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Sample records for central nucleus icc

  1. Classifiers for centrality determination in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Altsybeev Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrality, as a geometrical property of the collision, is crucial for the physical interpretation of nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus experimental data. However, it cannot be directly accessed in event-by-event data analysis. Common methods for centrality estimation in A-A and p-A collisions usually rely on a single detector (either on the signal in zero-degree calorimeters or on the multiplicity in some semi-central rapidity range. In the present work, we made an attempt to develop an approach for centrality determination that is based on machine-learning techniques and utilizes information from several detector subsystems simultaneously. Different event classifiers are suggested and evaluated for their selectivity power in terms of the number of nucleons-participants and the impact parameter of the collision. Finer centrality resolution may allow to reduce impact from so-called volume fluctuations on physical observables being studied in heavy-ion experiments like ALICE at the LHC and fixed target experiment NA61/SHINE on SPS.

  2. Interacting gluon model for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the central rapidity region

    Fowler, G.N.; Navarra, F.S.; Plumer, M.; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, California 94720); Vourdas, A.; Weiner, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The interacting gluon model developed to describe the inelasticity distribution in hadron-nucleon collisions has been generalized and applied to hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. Leading particle spectra and energy distributions in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated

  3. Role of amygdala central nucleus in feature negative discriminations

    Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with a popular theory of associative learning, the Pearce-Hall (1980) model, the surprising omission of expected events enhances cue associability (the ease with which a cue may enter into new associations), across a wide variety of behavioral training procedures. Furthermore, previous experiments from this laboratory showed that these enhancements are absent in rats with impaired function of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA). A notable exception to these assertions is found in feature negative (FN) discrimination learning, in which a “target” stimulus is reinforced when it is presented alone but nonreinforced when it is presented in compound with another, “feature” stimulus. According to the Pearce-Hall model, reinforcer omission on compound trials should enhance the associability of the feature relative to control training conditions. However, prior experiments have shown no evidence that CeA lesions affect FN discrimination learning. Here we explored this apparent contradiction by evaluating the hypothesis that the surprising omission of an event confers enhanced associability on a cue only if that cue itself generates the disconfirmed prediction. Thus, in a FN discrimination, the surprising omission of the reinforcer on compound trials would enhance the associability of the target stimulus but not that of the feature. Our data confirmed this hypothesis, and showed this enhancement to depend on intact CeA function, as in other procedures. The results are consistent with modern reformulations of both cue and reward processing theories that assign roles for both individual and aggregate error terms in associative learning. PMID:22889308

  4. An autoradiographic study of the projections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala

    Price, J.L.; Amaral, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The efferent connections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala have been studied using the autoradiographic method for tracing axonal projections. Small injections of 3H-amino-acids which are largely confined to the central nucleus lead to the labeling of several brainstem nuclei as far caudally as the spinomedullary junction. A number of intra-amygdaloid connections between the basal and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the central nucleus are also described. The present findings, taken together with recently reported widespread projections from the temporal association cortex to the amygdala, point out a potentially trisynaptic route between neocortical association regions and a variety of brainstem nuclei, many of which are related to autonomic function

  5. Multiplicity distributions in small phase-space domains in central nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Baechler, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Runge, K.; Schmoetten, E.; Bartke, J.; Gladysz, E.; Kowalski, M.; Stefanski, P.; Bialkowska, H.; Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.; Sandoval, A.; Buncic, P.; Ferenc, D.; Kadija, K.; Ljubicic, A. Jr.; Vranic, D.; Chase, S.I.; Harris, J.W.; Odyniec, G.; Pugh, H.G.; Rai, G.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tonse, S.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Gebauer, H.J.; Rauch, W.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Vesztergombi, G.; Eschke, J.; Heck, W.; Kabana, S.; Kuehmichel, A.; Lahanas, M.; Lee, Y.; Le Vine, M.; Margetis, S.; Renfordt, R.; Roehrich, D.; Rothard, H.; Schmidt, E.; Schneider, I.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wenig, S.; Fleischmann, B.; Fuchs, M.; Gazdzicki, M.; Kosiec, J.; Skrzypczak, E.; Keidel, R.; Piper, A.; Puehlhofer, F.; Nappi, E.; Posa, F.; Paic, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Vassileiadis, G.; Pfenning, J.; Wosiek, B.

    1992-10-01

    Multiplicity distributions of negatively charged particles have been studied in restricted phase space intervals for central S + S, O + Au and S + Au collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon. It is shown that multiplicity distributions are well described by a negative binomial form irrespectively of the size and dimensionality of phase space domain. A clan structure analysis reveals interesting similarities between complex nuclear collisions and a simple partonic shower. The lognormal distribution agrees reasonably well with the multiplicity data in large domains, but fails in the case of small intervals. No universal scaling function was found to describe the shape of multiplicity distributions in phase space intervals of varying size. (orig.)

  6. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-01-01

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year''s prototypes, the application functionality needed for test will be provided by sample maintenance controls. These are early precursors of controls that can be used for low level device control. Since the devices under test will be represented by

  7. Hearing assessment during deep brain stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and dentate cerebellar nucleus in rat

    Jasper V. Smit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently it has been shown in animal studies that deep brain stimulation (DBS of auditory structures was able to reduce tinnitus-like behavior. However, the question arises whether hearing might be impaired when interfering in auditory-related network loops with DBS. Methods The auditory brainstem response (ABR was measured in rats during high frequency stimulation (HFS and low frequency stimulation (LFS in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC, n = 5 or dentate cerebellar nucleus (DCBN, n = 5. Besides hearing thresholds using ABR, relative measures of latency and amplitude can be extracted from the ABR. In this study ABR thresholds, interpeak latencies (I–III, III–V, I–V and V/I amplitude ratio were measured during off-stimulation state and during LFS and HFS. Results In both the CIC and the CNBN groups, no significant differences were observed for all outcome measures. Discussion DBS in both the CIC and the CNBN did not have adverse effects on hearing measurements. These findings suggest that DBS does not hamper physiological processing in the auditory circuitry.

  8. [Morphometric features of the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women].

    Antyukhov, A D

    2015-01-01

    To identify the interhemispheric asymmetry in the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women. Morphometric features of the structure of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex were studied in histological sections of the brain of 6 men and 6 women (24 hemispheres), aged 19 to 55 years, with no lifetime diagnosis of mental or neurological disease. The value of the profile fields of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex in the left and right hemispheres of the brain were investigated. In women, the average value of neurons in the left hemisphere was somewhat greater than in the right hemisphere, while in men this value was greater in the right hemisphere. The interhemispheric morphometric differences were not significant regardless of gender. In addition, the quantity of relevant fields of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala in women was significantly larger than that of men in both hemispheres. The authors attempted to associate the results obtained in the study with emotional perception in men and women.

  9. Noradrenergic Activation of Hypoglossal Nucleus Modulates the Central Regulation of Genioglossus in Chronic Intermittent Hypoxic Rats

    Wei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular compensation of the genioglossus muscle can be induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH in obstructive sleep apnea to maintain upper airway stability. Noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal nucleus plays a critical role in the central control of the genioglossus. However, it remains unknown whether norepinephrine takes part in the central regulation of the genioglossus during CIH. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 32 were studied to explore the influence of noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal nucleus on the central control of the genioglossus at different stages of CIH. The rats were divided into four groups: normal control or normoxic (NO group, CIH group, CIH + normal saline (NS group, and CIH + prazosin (PZ, α1-adrenergic antagonist group. PZ (0.2 mM, 60 nl and NS (0.9%, 60 nl were microinjected into the hypoglossal nucleus. The responses of the genioglossus corticomotor area to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS were recorded on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day of CIH. The CIH group showed significantly shorter TMS latencies on days 1, 7, and 14 (3.85 ± 0.37 vs. 4.58 ± 0.42, 3.93 ± 0.17 vs. 4.49 ± 0.55, 3.79 ± 0.38 vs. 4.39 ± 0.30 ms, P < 0.05, and higher TMS amplitudes on day 1 (2.74 ± 0.87 vs. 1.60 ± 0.52 mV, P < 0.05 of CIH than the NO group. Compared to the CIH + NS group, the CIH + PZ group showed decreased TMS responses (longer latencies and lower amplitudes only on the 14th day of CIH (3.99 ± 0.28 vs. 4.61 ± 0.48 ms, 2.51 ± 0.67 vs. 1.18 ± 0.62 mV, P < 0.05. These results indicated that noradrenergic activation of the hypoglossal nucleus played a role in the central compensation of genioglossus through α1-adrenoceptor on the 14th day of CIH.

  10. Color management understanding and using ICC profiles

    Green, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Color Management serves as a comprehensive guide to the implementation of the ICC (International Color Consortium) profile specification, widely used for maintaining color fidelity across multi-media imaging devices and software. The book draws together many of the White Papers produced by the ICC to promote the use of color management and disseminate good practice; the ICC specification has become widely accepted within the color industry, and these papers have been updated, expanded and edited for this collection. Other chapters comprise material that will go on to form future ICC Whi

  11. Study of Λ-production in central nucleus-nucleus interactions at the momentum of 4.6 GeV/c per incident nucleon

    Anikina, M.; Golokhvastov, A.; Goncharova, L.

    1983-01-01

    Transverse momenta and rapidities of Λ particles produced in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon (cC, CNe, ONe, CCu, CZr, CPb, OPb) have been studied and compared with those from ineiolastic He-Li interactns at the same incident momentum. Polarization of Λ hyperons was found to be consistent (within the errors) with zero (αP=-0.06+-0.11) for 224 Λ particles from central collisions. The upper limit of anti Λ/Λ production ratio was estimated to be less than 10 -2 at a 90% confidence level. The analyzed experimental data were obtained using the triggered 2 m streamer spectrometer SKM-200

  12. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of amygdala regulates the anxiolytic effect of agmatine in rats.

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Bharne, Ashish P; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, modulation of anxiolytic action of agmatine by neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is evaluated employing Vogel's conflict test (VCT) in rats. The intra-CeA administration of agmatine (0.6 and 1.2µmol/rat), NPY (10 and 20pmol/rat) or NPY Y1/Y5 receptors agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (30 and 60pmol/rat) significantly increased the number of punished drinking licks following 15min of treatment. Combination treatment of subeffective dose of NPY (5pmol/rat) or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (15pmol/rat) and agmatine (0.3µmol/rat) produced synergistic anxiolytic-like effect. However, intra-CeA administration of selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.25 and 0.5mmol/rat) produced anxiogenic effect. In separate set of experiment, pretreatment with BIBP3226 (0.12mmol/rat) reversed the anxiolytic effect of agmatine (0.6µmol/rat). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal injection of agmatine (40mg/kg) on NPY-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), lateral part of bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNSTl) and CeA. While agmatine treatment significantly decreased the fibers density in BNSTl, increase was noticed in AcbSh. In addition, agmatine reduced NPY-immunoreactive cells in the AcbSh and CeA. Immunohistochemical data suggest the enhanced transmission of NPY from the AcbSh and CeA. Taken together, this study suggests that agmatine produced anxiolytic effect which might be regulated via modulation of NPYergic system particularly in the CeA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Target dependence of central rapidity Λ production in sulfur-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon

    Andersen, E.; Barnes, P.D.; Blaes, R.; Braun, H.; Brom, J.M.; Castano, B.; Cherney, M.; Cohler, M.; Cruz, B. de la; Diebold, G.E.; Fernandez, C.; Franklin, G.; Garabatos, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Geist, W.M.; Greiner, D.; Gruhn, C.; Hafidouni, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huss, D.; Jacquot, J.L.; Jones, P.G.; Kuipers, J.P.M.; Ladrem, M.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Liko, D.; Lopez-Ponte, S.; Lovhoiden, G.; MacNaughton, J.; Maher, C.J.; Michalon, A.; Michalon-Mentzer, M.E.; Mosquera, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nelson, J.M.; Neuhofer, G.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Plo, M.; Porth, P.; Powell, B.; Quinn, B.; Ramil, A.; Riester, J.L.; Rohringer, H.; Sakrejda, G.; Sakrejda, I.; Thorsteinsen, T.; Traxler, J.; Voltolini, C.; Yanez, A.; Yepes, P.; Zybert, R.

    1992-01-01

    Central rapidity Λ production has been measured in sulfur collisions with Cu, Ag, and Pb at 200 GeV/c per nucleon. Lambdas produced in these collisions were identified by their charged decays recorded by a time projection chamber. The Λ yields are compared as a function of target mass. For each target, the yields are reported as a function of Λ transverse kinetic energy and zero degree energy (a measure of collision centrality). In each system, the data exceed predictions of the VENUS size-2(4.02) model of sulfur-nucleus collisions. The observed excesses show no obvious variation with collision centrality from moderate to highly central collisions

  14. Central and peripheral contributions to dynamic changes in nucleus accumbens glucose induced by intravenous cocaine

    Ken Taro Wakabayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of neural, physiological and behavioral effects induced by cocaine is consistent with metabolic neural activation, yet direct attempts to evaluate central metabolic effects of this drug have produced controversial results. Here, we used enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats to examine how intravenous cocaine at a behaviorally active dose affects extracellular glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a critical structure within the motivation-reinforcement circuit. In drug-naive rats, cocaine induced a bimodal increase in glucose, with the first, ultra-fast phasic rise appearing during the injection (latency 6-8 s; ~50 µM or ~5% of baseline followed by a larger, more prolonged tonic elevation (~100 µM or 10% of baseline, peak ~15 min. While the rapid, phasic component of the glucose response remained stable following subsequent cocaine injections, the tonic component progressively decreased. Cocaine-methiodide, cocaine’s peripherally acting analog, induced an equally rapid and strong initial glucose rise, indicating cocaine’s action on peripheral neural substrates as its cause. However, this analog did not induce increases in either locomotion or tonic glucose, suggesting direct central mediation of these cocaine effects. Under systemic pharmacological blockade of dopamine transmission, both phasic and tonic components of the cocaine-induced glucose response were only slightly reduced, suggesting a significant role of non-dopamine mechanisms in cocaine-induced accumbal glucose influx. Hence, intravenous cocaine induces rapid, strong inflow of glucose into NAc extracellular space by involving both peripheral and central, non-dopamine drug actions, thus preventing a possible deficit resulting from enhanced glucose use by brain cells.

  15. Effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus on autoshaped lever pressing

    Chang, Stephen E.; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Neutral cues paired with rewards often appear to acquire motivational significance, as if the incentive motivational value of the reward is transferred to the cue. Such cues have been reported to modulate the performance of instrumental action (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, PIT), serve as conditioned reinforcers in the establishment of new learning, and be the targets of approach and other cue-directed behaviors. Here we examined the effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) on the acquisition of discriminative autoshaped lever-pressing. Insertion of one lever into the experimental chamber was reinforced by sucrose delivery, but insertion of another lever was not reinforced. Although sucrose delivery was not contingent on lever pressing, both CeA- and sham-lesioned rats rapidly came to press the reinforced but not the nonreinforced lever. Despite their showing little evidence of impairments in autoshaped lever pressing, these same CeA-lesioned rats showed significant deficits in the expression of PIT in a subsequent phase of the experiment. The lack of impaired autoshaping in CeA-lesioned rats contrasts with effects previously reported for conditioned orienting responses (ORs) and for other putative measures of incentive learning including PIT and conditioned approach to visual cues. PMID:22386516

  16. Central amygdalar nucleus treated with orexin neuropeptides evoke differing feeding and grooming responses in the hamster.

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Di Vito, Anna; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-04-15

    Interaction of the orexinergic (ORXergic) neuronal system with the excitatory (glutamate, l-Glu) or the inhibitory (GABA) neurosignaling complexes evokes major homeostatic physiological events. In this study, effects of the two ORXergic neuropeptides (ORX-A/B) on their receptor (ORX-2R) expression changes were correlated to feeding and grooming actions of the hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Infusion of the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) with ORX-A caused hamsters to consume notable quantities of food, while ORX-B accounted for a moderate increase. Interestingly the latter neuropeptide was responsible for greater frequencies of grooming with respect to both controls and the hamsters treated with ORX-A. These distinct behavioral changes turned out to be even greater in the presence of l-Glu agonist (NMDA) while the α1 GABAA receptor agonist (zolpidem, Zol) greatly reduced ORX-A-dependent feeding bouts. Moreover, ORX-A+NMDA mainly promoted greater ORX-2R expression levels with respect to ORX-A-treated hamsters while ORX-B+Zol was instead largely responsible for a down-regulatory trend. Overall, these features point to CeA ORX-2R sites as key sensory limbic elements capable of regulating eating and grooming responses, which may provide useful insights regarding the type of molecular mechanism(s) operating during feeding bouts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala on autoshaping performance in rats.

    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Parkinson, John A; Lachenal, Guillaume; Halkerston, Katherine M; Rudarakanchana, Nung; Hall, Jeremy; Morrison, Caroline H; Howes, Simon R; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2002-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are required for normal acquisition of tasks based on stimulus-reward associations. However, it is not known whether they are involved purely in the learning process or are required for behavioral expression of a learned response. Rats were trained preoperatively on a Pavlovian autoshaping task in which pairing a visual conditioned stimulus (CS+) with food causes subjects to approach the CS+ while not approaching an unpaired stimulus (CS-). Subjects then received lesions of the AcbC, ACC, or CeA before being retested. AcbC lesions severely impaired performance; lesioned subjects approached the CS+ significantly less often than controls, failing to discriminate between the CS+ and CS-. ACC lesions also impaired performance but did not abolish discrimination entirely. CeA lesions had no effect on performance. Thus, the CeA is required for learning, but not expression, of a conditioned approach response, implying that it makes a specific contribution to the learning of stimulus-reward associations.

  18. The myth of nitric oxide in central cardiovascular control by the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Talman W.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that nitroxidergic mechanisms in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS participate in cardiovascular reflex control. Much of that evidence, being based on responses to nitric oxide precursors or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis, has been indirect and circumstantial. We sought to directly determine cardiovascular responses to nitric oxide donors microinjected into the NTS and to determine if traditional receptor mechanisms might account for responses to certain of these donors in the central nervous system. Anesthetized adult Sprague Dawley rats that were instrumented for recording arterial pressure and heart rate were used in the physiological studies. Microinjection of nitric oxide itself into the NTS did not produce any cardiovascular responses and injection of sodium nitroprusside elicited minimal depressor responses. The S-nitrosothiols, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, S-nitrosoacetylpenicillamine (SNAP, and S-nitroso-D-cysteine (D-SNC produced no significant cardiovascular responses while injection of S-nitroso-L-cysteine (L-SNC elicited brisk, dose-dependent depressor and bradycardic responses. In contrast, injection of glyceryl trinitrate elicited minimal pressor responses without associated changes in heart rate. It is unlikely that the responses to L-SNC were dependent on release of nitric oxide in that 1 the responses were not affected by injection of oxyhemoglobin or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis prior to injection of L-SNC and 2 L- and D-SNC released identical amounts of nitric oxide when exposed to brain tissue homogenates. Although GSNO did not independently affect blood pressure, its injection attenuated responses to subsequent injection of L-SNC. Furthermore, radioligand binding studies suggested that in rat brain synaptosomes there is a saturable binding site for GSNO that is displaced from that site by L-SNC. The studies suggest that S-nitrosocysteine, not nitric oxide, may be an

  19. Urocortin-1 within the centrally-projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus is critical for ethanol preference.

    William J Giardino

    Full Text Available Converging lines of evidence point to the involvement of neurons of the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp containing the neuropeptide Urocortin-1 (Ucn1 in excessive ethanol (EtOH intake and EtOH sensitivity. Here, we expanded these previous findings by using a continuous-access, two-bottle choice drinking paradigm (3%, 6%, and 10% EtOH vs. tap water to compare EtOH intake and EtOH preference in Ucn1 genetic knockout (KO and wild-type (WT mice. Based on previous studies demonstrating that electrolytic lesion of the EWcp attenuated EtOH intake and preference in high-drinking C57BL/6J mice, we also set out to determine whether EWcp lesion would differentially alter EtOH consumption in Ucn1 KO and WT mice. Finally, we implemented well-established place conditioning procedures in KO and WT mice to determine whether Ucn1 and the corticotropin-releasing factor type-2 receptor (CRF-R2 were involved in the rewarding and aversive effects of EtOH (2 g/kg, i.p.. Results from these studies revealed that (1 genetic deletion of Ucn1 dampened EtOH preference only in mice with an intact EWcp, but not in mice that received lesion of the EWcp, (2 lesion of the EWcp dampened EtOH intake in Ucn1 KO and WT mice, but dampened EtOH preference only in WT mice expressing Ucn1, and (3 genetic deletion of Ucn1 or CRF-R2 abolished the conditioned rewarding effects of EtOH, but deletion of Ucn1 had no effect on the conditioned aversive effects of EtOH. The current findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that EWcp-Ucn1 neurons play an important role in EtOH intake, preference, and reward.

  20. Lateralized kappa opioid receptor signaling from the amygdala central nucleus promotes stress-induced functional pain.

    Nation, Kelsey M; De Felice, Milena; Hernandez, Pablo I; Dodick, David W; Neugebauer, Volker; Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2018-05-01

    The response of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) is often decreased, or lost, in stress-related functional pain syndromes. Because the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) pathway is activated by stress, we determined its role in DNIC using a model of stress-induced functional pain. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were primed for 7 days with systemic morphine resulting in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Fourteen days after priming, when hyperalgesia was resolved, rats were exposed to environmental stress and DNIC was evaluated by measuring hind paw response threshold to noxious pressure (test stimulus) after capsaicin injection in the forepaw (conditioning stimulus). Morphine priming without stress did not alter DNIC. However, stress produced a loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats in both hind paws that was abolished by systemic administration of the KOR antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). Microinjection of nor-BNI into the right, but not left, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were not modulated by bilateral nor-BNI in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Stress increased dynorphin content in both the left and right CeA of primed rats, reaching significance only in the right CeA; no change was observed in the rostral ventromedial medulla or hypothalamus. Although morphine priming alone is not sufficient to influence DNIC, it establishes a state of latent sensitization that amplifies the consequences of stress. After priming, stress-induced dynorphin/KOR signaling from the right CeA inhibits DNIC in both hind paws, likely reflecting enhanced descending facilitation that masks descending inhibition. Kappa opioid receptor antagonists may provide a new therapeutic strategy for stress-related functional pain disorders.

  1. ICC 700-2012: 2012 National Green Building Standard (ICC 700)

    Description of the ICC 700-2012: 2012 National Green Building Standard, a rating and certification system that aims to encourage increased environmental and health performance in residences and residential portions of buildings.

  2. NIF ICCS network design and loading analysis

    Tietbohl, G; Bryant, R

    1998-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is housed within a large facility about the size of two football fields. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is distributed throughout this facility and requires the integration of about 40,000 control points and over 500 video sources. This integration is provided by approximately 700 control computers distributed throughout the NIF facility and a network that provides the communication infrastructure. A main control room houses a set of seven computer consoles providing operator access and control of the various distributed front-end processors (FEPs). There are also remote workstations distributed within the facility that allow provide operator console functions while personnel are testing and troubleshooting throughout the facility. The operator workstations communicate with the FEPs which implement the localized control and monitoring functions. There are different types of FEPs for the various subsystems being controlled. This report describes the design of the NIF ICCS network and how it meets the traffic loads that will are expected and the requirements of the Sub-System Design Requirements (SSDR's). This document supersedes the earlier reports entitled Analysis of the National Ignition Facility Network, dated November 6, 1996 and The National Ignition Facility Digital Video and Control Network, dated July 9, 1996. For an overview of the ICCS, refer to the document NIF Integrated Computer Controls System Description (NIF-3738)

  3. Central transport and distribution of labelled glutamic and aspartic acids to the cochlear nucleus in cats

    Kane, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    Tritiated L-glutamic acid or L-aspartic acid was injected unilaterally into the cochleas of adult cats, and 4 h-7 days later the localization of label was studied by light-microscopic autoradiography in sections of the brain stem. Consistent differences in labelling after glutamate and after aspartate suggest differences in their uptake, metabolic conversion and/or transport to the cochlear nucleus by cochlear fibers. The morphological differences shown here agree with the distribution of those two amino acids in the cat cochlear nucleus as shown by microchemical analyses. (author)

  4. Ultrastructure of the central subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii and the esophageal afferent terminals in the rat.

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Takanaga, Akinori; Tanaka, Koichi; Maeda, Seishi; Seki, Makoto

    2003-03-01

    The central subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (ceNTS) receives afferent projections from the esophageal wall and projects to the nucleus ambiguus, thus serving as a relay nucleus for peristalsis of the esophagus. Here we examine the synaptic organization of the ceNTS, and its esophageal afferents by using transganglionic anterograde transport of cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP). When CT-HRP was injected into the subdiaphragmatic esophagus, many anterogradely labeled terminals were found only in the ceNTS. The ceNTS was composed of round or oval-shaped, small neurons (14.7x8.7 micro m) containing sparse organelles and an irregularly shaped nucleus. The average number of axosomatic terminals was only 1.3 per section cut through the nucleolus. Most of them (92%) contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts (Gray's type I), and a few (8%) contained pleomorphic vesicles and formed symmetric synaptic contacts (Gray's type II). All anterogradely labeled terminals contacted dendrites but not the neuronal somata. The labeled terminals were large (2.55+/-0.07 micro m) and exclusively Gray's type I. More than half of them (60%) contacted small dendrites (less than 1 micro m in diameter), and contained dense-cored vesicles. More than 40% of the labeled terminals contacted two to four dendrites, thus forming a synaptic glomerulus. Sometimes a labeled terminal that contacted an unlabeled terminal by an adherent junction was found within the glomerulus. The large terminals and these complex synaptic relations appeared to characterize the esophageal afferent projections in the ceNTS.

  5. ICCS 2009 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the ICCS 2009 Questionnaires

    Brese, Falk; Jung, Michael; Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Schulz, Wolfram; Zuehlke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    This document presents Supplement 1 of "The International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009 International Database," which includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the ICCS 2009 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the ICCS 2009 questionnaires in the following seven…

  6. The Host Galaxy and Central Engine of the Dwarf Active Galactic Nucleus POX 52

    Thornton, Carol E.; Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2008-10-01

    We present new multiwavelength observations of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy POX 52 in order to investigate the properties of the host galaxy and the active nucleus and to examine the mass of its black hole, previously estimated to be ~105 M⊙. HST ACS HRC images show that the host galaxy has a dwarf elliptical morphology (MI = - 18.4 mag, Sérsic index n = 4.3) with no detected disk component or spiral structure, confirming previous results from ground-based imaging. X-ray observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton show strong (factor of 2) variability over timescales as short as 500 s, as well as a dramatic decrease in the absorbing column density over a 9 month period. We attribute this change to a partial covering absorber, with a 94% covering fraction and NH = 58+ 8.4-9.2 × 1021 cm -2, that moved out of the line of sight in between the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. Combining these data with observations from the VLA, Spitzer, and archival data from 2MASS and GALEX, we examine the SED of the active nucleus. Its shape is broadly similar to typical radio-quiet quasar SEDs, despite the very low bolometric luminosity of Lbol = 1.3 × 1043 ergs s-1. Finally, we compare black hole mass estimators, including methods based on X-ray variability, and optical scaling relations using the broad Hβ line width and AGN continuum luminosity, finding a range of black hole mass from all methods to be MBH = (2.2-4.2) × 105 M⊙, with an Eddington ratio of Lbol/LEdd ≈ 0.2-0.5.

  7. Probing gluon saturation with next-to-leading order photon production at central rapidities in proton-nucleus collisions

    Benić, Sanjin [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb,Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Fukushima, Kenji [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Garcia-Montero, Oscar [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Venugopalan, Raju [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory,Bldg. 510A, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-01-26

    We compute the cross section for photons emitted from sea quarks in proton-nucleus collisions at collider energies. The computation is performed within the dilute-dense kinematics of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective field theory. Albeit the result obtained is formally at next-to-leading order in the CGC power counting, it provides the dominant contribution for central rapidities. We observe that the inclusive photon cross section is proportional to all-twist Wilson line correlators in the nucleus. These correlators also appear in quark-pair production; unlike the latter, photon production is insensitive to hadronization uncertainties and therefore more sensitive to multi-parton correlations in the gluon saturation regime of QCD. We demonstrate that k{sub ⊥} and collinear factorized expressions for inclusive photon production are obtained as leading twist approximations to our result. In particular, the collinearly factorized expression is directly sensitive to the nuclear gluon distribution at small x. Other results of interest include the realization of the Low-Burnett-Kroll soft photon theorem in the CGC framework and a comparative study of how the photon amplitude is obtained in Lorenz and light-cone gauges.

  8. Lesions of the amygdala central nucleus abolish lipoprivic-enhanced responding during oil-predicting conditioned stimuli.

    Benoit, S C; Morell, J R; Davidson, T L

    1999-12-01

    T. L. Davidson, A. M. Altizer, S. C. Benoit, E. K. Walls, and T. L. Powley (1997) reported that rats show facilitated responding to conditioned stimuli (CSs) that predict oil, after administration of the lipoprivic agent, Na-2-mercaptoacetate (MA). This facilitation was blocked by vagal deafferentation. The present article extends that investigation to another structure, the amygdala central nucleus (CN). The CN receives inputs from dorsal vagal nuclei, and neurotoxic lesions of this nucleus are reported to abolish feeding in response to lipoprivic challenges. In Experiment 1, rats with ibotenic acid (IBO) lesions of the CN failed to show enhanced appetitive responding during oil-predicting CSs after administration of MA. Experiment 2 used a conditioned taste-aversion procedure to establish that rats with IBO lesions of the CN were able to discriminate the tastes of sucrose and peanut oil and had intact CS-US representations. It is concluded that the amygdala CN is a necessary structure for the detection of lipoprivic challenges.

  9. Sustainable development - the ICC business charter

    Santaholma, J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) prepared and approved, in November 1990, the ''Business Charter for Sustainable Development; a set of principles for environmental management''. Environmental protection is a necessary part of sustainable development but, too often, the performance of business is seen by society as inadequate. Improved environmental performance is essential if business is to regain public trust, reduce the pressures on governments to over-legislate, and strengthen the business voice in debate on public policy. The Charter has been prepared as a major pro-active business initiative by enterprises around the world. This is timely in view of the extensive international debate on environmental issues and the widespread acceptance of the ''Sustainable Development'' concept. Sustainable development involves meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Although the objective of the Charter is that the widest range of enterprises as organizations commit themselves to improving their environmental performance in accordance with the Principles of the Charter, an individual branch of industry may also meet the goals of the Charter. The paper evaluates how the practices implemented in the field of nuclear energy are in harmony with the principles. The conclusion is that nuclear is in the avant garde within the wide spectrum of industrial activities. This conclusion should assist nuclear energy to improve its public acceptance. (author)

  10. Review: ICCS International Civics and Citizenship Study

    Anu Toots

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In November 2010 the largest international study ever conducted on civic education in secondary schools has been released in Brussels. The study was performed under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA, an independent consortium that brings together educational researchers and policy makers in 62 countries around the world. The IEA is probably more widely known in connection of large-scale comparative studies on educational assessment in math and science (TIMSS and in reading (PIRLS. Yet, the association has longstanding and impressive expertise also in civic education. The first study in this area has been carried out already in 1971 (Torney et al., 1975, the second – so called CIVED in 1999 (Torney-Purta et al., 2001 and now, ten years later, 38 counties around the world participated in the third study – the IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS. The study tested in 2008–2009 over 140,000 lower secondary students, over 62,000 teachers and headmasters from 5,300 schools in order to analyse how young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens.

  11. Evolution of the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus. I. Evolution with a constant mass influx

    Park, S.J.; Vishniac, E.T.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term evolution of the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN), whose rotational energy is being extracted by the Blandford-Znajek process, was analyzed. The model is based on previous axisymmetric, stationary descriptions of the black hole and its magnetosphere, but includes the secular effects of the mass accretion rate. The properties of the black hole and the nonthermal radiation from its environment are calculated under the assumption that the mass influx is constant. It is noted that this model fails to explain the correlation of evolutionary time scale with luminosity or the extremely rapid evolution required for the most luminous sources. It is concluded that the evolution of AGNs is driven by a rapid decrease in mass accretion rate. Since the nature of an AGN is dependent on the ratio mass accretion/total mass, this leads to a conclusion that AGNs evolve from QSOs into the nuclei of Seyfert or radio galaxies. 20 references

  12. Modulating central gain in tinnitus: changes in nitric oxide synthase in the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    Coomber, Ben; Kowalkowski, Victoria L; Berger, Joel I; Palmer, Alan Richard; Wallace, Mark Nelson

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in tinnitus research lies in explaining how acoustic insult leads to tinnitus in some individuals, but not others. One possibility is genetic variability in the expression and function of neuromodulators - components of neural signaling that alter the balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits. An example is nitric oxide (NO) - a free radical and potent neuromodulator in the mammalian brain - that regulates plasticity via both pre-synaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Changes in NO have previously been implicated in tinnitus generation, specifically in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Here, we examined nitric oxide synthase (NOS) - the enzyme responsible for NO production - in the guinea pig VCN following acoustic trauma. NOS was present in most cell types - including spherical and globular bushy cells, small, medium, and large multipolar cells, and octopus cells - spanning the entire extent of the VCN. The staining pattern was symmetrical in control animals. Unilateral acoustic over-exposure (AOE) resulted in marked asymmetries between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the VCN in terms of the distribution of NOS across the cochlear nuclei in animals with behavioral evidence of tinnitus: fewer NOS-positive cells and a reduced level of NOS staining was present across the whole extent of the contralateral VCN, relative to the ipsilateral VCN. The asymmetric pattern of NOS-containing cells was observed as early as 1 day after AOE and was also present in some animals at 3, 7, and 21 days after AOE. However, it was not until 8 weeks after AOE, when tinnitus had developed, that asymmetries were significant overall, compared with control animals. Asymmetrical NOS expression was not correlated with shifts in the threshold hearing levels. Variability in NOS expression between animals may represent one underlying difference that can be linked to whether or not tinnitus develops after noise exposure.

  13. Modulating central gain in tinnitus: Changes in nitric oxide synthase in the ventral cochlear nucleus

    Ben eCoomber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant challenge in tinnitus research lies in explaining how acoustic insult leads to tinnitus in some individuals, but not others. One possibility is genetic variability in the expression and function of neuromodulators – components of neural signalling that alter the balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits. An example is nitric oxide (NO – a free radical and potent neuromodulator in the mammalian brain – that regulates plasticity via both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Changes in NO have previously been implicated in tinnitus generation, specifically in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN. Here, we examined nitric oxide synthase (NOS – the enzyme responsible for NO production – in the guinea pig VCN following acoustic trauma. NOS was present in most cell types – including spherical and globular bushy cells, small, medium and large multipolar cells, and octopus cells – spanning the entire extent of the VCN. The staining pattern was symmetrical in control animals. Unilateral acoustic over-exposure (AOE resulted in marked asymmetries between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the VCN in terms of the distribution of NOS across the cochlear nuclei in animals with behavioural evidence of tinnitus: fewer NOS-positive cells and a reduced level of NOS staining was present across the whole extent of the contralateral VCN, relative to the ipsilateral VCN. The asymmetric pattern of NOS-containing cells was observed as early as one day after AOE and was also present in some animals at 3, 7 and 21 days after AOE. However it was not until eight weeks after AOE, when tinnitus had developed, that asymmetries were significant overall, compared with control animals. Asymmetrical NOS expression was not correlated with shifts in the threshold hearing levels. Variability in NOS expression between animals may represent one underlying difference that can be linked to whether or not tinnitus develops after noise

  14. Fe-K LINE PROBING OF MATERIAL AROUND THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS CENTRAL ENGINE WITH SUZAKU

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hiragi, Kazuyoshi; Mizuno, Motohiro; Nishino, Sho; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Shirai, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Ohno, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We systematically analyzed the high-quality Suzaku data of 88 Seyfert galaxies, about 31% of which are Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We obtained a clear relation between the absorption column density and the equivalent width (EW) of the 6.4 keV line above 10 23 cm -2 , suggesting a wide-ranging column density of 10 23 -10 24.5 cm -2 with a similar solid and an Fe abundance of 0.7-1.3 solar for Seyfert 2 galaxies. The EWs of the 6.4 keV line for Seyfert 1 galaxies are typically 40-120 eV, suggesting the existence of Compton-thick matter like the torus with a column density of >10 23 cm -2 and a solid angle of (0.15-0.4) x 4π, and no difference of neutral matter is visible between Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies. An absorber with a lower column density of 10 21 -10 23 cm -2 for Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies is suggested to be not a torus but an interstellar medium. These constraints can be understood by the fact that the 6.4 keV line intensity ratio against the 10-50 keV flux is almost identical within a range of 2-3 in many Seyfert galaxies. Interestingly, objects exist with a low EW, 10-30 eV, of the 6.4 keV line, suggesting that those torus subtends only a small solid angle of H >10 23 cm -2 indicates that the column density of the ionized material also increases together with that of the cold material. It is found that these features seem to change for brighter objects with more than several 10 44 erg s -1 such that the Fe-K line features become weak. This extends the previously known X-ray Baldwin effect on the neutral Fe-Kα line to ionized emission or absorption lines. The luminosity dependence of these properties, regardless of the scatter of black hole mass by two orders of magnitudes, indicates that the ionized material is associated with the structure of the parent galaxy rather than the outflow from the nucleus.

  15. Centrality dependence of baryon and meson momentum distributions in proton-nucleus collisions

    Hwa, Rudolph C.; Yang, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    The proton and neutron inclusive distributions in the projectile fragmentation region of pA collisions are studied in the valon model. Momentum degradation and flavor changes due to the nuclear medium are described at the valon level using two parameters. Particle production is treated by means of the recombination subprocess. The centrality dependences of the net proton and neutron spectra of the NA49 data are satisfactorily reproduced. The effective degradation length is determined to be 17 fm. Pion inclusive distributions can be calculated without any adjustable parameters

  16. Measuring centrality with slow protons in proton-nucleus collisions at 18 GeV/c

    Fernow, R.; Gushue, S.; Kirk, H.; Morrison, D.; Remsberg, L.; Rosati, M.; Torun, Y.; Chemakin, I.; Cole, B.A.; Hiejima, H.; Moulson, M.; Winter, D.; Yang, X.; Zajc, W.A.; Zhang, Y.; Frawley, A.; Maeda, N.; Rosati, M.; Justice, M.; Rai, G.; Thomas, J.; Cianciolo, V.; Hartouni, E.P.; Namboodiri, M.N.; Soltz, R.A.; Thomas, J.; Cianciolo, V.; Gilkes, M.; McGrath, R.L.; Torun, Y.; Mioduszewski, S.; Morrison, D.; Read, K.; Sorensen, S.; Kang, J.H.; Shin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Experiment E910 has measured slow protons and deuterons from collisions of 18 GeV/c protons with Be, Cu, and Au targets at the BNL AGS. These correspond to the 'grey tracks' first observed in emulsion experiments. We report on their momentum and angular distributions and investigate their use in measuring the centrality of a collision, as defined by the mean number of projectile-nucleon interactions. The relation between the measured N grey and the mean number of interactions bar ν(N grey ) is studied using several simple models, one newly proposed, as well as the RQMD event generator. RQMD is shown to reproduce the N grey distribution, and exhibits a dependence of N grey on centrality that is similar to the behavior of the simple models. We find a strong linear dependence of N grey on ν, with a constant of proportionality that varies with target. For the Au target, we report a relative systematic error for extracting bar ν(N grey ) that lies between 10 and 20;% over all N grey . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. Deconfinement of quarks and gluons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Gorenstein, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals the anomalies. They were predicted as the signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by NA49 collaboration in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 AGeV.

  18. Mammal-like organization of the avian midbrain central gray and a reappraisal of the intercollicular nucleus.

    Marcy A Kingsbury

    Full Text Available In mammals, rostrocaudal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG regulate diverse behavioral and physiological functions, including sexual and fight-or-flight behavior, but homologous columns have not been identified in non-mammalian species. In contrast to mammals, in which the PAG lies ventral to the superior colliculus and surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, birds exhibit a hypertrophied tectum that is displaced laterally, and thus the midbrain central gray (CG extends mediolaterally rather than dorsoventrally as in mammals. We therefore hypothesized that the avian CG is organized much like a folded open PAG. To address this hypothesis, we conducted immunohistochemical comparisons of the midbrains of mice and finches, as well as Fos studies of aggressive dominance, subordinance, non-social defense and sexual behavior in territorial and gregarious finch species. We obtained excellent support for our predictions based on the folded open model of the PAG and further showed that birds possess functional and anatomical zones that form longitudinal columns similar to those in mammals. However, distinguishing characteristics of the dorsal/dorsolateral PAG, such as a dense peptidergic innervation, a longitudinal column of neuronal nitric oxide synthase neurons, and aggression-induced Fos responses, do not lie within the classical avian CG, but in the laterally adjacent intercollicular nucleus (ICo, suggesting that much of the ICo is homologous to the dorsal PAG.

  19. Updating appetitive memory during reconsolidation window: critical role of cue-directed behavior and amygdala central nucleus.

