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Sample records for central nociceptive processing

  1. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C.G.; Stancak, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation under...

  2. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain.

  3. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. PMID:25475348

  4. Roles of phosphotase 2A in nociceptive signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multiple protein kinases affect the responses of dorsal horn neurons through phosphorylation of synaptic receptors and proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the consequences of this modulation may be spinal central sensitization. In contrast, the phosphatases catalyze an opposing reaction of de-phosphorylation, which may also modulate the functions of crucial proteins in signaling nociception. This is an important mechanism in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways in nociceptive neurons. Accumulated evidence has shown that phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a serine/threonine specific phosphatase, is implicated in synaptic plasticity of the central nervous system and central sensitization of nociception. Therefore, targeting protein phosphotase 2A may provide an effective and novel strategy for the treatment of clinical pain. This review will characterize the structure and functional regulation of neuronal PP2A and bring together recent advances on the modulation of PP2A in targeted downstream substrates and relevant multiple nociceptive signaling molecules. PMID:24010880

  5. Responsiveness of electrical nociceptive detection thresholds to capsaicin (8 %)‑induced changes in nociceptive processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doll, Robert J.; Amerongen, van Guido; Hay, Justin L.; Groeneveld, Geert J.; Veltink, Peter H.; Buitenweg, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    Pain disorders can be initiated and maintained by malfunctioning of one or several mechanisms underlying the nociceptive function. Psychophysical procedures allow the estimation of nociceptive detection thresholds using intra-epidermal electrical stimuli. By varying the temporal properties of electr

  6. Impact of behavioral control on the processing of nociceptive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Grau

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How nociceptive signals are processed within the spinal cord, and whether these signals lead to behavioral signs of neuropathic pain, depends upon their relation to other events and behavior. Our work shows that these relations can have a lasting effect on spinal plasticity, inducing a form of learning that alters the effect of subsequent nociceptive stimuli. The capacity of lower spinal systems to adapt, in the absence of brain input, is examined in spinally transected rats that receive a nociceptive shock to the tibialis anterior muscle of one hind leg. If shock is delivered whenever the leg is extended (controllable stimulation, it induces an increase in flexion duration that minimizes net shock exposure. This learning is not observed in subjects that receive the same amount of shock independent of leg position (uncontrollable stimulation. These two forms of stimulation have a lasting, and divergent, effect on subsequent learning: Controllable stimulation enables learning whereas uncontrollable stimulation disables it (learning deficit. Uncontrollable stimulation also enhances mechanical reactivity (allodynia. We review evidence that training with controllable stimulation engages a BDNF-dependent process that can both prevent and reverse the consequences of uncontrollable shock. We relate these effects to changes in BDNF protein and TrkB signaling. Controllable stimulation is also shown to counter the effects of peripheral inflammation (from intradermal capsaicin. A model is proposed that assumes nociceptive input is gated at an early stage, within the dorsal horn. his gate is sensitive to current environmental relations (between proprioceptive and nociceptive input, allowing stimulation to be classified as controllable or uncontrollable. We further propose that the status of this gate is affected by past experience and that a history of uncontrollable stimulation will promote the development of neuropathic pain.

  7. Brain potentials evoked by intraepidermal electrical stimuli reflect the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, M.; Lee, M. C.; O'Neill, J.; Dickenson, A.H.; Iannetti, G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitization (CS), the increased sensitivity of the central nervous system to somatosensory inputs, accounts for secondary hyperalgesia, a typical sign of several painful clinical conditions. Brain potentials elicited by mechanical punctate stimulation using flat-tip probes can provide neural correlates of CS, but their signal-to-noise ratio is limited by poor synchronisation of the afferent nociceptive input. Additionally, mechanical punctate stimulation does not activate nociceptor...

  8. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  9. What's Coming Near? The Influence of Dynamical Visual Stimuli on Nociceptive Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Annick L; Crombez, Geert; Legrain, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Objects approaching us may pose a threat, and signal the need to initiate defensive behavior. Detecting these objects early is crucial to either avoid the object or prepare for contact most efficiently. This requires the construction of a coherent representation of our body, and the space closely surrounding our body, i.e. the peripersonal space. This study, with 27 healthy volunteers, investigated how the processing of nociceptive stimuli applied to the hand is influenced by dynamical visual stimuli either approaching or receding from the hand. On each trial a visual stimulus was either approaching or receding the participant's left or right hand. At different temporal delays from the onset of the visual stimulus, a nociceptive stimulus was applied either at the same or the opposite hand, so that it was presented when the visual stimulus was perceived at varying distances from the hand. Participants were asked to respond as fast as possible at which side they perceived a nociceptive stimulus. We found that reaction times were fastest when the visual stimulus appeared near the stimulated hand. Moreover, investigating the influence of the visual stimuli along the continuous spatial range (from near to far) showed that approaching lights had a stronger spatially dependent effect on nociceptive processing, compared to receding lights. These results suggest that the coding of nociceptive information in a peripersonal frame of reference may constitute a safety margin around the body that is designed to protect it from potential physical threat. PMID:27224421

  10. Central nociceptive sensitization vs. spinal cord training: opposing forms of plasticity that dictate function after complete spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The spinal cord demonstrates several forms of plasticity that resemble brain-dependent learning and memory. Among the most studied form of spinal plasticity is spinal memory for noxious (nociceptive) stimulation. Numerous papers have described central pain as a spinally-stored memory that enhances future responses to cutaneous stimulation. This phenomenon, known as central sensitization, has broad relevance to a range of pathological conditions. Work from the spinal cord injury (SCI) field in...

  11. Central and peripheral actions of the NSAID ketoprofen on spinal cord nociceptive reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J F; Parrado, A; Cervero, F

    1997-10-01

    Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) which provides effective analgesia in situations of pain provoked by tissue inflammation. However, the location of its analgesic effects, (peripheral tissues versus central nervous system), have not been clearly identified and separated. In the present study the effectiveness of ketoprofen was examined in two different types of experiments: (i) Open field behavioural tests in conscious rats, and (ii) spinal cord nociceptive reflexes (single motor units) activated by electrical and thermal stimulation in chloralose anaesthetised rats. The experiments were performed in rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation of one hindpaw, or of one knee joint. The administration of ketoprofen significantly inhibited the reduction of exploratory movements caused by inflammation in open field experiments. Ketoprofen was also effective in depressing reflex activity evoked by electrical and noxious thermal stimulation of the skin, either in inflamed tissue or in normal tissue of monoarthritic animals. It was also effective in the reduction of reflex wind-up; a phenomenon in which the activity of spinal cord neurones increases progressively with high frequency electrical stimulation. We therefore conclude that ketoprofen has central as well as peripheral analgesic activity.

  12. Neurogenic nitric oxide facilitates the central nociceptive transmission of migraine attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hebo Wang; Huijun Qi; Shengyuan Yu; Sumian Yang; Ruozhuo Liu

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) can induce migraine attacks at three possible sites of action: nitroxidergic nerves, the vascular endothelium, and the central nervous system. Most previous studies have focused on the former two sites of action. Several experiments using exogenic NO donors have suggested that nitroglycerin may induce migraine via central mechanisms. However, few studies have investigated the source of the NO involved in the central mechanisms of migraine. The present study used a cat model of migraine to represent migraine attacks in humans. We performed immunochemical staining of successive frozen sections of the brainstem and upper cervical spinal cord, and then used c-Fos protein expression to label nerve cell activation. We observed the effects of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and 7-nitroindozole (7-NI), a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, on c-Fos and nNOS expression, which were induced by electrical stimulation to the dura mater near the superior sagittal sinus. The results demonstrated that c-Fos or nNOS immunoreactive cells was concentrated in the superficial layers (laminae I and II) of the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. L-NAME and 7-NI pre-treatment significantly decreased c-Fos and neurogenic NOS expression; and there was a significant linear correlation between c-Fos and NOS expression (r= 0.858 2, P< 0.01). These findings suggest that neurogenic NO could facilitate migraine nociceptive transmission to second-order neurons of the trigeminal nerve. However, L-NAME and 7-NI may block the activation of neurons in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve by inhibiting NO synthesis, and thereby attenuate acute migraine attacks.

  13. Electroacupuncture in conscious free-moving mice reduces pain by ameliorating peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Mihir; Peng, Fei; Lam, Sarah; Jha, Ritu; Raduenz, Ellis; Beitz, Al J.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Integrative approaches such as electroacupuncture, devoid of drug effects are gaining prominence for treating pain. Understanding the mechanisms of electroacupuncture induced analgesia would benefit chronic pain conditions such as sickle cell disease (SCD), for which patients may require opioid analgesics throughout life. Mouse models are instructive in developing a mechanistic understanding of pain, but the anesthesia/restraint required to administer electroacupuncture may alter the underlying mechanisms. To overcome these limitations, we developed a method to perform electroacupuncture in conscious, freely moving, unrestrained mice. Using this technique we demonstrate a significant analgesic effect in transgenic mouse models of SCD and cancer as well as complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced pain. We demonstrate a comprehensive antinociceptive effect on mechanical, cold and deep tissue hyperalagesia in both genders. Interestingly, individual mice showed a variable response to electroacupuncture, categorized into high-, moderate-, and non-responders. Mechanistically, electroacupuncture significantly ameliorated inflammatory and nociceptive mediators both peripherally and centrally in sickle mice correlative to the antinociceptive response. Application of sub-optimal doses of morphine in electroacupuncture-treated moderate-responders produced equivalent antinociception as obtained in high-responders. Electroacupuncture in conscious freely moving mice offers an effective approach to develop a mechanism-based understanding of analgesia devoid of the influence of anesthetics or restraints. PMID:27687125

  14. Thermal Nociceptive Threshold Testing Detects Altered Sensory Processing in Broiler Chickens with Spontaneous Lameness

    OpenAIRE

    Becky Hothersall; Gina Caplen; Parker, Richard M. A.; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Claire A Weeks; Joanna C Murrell

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT...

  15. The Discriminative validity of "nociceptive," "peripheral neuropathic," and "central sensitization" as mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smart, Keith M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Empirical evidence of discriminative validity is required to justify the use of mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminative validity of mechanisms-based classifications of pain by identifying discriminatory clusters of clinical criteria predictive of "nociceptive," "peripheral neuropathic," and "central sensitization" pain in patients with low back (+\\/- leg) pain disorders. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, between-patients design using the extreme-groups method. Four hundred sixty-four patients with low back (+\\/- leg) pain were assessed using a standardized assessment protocol. After each assessment, patients\\' pain was assigned a mechanisms-based classification. Clinicians then completed a clinical criteria checklist indicating the presence\\/absence of various clinical criteria. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses using binary logistic regression with Bayesian model averaging identified a discriminative cluster of 7, 3, and 4 symptoms and signs predictive of a dominance of "nociceptive," "peripheral neuropathic," and "central sensitization" pain, respectively. Each cluster was found to have high levels of classification accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive\\/negative predictive values, positive\\/negative likelihood ratios). DISCUSSION: By identifying a discriminatory cluster of symptoms and signs predictive of "nociceptive," "peripheral neuropathic," and "central" pain, this study provides some preliminary discriminative validity evidence for mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain. Classification system validation requires the accumulation of validity evidence before their use in clinical practice can be recommended. Further studies are required to evaluate the construct and criterion validity of mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain.

  16. Central nociceptive sensitization vs. spinal cord training: Opposing forms of plasticity that dictate function after complete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord demonstrates several forms of plasticity that resemble brain-dependent learning and memory. Among the most studied form of spinal plasticity is spinal memory for noxious (nociceptive stimulation. Numerous papers have described central pain as a spinally-stored memory that enhances future responses to cutaneous stimulation. This phenomenon, known as central sensitization, has broad relevance to a range of pathological conditions. Work from the spinal cord injury (SCI field indicates that the lumbar spinal cord demonstrates several other forms of plasticity, including formal learning and memory. After complete thoracic SCI, the lumbar spinal cord can be trained by delivering stimulation to the hindleg when the leg is extended. In the presence of this response-contingent stimulation the spinal cord rapidly learns to hold the leg in a flexed position, a centrally mediated effect that meets the formal criteria for instrumental (response-outcome learning. Instrumental flexion training produces a central change in spinal plasticity that enables future spinal learning on both the ipsilateral and contralateral leg. However, if stimulation is given in a response-independent manner, the spinal cord develops central maladaptive plasticity that undermines future spinal learning on both legs. The present paper tests for interactions between spinal cord training and central nociceptive sensitization after complete spinal cord transection. We found that spinal training alters future central sensitization by intradermal formalin (24 h post-training. Conversely intradermal formalin impaired future spinal learning (24 h post-injection. Because the NMDA receptor has been implicated in formalin-induced central sensitization, we tested whether pretreatment with NMDA affects spinal learning. We found intrathecal NMDA impaired learning in a dose-dependent fashion, and that this effect endures for at least 24h. These data provide strong evidence for an

  17. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  18. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  19. Role of NHE1 in Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Elías Torres-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular pH is a fundamental parameter to cell function that requires tight homeostasis. In the absence of any regulation, excessive acidification of the cytosol would have the tendency to produce cellular damage. Mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs are electroneutral Na+-dependent proteins that exchange extracellular Na+ for intracellular H+. To date, there are 9 identified NHE isoforms where NHE1 is the most ubiquitous member, known as the housekeeping exchanger. NHE1 seems to have a protective role in the ischemia-reperfusion injury and other inflammatory diseases. In nociception, NHE1 is found in neurons along nociceptive pathways, and its pharmacological inhibition increases nociceptive behavior in acute pain models at peripheral and central levels. Electrophysiological studies also show that NHE modulates electrical activity of primary nociceptive terminals. However, its role in neuropathic pain still remains controversial. In humans, NHE1 may be responsible for inflammatory bowel diseases since its expression is reduced in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The purpose of this work is to provide a review of the evidence about participation of NHE1 in the nociceptive processing.

  20. Democratic organization of the thalamocortical neural ensembles in nociceptive signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Fei; WANG Jin-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Acute pain is a warning protective sensation for any impending harm. However, chronic pain syndromes are often resistant diseases that may consume large amount of health care costs. It has been suggested by recent studies that pain perception may be formed in central neural networks via large-scale coding processes, which involves sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Many central areas are involved in these processes, including structures from the spinal cord, the brain stem, the limbic system, to the cortices. Thus, chronic painful diseases may be the result of some abnormal coding within this network. A thorough investigation of coding mechanism of pain within the central neuromatrix will bring us great insight into the mechanisms responsible for the development of chronic pain, hence leading to novel therapeutic interventions for pain management.

  1. Chronic Psychological Stress Enhances Nociceptive Processing in the Urinary Bladder in High-Anxiety Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, M.T.; DeBerry, J.; Ness, T. J

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether acute and/or chronic psychological stress produce changes in urinary bladder nociception. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD; low/moderate anxiety) or Wistar-Kyoto (WK; high-anxiety) rats were exposed to either an acute (1 day) or a chronic (10 days) water avoidance stress paradigm or a sham stress paradigm. Paw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli and fecal pellet output, were quantified at baseline and after the final stress or sham stress ex...

