studied. Estimates for relevant cross sections are presented. L.J. gratefully acknowledges an EMMI visiting Professorship at the University of Heidelberg for completion of this work. He is grateful to the organizers of this meeting for their hospitality and support. His work was supported also by DOMUS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

  10. Central Asia's comparative advantage in international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lücke, Matthias; Rothert, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a strategy for identifying the pattern of Central Asia’s comparative advantage in international trade, based on factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade. The paper focuses on Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, along with Azerbaijan and Mongolia. A country’s comparative advantage cannot be determined at the level of individual industries o...

  11. "Lessons from an Unconventional Central Banker"

    OpenAIRE

    Thorvald Grung Moe

    2013-01-01

    The global financial crisis has generated renewed interest in the 1951 Treasury - Federal Reserve Accord and its lessons for central bank independence. A broader interpretation of the Accord and of Marriner S. Eccles's role at the Federal Reserve should teach central bankers that independence can be crucial for fighting inflation, but also encourage them to be more supportive of government efforts to fight deflation and mass unemployment.

  12. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    and analyze the structural richness required to model and investigate criminal network entities and their associations. We demonstrate a need to rethink entity associations with one specific case (inspired by \\textit{The Wire}, a tv series about organized crime in Baltimore, United States) and corroborated...... three of these associations and extend and test two centrality measures using CrimeFighter Investigator, a novel tool for criminal network investigation. Our findings show that the extended centrality measures offer new insights into criminal networks....

  13. Role of Central Bank in Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth in Islamic finance industry urges us to not only look for alternatives in the Islamic commercial banking, but also focus on the regulator and its role and functions to enable it to work in conformity with Islamic principles. This study reviews limited, but precious academic literature on central banking and monetary management in an environment where Islamic finance is in vogue. Refinance ratio and Qard-e-Hasan ratio and Mudarabah between central bank and Islamic commercial b...

  14. Yes, we need a central bank

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad Nadim

    2002-01-01

    The financial system of a country comprises entities engaged in transactions involving financial instruments in money, capital, and foreign exchange markets. This sector has strong linkages with other sectors of the economy like external, fiscal and real sectors. The apex financial institution in every country is its Central Bank and the State Bank of Pakistan functions as our Central Bank. Section 9A. 1. of the State Bank of Pakistan Act 1956 shoulders the function of securing the soundness ...

  15. Peritoneal dissemination from central neurocytoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho Neto Maurício; Ramina Ricardo; Meneses Murilo Sousa de; Arruda Walter Oleschko; Milano Jerônimo Buzetti

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: central neurocytoma is a low grade tumor of neuroglial origin and a relatively new histological entity. Only a few cases have been reported and its biological behavior is still uncertain. Some cases have shown an aggressive behavior (local recurrence, malignant dedifferentiation or CSF dissemination) and challenged the initial view of its relative benignity. A case of central neurocytoma with peritoneal dissemination is presented. CASE: a six years-old boy with recurrent neurocytom...

  16. The ultimate determinants of central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Schaling, E.

    1995-01-01

    Using a graphical method, a new way of determining the optimal degree of central bank conservativeness is developed in this paper. Unlike Lohmann (1992) and Rogoff (1985), we are able to express the upper and lower bounds of the interval containing the optimal degree of conservativeness in terms of the structural parameters of the model. Next, we show that optimal central bank independence is higher, the higher the natural rate of unemployment, the greater the benefits of unanticipated inflat...

  17. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, P.K.

    1986-12-01

    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  18. Central regions of keloids are severely ischaemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchi, Ryoma; Ueda, Koichi; Kurokawa, Norifumi; Tsuji, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    We classified scars as keloids, hypertrophic scars and mature scars, and then examined the scars for differences in central and marginal vascularization. We found significant differences in localized hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and vascular density in keloids, but no localized differences in hypertrophic or mature scars. The central areas of keloids exhibited higher HIF-1α expression and lower vascular density than marginal areas, suggesting that the former are severely ischaemic. PMID:26794626

  19. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  20. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  1. Peripheral chemoreceptors in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Iris A; Keens, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is a rare disorder caused by a mutation in the PHOX2B gene resulting in hypoventilation that is worse during sleep. Human physiologic studies show that patients with CCHS have absent or decreased rebreathing ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxemia during sleep as well as during wakefulness. Some ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hyperoxia can be demonstrated using a step change in inspired oxygen. However, these suggest that both central and peripheral chemoreceptor functions are generally defective in all states in children with CCHS. The defect in CCHS may lie in central nervous system pathways regulating ventilation, whose development and function are controlled by PHOX2B. Moreover, the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) may be the major defect in CCHS, where central and peripheral inputs converge. Human physiological studies predicted that the defect in CCHS lies in central integration of the central and peripheral chemoreceptor signals. New evidence suggests the RTN may be the respiratory controller where chemoreceptor inputs are integrated. In this review we present the clinical presentation of CCHS, revisit results of human physiologic studies, and discuss the findings in light of new knowledge about the role of PHOX2B and RTN in CCHS.

  2. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  3. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region.

  4. Making Central Banks Serve The Real Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleika Reiners

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge is to redirect central bank money into the real economy and to the needs of society. If new money is issued to expand the productive capacity, there is no reason for inflation. Long-term financing could become available at an affordable price. Central bank money must not replace a sound tax system and the distribution of income and wealth, but complement them. The remaining task, apart from the financing of real needs, is the prevention of speculative asset price inflation. For this, central banks and regulators should install debt brakes for the financial sector. Furthermore, independent monetary policy calls for capital account management. It enables national central banks to find space for the conduct of their own policies in an interdependent global economy. Coordination between central banks and governments might increase as policies combine monetary, fiscal and regulatory facets. The future role of central banks should particularly lie in their insights regarding capital flows and leverage cycles and in their ability to create and withdraw money, depend­ing on economic conditions.