    Olshavsky, Megan E; Song, Bryan J; Powell, Daniel J; Jones, Carolyn E; Monfils, Marie-H; Lee, Hongjoo J

    2013-01-01

    When presented with a light cue followed by food, some rats simply approach the foodcup (Nonorienters), while others first orient to the light in addition to displaying the food-cup approach behavior (Orienters). Cue-directed orienting may reflect enhanced attentional and/or emotional processing of the cue, suggesting divergent natures of cue-information processing in Orienters and Nonorienters. The current studies investigate how differences in cue processing might manifest in appetitive memory retrieval and updating using a paradigm developed to persistently attenuate fear responses (Retrieval-extinction paradigm; Monfils et al., 2009). First, we examined whether the retrieval-extinction paradigm could attenuate appetitive responses in Orienters and Nonorienters. Next, we investigated if the appetitive memory could be updated using reversal learning (fear conditioning) during the reconsolidation window (as opposed to repeated unreinforced trials, i.e., extinction). Both extinction and new fear learning given within the reconsolidation window were effective at persistently updating the initial appetitive memory in the Orienters, but not the Nonorienters. Since conditioned orienting is mediated by the amygdala central nucleus (CeA), our final experiment examined the CeA's role in the retrieval-extinction process. Bilateral CeA lesions interfered with the retrieval-extinction paradigm-did not prevent spontaneous recovery of food-cup approach. Together, our studies demonstrate the critical role of conditioned orienting behavior and the CeA in updating appetitive memory during the reconsolidation window.

  20. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  1. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  3. Bye bye, ICC! The Philippines’ farewell put into perspective

    Schuldt, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    On 14 March 2018, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte announced that the Philippines will withdraw from the International Criminal Court (ICC, the Court) “effective immediately.” Duterte’s intention to reject the ICC’s jurisdiction exemplifies the Court’s fragile foothold across Southeast Asia. Cambodia and the Philippines have been the only two ICC members among the ten ASEAN countries. Thailand signed the Statute in 2000, but not yet proceeded to ratification. An explanation of this Southe...

  4. Central GLP-1 receptor activation modulates cocaine-evoked phasic dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core.

    Fortin, Samantha M; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2017-07-01

    Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration. We analyzed dopamine release events in both the NAc shell and core, as these two subregions are differentially affected by cocaine and uniquely contribute to motivated behavior. We found that central delivery of the GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 suppressed the induction of phasic dopamine release events by intravenous cocaine. This effect was selective for dopamine signaling in the NAc core. Suppression of phasic signaling in the core by Exendin-4 could not be attributed to interference with cocaine binding to one of its major substrates, the dopamine transporter, as cocaine-induced increases in reuptake were unaffected. The results suggest that GLP-1R activation, instead, exerts its suppressive effects by altering dopamine release - possibly by suppressing the excitability of dopamine neurons. Given the role of NAc core dopamine in the generation of conditioned responses based on associative learning, suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine signaling in this subregion by GLP-1R agonism may decrease the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Thus, GLP-1Rs remain viable targets for the treatment and prevention of cocaine seeking, taking and relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Angiotensin II and CRF Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Hemodynamic Response Variability to Cocaine in Conscious Rats

    Watanabe, Mari A.; Kucenas, Sarah; Bowman, Tamara A.; Ruhlman, Melissa; Knuepfer, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress or cocaine evokes either a large increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or a smaller increase in SVR accompanied by an increase in cardiac output (designated vascular and mixed responders, respectively) in Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) mediates this variability. Conscious, freely-moving rats, instrumented for measurement of arterial pressure and cardiac output and for drug delivery into the CeA, were given cocaine (5 mg/kg, ...

  6. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Bhalla, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain nucleus-nucleus collisions based on nuclear emulsion experiments. Peripheral and central collisions are described in detail. Assuming the fireball model, the concepts of geometry, kinematics and thermodynamics in this model are discussed. Projectile and target fragmentations are studied. The advantages of using nuclear emulsions as detectors, are mentioned. Proton-nucleus collisions and nucleus-nucleus collisions are compared. Interactions, of projectiles such as Ca, B and C on targets such as Pb, Ag, Br etc. at very high energies (approximately 300 to 1700 Gev) are listed. A comparison of the near multiplicities in these interactions is given. A generalized explanation is given on the processes involved in these interactions. (A.K.)

  7. NIF ICCS Test Controller for Automated and Manual Testing

    Zielinski, J S

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is a large (1.5 MSLOC), hierarchical, distributed system that controls all aspects of the NIF laser [1]. The ICCS team delivers software updates to the NIF facility throughout the year to support shot operations and commissioning activities. In 2006, there were 48 releases of ICCS: 29 full releases, 19 patches. To ensure the quality of each delivery, thousands of manual and automated tests are performed using the ICCS Test Controller test infrastructure. The TestController system provides test inventory management, test planning, automated test execution and manual test logging, release testing summaries and test results search, all through a web browser interface. Automated tests include command line based frameworks server tests and Graphical User Interface (GUI) based Java tests. Manual tests are presented as a checklist-style web form to be completed by the tester. The results of all tests, automated and manual, are kept in a common repository that provides data to dynamic status reports. As part of the 3-stage ICCS release testing strategy, the TestController system helps plan, evaluate and track the readiness of each release to the NIF facility

  8. Central transport and distribution of labelled glutamic and aspartic acids to the cochlear nucleus in cats. An autoradiographic study

    Kane, E S [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (USA). Dept. of Anatomy

    1979-01-01

    Tritiated L-glutamic acid or L-aspartic acid was injected unilaterally into the cochleas of adult cats, and 4 h-7 days later the localization of label was studied by light-microscopic autoradiography in sections of the brain stem. Consistent differences in labelling after glutamate and after aspartate suggest differences in their uptake, metabolic conversion and/or transport to the cochlear nucleus by cochlear fibers. The morphological differences shown here agree with the distribution of those two amino acids in the cat cochlear nucleus as shown by microchemical analyses.

  9. Nucleus--nucleus potential

    Jaqaman, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    The nucleus--nucleus interaction is studied within the framework of the generator coordinate method that permits an easy incorporation of the full effects of antisymmetrization. It is found that the interaction, as far as the elastic scattering problem is concerned, can be described by a simple effective potential that is equivalent to the original many-body (and hence non-local) problem. The potential is obtained by dividing the wavefunction into a long-range part and a short-range part and requiring the former to satisfy a Schroedinger equation. This enables avoiding dealing with the troublesome short-range part of the wavefunction and provides a direct link with the optical model so that the potential obtained here is equivalent to the real part of the optical potential (the imaginary part is not investigated). The effective potential is found to consist of three parts: an interaction term between the nucleons belonging to different nuclei, a kinetic energy term due to the change in the intrinsic kinetic energy of the system as a result of the antisymmetrization, and finally an l-dependent part. The kinetic energy term is found to be very repulsive and effectively gives a hard core, and is calculated for the α--α and 16 O-- 16 O cases. The full potential is calculated for the α--α case for the S, D, and G partial waves and then used to calculate the corresponding phase shifts that are then compared with experimental results and other microscopic calculations. Finally, some recent results and analyses of fusion and deep inelastic reactions are reviewed that seem to indicate the presence of a hard core in the nucleus--nucleus potential. Such a hard core is present in the potential obtained in the sudden approximation

  10. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Ceramics (ICC3)

    Niihara, Koichi; Ohji, Tatsuki; Sakka, Yoshio

    2011-10-01

    Early in 2005, the American Ceramic Society, the European Ceramic Society and the Ceramic Society of Japan announced a collaborative effort to provide leadership for the global ceramics community that would facilitate the use of ceramic and glass materials. That effort resulted in an agreement to organize a new biennial series of the International Congress on Ceramics, convened by the International Ceramic Federation (ICF). In order to share ideas and visions of the future for ceramic and glass materials, the 1st International Congress on Ceramics (ICC1) was held in Canada, 2006, under the organization of the American Ceramic Society, and the 2nd Congress (ICC2) was held in Italy, 2008, hosted by the European Ceramic Society. Organized by the Ceramic Society of Japan, the 3rd Congress (ICC3) was held in Osaka, Japan, 14-18 November 2010. Incorporating the 23rd Fall Meeting of the Ceramic Society of Japan and the 20th Iketani Conference, ICC3 was also co-organized by the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation, and was endorsed and supported by ICF, Asia-Oceania Ceramic Federation (AOCF) as well as many other organizations. Following the style of the previous two successful Congresses, the program was designed to advance ceramic and glass technologies to the next generation through discussion of the most recent advances and future perspectives, and to engage the worldwide ceramics community in a collective effort to expand the use of these materials in both conventional as well as new and exciting applications. ICC3 consisted of 22 voluntarily organized symposia in the most topical and essential themes of ceramic and glass materials, including Characterization, design and processing technologies Electro, magnetic and optical ceramics and devices Energy and environment related ceramics and systems Bio-ceramics and bio-technologies Ceramics for advanced industry and safety society Innovation in traditional ceramics It also contained the Plenary Session and the

  11. Projections of the central medial nucleus of the thalamus in the rat: Node in cortical, striatal and limbic forebrain circuitry

    Vertes, R. P.; Hoover, W. B.; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 219, 6 SEP (2012), s. 120-136 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : medial prefrontal cortex * insular cortex * nucleus acc umbens Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2012

  12. Calcitonin gene-related peptide erases the fear memory and facilitates long-term potentiation in the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    Wu, Xin; Zhang, Jie-Ting; Liu, Jue; Yang, Si; Chen, Tao; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide, which plays a critical role in the central nervous system. CGRP binds to G protein-coupled receptors, including CGRP1, which couples positively to adenylyl cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) activation. CGRP and CGRP1 receptors are enriched in central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the main part of the amygdala, which regulates conditioned fear memories. Here, we reported the importance of CGRP and CGRP1 receptor for synaptic plasticity in the CeA and the extinction of fear memory in rats. Our electrophysiological and behavioral in vitro and in vivo results showed exogenous application of CGRP induced an immediate and lasting long-term potentiation in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway, but not in the lateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway, while bilateral intra-CeA infusion CGRP (0, 5, 13 and 21 μM/side) dose dependently enhanced fear memory extinction. The effects were blocked by CGRP1 receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 ), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors antagonist MK801 and PKA inhibitor H89. These results demonstrate that CGRP can lead to long-term potentiation of basolateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway through a PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism that involved N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and enhance the extinction of fear memory in rats. Together, the results strongly support a pivotal role of CGRP in the synaptic plasticity of CeA and extinction of fear memory. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an essential role in synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and fear memory. We found that CGRP-induced chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) in a dose-dependent way in the BLA-CeA (basolateral and central nucleus of amygdala, respectively) pathway and enhanced fear memory extinction in rats through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent postsynaptic mechanism that involved NMDA receptors. These results support a pivotal role of CGRP in amygdala. © 2015 International

  13. The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics

    short, does it have a future, and how shall it remain relevant in the future? This article is a think piece ... Introduction. The International Criminal ... in its operations by international politics, are the ICC's weaknesses a function of its very nature or ...

  14. ICCS 2009 Encyclopedia: Approaches to Civic and Citizenship Education

    Ainley, John, Ed.; Schulz, Wolfram, Ed.; Friedman, Tim, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) is the largest international study of civic and citizenship education ever conducted. Over 140,000 Grade 8 students, 62,000 teachers, and 5,300 school principals from 38 countries participated in this study. Among these were five from Asia, 26 from Europe, six from Latin America, and…

  15. The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics ...

    The International Criminal Court (ICC) came into being as a result of a desire by the international community to establish a permanent body to deliver criminal justice instead of the formula of ad hoc tribunals that had become the norm. The coming into force of the Rome Statute in 2002 was greeted with euphoria as it ...

  16. Acute physical and psychological stress effects on visceral hypersensitivity in male rat: role of central nucleus of the amygdala

    Hamideh Afzali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute physical and psychological stress and temporary central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA block on stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into 7 groups (n = 6; 1 – Control, 2 – physical stress, 3 – psychological stress, 4 – sham, 5 – lidocaine, 6 – lidocaine + physical stress and 7 – lidocaine + psychological stress. Stress induction was done using a communication box. Results: Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR score was monitored one hour after stress exposure. AWR score significantly heightened at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in the psychological stress group compared with control (p < 0.05, while, it was almost unchanged in other groups. This score was strikingly decreased at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in lidocaine + psychological stress group compared with psychological stress with no tangible response on physical stress. Total stool weight was significantly increased in psychological stress group compared with control (0.72 ± 0.15, 0.1 ± 0.06 g (p < 0.05, but it did not change in physical stress compared to control group (0.16 ± 0.12, 0.1 ± 0.06 g (p < 0.05. Concomitant use of lidocaine with stress followed the same results in psychological groups (0.18 ± 0.2, 0.72 ± 0.15 g (p < 0.05, while it did not have any effect on physical stress group (0.25 ± 0.1, 0.16 ± 0.12 g (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Psychological stress could strongly affect visceral hypersensitivity. This effect is statistically comparable with physical stress. Temporary CeA block could also reduce visceral hypersensitivity post-acute psychological stress. Resumen: Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar os efeitos do estresse físico e psicológico agudo e bloqueio temporário do núcleo central da amídala (CeA na hipersensibilidade visceral induzida por estresse. M

  17. Cloning and expression of Icc1 Laccase gene promoter in Aspergillus niger

    Marqueda-Galvez, A. P.; Loera Carrol, O.; Xaconostle cazares, B.; Tellez-Jurado, A.; Arana-Cuenca, A.

    2009-07-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62 is a strain with laccase activity and a great potential for biotechnological applications given its ability to detoxify distillery effluents. The Icc1, Icc2 and Icc3 laccase genes of this basidiomycetes have been cloned and sequenced. The promoter region of Icc1 kaccase gene contains a putative site for xenobiotics (XRE). (Author)

  18. Cloning and expression of Icc1 Laccase gene promoter in Aspergillus niger

    Marqueda-Galvez, A. P.; Loera Carrol, O.; Xaconostle cazares, B.; Tellez-Jurado, A.; Arana-Cuenca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62 is a strain with laccase activity and a great potential for biotechnological applications given its ability to detoxify distillery effluents. The Icc1, Icc2 and Icc3 laccase genes of this basidiomycetes have been cloned and sequenced. The promoter region of Icc1 laccase gene contains a putative site for xenobiotics (XRE). (Author)

  19. ICC Type II large-format FPA detector assemblies

    Clynne, Thomas H.; Powers, Thomas P.

    1997-08-01

    ICC presents a new addition to their integrated detector assembly product line with the announcement of their type II large format staring class FPA units. A result of internally funded research and development, the ICC type II detector assembly can accommodate all existing large format staring class PtSi, InSb and MCT focal planes, up to 640 by 480. Proprietary methodologies completely eliminate all FPA stresses to allow for maximum FPA survivability. Standard optical and cryocooler interfaces allow for the use of BEI, AEG, TI SADA Hughes/Magnavox and Joule Thompson coolers. This unit has been qualified to the current SADA II thermal environmental specifications and was tailored around ICC's worldwide industry standard type IV product. Assembled in a real world flexible manufacturing environment, this unit features a wide degree of adaptability and can be easily modified to a user's specifications via standard options and add-ons that include optical interfaces, electrical interfaces and window/filter material selections.

  20. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A population of kisspeptin/neurokinin B neurons in the arcuate nucleus may be the central target of the male effect phenomenon in goats.

    Sakamoto, Kohei; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji; Okamura, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of females to a male pheromone accelerates pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in goats. Recent evidence has suggested that neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) containing kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) play a pivotal role in the control of GnRH secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that these neurons may be the central target of the male pheromone. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether NKB signaling is involved in the pheromone action, and whether ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons receive input from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA)--the nucleus suggested to relay pheromone signals. Ovariectomized goats were implanted with a recording electrode aimed at a population of ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons, and GnRH pulse generator activity, represented by characteristic increases in multiple-unit activity (MUA) volleys, was measured. Pheromone exposure induced an MUA volley and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse in control animals, whereas the MUA and LH responses to the pheromone were completely suppressed by the treatment with an NKB receptor antagonist. These results indicate that NKB signaling is a prerequisite for pheromone action. In ovariectomized goats, an anterograde tracer was injected into the MeA, and possible connections between the MeA and ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons were examined. Histochemical observations demonstrated that a subset of ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons receive efferent projections from the MeA. These results suggest that the male pheromone signal is conveyed via the MeA to ARC kisspeptin neurons, wherein the signal stimulates GnRH pulse generator activity through an NKB signaling-mediated mechanism in goats.

  2. Change of central cholinergic receptors following lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats: search for an imaging index suitable for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Ogawa, Mikako; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nakagawa, Masaki; Kuge, Yugi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Akiko; Ueda, Masashi; Magata, Yasuhiro; Saji, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Cholinergic system in the central nervous system is involved in the memory function. Thus, because the dysfunction of cholinergic system that project to the cerebral cortex from nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) would be implicated in the memory function deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), evaluating cholinergic function may be useful for the early detection of AD. In this study, because the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats is equivalent to nbM in human, we investigated the change in cholinergic receptors in the frontal cortex of rats with unilateral lesion to the NBM to find an appropriate index for the early detection of AD using techniques of nuclear medicine. The right NBM was injected with ibotenic acid. [ 18 F]FDG-PET images were obtained 3 days later. Some rats were sacrificed at 1 week, whereas others were subjected to a second [ 18 F]FDG-PET at 4 weeks then sacrificed for membrane preparation. The prepared membranes were subjected to radioreceptor assays to measure the density of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Glucose metabolism had decreased on the damaged side compared to the control side at 3 days, but at 4 weeks, there was no difference between the sides. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had significantly decreased in density compared to the control side at both 1 and 4 weeks. However, muscarinic receptors were not affected. These results suggested that neuronal dysfunction in AD could be diagnosed at an early stage by imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  3. Contrasting expressions of aggressive behavior released by lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in cats.

    Zagrodzka, J; Hedberg, C E; Mann, G L; Morrison, A R

    1998-06-01

    Whether damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ace) contributes to the predatorylike attack sometimes observed in rapid eye movement sleep without atonia (REM-A), created in cats by bilateral pontine lesions, was examined. Such lesions eliminate REM sleep skeletal muscle atonia and release elaborate behavior. Unilateral damage to the Ace alone increased affective defensive aggressive behavior toward humans and conspecifics without altering predatory behavior in wakefulness. Pontine lesions added at loci normally not leading to aggression induced predatorylike attacks in REM-A as well as the waking affective defense. Alterations of autonomic activity, the absence of relevant environmental stimuli in REM-A, or both may explain the state-related differences.

  4. Quality Control, Testing, and Deployment Results in the NIF ICCS

    Woodruff, J P; Casavant, D; Cline, B D; Gorvad, M R

    2001-01-01

    The strategy used to develop the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) calls for incremental cycles of construction and formal test to deliver a total of 1 million lines of code. Each incremental release takes four to six months to implement specific functionality and culminates when offline tests conducted in the ICCS Integration and Test Facility verify functional, performance, and interface requirements. Tests are then repeated on line to confirm integrated operation in dedicated laser laboratories or ultimately in the NIF. Test incidents along with other change requests are recorded and tracked to closure by the software change control board (SCCB). Annual independent audits advise management on software process improvements. Extensive experience has been gained by integrating controls in the prototype laser preamplifier laboratory. The control system installed in the preamplifier lab contains five of the ten planned supervisory subsystems and seven of sixteen planned front-end processors (FEPs). Beam alignment, timing, diagnosis and laser pulse amplification up to 20 joules was tested through an automated series of shots. Other laboratories have provided integrated testing of six additional FEPs. Process measurements including earned-value, product size, and defect densities provide software project controls and generate confidence that the control system will be successfully deployed

  5. Study of secondary particles produced in central 12C-nucleus reactions at 4.5 AGeV

    Saleem Khan, M.; Shukla, Praveen Prakash; Khushnood, H.

    2014-01-01

    Study of secondary charged particles produced in central relativistic heavy ion interactions is attracting a great deal of attention during the recent years. It may be due to the fact that the study of totally disintegrated events produced in heavy ion collisions in which almost the whole projectile takes part in the reactions. On the basis of the study of the totally disintegrated events of Ag and Br nuclei caused by 4.5 GeV per nucleon carbon projectile, we may conclude that the distribution of charged shower particles produced in forward hemisphere is flatter than the distribution in the backward hemisphere

  6. Prosecuting Crimes of International Concern: Islamic State at the ICC?

    Cóman Kenny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Islamic State (IS has fundamentally altered the conception of terrorism, a development which international criminal law is arguably unprepared for. Given the scale and gravity of the group’s crimes, questions abound as to how those responsible will be held accountable. In the absence of significant domestic prosecutions and short of the establishment of a dedicated accountability mechanism, the International Criminal Court (ICC stands as the forum of last resort in which IS members could stand trial. Such a proposition is not without significant challenges, however. This article addresses some key issues facing any potential prosecutions from the perspective of: (i jurisdiction; (ii applicable crimes; and (iii modes of liability. First, as Syria, Iraq, and Libya are not States Parties to the Rome Statute, the available avenues for asserting jurisdiction will be assessed, namely: a Security Council referral; jurisdiction over so called ‘foreign fighters’ who are State Party nationals; and jurisdiction over attacks on the territory of a State Party and whether they could be considered part of a broader series of criminal acts in IS held territory. Second, as there is no crime of terrorism in the Rome Statute, the question of prosecuting acts encapsulated in a systematic campaign of terror through existing provisions will be assessed. Third, the regime of accountability at the ICC will be analysed in light of IS’s purported structure and the crimes with which it stands accused. Focus will be directed to those responsible for the propagation of genocidal propaganda and individuals who provide aid or assistance to IS which contributes to its crimes. These questions are far from theoretical. The UN has designated IS a threat to international peace and security. There follows an expectation that international criminal law should play a role in tackling one of the major criminal concerns of our time and ensure that impunity for those

  7. Antisense-mediated isoform switching of steroid receptor coactivator-1 in the central nucleus of the amygdala of the mouse brain

    Zalachoras Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligonucleotide (AON-mediated exon skipping is a powerful tool to manipulate gene expression. In the present study we investigated the potential of exon skipping by local injection in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA of the mouse brain. As proof of principle we targeted the splicing of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1, a protein involved in nuclear receptor function. This nuclear receptor coregulator exists in two splice variants (SRC-1a and SRC-1e which display differential distribution and opposing activities in the brain, and whose mRNAs differ in a single SRC-1e specific exon. Methods For proof of principle of feasibility, we used immunofluorescent stainings to study uptake by different cell types, translocation to the nucleus and potential immunostimulatory effects at different time points after a local injection in the CeA of the mouse brain of a control AON targeting human dystrophin with no targets in the murine brain. To evaluate efficacy we designed an AON targeting the SRC-1e-specific exon and with qPCR analysis we measured the expression ratio of the two splice variants. Results We found that AONs were taken up by corticotropin releasing hormone expressing neurons and other cells in the CeA, and translocated into the cell nucleus. Immune responses after AON injection were comparable to those after sterile saline injection. A successful shift of the naturally occurring SRC-1a:SRC-1e expression ratio in favor of SRC-1a was observed, without changes in total SRC-1 expression. Conclusions We provide a proof of concept for local neuropharmacological use of exon skipping by manipulating the expression ratio of the two splice variants of SRC-1, which may be used to study nuclear receptor function in specific brain circuits. We established that exon skipping after local injection in the brain is a versatile and useful tool for the manipulation of splice variants for numerous genes that are relevant

  8. Global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    HIJING generator simulation of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies is presented. It is shown that the global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as distribution of a charged multiplicity, total and electromagnetic transverse energy over pseudorapidity are rather sensitive to some predictions of models of high-exited nuclear medium formation, namely parton energy losses in dense nuclear matter. These losses result in appearance of a broad maximum in global variable distributions over pseudorapidity. The most profound of this effect occurs at central heavy ion collisions at LHC energy

  9. Igf1r+/CD34+ immature ICC are putative adult progenitor cells, identified ultrastructurally as fibroblast-like ICC in Ws/Ws rat colon

    Wang, X Y; Albertí, E; White, E J

    2009-01-01

    by ICC in the wild-type rat colon, suggesting them to be immature ICC. In addition, a marked increase in immunoreactivity for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r) occurred, co-localized with CD34 but not with c-Kit. A significantly higher number of Igf1r(+)/CD34(+) cells were found in Ws....../Ws compared to wild-type rat colons. These CD34(+)/Igf1r(+) cells in the Ws/Ws colon occupied the same space as FL-ICC. Hence we propose that a subset of immature ICC (FL-ICC) consists of adult progenitor cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed a reduction of neurons positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase...

  10. Angiotensin II and CRF receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdala mediate hemodynamic response variability to cocaine in conscious rats.

    Watanabe, Mari A; Kucenas, Sarah; Bowman, Tamara A; Ruhlman, Melissa; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2010-01-14

    Stress or cocaine evokes either a large increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or a smaller increase in SVR accompanied by an increase in cardiac output (designated vascular and mixed responders, respectively) in Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) mediates this variability. Conscious, freely-moving rats, instrumented for measurement of arterial pressure and cardiac output and for drug delivery into the CeA, were given cocaine (5 mg/kg, iv, 4-6 times) and characterized as vascular (n=15) or mixed responders (n=10). Subsequently, we administered cocaine after bilateral microinjections (100 nl) of saline or selective agents in the CeA. Muscimol (80 pmol), a GABA(A) agonist, or losartan (43.4 pmol), an AT(1) receptor antagonist, attenuated the cocaine-induced increase in SVR in vascular responders, selectively, such that vascular responders were no longer different from mixed responders. The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) antagonist, alpha-helical CRF(9-41) (15.7 pmol), abolished the difference between cardiac output and SVR in mixed and vascular responders. We conclude that greater increases in SVR observed in vascular responders are dependent on AT(1) receptor activation and, to a lesser extent on CRF receptors. Therefore, AT(1) and CRF receptors in the CeA contribute to hemodynamic response variability to intravenous cocaine.

  11. Pain-related increase of excitatory transmission and decrease of inhibitory transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala are mediated by mGluR1

    Neugebauer Volker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroplasticity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, particularly its latero-capsular division (CeLC, is an important contributor to the emotional-affective aspects of pain. Previous studies showed synaptic plasticity of excitatory transmission to the CeLC in different pain models, but pain-related changes of inhibitory transmission remain to be determined. The CeLC receives convergent excitatory inputs from the parabrachial nucleus in the brainstem and from the basolateral amygdala (BLA. In addition, feedforward inhibition of CeA neurons is driven by glutamatergic projections from the BLA area to a cluster of GABAergic neurons in the intercalated cell masses (ITC. Using patch-clamp in rat brain slices we measured monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and polysynaptic inhibitory currents (IPSCs that were evoked by electrical stimulation in the BLA. In brain slices from arthritic rats, input-output functions of excitatory synaptic transmission were enhanced whereas inhibitory synaptic transmission was decreased compared to control slices from normal untreated rats. A non-NMDA receptor antagonist (NBQX blocked the EPSCs and reduced the IPSCs, suggesting that non-NMDA receptors mediate excitatory transmission and also contribute to glutamate-driven feed-forward inhibition of CeLC neurons. IPSCs were blocked by a GABAA receptor antagonist (bicuculline. Bicuculline increased EPSCs under normal conditions but not in slices from arthritic rats, which indicates a loss of GABAergic control of excitatory transmission. A metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1 antagonist (LY367385 reversed both the increase of excitatory transmission and the decrease of inhibitory transmission in the arthritis pain model but had no effect on basal synaptic transmission in control slices from normal rats. The inhibitory effect of LY367385 on excitatory transmission was blocked by bicuculline suggesting the involvement of a GABAergic

  12. Glutamate Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Cisplatin-Induced Malaise and Energy Balance Dysregulation through Direct Hindbrain Projections.

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Holland, Ruby A; Nelson, Alexandra; Grill, Harvey J; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2015-08-05

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is used commonly to treat a variety of cancers despite severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and anorexia that compromise quality of life and limit treatment adherence. The neural mechanisms mediating these side effects remain elusive despite decades of clinical use. Recent data highlight the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) as potential sites of action in mediating the side effects of cisplatin. Here, results from immunohistochemical studies in rats identified a population of cisplatin-activated DVC neurons that project to the lPBN and a population of cisplatin-activated lPBN calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a marker for glutamatergic neurons in the lPBN) neurons that project to the CeA, outlining a neuroanatomical circuit that is activated by cisplatin. CeA gene expressions of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits were markedly increased after cisplatin treatment, suggesting that CeA glutamate receptor signaling plays a role in mediating cisplatin side effects. Consistent with gene expression results, behavioral/pharmacological data showed that CeA AMPA/kainate receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced pica (a proxy for nausea/behavioral malaise in nonvomiting laboratory rodents) and that CeA NMDA receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss in addition to pica, demonstrating that glutamate receptor signaling in the CeA is critical for the energy balance dysregulation caused by cisplatin treatment. Together, these data highlight a novel circuit and CGRP/glutamatergic mechanism through which cisplatin-induced malaise and energy balance dysregulation are mediated. To treat cancer effectively, patients must follow prescribed chemotherapy treatments without interruption, yet most cancer treatments produce side effects that devastate quality of life (e.g., nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss). Although hundreds of

  13. Glutamate Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Cisplatin-Induced Malaise and Energy Balance Dysregulation through Direct Hindbrain Projections

    Alhadeff, Amber L.; Holland, Ruby A.; Nelson, Alexandra; Grill, Harvey J.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is used commonly to treat a variety of cancers despite severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and anorexia that compromise quality of life and limit treatment adherence. The neural mechanisms mediating these side effects remain elusive despite decades of clinical use. Recent data highlight the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) as potential sites of action in mediating the side effects of cisplatin. Here, results from immunohistochemical studies in rats identified a population of cisplatin-activated DVC neurons that project to the lPBN and a population of cisplatin-activated lPBN calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a marker for glutamatergic neurons in the lPBN) neurons that project to the CeA, outlining a neuroanatomical circuit that is activated by cisplatin. CeA gene expressions of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits were markedly increased after cisplatin treatment, suggesting that CeA glutamate receptor signaling plays a role in mediating cisplatin side effects. Consistent with gene expression results, behavioral/pharmacological data showed that CeA AMPA/kainate receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced pica (a proxy for nausea/behavioral malaise in nonvomiting laboratory rodents) and that CeA NMDA receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss in addition to pica, demonstrating that glutamate receptor signaling in the CeA is critical for the energy balance dysregulation caused by cisplatin treatment. Together, these data highlight a novel circuit and CGRP/glutamatergic mechanism through which cisplatin-induced malaise and energy balance dysregulation are mediated. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To treat cancer effectively, patients must follow prescribed chemotherapy treatments without interruption, yet most cancer treatments produce side effects that devastate quality of life (e.g., nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss

  14. Effects of unilatral- and bilateral inhibition of rostral ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of amygdala on morphine-induced place conditioning in male Wistar rat.

    Mohammadian, Zahra; Sahraei, Hedayat; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Ali-Beik, Hengameh

    2017-03-01

    The rostral ventral tegmental area (VTAR) and central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) are considered the main regions for induction of psychological dependence on abused drugs, such as morphine. The main aim of this study was to investigate the transient inhibition of each right and left side as well as both sides of the VTAR and the CeA by lidocaine (2%) on morphine reward properties using the conditioned place preference (CPP) method. Male Wistar rats (250±20 g) 7 days after recovery from surgery and cannulation were conditioned to morphine (7.5 mg/kg) in CPP apparatus. Five minutes before morphine injection in conditioning phase, lidocaine was administered either uni- or bilaterally into the VTAR (0.25 μL/site) or CeA (0.5 μL/site). The results revealed that lidocaine administration into the left side, but not the right side of the VTAR and the CeA reduced morphine CPP significantly. The reduction was potentiated when lidocaine was injected into both sides of the VTAR and the CeA. The number of compartment crossings was reduced when lidocaine was injected into both sides of the VTAR and the CeA as well as the left side. Rearing was reduced when lidocaine was injected into the right, but not the left side of the VTAR. Sniffing and rearing increased when animals received lidocaine in the right side and reduced in the group that received lidocaine in the left side of the CeA. It was concluded that the right and the left side of VTAR and the CeA play different roles in morphine-induced activity and reward. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    Kenny, Paul J; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5-2.5 mg per kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg per kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg per kg per infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg per kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 microM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1-10 ng per side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug.

  16. Chronic stress exacerbates neuropathic pain via the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the central nucleus of the amygdala.

    Li, Ming-Jia; Liu, Ling-Yu; Chen, Lin; Cai, Jie; Wan, You; Xing, Guo-Gang

    2017-04-01

    Exacerbation of pain by chronic stress and comorbidity of pain with stress-related psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression, represent significant clinical challenges. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether chronic forced swim stress (CFSS)-induced exacerbation of neuropathic pain is mediated by the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We first demonstrated that CFSS indeed produces both depressive-like behaviors and exacerbation of spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. Moreover, we revealed that CFSS induces both sensitization of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons and augmentation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the BLA-CeA synapse and meanwhile, exaggerates both SNI-induced sensitization of CeA neurons and LTP at the parabrachial (PB)-CeA synapse. In addition, we discovered that CFSS elevates SNI-induced functional up-regulation of GluN2B-containing NMDA (GluN2B-NMDA) receptors in the CeA, which is proved to be necessary for CFSS-induced augmentation of LTP at the PB-CeA synapse and exacerbation of pain hypersensitivity in SNI rats. Suppression of CFSS-elicited depressive-like behaviors by antidepressants imipramine or ifenprodil inhibits the CFSS-induced exacerbation of neuropathic pain. Collectively, our findings suggest that CFSS potentiates synaptic efficiency of the BLA-CeA pathway, leading to the activation of GluN2B-NMDA receptors and sensitization of CeA neurons, which subsequently facilitate pain-related synaptic plasticity of the PB-CeA pathway, thereby exacerbating SNI-induced neuropathic pain. We conclude that chronic stress exacerbates neuropathic pain via the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the CeA.

  17. The nucleus

    Marano, S.

    1998-01-01

    In 1911 E.Rutherford discovered the nucleus. Since then the nucleus has been investigated with more and more powerful tools but it remains the main field of study of nuclear physics. As it is impossible to take into account the interaction of all the nucleons, a theory based on the hypothesis that each nucleon undergoes an average interaction force has been set up. 2 representations have emerged: the Skyrme force and the Gogny force. Both representations match experimental results but are unable to describe fission yields or the multi-fragmentation of very hot nuclei. The mean-field theory can predict the shape of the nuclei according to its energy level. An experimental program involving the Vivitron accelerator and the Euroball detector is due to begin to validate it. By bombarding targets with exotic nuclei nuclear physicists detect new structures and test their collision models. About ten years ago nuclear halos were observed with lithium 11 nuclei. In this nucleus 2 neutrons move in a space larger than the nucleus itself. This discovery has triggered the elaboration of new theories based on nuclear clusters. At very high temperatures the mean-field theory predicts that nuclear matter acts as a fluid. Following the nuclei temperature different ways of decay appear: first evaporation then multi-fragmentation and vaporization. This ultimate stage occurs around 100 milliard celsius degree temperature when the nuclei decays in a multitude of light particles. Isomeric states are studied and could be seen as a way of storing energy. In a very pedagogical way this article gives information to understand the challenges that face nuclear physics today and highlights the contributions of Cea in this field. (A.C.)

  18. Progress in digital color workflow understanding in the International Color Consortium (ICC) Workflow WG

    McCarthy, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The ICC Workflow WG serves as the bridge between ICC color management technologies and use of those technologies in real world color production applications. ICC color management is applicable to and is used in a wide range of color systems, from highly specialized digital cinema color special effects to high volume publications printing to home photography. The ICC Workflow WG works to align ICC technologies so that the color management needs of these diverse use case systems are addressed in an open, platform independent manner. This report provides a high level summary of the ICC Workflow WG objectives and work to date, focusing on the ways in which workflow can impact image quality and color systems performance. The 'ICC Workflow Primitives' and 'ICC Workflow Patterns and Dimensions' workflow models are covered in some detail. Consider the questions, "How much of dissatisfaction with color management today is the result of 'the wrong color transformation at the wrong time' and 'I can't get to the right conversion at the right point in my work process'?" Put another way, consider how image quality through a workflow can be negatively affected when the coordination and control level of the color management system is not sufficient.

  19. 75 FR 9527 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    2010-03-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0750; FRL-8800-9] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012. DATES: This regulation is effective March 3, 2010...

  20. 75 FR 8504 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    2010-02-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0749; FRL-8799-4] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080. DATES: This regulation is effective February 25, 2010...

  1. Nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections

    DeVries, R.M.; Peng, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    We compare sigma/sub R/(E) for nucleus-nucleus systems (obtained from existing direct measurements and derived from elastic scattering data) with nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleus data. The energy dependence of sigma/sub R/(E) for nucleus-nucleus systems is found to be quite rapid; there appears to be no evidence for an energy independent, geometric sigma/sub R/. Simple parameter free microscopic calculations are able to quantitatively reproduce the data and thus, emphasize the dominance of nucleon-nucleon interactions in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

  2. Multifragmentation in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Trautmann, W.; Adloff, J.C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1993-10-01

    The complete fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems into fragments of intermediate mass is observed in heavy-ion reactions at relativistic bombarding energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. Similar features are found for peripheral collisions between heavy nuclei and for more central collisions between a heavy and a light nucleus. The partition space explored in multifragment decays is well described by the statistical multifragmentation models. The expansion before breakup is confirmed by the analysis of the measured fragment energies of ternary events in their own rest frame. Collective radial flow is confined to rather small values in these peripheral-type reactions. Many conceptually different models seem to be capable of reproducing the charge correlations measured for the multifragment decays. (orig.)

  3. 40 CFR 180.1294 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1294 Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 is exempted from the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1293 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1293 Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 is exempted from the requirement of...

  5. [Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].

    Hu, Li-Xun; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Fen; Yu, Kang-Ying; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-25

    The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) is an important approach for regulating arterial blood pressure homeostasis instantaneously and physiologically. Activation of the central histaminergic or cholinergic systems results in CSR functional inhibitory resetting. However, it is unclear whether two systems at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level display cross interaction to regulate the CSR or not. In the present study, the left or right carotid sinus region was isolated from the systemic circulation in Sprague-Dawley rats (sinus nerve was reserved) anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Respective intubation was conducted into one side isolated carotid sinus and into the femoral artery for recording the intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) simultaneously with pressure transducers connection in vivo. ISP was set at the level of 0 mmHg to eliminate the effect of initial internal pressure of the carotid sinus on the CSR function. To trigger CSR, the ISP was quickly elevated from 0 mmHg to 280 mmHg in a stepwise manner (40 mmHg) which was added at every step for over 4 s, and then ISP returned to 0 mmHg in similar steps. The original data of ISP and corresponding MAP were fitted to a modified logistic equation with five parameters to obtain the ISP-MAP, ISP-Gain relationship curves and the CSR characteristic parameters, which were statistically compared and analyzed separately. Under the precondition of no influence on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, the effects and potential regulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different cholinoceptor antagonists, the selective cholinergic M1 receptor antagonist, i.e., pirenzepine (PRZ), the M2 receptor antagonist, i.e., methoctramine (MTR) or the N1 receptor antagonist, i.e., hexamethonium (HEX) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) in rats were observed. Meanwhile, the actions and

  6. Dimuon enhancement in nucleus-nucleus ultrarelativistic interactions

    Bordalo, Paula; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Bohrani, A.; Boldea, V.; Bussiere, A.; Capelli, L.; Caponi, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constans, N.; Constantinescu, S.; Contardo, D.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Ducroux, L.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Ferreira, R.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Kurepin, A.B.; Landau, G.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Luquin, L.; Macciotta, P.; Mac Cormick, M.; Mandry, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Monteno, M.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Ropotar, I.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Sitta, M.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Varela, J.; Vercellin, E.; Villatte, L.

    1999-01-01

    The study of muon pairs in the mass region 1.5 μμ 2 in 450 GeV/c p-A, 200 GeV/nucleon S-U and 158 GeV/nucleon Pb-Pb collisions is presented. In p-A interactions, the dimuon signal mass spectra are well described by a superposition of Drell-Yan and charmed meson semi-leptonic decay contributions, in agreement with previous experiments when considering a linear A dependence. In nucleus-nucleus reactions, taking only into account these two physical ingredients, a dimuon enhancement both with increasing A·B and centrality is observed

  7. Rethinking the fear circuit: the central nucleus of the amygdala is required for the acquisition, consolidation, and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning

    Wilensky, Ann E; Schafe, Glenn E; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    2006-01-01

    of the amygdala (CE), which serves as the principal output nucleus for the expression of conditioned fear responses. In the present study, we reexamined the roles of LA and CE. Specifically, we asked whether CE, like LA, might also be involved in fear learning and memory consolidation. Using functional...... inactivation methods, we first show that CE is involved not only in the expression but also the acquisition of fear conditioning. Next, we show that inhibition of protein synthesis in CE after training impairs fear memory consolidation. These findings indicate that CE is not only involved in fear expression...... but, like LA, is also involved in the learning and consolidation of pavlovian fear conditioning....

  8. Performance of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a reliability index under various distributions in scale reliability studies.