  2. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  3. Alfaxalone Anaesthesia Facilitates Electrophysiological Recordings of Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflexes in Dogs (Canis familiaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hunt

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis represents a welfare issue for affected dogs (Canis familiaris, but is also considered very similar to human osteoarthritis and has therefore been proposed as a model of disease in humans. Central sensitisation is recognized in human osteoarthritis sufferers but identification in dogs is challenging. Electromyographic measurement of responses to nociceptive stimulation represents a potential means of investigating alterations in central nociceptive processing, and has been evaluated in conscious experimental dogs, but is likely to be aversive. Development of a suitable anaesthetic protocol in experimental dogs, which facilitated electrophysiological nociceptive withdrawal reflex assessment, may increase the acceptability of using the technique in owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Seven purpose bred male hound dogs underwent electromyographic recording sessions in each of three states: acepromazine sedation, alfaxalone sedation, and alfaxalone anaesthesia. Electromyographic responses to escalating mechanical and electrical, and repeated electrical, stimuli were recorded. Subsequently the integral of both early and late rectified responses was calculated. Natural logarithms of the integral values were analysed within and between the three states using multi level modeling. Alfaxalone increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased the magnitude of recorded responses, but characteristics of increasing responses with increasing stimulus magnitude were preserved. Behavioural signs of anxiety were noted in two out of seven dogs during recordings in the acepromazine sedated state. There were few significant differences in response magnitude or nociceptive threshold between the two alfaxalone states. Following acepromazine premedication, induction of anaesthesia with 1-2 mg kg-1 alfaxalone, followed by a continuous rate infusion in the range 0.075-0.1 mg kg-1 min-1 produced suitable conditions

  4. Alfaxalone Anaesthesia Facilitates Electrophysiological Recordings of Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflexes in Dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Murrell, Jo; Knazovicky, David; Harris, John; Kelly, Sara; Knowles, Toby G; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis represents a welfare issue for affected dogs (Canis familiaris), but is also considered very similar to human osteoarthritis and has therefore been proposed as a model of disease in humans. Central sensitisation is recognized in human osteoarthritis sufferers but identification in dogs is challenging. Electromyographic measurement of responses to nociceptive stimulation represents a potential means of investigating alterations in central nociceptive processing, and has been evaluated in conscious experimental dogs, but is likely to be aversive. Development of a suitable anaesthetic protocol in experimental dogs, which facilitated electrophysiological nociceptive withdrawal reflex assessment, may increase the acceptability of using the technique in owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Seven purpose bred male hound dogs underwent electromyographic recording sessions in each of three states: acepromazine sedation, alfaxalone sedation, and alfaxalone anaesthesia. Electromyographic responses to escalating mechanical and electrical, and repeated electrical, stimuli were recorded. Subsequently the integral of both early and late rectified responses was calculated. Natural logarithms of the integral values were analysed within and between the three states using multi level modeling. Alfaxalone increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased the magnitude of recorded responses, but characteristics of increasing responses with increasing stimulus magnitude were preserved. Behavioural signs of anxiety were noted in two out of seven dogs during recordings in the acepromazine sedated state. There were few significant differences in response magnitude or nociceptive threshold between the two alfaxalone states. Following acepromazine premedication, induction of anaesthesia with 1-2 mg kg-1 alfaxalone, followed by a continuous rate infusion in the range 0.075-0.1 mg kg-1 min-1 produced suitable conditions to enable assessment

  5. Alfaxalone Anaesthesia Facilitates Electrophysiological Recordings of Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflexes in Dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Murrell, Jo; Knazovicky, David; Harris, John; Kelly, Sara; Knowles, Toby G; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis represents a welfare issue for affected dogs (Canis familiaris), but is also considered very similar to human osteoarthritis and has therefore been proposed as a model of disease in humans. Central sensitisation is recognized in human osteoarthritis sufferers but identification in dogs is challenging. Electromyographic measurement of responses to nociceptive stimulation represents a potential means of investigating alterations in central nociceptive processing, and has been evaluated in conscious experimental dogs, but is likely to be aversive. Development of a suitable anaesthetic protocol in experimental dogs, which facilitated electrophysiological nociceptive withdrawal reflex assessment, may increase the acceptability of using the technique in owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Seven purpose bred male hound dogs underwent electromyographic recording sessions in each of three states: acepromazine sedation, alfaxalone sedation, and alfaxalone anaesthesia. Electromyographic responses to escalating mechanical and electrical, and repeated electrical, stimuli were recorded. Subsequently the integral of both early and late rectified responses was calculated. Natural logarithms of the integral values were analysed within and between the three states using multi level modeling. Alfaxalone increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased the magnitude of recorded responses, but characteristics of increasing responses with increasing stimulus magnitude were preserved. Behavioural signs of anxiety were noted in two out of seven dogs during recordings in the acepromazine sedated state. There were few significant differences in response magnitude or nociceptive threshold between the two alfaxalone states. Following acepromazine premedication, induction of anaesthesia with 1-2 mg kg-1 alfaxalone, followed by a continuous rate infusion in the range 0.075-0.1 mg kg-1 min-1 produced suitable conditions to enable assessment

  6. Endocannabinoid regulation of spinal nociceptive processing in a model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Jhaveri, Maulik D; Richardson, Denise; Gray, Roy A; de Lago, Eva; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Barrett, David A; Kendall, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2010-04-01

    Models of neuropathic pain are associated with elevated spinal levels of endocannabinoids (ECs) and altered expression of cannabinoid receptors on primary sensory afferents and post-synaptic cells in the spinal cord. We investigated the impact of these changes on the spinal processing of sensory inputs in a model of neuropathic pain. Extracellular single-unit recordings of spinal neurones were made in anaesthetized neuropathic and sham-operated rats. The effects of spinal administration of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) and the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB(2)) receptor antagonist N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicycloheptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528) on mechanically-evoked responses of spinal neurones were determined. The effects of spinal administration of (5Z,8Z11Z,14Z)-N-(3-furanylmethyl)-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenamide (UCM707), which binds to CB(2) receptors and alters transport of ECs, on evoked responses of spinal neurones and spinal levels of ECs were also determined. The cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251, but not the CB(2) receptor antagonist, significantly facilitated 10-g-evoked responses of spinal neurones in neuropathic, but not sham-operated, rats. Spinal administration of UCM707 did not alter spinal levels of ECs but did significantly inhibit mechanically-evoked responses of neurones in neuropathic, but not sham-operated, rats. Pharmacological studies indicated that the selective inhibitory effects of spinal UCM707 in neuropathic rats were mediated by activation of spinal CB(2) receptors, as well as a contribution from transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels. This work demonstrates that changes in the EC receptor system in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats influence the processing of sensory inputs, in particular low-weight inputs that drive allodynia

  7. Steady-state evoked potentials to study the processing of tactile and nociceptive somatosensory input in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, E; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A

    2012-10-01

    The periodic presentation of a sensory stimulus induces, at certain frequencies of stimulation, a sustained electroencephalographic response of corresponding frequency, known as steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EP). In visual, auditory and vibrotactile modalities, studies have shown that SS-EP reflect mainly activity originating from early, modality-specific sensory cortices. Furthermore, it has been shown that SS-EP have several advantages over the recording of transient event-related brain potentials (ERP), such as a high signal-to-noise ratio, a shorter time to obtain reliable signals, and the capacity to frequency-tag the cortical activity elicited by concurrently presented sensory stimuli. Recently, we showed that SS-EP can be elicited by the selective activation of skin nociceptors and that nociceptive SS-EP reflect the activity of a population of neurons that is spatially distinct from the somatotopically-organized population of neurons underlying vibrotactile SS-EP. Hence, the recording of SS-EP offers a unique opportunity to study the cortical representation of nociception and touch in humans, and to explore their potential crossmodal interactions. Here, (1) we review available methods to achieve the rapid periodic stimulation of somatosensory afferents required to elicit SS-EP, (2) review previous studies that have characterized vibrotactile and nociceptive SS-EP, (3) discuss the nature of the recorded signals and their relationship with transient event-related potentials and (4) outline future perspectives and potential clinical applications of this technique.

  8. The Specification and Maturation of Nociceptive Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Erin M. Boisvert; Engle, Sandra J; Shawn E. Hallowell; Ping Liu; Zhao-Wen Wang; Xue-Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptive neurons play an essential role in pain sensation by transmitting painful stimuli to the central nervous system. However, investigations of nociceptive neuron biology have been hampered by the lack of accessibility of human nociceptive neurons. Here, we describe a system for efficiently guiding human embryonic stem cells into nociceptive neurons by first inducing these cells to the neural lineage. Subsequent addition of retinoic acid and BMP4 at specific time points and concentrati...

  9. BOLD fMRI of C-Fiber Mediated Nociceptive Processing in Mouse Brain in Response to Thermal Stimulation of the Forepaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C Bosshard

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in rodents enables non-invasive studies of brain function in response to peripheral input or at rest. In this study we describe a thermal stimulation paradigm using infrared laser diodes to apply noxious heat to the forepaw of mice in order to study nociceptive processing. Stimulation at 45 and 46°C led to robust BOLD signal changes in various brain structures including the somatosensory cortices and the thalamus. The BOLD signal amplitude scaled with the temperature applied but not with the area irradiated by the laser beam. To demonstrate the specificity of the paradigm for assessing nociceptive signaling we administered the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 to the forepaws, which due to its positive charge cannot readily cross biological membranes. However, upon activation of TRPV1 channels following the administration of capsaicin the BOLD signal was largely abolished, indicative of a selective block of the C-fiber nociceptors due to QX-314 having entered the cells via the now open TRPV1 channels. This demonstrates that the cerebral BOLD response to thermal noxious paw stimulation is specifically mediated by C-fibers.

  10. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn Clementina M; van Heck Casper H; van den Broeke Emanuel N; Wilder-Smith Oliver HG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate HFS-induced central plasticity of sensory processing at the level of the brain using the electroencephalogram (EEG). To this end we measured evoked potentials in response to ...

  11. Top-Down Effect of Direct Current Stimulation on the Nociceptive Response of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Luiz Fabio; Franciosi, Adriano Cardozo; Campos, Ana Carolina Pinheiro; Brunoni, André Russowsky

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging, noninvasive technique of neurostimulation for treating pain. However, the mechanisms and pathways involved in its analgesic effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of direct current stimulation (DCS) on thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds and on the activation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DHSC) in rats; these central nervous system areas are associated with pain processing. Male Wistar rats underwent cathodal DCS of the motor cortex and, while still under stimulation, were evaluated using tail-flick and paw pressure nociceptive tests. Sham stimulation and naive rats were used as controls. We used a randomized design; the assays were not blinded to the experimenter. Immunoreactivity of the early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1), which is a marker of neuronal activation, was evaluated in the PAG and DHSC, and enkephalin immunoreactivity was evaluated in the DHSC. DCS did not change the thermal nociceptive threshold; however, it increased the mechanical nociceptive threshold of both hind paws compared with that of controls, characterizing a topographical effect. DCS decreased the Egr-1 labeling in the PAG and DHSC as well as the immunoreactivity of spinal enkephalin. Altogether, the data suggest that DCS disinhibits the midbrain descending analgesic pathway, consequently inhibiting spinal nociceptive neurons and causing an increase in the nociceptive threshold. This study reinforces the idea that the motor cortex participates in the neurocircuitry that is involved in analgesia and further clarifies the mechanisms of action of tDCS in pain treatment. PMID:27071073

  12. Capsaicin, Nociception and Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Frias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the hot chili pepper, is known to act on the transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1. TRPV1 is involved in somatic and visceral peripheral inflammation, in the modulation of nociceptive inputs to spinal cord and brain stem centers, as well as the integration of diverse painful stimuli. In this review, we first describe the chemical and pharmacological properties of capsaicin and its derivatives in relation to their analgesic properties. We then consider the biochemical and functional characteristics of TRPV1, focusing on its distribution and biological effects within the somatosensory and viscerosensory nociceptive systems. Finally, we discuss the use of capsaicin as an agonist of TRPV1 to model acute inflammation in slices and other ex vivo preparations.

  13. Capsaicin, Nociception and Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Bárbara; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the hot chili pepper, is known to act on the transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is involved in somatic and visceral peripheral inflammation, in the modulation of nociceptive inputs to spinal cord and brain stem centers, as well as the integration of diverse painful stimuli. In this review, we first describe the chemical and pharmacological properties of capsaicin and its derivatives in relation to their analgesic properties. We then consider the biochemical and functional characteristics of TRPV1, focusing on its distribution and biological effects within the somatosensory and viscerosensory nociceptive systems. Finally, we discuss the use of capsaicin as an agonist of TRPV1 to model acute inflammation in slices and other ex vivo preparations. PMID:27322240

  14. Interactions between dyspnea and the brain processing of nociceptive stimuli:experimental air hunger attenuates laser-evoked brain potentials in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eDANGERS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea and pain share several characteristics and certain neural networks and interact with each other. Dyspnea-pain counter-irritation consists of attenuation of preexisting pain by intercurrent dyspnea and has been shown to have neurophysiological correlates in the form of inhibition of the nociceptive spinal reflex RIII and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs. Experimentally induced exertional dyspnea inhibits RIII and LEPs, while air hunger dyspnea does not inhibit RIII despite its documented analgesic effects. We hypothesized that air hunger may act centrally and inhibit LEPs. LEPs were obtained in 12 healthy volunteers (age: 21-29 during spontaneous breathing (FB, ventilator-controlled breathing (VC tailored to FB, after inducing air hunger by increasing the inspired fraction of carbon dioxide -FiCO2- (VCCO2, and during ventilator-controlled breathing recovery (VCR. VCCO2 induced intense dyspnea (visual analogue scale = 63% ± 6% of full scale, p<0.001 vs. VC, predominantly of the air hunger type. VC alone reduced the amplitude of the N2-P2 component of LEPs (∆ = 24.0% ± 21.1%, p<0.05, effect-size = 0.74 predominantly through a reduction in P2, and the amplitude of this inhibition was further reduced by inducting air hunger (∆ = 22.6% ± 17.9%, p<0.05, effect-size = 0.53, predominantly through a reduction in N2. Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs were not affected by VC or VCCO2, suggesting that the observed effects are specific to pain transmission. We conclude that air hunger interferes with the cortical mechanisms responsible for the cortical response to painful laser skin stimulation, which provides a neurophysiological substrate to the central nature of its otherwise documented analgesic effects.

  15. Controlling attention to nociceptive stimuli with working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéry Legrain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because pain often signals the occurrence of potential tissue damage, a nociceptive stimulus has the capacity to involuntarily capture attention and take priority over other sensory inputs. Whether distraction by nociception actually occurs may depend upon the cognitive characteristics of the ongoing activities. The present study tested the role of working memory in controlling the attentional capture by nociception. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants performed visual discrimination and matching tasks in which visual targets were shortly preceded by a tactile distracter. The two tasks were chosen because of the different effects the involvement of working memory produces on performance, in order to dissociate the specific role of working memory in the control of attention from the effect of general resource demands. Occasionally (i.e. 17% of the trials, tactile distracters were replaced by a novel nociceptive stimulus in order to distract participants from the visual tasks. Indeed, in the control conditions (no working memory, reaction times to visual targets were increased when the target was preceded by a novel nociceptive distracter as compared to the target preceded by a frequent tactile distracter, suggesting attentional capture by the novel nociceptive stimulus. However, when the task required an active rehearsal of the visual target in working memory, the novel nociceptive stimulus no longer induced a lengthening of reaction times to visual targets, indicating a reduction of the distraction produced by the novel nociceptive stimulus. This effect was independent of the overall task demands. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Loading working memory with pain-unrelated information may reduce the ability of nociceptive input to involuntarily capture attention, and shields cognitive processing from nociceptive distraction. An efficient control of attention over pain is best guaranteed by the ability to maintain active goal

  16. Mechanisms of G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Spinal Nociception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliu, Elena; Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.;

    2012-01-01

    Human and animal studies suggest that estrogens are involved in the processing of nociceptive sensory information and analgesic responses in the central nervous system. Rapid pronociceptive estrogenic effects have been reported, some of which likely involve G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER...... in spinal nociceptive processing. Intrathecal challenging of mice with the GPER agonist G-1 results in pain-related behaviors. GPER antagonism with G15 reduces the G-1-induced response. Electrophysiological recordings from superficial dorsal horn neurons indicate neuronal membrane depolarization with G-1...... application, which is G15 sensitive. In cultured spinal sensory neurons, G-1 increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS accumulation. In the presence of G15, G-1 does not elicit the calcium and ROS responses, confirming specific GPER involvement in this process...