  5. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  6. Market Information and Signaling in Central Bank Operations, or, How Often Should a Central Bank Intervene?

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    A central bank must decide on the frequency with which it will conduct open market operations and the variability in short-term money market that it will allow. The paper shows how the optimal operating procedure balances the value of attaining an immediate target and broadcasting the central bank's intentions against the informational advantages to the central bank of allowing the free play of market forces to reveal more of the information available to market participants.

  7. Central Banker Contracts, Incomplete Information, and Monetary Policy Surprises: In Search of a Selfish Central Banker?

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios E. Chortareas; Miller, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    Approaching monetary policy as a principal agent problem provides a useful framework for interpreting alternative delegation schemes. In this paper, we consider the effectiveness of central banker incentive schemes when the principal delegates monetary policy through contracts but remains uncertain about the central banker's responsiveness to such schemes. We adopt a simple principal-agent model and assume that the central banker's trade-off between social welfare and the incentive scheme is ...

  8. Enhanced prefrontal serotonin 2A receptor signaling in the subchronic phencyclidine mouse model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin A; Ratner, Cecilia Friis; Aznar, Susana;

    2013-01-01

    Prefrontal serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2A Rs) have been linked to the pathogenesis and treatment of schizophrenia. Many antipsychotics fully occupy 5-HT2A R at clinical relevant doses, and activation of 5-HT2A receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and LSD-like drugs induces a schizophrenia...

  9. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology.

  10. Correcting intermittent central suppression improves binocular marksmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Eric S

    2007-04-01

    Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a defect in normal binocular (two-eyed) vision that causes confusion in visual detail. ICS is a repetitive intermittent loss of visual sensation in the central area of vision. As the central vision of either eye "turns on and off", aiming errors in sight can occur that must be corrected when both eyes are seeing again. Any aiming errors in sight might be expected to interfere with marksmanship during two-eyed seeing. We compared monocular (one-eyed, patched) and binocular (two-eyed) marksmanship with pistol shooting with an Army ROTC cadet before and after successful therapy for diagnosed ICS. Pretreatment, monocular marksmanship was significantly better than binocular marksmanship, suggesting defective binocularity reduced accuracy. After treatment for ICS, binocular and monocular marksmanship were essentially the same. Results confirmed predictions that with increased visual stability from correcting the suppression, binocular and monocular marksmanship accuracies should merge. PMID:17484315

  11. Generation of central exclusive final states

    CERN Document Server

    Lönnblad, Leif

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for the generation of central exclusive final states in the Pythia 8 program. The implementation allows for the investigation of higher order corrections to such exclusive processes as approximated by the initial-state parton shower in Pythia 8. To achieve this, the spin and colour decomposition of the initial-state shower has been worked out, in order to determine the probability that a partonic state generated from an inclusive sub-process followed by a series of initial-state parton splittings can be considered as an approximation of an exclusive colour- and spin-singlet process. We use our implementation to investigate effects of parton showers on some examples of central exclusive processes, and find sizeable effects on di-jet production, while the effects on e.g. central exclusive Higgs production are minor.

  12. Estimation for large non-centrality parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Sónia; Mexia, João; Fonseca, Miguel; Carvalho, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the concept of estimability for models for which accurate estimators can be obtained for the respective parameters. The study was conducted for model with almost scalar matrix using the study of estimability after validation of these models. In the validation of these models we use F statistics with non centrality parameter τ =‖λ/‖2 σ2 when this parameter is sufficiently large we obtain good estimators for λ and α so there is estimability. Thus, we are interested in obtaining a lower bound for the non-centrality parameter. In this context we use for the statistical inference inducing pivot variables, see Ferreira et al. 2013, and asymptotic linearity, introduced by Mexia & Oliveira 2011, to derive confidence intervals for large non-centrality parameters (see Inácio et al. 2015). These results enable us to measure relevance of effects and interactions in multifactors models when we get highly statistically significant the values of F tests statistics.

  13. Central pain: definition, phisiopathology and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Moschini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Central pain is the expression of an injury and/or a primary or secondary dysfunction of the central nervous system.1 It is based on total or partial damage along the spinal-thalamic-cortical pathways and it may have cerebral or spinal origin. It has variable incidence according to its etiology: 8-10% in stroke patients, 30% in multiple sclerosis patients, 30-60% in paraplegic patients.2-3 At the spinal level, the most frequent causes are: traumatic injuries, cancer, plaques from multiple sclerosis, syringomyelia. In this review, we examine the main symptoms that contribute to confirm the diagnosis of central pain, neuropathic or thalamic. The presence of nerve injury, evaluated by neuroimaging and neurophysiological tests, allows us to complete the diagnostic picture.

  14. Central functions of the orexinergic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yang Zhang; Lei Yu; Qian-Xing Zhuang; Jing-Ning Zhu; Jian-Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide orexin is synthesized by neurons exclusively located in the hypothalamus.However,these neurons send axons over virtually the entire brain and spinal cord and therefore constitute a unique central orexinergic system.It is well known that central orexin plays a crucial role in the regulation of various basic non-somatic and somatic physiological functions,including feeding,energy homeostasis,the sleep/wake cycle,reward,addiction,and neuroendocrine,as well as motor control.Moreover,the absence of orexin results in narcolepsy-cataplexy,a simultaneous somatic and non-somatic dysfunction.In this review,we summarize these central functions of the orexinergic system and associated diseases,and suggest that this system may hold a key position in somatic-non-somatic integration.