    Mehta, Shraddha; Bastero-Caballero, Rowena F; Sun, Yijun; Zhu, Ray; Murphy, Diane K; Hardas, Bhushan; Koch, Gary

    2018-04-29

    Many published scale validation studies determine inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). However, the use of this statistic must consider its advantages, limitations, and applicability. This paper evaluates how interaction of subject distribution, sample size, and levels of rater disagreement affects ICC and provides an approach for obtaining relevant ICC estimates under suboptimal conditions. Simulation results suggest that for a fixed number of subjects, ICC from the convex distribution is smaller than ICC for the uniform distribution, which in turn is smaller than ICC for the concave distribution. The variance component estimates also show that the dissimilarity of ICC among distributions is attributed to the study design (ie, distribution of subjects) component of subject variability and not the scale quality component of rater error variability. The dependency of ICC on the distribution of subjects makes it difficult to compare results across reliability studies. Hence, it is proposed that reliability studies should be designed using a uniform distribution of subjects because of the standardization it provides for representing objective disagreement. In the absence of uniform distribution, a sampling method is proposed to reduce the non-uniformity. In addition, as expected, high levels of disagreement result in low ICC, and when the type of distribution is fixed, any increase in the number of subjects beyond a moderately large specification such as n = 80 does not have a major impact on ICC. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Common Purpose Liability versus Joint Enterprise: A Practical View on the ICC's Hierarchy of Liability Theories

    Cupido, M.

    2016-01-01

    On 7 March 2014, Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court (ICC) convicted Germain Katanga for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Katanga's conviction is based on the concept of common purpose liability as regulated in Article 25(3)(d) of the Rome Statute. This liability theory

  10. KONSEKUENSI NEGARA INDONESIA MENJADI ANGGOTA ICC (Studi Tentang Mekanisme Penegakan Hukum Humaniter Internasional

    Isplancius Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available International Humanitarian Law (IHL is a set of rules which is based on the 1949 Geneva Law and Hague Law in 1907 and equipped with Additional Protocols I and II of 1977. IHL seeks to provide protection to the victims of war and civilians in armed conflict (law of Geneva 1949 and what methods and tools that may be used in war (Hague Law 1907. The parties involved in armed conflict must respect the principles of limitation, proportionality and distinction. Violations of international humanitarian law called war criminals must be prosecuted as crimes against human rights. Enforcement of international humanitarian law carried out through the mechanism according to the 1949 Geneva Law, by temporary or ad hoc Court, and by the International Criminal Court (ICC. The method used in this research is normative qualitative approach by taking secondary data as a source of information. The results indicate that the consequences of Indonesia as a state to be a member of ICC are having the synergy process national law with Rome Statute covering criminal law, criminal procedural law, extradition, human rights court and the law of human rights itself. The final goals of the synergy are to make Rome Statuta as a follow up system of national judicial, to avoid conflict between ICC and the law of Indonesia, and to make internal law procedure for Indonesia when ICC jurisdiction is active in Indonesia

  11. The Modes of Liability at the ICC: The Labels that Don't Always Stick

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The article critically analyses recent developments in the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Court. In particular, it scrutinises two convictions rendered by the Court to the date with the view of assessing the viability of the modes of liability employed by the ICC. The argument is tha...

  12. A Practitioner’s Perspective on the Kenya I and Kenya II Cases before the ICC

    Mc Gonigle, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    On 10 September 2013 the International Criminal Court (ICC) began hearing a case against William Ruto, Deputy President of the Republic of Kenya, and Joshua Sang. The related case against the President of Kenya, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, was scheduled to begin in November 2013 but has since been

  13. Proofing the ban on ‘witness proofing': did the ICC get it right?

    Vasiliev, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reasons for disaccord between the ICC and the more seasoned international criminal tribunals on the issue of allowing substantive preparation of witnesses for testifying in court. The rationales behind the opposing decisions and the ensuing debate on the legitimacy and

  14. The Future of the International Criminal Court. On Critique, Legalism and Strengthening the ICC's Legitimacy

    De Hoon, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    While the International Criminal Court (icc) strives for justice for atrocity crimes throughout the world, increasingly, its legitimacy is undermined: powerful states refuse to join, African states prepare to leave, victims do not feel their needs for justice are met. This article argues that this

  15. Perspective of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Specht, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the lectures given at the International School of nuclear physics, Erice, 1985, which survey the expectations for the field of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The primary motivation for the field, the organization of the lectures, and a description of the NA 34 experiment, are all briefly given. (U.K.)

  16. Onuf's nucleus X

    Schrøder, H D

    1981-01-01

    in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well...

  17. Pion production in nucleus--nucleus collisions

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1975-06-01

    Current work on pion production in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is reviewed. The majority of existing data are of the inclusive variety in which a single final state pion is detected. Experimental data are compared and their possible contributions to obtaining new information on nuclear structure is discussed. Various models which attempt to explain the observed single-inclusive-pion spectra either on the basis of a nucleon-nucleus interaction in which Fermi motion is included or on some type of cooperative model are examined. Other areas of interest involving pion production include tests of charge symmetry and pion multiplicities. (9 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  18. ICC-profilers användbarhetvid gråbalansjusteringav arkoffsettryck

    Norstedt, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    I detta examensarbete har gråbalansstyrning och ICC-profilers duglighet undersökts. ICC-profilernahar utvärderats utifrån den tryckkvalitet de genererat tillsammans med olika papper.Gråbalansstyrning har använts som gemensamma likare för samtliga testtryckningar. Detta tillfördeen variabel som var lika för samtliga papper i utredningen. Här med ökade sannolikheten att ICCprofilerskapade från olika papper, skulle ge en likvärdig kvalitet.I arbetet har många mätningar och beräkningar genomförts...

  19. ICCS 2009 Asian Report: Civic Knowledge and Attitudes among Lower-Secondary Students in Five Asian Countries

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2012-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Asian regional module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS), sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). ICCS studied the ways in which young people in lower-secondary schools are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens.…

  20. Hadron-nucleus collisions

    Strugalski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative picture of high energy hadron-nucleus collision process, emerging from the analysis of experimental data, is presented. Appropriate description procedure giving a possibility of reproducing various characteristics of this process in terms of the data on elementary hadron-nucleon interaction is proposed. Formula reproducing hadron-nucleus collision cross sections is derived. Inelastic collision cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus reactions at wide energy interval are calculated for Pb, Ag, and Al targets. A-dependence of cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions at nearly 50 GeV/c momentum were calculated and compared with existing experimental data. Energy dependence of cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions is determined simply by energy dependence of corresponding cross sections for hadron-nucleon collisions; A-dependence is determined simply by nuclear sizes and nucleon density distributions in nuclei

  1. Nucleus-nucleus potential with repulsive core and elastic scattering. Part 1. Nucleus-nucleus interaction potential

    Davidovs'ka, O.Yi.; Denisov, V.Yu.; Nesterov, V.O.

    2010-01-01

    Various approaches for nucleus-nucleus interaction potential evaluation are discussed in details. It is shown that the antisymmetrization of nucleons belonging to different nuclei and the Pauli principle give the essential contribution into the nucleus-nucleus potential at distances, when nuclei are strongly overlapping, and lead to appearance of the repulsive core of nucleus nucleus interaction at small distances between nuclei.

  2. Antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN-SPS

    Kadija, K.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.

    1996-01-01

    A model for antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon, based on the wounded nucleon model is developed. The predictions are compared to published nucleon-nucleus and sulphur-nucleus data. The results suggest the presence of similar antiproton production processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions near midrapidity. (orig.)

  3. K+-nucleus interaction

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The K + -nucleus system is reviewed and comparison with data is made. The principal conclusions are that the theoretical uncertainties in relating the K + -nucleus interaction to the K + -nucleon interaction are very small and hence the positive kaon makes an excellent probe of the nucleus. It is suggested that this particle may be more sensitive to non-nucleonic degrees of freedom (especially quarks) than classical probes

  4. THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC, IMPUNITY AND THE RISE OF A SIEGE MENTALITY AMONG KENYA’S KLEPTOCRACY

    Westen K Shilaho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Did the entry by the International Criminal Court (ICC into the 2007-2008 postelection dispute ruffle feathers among Kenya’s politicians and influence the results of the 2013 elections? This article argues that the indictment of prominent Kenyans by the ICC for atrocities committed during the postelection violence was the first attempt to break a vicious cycle of impunity deeply entrenched in the country’s body politic. However, the indictees exploited cases against them to exacerbate ethnic fault lines, polarise the country and ensure the controversial victory by Uhuru Kenyatta and William Ruto during the 2013 elections despite facing egregious charges before the ICC. Crucially, the ICC precipitated uncertainty and trepidation among Kenya’s kleptocrats in power since 1963, the year of Kenya’s independence. Kenyatta’s controversial presidential victory in 2013 was both personal and oligarchic as it ensured continued stranglehold on Kenya’s political and economic spheres by a self-reporuding plutocracy. With control of state apparatus, Kenyatta and Ruto successfully fought back against the threat posed by the ICC. The article analyses ICC politics impunity, and ethnic politics through the prism of Kenya’s cases before the ICC.

  5. Trends of recent coal science. Extracted from essays presented at 1989-ICCS; Saikin no sekitan kagaku no doko. 1989 ICCS no ronbun happyo yori

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The 5th IEA (International Energy Agency) International Conference on Coal Science (1989-ICCS) was held in Tokyo in October 1989. A number of essays relative to the basics and applications of the coal science were presented at the event, and recent trends of the coal science have been extracted from these essays and complied into this survey report. In the field of basic coal reaction, it is stated that basic studies relating to the coal structure, physical properties, and chemistry are necessary for the future coal science and that it will be very difficult to construct a database covering various types of coals conserved under different circumstances. In the field of basics of coal combustion and gasification, essays are introduced, titled 'Gasification reactivity and coal structure' and 'Role of catalysts in gasification reaction.' Furthermore, future trends of the science are predicted from the viewpoint of 'Problems of global environment and research on coal gasification.' In the field of coal liquefaction, essays are introduced which discuss the improvement of the coal process, enhancement of cost effectiveness, and higher efficiency, and point to the subjects of research in the future. (NEDO)

  6. Trends of recent coal science. Extracted from essays presented at 1989-ICCS; Saikin no sekitan kagaku no doko. 1989 ICCS no ronbun happyo yori

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The 5th IEA (International Energy Agency) International Conference on Coal Science (1989-ICCS) was held in Tokyo in October 1989. A number of essays relative to the basics and applications of the coal science were presented at the event, and recent trends of the coal science have been extracted from these essays and complied into this survey report. In the field of basic coal reaction, it is stated that basic studies relating to the coal structure, physical properties, and chemistry are necessary for the future coal science and that it will be very difficult to construct a database covering various types of coals conserved under different circumstances. In the field of basics of coal combustion and gasification, essays are introduced, titled 'Gasification reactivity and coal structure' and 'Role of catalysts in gasification reaction.' Furthermore, future trends of the science are predicted from the viewpoint of 'Problems of global environment and research on coal gasification.' In the field of coal liquefaction, essays are introduced which discuss the improvement of the coal process, enhancement of cost effectiveness, and higher efficiency, and point to the subjects of research in the future. (NEDO)

  7. Microscopic model of nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Harvey, B.G.

    1986-04-01

    The collision of two nuclei is treated as a collection of collisions between the nucleons of the projectile and those of the target nucleus. The primary projectile fragments contain only those nucleons that did not undergo a collision. The inclusive and coincidence cross sections result from the decay of the excited primary fragments. 15 refs., 5 figs

  8. Visual contents adaptation for colour vision deficiency using customised ICC profile.

    Jang, Young Gun; Choi, Hoon Il; Hong, Kyoung Soon

    2010-07-01

    Approximately, 1 of 12 persons in the world has colour vision deficiency (CVD), named colour blindness. While the amount of graphic information in digital contents is continuing to increase dramatically, assistive tools for colour vision deficiencies remain scarce. We developed a method to generate customised International Colour Consortium (ICC) colour profiles for patients suffering from CVD, which could adjust graphic contents according to individual needs. Compensation rules for the pale or dark range of red and green colours were established, and an ICC profile was generated using this set of rules. The passing rate for Ishihara test was 99.5% when the generated profile was applied to 10 Ishihara plates and tested on individuals suffering from red deficiency, and green deficiency (5, and 15 participants, respectively). The time used to generate the compensation profile was 12.9 min on average, including the time taken to explain the test to the participants. Reliable results were achieved with a relatively low effort in comparison with methods currently utilised in professional clinics, and does not need expensive instruments.

  9. Nucleus Ruber of Actinopterygians.

    Nakayama, Tomoya; Miyajima, Satoshi; Nishino, Hirotaka; Narita, Junya; Abe, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus ruber is known as an important supraspinal center that controls forelimb movements in tetrapods, and the rubral homologue may serve similar functions in fishes (motor control of pectoral fin). However, two apparently different structures have been identified as 'nucleus ruber' in actinopterygians. One is nucleus ruber of Goldstein (1905) (NRg), and the other nucleus ruber of Nieuwenhuys and Pouwels (1983) (NRnp). It remains unclear whether one of these nuclei (or perhaps both) is homologous to tetrapod nucleus ruber. To resolve this issue from a phylogenetic point of view, we have investigated the distribution of tegmental neurons retrogradely labeled from the spinal cord in eight actinopterygian species. We also investigated the presence/absence of the two nuclei with Nissl- or Bodian-stained brain section series of an additional 28 actinopterygian species by comparing the morphological features of candidate rubral neurons with those of neurons revealed by the tracer studies. Based on these analyses, the NRg was identified in all actinopterygians investigated in the present study, while the NRnp appears to be absent in basal actinopterygians. The phylogenetic distribution pattern indicates that the NRg is the more likely homologue of nucleus ruber, and the NRnp may be a derived nucleus that emerged during the course of actinopterygian evolution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Restoration of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala and gustatory cortex following reinnervation or cross-reinnervation of the lingual taste nerves in rats.

    King, Camille Tessitore; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

    2014-08-01

    Remarkably, when lingual gustatory nerves are surgically rerouted to inappropriate taste fields in the tongue, some taste functions recover. We previously demonstrated that quinine-stimulated oromotor rejection reflexes and neural activity (assessed by Fos immunoreactivity) in subregions of hindbrain gustatory nuclei were restored if the posterior tongue, which contains receptor cells that respond strongly to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the chorda tympani nerve. Such functional recovery was not seen if instead, the anterior tongue, where receptor cells are less responsive to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, even though this nerve typically responds robustly to bitter substances. Thus, recovery depended more on the taste field being reinnervated than on the nerve itself. Here, the distribution of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in two taste-associated forebrain areas was examined in these same rats. In the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a rostrocaudal gradient characterized the normal quinine-stimulated Fos response, with the greatest number of labeled cells situated rostrally. Quinine-stimulated neurons were found throughout the gustatory cortex, but a "hot spot" was observed in its anterior-posterior center in subregions approximating the dysgranular/agranular layers. Fos neurons here and in the rostral CeA were highly correlated with quinine-elicited gapes. Denervation of the posterior tongue eliminated, and its reinnervation by either nerve restored, numbers of quinine-stimulated labeled cells in the rostralmost CeA and in the subregion approximating the dysgranular gustatory cortex. These results underscore the remarkable plasticity of the gustatory system and also help clarify the functional anatomy of neural circuits activated by bitter taste stimulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Diffractive ''semioptical'' model for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Musulmanbekov, Zh.Zh.

    1979-01-01

    Diffraction Glauber theory for nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered in approximation when the initial nucleus interacts as a whole with nucleons of the target nucleus. Such an approach, being intermediate between precise Glauber theory and its optical limit, essentially simplifies numerical calculations and gives a good agreement with experiments as well. (author)

  12. Specific fetometric formulas of ICC and BP for calculating the parturition date in the miniature breeds of canine.

    Socha, P; Janowski, T

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to derive the growth curves of the inner chorionic cavity and the biparietal distance in miniature dog breeds by ultrasonographic fetometry and present new specific formulas for prediction of parturition date. In this study, foetal biometry parameters were obtained using serial ultrasonographic examinations in 24 pregnant bitches of six different miniature breeds (≤5 kg). The mating time was unknown. Overall, 25 inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and 22 biparietal diameter (BP) measurements were taken. The relationship between ICC or BP growth and days to parturition was analysed by linear regression. The results showed a significant relationship between days before delivery and ICC or BP. The equations derived from the growth curves can be used in practical prediction of parturition date in miniature dog breeds. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Santanu Pal

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the mechanism of one- and two-body dissipations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The average energy transferred to nuclear excitations is calculated using a time-dependent density matrix approach with lowest-order approximations. Considering the nuclei as Fermi gases, and using a gaussian-type NN interaction as the basic perturbation, simplified expressions are obtained for energy dissipations. These expressions are quite instructive to follow a number of interesting aspects of one- and two-body dissipations. It is theoretically observed that the memory time for the two-body dissipation is significantly smaller than that of one-body dissipation. A threshold-type dependence of the transferred energy on the relative velocity between the two nuclei is also observed. This threshold velocity is found to be related with the intrinsic nucleon kinetic energy for two-body dissipation and with the nuclear size for the one-body case. This observation further suggests that the total dissipated energy is shared between the two nuclei approximately in the ratio of their masses. The physical origin of these observations is also explained. Numerical calculations further illustrate some characteristic features of one- and two-body dissipations. (orig.)

  14. High energy nucleus-nucleus scattering and matter radius of unstable nucleus

    Sato, H.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The interaction cross sections of high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering have been studied with the Glauber Model and Hartree-Fock like variational calculation for the nuclear structure. It is found that the experimental interaction cross sections of the light unstable nucleus-stable nucleus scatterings measured by INS-LBL collaboration are well reproduceable. (author)

  15. Status of the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) on the Path to Ignition

    Lagin, L J; Bettenhauasen, R C; Bowers, G A; Carey, R W; Edwards, O D; Estes, C M; Demaret, R D; Ferguson, S W; Fisher, J M; Ho, J C; Ludwigsen, A P; Mathisen, D G; Marshall, C D; Matone, J M; McGuigan, D L; Sanchez, R J; Shelton, R T; Stout, E A; Tekle, E; Townsend, S L; Van Arsdall, P J; Wilson, E F

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility under construction that will contain a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF is comprised of 24 independent bundles of 8 beams each using laser hardware that is modularized into more than 6,000 line replaceable units such as optical assemblies, laser amplifiers, and multifunction sensor packages containing 60,000 control and diagnostic points. NIF is operated by the large-scale Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) in an architecture partitioned by bundle and distributed among over 800 front-end processors and 50 supervisory servers. NIF's automated control subsystems are built from a common object-oriented software framework based on CORBA distribution that deploys the software across the computer network and achieves interoperation between different languages and target architectures. A shot automation framework has been deployed during the past year to orchestrate and automate shots performed at the NIF using the ICCS. In December 2006, a full cluster of 48 beams of NIF was fired simultaneously, demonstrating that the independent bundle control system will scale to full scale of 192 beams. At present, 72 beams have been commissioned and have demonstrated 1.4-Megajoule capability of infrared light. During the next two years, the control system will be expanded to include automation of target area systems including final optics, target positioners and

  16. Status of the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) on the path to ignition

    Lagin, L.J.; Bettenhausen, R.C.; Bowers, G.A.; Carey, R.W.; Edwards, O.D.; Estes, C.M.; Demaret, R.D.; Ferguson, S.W.; Fisher, J.M.; Ho, J.C.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Mathisen, D.G.; Marshall, C.D.; Matone, J.T.; McGuigan, D.L.; Sanchez, R.J.; Stout, E.A.; Tekle, E.A.; Townsend, S.L.; Van Arsdall, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility under construction that will contain a 192-beam, 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-m diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF is comprised of 24 independent bundles of eight beams each using laser hardware that is modularized into more than 6000 line replaceable units such as optical assemblies, laser amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages containing 60,000 control and diagnostic points. NIF is operated by the large-scale Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) in an architecture partitioned by bundle and distributed among over 800 front-end processors and 50 supervisory servers. NIF's automated control subsystems are built from a common object-oriented software framework based on CORBA distribution that deploys the software across the computer network and achieves interoperation between different languages and target architectures. A shot automation framework has been deployed during the past year to orchestrate and automate shots performed at the NIF using the ICCS. In December 2006, a full cluster of 48 beams of NIF was fired simultaneously, demonstrating that the independent bundle control system will scale to full scale of 192 beams. At present, 72 beams have been commissioned and have demonstrated 1.4-MJ capability of infrared light. During the next 2 years, the control system will be expanded in preparation for project completion in 2009 to include automation of target area systems including final optics

  17. Particle correlations in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Nagamiya, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    Particle correlations in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies of 1-2 GeV/nucleon are investigated. The problems of measurement of the mean free path lambda of protons inside the nucleus and the interaction radius of nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered. The value of lambda has been determined in two-proton coincidence experiment in proton-nucleus interaction at 800 MeV. The observed value of lambda is slightly longer than the expected from free nucleon-nucleon collisions. Some preliminary results on proton emission beyond free nucleon-nucleon kinemaics are given

  18. Some experimental results of the investigation of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Azimov, S.A.; Gulamov, K.G.; Chernov, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent experimental data on the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus inelastic interactions are analyzed. A particular attention is paid to the description of the leading hadron spectra and of the spectra of nucleon recoils in hadron-nucleus interactions. Some of the results of the experimental studies of correlations between secondary particles are discussed. This discussion demonstrates that an analysis of the multiparticle phenomena is very promising regarding the discrimination between the different models for the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. It is pointed out that the actual mechanism of the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a rather complex one and can be described comprehensively by none of the existing models

  19. Incoterms 2010 ICC rules for the use of domestic and international trade terms

    2010-01-01

    Les règles Incoterms® définissent les responsabilités des acheteurs et des vendeurs pour la livraison des marchandises dans le cadre d’un contrat de vente. Elles sont les règles officielles afin de déterminer comment les frais et risques sont alloués aux parties. Les règles des Incoterms sont régulièrement insérées au sein de contrats de vente à l’échelle mondiale et sont devenues partie intégrante du langage commercial de tous les jours. download Incoterms® 2010 comportent les règles de l’ICC pour l’utilisation des 11 termes commerciaux des Incoterms. Elles prennent en compte les derniers développements dans la pratique commerciale, mettent à jour et regroupent certaines anciennes règles. Une majorité de contrat de vente fera référence à cette dernière version dans le corps de leur contenu. En complément des 11 règles, cette édition inclut : De nombreuses notes explicatives et des graphiques pour aider les utilisateurs à choisir la règle la plus appropriée pour ...

  20. The Classification of Tongue Colors with Standardized Acquisition and ICC Profile Correction in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Qi, Zhen; Tu, Li-Ping; Chen, Jing-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Jia-Tuo; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Goal . The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods . Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L * a * b * of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results . The L * a * b * values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions . At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible.

  1. PENINGKATAN KINERJA PERSEDIAAN PRODUK DI PT. PROPAN RAYA I.C.C SURABAYA

    Yuki Tejo Prakoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is an internal process that is essential for the company's operations, especially in the field of industrial paints. Many types, colors and sizes of packaging paint often urged companies to hoard supplies. Nevertheless the possibility of failing to meet customer demand still occur, either due to exhaustion of stock, delivery delays, or for any other reason. Finished product inventory control in a way or innovative method must be developed to reduce excess inventory so as to minimize storage costs and to meet customer needs optimally. Use the ABC method and modifications VEN can be an alternative in inventory control application based on the classification of products and level of service companies. With a combination of ABC-VEN method, it will obtain 9 grade product inventory to the value of each service level that has been adjusted so that it can help determine the optimal inventory control policies for the company. From the research, suggested inventory control policy indicates that the inventory turnover rate suggested an average 3.14 times per year is the number of days supply of inventory was 76 days.This means that the inventory control policy suggested, PT. Propan Raya I.C.C can improve inventory performance by increasing the speed of inventory turnover amounted to 60.2% and increase the efficiency of the number of days supply of inventory by 37.7% of the current inventory.

  2. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references

  3. Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity

    Basar, K.; Sesia, T.; Groenewegen, H.J.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Visser-vandewalle, V.; Temel, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The multifaceted concept of impulsivity implies that different impulsivity aspects, mediated by different neural processes, influence behavior at different levels. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key component of the neural processes regulating impulsivity. In this review, we discuss the findings

  4. Quasi-elastic shadowing in nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering

    Dymarz, R; Malecki, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gluski, K [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Picchi, P [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)

    1979-01-06

    The complete evaluation of the Glauber multiple-scattering series for nucleus-nucleus collisions is a very difficult task and that is why various approximate formulae were proposed. In this work some of these approximations are discussed.

  5. 78 FR 73914 - In the Matter of ICC Worldwide, Inc., Innova Pure Water, Inc., Paladin Holdings, Inc., Performing...

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of ICC Worldwide, Inc., Innova Pure Water, Inc., Paladin Holdings, Inc., Performing Brands, Inc., Petrol Oil and Gas, Inc., Platinum... Trading December 5, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of...

  6. Integrating the Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) in a Foreign Language Program: Faculty Considerations upon Leaving the Haven of Native Speakership

    Dimas, Héctor Manuel Serna

    2016-01-01

    This action research study presents the perspectives of two language faculty who integrated the principles of the Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) model in their teaching. The professors shared their understanding of intercultural communicative competence through a learning log. These reflections were mainly about the challenged notion…

  7. Mechanisms of High Energy Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Processes

    Strugalski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Mechanisms of high energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collision processes are depicted qualitatively, as prompted experimentally. In hadron-nucleus collisions the interaction of the incident hadron in intranuclear matter is localized in small cylindrical volume, with the radius as large as the strong interaction range is, centered on the hadron course in the nucleus. The nucleon emission is induced by the hadron in its passing through the nucleus; particles are produced via intermediate objects produced in 2 → 2 endoergic reactions of the hadron and its successors with downstream nucleons. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the outcome of the reaction appears as the composition of statistically independent hadron-nucleus collision outcomes at various impact parameters. Observable effects supporting such mechanisms are discussed. 51 refs

  8. Study of Relativistic Nucleus - Nucleus Collisions

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to survey the reaction mechanisms involved in the collision of 60~GeV/nucleon and 200~GeV/nucleon light ions ($^{16}$0 and $^{32}$S provided by a new GSI-LBL injector) with different nuclei, to determine the stopping power of nuclear matter and to search for evidence of the formation of quark matter by comparison to hadron-nucleus reactions at the same incident energies. \\\\ The experimental set-up consists of a 2 m Streamer Chamber in the Vertex Magnet used to detect all the charged particles emerging from the interaction as well as the neutral strange particles that decay inside the chamber. The high energy of the forward-going particles are detected by four sets of calorimeters. A highly segmented Photon Position Detector (PPD) backed up by a 240 segment Ring Calorimeter will cover one unit of rapidity around mid-rapidity. An Intermediate Calorimeter will cover the rest of the forward phase space except for the region around beam rapidity, where a Veto Calorimeter will detect be...

  9. Diabatic emission of neutrons: A probe for the energy dissipation mechanism in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Noerenberg, W.; Cassing, W.

    1984-05-01

    The precompound emission of neutrons in central nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated within the framework of dissipative diabatic dynamics. For 92 Mo + 92 Mo at bombarding energies between 7.5 and 20 MeV/u the differential neutron multiplicities dMsub(n)/dEsub(n) are estimated from the decay of highly excited diabatic single-particle states. The energy spectra have an almost exponential high-energy tail with effective temperatures up to 10 MeV for 20 MeV/u bombarding energy. (orig.)

  10. Dynamics of hadronization in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Friman, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    One of the main problems in the search for quark-gluon plasma in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is finding a reliable signature for deconfinement. Several signatures have been suggested, e.g., dileptons with a spectrum characteristic of the plasma, an increase in the number of strange particles and effects due to the hadronization of the plasma. In this talk I will describe some recent work on the effects of the hadronization transition in the central rapidity region within the hydrodynamic model of Bjorken, Kajantie and McLerran. (orig.)

  11. Particle production in high energy nucleus--nucleus experiments at Berkeley

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1976-09-01

    A review of high energy nucleus-nucleus experiments performed at the Berkeley Bevalac is presented. Earlier results on projectile and target fragmentation and pion production are briefly summarized. More recent results on Coulomb effects in projectile fragmentation, heavy ion total cross-sections, γ-ray production, and charged particle multiplicities are presented. Also, recent experiments which may shed light on phenomena arising from the central collision of two energetic nuclei, including recent evidence for and against the observation of nuclear shock waves, are reviewed

  12. Bridging the Gap, Facing the Challenge—the 26th Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC)

    Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The joint venue of the 26th Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC) & Asia Pacific Heart Congress 2015 (APHC 2015) & International Congress Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2015 (ICCPR 2015) were held from October 29 to November 01, 2015 at the China National Convention Center (CNCC), Beijing, China. This year’s conference focused on cardiovascular disease prevention, health promotion, education and training, as well as disease management and rehabilitation.

  13. Nucleus-nucleus collision as superposition of nucleon-nucleus collisions

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus. (orig.)

  14. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus

  15. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Orlova, G I; Adamovich, M I; Aggarwal, M M; Alexandrov, Y A; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Basova, E S; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Y; Chen, G M; Chernova, L P; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; Chenawi, K El; Felea, D; Feng, S Q; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Henjes, U; Jakobsson, B; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kharlamov, S P; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Li, Y X; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J J; Lukicheva, N S; Lu, Y; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navotny, V S; Nystrand, J; Otterlund, I; Peresadko, N G; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Roeper, M; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Sethi, R; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Soderstrem, K; Stenlund, E; Svechnikova, L N; Svensson, T; Tawfik, A M; Tothova, M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Tuleeva, U I; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S; Vrlakova, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, X R; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C

    1999-03-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  16. Thermalization in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Zhu, F.; Lynch, W.G.; Bowman, D.R.; De Souza, R.T.; Gelbke, C.K.; Kim, Y.D.; Phair, L.; Tsang, M.B.; Williams, C.; Xu, H.M.; Dinius, J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States) National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States))

    1992-05-28

    Impact parameter dependent excited state populations of intermediate mass fragments are investigated for {sup 36}Ar induced reactions on {sup 197}Au at E/A=35 MeV. Population inversions, indicative of non-thermal excitation mechanisms, are observed in peripheral collisions characterized by low associated charged particle multiplicities. These population inversions disappear for collisions with larger associated charged particle multiplicities, consistent with a more complete thermalization for more complex final states. Discrepancies, observed in central collisions, suggest that the limit of local thermal equilibrium has not yet been observed. (orig.).

  17. The imaginary part of the nucleus - nucleus optical potential

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.

    1978-01-01

    The contribution to the imaginary nucleus - nucleus optical potential has been estimated by evaluating the energy - conserving seocond-order term in the perturbation series. The incoming nuclear field is supposed to excite nucleons in a nucleus in this calculation and the nuclear excitations are approximated by particle-hole excitations in a Fermi gas. The resulting imaginary potential compares favourably with phenomenological potentials. (author)

  18. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    D'Enterria, D.G.

    2000-05-01

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E γ > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar 36 + Au 197 , Ag 107 , Ni 58 , C 12 at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4π. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pnγ) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  19. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider

  20. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  1. Scaling phenomenon in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Wong, C.Y.; Blankenbecler, R.

    1980-01-01

    New scaling variables for proton and pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are introduced which are the generalizations of the Feynmann scaling variable. They allow a simple description of the cross sections at forward and backward angles. 2 figures

  2. Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Khan, F.; Townsend, L.W.

    1993-12-01

    An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies

  3. Model for nucleus-nucleus, hadron-nucleus and hadron-proton multiplicity distributions

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.; Tuli, S.K.

    1986-07-01

    A model relating hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus multiplicity distributions is proposed and some interesting consequences are derived. The values of the parameters are the same for all the processes and are given by the QCD hypothesis of ''universal'' hadronic multiplicities which are found to be asymptotically independent of target and beam in hadronic and current induced reactions in particle physics. (author)

  4. Prevalencia de diabetes mellitus en perros mayores de 7 años con sobrepeso ICC>4

    Galarza Molina, Emanuel Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación, se realizó en el cantón Cuenca, Provincia del Azuay, para determinar la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus (DM) en perros mayores a 7 años con sobrepeso y un ICC mayor a 4, se realizó en 10 clínicas veterinarias, en 250 perros, practicando un examen clínico, para verificar signos que asocien a la enfermedad (polidipsia, poliuria, polifagia y letargia), se obtuvo una gota de sangre del pabellón auricular, analizándose en el glucómetro para verificar los niveles de...

  5. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  6. Antinucleon-nucleus elastic and inelastic scattering

    Dover, C.B.; Millener, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT = 0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 40 refs., 13 figs

  7. Formation of proton-fragments in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    Bazarov, E.Kh.; Olimov, K.; Petrov, V.I.; Lutpullaev, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The investigation of production of protons in hadron- and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a key problem allowing one to establish the singularities of dynamics of nuclear interactions. The formation of proton-fragments at high energies of colliding particles proceeds within both the interaction of hadrons with nuclei and in the process of decay of the nucleus or its de-excitation at peripheral interactions. At different stages of interaction of impinging particle with target nucleus, the different mechanisms of formation of proton-fragments: the direct knock-out of intranuclear nucleons in the process of high energy cascade of an initial hadron, intranuclear cascade of produced particles, decay of the excited multi-nucleon fragments and of the thermalized remnant nucleus, and the coalescence of nuclear fragments to the new clusters are realized with the certain probability, connected to the interaction parameters (the interaction energy, the parameter of collision, the intranuclear density, the configuration of Fermi momentum of nucleons and clusters of target nucleus et al.). In its turn, the mechanisms of formation of the final nuclear fragments are closely related to the type of excitation of an initial nucleus. The peripheral interactions proceed at small transfers of the momentum of an impinging particle and represent the wide class of reactions covering the processes from diffractive or coulomb collective excitations of the whole nucleus to the direct quasi-elastic knock-out of the separate nucleons. Non-peripheral interactions are caused by comparatively high local transfers of momentum to the intranuclear clusters allowing the development of intranuclear cascade and the asymmetric redistribution of energy of an impinging particle. The central collisions causing the full decay of nucleus on nucleons or few-nucleon fragments, are the limiting case of the maximal development of the intranuclear cascade. The interaction of the initial particles with

  8. Recent results on (anti)nucleus and (anti)hyperon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS energies

    Melkumov, G L; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kikola, D; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Laszlo, A; Lacey, R; Van Leeuwen, M; Lvai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Peryt, W; Pikna, M; Pluta, J; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland5, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Seyboth, P; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpetery, I; Sziklai, J; Szuba, M; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek11, A; Yoo, I K; Zimnyi, J; Wetzler, A

    2007-01-01

    The NA49 experiment has collected comprehensive data on particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions over the whole SPS beam energies range, the critical energy domain where the expected phase transition to a deconfined phase is expected to occur. The latest results from Pb+Pb collisions between 20$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV on baryon stopping and light nuclei production as well as those for strange hyperons are presented. The measured data on $p$, $\\bar{p}$, $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\Xi^-$ and $\\bar{\\Xi}^+$ production were used to evaluate the rapidity distributions of net-baryons at SPS energies and to compare with the results from the AGS and the RHIC for central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions. The dependence of the yield ratios and the inverse slope parameter of the $m_t$ spectra on the collision energy and centrality, and the mass number of the produced nuclei $^3He$, $t$, $d$ and $\\bar{d}$ are discussed within coalescence and statistical approaches. Analysis of the total multiplicity exhibits remarkable a...

  9. Formation of light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Zagrebaev, V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    The principal experimental results on the yield of the light charged particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the low and intermediate energies are reviewed. Inclusive spectra of light particles and their coincidences with the characteristic KX-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, projectile-like fragments, other light particles, fission fragments, and evaporation residues are analyzed. The main theoretical models used for the description of the light particle formation are briefly outlined together with their merits and shortcomings. The unsolved problems of fast light particle formation, in particular, and of nucleus-nucleus interaction dynamics, on the whole, are discussed with the outlooks of new experiments able to clear up some of these problems. (author) 144 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Nucleus-nucleus interactions in the transition energy regime

    Volant, C.

    1985-02-01

    There are at least two ways for studying large interactions in nucleus-nucleus collisions. One way is to use the method of angular correlations between fission fragments. The aim of the experiments presented here was to make a survey on the role of the various experimental parameters. In that respect three targets have been studied and different projectiles and bombarding energies have been used. Results are presented and discussed

  11. Diabatic interaction potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Noerenberg, W.; Lukasiak, A.

    1984-01-01

    Within a refined method for the construction of diabatic states allowing for the treatment of the full spin-orbit coupling, characteristic features of the diabatic potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions are investigated. Approximately 90% of the strong repulsion results from diabatic particle-hole excitations, while only 10% is due to compression. The diabatic interaction potential describes a physical situation intermediate between adiabatic and sudden approximations. (orig.)

  12. Study of Strange and Multistrange Particles in Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Vande vyvre, P; Feofilov, G; Snoeys, W; Hetland, K F; Campbell, M; Klempt, W

    2002-01-01

    % NA57\\\\ \\\\ The goal of the experiment is to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This study was initiated at the OMEGA spectrometer, where three ion experiments have been performed: WA85 (S-W and p-W collisions at 200 A GeV/c), WA94 (S-S and p-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c) and WA97 (Pb-Pb, p-Pb and p-Be collisions at 160 A GeV/c).\\\\ \\\\ The experiment aims at extending the scope of WA97 by:\\\\ \\\\ - investigating the beam energy dependence of the enhancements of multi-strange particle production reported by the previous experiments, and by\\\\ \\\\\\\\ \\\\- measuring the yields of strange and multi-strange particles over an extended centrality range compared with the previous experiments.\\\\ \\\\ The apparatus consists mainly of silicon pixel detector planes.

  13. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  14. Energy Provisions of the ICC-700, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR Mapped to the 2009 IECC

    Britt, Michelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Robin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kora, Angela R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makela, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makela, Erin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This document provides the results of a comparison of building energy efficient elements of the ICC-700 National Green Building Standard, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR versions 2, 2.5, and 3.0 to the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (2009 IECC). This comparison will provide a tool for states and local municipalities as they consider adoption of these programs. The comparison is presented in a series of appendices. The first appendix provides a summary chart that visually represents the comprehensive comparison of the programs to the 2009 IECC topic areas. Next there are a series of individual tables (one appendix for each program) that include the specific program mapping to the 2009 IECC elements with comments that briefly discuss how well the elements mapped. Finally, a comprehensive table is included that shows all five of the programs mapped to the 2009 IECC elements to allow a detailed comparison.

  15. Beyond the nucleus

    Detraz, C.

    1993-01-01

    The author argues that nuclear physics research should enjoy considerable financial and political support rather than the reductions at present planned, as it offers the potential for solving many social, political and environmental issues. The long-range scientific aims of nuclear physics are changing and two important research directions are emerging, how quarks interact and assemble (the individual-to-collective phase transition at the microscopic level) and the study of hadronic matter. Their study will lead to an understanding of the properties of hadronic matter and of the binding of elementary particles to form baryons and matter. These will become central to science theories of the future. (UK)

  16. The nucleus is an intracellular propagator of tensile forces in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Alam, Samer G.; Lovett, David; Kim, Dae In; Roux, Kyle J.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear positioning is a crucial cell function, but how a migrating cell positions its nucleus is not understood. Using traction-force microscopy, we found that the position of the nucleus in migrating fibroblasts closely coincided with the center point of the traction-force balance, called the point of maximum tension (PMT). Positioning of the nucleus close to the PMT required nucleus–cytoskeleton connections through linker of nucleoskeleton-to-cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes. Although the nucleus briefly lagged behind the PMT following spontaneous detachment of the uropod during migration, the nucleus quickly repositioned to the PMT within a few minutes. Moreover, traction-generating spontaneous protrusions deformed the nearby nucleus surface to pull the nuclear centroid toward the new PMT, and subsequent retraction of these protrusions relaxed the nuclear deformation and restored the nucleus to its original position. We propose that the protruding or retracting cell boundary transmits a force to the surface of the nucleus through the intervening cytoskeletal network connected by the LINC complexes, and that these forces help to position the nucleus centrally and allow the nucleus to efficiently propagate traction forces across the length of the cell during migration. PMID:25908852

  17. Manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the HIJING model, global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy scale. An interesting model prediction is the presence of a central bump over a pseudorapidity plateau of a total transverse energy distribution. The bump is induced by a jet quenching effect in a dense nuclear matter. It is shown that a wide acceptance calorimeter with a pseudorapidity coverage -5<η<5 allows one to obtain experimental confirmation of such an effect

  18. Transverse-momentum distribution of produced particles in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Ban-Hao, S.; Wong, C.

    1985-01-01

    In order to discern coherent or collective processes from incoherent processes in nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies, we study the transverse-momentum distribution of the produced particles with an incoherent-multiple-collision model. In this model, the projectile nucleon makes successive inelastic collisions with nucleons in the target nucleus, the probability of such collisions being given by the thickness function and the nucleon-nucleon inelastic cross section. It is assumed that each baryon-baryon collision produces particles and degrades momenta just as a baryon-baryon collision in free space, and that there are no secondary collisions between the produced particles and the nucleons. We found that the average transverse momentum and the charged-multiplicity data at Fermilab and CERN ISR energies can be well explained by such a model. However, the average transverse momentum for some events observed by the Japanese-American cooperative emulsion experiment (JACEE) associated with large energy density in the central rapidity region differ markedly from the model results. Such a deviation indicates the presence of coherent or collective effects for these collisions and may indicate the possibility of a formation of quark-gluon plasma

  19. The momentum distribution inside nucleus

    Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    Discussions are made on several reactions which can determine the momentum distribution inside nucleus. The first reaction discussed is the high energy heavy ion collision. This reaction involves many nucleons which interact strongly. Therefore, one must be careful for any possible final state interactions. The expression for the single particle momentum distribution is given. And it can be said that the expression is consistent with the description of the energetic neutrons from muon capture by heavy nucleus. The best way to determine the momentum distribution would be the lepton-nucleus scattering since it does not involve the strong interaction in the initial channel. Another reaction discussed is the backward proton production, which is governed by quite complicated reaction processes. Therefore, the determination of the momentum distribution is only indirect. Noverthless, it is found that this reaction presents a very interesting and important information on the momentum distribution. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  1. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner.