  17. Central pain processing in chronic tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Kim; Ellrich, Jens; Jensen, Rigmor;

    2009-01-01

    ) reflects neuronal excitability due to nociceptive input in the brainstem. The aim of this study was to investigate nociceptive processing at the level of the brainstem in an experimental pain model of CTTH symptoms. METHODS: The effect of conditioning pain, 5 min infusion of hypertonic saline into the neck......: A combined homotopic and heterotopic effect of the conditioning pain onto the blink reflex could account for this finding....... muscles, was investigated in 20 patients with CTTH and 20 healthy controls. In addition, a pilot study with isotonic saline was performed with 5 subjects in each group. The BR was elicited by electrical stimuli with an intensity of four times the pain threshold, with a superficial concentric electrode. We...

  18. Fos, nociception and the dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggeshall, Richard E

    2005-12-01

    The protooncogene c-fos is rapidly activated after noxious stimuli to express the protein Fos in spinal dorsal horn neurons that are in the 'correct' locations for nociceptive information transfer. As such, therefore, mapping Fos expression in these neurons is at present the best global marker for efficiently locating populations of neurons in the awake animal that respond to nociceptive input. This allows, among other things, precise behavioral measurements to be correlated with Fos expression. Two arenas where mapping dorsal horn Fos expression has made a major impact are in the anatomy of nociceptive systems and as a useful assay for the analgesic properties of various therapeutic regimens. Also Fos expression is the only way to map populations of neurons that are responding to non-localized input such as withdrawal after addiction and vascular occlusion. Another insight is that it shows a clear activation of neurons in superficial 'pain-processing' laminae by innocuous stimuli after nerve lesions, a finding that presumably bears on the allodynia that often accompanies these lesions. It is to be understood, however, that the Fos localizations are not sufficient unto themselves, but the major function of these studies is to efficiently locate populations of cells in nociceptive pathways so that powerful anatomic and physiologic techniques can be brought to bear efficiently. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the studies whose numbers are geometrically expanding that deal with Fos in the dorsal horn and the conclusions therefrom.

  19. Intracisternal octreotide does not ameliorate orthodromic trigeminovascular nociception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, RHA; Jeuring, M; Meijler, WJ; Korf, J; Ter Horst, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Octreotide is a long-acting somatostatin analogue that has been effectively used to treat migraine. Octreotide poorly penetrates the blood-brain barrier, but has potential central target sites in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which is the primary central relay station for trigeminal nociceptive i

  20. Central Limit Theorem for Nonlinear Hawkes Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lingjiong

    2012-01-01

    Hawkes process is a self-exciting point process with clustering effect whose jump rate depends on its entire past history. It has wide applications in neuroscience, finance and many other fields. Linear Hawkes process has an immigration-birth representation and can be computed more or less explicitly. It has been extensively studied in the past and the limit theorems are well understood. On the contrary, nonlinear Hawkes process lacks the immigration-birth representation and is much harder to analyze. In this paper, we obtain a functional central limit theorem for nonlinear Hawkes process.

  1. Quantum Central Processing Unit and Quantum Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安民

    2002-01-01

    Based on a scalable and universal quantum network, quantum central processing unit, proposed in our previous paper [Chin. Phys. Left. 18 (2001)166], the whole quantum network for the known quantum algorithms,including quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm, is obtained in a unitied way.

  2. Intraplantar injection of tetrahydrobiopterin induces nociception in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasser, Arafat; Ali, Sawsan; Wilsbech, Signe;

    2015-01-01

    . Intrathecal injections of BH4 have been shown to induce and enhance pain-like behaviours in rats, suggesting that under chronic pain conditions BH4 may act by facilitating central sensitisation. So far it is unknown whether BH4 acts on peripheral sites of the somatosensory system or whether BH4 per se...... provokes nociceptive pain behaviours. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the acute nociceptive effects of intraplantar injection of BH4. BH4 was found to induce dose-dependent licking/biting of the paw lasting 5 min, which was not observed following an injection of biopterin (inactive...

  3. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Brent A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in chronic pain conditions, this review considers neuronal plasticities in the thalamocingulate pathway that may be the earliest changes associated with such syndromes. Results A single nociceptive electrical stimulus to the sciatic nerve induced a prominent sink current in the layer II/III of the ACC in vivo, while high frequency stimulation potentiated the response of this current. Paired-pulse facilitation by electrical stimulation of midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN suggesting that the MITN projection to ACC mediates the nociceptive short-term plasticity. The short-term synaptic plasticities were evaluated for different inputs in vitro where the medial thalamic and contralateral corpus callosum afferents were compared. Stimulation of the mediodorsal afferent evoked a stronger short-term synaptic plasticity and effectively transferred the bursting thalamic activity to cingulate cortex that was not true for contralateral stimulation. This short-term enhancement of synaptic transmission was mediated by polysynaptic pathways and NMDA receptors. Layer II/III neurons of the ACC express a short-term plasticity that involves glutamate and presynaptic calcium influx and is an important mechanism of the short-term plasticity. Conclusion The potentiation of ACC neuronal activity induced by thalamic bursting suggest that short-term synaptic plasticities enable the processing of nociceptive information from the medial thalamus and this temporal response variability is particularly important in pain because temporal maintenance of the response supports cortical integration and memory formation related to

  4. Strategy as Central and Peripheral Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Juul Andersen, Torben; Fredens, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship is deemed essential to uncover opportunities that shape the future strategic path and adapt the firm to environmental change (e.g., Covin and Miles, 1999; Wolcott and Lippitz, 2007). At the same time, rational central processes are important to execute strategic actions in a coordinated manner (e.g., Baum and Wally, 2003; Brews and Hunt, 1999; Goll and Rasheed, 1997). That is, the organization’s adaptive responses and dynamic capabilities are embedded...

  5. Self-reported pain severity, quality of life, disability, anxiety and depression in patients classified with 'nociceptive', 'peripheral neuropathic' and 'central sensitisation' pain. The discriminant validity of mechanisms-based classifications of low back (±leg) pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smart, Keith M

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of validity is required to support the use of mechanisms-based classifications of pain clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of \\'nociceptive\\' (NP), \\'peripheral neuropathic\\' (PNP) and \\'central sensitisation\\' (CSP) as mechanisms-based classifications of pain in patients with low back (±leg) pain by evaluating the extent to which patients classified in this way differ from one another according to health measures associated with various dimensions of pain. This study employed a cross-sectional, between-subjects design. Four hundred and sixty-four patients with low back (±leg) pain were assessed using a standardised assessment protocol. Clinicians classified each patient\\'s pain using a mechanisms-based classification approach. Patients completed a number of self-report measures associated with pain severity, health-related quality of life, functional disability, anxiety and depression. Discriminant validity was evaluated using a multivariate analysis of variance. There was a statistically significant difference between pain classifications on the combined self-report measures, (p = .001; Pillai\\'s Trace = .33; partial eta squared = .16). Patients classified with CSP (n = 106) reported significantly more severe pain, poorer general health-related quality of life, and greater levels of back pain-related disability, depression and anxiety compared to those classified with PNP (n = 102) and NP (n = 256). A similar pattern was found in patients with PNP compared to NP. Mechanisms-based pain classifications may reflect meaningful differences in attributes underlying the multidimensionality of pain. Further studies are required to evaluate the construct and criterion validity of mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain.

  6. The Specification and Maturation of Nociceptive Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Erin M; Engle, Sandra J; Hallowell, Shawn E; Liu, Ping; Wang, Zhao-Wen; Li, Xue-Jun

    2015-11-19

    Nociceptive neurons play an essential role in pain sensation by transmitting painful stimuli to the central nervous system. However, investigations of nociceptive neuron biology have been hampered by the lack of accessibility of human nociceptive neurons. Here, we describe a system for efficiently guiding human embryonic stem cells into nociceptive neurons by first inducing these cells to the neural lineage. Subsequent addition of retinoic acid and BMP4 at specific time points and concentrations yielded a high population of neural crest progenitor cells (AP2α(+), P75(+)), which further differentiated into nociceptive neurons (TRKA(+), Nav1.7(+), P2X3(+)). The overexpression of Neurogenin 1 (Neurog1) promoted the neurons to express genes related to sensory neurons (Peripherin, TrkA) and to further mature into TRPV1(+) nociceptive neurons. Importantly, the overexpression of Neurog1 increased the response of these neurons to capsaicin stimulation, a hallmark of mature functional nociceptive neurons. Taken together, this study reveals the important role that Neurog1 plays in generating functional human nociceptive neurons.

  7. Psychophysics of a nociceptive test in the mouse: ambient temperature as a key factor for variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanne Pincedé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mouse is increasingly used in biomedical research, notably in behavioral neurosciences for the development of tests or models of pain. Our goal was to provide the scientific community with an outstanding tool that allows the determination of psychophysical descriptors of a nociceptive reaction, which are inaccessible with conventional methods: namely the true threshold, true latency, conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response and latency of the central decision-making process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Basically, the procedures involved heating of the tail with a CO(2 laser, recording of tail temperature with an infrared camera and stopping the heating when the animal reacted. The method is based mainly on the measurement of three observable variables, namely the initial temperature, the heating rate and the temperature reached at the actual moment of the reaction following random variations in noxious radiant heat. The initial temperature of the tail, which itself depends on the ambient temperature, very markedly influenced the behavioral threshold, the behavioral latency and the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers but not the latency of the central decision-making. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have validated a psychophysical approach to nociceptive reactions for the mouse, which has already been described for rats and Humans. It enables the determination of four variables, which contribute to the overall latency of the response. The usefulness of such an approach was demonstrated by providing new fundamental findings regarding the influence of ambient temperature on nociceptive processes. We conclude by challenging the validity of using as "pain index" the reaction time of a behavioral response to an increasing heat stimulus and emphasize the need for a very careful control of the ambient temperature, as a prevailing environmental source of variation, during any behavioral testing of

  8. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  9. The Role of CGRPin Nociception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Hill

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure of NK1 receptor antagonists to show analgesic activity in clinical trials in spite of abundant preclinical evidence for a role of this neuropeptide in nociception, makes it somewhat dangerous to speculate on the nociceptive role of other neuropeptides, especially with respect to therapeutic utility of receptor antagonists! However, CGRP is the primary afferent peptide with the strongest evidence of a role in pain perception. It is found in a greater proportion of sensory neurones than other peptides and is a constituent of A[delta ] as well as C-fibres. Inflammation of peripheral tissues upregulates production of CGRP in sensory ganglia, coincident with the development of hyperalgesia, and CGRP knockout mice have attenuated hyperalgesic responses. CGRP is released into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DHSC by noxious peripheral stimuli and excites nociceptive DHSC neurones on local application. The peptide antagonist CGRP8-37 blocks the response to exogenous CGRP and can reduce the response of DHSC neurones to noxious peripheral stimuli. CGRP8-37 has also been shown to have behavioural antinociceptive properties when given intrathecally. Conversely, injection of CGRP itself to the PAG or n. accumbens has been reported to have antinociceptive effects that are reversed by CGRP8-37. With the advent of potent non-peptide antagonists such as BIBN4096BS we should soon be able to determine whether systemic blockade of all CGRP receptors produces antinociception without limiting side effects.

  10. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. Methods 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. Results No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson’s disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson’s disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced

  11. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rijn Clementina M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal plasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate HFS-induced central plasticity of sensory processing at the level of the brain using the electroencephalogram (EEG. To this end we measured evoked potentials in response to noxious electrical pinprick-like stimuli applied in the heterotopic skin area before, directly after and 30 minutes after HFS. Results We observed potential cortical electrophysiological correlates of heterotopic facilitation. Two different cortical correlates were found; the first one was a lateralized effect, i.e. a larger N100 amplitude on the conditioned arm than the control arm 30 minutes after end of HFS. This was comparable with the observed lateralized effect of visual analogue scale (VAS scores as response to the mechanical punctate stimuli. The second correlate seems to be a more general (non-lateralized effect, because the result affects both arms. On average for both arms the P200 amplitude increased significantly 30 minutes after end of HFS with respect to baseline. Conclusions We suggest that for studying heterotopic nociceptive facilitation the evoked brain response is suitable and relevant for investigating plasticity at the level of the brain and is perhaps a more sensitive and reliable marker than the perceived pain intensity (e.g. VAS.

  12. Sympathetic β-adrenergic mechanism in pudendal inhibition of nociceptive and non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, Brian T; Lyon, Timothy D; Zhang, Zhaocun; Lamm, Vladimir; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the role of the hypogastric nerve and β-adrenergic mechanisms in the inhibition of nociceptive and non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity induced by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats, non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity was induced by slowly infusing saline into the bladder, whereas nociceptive reflex bladder activity was induced by replacing saline with 0.25% acetic acid (AA) to irritate the bladder. PNS was applied at multiple threshold (T) intensities for inducing anal sphincter twitching. During saline infusion, PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 184.7 ± 12.6% and 214.5 ± 10.4% of the control capacity. Propranolol (3 mg/kg iv) had no effect on PNS inhibition, but 3-[(2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP; 1-3 mg/kg iv) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the inhibition. During AA irritation, the control bladder capacity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to ∼22% of the saline control capacity. PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 406.8 ± 47% and 415.8 ± 46% of the AA control capacity. Propranolol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the bladder capacity to 276.3% ± 53.2% (at 2T PNS) and 266.5 ± 72.4% (at 4T PNS) of the AA control capacity, whereas MTEP (a metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist) removed the residual PNS inhibition. Bilateral transection of the hypogastric nerves produced an effect similar to that produced by propranolol. This study indicates that hypogastric nerves and a β-adrenergic mechanism in the detrusor play an important role in PNS inhibition of nociceptive but not non-nociceptive reflex bladder activity. In addition to this peripheral mechanism, a central nervous system mechanism involving metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors also has a role in PNS inhibition. PMID:27170683

  13. Attention effects on vicarious modulation of nociception and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Ali; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Schrooten, Martien; Vlaeyen, Johan; Rainville, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The observation of others' facial expressions of pain has been shown to facilitate the observer's nociceptive responses and to increase pain perception. We investigated how this vicarious facilitation effect is modulated by directing the observer's attention toward the meaning of pain expression or the facial movements. In separate trials, participants were instructed to assess the "intensity of the pain expression"(meaning) or to "discriminate the facial movements" in the upper vs lower part of the face shown in 1-second dynamic clips displaying mild, moderate, or strong pain expressions or a neutral control. In 50% of the trials, participants received a painful electrical stimulation to the sural nerve immediately after the presentation of the expression. Low-level nociceptive reactivity was measured with the RIII-response, and pain perception was assessed using pain ratings. Pain induced by the electrical stimulation increased after viewing stronger pain expressions in both tasks, but the RIII-response showed this vicarious facilitation effect only in the movement discrimination task at the strongest expression intensity. These findings are consistent with the notion that vicarious processes facilitate self-pain and may prime automatic nociceptive responses. However, this priming effect is influenced by top-down attentional processes. These results provide another case of dissociation between reflexive and perceptual processes, consistent with the involvement of partly separate brain networks in the regulation of cortical and lower-level nociceptive responses. Combined with previous results, these findings suggest that vicarious pain facilitation is an automatic process that may be diminished by top-down attentional processes directed at the meaning of the expression.

  14. The impact of centrality on cooperative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M; Fontanari, José F

    2016-01-01

    The solution of today's complex problems requires the grouping of task forces whose members are usually connected remotely over long physical distances and different time zones, so the importance of understanding the effects of imposed communication patterns (i.e., who can communicate with whom) on group performance. Here we use an agent-based model to explore the influence of the betweenness centrality of the nodes on the time the group requires to find the global maxima of families of NK-fitness landscapes. The agents cooperate by broadcasting messages informing on their fitness to their neighbors and use this information to copy the more successful agent in their neighborhood. We find that for easy tasks (smooth landscapes) the topology of the communication network has no effect on the performance of the group and that the more central nodes are the most likely to find the global maximum first. For difficult tasks (rugged landscapes), however, we find a positive correlation between the variance of the betw...