  15. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  16. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  17. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  18. 75 FR 14436 - Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois Public Service Company, Ameren Energy Resources Company, LLC, AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company; Notice of Filing March 18, 2010. Take notice that on March 15, 2010, Ameren...

  19. Actual versus perceived central bank transparency: the case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Cruijsen; S. Eijffinger

    2008-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency literature the distinction between actual and perceived transparency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the actions of economic agents this distinct

  20. The primary Maxillary Central Incisor in the Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Balslev-Olesen, M

    2012-01-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor (SMMCI) is a developmental anomaly in the permanent dentition with one single central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This condition has been associated with extra- and intraoral malformations in the frontonasal segment of the c...

  1. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hall Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; i...

  2. [Centralization in obstetrics: pros and cons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, V M; Ramb, S

    1996-01-01

    Possible advantages and disadvantages of a general centralization of German obstetric facilities are analysed in the study. The need for centralization of risk cases, especially premature births (regionalization) is pointed out. Centralization appears appropriate, since every fifth maternity unit in Germany (19.78%) has 300 or fewer deliveries per year. This one fifth of perinatal clinics accounts for 6.3% of all deliveries (N = 49450). There are appreciable differences between the old and new federal states (Bundesländer): in the recently acceded federal states, 48.7% of all perinatal clinics have deliveries of 300 and less per year. This group of perinatal clinics accounts for 29% of all deliveries in the new federal states. We have carried out a survey of the mother's attitude to centralization: out of 416 patients in the Detmold women's hospital whose mean age was 29.0 +/- 4.2 years, 90.4% were not in favor of general centralization of obstetrics. 43% were also against a centralization of risk cases (regionalization). 75% of the women surveyed objected to centralized obstetrics because of the 'possible absence of the family', the 'possible absence of students and trainees' (44.9%), the 'unfamiliarity with staff and premises' (41.8%) and 'fear of anonymity' (44.5%). The majority of all women (84.1%) did not want to have a drive more than 20 km to an obstetrics center. Fear of 'delivery in a taxi'(78.6%), the 'fear that the husband will come too late to the delivery' (65.4%) and that the 'overall course of the delivery might not be adequate for reasons of time'. The presence of a pediatrics department in conjunction with the perinatal clinic was rated very positively (93%). It is concluded from the data and further juridical considerations that centralization of risk cases (regionalization) is indispensable in the near future and that somewhat more further into the future decentralization should be carried out by closing obstetrics departments with substantially

  3. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  4. Simulating central forces in the classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirregabiria, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    We describe the easy to customize and extend open source Java program Central force workbench that can be used in the classroom to simulate the motion of a particle (or a two-body system) under central forces. It may be useful to illustrate problems in which the analytical solution is not available as well as to help students to grasp a more intuitive understanding of the main features of this kind of problem and to realize the exceptional nature of the particular case of Newtonian (and harmonic) forces. We also include some suggestions on how to use the program as a pedagogical tool.

  5. Incoerenza temporale e indipendenza della banca centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Jossa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the author, the emphasis authors currently tend to place on the 'surprise effect' in order to argue for the independence of central banks is to a large extent unjustified. The main arguments for the independence of a cen-tral bank are others: firstly, the opinion that governments are induced to in-cur excessive expenditure due to reasons highlighted by public choice theo-rists and, secondly, the idea that inflation arises in connection with social conflict. Additionally, this study makes it clear that 'time inconsistency' theory is far from being a new way of stating old ideas.  JEL Codes: E58Keywords:

  6. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions. (author)

  7. Central helium density measurements in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central helium density in PLT has been deduced from measurements of the ratio of d-3He to d-d fusion reactions during deuterium neutral beam injection. The inward transport time for 3He puffed at the edge plasma was 10 → 30 msec. The decay time of the central 3He density increased with electron density, varying from 0.3 sec to greater than 1.0 sec over the density range of (1 → 5) x 1013 cm-3

  8. Centralized surveillance and control of satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, S. E.; McBeath, J. W.; Brostrup-Jensen, P.

    Satellite based services and networks are increasing in number. This paper describes how such networks can be operated efficiently using software based systems to do satellite transmission surveillance and remote earth station status, alarm and control monitoring at a centralized operations control center. Arrangements are available to accomplish real time, customer controlled configuration of space segments and earth station equipment. Application of the system elements satellite transmission surveillance, alarm and control central, earth station remote, and customer control terminals - to a number of typical networks is described.

  9. Centralized vs. Distributed Databases. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Magdalena Iacob

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in information technology domain and implicit in databases domain can be noticed two apparently contradictory approaches: centralization and distribution respectively. Although both aim to produce some benefits, it is a known fact that for any advantage a price must be paid. In addition, in this paper we have presented a case study, e-learning portal performance optimization by using distributed databases technology. In the stage of development in which institutions have branches distributed over a wide geographic area, distributed database systems become more appropriate to use, because they offer a higher degree of flexibility and adaptability then centralized ones.

  10. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults from...... an uptake area of 2.4 million in Denmark were included at admission to a regional brain injury unit (BIU), on average 19 days after injury. Patients in the retrospective study used for comparison were randomly chosen from the national hospital register. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Out of 117 patients...

  11. Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kosanović-Jaković Natalija; Petrović Lidija; Risimić Dijana; Milenković Svetislav; Matić Danica

    2005-01-01

    Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. ...