  2. Anti p-nucleus interaction

    Peng, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Status and future prospects of antiproton-nucleus scattering experiments are presented. These scattering experiments were conducted at antiproton beam momentums of 300 and 600 MeV/c on target nuclei of 6 Li, 12 C, 16 O, 18 O, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, and 208 Pb. Antiproton-proton reactions investigated antiproton-nucleus bound or resonant states in antiproton reactions with d, 6 Li, 12 C, 63 Cu, and 209 Bi. Inelastic scattering experiments investigated the spin-isospin dependence of the NN interactions. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. No Crimes Against Humanity During the Maydan Protests in Ukraine? Or the ICC Prosecutor’s Flawed Interpretation of Crimes Against Humanity?

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    in International Criminal Law as to how the systematic requirement is applied on a stand-alone basis as well as how it interacts with the policy element. By deciding not to forward with the investigation into the situation of Ukraine, the ICC Prosecutor denied the judges an opportunity to decide whether the Maydan......The Article takes a fresh look at the definition of crimes against humanity and its applicability in the International Criminal Court (“ICC”) by analyzing the ICC Prosecutor’s decision not to proceed with the investigation of the Maydan crimes in Ukraine, based on her evaluation of the “widespread...

  4. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  5. The nucleus as a laboratory

    Blin-Stoyle, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The nucleus is a complicated many-body structure whose properties when carefully studied can frequently give important information about the underlying elementary particle interactions. This article reviews progress in research of this kind over the last twenty-five years. (author)

  6. The pion-nucleus interaction

    Afnan, I.R.

    1977-04-01

    The latest developments in the construction of pion-nucleus optical potential are presented and a comparison with the latest data on π+ 12 C is made. The suggested mechanisms for the (p,π) reaction are discussed with a comparison of the theoretical results with experiment. (Author)

  7. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-01-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the optimal

  8. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-10-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  9. Experimental problems of search for quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Okonov, Eh.O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental problems for searching for quark-gluon (quagma) plasma in nucleus-nucleus interactions (NbNb,CaCa, ArPb, CnE, ONe) in the energy range E=0.4-1 GeV/A and 3.67 GeV/A and 200 GeV/A energies are discussed. Peculiarities of performing experiments on Dubna synchrophasotron and SPS Bevalac are discussed. The first results prove hadron matter thermalization sufficient for quagma manifestation. It is found that such characteristics of studied interactions as relative λ-hyperon yield, spectral (temperature) characteristics of λ k -hyperons (with higher values of transferred transverse momenta) and associatively produced peons are of greatest interest. The necessity of precise establishment of λ-hyperon group as excessive and differing in its origin from the other particles of the hadron phase is noted. It is shown that experimental approach used in Dubna research proved efficient and requires further development. It includes : selection of rare events (fluctuations) in central interactions of nuclei with high local excitation; search and research of peculiarities in the production of strange particles and in associative pion production; use of streamer spectrometer with a trigger system of rigid selection of central interactions

  10. Applicability of integrated cell culture reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (ICC-RTqPCR) for the simultaneous detection of the four human enteric enterovirus species in disinfection studies

    A newly developed integrated cell culture reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (ICC-RTqPCR) method and its applicability in UV disinfection studies is described. This method utilizes a singular cell culture system coupled with four RTqPCR assays to detect infectious serotypes t...

  11. Computational science - ICCS 2008: 8th international conference, Kraków, Poland, June 23-25, 2008: Proceedings, part II

    Bubak, M.; van Albada, G.D.; Dongarra, J.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The three-volume set LNCS 5101-5103 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2008, held in Krakow, Poland in June 2008. The 167 revised papers of the main conference track presented together with the abstracts of 7 keynote talks and the

  12. Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors

  13. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    Tincknell, M.

    1988-01-01

    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs

  14. Kaonic nuclei and kaon-nucleus interactions

    Ikuta, K; Masutani, K

    2002-01-01

    Although kaonic atoms provide valuable information concerning the K sup - -nucleus interaction at low energies, they cannot fully determine the K sup - - nucleus optical potential. We demonstrate that K sup - nuclear bound states, if they exist, can be useful in investigating the K sup - -nucleus interaction, especially in the interior of the nucleus. In order to show this possibility, we calculate the double differential cross sections for (K sup - , P) using the Green function method. (author)

  15. Color oscillations of nucleons in a nucleus

    Petrov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Possibility of nucleus description as an object consisting of quarks and gluons is considered. A model of two-nucleon interaction in a nucleus is presented and analytical expressions for the nucleus nucleon ground state wave functions and also for nuclear nucleon structure functions are obtained. The carried out analysis shows that the suggested model permits to express the nucleus structure functions at quark level only by means of nucleon and Δ-isobaric degrees of freedom

  16. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  17. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.

    1986-06-01

    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  18. Lasers probe the atomic nucleus

    Eastham, D.

    1986-01-01

    The article is contained in a booklet on the Revised Nuffield Advanced Physics Course, and concentrates on two techniques to illustrate how lasers probe the atomic nucleus. Both techniques employ resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for obtaining atomic transition energies. The first uses lasers to determine the change in the nuclear charge radius with isotope, the second concerns the use of lasers for ultrasensitive detection of isotopes and elements. The application of lasers in resonance ionization spectroscopy and proton decay is also described. (UK)

  19. What is a cometary nucleus

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of actual observed comets associate a range of ill-defined meanings with the term nucleus. In recent years use of the word has been even further extended (or contracted) to mean a postulated solid core constituting the permanent element of a comet and necessarily of size far below resolution and measurability. It is maintained by the postulants that this core, acted upon by solar radiation and the solar wind, is the fount and origin of practically the whole great variety of observed cometary physical phenomena. In order that this micro-nucleus shall 'explain' observed properties, it is endowed with a large number of entirely ad-hoc qualities specially devised to produce the very effects it is wished to explain, but the processes so proffered rely almost entirely on purely verbal asseverations that they will work in the way required. No source or mechanism of origin for the imaginary micro-nucleus, of which there would need to be myriads, is in sight, nor can the assumption explain the dynamical properties of long-period comets and their association with the galactic plane and the solar apex. The postulate is in any event ruled out by Occam's principle as having no basis in fact or theory and is not required to explain the observed properties of comets. The large number of additional special assumptions introduced mean that the structure as a whole does not constitute a proper scientific theory. (author)

  20. Angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of nucleus-nucleus interaction

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intuitively the origin of the angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction on the basis of the totally- antisymmetrized many-body theory. With the aim of understanding the structure of the nucleus-nucleus interaction, we show first that the nucleus-nucleus interaction can be written by the use of the density-distribution function and the phase-space distribution function instead of using the many-body wave function itself. And we show that the structure change of the density-distribution function with the increase of the angular momentum causes the angular momentum dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction and that the incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction originates from the structure change of the phase-space distribution function

  1. Central Visual Prosthesis With Interface at the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    2017-07-01

    portions of the electrode arrays to one another. A patent application is being prepared for the overall design. 3D modeling was performed using...transfer? A patent application on the LGN surgical insertion tool and electrode assembly is being prepared for submission; this will be co-authored...Nothing to report ▪ Technologies or techniques Nothing to report ▪ Inventions, patent applications, and/or licenses A patent

  2. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  3. Strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions: An experimental review

    Odyniec, G.

    1990-12-01

    In experiments with oxygen (60 and 200 GeV/N) and sulphur (200 GeV/N) ions at CERNSPS, large energy densities of the order of 2--3 GeV/fm 3 have been observed, which according to QCD calculations, satisfy necessary conditions for the formation of a quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase. Under such conditions, colour would no longer be confined to hadronic dimensions, and quarks and gluons will propagate freely throughout an extended volume. Somehow lower energy densities, of the order of 0.7--1 GeV/fm 3 , were observed in AGS experiments with 15 GeV/N silicon beams and heavy targets. These energy densities might be adequate for investigations of the pre-equilibrium stage, during which the momentum space distribution has been degradated from its initial value but is not yet thermal. First experimental results, available now, show promise of seeing signs of a new phase of matter. In this review the current status of the selective experimental results on strange-particle production, which are relevant to equilibration and QGP formation in nucleus-nucleus collisions, is presented

  4. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    HASSAN, G.S.; RAGAB, H.S.; SEDDEEK, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  5. Quarkonia Photoproduction at Nucleus Colliders

    D'Enterria, David

    2008-01-01

    Exclusive photoproduction of heavy quarkonia in high-energy ultraperipheral ion-ion interactions (γ A →V A, where V = J/ψ, Y and the nucleus A remains intact) offers a useful means to constrain the small-x nuclear gluon density. We discuss preliminary results on J/ψ photoproduction in Au-Au collisions at RHIC [D. d'Enterria [PHENIX Collaboration], Proceeds. Quark Matter'05, (arXiv:nucl-ex/0601001)], as well as full simulation-reconstruction studies of photo-produced Y in Pb-Pb interactions at the LHC [D. d'Enterria (ed.) et al. [CMS Collaboration], J. Phys. G. 34 2307 (2007)

  6. New results on nuclear multifragmentation in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Iliescu, Bogdan; Felea, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Some new aspects on the multifragmentation processes in nucleus-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus collisions at high energies are discussed in this work. Experimental data obtained in international collaborations (for example, MULTI Collaboration with KEK Tsukuba (Japan) and SKM 200 Collaboration with JINR Dubna (Russia)) are used to discuss new mechanisms in the target nucleus fragmentation. Correlations with stopping power, participant region size and energy density are included. Comparisons of the experimental results with the predictions of a phenomenological geometric model of intermediate mass fragment multiplicity, caloric curves and angular distributions are also presented. These results are used for global description of the multifragmentation processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies. The size of the participant region and the average intermediate mass fragments multiplicity are taken into consideration using the free space probability. A few correlations between the deposited energy in the participant region and stability state of the intermediate mass fragments are presented in this work. The importance of the collision geometry in the multifragmentation processes is stressed. The results suggest different time moments for the incident nucleus fragmentation and for the target nucleus fragmentation. The associated entropies are distinct. (authors)

  7. Structures and functions in the crowded nucleus: new biophysical insights

    Ronald eHancock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Concepts and methods from the physical sciences have catalysed remarkable progress in understanding the cell nucleus in recent years. To share this excitement with physicists and encourage their interest in this field, this review offers an overview of how the physics which underlies structures and functions in the nucleus is becoming more clear thanks to methods which have been developed to simulate and study macromolecules, polymers, and colloids. The environment in the nucleus is very crowded with macromolecules, making entropic (depletion forces major determinants of interactions. Simulation and experiments are consistent with their key role in forming membraneless compartments such as nucleoli, PML and Cajal bodies, and discrete territories for chromosomes. The chromosomes, giant linear polyelectrolyte polymers, exist in vivo in a state like a polymer melt. Looped conformations are predicted in crowded conditions, and have been confirmed experimentally and are central to the regulation of gene expression. Polymer theory has revealed how the chromosomes are so highly compacted in the nucleus, forming a crumpled globule with fractal properties which avoids knots and entanglements in DNA while allowing facile accessibility for its replication and transcription. Entropic repulsion between looped polymers can explain the confinement of each chromosome to a discrete region of the nucleus. Crowding and looping are predicted to facilitate finding the specific targets of factors which modulate activities of DNA. Simulation shows that entropic effects contribute to finding and repairing potentially lethal double-strand breaks in DNA by increasing the mobility of the broken ends, favouring their juxtaposition for repair. Signaling pathways are strongly influenced by crowding, which favours a processive mode of response (consecutive reactions without releasing substrates. This new information contributes to understanding the sometimes counter

  8. Notochord to Nucleus Pulposus Transition.

    Lawson, Lisa; Harfe, Brian D

    2015-10-01

    A tissue that commonly deteriorates in older vertebrates is the intervertebral disc, which is located between the vertebrae. Age-related changes in the intervertebral discs are thought to cause most cases of back pain. Back pain affects more than half of people over the age of 65, and the treatment of back pain costs 50-100 billion dollars per year in the USA. The normal intervertebral disc is composed of three distinct regions: a thick outer ring of fibrous cartilage called the annulus fibrosus, a gel-like material that is surrounded by the annulus fibrosus called the nucleus pulposus, and superior and inferior cartilaginous end plates. The nucleus pulposus has been shown to be critical for disc health and function. Damage to this structure often leads to disc disease. Recent reports have demonstrated that the embryonic notochord, a rod-like structure present in the midline of vertebrate embryos, gives rise to all cell types found in adult nuclei pulposi. The mechanism responsible for the transformation of the notochord into nuclei pulposi is unknown. In this review, we discuss potential molecular and physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the notochord to nuclei pulposi transition.

  9. The cellular mastermind(?) – Mechanotransduction and the nucleus

    Kaminski, Ashley; Fedorchak, Gregory R.; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to mechanical stimulation by activation of specific signaling pathways and genes that allow the cell to adapt to its dynamic physical environment. How cells sense the various mechanical inputs and translate them into biochemical signals remains an area of active investigation. Recent reports suggest that the cell nucleus may be directly implicated in this cellular mechanotransduction process. In this chapter, we discuss how forces applied to the cell surface and cytoplasm induce changes in nuclear structure and organization, which could directly affect gene expression, while also highlighting the complex interplay between nuclear structural proteins and transcriptional regulators that may further modulate mechanotransduction signaling. Taken together, these findings paint a picture of the nucleus as a central hub in cellular mechanotransduction—both structurally and biochemically—with important implications in physiology and disease. PMID:25081618

  10. Molecular orbitals of nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1986-05-01

    A formalism for the dynamical treatment of the molecular orbitals of valence nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low bombarding energy is developed with the use of the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) method. The Coriolis coupling effects as well as the finite mass effects of the nucleon are taken into account in this model, of rotating molecular orbitals, RMO. First, the validity of the concept is examined from the view point of the multi-step processes in a standard CRC calculation for systems containing two identical [core] nuclei. The calculations show strong CRC effects particularly in the case where the mixing of different l-parity orbitals - called hybridization in atomic physics - occurs. Then, the RMO representation for active nucleons is applied to the same systems and compared to the CRC results. Its validity is investigated with respect to the radial motion (adiabaticity) and the rotation of the molecular axis (radial and rotational coupling). Characteristic molecular orbitals of covalent molecules appear as rotationally stable states (K = 1/2) with good adiabaticity. Using the RMO's we obtain a new interpretation of various scattering phenomena. Dynamically induced changes in the effective Q-values (or scaling of energies), dynamically induced moments of inertia and an dynamically induced effective (L · S) interaction are obtained as a result of the molecular orbital formation. Various experimental data on transfer and subbarrier fusion reactions are understood in terms of the RMO's and their adiabatic potentials. Landau-Zener transitions, which strongly depend on the total angular momentum of the system, definitely predict the observation of characteristic changes in the cross sections for the inelastic scattering 13 C( 12 C, 12 C) 13 C* (3.086 MeV, 1/2 + ) with the change of the bombarding energy. (author)

  11. Double folding model of nucleus-nucleus potential: formulae, iteration method and computer code

    Luk'yanov, K.V.

    2008-01-01

    Method of construction of the nucleus-nucleus double folding potential is described. Iteration procedure for the corresponding integral equation is presented. Computer code and numerical results are presented

  12. Study of various models of nuclear interaction potentials: nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus systems

    Ngo, H.

    1984-01-01

    Several models, performed within a mean field theory, are developed for the calculation of nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The first part of the thesis deals with the nucleon-nucleus average interaction. It is mainly devoted to the calculation of dynamical corrections to the Hartree-Fock approximation. Two approaches are used: a microscopic model performed in the framework of the nuclear structure approach and a semi-phenomenological one, based on the application of the dispersion relations to the empirical imaginary potential. Both models take into account finite size effects like collectivity or threshold effects which are important at low energy. The Green's function properties are used for both models. The second part of this work is devoted to the interaction potential between two heavy ions. This calculation, which is performed in the framework of the sudden approximation, uses the energy density formalism (Thomas-Fermi approximation). It has been extended to finite temperature. At T=0 the experimental fusion barriers of heavy systems are reproduced within 4%. Their temperature dependence is studied. The proximity scaling is checked and a universal function is obtained at T=0 and at finite temperature. It is found that the proximity theorem is well satisfied on the average. The dispersion around the mean behaviour increases with increasing temperature. At last, P+A* and α+A* interaction potentials are calculated within a double folding model using a schematic effective interaction [fr

  13. Oriented heavy ions and the choice of a cool compound nucleus reaction

    Aroumougame, R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Potential energy surfaces are calculated within the mechanism of fragmentation theory with a view to selecting the target-projectile combinations for producing new elements through cool compound nucleus formation. The orientation of the colliding nuclei is also included. It is shown that both the reaction partners of a cool compound nucleus, formed in either a central or a nearly central collision, should preferably be spherical and either nearly symmetric or extremely asymmetric. For reactions with deformed nuclei, it is suggested that polarised targets should be used. The calculations are illustrated for the compound nuclei 258 104 and 260 106. (author)

  14. Physical meaning of the yields from hadron-nucleon, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions observed in experiments

    Strugalski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A physical meaning of the outcomes from hadronic and nuclear collision processes at high energies is presented, as prompted experimentally. The fast and slow stages in hadron-nucleus collisions are distinguished. Hadrons are produced via intermediate objects observed in hadron-nucleus collisions. The intermediate objects may be treated as the groups of quarks or the quark bags. 37 refs

  15. Description of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy using dual parton model

    Polanski, A.; Shmakov, S.Yu.; Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the dual parton model taking into account the processes of diffraction dissociation to the low mass states and finite energy corrections to the asymptotic Abramovski-Gribov-Kancheli cutting rules allows satisfactory description of existing experimental data on hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy. (orig.)

  16. Central amygdala, stress and adaption

    Roozendaal, Benno

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the results were presented of studies that were designed to provide more insight in the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in the adaptation to environmental demands. The experiments were performed in several situations, in which rats react either directly to aversive

  17. Do migrating cells need a nucleus?

    Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2018-03-05

    How the nucleus affects cell polarity and migration is unclear. In this issue, Graham et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201706097) show that enucleated cells polarize and migrate in two but not three dimensions and propose that the nucleus is a necessary component of the molecular clutch regulating normal mechanical responses. © 2018 Hawkins.

  18. Serotonin projection patterns to the cochlear nucleus.

    Thompson, A M; Thompson, G C

    2001-07-13

    The cochlear nucleus is well known as an obligatory relay center for primary auditory nerve fibers. Perhaps not so well known is the neural input to the cochlear nucleus from cells containing serotonin that reside near the midline in the midbrain raphe region. Although the specific locations of the main, if not sole, sources of serotonin within the dorsal cochlear nucleus subdivision are known to be the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, sources of serotonin located within other cochlear nucleus subdivisions are not currently known. Anterograde tract tracing was used to label fibers originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei while fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to simultaneously label specific serotonin fibers in cat. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and was visualized with Texas Red, while serotonin was visualized with fluorescein. Thus, double-labeled fibers were unequivocally identified as serotoninergic and originating from one of the labeled neurons within the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Double-labeled fiber segments, typically of fine caliber with oval varicosities, were observed in many areas of the cochlear nucleus. They were found in the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, in the small cell cap region, and in the granule cell and external regions of the cochlear nuclei, bilaterally, of all cats. However, the density of these double-labeled fiber segments varied considerably depending upon the exact region in which they were found. Fiber segments were most dense in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (especially in the molecular layer) and the large spherical cell area of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus; they were moderately dense in the small cell cap region; and fiber segments were least dense in the octopus and multipolar cell regions of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus. Because of the presence of labeled fiber segments in subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus other than the

  19. Comparison of three different fetometric formulas of ICC and BP for calculating the parturition date in a population of German Shepherd.

    Socha, Piotr; Janowski, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of three different formulas to predict the parturition date in German Shepherds, using the ultrasonographic fetometry method involving inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) measurements in the same population of a single breed. Overall, 53 ICC and 42 BP measurements were taken on 34 bitches. The measured values were substituted into breed-specific formulas for the German Shepherd as well as non-specific formulas for medium-sized bitches. Comparisons of clinical accuracy and statistical analyses of regression lines were performed to test the compatibility of the formulas used. We confirmed the similarity of our clinical results to outcomes obtained using the one breed-specific (Groppetti et al. 2015) and non-specific fetometry models (Luvoni and Grioni 2000), whereas another breed-specific formula (Milani et al. 2013) showed rather low accuracy. Comparing the clinical accuracy of the three formulas, the authors demonstrated that the Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formula for ICC dedicated to medium-sized dogs can also be effectively used in the German Shepherd, even with better results than breed-specific formulas by Groppetti et al. (2015). By contrast, the evaluation of BP formulas proves the successful usage of the Groppetti et al. (2015) formula to determine the date of birth by measuring scull bone structures (p < 0.05). The statistical analysis of regression lines were in agreement with the clinical results and confirmed the higher predictability of Groppetti et al. (2015) and Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas, than those of Milani et al. (2013). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2014-01-21

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.

  1. Diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid immunocytochemistry for diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis manifesting in the central nervous system.

    Gruendl, Stefanie; Matiasek, Kaspar; Matiasek, Lara; Fischer, Andrea; Felten, Sandra; Jurina, Konrad; Hartmann, Katrin

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate whether an ante-mortem diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is possible via immunocytochemical staining (ICC) of feline coronavirus antigen (FCoV) within macrophages of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods Prospectively, CSF samples of 41 cats were investigated, including cats with histopathologically confirmed FIP and neurological signs (n = 10), cats with confirmed FIP without CNS involvement (n = 11), cats with neurological signs but another confirmed CNS disease (n = 17), and cats without neurological signs and a disease other than FIP (n = 3). ICC staining of CSF macrophages was performed in all cats. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of CSF ICC were calculated. Results Of 10 samples from cats with CNS FIP, eight had detectable CSF macrophages, seven of which were positive for FCoV. Ten of 11 samples from cats with confirmed FIP without neurological signs had macrophages in the CSF, with all 10 being ICC-positive. In cats with other CNS disorders, 11/17 had macrophages, two of which stained positively. In cats with diseases other than FIP and without neurological disorders, 2/3 revealed macrophages, with one cat showing positive ICC staining. Diagnosis of FIP via CSF ICC had a sensitivity of 85.0% and a specificity of 83.3%. PPV and NPV were 85.0% and 83.3%. Conclusions and relevance CSF ICC is a highly sensitive test for ante-mortem diagnosis of FIP manifesting in the CNS. However, CNS ICC specificity is too low to confirm FIP and the method should only be applied in conjunction with other features such as CSF cytology. CNS ICC could be helpful to discover pre-neurological stages of CNS FIP.

  2. Classical gluon production amplitude for nucleus-nucleus collisions:First saturation correction in the projectile

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the classical single-gluon production amplitude in nucleus-nucleus collisions including the first saturation correction in one of the nuclei (the projectile) while keeping multiple-rescattering (saturation) corrections to all orders in the other nucleus (the target). In our approximation only two nucleons interact in the projectile nucleus: the single-gluon production amplitude we calculate is order-g"3 and is leading-order in the atomic number of the projectile, while resumming all order-one saturation corrections in the target nucleus. Our result is the first step towards obtaining an analytic expression for the first projectile saturation correction to the gluon production cross section in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  3. Strangeness production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the dual parton model

    Moehring, H.; Ranft, J.; Capella, A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1993-01-01

    Λ, bar Λ, and K S 0 production is studied in a Monte Carlo dual parton model for hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions with an SU(3) symmetric sea for chain formation (chain ends) but strangeness suppression in the chain fragmentation process. Additionally, (qq)-(bar q bar q) production from the sea was introduced into the chain formation process with the same probability as for the q→qq branching within the chain decay process. With these assumptions, multiplicity ratios and Feynman-x distributions for strange particles in h-h and multiplicity ratios in heavy ion collisions are reasonably well reproduced

  4. Review of high energy hadron-nucleus data

    Lissauer, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this review we will summarize new data on hardron-nucleus interactions. The possibility that quark-gluon plasma may be created in heavy ion collisions has led to renewed interest in hadron-nucleus collisions. In particular one hopes that understanding the energy loss of hadrons in h-A collissions will allow us to estimate the optimum energy in AA collisions in order to achieve maximum baryon and/or maximum energy density. This will allow us to choose the optimal experimental environment in the search for quark-gluon plasma. This review will thus omit many interesting results from hadron-nucleus collisions, such as the A dependence of lepton pair production, EMC effect and others. We will focus our attention on the following: (i) Estimating the rate of energy loss of the incident hadron as it propagates through the target. (ii) Determining where the enmergy is deposited in central hadron-nucleus collisions. It is clear that there is no direct or unique method of extrapolating our knowledge of h-A collisions to predict what will happen in AA-collisions. The knowledge and understanding of pp and pA collisions is, however, a useful and necessary guide to what one can expect in AA collisions. In this review we will concentrate on three experimental approaches to the study of h-A collisions. In Section 1 we will discuss the present status of pA → p + X inclusive measurements. In Section 2 measurements from visual detectors, in this case results from the 30″ hybrid spectrometer, which allows investigations of global event properties will be presented. In Section 3 data using 2π calorimeters, where one can trigger and measure transverse energy and energy flow over a given rapidity region, will be discussed. The conclusions will be given in Section 4.

  5. Laser spectroscopy probes the nucleus

    Griffith, J.; Billowes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Extremely sensitive optical measurements are shedding new light on the shape and size of nuclei, and the properties of nuclear matter far from stability. Of the 7000 or so isotopes known to nuclear physicists, less than 270 are stable. In general isotopes become more and more unstable as we move away from the so-called valley of stability, and therefore become more difficult to study in experiments. The tests of the theory also become more demanding. Laser spectroscopy is one of the techniques that is helping to explore the properties of these isotopes and improve our understanding of the forces inside the nucleus. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive atoms now makes it possible to measure the nuclear charge radius of many elements, including many isotopes far from stability. The method can reveal fine details of the sizes, shapes and structures of nuclei. In addition, laser spectroscopy is making significant contributions to our understanding of the nuclear force in unstable nuclei with unusual, or extreme, proton-neutron ratios. In this article the authors discuss the latest advances in studying heavy nuclei. (author)

  6. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  7. Indications for the onset of deconfinement in nucleus nucleus collisions

    Flierl, D.; Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Boimska, B.; Botje, M.; Bracinik, J.; Bramm, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Cerny, V.; Christakoglou, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Darmenov, N.; Dimitrov, A.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Farantatos, G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Georgopoulos, G.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hegyi, S.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kliemant, M.; Kniege, S.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kollegger, T.; Kornas, E.; Korus, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kraus, I.; Kreps, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Levai, P.; Litov, L.; Lungwitz, B.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Markert, C.; Mateev, M.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Meurer, C.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M.; Molnar, J.; Mrowczynski, S.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Panayotov, D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Puhlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Richard, A.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Trainor, T.A.; Trubnikov, V.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wetzler, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Yoo, I.K.; Zaranek, J.; Zimanyi, J.; Alt, C.; Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Boimska, B.; Botje, M.; Bracinik, J.; Bramm, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Cerny, V.; Christakoglou, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Darmenov, N.; Dimitrov, A.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Farantatos, G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Georgopoulos, G.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hegyi, S.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kliemant, M.; Kniege, S.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kollegger, T.; Kornas, E.; Korus, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kraus, I.; Kreps, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Levai, P.; Litov, L.; Lungwitz, B.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Markert, C.; Mateev, M.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Meurer, C.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M.; Molnar, J.; Mrowczynski, S.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Panayotov, D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Puhlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Richard, A.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Trainor, T.A.; Trubnikov, V.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wetzler, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Yoo, I.K.; Zaranek, J.; Zimanyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    The hadronic final state of central Pb+Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80, and 158 AGeV has been measured by the CERN NA49 collaboration. The mean transverse mass of pions and kaons at midrapidity stays nearly constant in this energy range, whereas at lower energies, at the AGS, a steep increase with beam energy was measured. Compared to p+p collisions as well as to model calculations, anomalies in the energy dependence of pion and kaon production at lower SPS energies are observed. These findings can be explained, assuming that the energy density reached in central A+A collisions at lower SPS energies is sufficient to force the hot and dense nuclear matter into a deconfined phase.

  8. Detection of adenoviruses in shellfish by means of conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture PCR (ICC/PCR).

    Rigotto, C; Sincero, T C M; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2005-01-01

    We tested three PCR based methodologies to detect adenoviruses associated with cultivated oysters. Conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture-PCR (ICC/PCR) were first optimized using oysters seeded with know amounts of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). The maximum sensitivity for Ad5 detection was determined for each method, and then used to detect natural adenovirus contamination in oysters from three aquiculture farms in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, over a period of 6 months. The results showed that the nested-PCR was more sensitive (limit of detection: 1.2 PFU/g of tissue) than conventional-PCR and ICC-PCR (limit of detection for both: 1.2 x 10(2)PFU/g of tissue) for detection of Ad5 in oyster extracts. Nested-PCR was able to detect 90% of Ad5 contamination in harvested oyster samples, while conventional-PCR was unable to detect Ad5 in any of the samples. The present work suggests that detection of human adenoviruses can be used as a tool to monitor the presence of human viruses in marine environments where shellfish grow, and that nested-PCR is the method of choice.

  9. Partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    OLIMOV, K.; LUTPULLAEV, S.L.; PETROV, V.I.; OLIMOV, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    New experimental data on the partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in "1"6Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/s, pC-interactions at 4.2 and 9.9 GeV/s, and d,α,C(C)-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/s are presented. It is established that the behavior of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions at intermediate energies (<10 GeV) in hadron-nucleus collisions has a transitional character, reaching the limiting value at ultrahigh energies. It is shown that the mean values of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions decrease with an increase in mass number of the projectile nucleus. (authors)

  10. Neutrino-nucleus collision at intermediate energy

    Kosmas, T.S.; Oset, E.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus reactions at low and intermediate energy up to E ν = 500 MeV are studied for the most interesting nuclei from an experimental point of view. We focus on neutrino-nucleus cross-sections of semi-inclusive processes, for which recent measurements from radiochemical experiments at LAMPF and KARMEN laboratories are available. The method employed uses the modified Lindhard function for the description of the particle-hole excitations of the final nucleus via a local density approximation. (authors)

  11. Increased glutamic acid decarboxylase expression in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus in depression

    Wu, Xueyan; Balesar, R.A.; Lu, Jing; Farajnia, Sahar; Zhu, Qiongbin; Huang, Manli; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, D.F.

    2017-01-01

    In depression, disrupted circadian rhythms reflect abnormalities in the central circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although many SCN neurons are said to be GABAergic, it was not yet known whether and how SCN GABA changes occur in the SCN in depression. We,

  12. Neuronal Correlates of Fear Conditioning in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    Haufler, Darrell; Nagy, Frank Z.; Pare, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lesion and inactivation studies indicate that the central amygdala (CeA) participates in the expression of cued and contextual fear, whereas the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is only involved in the latter. The basis for this functional dissociation is unclear because CeA and BNST form similar connections with the amygdala and…

  13. Study of the peculiarities of multiparticle production via event-by-event analysis in asymmetric nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Fedosimova, Anastasiya; Gaitinov, Adigam; Grushevskaya, Ekaterina; Lebedev, Igor

    2017-06-01

    In this work the study on the peculiarities of multiparticle production in interactions of asymmetric nuclei to search for unusual features of such interactions, is performed. A research of long-range and short-range multiparticle correlations in the pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles on the basis of analysis of individual interactions of nuclei of 197 Au at energy 10.7 AGeV with photoemulsion nuclei, is carried out. Events with long-range multiparticle correlations (LC), short-range multiparticle correlations (SC) and mixed type (MT) in pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles, are selected by the Hurst method in accordance with Hurst curve behavior. These types have significantly different characteristics. At first, they have different fragmentation parameters. Events of LC type are processes of full destruction of the projectile nucleus, in which multicharge fragments are absent. In events of mixed type several multicharge fragments of projectile nucleus are discovered. Secondly, these two types have significantly different multiplicity distribution. The mean multiplicity of LC type events is significantly more than in mixed type events. On the basis of research of the dependence of multiplicity versus target-nuclei fragments number for events of various types it is revealed, that the most considerable multiparticle correlations are observed in interactions of the mixed type, which correspond to the central collisions of gold nuclei and nuclei of CNO-group, i.e. nuclei with strongly asymmetric volume, nuclear mass, charge, etc. Such events are characterised by full destruction of the target-nucleus and the disintegration of the projectile-nucleus on several multi-charged fragments.

  14. Study of the peculiarities of multiparticle production via event-by-event analysis in asymmetric nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Fedosimova Anastasiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the study on the peculiarities of multiparticle production in interactions of asymmetric nuclei to search for unusual features of such interactions, is performed. A research of long-range and short-range multiparticle correlations in the pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles on the basis of analysis of individual interactions of nuclei of 197 Au at energy 10.7 AGeV with photoemulsion nuclei, is carried out. Events with long-range multiparticle correlations (LC, short-range multiparticle correlations (SC and mixed type (MT in pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles, are selected by the Hurst method in accordance with Hurst curve behavior. These types have significantly different characteristics. At first, they have different fragmentation parameters. Events of LC type are processes of full destruction of the projectile nucleus, in which multicharge fragments are absent. In events of mixed type several multicharge fragments of projectile nucleus are discovered. Secondly, these two types have significantly different multiplicity distribution. The mean multiplicity of LC type events is significantly more than in mixed type events. On the basis of research of the dependence of multiplicity versus target-nuclei fragments number for events of various types it is revealed, that the most considerable multiparticle correlations are observed in interactions of the mixed type, which correspond to the central collisions of gold nuclei and nuclei of CNO-group, i.e. nuclei with strongly asymmetric volume, nuclear mass, charge, etc. Such events are characterised by full destruction of the target-nucleus and the disintegration of the projectile-nucleus on several multi-charged fragments.

  15. The application of a phenomenological model to inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions for laboratory momenta below 5 GeV/c per nucleon of the incident nucleus

    Grishin, V.G.; Kladnitskaya, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    A phenomenological model for inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions at momenta below 5 GeV/c per nucleon is described. Particle interactions inside the interacting nuclei are described by phenomenological models of hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon interactions. The Monte-Carlo model provides the kinematic variables for a set of events under study. The comparison of the model inclusive distri-- butions for different particles and nucleus-nucleus interactions agrees well with the experimental data

  16. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    Klochkov, V; Herve, A E; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Matulewicz, T N; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Mathes, H; Roehrich, D; Marcinek, A J; Marino, A D; Grebieszkow, K; Di luise, S; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Koziel, M E; Rondio, E; Larsen, D T; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Strikhanov, M; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Blondel, A P P; Stroebele, H W; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Morgala, S J; Paolone, V; Damyanova, A; Gazdzicki, M; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B

    2007-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  17. Particle production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Stock, R.

    1985-05-01

    Recent data on the production of pions and strange particles at the Bevalac and Synchrophasotron accelerators are reviewed, covering pion spectra and multiplicity distributions, Λ, K + and K - yields and spectra, and Λ polarization. Emphasis is placed on recent progress in determining the equation of state of compressed fireball nuclear matter from the observed pion yield in central collisions. Further, the information derived from apparent spectral temperatures is critically examined, along with a discussion of thermal and chemical equilibrium attainment in the reactions, as revealed by particle spectra and yields. (orig.)

  18. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  19. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  20. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment.

  1. Transport of glutathione into the nucleus.

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH) is present in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. However, the functions of GSH in the nucleus remain poorly characterised. GSH appears to become sequestered in the nucleus at the early stages of the cell cycle. As part of our search for proteins that may be involved in GSH transport into the nucleus, we studied the functions of the nucleoporin called Alacrima Achalasia aDrenal Insufficiency Neurologic disorder (ALADIN). ALADIN is encoded by the Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrimia (AAAS) gene in mammalian cells. Defects in ALADIN promote adrenal disorders and lead to the triple A syndrome in humans. The ALADIN protein localizes to the nuclear envelope in Arabidopsis thaliana and interacts with other components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We characterised the functions of the ALADIN protein in an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion knockout mutant, which shows slow growth compared to the wild type. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Nuclear physics: Unexpected doubly-magic nucleus

    Janssens, R.V.F.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclei with a 'magic' number of both protons and neutrons, dubbed doubly magic, are particularly stable. The oxygen isotope 24 O has been found to be one such nucleus - yet it lies just at the limit of stability

  3. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Kaon-nucleus reactions and hypernuclei

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in hypernuclear physics and kaon-nucleus scattering are discussed, with emphasis on the spectroscopy of Λ single particle states in heavy systems, as revealed by the (π + ,K + ) reaction. 26 refs., 8 figs

  5. The correlation between the transverse polarization and transverse momentum of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Ye Yunxiu; Zhou Xin; Ji Gang; Su Shufang; Zhu Guohuai

    1996-01-01

    The transverse polarization of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is determined. The effect from the interaction between spin moment and magnetic field is corrected. The near zero transverse polarization and non-correlation between transverse polarization and transverse momentum are obtained and compared to ones obtained from the nucleus-nucleus interactions at lower energies. This comparison shows that the production mechanism of lambdas in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is different from one in the nucleus-nucleus reactions at lower energies

  6. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  7. New aspects of the atomic nucleus

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We are at last just beginning to identify convincing evidence for what we have long believed, namely that the nucleus is more than the sum of its neutron-proton parts taken pairwise because, for example, a cluster of three nucleons interacts differently from the sum of the interactions of its three pairs; there is an important collectivism in the life of a nucleus even before we ask what its nucleons are doing. (orig./WL)

  8. Testing string dynamics in lepton nucleus reactions

    Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.

    1989-10-01

    The sensitivity of nuclear attenuation of 10-100 GeV lepton nucleus (ell A) reactions to space-time aspects of hadronization is investigated within the context of the Lund string model. We consider two mechanisms for attenuation in a nucleus: final state cascading and string flip excitations. Implications for the evolution of the energy density in nuclear collisions are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Kinetic Critical Nucleus

    Sanada, Masaaki; Nishioka, Kazumi; Okada, Masahumi; Maksimov, Igor, L.

    1997-01-01

    Our main interest is to see whether the number density indicates a peak at the kinetically stable critical nucleus due to its kinetical stability. We have numerically calculated the time evolution of the number densities of clusters in the case of water vapor nucleation. We employ the condition in which the difference between the size of the thermodynamic crtitical nucleus and that of the kinetic one is appreciable. The results show that the peak does not appear in the number densities of clu...

  10. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  11. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  12. Quark matter formation in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions - predictions and observations

    Otterlund, I.

    1983-01-01

    In this talk I give a short summary of the recent discussion around predictions and possible observations of quark-gluon plasma and fireballs in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. In particular this talk is focused on heavy ion reactions at 200 A GeV. (orig./HSI)

  13. Effective number of inelastically interacting nucleons in rare nucleus-nucleus production processes

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Lokhtin, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    A model of nucleus-nucleus interaction using one inelastic NN-interaction is suggested for the exclusive production processes with small cross-section. A-dependence nuclear coherent and incoherent production cross-section are predicted. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  14. High density QCD and nucleus-nucleus scattering deeply in the saturation region

    Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene; Miller, Jeremy S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we solve the equations that describe nucleus-nucleus scattering, in high density QCD, in the framework of the BFKL Pomeron Calculus. We found that (i) the contribution of short distances to the opacity for nucleus-nucleus scattering dies at high energies, (ii) the opacity tends to unity at high energy, and (iii) the main contribution that survives comes from soft (long distance) processes for large values of the impact parameter. The corrections to the opacity Ω(Y,b)=1 were calculated and it turns out that they have a completely different form, namely (1-Ω→exp(-Const√(Y))) than the opacity that stems from the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which is (1-Ω→exp(-ConstY 2 )). We reproduce the formula for the nucleus-nucleus cross section that is commonly used in the description of nucleus-nucleus scattering, and there is no reason why it should be correct in the Glauber-Gribov approach.

  15. Production of strange and multistrange hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    Antinori, F.; Bakke, H.; Beusch, W.; Staroba, Pavel; Závada, Petr

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 661, - (1999), 130c-139c ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : production * nucleus-nucleus collisions * hadrons * strangeness * model predictions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 2.088, year: 1999

  16. The mechanism of nuclear energy release in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of intranuclear energy release in reactions induced by nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies higher than ∼ 0.5 GeV/nucl. is presented - as prompted experimentally. The intranuclear energy release goes through local damages of the colliding nuclei

  17. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the description of an experiment for the search of -nucleus bound state using ...

  18. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  19. The nuclear response and the imaginary potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.