  15. [Postsynaptic reactions of cerebral cortex neurons, activated by nociceptive afferents during stimulation of the Raphe nuclei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labakhua, T Sh; Dzhanashiia, T K; Gedevanishvili, G I; Dzhokhadze, L D; Tkemaladze, T T; Abzianidze, I V

    2012-01-01

    On cats, we studied the influence of stimulation of the Raphe nuclei (RN) on postsynaptic processes evoked in neurons of the somatosensory cortex by stimulation of nociceptive (intensive stimulation of the tooth pulp) and non-nociceptive (moderate stimulation of the ventroposteromedial--VPN--nucleus of the thalamus) afferent inputs. 6 cells, selectively excited by stimulation of nocciceptors and 9 cells, activated by both the above nociceptive and non-nociceptive influences (nociceptive and convergent neurons, respectively) were recorded intracellular. In neurons of both groups, responses to nociceptive stimulation (of sufficient intensity) looked like an EPSP-spike-IPSP (the letter of significant duration, up to 200-300 ms) compleх. Conditioning stimulation of the RN which preceded test stimulus applied to the tooth pulp or VPM nucleus by 100 to 800 ms, induced 40-60 % decrease of the IPSP amplitude only, while maхimal effect of influence, in both cases, was noted within intervals of 300-800 ms between conditioning and test stimulus. During stimulation of the RN, serotonin released via receptor and second messengers, provides postsynaptic modulation of GABAergic system, decreasing the IPSP amplitude which occurs after stimulation of both the tooth pulp and VPM thalamic nucleus. This process may be realized trough either pre- or postsynaptic mechanisms.

  16. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  17. Regulation of AMPA receptors in spinal nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The functional properties of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA receptors in different brain regions, such as hippocampus and cerebellum, have been well studied in vitro and in vivo. The AMPA receptors present a unique characteristic in the mechanisms of subunit regulation during LTP (long-term potentiation and LTD (long-term depression, which are involved in the trafficking, altered composition and phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits. Accumulated data have demonstrated that spinal AMPA receptors play a critical role in the mechanism of both acute and persistent pain. However, less is known about the biochemical regulation of AMPA receptor subunits in the spinal cord in response to painful stimuli. Recent studies have shown that some important regulatory processes, such as the trafficking of AMPA receptor subunit, subunit compositional changes, phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits, and their interaction with partner proteins may contribute to spinal nociceptive transmission. Of all these regulation processes, the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits is the most important since it may trigger or affect other cellular processes. Therefore, these study results may suggest an effective strategy in developing novel analgesics targeting AMPA receptor subunit regulation that may be useful in treating persistent and chronic pain without unacceptable side effects in the clinics.

  18. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Heck, C.H. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is

  19. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Heck, C.H. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is t

  20. Are presynaptic GABA-Cρ2 receptors involved in anti-nociception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadavarty, R; Hwang, J; Rajput, P S; Soja, P J; Kumar, U; Sastry, B R

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the anti-nociceptive effects of GABA-C receptors in the central nervous system. Intracisternal injection of CACA, a GABA-C receptor agonist or isoguvacine, a GABA-A receptor agonist, significantly increased the tail-withdrawal latency. TPMPA, a GABA-C receptor antagonist blocked the effects of CACA but not isoguvacine indicating that GABA-C receptors are involved in regulating pain. Further, double-labelled immunofluorescence studies revealed that GABA-Cρ2 receptors are expressed presynaptically in the spinal dorsal horn, especially, substantia gelatinosa, a region that has been previously implicated in analgesia by regulating nociceptive inflow. These data provide a provenance for future work looking at presynaptic spinal GABA-C receptors in the control of nociception.

  1. Are presynaptic GABA-Cρ2 receptors involved in anti-nociception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadavarty, R; Hwang, J; Rajput, P S; Soja, P J; Kumar, U; Sastry, B R

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the anti-nociceptive effects of GABA-C receptors in the central nervous system. Intracisternal injection of CACA, a GABA-C receptor agonist or isoguvacine, a GABA-A receptor agonist, significantly increased the tail-withdrawal latency. TPMPA, a GABA-C receptor antagonist blocked the effects of CACA but not isoguvacine indicating that GABA-C receptors are involved in regulating pain. Further, double-labelled immunofluorescence studies revealed that GABA-Cρ2 receptors are expressed presynaptically in the spinal dorsal horn, especially, substantia gelatinosa, a region that has been previously implicated in analgesia by regulating nociceptive inflow. These data provide a provenance for future work looking at presynaptic spinal GABA-C receptors in the control of nociception. PMID:26327143

  2. Insulating process for HT-7U central solenoid model coils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The HT-7U superconducting Tokamak is a whole superconducting magnetically confined fusion device. The insulating system of its central solenoid coils is critical to its properties. In this paper the forming of the insulating system and the vacuum-pressure-impregnating (VPI) are introduced, and the whole insulating process is verified under the superconducting experiment condition.

  3. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  4. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes

  5. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    OpenAIRE

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno; D’Andrea Karlin Fabianne; Cordeiro Mara L; Zeigelboim Bianca; Marques Jair; Jurkiewicz Ari

    2012-01-01

    AbstractBackgroundSleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse informat...

  6. A Universal Quantum Network Quantum Central Processing Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-Min

    2001-01-01

    A new construction scheme of a universal quantum network which is compatible with the known quantum gate- assembly schemes is proposed. Our quantum network is standard, easy-assemble, reusable, scalable and even potentially programmable. Moreover, we can construct a whole quantum network to implement the generalquantum algorithm and quantum simulation procedure. In the above senses, it is a realization of the quantum central processing unit.

  7. The roles of P2 purinergic receptors in nociception and antinociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SatohM; MinamM

    2002-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) has been established as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in both the periphe- ral and central nervous systems,in addition to diverse intracellular roles of it.P2 purinergic receptors,the receptors of ATP,are classified into two subfamilites,ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors.Recent studies suggest that ATP play a significant role in facilitating perpheral and spinal nociceptive transmission via P2X receptors.However,we demonstrated that at the supraspinal level P2X receptor agonists produce an antinociception.On the other hand,the activation of some subtypes of P2Y receptors in the spinal cord caused inhibitory effects on nociceptive transmission.Thus,P2X and P2Y receptors are suggested to be related to diverse roles in nociceptive functions at peripheral,spinal and supraspinal levels.We would like to take an overview about the significance of P2X and P2Y receptors in nociception and antinociception.

  8. Exteroceptive aspects of nociception: insights from graphesthesia and two-point discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole K; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Coghill, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    The exteroceptive capabilities of the nociceptive system have long been thought to be considerably more limited than those of the tactile system. However, most investigations of spatio-temporal aspects of the nociceptive system have largely focused on intensity coding as consequence of spatial or temporal summation. Graphesthesia, the identification of numbers "written" on the skin, and assessment of the two-point discrimination thresholds were used to compare the exteroceptive capabilities of the tactile and nociceptive systems. Numbers were "written" on the forearm and the abdomen by tactile stimulation and by painful non-contact infrared laser heat stimulation. Subjects performed both graphesthesia tasks better than chance. The tactile graphesthesia tasks were performed with 89% (82-97%) correct responses on the forearm and 86% (79-94%) correct responses on the abdomen. Tactile graphesthesia tasks were significantly better than painful heat graphesthesia tasks that were performed with 31% (23-40%) and 44% (37-51%) correct responses on the forearm and abdomen, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the central nervous system is capable of assembling complex spatio-temporal patterns of nociceptive information from the body surface into unified mental objects with sufficient accuracy to enable behavioral discrimination.

  9. Feeding state modulates nociception in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Ezcurra, Marina

    2011-01-01

    An important function of the nervous system is to respond to changes in the environment. The nematode C. elegans chemotaxes towards attractants and escapes noxious stimuli. Chemotaxis to salts requires the two ASE neurons ASEL and ASER, and escape responses require the nociceptive ASH neurons. To study the mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we adopted a combination of genetics and in vivo calcium imaging, which allows monitoring of neuronal activity in living animals. Calcium imaging reve...

  10. A nociceptive signaling role for Neuromedin B

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Santosh K.; Holzman, Sarah; Hoon, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Here we used an array based differential screen to uncover the expression of the neuropeptide neuromedin B (NMB) in the trigeminal ganglia of mice. Double labeling experiments reveal NMB is expressed in a subset of sensory neurons that co-label with CGRP and TRPV1 suggestive of a role for NMB in nociception. Indeed, administration of NMB-antagonist greatly attenuates edema and nerve sensitization following stimulation of peripheral nerves with mustard oil, demonstrating that NMB contributes t...

  11. Changing Balance of Spinal Cord Excitability and Nociceptive Brain Activity in Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Caroline; Moultrie, Fiona; Gursul, Deniz; Hoskin, Amy; Adams, Eleri; Rogers, Richard; Slater, Rebeccah

    2016-08-01

    In adults, nociceptive reflexes and behavioral responses are modulated by a network of brain regions via descending projections to the spinal dorsal horn [1]. Coordinated responses to noxious inputs manifest from a balance of descending facilitation and inhibition. In contrast, young infants display exaggerated and uncoordinated limb reflexes [2]. Our understanding of nociceptive processing in the infant brain has been advanced by the use of electrophysiological and hemodynamic imaging [3-6]. From approximately 35 weeks' gestation, nociceptive-specific patterns of brain activity emerge [7], whereas prior to this, non-specific bursts of activity occur in response to noxious, tactile, visual, and auditory stimulation [7-10]. During the preterm period, refinement of spinal cord excitability is also observed: reflex duration shortens, response threshold increases, and improved discrimination between tactile and noxious events occurs [2, 11, 12]. However, the development of descending modulation in human infants remains relatively unexplored. In 40 infants aged 28-42 weeks' gestation, we examined the relationship between nociceptive brain activity and spinal reflex withdrawal activity in response to a clinically essential noxious procedure. Nociceptive-specific brain activity increases in magnitude with gestational age, whereas reflex withdrawal activity decreases in magnitude, duration, and latency across the same developmental period. By recording brain and spinal cord activity in the same infants, we demonstrate that the maturation of nociceptive brain activity is concomitant with the refinement of noxious-evoked limb reflexes. We postulate that, consistent with studies in animals, infant reflexes are influenced by the development of top-down inhibitory modulation from maturing subcortical and cortical brain networks. PMID:27374336

  12. Hypergravity modulates behavioral nociceptive responses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumei, Y.; Shimokawa, R.; Toda, K.; Kawauchi, Y.; Makita, K.; Terasawa, M.; Ohya, K.; Shimokawa, H.

    Hypergravity (2G) exposure elevated the nociceptive threshold (pain suppression) concomitantly with evoked neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. Young Wistar male rats were exposed to 2G by centrifugal rotation for 10 min. Before and after 2G exposure, the nociceptive threshold was measured as the withdrawal reflex by using the von Frey type needle at a total of 8 sites of each rat (nose, four quarters, upper and lower back, tail), and then rats were sacrificed. Fos expression was examined immunohistochemically in the hypothalamic slices of the 2G-treated rats. When rats were exposed to 2G hypergravity, the nociceptive threshold was significantly elevated to approximately 150 to 250% of the 1G baseline control levels in all the examination sites. The 2G hypergravity remarkably induced Fos expression in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. The analgesic effects of 2G hypergravity were attenuated by naloxone pretreatment. Data indicate that hypergravity induces analgesic effects in rats, mediated through hypothalamic neuronal activity in the endogenous opioid system and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  13. Four central questions about prediction in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Falk

    2015-11-11

    The notion that prediction is a fundamental principle of human information processing has been en vogue over recent years. The investigation of language processing may be particularly illuminating for testing this claim. Linguists traditionally have argued prediction plays only a minor role during language understanding because of the vast possibilities available to the language user as each word is encountered. In the present review I consider four central questions of anticipatory language processing: Why (i.e. what is the function of prediction in language processing)? What (i.e. what are the cues used to predict up-coming linguistic information and what type of representations are predicted)? How (what mechanisms are involved in predictive language processing and what is the role of possible mediating factors such as working memory)? When (i.e. do individuals always predict up-coming input during language processing)? I propose that prediction occurs via a set of diverse PACS (production-, association-, combinatorial-, and simulation-based prediction) mechanisms which are minimally required for a comprehensive account of predictive language processing. Models of anticipatory language processing must be revised to take multiple mechanisms, mediating factors, and situational context into account. Finally, I conjecture that the evidence considered here is consistent with the notion that prediction is an important aspect but not a fundamental principle of language processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  14. Disruption of persistent nociceptive behavior in rats with learning impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Ma

    Full Text Available Despite the subjective nature of pain experience with cognitive and affective dimensions, preclinical pain research has largely focused on its sensory dimension. Here, we examined the relationship between learning/memory and nociceptive behavior in rats with combined learning impairment and persistent nociception. Learning impairment was induced by bilateral hippocampal injection of a mixed Aβ solution, whereas persistent nociception produced in these rats by complete Freund's adjuvant-induced ankle inflammation. Those rats with learning impairment showed a diminished development of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and a shorter time course of nociceptive behavior without alteration of their baseline nociceptive threshold. In rats with pre-established hyperalgesia and allodynia due to ankle inflammation, bilateral intra-hippocampal injection of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor promoted the earlier recovery of nociceptive behavior. Moreover, expression of Aβ, NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and protein kinase Cγ was upregulated, whereas the choline acetyl transferase expression was downregulated, in the hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, and/or spinal cord of rats with combined learning impairment and persistent nociception. The data indicate that learning impairment could disrupt the response to a state of persistent nociception, suggesting an important role for cognitive maladaptation in the mechanisms of chronic pain. These results also suggest that a preclinical model of combined learning impairment and persistent nociception may be useful to explore the brain mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain.

  15. Evaluation of the Central Hearing Process in Parkinson Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parkinson disease (PD is a degenerating disease with a deceitful character, impairing the central nervous system and causing biological, psychological and social changes. It shows motor signs and symptoms characterized by trembling, postural instability, rigidity and bradykinesia. Objective: To evaluate the central hearing function in PD patients. Method: A descriptive, prospect and transversal study, in which 10 individuals diagnosed of PD named study group (SG and 10 normally hearing individuals named control group (CG were evaluated, age average of 63.8 and (SD 5.96. Both groups went through otorhinolaryngological and ordinary audiological evaluations, and dichotic test of alternate disyllables (SSW. Results: In the quantitative analysis, CG showed 80% normality on competitive right-ear hearing (RC and 60% on the competitive left-ear hearing (LC in comparison with the SG that presented 70% on RC and 40% on LC. In the qualitative analysis, the biggest percentage of errors was evident in the SG in the order effect. The results showed a difficulty in identifying a sound when there is another competitive sound and in the memory ability. Conclusion: A qualitative and quantitative difference was observed in the SSW test between the evaluated groups, although statistical data does not show significant differences. The importance to evaluate the central hearing process is emphasized when contributing to the procedures to be taken at the therapeutic follow-up.

  16. Neurohormonal effects of oxytocin and vasopressin receptor agonists on spinal pain processing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juif, Pierre-Eric; Poisbeau, Pierrick

    2013-08-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are 2 neuropeptides that display well-known effects on the reproductive system. Although still controversial, oxytocin and vasopressin were demonstrated to exert potent effects on the nociceptive system when administered directly in various central nervous structures. On the other hand, little is known about their peripheral (hormonal) actions on nociception and pain responses. The aim of the present work was to characterize the effects of physiological blood concentrations of OT and AVP on spinal nociception and on pain responses. To do so, growing doses of OT or AVP were administered intravenously and the nociceptive processing by spinal cord neurons was analyzed in anesthetized male rats in vivo. We observed that the action potentials mediated by C-type nociceptive fibers was strongly reduced (antinociception) after intravenous injections of low doses of OT (effects were fully abolished in the presence of the OT receptor antagonist and the AVP receptor antagonist type 1A (V1A), respectively. We confirmed this result with a behavioral model of forced swim stress-induced analgesia associated with plasmatic release of OT (and not vasopressin). Stress-induced analgesia was transiently lost after i.v. administration of OTR antagonist. Together, the present work provides straightforward evidence that blood levels of OT and AVP modulate nociception, windup plasticity and pain responses. The final target structures explaining these effects remains to be identified but are likely to be C-type nociceptors.