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Ullah; Dino Bindi; Marco Pilz; Laurentiu Danciu; Graeme Weatherill; Elisa Zuccolo; Anatoly Ischuk; Natalya N. Mikhailova; Kanat Abdrakhmatov; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999), aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probabili...

  13. Progress in ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Haruyama, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Mine, S; Wada, K; Meguro, S; Sotoki, T; Kikuchi, K; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet is being developed to provide a magnetic field of 2 Tesla in the central tracking volume of the ATLAS detector under construction at the CERN/LHC project. The solenoid coil design features high-strength aluminum stabilized superconductor to make the coil thinnest while maintaining its stability and the pure-aluminum strip technique for quench protection and safety. The solenoid coil is installed in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter in order to minimize the cryostat wall. A transparency of 0.66 radiation length is achieved with these integrated efforts. The progress in the solenoid coil fabrication is reported. (8 refs).

  14. The Boolean algebra and central Galois algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B∣bx=g(xb   for all   x∈B} for g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg. Then a relation is given between the set of elements in the Boolean algebra (Ba,≤ generated by {0,eg∣g∈G} and a set of subgroups of G, and a central Galois algebra Be with a Galois subgroup of G is characterized for an e∈Ba.

  15. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  16. China-Central Asia Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The China-Central Asia Friendship Association(CCAFA) held its inaugural meeting in Beijing on December 18,2007. The CCAFA,founded at the initiation of the CPAFFC,is a national non-profit social organization with legal person status.It aims to further expand people-to-people contact between China and the five Central Asian countries,namely Kazakhstan,Kirghizstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan,enhance regional cooperation and deepen good-neighbourly relations so as to consolidate the social foundation for lasting friendship between China and these countries and promote common development.

  17. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...... exhibiting various tradeoffs with respect to performance. Two of the algorithms are cache-oblivious. We describe general algorithms for networks with weighted and unweighted edges and a specialized algorithm for networks with small diameters, as is common in social networks exhibiting the “small worlds...

  18. Synaptic transmission changes in fear memory circuits underlie key features of an animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Marie; Varin, Christophe; Hrupka, Brian; Pemberton, Darrel J; Steckler, Thomas; Shaban, Hamdy

    2012-02-01

    Non-competitive antagonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) such as phencyclidine (PCP) elicit schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals. Similarly, PCP dosing in rats produces typical behavioral phenotypes that mimic human schizophrenia symptoms. Although schizophrenic behavioral phenotypes of the PCP model have been extensively studied, the underlying alterations of intrinsic neuronal properties and synaptic transmission in relevant limbic brain microcircuits remain elusive. Acute brain slice electrophysiology and immunostaining of inhibitory neurons were used to identify neuronal circuit alterations of the amygdala and hippocampus associated with changes in extinction of fear learning in rats following PCP treatment. Subchronic PCP application led to impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and marked increases in the ratio of NMDA to 2-amino-3(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated currents at lateral amygdala (LA) principal neurons without alterations in parvalbumin (PV) as well as non-PV, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD 67) immunopositive neurons. In addition, LTP was impaired at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 hippocampal pathway coincident with a reduction in colocalized PV and GAD67 immunopositive neurons in the CA3 hippocampal area. These effects occurred without changes in spontaneous events or intrinsic membrane properties of principal cells in the LA. The impairment of LTP at both amygdalar and hippocampal microcircuits, which play a key role in processing relevant survival information such as fear and extinction memory concurred with a disruption of extinction learning of fear conditioned responses. Our results show that subchronic PCP administration in rats impairs synaptic functioning in the amygdala and hippocampus as well as processing of fear-related memories. PMID:22085880

  19. Centrality measures for networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Anurag; Cherifi, Hocine

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the network structure, and finding out the influential nodes is a challenging issue in large networks. Identifying the most influential nodes in a network can be useful in many applications like immunization of nodes in case of epidemic spreading, during intentional attacks on complex networks. A lot of research is being done to devise centrality measures which could efficiently identify the most influential nodes in a network. There are two major approaches to this problem: On one hand, deterministic strategies that exploit knowledge about the overall network topology, while on the other end, random strategies are completely agnostic about the network structure. Centrality measures that can deal with a limited knowledge of the network structure are of prime importance. Indeed, in practice, information about the global structure of the overall network is rarely available or hard to acquire. Even if available, the structure of the network might be too large that it is too much computationally expensive to calculate global centrality measures. To that end, a centrality measure is proposed here that requires information only at the community level. Indeed, most of the real-world networks exhibit a community structure that can be exploited efficiently to discover the influential nodes. We performed a comparative evaluation of prominent global deterministic strategies together with stochastic strategies, an available and the proposed deterministic community-based strategy. Effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by performing experiments on synthetic and real-world networks with community structure in the case of immunization of nodes for epidemic control.