    1983-01-01

    The Fermi-gas model is used in this paper to study the nucleus-nucleus collision. The field produced by one of the nuclei is considered to act on nucleons in the other nucleus, which is treated as a Fermi gas of radius R. The imaginary part of the (non-local) nucleus-nucleus potential is then computed by evaluating the energy-conserving second-order term in which the intermediate states are particle-hole excitations produced in the Fermi gas. The equivalent local potential, obtained by using the Perey-Saxon method, is compared with phenomenological imaginary potentials. Later it is shown that, in the limit of small range of non-locality, the imaginary potential can be related to the nuclear response function. With this, one can write the nuclear friction coefficient that is used in phenomenological analyses of heavy-ion collisions in terms of the imaginary potential. (orig.)

  20. The dynamic landscape of the cell nucleus.

    Austin, Christopher M; Bellini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of nuclear activities in both fixed and live cells. As a result, three major principles have emerged: first, the nucleus is not just a bag filled with nucleic acids and proteins. Rather, many distinct functional domains, including the chromosomes, resides within the confines of the nuclear envelope. Second, all these nuclear domains are highly dynamic, with molecules exchanging rapidly between them and the surrounding nucleoplasm. Finally, the motion of molecules within the nucleoplasm appears to be mostly driven by random diffusion. Here, the emerging roles of several subnuclear domains are discussed in the context of the dynamic functions of the cell nucleus.

  1. The atomic nucleus as a target

    Strugalski, Z.; Pawlak, T.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to characterize the atomic nucleus used as a target in hadron-nucleus collision experiments. The atomic nucleus can be treated as a lens-shaped ''slab'' of nuclear matter. Such ''slab'' should be characterized by the nuclear matter layer thickness at any impact parameter, by its average thickness, and by its maximal thickness. Parameters characterizing atomic nuclei as targets are given for the elements: 6 12 C, 7 14 N, 8 16 O, 9 19 F, 10 20 Ne, 13 27 Al, 14 28 Si, 16 32 S, 18 40 Ar, 24 52 Cr, 26 54 Fe, 27 59 Co, 29 64 Cu, 30 65 Zn, 32 73 Ge, 35 80 Br, 47 100 Ag, 53 127 I, 54 131 Xe, 73 181 Ta, 74 184 W, 79 197 Au, 82 207 Pb, 92 -- 238 U [ru

  2. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    Wallace, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of Δ-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references

  3. [Emotion and basal ganglia (II): what can we learn from subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease?].

    Péron, J; Dondaine, T

    2012-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation Parkinson's disease patient model seems to represent a unique opportunity for studying the functional role of the basal ganglia and notably the subthalamic nucleus in human emotional processing. Indeed, in addition to constituting a therapeutic advance for severely disabled Parkinson's disease patients, deep brain stimulation is a technique, which selectively modulates the activity of focal structures targeted by surgery. There is growing evidence of a link between emotional impairments and deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. In this context, according to the definition of emotional processing exposed in the companion paper available in this issue, the aim of the present review will consist in providing a synopsis of the studies that investigated the emotional disturbances observed in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation Parkinson's disease patients. This review leads to the conclusion that several emotional components would be disrupted after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: subjective feeling, neurophysiological activation, and motor expression. Finally, after a description of the limitations of this study model, we discuss the functional role of the subthalamic nucleus (and the striato-thalamo-cortical circuits in which it is involved) in emotional processing. It seems reasonable to conclude that the striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are indeed involved in emotional processing and that the subthalamic nucleus plays a central in role the human emotional architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  5. Hadron-nucleus interactions in the nucleon resonance region

    Gessler, Stefanie

    2017-06-15

    Experiments with high-energy hadron beams have found renewed attention. In the near future nuclear studies with hadron beams are planned at least at two facilities, namely J-PARC in Japan and GSI/FAIR. The aim of this work is an exploratory investigation of interactions of mesons and baryons with nuclei at energies of interest for future research with antiprotons at FAIR. The theoretical discussion is started with an introductory presentation of the optical model and Eikonal theory as appropriate tools for the description of scattering processes at high energies. In antiproton interactions with nucleons and nuclei, annihilation processes into pions are playing the major role for the reaction dynamics. Therefore, we consider first the interactions of pions with nuclei by deriving an extended selfenergy scheme for a large range of incident pion energies. In order to have a uniform description over a broad energy interval, the existing approaches had to be reconsidered and in essential parts reformulated and extended. A central result is the treatment of pion-nucleus self-energies from high lying N{sup *} resonances. Only by including those channels in a proper manner into the extended pion optical potential, pion-nucleus scattering could be described over the required large energy range. At low energies the well known Kisslinger potential is recapped. Next, the same type of reaction theory is used to analyze antiproton-nucleon and nucleus scattering from low to highly relativistic energies. The reaction dynamics of antiproton interactions with nuclear targets is discussed. We start with a new approach to antiproton-nucleon scattering. A free-space antiproton-nucleon T-matrix is derived, covering an energy range as wide as from 100 MeV up to 15 GeV. Eikonal theory is used to describe the antiproton scattering amplitudes in momentum and in coordinate space. We consider, in particular, interactions with nuclei at energies around and well above 1 GeV. The antiproton-nucleus

  6. Hadron-nucleus interactions in the nucleon resonance region

    Gessler, Stefanie

    2017-06-01

    Experiments with high-energy hadron beams have found renewed attention. In the near future nuclear studies with hadron beams are planned at least at two facilities, namely J-PARC in Japan and GSI/FAIR. The aim of this work is an exploratory investigation of interactions of mesons and baryons with nuclei at energies of interest for future research with antiprotons at FAIR. The theoretical discussion is started with an introductory presentation of the optical model and Eikonal theory as appropriate tools for the description of scattering processes at high energies. In antiproton interactions with nucleons and nuclei, annihilation processes into pions are playing the major role for the reaction dynamics. Therefore, we consider first the interactions of pions with nuclei by deriving an extended selfenergy scheme for a large range of incident pion energies. In order to have a uniform description over a broad energy interval, the existing approaches had to be reconsidered and in essential parts reformulated and extended. A central result is the treatment of pion-nucleus self-energies from high lying N * resonances. Only by including those channels in a proper manner into the extended pion optical potential, pion-nucleus scattering could be described over the required large energy range. At low energies the well known Kisslinger potential is recapped. Next, the same type of reaction theory is used to analyze antiproton-nucleon and nucleus scattering from low to highly relativistic energies. The reaction dynamics of antiproton interactions with nuclear targets is discussed. We start with a new approach to antiproton-nucleon scattering. A free-space antiproton-nucleon T-matrix is derived, covering an energy range as wide as from 100 MeV up to 15 GeV. Eikonal theory is used to describe the antiproton scattering amplitudes in momentum and in coordinate space. We consider, in particular, interactions with nuclei at energies around and well above 1 GeV. The antiproton-nucleus

  7. Three-hadron angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions from perturbative QCD

    Ayala, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, Guy; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    We study three-hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider at midrapidity. We use the leading-order parton matrix elements for 2→3 processes and include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using the modified fragmentation function approach. For the case when the produced hadrons have either the same or not too different momenta, we observe two away-side peaks at 2π/3 and 4π/3. We consider the dependence of the angular correlations on energy loss parameters that have been used in studies of single inclusive hadron production at RHIC. Our results on the angular dependence of the cross section agree well with preliminary data by the PHENIX Collaboration. We comment on the possible contribution of 2→3 processes to dihadron angular correlations and how a comparison of the two processes may help characterize the plasma further.

  8. The ventral premammillary nucleus links leptin action and reproduction

    Jose eDonato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of body fat and the energy balance are important factors that influence the timing of puberty and the normal reproductive function. Leptin is a key hormone that conveys to the central nervous system information about the individual energy reserve and modulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Recent findings suggest that the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV mediates the effects of leptin as a permissive factor for the onset of puberty and the coordinated secretion of luteinizing hormone during conditions of negative energy balance. Thus, in this review we will summarize the existing literature about the potential role played by PMV neurons in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis.

  9. A new F-actin structure in fungi: actin ring formation around the cell nucleus of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Kopecká, Marie; Kawamoto, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Masashi

    2013-04-01

    The F-actin cytoskeleton of Cryptococcus neoformans is known to comprise actin cables, cortical patches and cytokinetic ring. Here, we describe a new F-actin structure in fungi, a perinuclear F-actin collar ring around the cell nucleus, by fluorescent microscopic imaging of rhodamine phalloidin-stained F-actin. Perinuclear F-actin rings form in Cryptococcus neoformans treated with the microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole or with the drug solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or grown in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) medium, but they are absent in cells treated with Latrunculin A. Perinuclear F-actin rings may function as 'funicular cabin' for the cell nucleus, and actin cables as intracellular 'funicular' suspending nucleus in the central position in the cell and moving nucleus along the polarity axis along actin cables.

  10. Afferent and efferent projections of the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus in the mouse.

    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Abellán-Álvaro, María; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    The anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) is a chemosensory area of the cortical amygdala that receives afferent projections from both the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. The role of this structure is unknown, partially due to a lack of knowledge of its connectivity. In this work, we describe the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the ACo by using fluorogold and biotinylated dextranamines as retrograde and anterograde tracers, respectively. The results show that the ACo is reciprocally connected with the olfactory system and basal forebrain, as well as with the chemosensory and basomedial amygdala. In addition, it receives dense projections from the midline and posterior intralaminar thalamus, and moderate projections from the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, mesocortical structures and the hippocampal formation. Remarkably, the ACo projects moderately to the central nuclei of the amygdala and anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and densely to the lateral hypothalamus. Finally, minor connections are present with some midbrain and brainstem structures. The afferent projections of the ACo indicate that this nucleus might play a role in emotional learning involving chemosensory stimuli, such as olfactory fear conditioning. The efferent projections confirm this view and, given its direct output to the medial part of the central amygdala and the hypothalamic 'aggression area', suggest that the ACo can initiate defensive and aggressive responses elicited by olfactory or, to a lesser extent, vomeronasal stimuli. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Experimental search for compression phenomena in fast nucleus--nucleus collisions

    Schopper, E.; Baumgardt, H.G.; Obst, E.

    1977-01-01

    The occurrence of compression phenomena and shock waves, connected with the increase of the density of the nuclear matter during the interpenetration of two fast nuclei, are discussed. Current experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed. Before considering the mechanism of the interpenetration of two fast nuclei it may be useful to look at more simple situations, i.e., proton-proton interactions, then to envelop them with nuclear matter, considering proton-nucleus interactions. Only very general features are described, which may give suggestions for the understanding of the nucleus-nucleus impact

  12. TWO-PHOTON PHYSICS IN NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS AT RHIC

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z 2 up to an energy of ∼ 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented

  13. Two-photon physics in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z 2 up to an energy of ∼ 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented

  14. Pion production and fragmentation of nuclei in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Oskarsson, A.

    1983-01-01

    In collisions between nuclei at high energies one can study the behaviour of nuclear matter under extreme conditions, regarding nuclear density and temperature. The Bevalac and the CERN SC beams have been used and nuclear emulsion and scintillation telescopes have measured the reaction products. Collisions at 50A-200A MeV and at 2A GeV have been investigated. Proton spectra from 12 C induced reactions at 85A MeV have been recorded for different targets. Energetic protons at large angles can be assumed to be emitted from a source moving with half the beam velocity and a temperature between 13 and 17 MeV, depending on the target. In collisions between nuclei, pions can be produced below 290A MeV due to the internal Fermi motion of the nucleons. Subthreshold pion production has been studied for 12 C induced reactions at 85A and 75A Mev. The cross-sections are consistent with a quasi-free nucleon-nucleon scattering picture, involving Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and pion reabsorption. 16 C induced reactions in emulsion have been studied at 75A, 175A and 2000A MeV. It is shown that the excitation of the parts of the nuclei which are not overlapping (the spectators) increases with the beam energy. The 16 O projectile frequently breaks up into multiple He fragments. These events are associated with large impact parameters. Central collisions with Ag, Br target at 50A-110A MeV have been analysed separately. It is shown that the momentum transfer to the target nucleus is limited to a value considerably lower than the full momentum transfer in a fusion reactions. Events are observed where there are numerous fragments with 3< Z<8. These multifragmentation events cannot be understood in a thermal approach. (author)

  15. Future prospects in N-nucleus interactions

    Moss, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed examination of two research areas, polarization observables and antiproton-nucleus reactions, which should have near-term future impact on the understanding of the interaction of medium-energy nucleons in nuclei is made. More speculative future experiments employing cooled beams, double spectrometer systems, and large Q-value, low momentum-transfer reactions are also discussed. 25 references, 4 figures

  16. Consequences of hadron-nucleus multiplicity parametrization

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.

    1986-01-01

    Some interesting consequences are analyzed of a new parametrization for the hadron-nucleus multiplicity distributions and they are compared with the experimental data. Further, it is illustrated how the scaling property for the average multiplicity will be modified and it is found that the experimental data support this behaviour. (orig.)

  17. High energy hadron-nucleus scattering

    Koplik, J.; Mueller, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical expectations for hadron-nucleus scattering at high energy if the basic hadron-hadron interaction is due to Regge poles and cuts arising in multiperipheral or soft field theory models are described. Experiments at Fermilab may provide a critical test of such models

  18. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    nodule accretion as approximately 2 mm/Ma and that of phillipsite growth as approximately 0.65 mm/Ka, the nucleus material appears to have been growing for approximately 4.5-5 Ma. Originally surfaced as a rock fragment from late Miocene volcanism...

  19. Correlations in hadron-nucleus collisions

    Wosiek, B.

    1976-09-01

    The correlations between the particles produced in interactions of hadrons with emulsion nuclei were investigated. The data are in qualitative agreement with the models which describe the interactions with nuclei as subsequent collisions of the fast part of excited hadronic matter inside the nucleus. (author)

  20. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 6 (2015), s. 1627-1640 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28443S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cell nucleus * chromatin * genome function Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  1. Iliacus Abscess with Radiculopathy Mimicking Herniated Nucleus ...

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... radiculopathy mimicking herniated nucleus pulposus: Aadditional diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20:392-3. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows ...

  2. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    We locate resonances in -light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the -matrices and hence the time delay for the - 3He and - 4He systems. We find a resonance very close to the threshold in - 3 He elastic ...

  3. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    Moretto, L.G.

    1985-06-01

    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs

  4. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2017-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  5. The suprachiasmatic nucleus-paraventricular nucleus interactions: a bridge to the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system

    Buijs, R. M.; Hermes, M. H.; Kalsbeek, A.

    1998-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is one of the principal neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By means of anatomical, physiological and electrophysiological techniques we have demonstrated that VP containing pathways from the SCN serve to affect neuroendocrine and 'autonomic' neurons in the

  6. Effective nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from the generator coordinate method

    Friedrich, H; Canto, L F [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    1977-11-07

    The equivalence of the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the resonating group method (RGM) and the formal equivalence of the RGM and the orthogonality condition model (OCM) lead to a relation connecting the effective nucleus-nucleus potentials of the OCM with matrix elements of the GCM. This relation may be used to derive effective nucleus-nucleus potentials directly from GCM matrix elements without explicit reference to the potentials of the RGM. In a first application local and l-independent effective potentials are derived from diagonal GCM matrix elements which represent the energy surfaces of a two-centre shell model. Using these potentials the OCM can reproduce the results of a full RGM calculation very well for the elastic scattering of two ..cap alpha..-particles and fairly well for elastic /sup 16/O-/sup 16/O scattering.

  7. Fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Agakishiev, G.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Drees, A.

    1997-01-01

    The simple and fast detector of charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision studies is performed. The multiplicity detector has been designed for the first level trigger of the CERES/NA45 experiment to study Pb-Au collisions at CERN SPS energies. The detector has allowed a realization of the 40 ns trigger for selection of events with definite impact parameter. The construction, operation characteristics, method of calibration, and testing results are described in detail

  8. Random matrix theory and analysis of nucleus-nucleus collision at high energies

    Shahaliev, E.I.; Inst. of Radiation Problems, Baku; ); Kuznetsov, A.A.; Suleymanov, M.K.; ); Teryaev, O.V.; )

    2006-01-01

    A novel method for analysis of experimental data obtained at relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is proposed. The method, based on the ideas of Random Matrix Theory, is applied to detect systematic errors that occur at measurements of momentum distributions of emitted particles. The unfolded momentum distribution is well described by the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices, when the uncertainty in the momentum distribution is maximal. The method is free from unwanted background contributions [ru

  9. Theory of and effects from elastoplasticity in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1985-02-01

    Elastoplasticity of finite Fermi systems results from a coherent coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom and subsequent equilibration essentially due to two-body collisions. Within a non-markovian transport-theoretical approach referred to as dissipative diabatic dynamics (DDD), elastoplastical forms the link between giant vibrations and overdamped motion of nuclear. Obersvable effects resulting from this non-markovian behaviour in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Strangeness and charm production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies near the thresholds

    Senger, P.

    2001-01-01

    The creation of strangeness and charm in nucleus-nucleus collisions at threshold beam energies is discussed as a probe for compressed baryonic matter. Experimental data on strangeness production at SIS energies indicate that the properties of kaons and antikaons are modified in the dense nuclear medium. An experiment is proposed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of highest baryon densities. An important observable will be charm production close to threshold. (orig.)

  11. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the transition mechanism between molecular orbitals in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Imanishi, B.; Misono, S.; von Oertzen, W.; Voit, H.

    1988-08-01

    The molecular orbitals of the nucleon(s) in nucleus-nucleus collisions are dynamically defined as a linear combination of nucleon single-particle orbits (LCNO) in a rotating frame by using the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) theory. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the promotions of nucleon, - especially due to the Landau-Zener radial coupling are discussed with the method above mentioned. (author)

  12. Multi-quark effects in high energy nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Besliu, C.; Caraciuc, I.; Jipa, A.; Olariu, A.; Topor-Pop, R.; Cotorobai, F.; Pantea, D.; Popa, L.; Popa, V.; Topor-Pop, V.

    1988-02-01

    Recent data obtained in two experiments performed in the framework of the Bucharest-Dubna collaboration are presented, i.e.: the observation of narrow dibaryonic resonances is neutron-proton interactions in 1mHBC at different momenta of incident neutrons in the range 1-5 GeV/c, and the cumulative production of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus interactions in SKM-200 streamer chamber at 4.5 GeV/c. (authors)

  13. In Vivo Dentate Nucleus Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Concentration in Essential Tremor vs. Controls.

    Louis, Elan D; Hernandez, Nora; Dyke, Jonathan P; Ma, Ruoyun E; Dydak, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    Despite its high prevalence, essential tremor (ET) is among the most poorly understood neurological diseases. The presence and extent of Purkinje cell (PC) loss in ET is the subject of controversy. PCs are a major storehouse of central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), releasing GABA at the level of the dentate nucleus. It is therefore conceivable that cerebellar dentate nucleus GABA concentration could be an in vivo marker of PC number. We used in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify GABA concentrations in two cerebellar volumes of interest, left and right, which included the dentate nucleus, comparing 45 ET cases to 35 age-matched controls. 1 H MRS was performed using a 3.0-T Siemens Tim Trio scanner. The MEGA-PRESS J-editing sequence was used for GABA detection in two cerebellar volumes of interest (left and right) that included the dentate nucleus. The two groups did not differ with respect to our primary outcome of GABA concentration (given in institutional units). For the right dentate nucleus, [GABA] in ET cases = 2.01 ± 0.45 and [GABA] in controls = 1.86 ± 0.53, p = 0.17. For the left dentate nucleus, [GABA] in ET cases = 1.68 ± 0.49 and [GABA] controls = 1.80 ± 0.53, p = 0.33. The controls had similar dentate nucleus [GABA] in the right vs. left dentate nucleus (p = 0.52); however, in ET cases, the value on the right was considerably higher than that on the left (p = 0.001). We did not detect a reduction in dentate nucleus GABA concentration in ET cases vs. One interpretation of the finding is that it does not support the existence of PC loss in ET; however, an alternative interpretation is the observed pattern could be due to the effects of terminal sprouting in ET (i.e., collateral sprouting from surviving PCs making up for the loss of GABA-ergic terminals from PC degeneration). Further research is needed.

  14. Central Au on Au collisions

    Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V. [Labo de Phys. Corp., IN2P3-CRNS, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Fd. (France); Basrak, Z. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others; FOPI-Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions the initial relative kinetic energy of target and projectile is available for internal excitation of the interacting system; it is however still not well established to what extent local equilibrium and thermalisation occur. Local equilibrium is of interest to derive, within the formalism of transport equations and of the equation of state, (EOS), general properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter. Such approach describes in relatively simple terms the complex many body interactions occuring within extended baryonic and hadronic (or quark) matter. For a basic microscopic understanding it is highly desirable to investigate the elementary in-medium interactions in relation to the free elementary processes. Excitation function measurements of central collisions between the heaviest available nuclei (like Au on Au), supply the best ground for such studies: the highest degree of thermalisation and compression is expected for such reactions. The consideration presented here of energy thermalisation and of an expanding system clusterizing at freeze-out in a situation close to the liquid gas phase transition can be of interest to astrophysics as well as to the quark gluon plasma deconfinement studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the higher energy regime of CERN and Brookhaven. (orig.).

  15. ψ' and J/ψ suppression in high-energy nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin.

    1995-01-01

    The observed features of ψ' to J/ψ suppression in pA and nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained in terms of a two-component absorption model. For the hard component of the absorption due to the interaction of the produced c bar c systems with baryons at high relative energies, the absorption cross sections are insensitive to the radii of the c bar c systems, as described by the Additive Quark Model. For the soft component due to the low energy c bar c interactions with soft particles produced by other baryon-baryon collisions, the absorption cross sections are greater for ψ' than for J/ψ, because the breakup threshold for ψ' is much smaller than for ψ

  16. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

    Taziaux, Mélanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Swaab, Dick F.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus w...

  17. The Baryon Production and Baryon Number Transfer in Hadron-Hadron, Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Szymanski, P.

    2006-09-01

    This work concerns soft hadronic interactions which in the Standard Model carry most of the observable cross-section but are not amenable to quantitative predictions due to the very nature of the QCD (Theory of Strong Interactions). In the low momentum transfer region the evolving coupling constant caused perturbation theory to break down. In this situation better experimental understanding of the physics phenomena is needed. One aspect of the soft hadronic interactions will be discussed in this work: transfer of the baryon number from the initial to the final state of the interaction. The past experimental knowledge on this process is presented, reasons for its unsatisfactory status are discussed and condition necessary for improvement are outlined: that is experimental apparatus with superior performance over the full range of available interactions: hadron-hadron collision, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. A consistent model-independent picture of the baryon number transfer process emerging from the data on the full range of interactions is shown. It offers serious challenge to theory to provide quantitative and detailed explanation of the measurements. (author)

  18. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to chronic intermittent hypoxia hypertension.

    Faulk, Katelynn E; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in sleep apnea patients and is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a sustained diurnal increase in blood pressure. The renin angiotensin system has been associated with hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1, which cleaves angiotensin I to the active counterpart angiotensin II, is present within the central nervous system and has been shown to be regulated by AP-1 transcription factors, such as ΔFosB. Our previous study suggested that this transcriptional regulation in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to the sustained blood pressure seen following chronic intermittent hypoxia. Viral mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA against angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus was used along with radio-telemetry measurements of blood pressure to test this hypothesis. FosB immunohistochemistry was utilized in order to assess the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme 1 knockdown on the activity of nuclei downstream from median preoptic nucleus. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 knockdown within median preoptic nucleus significantly attenuated the sustained hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 seems to be partly responsible for regulating downstream regions involved in sympathetic and blood pressure control, such as the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The data suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme 1 within median preoptic nucleus plays a critical role in the sustained hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. MR findings of degenerative changes of nucleus pulposus in lumbar spine: sequential changes after disc herniation

    Kim, Sang Joon [Choong-Ang Gil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoo Mi; Hwang, Hee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook University, Chenoan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    To evaluate the relationship between MR changes of the nucleus pulposus and the time interval after traumatic disc herniation. T2-weighted MR images of 132 patients with back pain and/or sciatica were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity, central cleft and height of the nucleus pulposus were used as criteria of disc degeneration and they were graded as normal, mild, moderate and severe degree of degeneration. Putting these criteria together we provided integrated grade of degeneration of the nucleus pulposus(grade 0-3). To get the preliminary data for normal and age-related disc degeneration, we measured the disc height by age groups and disc levels and analyzed the relationship between the age of the patients and the signal intensity, cleft and height in normal disc levels of the 132 patients. In 68 patients of 88 levels disc herniation, we analyzed the relationship between symptom duration and the degree of degeneration. Among these 68 patients we selected 14 patients(16 levels) who were under 30 years of age and had history of recent trauma to minimize data distortion from age related degeneration and ambiguity of initiation point of degeneration. In this group we analyzed the relationship between the time period after traumatic disc herniation and the degree of degeneration. The age of the patient had close relationship with the grade of signal intensity, central cleft, and disc height and grade of degeneration of the nucleus pulposus in normal discs. In 88 levels of herniated discs, the duration of symptom and degree of degeneration showed moderate correlation. In 14 patients of disc herniation who were under 30 years old and had trauma history in recent 2 years, grade 1 disc degeneration occurred in average 3.7 months after trauma. Although it was difficult to proceed statistical analysis in the last group because of small patients number, the degree of degeneration of nucleus pulposus had close relationship with the duration after traumas or duration of

  20. MR findings of degenerative changes of nucleus pulposus in lumbar spine: sequential changes after disc herniation

    Kim, Sang Joon; Cha, Yoo Mi; Hwang, Hee Young

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between MR changes of the nucleus pulposus and the time interval after traumatic disc herniation. T2-weighted MR images of 132 patients with back pain and/or sciatica were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity, central cleft and height of the nucleus pulposus were used as criteria of disc degeneration and they were graded as normal, mild, moderate and severe degree of degeneration. Putting these criteria together we provided integrated grade of degeneration of the nucleus pulposus(grade 0-3). To get the preliminary data for normal and age-related disc degeneration, we measured the disc height by age groups and disc levels and analyzed the relationship between the age of the patients and the signal intensity, cleft and height in normal disc levels of the 132 patients. In 68 patients of 88 levels disc herniation, we analyzed the relationship between symptom duration and the degree of degeneration. Among these 68 patients we selected 14 patients(16 levels) who were under 30 years of age and had history of recent trauma to minimize data distortion from age related degeneration and ambiguity of initiation point of degeneration. In this group we analyzed the relationship between the time period after traumatic disc herniation and the degree of degeneration. The age of the patient had close relationship with the grade of signal intensity, central cleft, and disc height and grade of degeneration of the nucleus pulposus in normal discs. In 88 levels of herniated discs, the duration of symptom and degree of degeneration showed moderate correlation. In 14 patients of disc herniation who were under 30 years old and had trauma history in recent 2 years, grade 1 disc degeneration occurred in average 3.7 months after trauma. Although it was difficult to proceed statistical analysis in the last group because of small patients number, the degree of degeneration of nucleus pulposus had close relationship with the duration after traumas or duration of

  1. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots.

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-12-22

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation.

  2. Nucleus spectroscopy: extreme masses and deformations

    Theisen, Ch.

    2009-12-01

    The author proposes a synthesis of research activities performed since 1995 in the field of experimental nuclear physics, and more particularly in the investigation of two nucleus extreme states: deformation on the one hand, heavy and very heavy nuclei on the other hand. After a presentation of the context of investigations on deformation, rotation, and heavy nuclei, he gives an overview of developments regarding instruments (gamma spectrometers, detection of fission fragments, and detection at the focal plane of spectrometers or separators) and analysis techniques. Experiments and results are then reported and discussed, concerning super-deformed states with a high angular moment, spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, very heavy nuclei close to nucleus map borders. He finally draws perspectives for middle and long term studies on the heaviest nuclei

  3. η production in proton-nucleus reactions

    Cassing, W.; Batko, G.; Vetter, T.; Wolf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of η-mesons in proton-nucleus reactions is analysed with respect to primary nucleon-nucleon (NN→NN η ) and secondary pion-nucleon (πN→ηN) production processes on the basis of Hartree-Fock groundstate momentum distributions and free on-shell production processes. The folding model adopted compares well for meson production with more involved simulations based on VUU transport equations. Similar to K + production in proton-nucleus reactions the η-mesons are primarily produced by the πN→ηN channel. However, η-mesons are absorbed in nuclei via excitation of the N * (1535) resonance which leads to strong distortions of the primordial spectra. On the other hand, the experimental mass dependence of the differential cross sections might yield information about the in-medium properties of this resonance. (orig.)

  4. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.

    2014-01-01

    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  5. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation does not influence basal glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Lammers, Nicolette M.; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M.; Twickler, Th B. Marcel; de Bie, Rob M.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Fliers, Eric; Schuurman, P. Richard; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that central dopamine signaling influences glucose metabolism. As a first step to show this association in an experimental setting in humans, we studied whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which modulates the basal ganglia circuitry,

  6. Charged particle production in proton-, deuteron-, oxygen- and sulphur-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon

    Alber, T.; Bachler, J.; Bartke, J.; Bialkowska, H.; Bloomer, M.A.; Bock, R.; Braithwaite, W.J.; Brinkmann, D.; Brockmann, R.; Buncic, P.; Chan, P.; Cramer, J.G.; Cramer, P.B.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Eschke, J.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferenc, D.; Fleischmann, B.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Fuchs, M.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hoffmann, M.; Jacobs, P.; Kabana, S.; Kadija, K.; Keidel, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kuhmichel, A.; Lee, J.Y.; Ljubicic, A, Jr.; Margetis, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Morse, R.; Nappi, E.; Odyniec, G.; Paic, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Posa, F.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, G.; Rothard, H.; Runge, K.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schmoetten, E.; Sendelbach, R.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Skrzypczak, E.; Spinelli, P.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tonse, S.; Trainor, T.A.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliou, M.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wenig, S.; Wosiek, B.; Zhu, X.

    1998-01-01

    The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of net protons and negatively charged hadrons have been measured for minimum bias proton-nucleus and deuteron-gold interactions, as well as central oxygen-gold and sulphur-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. The rapidity density of net protons at midrapidity in central nucleus-nucleus collisions increases both with target mass for sulphur projectiles and with the projectile mass for a gold target. The shape of the rapidity distributions of net protons forward of midrapidity for d+Au and central S+Au collisions is similar. The average rapidity loss is larger than 2 units of rapidity for reactions with the gold target. The transverse momentum spectra of net protons for all reactions can be described by a thermal distribution with `temperatures' between 145 +- 11 MeV (p+S interactions) and 244 +- 43 MeV (central S+Au collisions). The multiplicity of negatively charged hadrons increases with the mass of the colliding system. The shape of the transverse mom...

  7. Is atomic energy different from a nucleus?

    Lee, Sun Young

    1995-07-01

    This book describes of two faces of nuclear energy : the secret of a nuclear, the history of nuclear energy : the scientists with a nuclear, the nuclear energy generation : the third disapprobation, a nuclear weapon : Choice of fear, the Korean peninsula and a nuclear and nuclear energy and utilization in peace. It consists of 31 questions and the answers of the questions about nuclear energy and nucleus.

  8. Nuclear alignment following compound nucleus reactions

    Butler, P.A.; Nolan, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for calculating the alignment of a nuclear state populated by a compound nucleus reaction is given and used to investigate how alignment varies for different types of population mechanisms. The calculations are compared to both predictions of Gaussian models for the state population distribution and to experimental data, for a variety of types of nuclear reactions. The treatment of alignment in the analysis of γ-ray angular distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Momentum distribution in the nucleus. II

    Amado, R.D.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    We calculate the single particle momentum distribution n(q) for a one-dimensional model with delta forces. There is a domain of q for which n(q) has an exponential falloff; but, after allowance is made for the nonsaturation in the model, that domain does not grow significantly with particle number. The relation of this result to large momentum scattering from the nucleus and to the Hartree approximation is briefly discussed

  10. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  11. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized

  12. Study of fragmentation reactions of light nucleus

    Toneli, David Arruda; Carlson, Brett Vern

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The decay of the compound nucleus is traditionally calculated using a sequential emission model, such as the Weisskopf-Ewing or Hauser-Feshbach ones, in which the compound nucleus decays through a series of residual nuclei by emitting one particle at a time until there is no longer sufficient energy for further emission. In light compound nucleus, however, the excitation energy necessary to fully disintegrate the system is relatively easy to attain. In such cases, decay by simultaneous emission of two or more particles becomes important. A model which takes into account all these decay is the Fermi fragmentation model. Recently, the equivalence between the Fermi fragmentation model and statistical multifragmentation model used to describe the decay for highly excited fragments for reactions of heavy ions was demonstrated. Due the simplicity of the thermodynamic treatment used in the multifragmentation model, we have adapted it to the calculation of Fermi breakup of light nuclei. The ultimate goal of this study is to calculate the distribution of isotopes produced in proton-induced reactions on light nuclei of biological interest, such as C, O e Ca. Although most of these residual nuclei possess extremely short half-lives and thus represent little long-term danger, they tend to be deficient in neutrons and to decay by positron emission, which allows the monitoring of proton radiotherapy by PET (Positron Emission Tomography). (author)

  13. Effects of VPAC1 activation in nucleus ambiguus neurons.

    Gherghina, Florin Liviu; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Deliu, Elena; Abood, Mary E; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2017-02-15

    The pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its G protein-coupled receptors, PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 form a system involved in a variety of biological processes. Although some sympathetic stimulatory effects of this system have been reported, its central cardiovascular regulatory properties are poorly characterized. VPAC1 receptors are expressed in the nucleus ambiguus (nAmb), a key center controlling cardiac parasympathetic tone. In this study, we report that selective VPAC1 activation in rhodamine-labeled cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons of the rat nAmb produces inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca 2+ mobilization, membrane depolarization and activation of P/Q-type Ca 2+ channels. In vivo, this pathway converges onto transient reduction in heart rate of conscious rats. Therefore we demonstrate a VPAC1-dependent mechanism in the central parasympathetic regulation of the heart rate, adding to the complexity of PACAP-mediated cardiovascular modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pion inelastic scattering and the pion-nucleus effective interaction

    Carr, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This work examines pion inelastic scattering with the primary purpose of gaining a better understanding of the properties of the pion-nucleus interaction. The main conclusion of the work is that an effective interaction which incorporates the most obvious theoretical corrections to the impulse approximation does a good job of explaining pion elastic and inelastic scattering from zero to 200 MeV without significant adjustments to the strength parameters of the force. Watson's multiple scattering theory is used to develop a theoretical interaction starting from the free pion-nucleon interaction. Elastic scattering was used to calibrate the isoscalar central interaction. It was found that the impulse approximation did poorly at low energy, while the multiple scattering corrections gave good agreement with all of the data after a few minor adjustments in the force. The distorted wave approximation for the inelastic transition matrix elements are evaluated for both natural and unnatural parity excitations. The isoscalar natural parity transitions are used to test the reaction theory, and it is found that the effective interaction calibrated by elastic scattering produces good agreement with the inelastic data. Calculations are also shown for other inelastic and charge exchange reactions. It appears that the isovector central interaction is reasonable, but the importance of medium corrections cannot be determined. The unnatural parity transitions are also reasonably described by the theoretical estimate of the spin-orbit interaction, but not enough systematic data exists to reach a firm conclusion

  15. Formation, structure, and evolution of boiling nucleus and interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Yong; Wang, Bu-Xuan

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. A concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of a nucleus during vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist as monomers when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with aggregation number, N, smaller than five can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without any outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state. Meanwhile, a model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent of the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provides solid theoretical evidences to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand nucleation phenomenon with the insight into the physical nature.

  16. The Compact Radio Sources in the Nucleus of NGC 1068

    Roy, A. L.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Wilson, A. S.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    1998-09-01

    We report VLBA images of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 at 1.7, 5, and 15 GHz, with resolutions between 3 and 10 mas (0.2-0.7 pc) and a sensitivity of ~106 K at all three frequencies. Our goals are to study the morphology of the radio emission at subparsec resolution and to investigate thermal gas in the putative obscuring disk or torus and in the narrow-line region clouds through free-free absorption of the radio emission. All four known radio components in the central arcsecond (S2, S1, C, and NE, from south to north) have been detected at either 1.7 or 5 GHz, or both. No radio emission was detected at 15 GHz. Component S1 is probably associated with the active nucleus, with radio emission originating from the inner edge of the obscuring torus according to Gallimore et al. Our observed flux densities at 1.7 and 5 GHz are in agreement with their thermal bremsstrahlung emission model, and we find that the nuclear radiation may be strong enough to heat the gas in S1 to the required temperature of ~4 × 106 K. The bremsstrahlung power would be 0.15(frefl/0.01) times the bolometric luminosity of the nucleus between 1014.6 and 1018.4 Hz (where frefl is the fraction of radiation reflected into our line of sight by the electron-scattering mirror) and so the model is energetically reasonable. We also discuss two other models for S1 that also match the observed radio spectrum: electron scattering by the torus of radio emission from a compact synchrotron self-absorbed source and synchrotron radiation from the torus itself. Components NE and S2 have spectra consistent with optically thin synchrotron emission, without significant absorption. Both of these components are elongated roughly perpendicular to the larger scale radio jet, suggesting that their synchrotron emission is related to transverse shocks in the jet or to bow shocks in the external medium. Component C has a nonthermal spectrum absorbed at low frequency. This absorption is consistent with free

  17. Multiplicity of secondaries in hadron-nucleus collisions and constituent quark rescattering

    Shabelsky, Yu.M.; Shekhter, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    A ratio of the relativistic secondary multiplicities for hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon interactions, Rsub(s)(hA), is considered in the central region and a part of the target nucleus fragmentation region. The multiplicities are obtained from the experimental average numbers of relativistic charged or negative particles by subtraction of the projectile fragment numbers estimated theoretically. Two hypotheses on the A dependence of the secondary multiplicity in a constituent quark interaction with a nucleus are discussed. An assumption that this multiplicity is independent of A leads to Rsub(s)(hA) = antiνsub(hA)/antiνsub(qA). An alternative assumption that the qA multiplicity increases with A due to quark rescattering from several nucleons gives Rsub(s)(hA) = antiνsub(hA). Comparison with experiment in the former case requires a great number of positively charged hadrons, probably protons, emitted from the nucleus. This number must rise significantly with both A and incident energy. The latter hypothesis is consistent with all data on as well as in pA collisions but disagrees by approximately 20% with in π - A interactions. (author)

  18. Target fragmentation in proton-nucleus and /sup 16/O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 GeVnucleon

    Schmidt, H R; Albrecht, R; Awes, T C; Baktash, C; Beckmann, P; Claesson, G; Berger, F; Bock, R; Dragon, L; Ferguson, R L; Franz, A; Garpman, S; Glasow, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H H; Kampert, K H; Kolb, B W; Kristiansson, P; Lee, I Y; Loehner, H; Lund, I; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Peitzmann, T; Persson, S; Plasil, F; Poskanzer, A M; Purschke, M; Ritter, H G; Santo, R; Siemiarczuk, T; Sorensen, S P; Stenlund, E; Young, G R

    1987-01-01

    Target remnants with Z<3 from proton-nucleus and /sup 16/O-nulceus reactions at 60 and 200 GeVnucleon were measured in the angular range from 30)degree) to 160)degree) (-1.7<)eta)1.3) employing the Plastic Ball detector. The excitation energy of the target spectator matter in central oxygen-induced collisions is found to be high enough to allow for complete disintegration of the target nucelus into fragments with Z<3. The average longtitudinal momentum transfer per proton to the target in central collisions is considerably higher in the case of /sup 16/O-induced reactions (approx.300 MeVc) than in proton-induced reactions (approx.130 MeVc). The baryon rapidity distributions are roughly in agreement with one-fluid hydrodynamical calcualtions at 60 GeVnucleon /sup 16/O)plus)Au but are in disagreement at 200 GeVnucleon, indicating the higher degree of transparency at the higher bombarding energy. Both, the transverse moments of target spectators and the entropy produced in the target gfragmentation region are compared to those attained in head-on collisions of two heavy nuclei at Bevalac energies. They are found to be comparable or do even exceed the values for the participant matter at beam energies of about 1-2 GeVnucleon. 18 refs., 112 figs

  19. Target fragmentation in proton-nucleus and16O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon

    Albrecht, R.; Awes, T. C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Claesson, G.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Dragon, L.; Ferguson, R. L.; Franz, A.; Garpman, S.; Glasow, R.; Gustafsson, H. Å.; Gutbrod, H. H.; Kampert, K. H.; Kolb, B. W.; Kristiansson, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Löhner, H.; Lund, I.; Obenshain, F. E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Peitzmann, T.; Persson, S.; Plasil, F.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Purschke, M.; Ritter, H. G.; Santo, R.; Schmidt, H. R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sorensen, S. P.; Stenlund, E.; Young, G. R.

    1988-03-01

    Target remnants with ZPlastic Ball detector. The excitation energy of the target spectator matter in central oxygen-induced collisions is found to be high enough to allow for complete disintegration of the target nucleus into fragments with Z<3. The average longitudinal momentum transfer per proton to the target in central collisions is considerably higher in the case of16O-induced reactions (≈300 MeV/c) than in proton-induced reactions (≈130 MeV/c). The baryon rapidity distributions are roughly in agreement with one-fluid hydrodynamical calculations at 60 GeV/nucleon16O+Au but are in disagreement at 200 GeV/nucleon, indicating the higher degree of transparency at the higher bombarding energy. Both, the transverse momenta of target spectators and the entropy produced in the target fragmentation region are compared to those attained in head-on collisions of two heavy nuclei at Bevalac energies. They are found to be comparable or do even exceed the values for the participant matter at beam energies of about 1 2 GeV/nucleon.