  17. Mechanical sensibility of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fast-conducting afferents is modulated by skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, M Danilo; Eisenach, James C; Ririe, Douglas G

    2016-01-01

    The ability to distinguish mechanical from thermal input is a critical component of peripheral somatosensory function. Polymodal C fibers respond to both stimuli. However, mechanosensitive, modality-specific fast-conducting tactile and nociceptor afferents theoretically carry information only about mechanical forces independent of the thermal environment. We hypothesize that the thermal environment can nonetheless modulate mechanical force sensibility in fibers that do not respond directly to change in temperature. To study this, fast-conducting mechanosensitive peripheral sensory fibers in male Sprague-Dawley rats were accessed at the soma in the dorsal root ganglia from T11 or L4/L5. Neuronal identification was performed using receptive field characteristics and passive and active electrical properties. Neurons responded to mechanical stimuli but failed to generate action potentials in response to changes in temperature alone, except for the tactile mechanical and cold sensitive neurons. Heat and cold ramps were utilized to determine temperature-induced modulation of response to mechanical stimuli. Mechanically evoked electrical activity in non-nociceptive, low-threshold mechanoreceptors (tactile afferents) decreased in response to changes in temperature while mechanically induced activity was increased in nociceptive, fast-conducting, high-threshold mechanoreceptors in response to the same changes in temperature. These data suggest that mechanical activation does not occur in isolation but rather that temperature changes appear to alter mechanical afferent activity and input to the central nervous system in a dynamic fashion. Further studies to understand the psychophysiological implications of thermal modulation of fast-conducting mechanical input to the spinal cord will provide greater insight into the implications of these findings.

  18. Neurophysiological observation of the nociceptive system using electrocutaneous stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der Esther Marjan

    2009-01-01

    Adequate observation techniques are required to explore changes in the nociceptive system in pain patients. In this thesis neurophysiological observation methods of nociceptive system are explored. The focus is to explore the merits of electrocutaneous single pulse (SP) and pulse train (PT) stimulat

  19. Effect of a nitric oxide donor (glyceryl trinitrate) on nociceptive thresholds in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Brennum, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg;

    1996-01-01

    Several animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in central and peripheral modulation of nociception. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) exerts its physiological actions via donation of NO. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of this NO donor on nociceptive...... thresholds in man. On two different study days separated by at least a week 12 healthy subjects received a staircase infusion of GTN (0.015, 0.25, 1.0, 2.0 micrograms/kg/min, 20 min each dose) or placebo in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Before the infusion and after 15 min of infusion on each......, the three higher GTN doses induced a decrease in both detection and tolerance thresholds in the temporal region with interposed myofascial tissue (p = 0.003 detection and p = 0.002 tolerance thresholds, Friedman). No such changes were observed in the other two stimulated regions. These results could reflect...

  20. Mechanical signalling in tissues and its possible role in nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Silvano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanotransduction is known to play a key role in physiological as well as pathological processes. In the present work, the possibility is discussed that even weak mechanical signals travelling through the extracellular matrix can elicit significant cellular responses, by causing gel/sol transitions and actomyosin contractions. Such mechanical cues can result from both physiological activities, such as the heartbeat, and noxious stimuli to which tissues respond by rearranging the cells' cytoskeleton and remodelling the extracellular matrix. The possibility is explored that such viscoelastic modifications also affect the function of nociceptors, thus modulating pain transmission. Growing evidence indicates that the rearrangement of the axonal cytoskeleton represents a key step in nociception. Hyperalgesia is suggested to result from an exceedingly dynamical state of the nociceptor's cytoskeleton, which would lead to enhanced electrical conduction and synaptic facilitation.

  1. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  2. Normothermic Mouse Functional MRI of Acute Focal Thermostimulation for Probing Nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Henning Matthias; Hentschel, Jan; Marek, Jaroslav; Huelnhagen, Till; Todiras, Mihail; Kox, Stefanie; Waiczies, Sonia; Hodge, Russ; Bader, Michael; Pohlmann, Andreas; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    Combining mouse genomics and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a promising tool to unravel the molecular mechanisms of chronic pain. Probing murine nociception via the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect is still challenging due to methodological constraints. Here we report on the reproducible application of acute noxious heat stimuli to examine the feasibility and limitations of functional brain mapping for central pain processing in mice. Recent technical and procedural advances were applied for enhanced BOLD signal detection and a tight control of physiological parameters. The latter includes the development of a novel mouse cradle designed to maintain whole-body normothermia in anesthetized mice during fMRI in a way that reflects the thermal status of awake, resting mice. Applying mild noxious heat stimuli to wildtype mice resulted in highly significant BOLD patterns in anatomical brain structures forming the pain matrix, which comprise temporal signal intensity changes of up to 6% magnitude. We also observed sub-threshold correlation patterns in large areas of the brain, as well as alterations in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in response to the applied stimulus.

  3. microRNAs in nociceptive circuits as predictors of future clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela eKress

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-immune alterations in the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs – and microRNAs (miRNAs in particular - regulate both immune and neuronal processes. Specifically, miRNAs control macromolecular complexes in neurons, glia and immune cells and regulate signals used for neuro-immune communication in the pain pathway. Therefore, miRNAs may be hypothesised as critically important master switches modulating chronic pain. In particular, understanding the concerted function of miRNA in the regulation of nociception and endogenous analgesia and defining the importance of miRNAs in the circuitries and cognitive, emotional and behavioural components involved in pain is expected to shed new light on the enigmatic pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, migraine and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. Specific miRNAs may evolve as new druggable molecular targets for pain prevention and relief. Furthermore, predisposing miRNA expression patterns and inter-individual variations and polymorphisms in miRNAs and/or their binding sites may serve as biomarkers for pain and help to predict individual risks for certain types of pain and responsiveness to analgesic drugs. miRNA-based diagnostics are expected to develop into hands-on tools that allow better patient stratification, improved mechanism-based treatment, and targeted prevention strategies for high risk individuals.

  4. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  5. MATLAB Implementation of a Multigrid Solver for Diffusion Problems: : Graphics Processing Unit vs. Central Processing Unit

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Graphics Processing Units are immensely powerful processors and for variety applications they outperform the Central Processing Unit, CPU. The recent generations of GPU’s have a flexible architecture than older generations and programming interface more user friendly, which makes them better suited for general purpose programming. A high end GPU can give a desktop computer the same computational power as a small cluster of CPU’s. Speedup of applications by using the GPU has been shown in...

  6. (Central Auditory Processing: the impact of otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Reis Borges

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze auditory processing test results in children suffering from otitis media in their first five years of age, considering their age. Furthermore, to classify central auditory processing test findings regarding the hearing skills evaluated. METHODS: A total of 109 students between 8 and 12 years old were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of 40 students from public school without a history of otitis media. Experimental group I consisted of 39 students from public schools and experimental group II consisted of 30 students from private schools; students in both groups suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years of age and underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes. The individuals underwent complete audiological evaluation and assessment by Auditory Processing tests. RESULTS: The left ear showed significantly worse performance when compared to the right ear in the dichotic digits test and pitch pattern sequence test. The students from the experimental groups showed worse performance when compared to the control group in the dichotic digits test and gaps-in-noise. Children from experimental group I had significantly lower results on the dichotic digits and gaps-in-noise tests compared with experimental group II. The hearing skills that were altered were temporal resolution and figure-ground perception. CONCLUSION: Children who suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years and who underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes showed worse performance in auditory abilities, and children from public schools had worse results on auditory processing tests compared with students from private schools.

  7. Forebrain Mechanisms of Nociception and Pain: Analysis through Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kenneth L.

    1999-07-01

    Pain is a unified experience composed of interacting discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive components, each of which is mediated and modulated through forebrain mechanisms acting at spinal, brainstem, and cerebral levels. The size of the human forebrain in relation to the spinal cord gives anatomical emphasis to forebrain control over nociceptive processing. Human forebrain pathology can cause pain without the activation of nociceptors. Functional imaging of the normal human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) shows synaptically induced increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in several regions specifically during pain. We have examined the variables of gender, type of noxious stimulus, and the origin of nociceptive input as potential determinants of the pattern and intensity of rCBF responses. The structures most consistently activated across genders and during contact heat pain, cold pain, cutaneous laser pain or intramuscular pain were the contralateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex, the bilateral thalamus and premotor cortex, and the cerebellar vermis. These regions are commonly activated in PET studies of pain conducted by other investigators, and the intensity of the brain rCBF response correlates parametrically with perceived pain intensity. To complement the human studies, we developed an animal model for investigating stimulus-induced rCBF responses in the rat. In accord with behavioral measures and the results of human PET, there is a progressive and selective activation of somatosensory and limbic system structures in the brain and brainstem following the subcutaneous injection of formalin. The animal model and human PET studies should be mutually reinforcing and thus facilitate progress in understanding forebrain mechanisms of normal and pathological pain.

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  9. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner. PMID:26690128

  10. Development in Central Europe Includes Food Processing Business

    OpenAIRE

    Declerck, Francis

    2004-01-01

    The economic integration of Central European countries to the EU started in the beginning of the 1990's. ESSEC Business School, in partnership with Warsaw Agricultural University SGGW, and food companies have heavily invested in Central Europe, particularly Poland, before May 1, 2004 the official date of the EU enlargement to 8 Central European Countries: Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Slovakia. With more than half the population and business act...

  11. Hippocampal CA1/subiculum-prefrontal cortical pathways induce plastic changes of nociceptive responses in cingulate and prelimbic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC neurons. We examined modifying effects of these projections on nociceptive responses recorded in the prelimbic and cingulate areas of the PFC. Results Extracellular unit discharges evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation delivered to the rat-tail and field potentials evoked by a single stimulus pulse delivered to CA1/SB were recorded in the PFC. High frequency stimulation (HFS, 100 Hz delivered to CA1/SB, which produced long-term potentiation (LTP of field potentials, induced long-term enhancement (LTE of nociceptive responses in 78% of cases, while, conversely, in 22% responses decreased (long-term depression, LTD. These neurons were scattered throughout the cingulate and prelimbic areas. The results obtained for field potentials and nociceptive discharges suggest that CA1/SB-PFC pathways can produce heterosynaptic potentiation in PFC neurons. HFS had no effects on Fos expression in the cingulated cortex. Low frequency stimulation (LFS, 1 Hz, 600 bursts delivered to the CA1/SB induced LTD of nociceptive discharges in all cases. After recovery from LTD, HFS delivered to CA1/SB had the opposite effect, inducing LTE of nociceptive responses in the same neuron. The bidirectional type of plasticity was evident in these nociceptive responses, as in the homosynaptic plasticity reported previously. Neurons inducing LTD are found mainly in the prelimbic area, in which Fos expression was also shown to be inhibited by LFS. The electrophysiological results closely paralleled those of immunostaining. Our results indicate that CA1/SB-PFC pathways inhibit excitatory pyramidal cell activities in prelimbic areas. Conclusion Pressure stimulation (300 g applied to the rat-tail induced nociceptive responses in the cingulate and prelimbic areas of the PFC, which

  12. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouwense SA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefan AW Bouwense,1 Søren S Olesen,2 Asbjørn M Drewes,2 Harry van Goor,1 Oliver HG Wilder-Smith31Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Surgery, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsBackground: Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods: This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15 or placebo (n=12; n=17 treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects and Ventral T10 (segmental effects. Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigm. Results: Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015. This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9% vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001. CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006. Conclusion: This hypothesis

  13. Pain-related mediators underlie incision-induced mechanical nociception in the dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhong Yuan; Xiangyan Liu; Qiuping Tang; Yunlong Deng

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50-70% of patients experience incision-induced mechanical nociception after sur-gery. However, the mechanism underlying incision-induced mechanical nociception is stil unclear. Interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important pain mediators, but whether in-terleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are involved in incision-induced mechanical no-ciception remains uncertain. In this study, forty rats were divided randomly into the incision surgery (n=32) and sham surgery (n=8) groups. Plantar incision on the central part of left hind paw was performed under anesthesia in rats from the surgery group. Rats in the sham surgery group re-ceived anesthesia, but not an incision. Von Frey test results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, incision surgery decreased the withdrawal threshold of rats at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours after incision. Immunofluorescence staining in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L 3-5 ) showed that interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were expressed mainly on smal-and medium-sized neurons (diameter40μm) at 6 and 24 hours after incision surgery, which corresponded to the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats in the surgery group. These experimental findings suggest that expression pattern shift of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by inci-sion surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats was closely involved in lowering the threshold to me-chanical stimulus in the hind paw fol owing incision surgery. Pain-related mediators induced by in-cision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats possibly underlie mechanical nociception in ipsilateral hind paws.

  14. Farm Process (FMP) Parameters used in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the farm-process parameters used in the transient hydrologic model of the Central Valley flow system. The Central Valley encompasses an...

  15. Evaluation of the Central Hearing Process in Parkinson Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Teive, Hélio A. Ghizoni; Gorski, Leslie Palma; Klagenberg, Karlin Fabianne; Muñoz, Monica Barby; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Parkinson disease (PD) is a degenerating disease with a deceitful character, impairing the central nervous system and causing biological, psychological and social changes. It shows motor signs and symptoms characterized by trembling, postural instability, rigidity and bradykinesia. Objective: To evaluate the central hearing function in PD patients. Method: A descriptive, prospect and transversal study, in which 10 individuals diagnosed of PD named study group (SG) and 10 normall...

  16. Artificial nociception and motor responses to pain, for humans and robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Carlo; Takagi, Atsushi; Burdet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This concept paper describes nociception and the role of pain in humans. Understanding the mechanisms of pain can give insight into the implementation of artificial pain for robots. Identification of noxious contacts could help robots to elicit reactions in order to avoid or minimize damage to the robot and the environment. The information processing of artificial pain can also be used to optimally regulate incoming sensory information and prevent accidents or real pain to the users of robotic systems and prostheses, improving the performance of robots and their interaction with human users. Besides the applications of artificial nociception for robotic manipulation and intelligent prostheses, the development of computational models of pain mechanisms for the discrimination of noxious stimuli from innocuous touch can find crucial clinical applications, addressing the vulnerable non-verbal population who are unable to report pain.

  17. Effects of Anethole in Nociception Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mileni Versuti Ritter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl, major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum, in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg, and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg. In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators.

  18. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats...

  19. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  20. Encoding of mechanical nociception differs in the adult and infant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Verriotis, Madeleine; Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of infant brain nociceptive networks can provide further understanding of the functional postnatal development of pain perception. Here we hypothesise that the human infant brain encodes noxious information with different neuronal patterns compared to adults. To test this we compared EEG responses to the same time-locked noxious skin lance in infants aged 0-19 days (n = 18, clinically required) and adults aged 23-48 years (n = 21). Time-frequency analysis revealed that while some features of adult nociceptive network activity are present in infants at longer latencies, including beta-gamma oscillations, infants display a distinct, long latency, noxious evoked 18-fold energy increase in the fast delta band (2-4 Hz) that is absent in adults. The differences in activity between infants and adults have a widespread topographic distribution across the brain. These data support our hypothesis and indicate important postnatal changes in the encoding of mechanical pain in the human brain. PMID:27345331

  1. Learned control over spinal nociception reduces supraspinal nociception as quantified by late somatosensory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Bäumler, Maximilian; Feller, Moritz; Krafft, Stefanie; Sommer, Jens; Straube, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We have recently shown that subjects can learn to use cognitive-emotional strategies to suppress their spinal nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) under visual RIII feedback and proposed that this reflects learned activation of descending pain inhibition. Here, we investigated whether learned RIII suppression also affects supraspinal nociception and whether previous relaxation training increases success. Subjects were trained over 3 sessions to reduce their RIII size by self-selected cognitive-emotional strategies. Two groups received true RIII feedback (with or without previous relaxation training) and a sham group received false feedback (15 subjects per group). RIII reflexes, late somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and F-waves were recorded and pain intensity ratings collected. Both true feedback groups achieved significant (P SEP amplitude was significantly reduced during feedback training. Pain intensity was significantly reduced in all 3 groups and also correlated with RIII reduction (r = 0.44, P SEPs, although effects on pain ratings were less clear. Lower motor neuron excitability as quantified by F-waves was not affected. Previous relaxation training did not significantly improve RIII feedback training success. PMID:26270584

  2. Intrathecal rimantadine induces motor, proprioceptive, and nociceptive blockades in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Wang, Jieh-Neng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hung, Ching-Hsia

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the local anesthetic effect of rimantadine in spinal anesthesia. Rimantadine in a dose-dependent fashion was constructed after intrathecally injecting the rats with four different doses. The potency and duration of rimantadine were compared with that of the local anesthetic lidocaine at producing spinal motor, nociceptive, and proprioceptive blockades. We demonstrated that intrathecal rimantadine dose-dependently produced spinal motor, nociceptive, and proprioceptive blockades. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the ranks of potencies at inducing spinal motor, nociceptive, and proprioceptive blockades was lidocaine>rimantadine (P<0.01). Rimantadine exhibited more nociceptive block (ED50) than motor block (P<0.05). At equi-anesthetic doses (ED25, ED50, and ED75), the spinal block duration produced by rimantadine was longer than that produced by lidocaine (P<0.01). Furthermore, rimantadine (26.52μmol/kg) prolonged the nociceptive nerve block more than the motor block (P<0.001). Our preclinical data showed that rimantadine, with a more sensory-selective action over motor block, was less potent than lidocaine. Rimantadine produced longer duration in spinal anesthesia when compared with lidocaine.