  20. Central Endoscopy Reading in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panés, Julián; Feagan, Brian G; Hussain, Fez; Levesque, Barrett G; Travis, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic assessment of the presence and severity of endoscopic lesions has become an essential part of clinical trials in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, for both patient eligibility and outcome measures. Variability in lesion interpretation between and within observers and the potential bias of local investigators in patient assessment have long been recognized. This variability can be reduced, although not completely removed, by independent evaluation of the examinations by experienced off-site (central) readers, properly trained in regard to lesion definition and identification, that should be removed from direct patient contact and blinded to any other clinical or study data. Adding endoscopic demonstration of active disease to eligibility criteria has the potential to reduce placebo response rates, whereas in outcome assessment it has the potential to provide a more precise estimation of the treatment effect, increasing the efficiency of the study. Central endoscopy reading is still at the beginning of its development, and the paradigms of central reading need refinement in terms of the number of readers, the process by which a final score is assigned, the selection and sequence of central readers, and the endoscopic indices of choice. PMID:27604978

  1. Central Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis in Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvrendu Sankar Kar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 15 years male presented with fever, convulsion, unconsciousness and dystonia of acute onset. He was investigated and treated. MRI brain shows central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. Osmotic injury, Wilson's disease and other possibilities were excluded by clinical findings with supportive investigations. Patient was improved satisfactorily with treatment. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 420-421

  2. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  3. Caupolicana in Central America (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Diphaglossinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Michener

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Caupolicana (Zikanapis wileyi n. sp. from Guatemala is described. New locality records are noted for other species, and the hitherto unknown female of C. (Z. rozenorum Michener, Engel, and Ayala from Guatemala is described. A key for the identification of Central American Caupolicana is provided.

  4. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  5. On the dimension of twisted centralizer codes

    OpenAIRE

    Glasby, S. P.; Praeger, Cheryl E.; Alahmadi, Adel

    2016-01-01

    Given a field $F$, a scalar $\\lambda\\in F$ and a matrix $A\\in F^{n\\times n}$, the twisted centralizer code $C_F(A,\\lambda):=\\{B\\in F^{n\\times n}\\mid AB-\\lambda BA=0\\}$ is a linear code of length $n^2$. When $A$ is cyclic and $\\lambda\

  6. Stochastic modelling of central heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    and the degree Erhvervsforsker (a special Danish degree, equivalent to ``Industrial Ph.D.''). The thesis is mainly concerned with experimental design and system identification for individual components in water based central heating systems. The main contribution to this field is on the nonlinear dynamic...

  7. Exercise, Stress Resistance, and Central Serotonergic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in humans and prevents serotonin-dependent behavioral consequences of stress in rodents. Evidence reviewed herein is consistent with the hypothesis that exercise increases stress resistance by producing neuroplasticity at multiple sites of the central serotonergic system, which all help to limit the behavioral impact of acute increases in serotonin during stressor exposure.

  8. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led t...

  9. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  10. Notes on Central Asian dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl Jr., J.W.

    2000-01-01

    New and old material from Central Asia is published. In total 38 species are recorded from various locations in this region. For the more interesting species notes and figures are provided. One probably new Ischnura species is briefly described, but not formally named. For a, possibly new, subspecie

  11. THE LICHENS OF NORTH CENTRAL OKLAHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARVIN WENDELL KECK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 1,000 specimens of lichens were collected at 78 collecting stations in 11 counties of North Central Oklahoma during 1959 and 1960. The objectives were to identify lichens collected in the area; to establish a record of lichen distribution for each county in the area; and to analyze the ecological relationships.

  12. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  13. Stone age transitions. Neolithisation in central Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Knutsson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A summary of a series of individual research projects focused on the processes from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic in central Scandinavia. The projects were embeded in the "Coast to Coast project". The historicity in this process was emphasised.

  14. Best Minds Sought for Central Office, Startups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    The central office isn't being overlooked in the movement to find and develop top talent for school districts. Although ways to recruit, groom, and keep top teachers and strong principals tend to dominate discussions of "human capital" needs in education, a handful of nonprofit organizations and foundations also see providing smart managers as…

  15. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  16. Ablated tektite from the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glass, B.P.; Chapman, D.R.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    A well-preserved ablated (button-shaped) tektite recovered from the surface sediments of the central Indian Ocean lacks flow ridges and has apparently undergone ablation of 6.9 to 7.9 mm. The lack of flow ridges and amount of ablation indicate that...

  17. Petrology of tectonically segmented Central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Distribution and mineralogy of various rock types along the 4200-km-long slow-spreading Central Indian Ridge, between Owen fracture zone in the north and Indian Ocean triple junction in the south, is studied in the light of ridge segmentation...

  18. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. van der Linden; R.R. Jansen; D. Bresters; C.E. Visser; S.E. Geerlings; E.J. Kuijper; W.J.G. Melchers; P.E. Verweij

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  19. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  20. Larger foraminifera from Central Falcon (Venezuela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Nettie E.; Vlerk, van der I.M.

    1931-01-01

    Dr. H. G. Kugler, chief geologist of the North Venezuelan Petroleum Company, at Puerto Cabello, entrusted us with the examination of a collection of larger foraminifera, selected from material collected by the geologists of this Company in Central Falcon. Dr. A. Senn kindly added material that had a

  1. Volkswagen Sets up Central Lab in BRICI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On June 2, Volkswagen Corp of Germany settled its Chinese central laboratory in Sinopec Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry (BRICI). This is the top-level lab of Volkswagen in Asia - Pacific region and it marks another close cooperation between Volkswagen Corp of Germany and Sinopec Corp.

  2. Notes on Central Asian dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Schoorl Jr., J.W.

    2000-01-01

    New and old material from Central Asia is published. In total 38 species are recorded from various locations in this region. For the more interesting species notes and figures are provided. One probably new Ischnura species is briefly described, but not formally named. For a, possibly new, subspecies of Sympetrum sinaiticum Dumont, 1977, a short diagnosis with figures is provided.

  3. Enhancing the Capability of Central Finance Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Richard; Grigoli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    A well-organized and effective finance ministry and its associated central finance agencies (CFAs) are essential to good fiscal outcomes. Recent studies of CFAs in selected low-income countries demonstrate that their organizational structure varies widely and that decision making on public finance is strongly influenced by political economy factors. This note presents some common themes ar...