  20. J/$\\psi$ production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at the CERN SPS

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    The NA38 and NA50 experiments at the CERN SPS have measured charmonium production in different colliding systems with the aim of observing a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined (quark-gluon plasma, QGP). This experimental research is based on the prediction that the J/ psi yield should be suppressed in deconfined matter. The analysis of the data collected by the NA50 experiment with Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon shows that the J/ psi is anomalously suppressed with respect to the pattern observed in proton-nucleus and light ion reactions. (9 refs).

  1. Gross and Fine Structure of Pion Production Excitation Functions in {bold {ital p}}-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions

    Jakobsson, B.; Berg, M.; Carlen, L.; Elmer, R.; Fokin, A.; Ghetti, R.; Martensson, J.; Noren, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Whitlow, H.J. [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Ekstroem, C.; Ericsson, G.; Romanski, J.; van Veldhuizen, E.J.; Westerberg, L. [The Svedberg Laboratory and Department of Neutron Physics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Julien, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France); Skeppstedt, O. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyboe, K.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Amirelmi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Guttormsen, M.; Lo/vho/iden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Bellini, V.; Palazzolo, F.; Sperduto, M.L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bondorf, J.P.; Mishustin, I. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Avdeichikov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Lozhkin, O.V.; Murin, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St.Petersburg (Russia)

    1997-05-01

    Slow ramping of the CELSIUS storage ring has been utilized to measure the yield of charged pions in proton and heavy ion induced collisions with continuously varying beam energy. Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck predictions, including Fermi momenta of nucleons in nuclei, follow the general shape of the p-nucleus excitation functions quite well except for a general overestimation of the backward emission. For heavy ion reactions the calculated yield also falls off faster with decreasing beam energy than the data. No statistically significant narrow resonances are observed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Meson-nucleus potentials and the search for meson-nucleus bound states

    Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Paryev, E. Ya.

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments studying the meson-nucleus interaction to extract meson-nucleus potentials are reviewed. The real part of the potentials quantifies whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive while the imaginary part describes the meson absorption in nuclei. The review is focused on mesons which are sufficiently long-lived to potentially form meson-nucleus quasi-bound states. The presentation is confined to meson production off nuclei in photon-, pion-, proton-, and light-ion induced reactions and heavy-ion collisions at energies near the production threshold. Tools to extract the potential parameters are presented. In most cases, the real part of the potential is determined by comparing measured meson momentum distributions or excitation functions with collision model or transport model calculations. The imaginary part is extracted from transparency ratio measurements. Results on K+ ,K0 ,K- , η ,η‧ , ω, and ϕ mesons are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. The interaction of K+ and K0 mesons with nuclei is found to be weakly repulsive, while the K- , η ,η‧ , ω and ϕ meson-nucleus potentials are attractive, however, with widely different strengths. Because of meson absorption in the nuclear medium the imaginary parts of the meson-nucleus potentials are all negative, again with a large spread. An outlook on planned experiments in the charm sector is given. In view of the determined potential parameters, the criteria and chances for experimentally observing meson-nucleus quasi-bound states are discussed. The most promising candidates appear to be the η and η‧ mesons.

  3. Aspects of Coulomb dissociation and interference in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Nystrand, Joakim; Baltz, Anthony; Klein, Spencer R.

    2001-01-01

    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions

  4. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  5. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs

  6. Model of homogeneous nucleus. Total and inelastic cross sections of nucleon-nucleus scattering

    Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the nucleon-nuckleus scattering amplitude at high energy can be easily calculated by generalization of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and satisfies a simple factorization relation. As distinct from the Glauber model, the suggested approach makes no use of the nucleonic structure of the nucleus and the hadron-nucleus scattering amplitude is not expressed in terms of hadron-nucleon scattering amplitudes. The energy dependence of total and inelastic cross sections is successfully described for a number of nuclei

  7. Percolation Model of Nuclear Multifragmentation in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Interactions

    Abdel-Waged, Kh.

    1994-01-01

    A hybrid model based on Reggeon theory inspired model of nuclear distribution, which was successful in explaining the cascading of particles in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions, and percolation model is proposed. In the framework of this model the yield of the fragment in p + Ag, Au at 350 GeV and C + Ag, Au at 3.6 GeV/nucleon as well as the charge distribution of fragments in Kr, Xe and U interactions with emulsion at ∼ 1 GeV/nucleon is correctly described. 32 refs., 3 figs

  8. Proton rapidity distribution in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    Liu, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The proton rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies are analysed by the revised thermalized cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to he in agreement with the experimental data of Si-AI and Si-Pb collisions at 14.6 A GeV/c, Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c, and S-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c. (Author)

  9. The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy

    Rashdan, M.; Farhan, A.M.; Hassib, E.; Kareem, W. Abdel

    2006-01-01

    The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy is investigated within the multiple scattering theory. The multiple integrals are evaluated by Monte Carlo method as well as by the optical limit approximation of the Glauber model. Calculations are performed for 14-23 N, 16-24 O and 18-26 F isotopes colliding with carbon target around 1 GeV. It is found that rms radii and the density distributions show a halo structure of 22 N, 23 O and 24 F

  10. Evidence of central repulsion potential from pionic decay of s-shell Λ-hypernuclei

    Kumagai-Fuse, I.; Okabe, S.; Akaishi, Y.

    1994-10-01

    Pionic decays of A=4 and 5 hypernuclei are discussed to obtain information about a nucleus-Λ potential. Results for the available decay widths support as a whole that the nucleus-Λ potential has central repulsion not only in A=5 but also in A=4 hypernuclei. (author)

  11. Neuropeptide Y infusion into the shell region of the rat nucleus accumbens increases extracellular levels of dopamine

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Wegener, Gregers; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Increases in extracellular dopamine in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens are centrally involved in mediating reinforcement of addictive drugs. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors are present in the nucleus accumbens and have been implicated in addiction mechanisms. This study further...... explored the potential role of NPY in addiction mechanisms using microdialysis to measure extracellular dopamine in vivo after infusion of NPY directly into the accumbal shell region of adult rats. NPY was found to dose-dependently increase extracellular dopamine levels, indicating that NPY could play...... an important role in drug reinforcement by modulating accumbal dopamine levels...

  12. Nuclear structure and neutrino-nucleus interaction

    Krmpotic, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an intense experimental and theoretical activity oriented towards a better comprehension of neutrino nucleus interaction. While the main motivation for this task is the demand coming from oscillation experiments in their search for a precise determination of neutrino properties, the relevance of neutrino interaction with matter is more wide-ranging. It is imperative for astrophysics, hadronic and nuclear physics, and physics beyond the standard model. The experimental information on neutrino induced reactions is rapidly growing, and the corresponding theoretical description is a challenging proposition, since the energy scales of interest span a vast region, going from few MeV for solar neutrinos, to tens of MeV for the interpretation of experiments with the muon and pion decay at rest and the detection of neutrinos coming from the core collapse of supernova, and to hundreds of MeV or few GeV for the detection of atmospheric neutrinos, and for the neutrino oscillation program of the MiniBooNE experiment. The presence of neutrinos, being chargeless particles, can only be inferred by detecting the secondary particles created in colliding and interacting with the matter. Nuclei are often used as neutrino detectors, and in particular 12 C which is a component of many scintillator detectors. Thus, the interpretation of neutrino data heavily relies on detailed and quantitative knowledge of the features of the neutrino-nucleus interaction. The nuclear structure methods used in the evaluation of the neutrino-nucleus cross section are reviewed. Detailed comparison between the experimental and theoretical results establishes benchmarks needed for verification and/or parameter adjustment of the nuclear models. Having a reliable tool for such calculation is of great importance in a variety of applications, such as the description of the r-process nucleosynthesis. (author)

  13. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  14. The basic elementary particles as martensitic nucleus

    Aguinaco-Bravo, V. J.; Onoro, J.

    1999-01-01

    The martensitic transformation is a diffusional structural change that produces an important modification of the microstructure and properties of materials. In this paper we propose how the martensitic phase is nucleated from a basic elementary particle (bep). The bep is formed in several stages. Vacancies, divacancies, etc. are formed at high temperature, which collapse into prismatic dislocation loops during the cooling process. We define a bep as a dislocation loop reaching a critical radius and fulfilling certain elastic energy conditions. A martensitic nucleus is a bep that coincides crystallographically with the habit plane of the matrix. (Author) 16 refs

  15. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    Nemirovskii, P E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  16. From the nucleus discovery to DWBA

    Fernandez, B.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a brief review of the main events in the field of nuclear reactions that are acknowledged as milestones because of their importance due to either experimental setting or physical interpretation. It is shown that the pace of discoveries has been strongly dependent on the technical progress in detection means at the beginning of nuclear physics and now is linked to the development of simulation means. The discovery of the neutron, the development of the Geiger counter, the theory of the compound nucleus or the first direct reactions are among these milestones

  17. Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior

    Acosta-Galvan, Guadalupe; Yi, Chun-Xia; van der Vliet, Jan; Jhamandas, Jack H.; Panula, Pertti; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; del Carmen Basualdo, María; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2011-01-01

    Food anticipatory behavior (FAA) is induced by limiting access to food for a few hours daily. Animals anticipate this scheduled meal event even without the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock. Consequently, a food-entrained oscillator has been proposed to be responsible for meal time

  18. Mechanism of energy release from nucleus-target in hadron-nucleus collision

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2000-01-01

    The collisions of hadrons (protons, mesons) with 131 Xe nucleus and arising light nuclear fragments as nuclear refraction products have been observed in bubble chamber. Mechanism of energy release during these collisions has been discussed. The quantitative calculations has proved that this phenomena can be treated as potential energy source with use of many different target materials

  19. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Abstract. The question of possible existence of η-mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. An- swer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of η-nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of η-mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it.

  20. High energy cosmic ray events of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Burnett, T.H.; Dake, S.; Derricson, J.H.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W.V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J.J.; Meegan, C.A.; Miyamura, O.; Oda, H.; Ogata, T.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, E.; Saito, T.; Strauss, S.; Tabuki, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Watts, J.W.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilkes, R.J.; Wolter, W.; Bosiek, B.

    1985-01-01

    Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) has been measuring ultrarelativistic comic ray nucleus and sampling the events in the energy regions both 10 to 100 GeV/A and above TeV/A by balloon emulsion chamber since 1979. In this report main results obtained up to now will be described. (orig./HSI)

  1. Hadron-nucleus interactions with a small target-nucleus excitation

    Anzon, Z.V.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.; Shakhova, Ts.I.

    1981-01-01

    Hadron inelastic interactions in nuclear emulsion with a small target-nucleus excitation in the energy range 7.5-200 GeV have been studied. Possible reasons for the differences in production cross-section for events with even and odd number of S-particles are analysed

  2. Prestress mediates force propagation into the nucleus

    Hu Shaohua; Chen Jianxin; Butler, James P.; Wang Ning

    2005-01-01

    Several reports show that the nucleus is 10 times stiffer than the cytoplasm. Hence, it is not clear if intra-nuclear structures can be directly deformed by a load of physiologic magnitudes. If a physiologic load could not directly deform intra-nuclear structures, then signaling inside the nucleus would occur only via the mechanisms of diffusion or translocation. Using a synchronous detection approach, we quantified displacements of nucleolar structures in cultured airway smooth muscle cells in response to a localized physiologic load (∼0.4 μm surface deformation) via integrin receptors. The nucleolus exhibited significant displacements. Nucleolar structures also exhibited significant deformation, with the dominant strain being the bulk strain. Increasing the pre-existing tensile stress (prestress) in the cytoskeleton significantly increased the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus (defined as nucleolus displacement per surface deformation) whereas decreasing the prestress significantly lowered the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus. Abolishing the stress fibers/actin bundles by plating the cells on poly-L-lysine-coated dishes dramatically inhibited stress propagation to the nucleolus. These results demonstrate that the prestress in the cytoskeleton is crucial in mediating stress propagation to the nucleolus, with implications for direct mechanical regulation of nuclear activities and functions

  3. The decay of 61Cu nucleus

    Zheng Wanhui; Gu Jiahui; Zhu Jiabi; Wang Gongqing

    1988-01-01

    The decay of 61 Cu nucleus has been investigated with Ge(Li) and H p Ge detector, semiconductor electron spectrometer and Ge(Li)-NaI γ-γ coincidence spectrometer. 35 γrays from 12 excited levels have been found. The single and coincidence spectra show that 545 keV, 1019keV γ fays and 1019keV energy level are wrong which appear in the 61 Cu decay scheme carried in > (the 7th edition 1978). the halflife time of 61 Cu nucleus and the internal conversion coefficient for 67 keV γ-transition are found to be T 1/2 =207.7±1.6min and α=0.12±0.01 respectively and then a decay scheme is proposed. In this paper more attention ia paid to discussing the energy levels of 1014, 1019, and 1997 keV as well as some weak γ rays

  4. The study of the nucleus as a theme in contemporary physics

    Mottelson, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Niels Bohr was just eleven years old when Becquerel discovered the first hint of the existence of the atomic nucleus in those faintly glowing ashes from the ancient cosmic fireworks that created the elements of which our solid earth and our living bodies are made; fifteen years later Rutherford was to exploit the natural radioactivity as a marvelous extension of the human sense organs able to resolve the atomic systems into their open, planetary electronic structures surrounding the dense, small, enigmatic atomic nucleus. This report is an attempt to characterize and review the shifting questions and the physical problems that motivated them in the studies that have led to a growing understanding of this unexpected new form of matter occurring in atomic nuclei. The author hopes to be able to indicate how some of these historically important issues have reappeared, transformed, as central issues in current research. (Auth.)

  5. Central collisions of heavy ions

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R ampersand D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals

  6. Similarity of multi-fragmentation of residual nucleus created in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energies

    Abdel-Hafiez, A.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Orlova, G.I.; Gulamov, K.G.; Navotny, V.SH.; Uzhinskii, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on multi-fragmentation of residual krypton nuclei created in the interactions of the krypton nuclei with photoemulsion nuclei ut energy of 0.9 GeV per nucleon are presented in a comparison with the analogous data on fragmentation of gold residual nuclei at the energy of 10.7 GeV/nucleon. It is shown for the first time that there are two regimes of nuclear multifragmentation: the former is when less than one-half of nucleons of projectile nucleus are knocked out, the later is when more than one-half of nucleons are knocked out. Residual nuclei with closed masses created at different reactions are fragmenting practically simultaneously when more than one-half of nucleons of original nuclei are knocked out. The evidence of existence of a radial flow of the spectator fragment at the decay of residual krypton nuclei is found

  7. Nuclear energy release in hadron-nucleus collisions

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    Energy release process in nuclear reactions induced by fast hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions is discussed. Some portion of the internal nuclear energy is released when the locally damaged in a collision, and instable therefore, residual target nucleus transits itself into light nuclear fragments (nucleons, D, T) and a stable lighter final nucleus or some number of stable lighter nuclei. It is not excluded that in some of the collisions the induced intranuclear nuclear reactions may be energy overcompensating. Corresponding reconnaissance should be made - in analysing the nuclear reactions induced in hadron-nucleus collisions

  8. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com; Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com; Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  9. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  10. Spectroscopic Studies of the Nucleus GOLD-195

    Fischer, Susan Marie

    The nucleus ^{195}Au has been studied via in-beam gamma -ray and electron spectroscopy with the reactions ^{196}Pt(p,2n)^ {195}Au at beam energies of 12 and 16 MeV, and the reaction ^{rm nat }Ir(alpha,2n) ^{195}Au at a beam energy of 26 MeV. All experiments were performed at the University of Notre Dame tandem accelerator facility and utilized elements of the University of Pittsburgh multi-detector gamma-array and ICEBall mini-orange electron spectrometer. Fifty-five new transitions and thirty-six new energy levels have been observed. The U(6/4) supersymmetric algebra has been proposed to provide a simultaneous description for the positive parity states of the pair of nuclei ^{194 }Pt and ^{195}Au. The observed energy spectra for these nuclei show satisfactory agreement with the U(6/4) predicted spectra. The collective properties including relative B(E2) values for the Pt and Au nuclei in this mass region are also consistent with theoretical predictions. However, the measured E2/M1 mixing ratios for transitions in ^{195} Au indicate that the single particle description for the odd-A nucleus is incomplete. The new data for ^{195}Au is further combined with the existing data for ^{194} Pt and ^{195}Pt within the context of the larger U_{ nu}(6/12) otimes U_{pi}(6/4) supersymmetry. A consistent fit to the energy eigenvalue equation is obtained and a modified prediction for the negative parity states in the odd-odd nucleus ^{196} Au is made. Thus, the proposal of an underlying supersymmetry for the quartet of nuclei ^ {194}Pt-^{195} Pt-^{195}Au- ^{196}Au also appears valid. New transitions and levels involved in the negative parity h_{11/2} decoupled band in ^{195}Au have also been observed. The band appears to be much more fragmented at high spins than the analogous structures in the lighter odd-A Au nuclei, but it is unclear what the source of this difference is. It is, however, proposed that a consistent description for both the positive and negative parity

  11. Whole transcriptome organisation in the dehydrated supraoptic nucleus

    C.C.T. Hindmarch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The supraoptic nucleus (SON is part of the central osmotic circuitry that synthesises the hormone vasopressin (Avp and transports it to terminals in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Following osmotic stress such as dehydration, this tissue undergoes morphological, electrical and transcriptional changes to facilitate the appropriate regulation and release of Avp into the circulation where it conserves water at the level of the kidney. Here, the organisation of the whole transcriptome following dehydration is modelled to fit Zipf's law, a natural power law that holds true for all natural languages, that states if the frequency of word usage is plotted against its rank, then the log linear regression of this is -1. We have applied this model to our previously published euhydrated and dehydrated SON data to observe this trend and how it changes following dehydration. In accordance with other studies, our whole transcriptome data fit well with this model in the euhydrated SON microarrays, but interestingly, fit better in the dehydrated arrays. This trend was observed in a subset of differentially regulated genes and also following network reconstruction using a third-party database that mines public data. We make use of language as a metaphor that helps us philosophise about the role of the whole transcriptome in providing a suitable environment for the delivery of Avp following a survival threat like dehydration.

  12. Descending projections from the nucleus accumbens shell excite activity of taste-responsive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hamster.

    Li, Cheng-Shu; Lu, Da-Peng; Cho, Young K

    2015-06-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and the parabrachial nuclei (PbN) are the first and second relays in the rodent central taste pathway. A series of electrophysiological experiments revealed that spontaneous and taste-evoked activities of brain stem gustatory neurons are altered by descending input from multiple forebrain nuclei in the central taste pathway. The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) is a key neural substrate of reward circuitry, but it has not been verified as a classical gustatory nucleus. A recent in vivo electrophysiological study demonstrated that the NAcSh modulates the spontaneous and gustatory activities of hamster pontine taste neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether activation of the NAcSh modulates gustatory responses of the NST neurons. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from medullary neurons in urethane-anesthetized hamsters. After taste response was confirmed by delivery of sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride to the anterior tongue, the NAcSh was stimulated bilaterally with concentric bipolar stimulating electrodes. Stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral NAcSh induced firings from 54 and 37 of 90 medullary taste neurons, respectively. Thirty cells were affected bilaterally. No inhibitory responses or antidromic invasion was observed after NAcSh activation. In the subset of taste cells tested, high-frequency electrical stimulation of the NAcSh during taste delivery enhanced taste-evoked neuronal firing. These results demonstrate that two-thirds of the medullary gustatory neurons are under excitatory descending influence from the NAcSh, which is a strong indication of communication between the gustatory pathway and the mesolimbic reward pathway. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy; Bremsstrahlung thermique comme sonde de la multifragmentation nucleaire dans les collisions noyau-noyau aux energies de Fermi

    D' Enterria, D.G

    2000-05-15

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E{sub {gamma}} > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar{sup 36} + Au{sup 197}, Ag{sup 107}, Ni{sup 58}, C{sup 12} at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4{pi}. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pn{gamma}) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  14. Dirac phenomenology and hyperon-nucleus interactions

    Mares, J; Jennings, B K [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Cooper, E D [Fraser Valley Univ. College, Chilliwack, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1993-05-01

    We discuss various aspects of hyperon-nucleus interactions in the relativistic mean field theory. First, characteristics of {Lambda}, {Sigma} and {identical_to} hypernuclei, as well as multi strange baryonic objects, are investigated. The spin-orbit splittings and magnetic moments are shown to be very sensitive to the value of the tensor coupling f{omega}y. Second, optical potentials for {Lambda} and {Sigma} scattering off nuclei are developed based on a global nucleon-nucleon Dirac optical potential and SU(3) symmetry. The tensor coupling has a large effect on the predictions for the analyzing power. Third, the Dirac approach is used in the calculations of the non-mesonic decay of {Lambda} hypernuclei. The large discrepancy between the decay rates and data suggests the need for additional meson exchanges. (authors). 62 refs.,7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  16. Muonic atom-light nucleus interaction

    Kuz'michev, V.E.; Peresypkin, V.V.; Efetov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    The effective potential of the interaction between light nucleus and two-particle atom at distances greater than its Bohr radius is obtained in the analytic form on the basis of a correct account of three Coulomb particle problem. Features of the interaction between p, t, 4 He, 7 Be nuclei and mesonic atoms μp, μt, μ 4 He and μ 7 Be, that arising from the differences in masses and charges of interacting particles, are studied. The corresponding potentials in the pre-threshold energy range are given. The coefficients of the symptotic formula for the effective are calculated in adiabatic approximation and with regard for the main off-shell corrections. 16 refs.; 4 figs

  17. High energy hadron-nucleus collision

    Takagi, Fujio

    1983-02-01

    This is a lecture note concerning high energy hadron-nucleus collision. The lecture gives the inelastic total cross section and the Glanber approximate multiple scattering formula at first. The mechanism of nuclear spallation is described in a cylindrical image. The multiplicity, the one particle distribution and the time-space structure of particle production are discussed. Various models are presented. The attenuation of forward particles and the structure of hadrons are discussed for each model. The atomic number (A) dependence of the production of large transverse momentum particles and jet, and the A dependence of charged multiplicity are presented. The backward production of particles and many body correlation are discussed. Lepton pair production and the initial interaction of constituents, collective interaction, multi quark state and phase transition are described. (Kato, T.)

  18. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Green, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of parity violation in the compound nucleus is reviewed. The results of previous experimental results obtained by scattering polarized epithermal neutrons from heavy nuclei in the 3-p and 4-p p-wave strength function peaks are presented. Experimental techniques are presented. The extraction of the mean squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction, M 2 , between compound-nuclear levels and the relationship of M 2 to the coupling strengths in the meson exchange weak nucleon-nucleon potential are discussed. The tendency of measured asymmetries to have a common sign and theoretical implications are discussed. New experimental results are presented that show that the common sign phenomenon is not universal, as theoretical models developed up to now would predict

  19. An enlarged superfluid model of atomic nucleus

    Dumitrescu, O.; Horoi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The well known superfluid model (or quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (QPNM)) of atomic nucleus is enlarged by including an adequate four-nucleon effective interaction in addition to the pairing and long-range effective residual interactions. New experimental data can be explained without affecting those observables already described by the QPNM and in addition new features can be enumerated: 1) superfluidities of the neutron and proton systems may be generated by one another; 2) the phase structure is enriched by a new superfluid phase dominated by alpha-type correlations (ATC) and 3) superfluid isomers and their bands of elementary excitations are predicted. Unusual large two-nucleon and alpha transfer reactions cross sections as well as some unusual large alpha decay widths can be explained. (author). 46 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  1. Heavy nucleus resonant absorption calculation benchmarks

    Tellier, H.; Coste, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Van der Gucht, C.

    1993-01-01

    The calculation of the space and energy dependence of the heavy nucleus resonant absorption in a heterogeneous lattice is one of the hardest tasks in reactor physics. Because of the computer time and memory needed, it is impossible to represent finely the cross-section behavior in the resonance energy range for everyday computations. Consequently, reactor physicists use a simplified formalism, the self-shielding formalism. As no clean and detailed experimental results are available to validate the self-shielding calculations, Monte Carlo computations are used as a reference. These results, which were obtained with the TRIPOLI continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, constitute a set of numerical benchmarks than can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the techniques or formalisms that are included in any reactor physics codes. Examples of such evaluations, for the new assembly code APOLLO2 and the slowing-down code SECOL, are given for cases of 238 U and 232 Th fuel elements

  2. The nucleus accumbens and learning and memory.

    Setlow, B

    1997-09-01

    Recent research on the nucleus accumbens (NA) indicates that this brain region is involved in learning and memory processes in a way that is separable from its other well-known roles in behavior, such as motivation, reward, and locomotor activity. These findings have suggested that 1) the NA may be involved in declarative, or hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory, and not in several other non-declarative forms of learning and memory, and 2) the NA may be selectively involved in certain stages of learning and memory. These characteristics suggest that the NA may be part of a larger striatal system which subserves acquisition and consolidation, but is not a site of long-term storage, of different forms of learning and memory.

  3. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.

    2011-05-19

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  4. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Assenard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4{pi} devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author) 53 refs.

  5. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B.; Bisquer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4π devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author)

  6. The calculation of nucleus-nucleus interaction cross sections at high energy in the Glauber approach

    Gal'perin, A.G.; Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Total, inelastic and elastic cross sections of nucleus-nucleus (AA)-interactions at high energy (HE) are calculated on the base of Glauber approach. The calculation scheme is realized as a set of routines. The statistical average method is used in calculations. Program runs in an interactive regime. User is prompted about charge and mass numbers of nuclei and NN-interaction characters at the energy he is interested in: total cross section, the slope parameter of differential cross section of elastic scattering and ratio of real part to imaginary part of elastic scattering amplitude at zero momentum transfer. These data can be extracted from proper compilations. Results of calculations are displayed and are written on user defined output file. The program runs on PC. 21 refs., 1 tab

  7. Nucleus-Nucleus Scattering in the High-Energy Approximation and the Optical Folding Potential

    Lukyanov, V K; Lukyanov, K V

    2004-01-01

    For the nucleus-nucleus scattering, the complex potential is obtained which corresponds to the eikonal phase of an optical limit of the Glauber-Sitenko high-energy approximation. The potential does not include free parameters, its real and imaginary parts depend on energy and are determined by the reported data on the nuclear density distributions and nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude. Alternatively, for the real part, the folding potential can be utilized which includes the effective NN-forces and the exchange term, as well. As a result, the microscopic optical potential is constructed where contributions of the calculated real and imaginary parts are formed by fitting the two respective factors. An efficient of the approach is confirmed by agreements of calculations with the experimental data on elastic scattering cross-sections.

  8. Transport theory applied to hadron and light fragment production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Schuermann, B.; Malfliet, R.; Mies, S.; Zwermann, W.

    1984-01-01

    Foundations of the transport theory for studying K + , K - , π - and light fragment production in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energies are given. Inclusive production of protons, K + and π - in the Ne+NaF reaction at 400 MeV and 21 GeV/nucleon is consdered, their differential cross sections are caculated. Differential cross sections of K - and π - production in Si+Si → K + +X and Ne+NaF → π - +X reactions at the energy of 2.1 GeV/nucleon, their energy dependence are estimated. Comparison of the calculated and experimental data is graphically presented. The model of the transport theory is shown to successfully reproduce inclusive spectra of different particles (p, d, π, K + , K - ) in a wide energy range of incident particles (from 400 MeV to 2 GeV/nucleon). This approach can be generalized for lower energies by generating a mean nuclear potentiasl field

  9. On the geometric nature of high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction cross sections

    Townsend, L.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    Within the context of a high energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to investigate the validity of geometric reaction cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The potential used includes a finite range interaction and nuclear single-particle densities extracted from nuclear charge distributions by unfolding the proton charge distribution. Pauli correlation effects are also included in an approximate way. The sensitivity of the predictions to be assumed interaction, Pauli correlation approximation, and nuclear density distributions is investigated. These results are in agreement with early predictions concerning the geometric nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions and in disagreement with a recent analysis, utilizing the zero range approximation, which suggested otherwise. Reasons for the lack of agreement between the analyses are also presented. Finally, approximate applicability for geometric reaction cross sections are determined

  10. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-15

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  11. Dissipation and fluctuation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Feldmeier, H.; Spangenberger, H.

    1984-07-01

    The dissipation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions is treated in terms of a Langevin equation with a fluctuating force. Equations of motion for first and second moments of the macroscopic variables are derived directly from the Langevin equation. The properties of the fluctuating force which results from random particle exchange are investigated in detail. Drift and diffusion coefficients are calculated microscopically and analytical expressions are given which can be used in any trajectory calculation. An important feature of the model is that the Einstein relation between dissipation and fluctuation turns out to be only a limiting case of a more general expression which included nonthermal fluctuations. By treating the two nuclei as intrinsically equilibrated but not in thermal equilibrium with respect to each other several important aspects of the dissipative behaviour, seen in heavy ion collisions with final energies above the Coloumb barrier, can be understood. (orig.)

  12. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Vestfall, D. Gary

    1997-01-01

    We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

  13. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  14. Calculations of nucleus-nucleus microscopic optical potentials at intermediate energies

    Hanna, K.M.; Kuhtina, I.N.; Lukyanov, K.V.; Lukyanov, V.K.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Slowinski, B.

    2006-01-01

    Three types of microscopic nucleus-nucleus optical potentials are constructed using three patterns for their real and imaginary parts. Two of these patterns are the real V H and imaginary W H parts of the potential which reproduces the high-energy amplitude of scattering in the microscopic Glauber-Sitenko theory. Another template VDF is calculated within the standard double-folding model with the exchange term included. For either of the three tested potentials, the contribution of real and imaginary patterns is adjusted by introducing two fitted factors. Correspondingly, using numerical code ECIS, the elastic differential cross-sections were fitted to the experimental data on scattering of the 16,17 O heavy-ions at about hundred Mev/nucleon on various target-nuclei. The relativization effect is also included. The tables of the obtained factors which renormalize the strengths of the real and (or) imaginary parts of the calculated microscopic potentials are given

  15. Method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment

    Krasnov, V.A.; Malakhov, A.I.; Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the HIJING generator simulation of heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energy scale, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions is proposed for the CMS experiment at LHC. The basic idea is to use the time coincidence of signals with resolution better than 1 ns from the two very forward calorimeter arms covering the acceptance 3<|η|<5. The method efficiency is investigated by variation of energy thresholds in the calorimeters for different colliding ion species, namely, PbPb, NbNb, CaCa, OO, pPb, pCa, pp. It is shown that a stable efficiency of event selection (∼98%) is provided in an energy threshold range up to 100 GeV for nuclear collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon in the centre of mass system. In the pp collision case the relevant efficiency drops from 93% down to 80%

  16. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping

    2017-07-01

    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  17. HIJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for P-nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Ludlam, T.; Pfoh, A.; Shor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons are shown for the HIJET generated data and measured data for average multiplicities, rapidity distributions, and leading proton spectra in proton-nucleus and heavy ion reactions. The algorithm for the generator is one of an incident particle on a target of uniformly distributed nucleons. The dynamics of the interaction limit secondary interactions in that only the leading baryon may re-interact with the nuclear volume. Energy and four momentum are globally conserved in each event. 6 refs., 6 figs

  18. A central neural circuit for itch sensation.

    Mu, Di; Deng, Juan; Liu, Ke-Fei; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Yu-Feng; Guo, Wei-Min; Mao, Qun-Quan; Liu, Xing-Jun; Li, Hui; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-18

    Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors. Itch-mediating spinal neurons, which express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, are disynaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus via glutamatergic spinal projection neurons. Blockade of synaptic output of glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus suppressed pruritogen-induced scratching behavior. Thus, our studies reveal a central neural circuit that is critical for itch signal processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Infrared spectrophotometry of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) - A bare nucleus revealed?

    Hanner, M. S.; Aitken, D. K.; Knacke, R.; Mccorkle, S.; Roche, P. F.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra of the central core and surrounding coma of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) were obtained at 8-13 microns on May 11 and 2-4 microns on May 12, 1983. Spatially resolved measurements at 10 microns with a 4-arcsec beam showed that the central core was more than 100 times brighter than the inner coma only 8 arcsec away; for radially outflowing dust, the brightness ratio would be a factor of 8. The observations of the central core are consistent with direct detection of a nucleus having a radius of approximately 5 km. The temperature of the sunlit hemisphere was greater than 300 K. Spectra of the core are featureless, while spectra of the coma suggest weak silicate emission. The spectra show no evidence for icy grains. The dust production rate on May 11.4 was about 100,000 g/sec, assuming that the gas flux from the dust-producing areas on the nucleus was about 0.00001 g/sq cm per sec.

  20. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  1. On studies of the hadron-nucleus collision processes

    Strugalski, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A new way of hadron-nucleus collision process investigations in experiments is described. It is based on the properties of the hadron passage through layers of the intranuclear matter. The picture of the hadron-nucleus collision mechanism, as prompted experimentally, is presented. 37 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Nucleus retroambiguus projections to the periaqueductal gray in the cat

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) of the caudal medulla is a relay nucleus by which neurons of the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) reach motoneurons of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, intercostal and abdominal muscles, and several muscles of the hindlimbs. These PAG-NRA-motoneuronal projections

  3. Nucleus-size pinning for determination of nucleation free-energy barriers and nucleus geometry

    Sharma, Abhishek K.; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2018-05-01

    Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has recently been used in conjunction with a seeding approach to simulate nucleation phenomena at small-to-moderate supersaturation conditions when large free-energy barriers ensue. In this study, the conventional seeding approach [J. R. Espinosa et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 034501 (2016)] is improved by a novel, more robust method to estimate nucleation barriers. Inspired by the interfacial pinning approach [U. R. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104102 (2013)] used before to determine conditions where two phases coexist, the seed of the incipient phase is pinned to a preselected size to iteratively drive the system toward the conditions where the seed becomes a critical nucleus. The proposed technique is first validated by estimating the critical nucleation conditions for the disorder-to-order transition in hard spheres and then applied to simulate and characterize the highly non-trivial (prolate) morphology of the critical crystal nucleus in hard gyrobifastigia. A generalization of CNT is used to account for nucleus asphericity and predict nucleation free-energy barriers for gyrobifastigia. These predictions of nuclei shape and barriers are validated by independent umbrella sampling calculations.

  4. A Heuristic Model for the Active Galactic Nucleus Based on the Planck Vacuum Theory

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The standard explanation for an active galactic nucleus (AGN is a "central engine" consisting of a hot accretion disk surrounding a supermassive black hole. Energy is generated by the gravitational infall of material which is heated to high temperatures in this dissipative accretion disk. What follows is an alternative model for the AGN based on the Planck vacuum (PV theory, where both the energy of the AGN and its variable luminosity are explained in terms of a variable photon flux emanating from the PV.

  5. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist

  6. [Calcium distribution in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination].

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Ye, Lv; Tian, Hui

    2008-02-01

    Potassium antimonite precipitation was used to locate calcium in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination. At 3d before anthesis, two polar nuclei of central cell separately located at two polarity of the cell, and few calcium precipitates (ppts) appeared in the polar nuclei and cytoplasm, but some ppts in its small vacuoles. At 2d before anthesis, two polar nuclei moved toward the middle of the cell and fused to form a secondary nucleus, and the ppts evidently increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm. At 1d before anthesis, secondary nucleus again moved toward micropylar end and located near the egg to prepare for fertilization. Calcium precipitates were mainly accumulated in the secondary nucleus. After pollination and before fertilization, the distribution of calcium ppts was similar to that before pollination. At 4h after pollination, the central cell was fertilized, and calcium ppts evidently increased in the cell and numerous were accumulated in its nucleus and cytoplasm. At 6h after pollination, the primary endosperm nucleus completed its first division and formed two dissociate endosperm nuclei, and still many calcium precipitates appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm. With endosperm development, calcium ppts decreased in the endosperm cell. At 1d after emasculated and without pollination, the secondary nucleus of the cell still bordered on the egg and some calcium ppts appeared in the secondary nucleus. The results indicated that the temporal and spatial changes of calcium in the central cell may play an important physiological role during the development of the central cell and endosperm.

  7. On the possible detection of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and nucleus-nucleus Coulomb forces

    Silveira, R. da

    1996-07-01

    Possible effects of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and the nucleus-nucleus Coulomb interaction are discussed. It is shown that, although very small, these effects could be measured using low energy scattering between identical heavy nuclei, e.g. for the system 208 Pb + 208 Pb (E L = 5 MeV). (author)

  8. Efferent connections and nigral afferents of the nucleus accumbens septi in the rat

    Nauta, W J.H.; Smith, G P; Faull, R L.M.; Domesick, V B [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Psychology

    1978-01-01

    The results of this study by the methods of autoradiographic fiber-tracing and retrograde cell-labelling confirm earlier reports of accumbens projections to the globus pallidus and to dorsal strata of the medial half of the substantia nigra. Also in accord with previous autoradiographic evidence, sparser projections could be traced to a variety of subcortical structures implicated in the circuitry of the limbic system: bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septum, preoptic region, hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, nuclei paratenialis and mediodorsalis thalami, and lateral habenular nucleus. Contrary to earlier reports, striatopallidal fibers from the accumbens were found to be distributed largely to the subcommissural part of the external pallidal segment and to avoid almost entirely the internal pallidal segment. Mesencephalic projections from the accumbens largely coincide with those from the preoptic region and hypothalamus; like the latter they prominantly involve the region of the out-lying nigral cell groups A10 and A8 and extend caudally beyond the nigral complex to the cuneiform and parabrachial regions of the tegmentum as well as to caudoventral parts of the central grey substance. Horseradish peroxidase injected into the nucleus accumbens labels numerous neurons in the region of cell group A10 and in the supralemniscal 'retrorubral nucleus', but only sporadic cells in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra proper. It thus appears that the accumbens projects to a region of the nigral complex considerably larger than that from which it receives nigrostriatal fibers, and hence, that the nigro-striato-nigral circuit associated with the accumbens is not organized in a mode of simple point-for-point reciprocity. The problem of delimiting the accumbens from the rest of the striatum is examined by comparing cases of tracer injection into various discrete loci within the ventral zone of the striatum.

  9. Evolution of a protein folding nucleus.

    Xia, Xue; Longo, Liam M; Sutherland, Mason A; Blaber, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The folding nucleus (FN) is a cryptic element within protein primary structure that enables an efficient folding pathway and is the postulated heritable element in the evolution of protein architecture; however, almost nothing is known regarding how the FN structurally changes as complex protein architecture evolves from simpler peptide motifs. We report characterization of the FN of a designed purely symmetric β-trefoil protein by ϕ-value analysis. We compare the structure and folding properties of key foldable intermediates along the evolutionary trajectory of the β-trefoil. The results show structural acquisition of the FN during gene fusion events, incorporating novel turn structure created by gene fusion. Furthermore, the FN is adjusted by circular permutation in response to destabilizing functional mutation. FN plasticity by way of circular permutation is made possible by the intrinsic C3 cyclic symmetry of the β-trefoil architecture, identifying a possible selective advantage that helps explain the prevalence of cyclic structural symmetry in the proteome. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  10. Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models

    Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

  11. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-12-19

    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  12. Backward emission in hadron-nucleus collisions

    Stelte, N.; Weiner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Backward emission of hadrons in reactions of the type: P + T → a + anything, where the projectile P is a hadron, T a nuclear target and a a hadron or a light nucleus has been the subject of experimental investigation in the last decade in an energy range E starting in the hundred MeV region and extending up to 400 GeV projectile energy. The main interest in these reactions lies in the fact that they provide information about collective behavior of nucleons in nuclei (cumulative effect, i.e., the presence of secondary particles in a region of momentum space which cannot be populated by nucleon-nucleon interactions) although some authors have recently patronized this effect. In particular the consequences of nuclear limiting fragementation together with the cumulative effect can be used to obtain important information on transport properties and the equation of state of nuclear matter. Limiting fragmentation is a phenomenon discovered in the GeV region and applied to the reaction implies that in the high E limit two separate rapidity regions exist, one for the projectile and another for the target so that in each of the regions the inclusive cross section dsigma/dEd Ω becomes independent of the incoming energy. Here E and Ω refer to the kinetic energy and solid angle of the emitted particle

  13. Heavy nucleus resonance absorption in heterogeneous lattices

    Coste, M.; Tellier, H.; Brienne-Raepsaet, C.; Van Der Gucht, C.

    1992-01-01

    To compute easily the neutron reaction rates in the resonance energy range, the reactor physicists use the self-shielding formalism and the effective cross-section concept. Usually, for these calculations, and equivalence process is used, in such a way that the absorption rate is correctly computed for the whole fuel pin. This procedure does not allow to preserve the spatial absorption rate distribution inside the pin. It is an important handicap if we want to reproduce the plutonium distribution in a spent fuel. To avoid this inconvenience, new improvements of the self-shielding formalism have been recently introduced in the new assembly calculation code of the French Atomic Energy Commission, APOLLO 2. With this improved formalism, it is now possible to represent the spatial and energetic dependence of the heavy nucleus absorption inside the fuel pin and to use a fine energy dependent equivalence process. As it does not exist clean experimental results for the spatial and energetic dependence of the absorption, the authors used reference calculations to qualify the self-shielding formalism. For the strongly self-shielded nuclei of interest in reactor physics, U238, Pu240 and Th232, the agreement between the self-shielding calculation and the reference ones is fairly good for the spatial and energetic dependence of the absorption rate

  14. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback.