  3. Improving management decision processes through centralized communication linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanton, D. F.; Garman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Information flow is a critical element to intelligent and timely decision-making. At NASA's Johnson Space Center the flow of information is being automated through the use of a centralized backbone network. The theoretical basis of this network, its implications to the horizontal and vertical flow of information, and the technical challenges involved in its implementation are the focus of this paper. The importance of the use of common tools among programs and some future concerns related to file transfer, graphics transfer, and merging of voice and data are also discussed.

  4. Multiparallel decompression simultaneously using multicore central processing unit and graphic processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Andrea; Serra, Luigi; De Nino, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT)-based compression algorithm is widely used in many image compression systems. The time-consuming computation of the 9/7 discrete wavelet decomposition and the bit-plane decoding is usually the bottleneck of these systems. In order to perform real-time decompression on a massive bit stream of compressed images continuously down-linked from the satellite, we propose a different graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated decoding system. In this system, the GPU and multiple central processing unit (CPU) threads are run in parallel. To obtain the maximum throughput via a different pipeline structure for processing continuous satellite images, an additional balancing algorithm workload has been implemented to distribute the jobs to both CPU and GPU parts to have approximately the same processing speed. Through the pipelined CPU and GPU heterogeneous computing, the entire decoding system approaches a speedup of 15× as compared to its single-threaded CPU counterpart. The proposed channel and source decoding system is able to decompress 1024×1024 satellite images at a speed of 20 frames/s.

  5. Does the histaminergic system play a role in spinal nociception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, K

    2000-07-01

    The author studied whether the histaminergic system is involved in spinal nociception or not. A nociception-related, slow ventral root potential of rats, which is an integrated output of motoneurons, was recorded as an index of the intensity of nociception when an electric stimulation was applied to the dorsal root. Histamine dissolved in an artificial cerebrospinal fluid caused small reduction in the potential; however, mepyramine (10 nM to 10 microM, as an H1 receptor antagonist), ranitidine (1 nM to 1 microM, as an H2 receptor antagonist), R(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (2 pM to 200 nM, as an H3 receptor agonist), and thioperamide (1 nM to 10 microM, as an H3 receptor antagonist) dose-dependently reduced the potential down to around a half of each control level. These results indicate that the histaminergic system may affect the spinal withdrawal reflex.

  6. Modulatory Mechanism of Nociceptive Neuronal Activity by Dietary Constituent Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Takeda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to somatic sensory pathways caused by peripheral tissue, inflammation or injury can result in behavioral hypersensitivity and pathological pain, such as hyperalgesia. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol found in red wine and various food products, is known to have several beneficial biological actions. Recent reports indicate that resveratrol can modulate neuronal excitability, including nociceptive sensory transmission. As such, it is possible that this dietary constituent could be a complementary alternative medicine (CAM candidate, specifically a therapeutic agent. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of resveratrol on nociceptive neuronal activity associated with pain relief. In addition, we discuss the contribution of resveratrol to the relief of nociceptive and/or pathological pain and its potential role as a functional food and a CAM.

  7. Effect of temporal stimulus properties on the nociceptive detection probability using intra‑epidermal electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doll, Robert J.; Maten, Annefloor C.A.; Spaan, Sjoerd P.G.; Veltink, Peter H.; Buitenweg, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders can be initiated and maintained by malfunctioning of one or several mechanisms underlying the nociceptive function. Although several quantitative sensory testing methods exist to characterize the nociceptive function, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of in

  8. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...... rate including the mid-ocean ridges and present-day magma chambers over the Iceland mantle plume. The Austurhorn central volcano likely formed in an off-rift flank zone proximal to the Iceland mantle plume during a major rift relocation....

  9. Is the cutaneous silent period an opiate-sensitive nociceptive reflex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghilleri, Maurizio; Conte, Antonella; Frasca, Vittorio; Berardelli, Alfredo; Manfredi, Mario; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2002-05-01

    In humans, high-intensity electrical stimuli delivered to the fingers induce an inhibitory effect on C7-T1 motoneurons. This inhibitory reflex, called the cutaneous silent period (CSP) is considered a defense response specific for the human upper limbs. It is not clear whether the CSP-like other defense responses such as the corneal reflex and the R III reflex-is an opiate-sensitive nociceptive reflex. Because opiates suppress some, but not all, nociceptive reflexes, we studied the effect of the narcotic-analgesic drug fentanyl on the CSP and the R III reflex. The CSP was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in seven normal subjects during voluntary contraction, before and 10 and 20 min after fentanyl injection. To assess possible fentanyl-induced changes, we also tested the effect of finger stimulation on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited in the FDI muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation before and after fentanyl injection. Fentanyl-induced changes were also studied on the R III reflex recorded from the biceps femoris muscle. Fentanyl, as expected, suppressed the R III reflex but failed to change the inhibitory effect of finger stimulation on FDI motoneurons. Finger stimulation reduced the size of MEPs in the FDI, and fentanyl injection left this inhibitory effect unchanged. The differential fentanyl-induced modulation of the CSP and R III reflex provides evidence that the CSP circuit is devoid of mu-opiate receptors and is therefore an opiate-insensitive nociceptive reflex, which may be useful in the assessment of central-acting, non-opioid drugs.

  10. Centralization process in procurement of maintenance, repair and operations (mro) items: Case company X

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Huong

    2016-01-01

    This thesis documents the process of a centralization project for Maintenance, Repair and Operations (MRO) procurement and the incentives behind the project, as well as discusses the problem attributes, and recommends solutions on how to improve the operational sides of the project in company X. The research questions seek answers for a particular and standardized process to implement the centralization procurement process for MRO items, the reason why MRO items, especially the packaging ...

  11. Morphological properties of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons in primary somatic cerebral cortex (SI) of cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the techniques of intracellular recording and labelling, we investigated pain sensation and modulation of the somatic cortical cortex at the neuron's level. After observing the evoked potentials from stimulating the saphenous nerves (SN) of 654 neurons in SI area of the cats, we labelled 30 of the neurons with Neurobiotin to preserve the distribution and the morphologic characteristics of the neurons in the cortex. Based on the tridimensional reconstruction in addition to the eletrophysiological functions, we found clear morphological distinctions between nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons (P<0.01). This result provided new experimental material to illustrate the function of nociceptive neurons in somatosensory cortex (SI) and presented further evidence to support the "specificity theory" of pain sensation in terms of morphology.

  12. A RANDOM FUNCTIONAL CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM FOR PROCESSES OF PRODUCT SUMS OF LINEAR PROCESSES GENERATED BY MARTINGALE DIFFERENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YUEBAO; YANG YANG; ZHOU HAIYANG

    2003-01-01

    A random functional central limit theorem is obtained for processes of partial sums andproduct sums of linear processes generated by non-stationary martingale differences. It devel-ops and improves some corresponding results on processes of partial sums of linear processesgenerated by strictly stationary martingale differences, which can be found in [5].

  13. Recognition of oral spelling is diagnostic of the central reading processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The task of recognition of oral spelling (stimulus: "C-A-T", response: "cat") is often administered to individuals with acquired written language disorders, yet there is no consensus about the underlying cognitive processes. We adjudicate between two existing hypotheses: Recognition of oral spelling uses central reading processes, or recognition of oral spelling uses central spelling processes in reverse. We tested the recognition of oral spelling and spelling to dictation abilities of a single individual with acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia. She was impaired relative to matched controls in spelling to dictation but unimpaired in recognition of oral spelling. Recognition of oral spelling for exception words (e.g., colonel) and pronounceable nonwords (e.g., larth) was intact. Our results were predicted by the hypothesis that recognition of oral spelling involves the central reading processes. We conclude that recognition of oral spelling is a useful tool for probing the integrity of the central reading processes. PMID:25885676

  14. The contribution of activated peripheral kappa opioid receptors (kORs) in the inflamed knee joint to anti-nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sun Wook; Park, Eui Ho; Suh, Hye Rim; Ko, Duk Hwan; Kim, Yang In; Han, Hee Chul

    2016-10-01

    The systemic administration of opioids can be used for their strong analgesic effect. However, extensive activation of opioid receptors (ORs) beyond the targeted tissue can cause dysphoria, pruritus, and constipation. Therefore, selective activation of peripheral ORs present in the afferent fibers of the targeted tissue can be considered a superior strategy in opioid analgesia to avoid potential adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of peripheral kappa opioid receptors (kORs) in arthritic pain for the possible use of peripheral ORs as a target in anti-nociceptive therapy. We administered U50488 or nor-BNI/DIPPA, a selective agonist or antagonist of kOR, respectively into arthritic rat knee joints induced using 1% carrageenan. After the injection of U50488 or U50488 with nor-BNI or DIPPA into the inflamed knee joint, we evaluated nociceptive behavior as indicated by reduced weight-bearing on the ipsilateral limbs of the rat and recorded the activity of mechanosensitive afferents (MSA). In the inflamed knee joint, the intra-articular application of 1μM, 10nM, or 0.1nM U50488 resulted in a significant reduction in nociceptive behavior. In addition, 1μM and 10nM U50488 decreased MSA activity. However, in a non-inflamed knee joint, 1μM U50488 had no effect on MSA activity. Additionally, intra-articular pretreatment with 20μM nor-BNI or 10μM DIPPA significantly blocked the inhibitory effects of 1μM U50488 on nociceptive behavior and MSA activity in the inflamed knee joint. These results implicate that peripheral kORs can contribute to anti-nociceptive processing in an inflamed knee joint. PMID:27378583

  15. Chronic morphine administration enhances nociceptive sensitivity and local cytokine production after incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angst Martin S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - The chronic use of opioids prior to surgery leads to lowered pain thresholds and exaggerated pain levels after these procedures. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this heightened sensitivity commonly termed opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH. Most of these proposed mechanisms involve plastic events in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Alterations in the abundance of peripheral mediators of nociception have not previously been explored. Results - In these experiments mice were treated with saline (control or ascending daily doses of morphine to generate a state of OIH followed by hind paw incision. In other experiments morphine treatment was initiated at the time of incision. Both mechanical allodynia and peri-incisional skin cytokine levels were measured. Myeloperoxidase (MPO assays were used to determine neutrophil activity near the wounds. The cytokine production inhibitor pentoxifylline was used to determine the functional significance of the excess cytokines in previously morphine treated animals. Mice treated chronically treated with morphine prior to incision were found to have enhanced skin levels of IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, KC and TNFα after incision at one or more time points compared to saline pretreated controls. The time courses of individual cytokines followed different patterns. There was no discernable effect of chronic morphine treatment on wound area neutrophil infiltration. Pentoxifylline reduced cytokine levels and reversed the excess mechanical sensitization caused by chronic morphine administration prior to incision. Morphine treatment initiated at the time of incision did not lead to a generalized enhancement of cytokine production or nociceptive sensitization in excess of the levels observed after incision alone. Conclusion - The enhanced level of nociceptive sensitization seen after incision in animals chronically exposed to morphine is associated with elevated levels of several

  16. Stakeholder consultations regarding centralized power procurement processes in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, Ontario held 4 Requests for Proposals (RFPs) to encourage the development of new clean renewable combined heat and power generation and the implementation of conservation and demand management programs. Details of a stakeholder consultation related to the RFP process were presented were in this paper. The aim of the consultation was to synthesize stakeholder comments and to provide appropriate recommendations for future RFPs held by the Ontario Power Authority (OPA). The financial burden of bidding was discussed, as well as communications procedures and contract ambiguities. Issues concerning the criteria used for qualifying potential bidders and evaluating project submissions were reviewed. Recommendations for future processes included prequalification, a simplification in collusion requirements, and a fixed time response. It was also recommended that the process should not emphasize financing as lenders do not make firm commitments to bidders prior to a bid being accepted. It was suggested that the amount of bid security should vary with the project size and phase of development, and that the contracts for differences format should be refined to allow participants to propose parameters. Issues concerning audit procedures and performance deviations were reviewed. It was suggested that contract terms should be compatible with gas markets. It was also suggested that the OPA should adopt a more simplified approach to co-generation proposals, where proponents can specify amounts of energy and required prices. The adoption of the Swiss challenge approach of allowing other vendors an opportunity to match or beat terms on an offer was recommended. It was suggested that renewables should be acquired through a targeted and volume limited standard-offer process to be set yearly. Conservation and demand management recommendations were also presented. It was suggested that the OPA should serve as a facilitator of clean development mechanism (CDM) programs. It was

  17. Nociception at the diabetic foot, an uncharted territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, Ernst A

    2015-04-15

    The diabetic foot is characterised by painless foot ulceration and/or arthropathy; it is a typical complication of painless diabetic neuropathy. Neuropathy depletes the foot skin of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings of the afferent A-delta and C-fibres, which are mostly nociceptors and excitable by noxious stimuli only. However, some of them are cold or warm receptors whose functions in diabetic neuropathy have frequently been reported. Hence, it is well established by quantitative sensory testing that thermal detection thresholds at the foot skin increase during the course of painless diabetic neuropathy. Pain perception (nociception), by contrast, has rarely been studied. Recent pilot studies of pinprick pain at plantar digital skinfolds showed that the perception threshold was always above the upper limit of measurement of 512 mN (equivalent to 51.2 g) at the diabetic foot. However, deep pressure pain perception threshold at musculus abductor hallucis was beyond 1400 kPa (equivalent to 14 kg; limit of measurement) only in every fifth case. These discrepancies of pain perception between forefoot and hindfoot, and between skin and muscle, demand further study. Measuring nociception at the feet in diabetes opens promising clinical perspectives. A critical nociception threshold may be quantified (probably corresponding to a critical number of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings), beyond which the individual risk of a diabetic foot rises appreciably. Staging of diabetic neuropathy according to nociception thresholds at the feet is highly desirable as guidance to an individualised injury prevention strategy.

  18. Nociception and Conditioned Fear in Rats: Strains Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, M.W.H.; van Oostrom, H.; Doornenbal, A.; van 't Klooster, J.; Baars, A.M.; Arndt, S.S.; Hellebrekers, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    When using rats in pain research, strain-related differences in outcomes of tests for pain and nociception are acknowledged. However, very little is known about the specific characteristics of these strain differences. In this study four phylogenetically distant inbred rat strains, i.e. Wistar Kyoto

  19. Adenosine A1 receptor agonists inhibit trigeminovascular nociceptive transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goadsby, P J; Hoskin, K L; Storer, R J;

    2002-01-01

    There is a considerable literature to suggest that adenosine A1 receptor agonists may have anti-nociceptive effects, and we sought to explore the role of adenosine A1 receptors in a model of trigeminovascular nociceptive transmission. Cats were anaesthetized (alpha-chloralose 60 mg/kg, intraperit......There is a considerable literature to suggest that adenosine A1 receptor agonists may have anti-nociceptive effects, and we sought to explore the role of adenosine A1 receptors in a model of trigeminovascular nociceptive transmission. Cats were anaesthetized (alpha-chloralose 60 mg...... from the external jugular vein to determine levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release before and after drug administration. Intravenous administration of the highly selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist, GR79236 (3-100 microg/kg) had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on SSS...... 33 +/- 2 pmol/l (n = 6) to 64 +/- 3 pmol/l, an effect substantially reduced by pre-treatment with GR79236 (30 microg/kg; P agonist, GR190178 (30-1000 microg/kg i.v.), also inhibited SSS-evoked neuronal activity in a dose-dependent fashion...