  4. Central Virginia Community College 1999 Fact Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Geoffrey

    The Fact Book is an annual publication of the Office of Research, Assessment and Planning at Central Virginia Community College (CVCC). It includes data and trends from 1994-1998 and is divided into six parts: (1) "The College" includes information on the College Board, institutional history, facilities, mission and goals, revenues and…

  5. The ultimate determinants of central bank independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Schaling, E.

    1995-01-01

    Using a graphical method, a new way of determining the optimal degree of central bank conservativeness is developed in this paper. Unlike Lohmann (1992) and Rogoff (1985), we are able to express the upper and lower bounds of the interval containing the optimal degree of conservativeness in terms of

  6. Gabapentin inhibits central sensitization during migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbo Zhang; Guo Shao; Wei Zhang; Sijie Li; Jingzhong Niu; Dongmei Hu; Mingfeng Yang; Xunming Ji

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral and central sensitizations are phenomena that occur during migraine. The role of pentin, a migraine preventive drug, on central sensitization remains unclear. In this study, a rat model of migraine was established by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion, and the an-imals were given intragastric gabapentin. Changes in amino acid content in the cerebrospinal fluid and protein kinase C membrane translocation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus were examined to clarify the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of gabapentin in the treatment of central sensitization during migraine. Electrophysiology, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and western blot analysis results revealed that gabapentin reduces neuronal excitability in the spinal nucleus in the trigeminal nerve, decreases excitatory amino acid content and inhibits the activation of protein ki-nase C. This provides evidence that excitatory amino acids and protein kinase C are involved in the formation and maintenance of central sensitization during migraine. Gabapentin inhibits migraine by reducing excitatory amino acid content in the cerebrospinal fluid and inhibiting protein kinase C ac-tivation.

  7. Central rotations of Milky Way Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fabricius, Maximilian H; Rukdee, Surangkhana; Saglia, Roberto P; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Thomas, Jens; Opitsch, Michael; Williams, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Most Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit measurable flattening, even if on a very low level. Both cluster rotation and tidal fields are thought to cause this flattening. Nevertheless, rotation has only been confirmed in a handful of GCs, based mostly on individual radial velocities at large radii. We are conducting a survey of the central kinematics of Galactic GCs using the new Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W. We detect rotation in all 11 GCs that we have observed so far, rendering it likely that a large majority of the Milky Way GCs rotate. We use published catalogs of the ACS survey of GCs to derive central ellipticities and position angles. We show that in all cases where the central ellipticity permits an accurate measurement of the position angle, those angles are in excellent agreement with the kinematic position angles that we derive from the VIRUS-W velocity fields. We find an unexpected tight correlation between central rotation and outer ellipticity, indicating that rotation drives fla...

  8. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  9. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka;

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  10. Quantum Central Processing Unit and Quantum Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安民

    2002-01-01

    Based on a scalable and universal quantum network, quantum central processing unit, proposed in our previous paper [Chin. Phys. Left. 18 (2001)166], the whole quantum network for the known quantum algorithms,including quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm, is obtained in a unitied way.

  11. Fat graft myringoplasty in small central perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perforations of the tympanic membrane (TM are treated with various surgical techniques and materials. Although autologous temporalis fascia is the most common material used for the closure of TM perforations, however for a dry, small central perforation the fat graft myringoplasty (FM is a good alternative as it is a simple and cost-effective technique. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of FM for repair of small central perforations. Suggestions for optimizing the outcome of FM are presented. Material and Methods: Twenty patients (10 males and 10 females who had uncomplicated dry small central perforation, which was confined to one quadrant of the pars tensa underwent FM. The outcome was evaluated after 1-week, 1-month, and 3 months. Results: After 3 months of follow-up, a closure rate of 80% was achieved. Mean preoperative air-bone (AB gap was 22.90 ± 6.54 dB and mean postoperative AB gap was 21.80 ± 6.28 dB. Mean improvement in AB gap postoperatively was 1.1 ± 2.63 dB. Conclusion: Fat graft myringoplasty, with its ease of technique and good graft uptake rate justifies its use in the closure of small dry central TM perforations.

  12. The Marstal Central Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Jochen, Dahm

    1999-01-01

    The central solar heating plant in Marstal is running since 1996 and has been monitored since. The resulting data from the plant is analysed and the plant performance evaluated. A TRNSYS-model (computersimulation) id prepared and validated based on the measured data from the plant. Acceptable good...

  13. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  14. Dust on UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    In March 1982 the central derector of UA1 was contaminated by dirt in the compressed air used for cooling during the bakeout of the beam pipe. The lengthy cleaning imposed a change of the collider schedule (Annual Report 1982 p. 114).

  15. Financial Stability and Central Bank Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, Michael; Roszbach, Kasper; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The financial crisis has ignited a debate about the appropriate objectives and the governance structure of Central Banks. We use novel survey data to investigate the relation between these traits and banking system stability focusing in particular on their role in micro-prudential supervision. We fi

  16. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  17. Clinical analysis and treatment of central pain due to headinjury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Central pain is induced by the involvement of the abnormal pain pathway due to diseases of the central nervous system. Central pain after brain trauma is common clinically, but it is often misdiagnosed and neglected because of lack of objective disturbances. We treated 20 cases of central pain after head injury by invigorating blood circulation and satisfactory result was obtained.