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian

    2014-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the thematic content of review Nucleus

    Guerra Valdes, Ramiro

    2007-01-01

    A computer programme for performing standardized analysis of research areas and key concepts of nuclear science and technology under development at Cubaenergia is presented. Main components of the information processing system, as well as computational methods and modules for thematic content analysis of INIS Database record files are described. Results of thematic content analysis of review Nucleus from 1986 to 2005 are shown. Furthermore, results of demonstrative study Nucleus, Science, Technology and Society are also shown. The results provide new elements to asses the significance of the thematic content of review Nucleus in the context of innovation in interrelated multidisciplinary research areas

  16. Theoretical interpretation of medium energy nucleon nucleus inelastic scattering

    Lagrange, Christian

    1970-06-01

    A theoretical study is made of the medium energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering (direct interaction), by applying the distorted wave Born approximation such as can be deduced from the paired equation method. It is applied to the interpretation of the inelastic scattering of 12 MeV protons by 63 Cu; this leads us to make use of different sets of wave functions to describe the various states of the target nucleus. We analyze the nature of these states and the shape of the nucleon-nucleus interaction potential, and we compare the results with those obtained from other theoretical and experimental work. (author) [fr

  17. On angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by fast neutrons

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of amplitudes of quadrupole and hexadecapole components of angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by neutrons with the energies E n < or approx. 6 MeV is conducted. Stability of this amplitude to permeability optical coefficient variations for neutrons is revealed. It is shown, that the ratio of these amplitudes as well as the character of their dependence on the target nucleus orientation degree are sensitive to the type of fission probability distribution along K projection if fissile nucleus J spin to the fragment scattering axis. This sensitivity may be used for fragment angular distribution anisotropy formation statistical model verification

  18. Semi classical model of the neutron resonance compound nucleus

    Ohkubo, Makio

    1995-01-01

    A Semi-classical model of compound nucleus is developed, where time evolution and recurrence for many degrees of freedom (oscillators) excited simultaneously are explicitly considered. The effective number of oscillators plays the role in the compound nucleus, and the nuclear temperatures are derived, which are in good agreement with the traditional values. Time structures of the compound nucleus at resonance are considered, from which equidistant level series with an envelope of strength function of giant resonance nature is obtained. S-matrix formulation for fine structure resonance is derived. (author)

  19. The Mathematical Model High Energy Collisions Process Hadron-Nucleus

    Wojciechowski, A.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    2002-01-01

    During the passage high energy hadron by the heavy nucleus emitted are nucleons and many other particles from which most more group are nucleons and mesons π + π - π 0 . in this work we will present the mathematical model which is a simplified description of basic processes in the interior of the nucleus during passing of the hadron by the nucleus. Result of calculations we will compare with experimental results. Experimental data are based on photographs of 180 litre xenon bubble chambers (180 1 KKP) of Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics in Moscow (ITEF, Moscow) irradiated with the beam of mesons π - with momentum 3.5 GeV/c. (author)

  20. On slow particle production in hadron-nucleus interactions

    Stenlund, E.; Otterlund, I.

    1982-01-01

    A model for slow particle production in hadron-nucleus interactions is presented. The model succesfully predicts correlations between the number of knock-on particles and the number of particles associated with the evaporation process as well as correlations with the number of collisions, ν, between the incident hadron and the nucleons inside the target nucleus. The model provides two independent possibilities to determine the number of primary intranuclear collisions, ν, i.e. by its correlation to the number of knock-on particles or to the number of evaporated particles. The good agreement indicates that the model gives an impact-parameter sensitive description of hardron nucleus reactions. (orig.)

  1. Study on isotopic distribution produced by nucleus-nucleus collisions with modified SAA model

    Zhong Chen; Fang Deqing; Cai Xiangzhou; Shen Wenqing; Zhang Huyong; Wei Yibin; Ma Yugang

    2003-01-01

    Base on Brohm's Statistic-Ablation-Abrasion (SAA) model, the modified SAA model was developed via introducing the isospin dependence of nucleon distribution in nucleus and parameterized formulas for nucleon-nucleon cross section in nuclear matter. It can simulate well the isotopic distribution at both high and intermediate energies. By the improvement of computational method, the range of calculation of isotopic distribution can be increased from three order magnitude to eight order magnitude (even higher). It can reproduce experimental data and predict the isotopic distribution for very far from stability line which is very important from experimental viewpoint

  2. Nucleus Ambiguus Cholinergic Neurons Activated by Acupuncture: Relation to Enkephalin

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Li, Min; Longhurst, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture regulates autonomic function. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi–Neiguan acupoints (P5–P6, underlying the median nerve) inhibits central sympathetic outflow and attenuates excitatory cardiovascular reflexes, in part, through an opioid mechanism. It is unknown if EA at these acupoints influences the parasympathetic system. Thus, using c-Fos expression, we examined activation of nucleus ambiguus (NAmb) neurons by EA, their relation to cholinergic (preganglionic parasympathetic) neurons and those containing enkephalin. To enhance detection of cell bodies containing enkephalin, colchicine (90–100 μg/kg) was administered into the subarachnoid space of cats 30 hr prior to EA or sham-operated controls for EA. Following bilateral barodenervation and cervical vagotomy, either EA for 30 min at P5–P6 acupoints or control stimulation (needle placement at P5–P6 without stimulation) was applied. While perikarya containing enkephalin were observed in some medullary nuclei (e.g., râphe), only enkephalin-containing neuronal processes were found in the NAmb. Compared to controls (n=4), more c-Fos immunoreactivity, located principally in close proximity to fibers containing enkephalin was noted in the NAmb of EA-treated cats (n=5; P<0.01). Moreover, neurons double-labeled with c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase in the NAmb were identified in EA-treated, but not the control animals. These data demonstrate for the first time that EA activates preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the NAmb. Because of their close proximity, these EA-activated neurons likely interact with nerve fibers containing enkephalin. These results suggest that EA at the P5–P6 acupoints has the potential to influence parasympathetic outflow and cardiovascular function, likely through an enkephalinergic mechanism. PMID:22306033

  3. Convergence of cranial visceral afferents within the solitary tract nucleus.

    McDougall, Stuart J; Peters, James H; Andresen, Michael C

    2009-10-14

    Primary afferent axons within the solitary tract (ST) relay homeostatic information via glutamatergic synapses directly to second-order neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). These primary afferents arise from multiple organ systems and relay multiple sensory modalities. How this compact network organizes the flow of primary afferent information will shape central homeostatic control. To assess afferent convergence and divergence, we recorded ST-evoked synaptic responses in pairs of medial NTS neurons in horizontal brainstem slices. ST shocks activated EPSCs along monosynaptic or polysynaptic pathways. Gradations in shock intensity discriminated multiple inputs and stimulus recruitment profiles indicated that each EPSC was unitary. In 24 pairs, 75% were second-order neurons with 64% receiving one direct ST input with the remainder receiving additional convergent ST afferent inputs (22% two; 14% three monosynaptic ST-EPSCs). Some (34%) second-order neurons received polysynaptic EPSCs. Neurons receiving only higher-order inputs were uncommon (13%). Most ST-EPSCs were completely independent, but 4 EPSCs of a total of 81 had equal thresholds, highly correlated latencies, and synchronized synaptic failures consistent with divergence from a single source ST axon or from a common interneuron producing a pair of polysynaptic EPSCs. We conclude that ST afferent inputs are remarkably independent with little evidence of substantial shared information. Individual cells receive highly focused information from the viscera. Thus, afferent excitation of second-order NTS neurons is generally dominated by single visceral afferents and therefore focused on a single afferent modality and/or organ region.

  4. Hypoxia silences retrotrapezoid nucleus respiratory chemoreceptors via alkalosis.

    Basting, Tyler M; Burke, Peter G R; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E; Stornetta, Daniel S; Stornetta, Ruth L; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2015-01-14

    In conscious mammals, hypoxia or hypercapnia stimulates breathing while theoretically exerting opposite effects on central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs). We tested this theory by examining how hypoxia and hypercapnia change the activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a putative CRC and chemoreflex integrator. Archaerhodopsin-(Arch)-transduced RTN neurons were reversibly silenced by light in anesthetized rats. We bilaterally transduced RTN and nearby C1 neurons with Arch (PRSx8-ArchT-EYFP-LVV) and measured the cardiorespiratory consequences of Arch activation (10 s) in conscious rats during normoxia, hypoxia, or hyperoxia. RTN photoinhibition reduced breathing equally during non-REM sleep and quiet wake. Compared with normoxia, the breathing frequency reduction (Δf(R)) was larger in hyperoxia (65% FiO2), smaller in 15% FiO2, and absent in 12% FiO2. Tidal volume changes (ΔV(T)) followed the same trend. The effect of hypoxia on Δf(R) was not arousal-dependent but was reversed by reacidifying the blood (acetazolamide; 3% FiCO2). Δf(R) was highly correlated with arterial pH up to arterial pH (pHa) 7.5 with no frequency inhibition occurring above pHa 7.53. Blood pressure was minimally reduced suggesting that C1 neurons were very modestly inhibited. In conclusion, RTN neurons regulate eupneic breathing about equally during both sleep and wake. RTN neurons are the first putative CRCs demonstrably silenced by hypocapnic hypoxia in conscious mammals. RTN neurons are silent above pHa 7.5 and increasingly active below this value. During hyperoxia, RTN activation maintains breathing despite the inactivity of the carotid bodies. Finally, during hypocapnic hypoxia, carotid body stimulation increases breathing frequency via pathways that bypass RTN. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350527-17$15.00/0.

  5. Different expressions of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel types in the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus of the absence epileptic WAG/Rij rat.

    Bovenkamp-Janssen, M.C. van de; Scheenen, W.J.J.M.; Kuijpers-Kwant, F.J.; Kozicz, L.T.; Veening, J.G.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; McEnery, M.W.; Roubos, E.W.

    2004-01-01

    In the WAG/Rij rat, a model for human absence epilepsy, spike-wave discharges (SWD) and absence epileptic behavior develop after the age of 3 months. The rostral part of the reticular thalamic nucleus (rRTN) is involved in SWD. Ca(2+) channels play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of

  6. Validity and reliability of central blood pressure estimated by upper arm oscillometric cuff pressure.

    Climie, Rachel E D; Schultz, Martin G; Nikolic, Sonja B; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Fell, James W; Sharman, James E

    2012-04-01

    Noninvasive central blood pressure (BP) independently predicts mortality, but current methods are operator-dependent, requiring skill to obtain quality recordings. The aims of this study were first, to determine the validity of an automatic, upper arm oscillometric cuff method for estimating central BP (O(CBP)) by comparison with the noninvasive reference standard of radial tonometry (T(CBP)). Second, we determined the intratest and intertest reliability of O(CBP). To assess validity, central BP was estimated by O(CBP) (Pulsecor R6.5B monitor) and compared with T(CBP) (SphygmoCor) in 47 participants free from cardiovascular disease (aged 57 ± 9 years) in supine, seated, and standing positions. Brachial mean arterial pressure (MAP) and diastolic BP (DBP) from the O(CBP) device were used to calibrate in both devices. Duplicate measures were recorded in each position on the same day to assess intratest reliability, and participants returned within 10 ± 7 days for repeat measurements to assess intertest reliability. There was a strong intraclass correlation (ICC = 0.987, P difference (1.2 ± 2.2 mm Hg) for central systolic BP (SBP) determined by O(CBP) compared with T(CBP). Ninety-six percent of all comparisons (n = 495 acceptable recordings) were within 5 mm Hg. With respect to reliability, there were strong correlations but higher limits of agreement for the intratest (ICC = 0.975, P difference 0.6 ± 4.5 mm Hg) and intertest (ICC = 0.895, P difference 4.3 ± 8.0 mm Hg) comparisons. Estimation of central SBP using cuff oscillometry is comparable to radial tonometry and has good reproducibility. As a noninvasive, relatively operator-independent method, O(CBP) may be as useful as T(CBP) for estimating central BP in clinical practice.

  7. 2D model of the Nucleus

    Lach, Theodore M.

    2003-10-01

    The CBM (model) of the nucleus has resulted in the prediction of two new quarks, an "up" quark of mass 237.31 MeV/c2 and a "dn" quark of mass 42.392 MeV/c2. These two new predicted quarks helped to determine that the masses of the quarks and leptons are all related by a geometric progression relationship. The mass of each quark or lepton is just the "geometric mean" of two related elementary particles, either in the same generation or in the same family. This numerology predicts the following masses for the electron family: 0.511000 (electron), 7.74 (predicted), 117.3, 1778.4 (tau), 26950.1 MeV. The geometric ratio of this progression is 15.154 (e to the power e). The mass of the tau in this theory agrees very well with accepted values. This theory suggests that all the "dn like" quarks have a mass of just 10X multiples of 4.24 MeV (the mass of the "d" quark). The first 3 "up like" quark masses are 38, 237.31 and 1500 MeV. This theory also predicts a new heavy generation with a lepton mass of 27 GeV, a "dn like" quark of 42.4 GeV, and an "up like" quark of 65 GeV. Significant evidence already exists for the existence of these new quarks, and lepton. Ref. Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/ 0008026, @ http://xxx.lanl.gov. Infinite Energy, Vol 5, issue 30.

  8. CENTRAL AMYGDALOID INVOLVEMENT IN NEUROENDOCRINE CORRELATES OF CONDITIONED STRESS RESPONSES

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in comparison with sham lesions on neuroendocrine responses during conditioned emotional stress in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA, made either before or after the

  9. Central Chile

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  10. Afrique Centrale

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  11. Hadron-nucleus interactions at high energy

    Gomez, R.; Dauwe, L.; Haggerty, H.

    1986-05-01

    Properties of energetic secondaries produced at large angles using 800 GeV incident protons are presented. H 2 , Be, C, Al, Cu and Pb targets were used for the study. The yields for producing such secondaries vary as A/sup α/ where A is the atomic mass number of the target and α attains values as large as 1.6. There is evidence that jet-like events have α values approaching unity, indicating a hard scattering mechanism may be occurring. Events with large values of target-fragmentation energy have, on average, large values of energy in the central region and small values of forward-going energy. Energy flows and number of secondaries are independent of the target when events with similar amounts of energy in the central region are studied

  12. Semiclassical model for single-particle transitions in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Milek, B.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna; Technische Univ., Dresden; Reif, R.; Pham Khan Van; Revai, J.

    1990-04-01

    A previously elaborated semiclassical one-body model for the dynamics of a single particle, moving in two potentials, in heavy-ion reactions or in fissioning systems has been extended with respect to the inclusion of angular momenta and more realistic separable potentials. The collective relative motion is assumed to proceed along a trajectory which is calculated from classical equations of motion including conservative and phenomenological friction forces. The formalism has been derived involving three-dimensional trajectories for symmetric as well as for asymmetric nucleus-nucleus systems. The model allows for the calculation of correct quantum mechanical transition amplitudes to final bound and continuum states. It has been applied for the investigation of the excitation of a neutron during a fission process, covering also non-statistical differential emission probabilities. From the numerical calculations, using parameters adapted to 252 Cf(sf), one can conclude that in the underlying model without 'sudden' processes the energy spectrum consists of two parts. The low lying component is created in the neck region while a high lying part seems to be governed mainly by the dynamics of the underlying collective motion rather than by the specific initial conditions. (orig.)

  13. Collision dynamics and particle production in relativistic nucleus- nucleus collisions at CERN

    Harris, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    The possibility of forming a quark-gluon plasma is the primary motivation for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies. Various ''signatures'' for the existence of a quark-gluon plasma in these collisions have been proposed. These include an enhancement in the production of strange particles, suppression of J/Ψ production, observation of direct photons from the plasma, event-by-event fluctuations in the rapidity distributions of produced particles, and various other observables. However, the system will evolve dynamically from a pure plasma or mixed phase through expansion, cooling, hadronization and freezeout into the final state particles. Therefore, to be able to determine that a new, transient state of matter has been formed it will be necessary to understand the space-time evolution of the collision process and the microscopic structure of hadronic interactions, at the level of quarks and gluons, at high temperatures and densities. In this talk I will review briefly the present state of our understanding of the dynamics of these collisions and, in addition, present a few recent results on particle production from the NA35 experiment at CERN. 21 refs., 5 figs

  14. Estimation of nuclear destruction in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    It is assumed that: 1) a projectile particle invokes into target nucleus a cascade of quark-gluon exchanges; 2) the nucleons involved in the cascade are ejected from the nucleus which leads to the nuclear destruction. On these bases a simple model to estimate the nuclear destruction at the fast stage of the interaction is proposed. The allowed region of the model parameters is determined at the proton-emulsion high-energy interaction data analysis: an analysis of gold interactions with nuclei at an energy of 600 MeV/nucleon fixes the parameter values. The distributions on the energy in zero degree calorimeter (T ZDC ) in the interactions of Si+Al, Cu, Pb (14 GeV/nucleon) and Au+Au (10 GeV/nucleon) calculated in the framework of the model and in the cascade-evaporation model (CEM) are presented. The proposed model describes the nuclear destruction at intermediate and high energies better than CEM does. The estimation of the average values of impact parameter and the number of intra-nuclear collisions for Au+Au interactions in the events with different T ZDC is given. 34 refs., 11 figs

  15. Quantitative analysis of the fusion cross sections using different microscopic nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Adel, A. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Majmaah University, Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Zulfi (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, T. [Majmaah University, Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Zulfi (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    The fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems are investigated near and above the Coulomb barrier using the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. The microscopic nuclear interaction potential is computed by four methods, namely: the double-folding model based on a realistic density-dependent M3Y NN interaction with a finite-range exchange part, the Skyrme energy density functional in the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi approximation, the generalized Proximity potential, and the Akyuez-Winther interaction. The comparison between the calculated and the measured values of the fusion excitation functions indicates that the calculations of the DFM give quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, being much better than the other methods. New parameterized forms for the fusion barrier heights and positions are presented. Furthermore, the effects of deformation and orientation degrees of freedom on the distribution of the Coulomb barrier characteristics as well as the fusion cross sections are studied for the reactions {sup 16}O + {sup 70}Ge and {sup 28}Si + {sup 100}Mo. The calculated values of the total fusion cross sections are compared with coupled channel calculations using the code CCFULL and compared with the experimental data. Our results reveal that the inclusion of deformations and orientation degrees of freedom improves the comparison with the experimental data. (orig.)

  16. Multiparticle excitations in the 149 Gd superdeformed nucleus. Signature of new C4 nucleus symmetry

    Theisen, C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of 8 π and EUROGAM phase I multi-detectors for the study of high spin states of 149 Gd nucleus has revealed unexpected new phenomenons about the superdeformation in this nucleus. The new excited bands confirm the omnipresence of twin bands phenomenon. A new multi-particle excitation (two protons and one neutron) has been discovered. Thanks to the second generation EUROGAM detector, unexpected discoveries such as C 4 symmetry, level interactions, complete backbending were obtained for the second potential well. The knowledge of interacting levels gives informations about the nucleon-nucleon residual interaction and could allow the determination of SD bands excitation energy. The complex processing and analysis of high multiplicity events has led to the development of new computing tools. An automatic band research program has been written for the discovery of new excited bands, and an exact method for the elimination of uncorrected events has been developed. The improvements of multi-detector performances should allow the discovery of more exceptional phenomenons and new anomalies in the SD bands. (J.S.). 222 refs., 86 figs., 38 tabs

  17. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus.

    Singh, Anand P; Galland, Rémi; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Grenci, Gianluca; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Studer, Vincent; Viasnoff, Virgile; Saunders, Timothy E

    2017-01-10

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus plays an important role in protein dynamics and in regulating gene expression. However, protein dynamics within the 3D nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a novel combination of 1) single-objective based light-sheet microscopy, 2) photoconvertible proteins, and 3) fluorescence correlation microscopy, to quantitatively measure 3D protein dynamics in the nucleus. We are able to acquire >3400 autocorrelation functions at multiple spatial positions within a nucleus, without significant photobleaching, allowing us to make reliable estimates of diffusion dynamics. Using this tool, we demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in Polymerase II dynamics in live U2OS cells. Further, we provide detailed measurements of human-Yes-associated protein diffusion dynamics in a human gastric cancer epithelial cell line. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nucleus geometry and mechanical properties of resistance spot ...

    Keywords. Automotive steels; resistance spot welding; mechanical properties; nucleus geometry. 1. .... High va- lues of hardness can be explained with martensitic forma- ... interface of DP450–DP600 steels may have stainless steel properties.

  19. Thermalization in high energy proton-nucleus collisions

    Wedemann, R.S.

    1988-03-01

    A relativistic proton-nucleus collision using the intranuclear cascade model is studied. The purpose is to verify the equilibration hypothesis at fragmentation time made by many nuclear fragmentation models. (author)

  20. Optical observations of the nucleus of NGC 4151

    Romano, G; Minello, S [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1977-08-01

    Photographic observations of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151, carried out during the last seven years, are reported. The object shows irregular variations between photographic magnitudes 11.2 and 13.0.

  1. Deconvolving the Nucleus of Centaurus A Using Chandra PSF Library

    Karovska, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a giant early-type galaxy containing the nearest (at 3.5 Mpc) radio-bright Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Cen A was observed with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory on several occasions since the launch in July 1999. The high-angular resolution (less than 0.5 arcsecond) Chandra/HRC images reveal X ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity, including the bright nucleus believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole. We explored the spatial extent of the Cen A nucleus using deconvolution techniques on the full resolution Chandra images. Model point spread functions (PSFs) were derived from the standard Chandra raytrace PSF library as well as unresolved point sources observed with Chandra. The deconvolved images show that the Cen A nucleus is resolved and asymmetric. We discuss several possible causes of this extended emission and of the asymmetries.

  2. Radiological study of the calcanean ossification secondary nucleus development

    Carvalho Filho, Guaracy.

    1994-01-01

    This work describes the normal aspects of the calcanean ossification secondary nucleus radiological development, the appearing time, his form, localization, fragmentation and evolution of area, from a sample of normal individuals. (author). 14 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  3. The role of hypothalamus tuberomammillary nucleus on the regulation of respiratory movement of rats with asthma

    Chen CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the role of central histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN of posterior hypothalamus on asthma. Methods  Seventy-two healthy male SD rats were served as study objects. Sixty-four rats were sensitized with ovalbumin (OA solution intraperitoneally and challenged with OA aerosol inhalation to prepare asthma model. Asthma attack was evoked in asthmatic rats by OA solution injected intravenously, the electrical activities of TMN in posterior hypothalamus were recorded with biological signal collecting system and the power spectra were analyzed. TMN was lesioned or stimulated electrically by central stereo positioning technology. Histamine H3 receptor agonist R-(α-methylhistamine (RMHA or antagonist thioperamide (THIO was microinjected into TMN by central nuclear group microinjection technology, and the pulmonary function indexes were detected including diaphragm electromyography (EMGdi frequency, EMGdi integral, minute ventilation volume (MVV, expiratory time/inspiratory time (TE/TI, airway resistance (Raw and dynamic pulmonary compliance (Cdyn. Results  Compared with control group, the percentage of α, β1 and β2 wave in the electrical activities of TMN of asthmatic rats increased significantly, while the percentage of δ and θ wave decreased and the total discharge power increased. Compared with the corresponding control group, electric lesion of TMN or TMN microinjected with histamine H3 receptor antagonist increased EMGdi frequency, TE/TI, Raw, and decreased EMGdi integral, MVV and Cdyn. Compared with the corresponding control group, electric stimulation of TMN or TMN microinjected with histamine H3 receptor agonist decreased EMGdi frequency, TE/TI, Raw, and increased EMGdi integral, MVV and Cdyn. Conclusion  Central histaminergic neurons in tuberomammillary nucleus of posterior hypothalamus are activated in asthmatic rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.09

  4. The picture of the nuclei disintegration mechanism - from hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions experimental investigations at high energies

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.; Chmielowski, W.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the nuclei disintegration process in collisions of high-energy hadrons with nuclei is revealed experimentally. The disintegration appears as a complicated nuclear process developing in time and space in intranuclear matter, consisting at least of three stages which last together about 10 -24 - 10 -17 s after the impact. At the first stage, which lasts about 10 -24 - 10 -22 s, fast nucleons are densely emitted and the target-nucleus is locally damaged. At the second stage, lasting about 10 -22 - 10 -1 7 s, the damaged and unstable residual target nucleus uses to evaporate light fragments - mainly nucleons, deuterons, tritons, α-particles. At the final stage, the residual target-nucleus uses to split sometimes into two or more nuclear fragments

  5. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  6. Ion-beam spectroscopic studies of the 69As nucleus

    Badica, T.; Cojocaru, V.; Olariu, A.; Petre, M.; Popescu, I. V.; Gheboianu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Excited state of the neutron deficient 69 As nucleus were investigated in the 58 Ni( 14 N,2pn) reaction by ion-beam γ spectroscopic methods (excitation functions, γγ-coincidences, angular distributions and linear polarization gated with neutrons). A new more complete level scheme of 69 As has been proposed with spin-parity values. The structure of the nucleus is discussed in the framework of the interaction boson-fermion model (IBFM). (authors)

  7. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connecti...

  8. Rapidity distributions of secondary particles in hadron-nucleus collisions

    Alaverdyan, G.B.; Pak, A.S.; Tarasov, A.V.; Tseren, Ch.; Uzhinsky, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of the cascade model of a leading particle the rapidity distributions of secondary particles in the hadron-nucleus interactions are considered. The energy loss fluctuations of leading particles in the successive collisions have been taken into account. It is shown that the centre of rapidity distribution is displaced towards small rapidity with target nucleus atomic number A growth. The model well reproduces the energy and A dependences of the rapidity distributions

  9. New computational methods for determining antikaon-nucleus bound states

    Fink, P.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Optical potential for antikaon-nucleus strong interactions are constructed using elementary antikaon-nucleus potentials determined previously. The optical potentials are used to determine the existence of a kaon hypernucleus. Modern three dimensional visualization techniques are used to study model dependences, new methods for speeding the calculation of the optical potential are developed, and previous approximation to avoid full Fermi averaging are eliminated. 19 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Urotensin II promotes vagal-mediated bradycardia by activating cardiac-projecting parasympathetic neurons of nucleus ambiguus.

    Brailoiu, Gabriela Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Tilley, Douglas G; Koch, Walter J; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2014-05-01

    Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic undecapeptide that regulates cardiovascular function at central and peripheral sites. The functional role of U-II nucleus ambiguus, a key site controlling cardiac tone, has not been established, despite the identification of U-II and its receptor at this level. We report here that U-II produces an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in retrogradely labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus via two pathways: (i) Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; and (ii) Ca(2+) influx through P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. In addition, U-II depolarizes cultured cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Microinjection of increasing concentrations of U-II into nucleus ambiguus elicits dose-dependent bradycardia in conscious rats, indicating the in vivo activation of the cholinergic pathway controlling the heart rate. Both the in vitro and in vivo effects were abolished by the urotensin receptor antagonist, urantide. Our findings suggest that, in addition, to the previously reported increase in sympathetic outflow, U-II activates cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus, which may contribute to cardioprotection. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  12. Effect of cochlear nerve electrocautery on the adult cochlear nucleus.

    Iseli, Claire E; Merwin, William H; Klatt-Cromwell, Cristine; Hutson, Kendall A; Ewend, Matthew G; Adunka, Oliver F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Buchman, Craig A

    2015-04-01

    Electrocauterization and subsequent transection of the cochlear nerve induce greater injury to the cochlear nucleus than sharp transection alone. Some studies show that neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) patients fit with auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) fail to achieve speech perception abilities similar to ABI recipients without NF2. Reasons for these differences remain speculative. One hypothesis posits poorer performance to surgically induced trauma to the cochlear nucleus from electrocautery. Sustained electrosurgical depolarization of the cochlear nerve may cause excitotoxic-induced postsynaptic nuclear injury. Equally plausible is that cautery in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus induces necrosis. The cochlear nerve was transected in anesthetized adult gerbils sharply with or without bipolar electrocautery at varying intensities. Gerbils were perfused at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days postoperatively; their brainstem and cochleas were embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 10 μm. Alternate sections were stained with flourescent markers for neuronal injury or Nissl substance. In additional experiments, anterograde tracers were applied directly to a sectioned eighth nerve to verify that fluorescent-labeled profiles seen were terminating auditory nerve fibers. Cochlear nerve injury was observed from 72 hours postoperatively and was identical across cases regardless of surgical technique. Postsynaptic cochlear nucleus injury was not seen after distal transection of the nerve. By contrast, proximal transection was associated with trauma to the cochlear nucleus. Distal application of bipolar electrocautery seems safe for the cochlear nucleus. Application near the root entry zone must be used cautiously because this may compromise nuclear viability needed to support ABI stimulation.

  13. Galactic spiral arms formed by central explosions

    Havnes, O.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations have been made of spiral arm formation due to central explosions in a nucleus surrounded by a disc containing most of the galactic mass with the purpose of obtaining estimates on lifetimes of arms and the requirements on the energy involved in the process. The ejected gas is taken to be a few percent, or less, of the central nucleus and is ejected with velocities of the order of 1000 km s -1 . The gas, considered to be in forms of blobs, moves under the gravitational force from the disc and the nucleus and the drag force by the gas in the disc. The orbits of the blobs evolve towards the circular orbits of the disc due to this drag force and the velocities in the arms will therefore, after some time, approach those of a normal rotation curve. A relatively open structure will last 8 years. Stable ring structures with longer lifetimes may be formed by some explosions. With an energy of approximately 5 x 10 57 erg in the initial gas-blob motion and a duration of the explosion of approximately 10 7 years, the energy output in such explosions has to be > 10 43 erg s -1 . (Auth.)

  14. Interesting correlations among various parameters of charged secondaries in nucleus - nucleus interactions at 4.5 A GeV

    Khan, M. Saleem; Shukla, Praveen Prakash; Khushnood, H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the characteristic of charged secondaries was the aim of most of the experiments on high energy nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Investigation are carried out on the produced secondary charged particles with a common belief that these particles are more informative about the collisional dynamics and thus, could be effective in revealing the underlying physics of high energy relativistic interactions. So for understanding the mechanism of multiparticle production in high energy hadron-nucleus collisions, the correlations amongst the secondary charged particles are studied. Several workers have attempted to study the multiplicity correlations over widely different incident energies with different projectiles. The AALMT collaboration have also studied the multiplicity correlations in 200 GeV proton-nucleus collisions

  15. The Legal Implication of Palestine's Ad Hoc Declaration and Accession to the ICC's Jurisdiction Based on the Rome Statute 1998 (Case Study of Israeli Attacks on Gaza Strip from January 2009 to December 2014

    Nabilla Utami Dhiya Rahmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The conflict between Israel and Palestine on Gaza Strip has caused not only military casualties but also civilian casualties which are protected by the international law. The protection of civilians in armed conflict is basically set in the Geneva Convention of 1949 which has been ratified by Israel and Palestine, in which violations of its provisions constitute war crimes. This paper discusses the mechanism of the International Criminal Court based on the Rome Statute 1998 in enforcing the law against war crimes on Gaza Strip. Articles 13 and 15 of Rome Statute 1998 provide jurisdiction for the settlement of an international criminal case. Palestine has made several attempts in accepting the jurisdiction of the ICC in 2009 and 2015, namely through their declaration and accession which further gave legal implication on the implementation of the international law. Based on these studies, this paper will further discuss the legal implication of the Palestine's declaration in 2009 and 2015, as well as its accession in 2015. Abstrak Konflik yang telah terjadi bertahun-tahun antara Israel dan Palestina di jalur Gaza telah memakan tidak hanya korban militer namun juga korban sipil yang dilindungi oleh hukum internasional. Perlindungan terhadap penduduk sipil dalam konflik bersenjata pada dasarnya diatur dalam Konvensi Jenewa IV tahun 1949 yang telah diratifikasi oleh Israel dan Palestina di mana pelanggaran terhadap ketentuannya merupakan kejahatan perang. Penulis dalam tulisan ini membahas mengenai mekanisme International Criminal Court berdasarkan Statuta Roma 1998 dalam menegakkan hukum terhadap kejahatan perang di jalur Gaza. Berdasarkan Statuta Roma 1998 Pasal 13 dan 15, ICC memiliki yurisdiksi atas penyelesaian suatu kasus pidana internasional yang diajukan negara anggota, rekomendasi Dewan Keamanan PBB, investigasi mandiri yang dilakukan oleh jaksa Mahkamah Pidana Internasional, atau deklarasi ad hoc yang dilakukan bagi negara bukan

  16. Europa central

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  17. The picture of the nuclei disintegration mechanism - from nucleus-nucleus collision experimental data at high energies

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental data on nuclear collisions at high energies, mainly obtained from photographic emulsions, are considered from the point of view of the picture of the nuclear collision processes mechanisms prompted experimentally. In fact, the disintegration products of each nucleus involved in a nuclear collision, in its own rest-frame, are similar to that produced by the impact of a number of nucleons of velocity equal to that of the moving primary nucleus

  18. Study of high energy densities over extended nuclear volumes via nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    2002-01-01

    This experiment examines in detail the characteristics of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions using $^{16}$O beams of 200 GeV/A from the SPS. The experiment combines 4$\\pi$ calorimeter coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two-particle correlations, low and high-mass lepton pairs and photons. A multiwire active target allows maximum interaction rates with a minimum of secondary interactions. Additional data are taken with an emulsion target.

  19. Energy loss, range and fluence distributions, total reaction and projectile fragment production cross sections for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Sihver, L.; Kanai, T.

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a computer code for calculations of energy loss (dE/dx) and range distributions for heavy ions in any media. The results from our calculations are in very good agreement with previous calculations. We have developed semiempirical total reaction cross section formulae for proton-nucleus (with Z p ≤26) and nucleus-nucleus (with Z p and Z t ≤26) reactions. These formulae apply for incident energies above 15 MeV and 100 MeV/nucleon respectively. From the total reaction cross sections, we can calculate the mean free paths and the fluence distributions of protons and heavy ions in any media. We have compared all the calculated reaction cross sections and the mean free paths with experimental data, and the agreement is good. We have also constructed a procedure for calculating projectile fragment production cross sections, by scaling semiempirical proton-nucleus partial cross section systematics. The scaling is performed using a scaling parameter deduced from our reaction cross sections formulae, and additional enhancements factors. All products with atomic number ranging from that of the projectile (Z p ) down to Z=2 can be calculated. The agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is better than earlier published results. (author)

  20. Probabilistic somatotopy of the spinothalamic pathway at the ventroposterolateral nucleus of the thalamus in the human brain.

    Hong, J H; Kwon, H G; Jang, S H

    2011-08-01

    The STP has been regarded as the most plausible neural tract responsible for pathogenesis of central poststroke pain. The VPL nucleus has been a target for neurosurgical procedures for control of central poststroke pain. However, to our knowledge, no DTI studies have been conducted to investigate the somatotopic location of the STP at the VPL nucleus of the thalamus. In the current study, we attempted to investigate this location in the human brain by using a probabilistic tractography technique of DTI. DTI was performed at 1.5T by using a Synergy-L SENSE head coil. STPs for both the hand and leg were obtained by selection of fibers passing through 2 regions of interest (the area of the spinothalamic tract in the posterolateral medulla and the postcentral gyrus) for 41 healthy volunteers. Somatotopic mapping was obtained from the highest probabilistic location at the ACPC level. The highest probabilistic locations for the hand and leg were an average of 16.86 and 16.37 mm lateral to the ACPC line and 7.53 and 8.71 mm posterior to the midpoint of the ACPC line, respectively. Somatotopic locations for the hand and leg were different in the anteroposterior direction (P .05). We found the somatotopic locations for hand and leg of the STP at the VPL nucleus; these somatotopies were arranged in the anteroposterior direction.

  1. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  2. central t

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  3. MRI manifestation of Wilson's disease accompanied with central pontine myelinolysis

    Zhang Jingsong; Huan Yi; Chang Yingjuan; Chang Yingjuan; Ge Yali; Zhang Guangyun; Han Yuedong; Zhao Haitao; Yang Chunmin; Yang Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To discuss MRI manifestation of Wilson's disease accompanied with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), and to especially detect the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in this disease. Methods: Two cases of Wilson's disease accompanied with CPM were performed with sequent MR examination including T 1 WI, T 2 WI, FLAIR, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) by a 1.5 T magnetic resonance system (Philips gyroscan master). Results: Symmetric long T 1 and T 2 signals were found in central pontine region, lenticular nucleus, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. CEMRI showed no apparent enhanced lesions. DWI showed obviously high signal intensities in central pontine region with apparent diffusion coefficient values fluctuated between (100-300) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s while FLAIR images just showed slightly high signal in the same area, which suggested that cytotoxic edema did in fact exist in CPM. Meanwhile, DWI also showed high signals in bilateral lenticular nucleus with apparent diffusion coefficient values fluctuated between (300-600) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, however, FLAIR images showed heterogeneous high signals and one case presented low DWI signals in bilateral head of caudate nucleus, all these signs might be explained by mixed-changes of cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema in long period of Wilson's disease. Conclusion: Wilson's disease and CPM have characteristic MRI manifestation and DWI may be a very useful way to confirm a correct diagnosis. (authors)

  4. Central sleep apnea

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  5. LM1-64: a Newly Reported Lmc-Pn with WR Nucleus

    Pena, M.; Olguin, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    1993-05-01

    The object LM1-64 was reported by Lindsay & Mullan (1963, Irish Astron. J., 5, 51) as a probable PN in the LMC. Optical and UV spectra taken by us confirm that suggestion. LM1-64 is a high excitation planetary nebulae which shows evidence of having a WC central star. Broad stellar emission at lambda 4650 is detected in the optical spectrum obtained with the CTIO 4m telescope, in 1989. A UV spectrum in the range from 1200 Angstroms to 2000 Angstroms was obtained with IUE in 1990. We have measured all the emission line fluxes available and determined values for the physical conditions and chemical abundances of the nebular ionized gas. The derived values are T(OIII) = 14000K, log He/H = 11.05, log C/H = 9.48, log O/H = 8.55 and log Ne/H = 7.94. LM1-64 shows a large C enhancement in the envelope as result of the central star activity, while He, O and Ne are comparable to the average values reported for the LMC-PNe (Monk, Barlow & Clegg, 1988, MNRAS, 234, 583). We have estimated the He II Zanstra temperature of the central star to be ~ 80,000 K. This temperature is much higher than the values reported for the known LMC-PNe with WR nucleus that Monk et al. have classified as W4 to W8. The only other high temperature WR nucleus in a LMC-PN is N66 which recently showed evidence of undergoing a WR episode (Torres-Peimbert, Ruiz, Peimbert & Pe\\ na, 1993, IAU Symp. 155, eds. A. Acker & R. Weinberger, in press).

  6. Qualitative analysis neurons in the adult human dentate nucleus

    Marić Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many relevant findings regarding to the morphology and cytoarchitectural development of the dentate nucleus have been presented so far, very little qualitative information has been collected on neuronal morphology in the adult human dentate nucleus. The neurons were labelled by Golgi staining from thirty human cerebella, obtained from medico-legal forensic autopsies of adult human bodies and free of significant brain pathology. The human dentate neurons were qualitatively analyzed and these cells were classified into two main classes: the small and the large multipolar neurons. Considering the shape of the cell body, number of the primary dendrites, shape of the dendritic tree and their position within the dentate nucleus, three subclasses of the large multipolar neurons have been recognized. The classification of neurons from the human dentate nucleus has been qualitatively confirmed in fetuses and premature infants. This study represents the first qualitative analysis and classification of the large multipolar neurons in the dentate nucleus of the adult human.

  7. Alteration of Paramecium candatum germinal nucleus morphology after UV irradiation

    Fokin, S.I. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.)

    1982-09-01

    A study was made on morphologic changes of micronucleus (Mi) after whole-body ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of paramecia as well as after local irradiation of this nucleus or the area of macronucleus (Ma). The whole-body irradiation of its Ma part leads to generative nucleus growth in sizes and chromatin structure change, which is expressed in occurence of large chromatin bodies. Aftereffects of local action on Mi for viable descendants are expressed in nucleus size transformation (usually in reduction), gaining ''comet-shaped'' form and probably in reduction of dna amount. Irradiation of Ma and total effect on cell cause Mi changes of reversible character. All morphologic changes of Mi after local ultraviolet irradiation are conserved in descendants and are not photoreactivated. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. The results obtained make it possible to speak about different mechanisms of action on Mi in the case of local and whole-body UV irradiation of cell. The effect of irradiated Ma on generative nucleus, but not direct damage of this nucleus is the reason for Mi morphologic reconstruction after whole-body action on paramecium.