  20. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 regulates bladder nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crock Lara W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS, is a severely debilitating chronic condition that is frequently unresponsive to conventional pain medications. The etiology is unknown, however evidence suggests that nervous system sensitization contributes to enhanced pain in IC/PBS. In particular, central nervous system plasticity of glutamatergic signaling involving NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs has been implicated in a variety of chronic pain conditions. Here, we test the hypothesis that mGluR5 mediates both non-inflammatory and inflammatory bladder pain or nociception in a mouse model by monitoring the visceromotor response (VMR during graded bladder distention. Results Using a combination of genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we provide evidence indicating that mGluR5 is necessary for the full expression of VMR in response to bladder distention in the absence of inflammation. Furthermore, we observed that mice infected with a uropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (UPEC develop inflammatory hyperalgesia to bladder distention, and that the selective mGluR5 antagonist fenobam [N-(3-chlorophenyl-N'-(4,5-dihydro-1-methyl-4-oxo-1H-imidazole-2-yl urea], reduces the VMR to bladder distention in UPEC-infected mice. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that mGluR5 modulates both inflammatory and non-inflammatory bladder nociception, and highlight the therapeutic potential for mGluR5 antagonists in the alleviation of bladder pain.

  1. Decreased Formalin Induced Nociceptive Behaviors by Morphine Microinjection into the Nucleus Reticularis Paragigantocellularis Lateralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Arami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic injections of morphine have been shown to elicit analgesic responses in formalin test. However, the locations of central sites that may mediate these effects have not been clearly elucidated. This study assessed the antinociceptive action of morphine after microinjection into the nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis lateralis (LPGI in the formalin test in rats. Formalin-induced behaviour is characterized by two phases relevant to acute and tonic. Methods: In this behavioral study, Inflammatory Pain Model by formalin was used in white rats with weight range of 200-300g. Using a stereotaxic apparatus, canulla was inserted into the LPGI. After 1 week recovery, animals were initially submitted to the injection of 50 ml of 2% formalin solution in hind paw. Results: Intra-LPGI microinjection of morphine produced robust inhibition of formalin-evoked behaviour in phase 1, interphase and phase 2 (P<0.001; however, exogenous injection of morphine in the LPGI had no effect on reducing formalin induced nociceptive behaviors Conclusion: The results suggested that morphine plays an anti-nociceptive role in LPGI in phase 1, interphase and late phase of formalin test in rats, which suggests that opioid receptors in the LPGI may be involved in the LPGI -mediated depression of formalin test as inflammatory pain.

  2. Solar augmentation for process heat with central receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Johannes P.; du Toit, Philip; Bode, Sebastian J.; Larmuth, James N.; Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Coal fired boilers are currently one of the most widespread ways to deliver process heat to industry. John Thompson Boilers (JTB) offer industrial steam supply solutions for industry and utility scale applications in Southern Africa. Transport cost add significant cost to the coal price in locations far from the coal fields in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo. The Helio100 project developed a low cost, self-learning, wireless heliostat technology that requires no ground preparation. This is attractive as an augmentation alternative, as it can easily be installed on any open land that a client may have available. This paper explores the techno economic feasibility of solar augmentation for JTB coal fired steam boilers by comparing the fuel savings of a generic 2MW heliostat field at various locations throughout South Africa.

  3. Perceptual weights for loudness reflect central spectral processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2011-01-01

    Weighting patterns for loudness obtained using the reverse correlation method are thought to reveal the relative contributions of different frequency regions to total loudness, the equivalent of specific loudness. Current models of loudness assume that specific loudness is determined by peripheral...... processes such as compression and masking. Here we test this hypothesis using 20-tone harmonic complexes (200Hz f0, 200 to 4000Hz, 250 ms, 65 dB/Component) added in opposite phase relationships (Schroeder positive and negative). Due to the varying degree of envelope modulations, these time-reversed harmonic...... differences in the stimuli, a similar level rove (68 dB) was introduced on each component of Schroeder positive and negative forward maskers. The Schroder negative maskers continued to be more effective. These results suggest that perceptual weights for loudness are not completely determined by peripheral...

  4. Cassava Processing and Marketing by Rural Women in the Central Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOYA, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of rural women's commercial activities in Central Cameroon, particularly the Department of Lekié, which is adjacent to Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon. I focused on cassava processing technologies and the sale of cassavabased processed foods undertaken by women in a suburban farming village. Cassava is one of the main staple foods in central Cameroon, including in urban areas. One of its characteristics is that it keeps for a long period in the ground but ...

  5. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 and 4 gene deficiency attenuates nociceptive behaviors in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Rahman, Md Habibur; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinases (PDKs) 1-4, expressed in peripheral and central tissues, regulate the activity of the PDH complex (PDC). The PDC is an important mitochondrial gatekeeping enzyme that controls cellular metabolism. The role of PDKs in diverse neurological disorders, including neurometabolic aberrations and neurodegeneration, has been described. Implications for a role of PDKs in inflammation and neurometabolic coupling led us to investigate the effect of genetic ablation of PDK2/4 on nociception in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain. Deficiency in Pdk2 and/or Pdk4 in mice led to attenuation of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors (flinching, licking, biting, or lifting of the injected paw). Likewise, the pharmacological inhibition of PDKs substantially diminished the nociceptive responses in the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, formalin-provoked paw edema formation and mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities were significantly reduced in Pdk2/4-deficient mice. Formalin-driven neutrophil recruitment at the site of inflammation, spinal glial activation, and neuronal sensitization were substantially lessened in the second or late phase of the formalin test in Pdk2/4-deficient animals. Overall, our results suggest that PDK2/4 can be a potential target for the development of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute inflammatory pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26931482

  6. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Tecomaria capensis Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) leaves in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract (TCLE) using different models in rats by acetic acid induced writhing test, (b) tail-flick test (c) tail-clip test. Methods:TCLE (100, 300, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg body wt.) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity for 14 d. Then test drug TCLE were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. and standard drug aspirin were given at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. Results: No mortality was reported even after 14 d. This indicates that the methanol extract is safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. TCLE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited abdominal constrictions (writhing) induced by acetic acid and increased the latency period in the tail flick and tail clip test. TCLE at the dose of 500 mg/kg showed significant anti-nociceptive activity compared to standard aspirin. Discussions:The results of this study show that methanol extract of T. capensis possesses anti-nociceptive activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  7. Central Data Processing System (CDPS) users manual: solar heating and cooling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) provides the software and data base management system required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at multiple remote sites. The instrumentation data associated with these systems is collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. The CDPS consists of three major elements: communication interface computer, central data processing computer, and performance evaluation data base. The CDPS Users Manual identifies users of the performance data base, procedures for operation, and guidelines for software maintenance. The manual also defines the output capabilities of the CDPS in support of external users of the system.

  8. Central limit theorems for smoothed extreme value estimates of Poisson point processes boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Stéphane; Menneteau, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give sufficient conditions to establish central limit theorems for boundary estimates of Poisson point processes. The considered estimates are obtained by smoothing some bias corrected extreme values of the point process. We show how the smoothing leads Gaussian asymptotic distributions and therefore pointwise confidence intervals. Some new unidimensional and multidimensional examples are provided.

  9. Central limit theorems for smoothed extreme value estimates of point processes boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Stéphane; Menneteau, Ludovic

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we give sufficient conditions to establish central limit theorems for boundary estimates of Poisson point processes. The considered estimates are obtained by smoothing some bias corrected extreme values of the point process. We show how the smoothing leads Gaussian asymptotic distributions and therefore pointwise confidence intervals. Some new unidimensional and multidimensional examples are provided.

  10. Architectural and performance considerations for a 10(7)-instruction/sec optoelectronic central processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrathoon, R; Kozaitis, S

    1987-11-01

    Architectural considerations for a multiple-instruction, single-data-based optoelectronic central processing unit operating at 10(7) instructions per second are detailed. Central to the operation of this device is a giant fiber-optic content-addressable memory in a programmable logic array configuration. The design includes four instructions and emphasizes the fan-in and fan-out capabilities of optical systems. Interconnection limitations and scaling issues are examined.

  11. Distinct brain systems mediate the effects of nociceptive input and self-regulation on pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Roy, Mathieu; Buhle, Jason T; Wager, Tor D

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive self-regulation can strongly modulate pain and emotion. However, it is unclear whether self-regulation primarily influences primary nociceptive and affective processes or evaluative ones. In this study, participants engaged in self-regulation to increase or decrease pain while experiencing multiple levels of painful heat during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) imaging. Both heat intensity and self-regulation strongly influenced reported pain, but they did so via two distinct brain pathways. The effects of stimulus intensity were mediated by the neurologic pain signature (NPS), an a priori distributed brain network shown to predict physical pain with over 90% sensitivity and specificity across four studies. Self-regulation did not influence NPS responses; instead, its effects were mediated through functional connections between the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pathway was unresponsive to noxious input, and has been broadly implicated in valuation, emotional appraisal, and functional outcomes in pain and other types of affective processes. These findings provide evidence that pain reports are associated with two dissociable functional systems: nociceptive/affective aspects mediated by the NPS, and evaluative/functional aspects mediated by a fronto-striatal system.

  12. Distinct brain systems mediate the effects of nociceptive input and self-regulation on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Wan Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive self-regulation can strongly modulate pain and emotion. However, it is unclear whether self-regulation primarily influences primary nociceptive and affective processes or evaluative ones. In this study, participants engaged in self-regulation to increase or decrease pain while experiencing multiple levels of painful heat during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI imaging. Both heat intensity and self-regulation strongly influenced reported pain, but they did so via two distinct brain pathways. The effects of stimulus intensity were mediated by the neurologic pain signature (NPS, an a priori distributed brain network shown to predict physical pain with over 90% sensitivity and specificity across four studies. Self-regulation did not influence NPS responses; instead, its effects were mediated through functional connections between the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pathway was unresponsive to noxious input, and has been broadly implicated in valuation, emotional appraisal, and functional outcomes in pain and other types of affective processes. These findings provide evidence that pain reports are associated with two dissociable functional systems: nociceptive/affective aspects mediated by the NPS, and evaluative/functional aspects mediated by a fronto-striatal system.

  13. Business process reengineering in the centralization of the industrial enterprises management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Chukhray

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. One of the important strategic directions of the powerful independent state with a stable economy is the development of the national economy, which requires the use of new upgraded tools that will enable to redesign and improve the production and management activities of the enterprise and make it more productive and competitive, while providing the economy of the financial, labor and other resources. However, this presupposes the use of partial restructuring and in some cases complete restructuring of the business processes. The aim of the article is to study business processes reengineering features at domestic enterprises and the development of business processes centralization algorithm on the example of JSC «Concern-Electron». To achieve this goal, the research identifies the following objectives: to summarize the main approaches to the business processes reengineering on the basis of centralization; to characterize the main stages in the reengineering implementation at industrial enterprise; to propose the selection mechanism of the subsidiary business processes for reengineering; to determine the algorithm of the business processes management centralization. The results of the analysis. The paper summarizes main approaches to business process reengineering based on the centralization; undertakes the characteristic advantages of its use at the industrial enterprises; proposes the stages of reengineering for Ukrainian industrial enterprises. Business process reengineering improves the efficiency of work organization at the JSC «Concern- Electron»: a generalized approach to the centralization of the industrial enterprise management, the algorithm of the business process management centralization that includes identification of the business processes that are duplicated; business process selection for the reengineering using the fuzzy set theory; making managerial decisions on reengineering. Conclusions and

  14. The Role of PPK26 in Drosophila Larval Mechanical Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmeng Guo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila larvae, the class IV dendritic arborization (da neurons are polymodal nociceptors. Here, we show that ppk26 (CG8546 plays an important role in mechanical nociception in class IV da neurons. Our immunohistochemical and functional results demonstrate that ppk26 is specifically expressed in class IV da neurons. Larvae with mutant ppk26 showed severe behavioral defects in a mechanical nociception behavioral test but responded to noxious heat stimuli comparably to wild-type larvae. In addition, functional studies suggest that ppk26 and ppk (also called ppk1 function in the same pathway, whereas piezo functions in a parallel pathway. Consistent with these functional results, we found that PPK and PPK26 are interdependent on each other for their cell surface localization. Our work indicates that PPK26 and PPK might form heteromeric DEG/ENaC channels that are essential for mechanotransduction in class IV da neurons.

  15. A Novel Behavioral Fish Model of Nociception for Testing Analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    E. Don Stevens; Cunha, Sérgio R.; Martin Scholze; Correia, Ana D.

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and often interferes significantly with a person's quality of life. Although a priority topic in medical research for many years, there are still few analgesic drugs approved for clinical use. One reason is the lack of appropriate animal models that faithfully represent relevant hallmarks associated with human pain. Here we propose zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a novel short-term behavioral model of nociception, and analyse its sensitivity and ...

  16. Chronic intrathecal cannulation enhances nociceptive responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida F.R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chronically implanted spinal cannula on the nociceptive response induced by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimuli was evaluated. The hyperalgesia in response to mechanical stimulation induced by carrageenin or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was significantly increased in cannulated (Cn rats, compared with naive (Nv or sham-operated (Sh rats. Only Cn animals presented an enhanced nociceptive response in the first phase of the formalin test when low doses were used (0.3 and 1%. The withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation of a paw inflamed by carrageenin was significantly reduced in Cn rats but not in Nv or Sh rats. In contrast to Nv and Sh rats, injection in Cn animals of a standard non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, either intraperitoneally or into the spinal cord via an implanted cannula or by direct puncture of the intrathecal space significantly blocked the intensity of the hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. Cannulated animals treated with indomethacin also showed a significant inhibition of second phase formalin-induced paw flinches. Histopathological analysis of the spinal cord showed an increased frequency of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the Cn groups. Thus, the presence of a chronically implanted cannula seems to cause nociceptive spinal sensitization to mechanical, chemical and thermal stimulation, which can be blocked by indomethacin, thus suggesting that it may result from the spinal release of prostaglandins due to an ongoing mild inflammation.

  17. Nociception at the diabetic foot, an uncharted territory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernst A Chantelau

    2015-01-01

    The diabetic foot is characterised by painless footulceration and/or arthropathy; it is a typical complicationof painless diabetic neuropathy. Neuropathy depletesthe foot skin of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings of theafferent A-delta and C-fibres, which are mostly nociceptorsand excitable by noxious stimuli only. However, someof them are cold or warm receptors whose functionsin diabetic neuropathy have frequently been reported.Hence, it is well established by quantitative sensory testingthat thermal detection thresholds at the foot skin increaseduring the course of painless diabetic neuropathy. Painperception (nociception), by contrast, has rarely beenstudied. Recent pilot studies of pinprick pain at plantardigital skinfolds showed that the perception thresholdwas always above the upper limit of measurement of 512mN (equivalent to 51.2 g) at the diabetic foot. However,deep pressure pain perception threshold at musculus abductor hallucis was beyond 1400 kPa (equivalent to 14 kg; limit of measurement) only in every fifth case. These discrepancies of pain perception between forefoot and hindfoot, and between skin and muscle, demand further study. Measuring nociception at the feet in diabetes opens promising clinical perspectives. A critical nociception threshold may be quantified (probably corresponding to a critical number of intraepidermal nerve fibre endings), beyond which the individual risk of a diabetic foot rises appreciably. Staging of diabetic neuropathy according to nociception thresholds at the feet is highly desirable as guidance to an individualised injury prevention strategy.