  18. Clinical significance of central corneal thickness and comparison of central corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çakıcı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Significance of central corneal thickness has been increasing in ophthalmology practice. It is an important clinical evaluation tool especially prior to refractive surgery and in diagnosis of glaucoma and keratoconus. Refractive surgery is planned according to preoperative central corneal thickness measurements. Besides, in order to determine actual intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness is measured and corrected eye pressure is obtained. Today, devices used in measurement of central corneal thickness do the measurement according to two principles. First and relatively older method is ultrasonic method. Optic method is the second and more recent method. In daily practice, the most commonly used clinical method in measurement of central corneal thickness is ultrasound pachymeter. However, this measurement technique requires contact between cornea and probe and gives thinner measurement results compared to the methods that use optic principle. Recently, several technologic methods based on optics have been put in use; they provide advantages of non-contact technique and objective determination of central corneal thickness. Of these methods, most commonly used include Specular Microscopy, Optical coherence tomography, Laser Doppler Interferometry, Optical low coherence reflectometry pachymetry, Optic based topographic mapping (also called screening section pachymetry and Pentacam. In this article, it was aimed to evaluate importance of central corneal thickness in clinical use and compare measurement methods. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 153-158

  19. Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Versus Agenesis of the Maxillary Central Incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; Arid, Juliana; De Rossi, Andiara; Paula-Silva, Francisco W G; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is rare and affected individuals may carry a potentially serious condition known as SMMCI syndrome. However, many of these cases do not receive proper attention because they are misdiagnosed as agenesis of the maxillary central incisor. The purpose of this manuscript is to report two cases of children with only one maxillary central incisor and draw diagnostic differences between the entities. A correct diagnosis is very important because if an SMMCI is confirmed, the patient should be referred for genetic counseling. PMID:27098718

  20. Harada Group Uniquely Determined by Centralizer of a 2-Central Involution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Kratzer; G.O. Michler; M. Weller

    2003-01-01

    In this article we show that the sporadic simple Harada group G is uniquely determined up to isomorphism by the centralizer CG(z) of a 2-central involution z of G. This strengthens Y. Segev's uniqueness theorem [24] which required the known structure of the centralizers of two non-conjugate involutions.Using the second author's algorithm [19], we also provide a self-contained existence proof for the Harada group G by giving matrix generators inside GL133(19).Furthermore, the character table of G is determined and representatives for the conjugacy classes of the group are given as short words in the generating matrices.

  1. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were

  2. THE ALLIANCE TRACHYNION DISTACHYAE RIVAS-MARTINEZ 1978 IN CENTRAL ITALYIN CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DE SANCTIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The therophytic basiphilous vegetation of Central Italy has been generally framed in a single association Trifolio scabri- Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Biondi et al. 1997. We show that a considerable floristic variation exists inside Trifolio-Hypochoeridetum in Central Italy, and that it should be treated as a complex of no less than five different associations: Medicagini rigidulae-Trifolietum scabri Fanelli et al. hoc loco, Trifolio scabri-Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Biondi, Izco. Ballelli & Formica 1997 s.s, Hippocrepido siliquosae- Brachypodietum distachyi Fanelli et al. ad interim, Trigonello gladiatae-Brachypodietum distachyi Fanelli et al. hoc loc, Crucianello latifoliae-Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Filesi, Blasi, Di Marzio 1996. These associations are floristically and ecologically distinct, and show different geographical ranges in Central Italy. The great diversity of Trachynion distachyae in Central Italy is related to the widespread occurrence of limestone and calcareous alluvial rocks and to a climate with abundant winter and autumn rains very favourable to the development of winter annuals.

  3. Central Asia's raging waters the prospects of water conflict in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, William B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in Central Asia. The thesis analyzes the three most recent political eras of Central Asia, Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and independence, utilizing indicators of water tensions including: water quality, water quantity, the management of water for multiple uses, the political divisions and geopolitical setting, state institutions and national water ethos. Although water is not likely to be the sole cause of a majo...

  4. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: focus on the central melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong; Elmquist, Joel K.; Fukuda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose and energy balance. In addition, we will discuss distinct neuronal populations that respond to central melanocortins to regulate food intak...

  5. FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE CENTRAL BANK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  6. Financial Crisis and the Central Bank System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD POSPISIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  7. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Spiegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective, neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system, or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system. The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Pigarova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes insipidus represents a serious disease that dramatically interferes with the everyday life of patients due to the need to constantly replenish of fluid lost in the urine, which comes amid shortage of synthesis, secretion or action of pituitary hormone vasopressin. The main difficulty is the differential diagnosis of types of diabetes insipidus in patients with the syndrome of polydipsia-polyuria as the correct differential diagnosis of these forms predetermine the safety and efficacy of further treatment. This lecture presents the current concepts of etiology, diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus (CDI. We give the comparative characteristics of various preparations of desmopressin for the treatment of the central form of the disease. We also consider the features of the management of selected patient populations with CDI: during pregnancy and lactation, pathology of the thirst sensation, after traumatic brain injury and neurosurgery.

  9. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species are being reported for the first time from the region. The commercial button mushroom Agaricus bisporus lacks good breeding characters due to its bisporic nature. These wild cousins of the button mushroom can definitely prove to be a good source of genetic manipulations to the existing strains and also to develop new strains with improved characters.

  10. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  11. Hydropower development in the Central Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N. (Irrigation Design Organization, Rourkee (India))

    1992-10-01

    The Central Himalayas comprise eight hill districts of the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. These mountains are the source of the Ganga and its main tributaries: the Yamuna, Ramganga and Sarda rivers. The identified hydro potential of the Ganga, Yamuna, Sarda and their tributaries in the Central Himalayas is about 30 000 MW, with an annual average energy potential of 100 TWh. The projects which have been completed so far have only developed 3.2 per cent of this potential. The projects which are now under construction will exploit another 10.4 per cent of the potential. Thus, the untapped potential is as much as 85 per cent of the total. The minor tributaries also offer vast potential for mini and micro hydroelectric stations. In most conservative estimates, this potential is about 2000 MW. (author).