  8. Oxytocin Acting in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Decreases Food Intake.

    Herisson, F M; Waas, J R; Fredriksson, R; Schiöth, H B; Levine, A S; Olszewski, P K

    2016-04-01

    Central oxytocin (OT) promotes feeding termination in response to homeostatic challenges, such as excessive stomach distension, salt loading and toxicity. OT has also been proposed to affect feeding reward by decreasing the consumption of palatable carbohydrates and sweet tastants. Because the OT receptor (OTR) is expressed in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), a site regulating diverse aspects of eating behaviour, we investigated whether OT acts there to affect appetite in rats. First, we examined whether direct AcbC and AcbSh OT injections affect hunger- and palatability-driven consumption. We found that only AcbC OT infusions decrease deprivation-induced chow intake and reduce the consumption of palatable sucrose and saccharin solutions in nondeprived animals. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with an OTR antagonist, L-368,899, injected in the same site. AcbC OT at an anorexigenic dose did not induce a conditioned taste aversion, which indicates that AcbC OT-driven anorexia is not caused by sickness/malaise. The appetite-specific effect of AcbC OT is supported by the real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of OTR mRNA in the AcbC, which revealed that food deprivation elevates OTR mRNA expression, whereas saccharin solution intake decreases OTR transcript levels. We also used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neuronal activation and found that AcbC OT injection increases activation of the AcbC itself, as well as of two feeding-related sites: the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Finally, considering the fact that OT plays a significant role in social behaviour, we examined whether offering animals a meal in a social setting would modify their hypophagic response to AcbC OT injections. We found that a social context abolishes the anorexigenic effects of AcbC OT. We conclude that OT acting via the AcbC decreases food intake driven by hunger and reward in rats offered a meal in a nonsocial setting. © 2016

  9. CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area exert differential controls on energy homeostasis

    Jackie Lau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART codes for a pivotal neuropeptide important in the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. However, limited understanding exists for the defined effector sites underlying CART function, as discrepant effects of central CART administration have been reported. Methods: By combining Cart-cre knock-in mice with a Cart adeno-associated viral vector designed using the flip-excision switch (AAV-FLEX technology, specific reintroduction or overexpression of CART selectively in CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA, respectively, was achieved. The effects on energy homeostasis control were investigated. Results: Here we show that CART neuron-specific reintroduction of CART into the Arc and LHA leads to distinct effects on energy homeostasis control. Specifically, CART reintroduction into the Arc of otherwise CART-deficient Cartcre/cre mice markedly decreased fat mass and body weight, whereas CART reintroduction into the LHA caused significant fat mass gain and lean mass loss, but overall unaltered body weight. The reduced adiposity in ArcCART;Cartcre/cre mice was associated with an increase in both energy expenditure and physical activity, along with significantly decreased Npy mRNA levels in the Arc but with no change in food consumption. Distinctively, the elevated fat mass in LHACART;Cartcre/cre mice was accompanied by diminished insulin responsiveness and glucose tolerance, greater spontaneous food intake, and reduced energy expenditure, which is consistent with the observed decrease of brown adipose tissue temperature. This is also in line with significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (Th and notably increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh mRNA expressions in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Conclusions: Taken together, these results identify catabolic and anabolic effects of CART in the Arc and LHA, respectively, demonstrating for

  10. [Central nervous system control of energy homeostasis].

    Machleidt, F; Lehnert, H

    2011-03-01

    The brain is continuously supplied with information about the distribution and amount of energy stores from the body periphery. Endocrine, autonomic and cognitive-hedonic signals are centrally integrated and exert effects on the whole organism via anabolic and catabolic pathways. The adiposity signals insulin and leptin reflect the amount of body fat and are part of a negative feedback mechanism between the periphery and the central nervous system. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is the most important central nervous structure, which integrates this information. Furthermore, the CNS is able to directly measure and to respond to changes in the concentration of certain nutrients. In order to develop effective therapies for the treatment of disorders of energy balance the further elucidation of these neuro-biological processes is of crucial importance. This article provides an overview of the CNS regulation of metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Statistical emission of complex fragments from highly excited compound nucleus

    Matsuse, T.

    1991-01-01

    A full statistical analysis has been given in terms of the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method. The charge and kinetic energy distributions of 35 Cl+ 12 C reaction at E lab = 180, 200 MeV and 23 Na+ 24 Mg reaction at E lab = 89 MeV which form the 47 V compound nucleus are investigated as a prototype of the light mass system. The measured kinetic energy distributions of the complex fragments are shown to be well reproduced by the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, so the observed complex fragment production is understood as the statistical binary decay from the compound nucleus induced by heavy-ion reaction. Next, this method is applied to the study of the complex production from the 111 In compound nucleus which is formed by the 84 Kr+ 27 Al reaction at E lab = 890 MeV. (K.A.) 18 refs., 10 figs

  12. Mechano-adaptation of the stem cell nucleus.

    Heo, Su-Jin; Cosgrove, Brian D; Dai, Eric N; Mauck, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Exogenous mechanical forces are transmitted through the cell and to the nucleus, initiating mechanotransductive signaling cascades with profound effects on cellular function and stem cell fate. A growing body of evidence has shown that the force sensing and force-responsive elements of the nucleus adapt to these mechanotransductive events, tuning their response to future mechanical input. The mechanisms underlying this "mechano-adaptation" are only just beginning to be elucidated, and it remains poorly understood how these components act and adapt in tandem to drive stem cell differentiation. Here, we review the evidence on how the stem cell nucleus responds and adapts to physical forces, and provide a perspective on how this mechano-adaptation may function to drive and enforce stem cell differentiation.

  13. Analysis of a deep nucleus of Tehuantepec Gulf

    Ordonez R, E.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J. J.; Machain C, M. L.

    2009-10-01

    A nucleus of sediments obtained in the deep of Tehuantepec Gulf is analyzed; this nucleus has the particularity of to be a sampling of longitude of 18.3 m that include the total of last period glacial, few times obtained in our country. The physical chemistry composition of 10 selected fractions are analyzed with the purpose of to understand the formation processes of deep ocean along the period of 120 000 years, that includes the extracted fraction. Crystallography analysis, morphology, physical chemistry characterization and activity gamma were made. Finding that the content of organic matter falls as the superficial area increases, also was found the presence of natural uranium in similar concentration and balance with its radiogenic descendants along the nucleus profile what suggests the uranium migration to interior of mineral grains. (Author)

  14. Nucleus of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983 VII)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radar, infrared, UV, and microwave-continuum observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcok were obtained in May 1983, the week of the comet's close approach to earth. The comet has a nucleus dimension and a rotation period which are similar to those of Comet Halley, but a different morphological signature (a persisting sunward fan-shaped coma). Time variations are noted in the projected nucleus cross section. Results suggest significant limb-darkening effects in the relevant domains of radio waves, and that the comet's interior must be extremely cold. It is found that the thermal-infrared fluxes from the inner coma of the comet are dominated by the nucleus. 63 references

  15. Near-nucleus optical observations of P/Halley

    Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Near-Nucleus Studies Net of the International Halley Watch has obtained an extensive series of high resolution optical images of P/Halley during its most active phases in 1985-86 which may be useful in interpreting radio observations of Comet Halley. They often show coma structure resulting from anisotropic emission of dust and gas from the inhomogeneous nucleus. Images were obtained in broadband spectral regions to study dust coma morphology, and in medium to narrow spectral bands to isolate the principal emissions of CN, C 3 , C 2 , CO + and H 2 O + . The goals and methods of near-nucleus studies are discussed and recent studies of 1910 images are briefly reviewed. The role of dust jets and cometary activity in P/Halley is discussed and several examples of anisotropic emission of dust during the current apparition are shown. 12 references

  16. Proton decay in a nucleus: Nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear effects

    Fernandez, L.A.; Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.; Sanchez-Gomez, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, proton decay in a large nucleus is studied in the framework of SU(5) grand unification theory (GUT). By using a method based upon the Green's-function technique of many-body physics, nuclear effects on spectator and pole terms are computed. The decay width in the nucleus is found to be practically the same as in free space. However, nuclear effects are of considerable importance concerning the positron spectrum. A density-correlation expansion is introduced which is useful for carrying out a systematic study of nuclear effects in proton decay in a large nucleus. The method presented here can be easily extended to other GUT's or supersymmetric GUT's

  17. Models of the atomic nucleus. With interactive software

    Cook, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    This book-and-CD-software package supplies users with an interactive experience for nuclear visualization via a computer-graphical interface, similar in principle to the molecular visualizations already available in chemistry. Models of the Atomic Nucleus, a largely non-technical introduction to nuclear theory, explains the nucleus in a way that makes nuclear physics as comprehensible as chemistry or cell biology. The book/software supplements virtually any of the current textbooks in nuclear physics by providing a means for 3D visual display of the diverse models of nuclear structure. For the first time, an easy-to-master software for scientific visualization of the nucleus makes this notoriously ''non-visual'' field become immediately 'visible.' After a review of the basics, the book explores and compares the competing models, and addresses how the lattice model best resolves remaining controversies. The appendix explains how to obtain the most from the software provided on the accompanying CD. (orig.)

  18. Central hypothyroidism

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

  19. Hot Quarks 2016: Workshop for young scientists on the physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    2017-01-01

    The 7th edition of the Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks 2016) was held on South Padre Island, Texas, United States from September 12-17, 2016. Following the traditions of the conference, the meeting gathered almost 70 participants in the first years of their scientific careers. The present issue contains the proceedings of this workshop.As in the past, the Hot Quarks workshop offered a unique atmosphere for lively discussions and interpretation of the current measurements from high-energy nuclear collisions. Dedicated time at the end of each session for questions, including anonymous questions from the “box”, are crucial for this workshop. Recent results and upgrades at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) were presented. Recent theoretical developments were also extensively discussed as well as the perspectives for future facilities such as the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt and the Electron-Ion Collider at Brookhaven. The conference's goal to provide a platform for young researchers to learn and foster their interactions was successfully met.We wish to thank the sponsors of the Hot Quarks 2016 Conference, who supported the authors of this volume: European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Switzerland), Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M University (USA), ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI (Germany), Helmholtz Association and GSI under grant VH-NG-822 (Germany), Helmholtz International Center for FAIR (Germany), National Science Foundation (USA), Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (Netherlands), Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS (Czech Republic), the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (Czech Republic) and 3 sponsors who wish to remain anonymous.Javier López Albacete, Universidad de Granada (Spain)Jana Bielcikova, Nuclear Physics Inst. of the Czech Academy of Sciences

  20. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Meifeng; Du, Lilong; Zhang, Jiamin; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Baoshan; Wang, Lianyong

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus

  1. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhu, Meifeng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Lilong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Jiamin [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Xinlong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Xu, Baoshan, E-mail: xubaoshan99@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wang, Lianyong, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus.

  2. Immobility, inheritance and plasticity of shape of the yeast nucleus

    Andrulis Erik D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since S. cerevisiae undergoes closed mitosis, the nuclear envelope of the daughter nucleus is continuous with that of the maternal nucleus at anaphase. Nevertheless, several constitutents of the maternal nucleus are not present in the daughter nucleus. The present study aims to identify proteins which impact the shape of the yeast nucleus and to learn whether modifications of shape are passed on to the next mitotic generation. The Esc1p protein of S. cerevisiae localizes to the periphery of the nucleoplasm, can anchor chromatin, and has been implicated in targeted silencing both at telomeres and at HMR. Results Upon increased Esc1p expression, cell division continues and dramatic elaborations of the nuclear envelope extend into the cytoplasm. These "escapades" include nuclear pores and associate with the nucleolus, but exclude chromatin. Escapades are not inherited by daughter nuclei. This exclusion reflects their relative immobility, which we document in studies of prezygotes. Moreover, excess Esc1p affects the levels of multiple transcripts, not all of which originate at telomere-proximal loci. Unlike Esc1p and the colocalizing protein, Mlp1p, overexpression of selected proteins of the inner nuclear membrane is toxic. Conclusion Esc1p is the first non-membrane protein of the nuclear periphery which – like proteins of the nuclear lamina of higher eukaryotes – can modify the shape of the yeast nucleus. The elaborations of the nuclear envelope ("escapades" which appear upon induction of excess Esc1p are not inherited during mitotic growth. The lack of inheritance of such components could help sustain cell growth when parental nuclei have acquired potentially deleterious characteristics.

  3. NuSTEC White Paper: Status and Challenges of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; et al.

    2017-06-12

    The precise measurement of neutrino properties is among the highest priorities in fundamental particle physics, involving many experiments worldwide. Since the experiments rely on the interactions of neutrinos with bound nucleons inside atomic nuclei, the planned advances in the scope and precision of these experiments requires a commensurate effort in the understanding and modeling of the hadronic and nuclear physics of these interactions, which is incorporated as a nuclear model in neutrino event generators. This model is essential to every phase of experimental analyses and its theoretical uncertainties play an important role in interpreting every result. In this White Paper we discuss in detail the impact of neutrino-nucleus interactions, especially the nuclear effects, on the measurement of neutrino properties using the determination of oscillation parameters as a central example. After an Executive Summary and a concise Overview of the issues, we explain how the neutrino event generators work, what can be learned from electron-nucleus interactions and how each underlying physics process - from quasi-elastic to deep inelastic scattering - is understood today. We then emphasize how our understanding must improve to meet the demands of future experiments. With every topic we find that the challenges can be met only with the active support and collaboration among specialists in strong interactions and electroweak physics that include theorists and experimentalists from both the nuclear and high energy physics communities.

  4. NuSTEC1 White Paper: Status and challenges of neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Barbaro, M. B.; Cherdack, D.; Christy, M. E.; Coloma, P.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dytman, S.; de Gouvêa, A.; Hill, R. J.; Huber, P.; Jachowicz, N.; Katori, T.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Mahn, K.; Martini, M.; Morfín, J. G.; Nieves, J.; Perdue, G. N.; Petti, R.; Richards, D. G.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, T.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2018-05-01

    The precise measurement of neutrino properties is among the highest priorities in fundamental particle physics, involving many experiments worldwide. Since the experiments rely on the interactions of neutrinos with bound nucleons inside atomic nuclei, the planned advances in the scope and precision of these experiments require a commensurate effort in the understanding and modeling of the hadronic and nuclear physics of these interactions, which is incorporated as a nuclear model in neutrino event generators. This model is essential to every phase of experimental analyses and its theoretical uncertainties play an important role in interpreting every result. In this White Paper we discuss in detail the impact of neutrino-nucleus interactions, especially the nuclear effects, on the measurement of neutrino properties using the determination of oscillation parameters as a central example. After an Executive Summary and a concise Overview of the issues, we explain how the neutrino event generators work, what can be learned from electron-nucleus interactions and how each underlying physics process - from quasi-elastic to deep inelastic scattering - is understood today. We then emphasize how our understanding must improve to meet the demands of future experiments. With every topic we find that the challenges can be met only with the active support and collaboration among specialists in strong interactions and electroweak physics that include theorists and experimentalists from both the nuclear and high energy physics communities.

  5. Nitric oxide in the nucleus raphe magnus modulates cutaneous blood flow in rats during hypothermia

    Masoumeh Kourosh Arami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM that is involved in the regulation of body temperature contains nitric oxide (NO synthase. Considering the effect of NO on skin blood flow control, in this study, we assessed its thermoregulatory role within the raphe magnus. Materials and Methods: To this end, tail blood flow of male Wistar rats was measured by laser doppler following the induction of hypothermia. Results: Intra-NRM injection of SNP (exogenous NO donor, 0.1- 0.2 μl, 0.2 nM increased the blood flow. Similarly, unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.1- 0.2 μl, 2.3 nM into the nucleus increased the blood flow. This effectof L-glutamate was reduced by prior intra NRM administrationof NO synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine or NG-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 µl, 100 nM. Conclusion: It is concluded that NO modulates the thermoregulatory response of NRM to hypothermia and may interactwith excitatory amino acids in central skin blood flow regulation.

  6. Tolerance to non-opioid analgesics is opioid-sensitive in nucleus raphe magnus

    Merab G Tsagareli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated injection of opioid analgesics can lead to a progressive loss of its effect. This phenomenon is known as tolerance. Several lines of investigations have shown that systemic, intraperitoneal administration or the microinjection of non-opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter induces antinociception with some effects of tolerance. Our recent study has revealed that microinjection of three drugs analgin, ketorolac and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala produce tolerance to them and cross-tolerance to morphine. Here we report that repeated administrations of these NSAIDs into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM in the following four days result in progressively less antinociception, i.e. produce the development of tolerance to these drugs in mail rats. Special control experiments showed that post-treatment with μ-opioid antagonist naloxone in NRM significantly decreased antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs at the first day in behavioral tail flick reflex (TF and hot plate (HP latencies. At the second day, naloxone generally had trend effects in both TF and HP tests impeded the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of non-opioid analgesics. These findings strongly support the suggestion on endogenous opioid involvement in NSAIDs antinociception and tolerance in the descending pain control system. Moreover, repeated injections of NSAIDs progressively lead to tolerance to them, cross-tolerance to morphine and the risk of a withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, these results are important for human medicine too.

  7. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

    Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus would emerge and 2) whether this sex difference is related to sexual orientation or transsexuality. Postmortem hypothalamic tissues were collected by The Netherlands Brain Bank, and sections were stained for kisspeptin by immunohistochemistry. Hypothalami of 43 control subjects were categorized into three periods: infant/prepubertal (six girls, seven boys), adult (11 women, seven men), and elderly (six aged women, six aged men). Eight male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals, three HIV(+) heterosexual men, and five HIV(+) homosexual men were also analyzed. We estimated the total number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons within the infundibular nucleus. Quantitative analysis confirmed that the human infundibular kisspeptin system exhibits a female-dominant sex difference. The number of kisspeptin neurons is significantly greater in the infant/prepubertal and elderly periods compared with the adult period. Finally, in MTF transsexuals, but not homosexual men, a female-typical kisspeptin expression was observed. These findings suggest that infundibular kisspeptin neurons are sensitive to circulating sex steroid hormones throughout life and that the sex reversal observed in MTF transsexuals might reflect, at least partially, an atypical brain sexual differentiation.

  8. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  9. Nitric oxide in the nucleus raphe magnus modulates cutaneous blood flow in rats during hypothermia.

    Arami, Masoumeh Kourosh; Zade, Javad Mirnajafi; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Mahmood; Mehrpooya, Sara; Jahanshahi, Ali; Jamei, Behnam

    2015-10-01

    Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM) that is involved in the regulation of body temperature contains nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Considering the effect of NO on skin blood flow control, in this study, we assessed its thermoregulatory role within the raphe magnus. To this end, tail blood flow of male Wistar rats was measured by laser doppler following the induction of hypothermia. Intra-NRM injection of SNP (exogenous NO donor, 0.1- 0.2 μl, 0.2 nM) increased the blood flow. Similarly, unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.1- 0.2 μl, 2.3 nM) into the nucleus increased the blood flow. This effect of L-glutamate was reduced by prior intra NRM administration of NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 µl, 100 nM). It is concluded that NO modulates the thermoregulatory response of NRM to hypothermia and may interact with excitatory amino acids in central skin blood flow regulation.

  10. Formation and decay of a hot compound nucleus

    Carlson B.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The compound nucleus plays an important role in nuclear reactions over a wide range of projectile-target combinations and energies. The limits that angular momentum places on its formation and existence are, for the most part, well understood. The limits on its excitation energy are not as clear. Here we first analyze general geometrical and thermodynamical features of a hot compound nucleus. We then discuss the manners by which it can decay and close by speculating on the high energy limit to its formation and existence.

  11. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  12. Some preliminary considerations on antiproton-nucleus experiments

    Yavin, A.I.

    1981-05-01

    The antiproton as a probe of the atomic nucleus is discussed in the expectation that fairly intense beams of high quality will be available in 1983 at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) facility at CERN and possibly also in some other laboratories at a later date. Several antiproton-nucleus experiments are proposed, and the possibility of observing antiprotonic nuclei as well as antineutronic nuclei is discussed. It is demonstrated that even for the study of the elementary nucleon-antinucleon systems it could be advantageous to use nuclei rather than protons as target. The possibility of investigating several antiprotonic atomic systems is also briefly discussed [fr

  13. Magnetic Resonances in the Electroexcitation of the 26Mg Nucleus

    Goncharova, N.G.; Pronkina, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of spectroscopic information about direct pickup reactions, the multipole magnetic resonances M2, M4, and M6 of the 26 Mg nucleus are calculated within the particle-core coupling version of the multiparticle shell model. The excitation-energy distribution of the form factors for the multipole magnetic 1(ℎ/2π)ω resonances is obtained for momentum transfers to a nucleus up to 2 fm -1 . A comparison of the results of the calculations for the M6 form factors with corresponding experimental data confirms that the adopted model approximations are realistic

  14. Multiquark states in the deep inelastic muon-nucleus scattering

    Titov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The deep-inelastic muon-nucleus scattering in the region forbidden by the kinematics for the scattering on free nucleons, is analysed theoretically. The calculations have been performed under the assumption that the main contribution to the cross section in the considered region of the Bjorken scaling variable, 1 -4 -10 -5 for the nuclear structure function at x approximately equal to 1.4. As it is shown, one has to take into account the six-= ' quark states in extracting the scaling parameter of QCD from the muon-nucleus data at approximately 1

  15. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Jorge G. Morfín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  16. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on

    Martino, J.; Frere, J.M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Volpe, C.; Marteau, J.; Lhuillier, D.; Vignaud, D.; Legac, R.; Marteau, J.; Legac, R.

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry

  17. On the hadron formation time in pion-nucleus interaction

    Bravina, L.V.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Differences in the observable characteristics of pion-nucleus interactions at high energy are investigated for two definitions of the hadron formation time. The Monte Carlo simulation of hadron-nucleus interactions and quark-gluon string model for hadron-hadron collisions are used. It is shown that the momentum spectrum of the protons in the target fragmentation region is most sensitive to the definition of the formation time. The inclusive meson and meson resonance spectra are similar in the both versions. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Progressive activation of paratrigeminal nucleus during entrance to hibernation

    Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) undergoes a progressive increase in its uptake of 2-[ 14 C]deoxyglucose (2DG) relative to other brain structures during entrance to hibernation in the ground squirrel. This highly significant increase results in the Pa5 becoming the most highly labeled brain region during hibernation, even though it exhibits one of the lowest levels of 2DG uptake in the brain during the nonhibernating state. The progressive activation of the Pa5 observed during entrance is reversed during arousal from hibernation. These observations and the neuroanatomical projections of the Pa5 implicate this nucleus as playing a role in the entrance and maintenance of the hibernating state

  19. Neutrino-nucleus cross section in the impulse approximation regime

    Benhar, Omar; Farina, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In the impulse approximation regime the nuclear response to a weakly interacting probe can be written in terms of the measured nucleon structure functions and the target spectral function, yielding the energy and momentum distribution of the constituent nucleons. We discuss a calculation of charged current neutrino-oxygen interactions in the quasielastic channel, carried out within nuclear many body theory. The proposed approach, extensively and successfully employed in the analysis of electron-nucleus scattering data, allows for a parameter free prediction of the neutrino-nucleus cross section, whose quantitative understanding will be critical to the analysis of the next generation of high precision neutrino oscillation experiments

  20. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration*

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2016-01-01

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. PMID:27226580

  1. Social interaction and cocaine conditioning in mice increase spontaneous spike frequency in the nucleus accumbens or septal nuclei as revealed by multielectrode array recordings.

    Kummer, Kai K; El Rawas, Rana; Kress, Michaela; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Both cocaine and social interaction place preference conditioning lead to increased neuronal expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 in the nucleus accumbens, a central region of the reward pathway, suggesting that both drug and natural rewards may be processed in similar brain regions. In order to gain novel insights into the intrinsic in vitro electrical activity of the nucleus accumbens and adjacent brain regions and to explore the effects of reward conditioning on network activity, we performed multielectrode array recordings of spontaneous firing in acute brain slices of mice conditioned to either cocaine or social interaction place preference. Cocaine conditioning increased the spike frequency of neurons in the septal nuclei, whereas social interaction conditioning increased the spike frequency in the nucleus accumbens compared to saline control animals. In addition, social interaction conditioning decreased the amount of active neuron clusters in the nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that place preference conditioning for both drug and natural rewards may induce persistent changes in neuronal network activity in the nucleus accumbens and the septum that are still preserved in acute slice preparations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Investigation of nuclear matter properties by means of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Stock, R.

    1985-09-01

    We review recent advances towards an understanding of high density nuclear matter, as created in central collisions of nuclei at high energy. In particular, information obtained for the nuclear matter equation of state will be discussed. The lectures focus on the Bevalac energy domain of 0.4 to 2 GeV per projectile nucleon. (orig.)

  3. Dexmedetomidine decreases inhibitory but not excitatory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Sharp, Douglas B; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-29

    Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist, is a useful sedative but can also cause significant bradycardia. This decrease in heart rate may be due to decreased central sympathetic output as well as increased parasympathetic output from brainstem cardiac vagal neurons. In this study, using whole cell voltage clamp methodology, the actions of dexmedetomidine on excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the rat nucleus ambiguus was determined. The results indicate that dexmedetomidine decreases both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory input to cardiac vagal neurons, with no significant effect on excitatory input. These results provide a mechanism for dexmedetomidine induced bradycardia and has implications for the management of this potentially harmful side effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative analysis of mechanisms of fast light particles production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies

    Denikin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and the mechanisms of formation of pre-equilibrium light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies are discussed in terms of a classical four-body model. The energy and angular distributions of light particles have been calculated. It has been found that at energies lower than 50A MeV the formation of the most high-energy part of the nuclear spectrum occurs at the expense of the acceleration of light target particles with the mean field of the projectile. The obtained data are in good agreement with available experimental data

  5. Biochemical evidence for. gamma. -aminobutyrate containing fibres from the nucleus accumbens to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1980-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase activity, a specific marker for ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing neurons, has been analysed in microdissected samples from rat mesencephalon following unilateral electrocoagulations of the nucleus accumbens. This lesion resulted in a consistent decrease of 50% in the enzyme activity in the rostromedial substantia nigra, and a slight, but insignificant decrease (- 15%) in the medial parts of the caudal pars compacta of the substantia nigra. No change was found in the lateral pars compacta or the central pars reticulata. In the ventral tegmental area, the highest activity was found in the rostromedial part, adjacent to the mammillary body. At this level, a significant decrease of 20% was found in the ventral tegmental area on the lesioned side. In contrast, the activities in the medial accessory optic nucleus and the caudal ventral tegmental area adjacent to the interpenduncular nucleus were unchanged. The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens sends ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing fibres to the rostromedial substantia nigra and to the rostral ventral tegmental area. The caudal ventral tegmental area, the lateral pars compacta and the central pars reticulata do not receive measurable amounts of such fibres.

  6. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    Durham Paul L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization.

  7. Towards a computational model for stimulation of the Pedunculopontine nucleus

    Lourens, Marcel Antonius Johannes; Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Heida, Tjitske; van Gils, Stephanus A.

    2009-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has recently been suggested as a new therapeutic target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, particularly those with severe gait and postural impairment [1]. Stimulation at this site is typically delivered at low

  8. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-01-01

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  9. Altered morphology of the nucleus accumbens in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Auer, Tibor; Metzger, F Luise; Euler, Harald A; Frahm, Jens; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures. The study included 33 right-handed participants who stutter and 34 right-handed control participants matched for sex, age, and education. Structural images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging to estimate volumetric characteristics of the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Volumetric comparisons and vertex-based shape comparisons revealed structural differences. The right nucleus accumbens was larger in participants who stutter compared to controls. Recent theories of basal ganglia functions suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a motivation-to-movement interface. A speaker intends to reach communicative goals, but stuttering can derail these efforts. It is therefore highly plausible to find alterations in the motivation-to-movement interface in stuttering. While behavioral studies of stuttering sought to find links between the limbic and sensorimotor system, we provide the first neuroimaging evidence of alterations in the limbic system. Thus, our findings might initialize a unified neurobiological framework of persistent developmental stuttering that integrates sensorimotor and social-motivational neuroanatomical circuitries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antiproton-nucleus experiments at LEAR and KAON

    Yavin, A.I.

    1989-12-01

    Antimatter and matter-antimatter systems are briefly discussed. Results of the antiproton-nucleus scattering experiments at LEAR are described, with the emphasis on unfinished experiments and on proposed experiments yet untouched. A few remarks on antiproton and antideuteron experiments at KAON are then presented

  11. On the mechanism of hadron cumulative production on nucleus

    Efremov, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    A mechanism of cumulative production of hadrons on nucleus is proposed which is similar to that of high perpendicular hadron production. The cross section obtained describes the main qualitative features of such prosesses, e.g., initial energy dependence atomic number behaviour, dependence on the rest mass of the produced particle and its production angle

  12. Sex hormone receptors are present in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the clock of the brain that orchestrates circadian and circannual biological rhythms, such as the rhythms of hormones, body temperature, sleep and mood. These rhythms are frequently disturbed in menopause and even more so in dementia and can be restored in

  13. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); C. Münkel (Christian); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown, although it is important for gene regulation and replication. For a long time the interphase nucleus has been viewed as a 'spaghetti soup' of DNA without much internal

  14. Culturing bovine nucleus pulposus explants by balancing medium osmolarity

    Dijk, van B.G.M.; Potier, E.; Ito, K.

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative therapies are promising treatments for early intervertebral disc degeneration. To test their efficacy, an in vitro tissue-level model would be valuable. Nucleus pulposus (NP) explant culture may constitute such a model, as the earliest signs of degeneration are in the NP. However, in NP

  15. First observation of the doubly magic nucleus 78Ni50

    Bernas, M.; Armbruster, P.; Engelmann, Ch.; Geissel, H.; Heinz, A.; Czajkowski, S.

    1995-01-01

    The doubly magic nucleus of 78 Ni has been identified for the first time and the associated production yield was measured in the projectile-fission reaction of 238 U on Pb and Be targets at relativistic energies. (K.A.)

  16. Deexcitation of superdeformed bands in the nucleus Tb-151

    Finck, C; Appelbe, D; Beck, FA; Byrski, T; Cullen, D; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Stezowski, O; Twin, P; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to get more informations about the decay-out of superdeformed bands. One of the best candidates in the mass A similar or equal to 150 region for that kind of research is the nucleus Tb-151. From previous works, it has been established that the first excited band goes lower in

  17. Nucleus-acoustic shock waves in white dwarfs

    S Jannat

    2018-03-09

    Mar 9, 2018 ... [17] of gravitational waves emitted by two merging black holes has opened up a new era of theoretical and observational research in astrophysics [17–19] which leads us to expect that in the near future a similar or dif- ferent kind of waves (like nucleus-acoustic (NA) waves. [20,21]) and associated nonlinear ...

  18. Neuronal plasticity in the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus during hibernation.

    Sanchez-Toscano, F; Caminero, A A; Machin, C; Abella, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify processes of plasticity in the receptive field of neurosecretory neurons of the supraoptic nucleus during hibernation in the hedgehog, in order to correlate them with the increased neurosecretory activity observed in this nucleus during this annual period. Using the Rapid Golgi method, a quantitative study was conducted in the receptive field of bipolar and multipolar neurons (the main components of the nucleus). Results indicate a generalized increase in the following characteristics: (1) number of dendritic spines per millimeter along the dendritic shafts; (2) degree of branching in the dendritic field; and (3) dendritic density around the neuronal soma. These data demonstrate modification of the dendritic field in the supraoptic nucleus during hibernation, a change undoubtedly related to functional conditions. Since the observed changes affect structures such as dendritic spines which are directly related to the arrival of neural afferences, the discussion is centered on the types of stimuli which may be responsible for the observed processes.

  19. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation reverses mediofrontal influence over decision threshold

    Cavanagh, J.F.; Wiecki, T.V.; Cohen, M.X.; Figueroa, C.M.; Samanta, J.; Sherman, S.J.; Frank, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    It takes effort and time to tame one's impulses. Although medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is broadly implicated in effortful control over behavior, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is specifically thought to contribute by acting as a brake on cortico-striatal function during decision conflict, buying

  20. Compound nucleus effects in spin-spin cross sections

    Thompson, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    By comparison with recent data, it is shown that spin-spin cross sections for low-energy neutrons may be dominated by a simple compound-elastic level-density effect, independent of spin-spin terms in the nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential. (Auth.)

  1. Inclusive jet production in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    Perepelitsa, Dennis

    High-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ processes in proton- and deuteron-nucleus collisions at TeV energies are the best presently available way to study the partonic structure of the nucleus in a high-density regime. Jet production over a wide range of phase space can significantly constrain the current knowledge of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), which are substantially less well understood than the corresponding PDFs in protons and which have only recently begun to be treated in a spatially-dependent way. An accurate knowledge of nPDFs is crucial for a definitive control of perturbative processes in a cold nuclear environment, since high-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ probes are used to quantitatively investigate the hot QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, jets from low Bjorken-$x$ partons can probe the transition from the dilute to saturated nuclear regimes. Jet production is investigated in $d$+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Hea...

  2. Parity non-conserving effects in neutron-nucleus scattering

    Desplanques, B.

    1990-01-01

    The present lecture reviews the motivations which led to study the contribution of the neutron-nucleus component to parity-non-conserving effects observed in medium-heavy nuclei and considers its present status. It is shown that it cannot account for those experimental data. The order interpretation of these effects, which cannot lead to precise statements, is schematically described

  3. Transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet

    Cabral, S.C.; Borges, A.M.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet, is studied. It is used a technique aiming to put in the detection area (region of low background) the recoils, produced by nuclear reactions between target and particle beams, those produced with the help of cyclotron CV-28. (E.G.) [pt

  4. S-wave π-nucleus repulsion and dirac phenomenology

    Chakravarti, S.; Jennings, B.K.

    1993-12-01

    A relativistic π-nucleon potential is extended to m* ≠ m to investigate the possibility of generating s-wave π-nucleus repulsion. We find that relativity does indeed generate significant repulsion, the exact amount depending on the details of the calculation. In contradistinction the tp approximation gives very little repulsion. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Strangeness production in proton–proton and proton–nucleus ...

    journal of. April 2006 physics pp. 765–780. Strangeness production in ... computing power necessary for the numerical treatment, lattice QCD has only ... tering reactions, it is necessary to use effective methods for the description of the ..... nucleus, it provides an appropriate tool to learn about the behaviour of the nuclear.

  6. Isospin symmetry violation, meson production and η-nucleus ...

    The experiment was perfomed at the cooler synchrotron accelerator. COSY, Jülich at several beam energies close to the corresponding production threshold. We also have ongoing programmes on -nucleus final-state interaction studies via + 6Li → 7Be + reactions, high resolution search for dibaryonic resonances ...

  7. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  8. Cochlear nucleus neuron analysis in individuals with presbycusis.

    Hinojosa, Raul; Nelson, Erik G

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cochlear nucleus neuron population in individuals with normal hearing and presbycusis. Retrospective study of archival human temporal bone and brain stem tissues. Using strict inclusion criteria, the temporal bones and cochlear nuclei from six normal hearing individuals and four individuals with presbycusis were selected for analysis. The spiral ganglion cell population, the cochlear nucleus neuron population, and the cell body size of the neurons were quantified in these cases. A relationship was not observed between age and the spiral ganglion cell population in the normal hearing group. Presbycusis subjects exhibited a reduced spiral ganglion cell population. The mean cochlear nucleus neuron population was observed to be significantly higher in the presbycusis group (mean ± standard deviation: 114,170 ± 10,570) compared to the normal hearing group (91,470 ± 9,510) (P = .019). This difference was predominantly the result of greater multipolar and granule cell neuron populations. Only the fusiform neuron type exhibited a significantly different mean cell body cross-sectional area between the normal hearing group (242 ± 27) and the presbycusis group (300 ± 37) (P = .033). This investigation is the first time, to our knowledge, that the populations of the eight neuron types in the cochlear nucleus have been quantified in both normal hearing individuals and individuals with presbycusis. The data support the concept that presbycusis is not an effect of aging alone but instead may be a condition that predisposes one to hearing loss with advancing age and is characterized by a congenitally elevated cochlear nucleus neuron population. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Quark-gluon plasmas and collective features of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasmas which may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. A space-time description of the central rapidity region is presented. It is shown that the hydrodynamical flow induces correlations between particle transverse momenta and multiplicities. One discusses to which extent these correlations could signal the occurrence of a phase transition in heavy ion collisions

  10. Divergent projections of catecholaminergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract to limbic forebrain and medullary autonomic brain regions.

    Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2006-10-30

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a critical structure involved in coordinating autonomic and visceral activities. Previous independent studies have demonstrated efferent projections from the NTS to the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in rat brain. To further characterize the neural circuitry originating from the NTS with postsynaptic targets in the amygdala and medullary autonomic targets, distinct green or red fluorescent latex microspheres were injected into the PGi and the CNA, respectively, of the same rat. Thirty-micron thick tissue sections through the lower brainstem and forebrain were collected. Every fourth section through the NTS region was processed for immunocytochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of catecholaminergic neurons. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the PGi or CNA were distributed throughout the rostro-caudal segments of the NTS. However, the majority of neurons containing both retrograde tracers were distributed within the caudal third of the NTS. Cell counts revealed that approximately 27% of neurons projecting to the CNA in the NTS sent collateralized projections to the PGi while approximately 16% of neurons projecting to the PGi sent collateralized projections to the CNA. Interestingly, more than half of the PGi and CNA-projecting neurons in the NTS expressed TH immunoreactivity. These data indicate that catecholaminergic neurons in the NTS are poised to simultaneously coordinate activities in limbic and medullary autonomic brain regions.

  11. Antiproton-nucleus inelastic scattering and the spin-isospin dependence of the N anti N interaction

    Dover, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT=0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments at LEAR, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 34 refs

  12. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in executive functions with increased cognitive load: a subthalamic nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex depth recording study

    Rusnáková-Aulická, Š.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, P.; Halámek, Josef; Baláž, M.; Bočková, M.; Chrastina, J.; Rektor, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 10 (2014), s. 1287-1296 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ERD/S * Anterior cingulate cortex * Subthalamic nucleus * Flanker test * Executive functions Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2014

  13. Centrality Dependence of Hadron Multiplicities in Nuclear Collisions in the Dual Parton Model

    Capella, A

    2001-01-01

    We show that, even in purely soft processes, the hadronic multiplicity in nucleus-nucleus interactions contains a term that scales with the number of binary collisions. In the absence of shadowing corrections, this term dominates at mid rapidities and high energies. Shadowing corrections are calculated as a function of impact parameter and the centrality dependence of mid-rapidity multiplicities is determined. The multiplicity per participant increases with centrality with a rate that increases between SPS and RHIC energies, in agreement with experiment.

  14. Projections from the raphe nuclei to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)......Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)...

  15. Development of injectable hydrogels for nucleus pulposus replacement

    Thomas, Jonathan D.

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been reported as the underlying cause for 75% of cases of lower back pain and is marked by dehydration of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc. There have been many implant designs to replace the nucleus pulposus. Some researchers have proposed the replacement of the nucleus pulposus with hydrogel materials. The insertion of devices made from these materials further compromises the annulus of the disc. An ideal nucleus replacement could be injected into the disc space and form a solid in vivo. However, injectable replacements using curing elastomers and thermoplastic materials are not ideal because of the potentially harmful exothermic heat evolved from their reactions and the toxicity of the reactants used. We propose a hydrogel system that can be injected as a liquid at 25°C and solidified to yield a hydrogel within the intervertebral disc at 37°C. In aqueous solutions, these polymers have Lower Critical Solution Temperatures (LCST) between 25-37°C, making them unique candidate materials for this application. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) is the most widely studied LCST polymer due to its drastic transition near body temperature. However, by itself, pure PNIPAAm forms a hydrogel that has low water content and can readily undergo plastic deformation. To increase the water content and impart elasticity to PNIPAAm hydrogels, grafted and branched hydrogel systems were created that incorporated the thermogelling PNIPAAm and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). In this research, the effects of polymer composition and monomer to initiator ratio, which controls polymer MW, on the in vitro swelling properties (mass, chemical, and compressive mechanical stability) of hydrogels formed from aqueous solutions of these polymers were evaluated. Immersion studies were also conducted in solutions to simulate the osmotic environment of the nucleus pulposus. The effects of repeated compression and unloading cycles

  16. DMPD: TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 10611754 TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Roberts AB. Microbes Inf...ect. 1999 Dec;1(15):1265-73. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus.... PubmedID 10611754 Title TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Authors Roberts AB. Publicat

  17. A parton description of the nucleus fragmentation region in heavy-ion collisions

    Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1984-01-01

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the rapidity distribution of partons in the nucleus fragmentation region is highly asymmetrical. Thermalization that randomizes the momenta of partons far apart in rapidity cannot be expected. A local thermalization model is introduced which relates temperature to the range of parton interaction in rapidity. The parton number density and energy density are then calculated. (orig.)

  18. What can an antiproton and a nucleus learn from each other

    Garreta, D.

    1982-05-01

    Simple features which make a low-energy antiproton an interesting probe of the nucleus, and a nucleus an interesting target for an antiproton are presented. Then antiproton-nucleus inelastic and elastic scattering, proton knock-out reactions on nuclei, annihilation of the antiproton in nuclei are reviewed. The aims of the experiment PS184 at LEAR are given

  19. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease) : severe destruction of the lateral reticular nucleus

    Rub, U; de Vos, RAI; Schultz, C; Brunt, ER; Paulson, H; Braak, H

    The lateral reticular nucleus (LRT) of the medulla oblongata is a precerebellar nucleus involved in proprioception and somatomotor automatisms. We investigated this nucleus in five individuals with clinically diagnosed and genetically confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, Machado-Joseph

  20. Preservation of the nucleus X-pelvic floor motosystem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E

    1984-01-01

    to the neuropathological findings, and the observations are compared with previous neuropathological studies concerning Onuf's nucleus X as well with experimental studies including this nucleus. It is pointed out that structural and biochemical differences must exist between nucleus X neurons and other motoneurons....