  12. [Central nervous system tumors in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podciechowski, Lech; Nowakowska, Dorota; Bielak, Adam; Nowosławska, Emilia; Szymański, Wojciech; Polis, Lech; Krasomski, Grzechorz; Fiks, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jan

    2003-12-01

    Central nervous system tumour in pregnancy constitutes a serious complication. Considering frequent difficulties in diagnostics and therapy, the aim of the study was to present our experience in management with pregnant women with brain and spinal cord tumours. Between 1988-2000, in The Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital in Lodzi, 4 pregnant women had been diagnosed with brain and spinal cord tumours. The incidence of tumours complicating pregnancy was 1/11460. Two patients diagnosed at 29 weeks' gestation, underwent craniotomy and tumour resection during pregnancy. Two other women with central nervous system tumours diagnosed at 39 weeks' gestation, were operated in the postpartum period. The analysis of the postoperative period, gestation and/or postpartum period in all women and well-being of their new-borns confirm undertaken medical decisions. PMID:15029742

  13. Spherical explosion with central energy source

    CERN Document Server

    Masuyama, Miyu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution describing the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements to satisfy boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus derived applicable range, and compare with the semi-analytic solutions.

  14. Spherical explosion with a central energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Miyu; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution that describes the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements needed to satisfy the boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus-derived applicable range, and compare the results with the semi-analytic solutions.

  15. A study of Central Exclusive Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monk, James; /Manchester U.

    2008-09-01

    Central exclusive production of a system X in a collision between two hadrons h is defined as hh {yields} h + X + h with no other activity apart from the decay products of X. This thesis presents predictions for the production cross section of a CP violating supersymmetric Higgs boson and the radion of the Randall-Sundrum model. The ExHuME Monte Carlo generator was written to simulate central exclusive processes and is described and explored. A comparison to di-jet observations made by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, Fermilab between January and June 2004 is made and the distributions found support the predictions of ExHuME.

  16. Centralizers in simple locally finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kuzucuoğlu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey article on centralizers of finitesubgroups in locally finite, simple groups or LFS-groups as wewill call them. We mention some of the open problems aboutcentralizers of subgroups in LFS-groups and applications of theknown information about the centralizers of subgroups to thestructure of the locally finite group. We also prove thefollowing: Let $G$ be a countably infinite non-linear LFS-groupwith a Kegel sequence $mathcal{K}={(G_i,N_i | iinmathbf{N} }$. If there exists an upper bound for ${ |N_i| |iin mathbf{N} }$, then for any finite semisimplesubgroup $F$ in $G$ the subgroup $C_G(F$ has elements oforder $p_i$ for infinitely many distinct prime $p_i$. Inparticular $C_G(F$ is an infinite group. This answers Hartley'squestion provided that there exists a bound on ${ |N_i| | iin mathbf{N}$.

  17. Infections associated with the central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasković, Biljana; Fabri, Izabella; Benka, Anna Uram; Rakić, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Central venous catheters are of an essential importance to critically ill patients who require long-term venous access for various purposes. Their use made the treatment much easier, but still they are not harmless and are prone to numerous complications. Catheter infections represent the most significant complication in their use. The frequency of infections varies in different patient care settings, but their appearance mostly depends on the patient's health condition, catheter insertion time, localization of the catheter and type of the used catheter. Since they are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and related to significant number of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, it is very important that maximal aseptic precautions are taken during the insertion and the maintenance period. Prevention of infection of the central venous catheters demands several measures that should be applied routinely.

  18. Expansion of museums in Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagodzińska, Katarzyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents reflections on the specificity of collections and museums of contemporary art in Central Europe and considers a possibility of creating a regional alternative for the West. The analysis is conducted in the context of the expansionist policy of contemporary museums – notably the Louvre, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the Hermitage – whose numerous new development projects gave rise to a number of dilemmas in the museological world. The author discusses global "museum brands" that invest in Central Europe and addresses the possible profits of the expansion of such "concerns" for culture in the region, as well as emphasises the potential of the region itself, which may be used for its development without the avail of the internationally renowned collectors' names.

  19. Iowa Central Quality Fuel Testing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heach, Don; Bidieman, Julaine

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project is to finalize the creation of an independent quality fuel testing laboratory on the campus of Iowa Central Community College in Fort Dodge, Iowa that shall provide the exploding biofuels industry a timely and cost-effective centrally located laboratory to complete all state and federal fuel and related tests that are required. The recipient shall work with various state regulatory agencies, biofuel companies and state and national industry associations to ensure that training and testing needs of their members and American consumers are met. The recipient shall work with the Iowa Department of Ag and Land Stewardship on the development of an Iowa Biofuel Quality Standard along with the Development of a standard that can be used throughout industry.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of Centralized Dynamic Cell Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Pedersen, Klaus I.;

    2016-01-01

    and a suboptimal optimization algorithm that nearly achieves the performance of the optimal Hungarian assignment. Moreover, an exhaustive sensitivity analysis with different network and traffic configurations is carried out in order to understand what conditions are more appropriate for the use of the proposed...... with two different traffic models, and it is not necessary to be able to connect to a large number of cells in order to reap most of the benefits of the centralized dynamic cell selection.......Centralized architectures with fronthauls can be used to deal with some of the problems inherently associated with dense small cell deployments. This study examines a joint cell assignment and scheduling solution for the downlink to increase the users’ data rates, based on cell switching...