  18. Process as Content in Computer Science Education: Empirical Determination of Central Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendler, A.; Spannagel, C.; Klaudt, D.

    2008-01-01

    Computer science education should not be based on short-term developments but on content that is observable in multiple domains of computer science, may be taught at every intellectual level, will be relevant in the longer term, and is related to everyday language and/or thinking. Recently, a catalogue of "central concepts" for computer science…

  19. Role of capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber afferents in neuropathic pain-induced synaptic potentiation in the nociceptive amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Ayano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in the capsular part of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeC, a region also called "nociceptive amygdala," receive nociceptive information from the dorsal horn via afferent pathways relayed from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB. As the central amygdala is known to be involved in the acquisition and expression of emotion, this pathway is thought to play central roles in the generation of affective responses to nociceptive inputs. Excitatory synaptic transmission between afferents arising from the LPB and these CeC neurons is potentiated in arthritic, visceral, neuropathic, inflammatory and muscle pain models. In neuropathic pain models following spinal nerve ligation (SNL, in which we previously showed a robust LPB-CeC potentiation, the principal behavioral symptom is tactile allodynia triggered by non-C-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptor afferents. Conversely, recent anatomical studies have revealed that most of the spinal neurons projecting to the LPB receive C-fiber afferent inputs. Here, we examined the hypothesis that these C-fiber-mediated inputs are necessary for the full establishment of robust synaptic potentiation of LPB-CeC transmission in the rats with neuropathic pain. Results Postnatal capsaicin treatment, which has been shown to denervate the C-fibers expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1 channels, completely abolished eye-wiping responses to capsaicin eye instillation in rats, but this treatment did not affect mechanical allodynia in the nerve-ligated animals. However, the postnatal capsaicin treatment prevented LPB-CeC synaptic potentiation after SNL, unlike in the vehicle-treated rats, primarily due to the decreased incidence of potentiated transmission by elimination of TRPV1-expressing C-fiber afferents. Conclusions C-fiber-mediated afferents in the nerve-ligated animals may be a required facilitator of the establishment of nerve injury-evoked synaptic

  20. P2X receptors mediate ATP-induced primary nociceptive neurone activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland-Ward, P A; Humphrey, P P

    2000-07-01

    ATP-gated P2X ion-channel receptors are localised throughout the mammalian nervous system and have been identified on neurones which participate in conduction of nociceptive information from the periphery to, and within, the CNS. This article briefly reviews recently published research describing the role that ATP and P2X receptors may play in pain perception, highlighting the importance of the P2X(3) receptor in this process. The P2X(3) receptor subunit is almost exclusively expressed on a subset of small and medium diameter sensory neurones innervating cutaneous and visceral tissue. Activation of P2X receptors present on the peripheral terminals of primary afferents results in neuronal depolarisation and, in conscious animals, leads to the manifestation of acute nociceptive behaviour. Recent animal studies have also shown that P2X(3) receptor expression is increased in sensory ganglia following acute neuronal injury, hinting that similar plasticity in the expression of this receptor subtype could underlie the mechanisms involved in a range of conditions characterised by sensory hypersensitivity in man. It is apparent from the evidence available that functional antagonists at specific P2X receptor subtypes could represent an important class of novel analgesic agents.

  1. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated.

  2. Spatiotemporal processing of linear acceleration: primary afferent and central vestibular neuron responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Spatiotemporal convergence and two-dimensional (2-D) neural tuning have been proposed as a major neural mechanism in the signal processing of linear acceleration. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the firing properties of primary otolith afferents and central otolith neurons that respond exclusively to horizontal linear accelerations of the head (0.16-10 Hz) in alert rhesus monkeys. Unlike primary afferents, the majority of central otolith neurons exhibited 2-D spatial tuning to linear acceleration. As a result, central otolith dynamics vary as a function of movement direction. During movement along the maximum sensitivity direction, the dynamics of all central otolith neurons differed significantly from those observed for the primary afferent population. Specifically at low frequencies (neurons peaked in phase with linear velocity, in contrast to primary afferents that peaked in phase with linear acceleration. At least three different groups of central response dynamics were described according to the properties observed for motion along the maximum sensitivity direction. "High-pass" neurons exhibited increasing gains and phase values as a function of frequency. "Flat" neurons were characterized by relatively flat gains and constant phase lags (approximately 20-55 degrees ). A few neurons ("low-pass") were characterized by decreasing gain and phase as a function of frequency. The response dynamics of central otolith neurons suggest that the approximately 90 degrees phase lags observed at low frequencies are not the result of a neural integration but rather the effect of nonminimum phase behavior, which could arise at least partly through spatiotemporal convergence. Neither afferent nor central otolith neurons discriminated between gravitational and inertial components of linear acceleration. Thus response sensitivity was indistinguishable during 0.5-Hz pitch oscillations and fore-aft movements. The fact that otolith-only central neurons with "high

  3. Examining the central and peripheral processes of written word production through meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy ePurcell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Producing written words requires central cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.. In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying Activation Likelihood Estimation methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002. For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146. Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left angular gyrus in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. In general these meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build.

  4. Cortisol, but not intranasal insulin, affects the central processing of visual food cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Ferreira de Sá; A. Schulz; F.E. Streit; J.D. Turner; M.S. Oitzl; T.D. Blumenthal; H. Schächinger

    2014-01-01

    Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin (n=1

  5. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) is designed to transform the raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems. Software requirements for the CDPS are described. The programming standards to be used in development, documentation, and maintenance of the software are discussed along with the CDPS operations approach in support of daily data collection and processing.

  6. Comparison between the fragmentation processes in central Pb + Ag and Pb + Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouault, B.; Royer, G.; Sebille, F.; Haddad, F.; Lecolley, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    The fragmentation processes of a medium mass system and of a very massive one formed in central collisions are compared within the Landau-Vlasov model taking into account both the isospin dependence and the two-body residual interactions. The simulations predict the formation of a roughly ellipsoidal source in the central Pb + Ag reactions while, for the Pb + Au system, the fragmentation occurs from an hollow source, the configuration of which being intermediate between bubble-like and toroidal shapes. This difference shapes explain and allow to reproduce semi-quantitatively the two different profiles of the experimental kinetic energy spectra. (authors).

  7. Characterisation of a behavioural protocol for the assessment of nociception in normal and inflamed porcine skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    pain sensitivity following ultraviolet-B and capsaicin-induced inflammation in porcine skin. A series of experiments was performed to characterise the new experimental protocol, which included (1) the identification and quantification of reflexive behavioural responses indicative of the nociceptive......The study of pain has been historically based on the investigation of human clinical conditions with the purpose of identifying the direct causes of pain to develop suitable analgesic treatments. The need to comprehend the mechanisms behind the processes of pain ignited the rapid development of pre......-clinical research, based on the investigation of experimental models designed to reproduce painful conditions or parts thereof. Animals play a fundamental role, since they provide the platform to reproduce human conditions in order to study the mechanisms behind pain processes, and during the last three decades...

  8. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-25

    This preliminary design review package, consisting of the Software Performance Specification, Hardware Performance Specification, and the Verification Plan for the Central Data Processing System (CDPS), was prepared by the IBM Corporation. The Central Data Processing System, located at IBM's FSD facility in Huntsville, Alabama, provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems at remote sites. These sites include residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications.

  9. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This system design package for the Central Data Processing System consists of the Software Performance Specification, Hardware Performance Specification, Software Verification Plan, CDPS Development Program, Qualification and Acceptance Test Procedures, Qualification Test and Analysis Report, and Qualification and Acceptance Test Review. The Central Data Processing System, located at IBM's Federal System Division facility in Huntsville, Alabama, provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications.

  10. Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Resveratrol During Inflammatory Hyperalgesia via Differential Regulation of pro-Inflammatory Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2016-07-01

    Sensitization of nociceptive neurons by inflammatory mediators leads to hypersensitivity for normal painful stimuli which is termed hyperalgesia. Oxidative stress is an essential factor in pathological pain; therefore, antioxidants qualify as potential anti-hyperalgesic agents. The present study examines the efficacy of the natural antioxidant resveratrol in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced hyperalgesic rats. Thermal hyperalgesia was measured at different time points by paw withdrawal latency test and confirmed by c-Fos expression in spinal dorsal horn. The impact of resveratrol treatment on inflammatory mediators at peripheral (paw skin) and central (spinal cord) sites was determined during early (6 h) as well as late phase (48 h) of hyperalgesia. Intraplanter injection of CFA increased the level of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 as well as inflammatory enzymes COX-2 and iNOS in paw skin in both phases. In case of spinal cord, the level of COX-2 was found to be elevated in both phases, whereas iNOS could not be detected. The cytokines were found to be elevated only in late phase in spinal cord. Administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg) shifted the level of all inflammatory mediators towards normal, except cytokines in paw skin. The present study suggests that the anti-nociceptive effect of resveratrol is implicated at both peripheral and central sites in a tissue specific manner. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27060370

  11. Glutamine uptake contributes to central sensitization in the medullary dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chen Yu; Li, Zhaohui; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Hu, James W.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Mustard oil application to tooth pulp produces central sensitization in rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons, which has been implicated in persistent pain mechanisms. We found that superfusion onto MDH of methylaminoisobutyric acid, a competitive inhibitor of the neuronal system A transporter for presynaptic uptake of glutamine (a glutamate precursor released from astroglia), significantly depressed development of mustard oil-induced central sensitization in rat MDH nociceptive...

  12. How "Central" Is Central Coherence?: Preliminary Evidence on the Link between Conceptual and Perceptual Processing in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Beatriz; Leekam, Susan R.; Arts, Gerda R. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to test the assumption drawn from weak central coherence theory that a central cognitive mechanism is responsible for integrating information at both conceptual and perceptual levels. A visual semantic memory task and a face recognition task measuring use of holistic information were administered to 15 children with autism and 16…

  13. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  14. Researchers’ Adoption of an Institutional Central Fund for Open-Access Article-Processing Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pinfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes researchers’ adoption of an institutional central fund (or faculty publication fund for open-access (OA article-processing charges (APCs to contribute to a wider understanding of take-up of OA journal publishing (“Gold” OA. Quantitative data, recording central fund usage at the University of Nottingham from 2006 to 2014, are analyzed alongside qualitative data from institutional documentation. The importance of the settings of U.K. national policy developments and international OA adoption trends are considered. Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT is used as an explanatory framework. It is shown that use of the central fund grew during the period from covering less than 1% of the University’s outputs to more than 12%. Health and Life Sciences disciplines made greatest use of the fund. Although highly variable, average APC prices rose during the period, with fully OA publishers setting lower average APCs. APCs were paid largely from internal funds, but external funding became increasingly important. Key factors in adoption are identified to be increasing awareness and changing perceptions of OA, communication, disciplinary differences, and adoption mandates. The study provides a detailed longitudinal analysis of one of the earliest central funds to be established globally with a theoretically informed explanatory model to inform future work on managing central funds and developing institutional and national OA policies.

  15. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  16. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Desi...

  17. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  18. Effects of a non-selective TRPC channel blocker, SKF-96365, on melittin-induced spontaneous persistent nociception and inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ding; Jia-Rui Zhang; Yan Wang; Chun-Li Li; Dan Lu; Su-Min Guan; Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Melittin is the main peptide in bee venom and causes both persistent spontaneous nociception and pain hypersensitivity.Our recent studies indicated that both transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and canonical TRPs (TRPCs) are involved in mediating the melittin-induced activation of different subpopulations of primary nociceptive cells.Here,we further determined whether TRPC channels are involved in melittin-induced inflammatory nociceptive responses in behavioral assays.Methods The anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic effects of localized peripheral administration of three doses of the non-selective TRPC antagonist,SKF-96365 (1-{β-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenyl}-1H-imidazole hydrochloride),were evaluated in melittin tests.Pain-related behaviors were rated by counting the number of paw flinches,and measuring paw withdrawal thermal latency (s) and paw withdrawl mechanical threshold (g),over a 1-h time-course.Results Localized peripheral SKF-96365 given before melittin prevented,and given after melittin significantly suppressed,the melittin-evoked persistent spontaneous nociception.Pre-blockade and post-suppression of activation of primary nociceptive activity resulted in decreased hypersensitivity to both thermal and mechanical stimuli applied to the primary injury site of the ipsilateral hindpaw,despite dose-effect differences between thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia.However,local administration of SKF-96365 into the contralateral hindpaw had no significant effect on any pain-associated behaviors.In addition,SKF-96365 had no effect on baseline threshold for either thermal or mechanical sensitivity under normal conditions.Conclusion Besides TRPV1,SKF-96365-sensitive TRPC channels might also be involved in the pathophysiological processing of melittin-induced inflammatory pain and hypersensitivity.Therapeutically,SKF-96365 is equally effective in preventing primary thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia as well as

  19. Network dynamics in nociceptive pathways assessed by the neuronal avalanche model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu José

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional electroencephalography provides a critical assessment of pain responses. The perception of pain, however, may involve a series of signal transmission pathways in higher cortical function. Recent studies have shown that a mathematical method, the neuronal avalanche model, may be applied to evaluate higher-order network dynamics. The neuronal avalanche is a cascade of neuronal activity, the size distribution of which can be approximated by a power law relationship manifested by the slope of a straight line (i.e., the α value. We investigated whether the neuronal avalanche could be a useful index for nociceptive assessment. Findings Neuronal activity was recorded with a 4 × 8 multichannel electrode array in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Under light anesthesia, peripheral pinch stimulation increased the slope of the α value in both the ACC and S1, whereas brush stimulation increased the α value only in the S1. The increase in α values was blocked in both regions under deep anesthesia. The increase in α values in the ACC induced by peripheral pinch stimulation was blocked by medial thalamic lesion, but the increase in α values in the S1 induced by brush and pinch stimulation was not affected. Conclusions The neuronal avalanche model shows a critical state in the cortical network for noxious-related signal processing. The α value may provide an index of brain network activity that distinguishes the responses to somatic stimuli from the control state. These network dynamics may be valuable for the evaluation of acute nociceptive processes and may be applied to chronic pathological pain conditions.

  20. Amygdala-prefrontal pathways and the dopamine system affect nociceptive responses in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onozawa Kitaro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated nociceptive discharges to be evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. The nociceptive responses recorded in the PFC are conceivably involved in the affective rather than the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain. The PFC receives dense projection from the limbic system. Monosynaptic projections from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA to the PFC are known to produce long-lasting synaptic plasticity. We examined effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS delivered to the BLA on nociceptive responses in the rat PFC. Results HFS induced long lasting suppression (LLS of the specific high threshold responses of nociceptive neurons in the PFC. Microinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists (2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, dizocilpine (MK-801 and also metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR group antagonists (α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, and 2-[(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-3-(9H-xanthen-9-yl-D-alanine (LY341495, prevented the induction of LLS of nociceptive responses. We also examined modulatory effects of dopamine (DA on the LLS of nociceptive responses. With depletion of DA in response to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the ipsilateral forebrain bundle, LLS of nociceptive responses was decreased, while nociceptive responses were normally evoked. Antagonists of DA receptor subtypes D2 (sulpiride and D4 (3-{[4-(4-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] methyl}-1H-pyrrolo [2, 3-b] pyridine (L-745,870, microinjected into the PFC, inhibited LLS of nociceptive responses. Conclusions Our results indicate that BLA-PFC pathways inhibited PFC nociceptive cell activities and that the DA system modifies the BLA-PFC regulatory function.

  1. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  2. THE ROLE OF RED NUCLEUS IN THE MODULATION OF SPINAL NOCICEPTIVE TRANSMISSION AND IN NOCICEPTION ELICITED BY MUSCLE SPINDLE AFFERENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐斌; 樊小力; 吴苏娣

    2003-01-01

    Objective To analyse the antinociceptive effect of red nucleus (RN) and its role in the antinociceptive effect of muscle spindle afferents. Methods The single units of RN or wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron in the spinal cord dorsal horn were extracelluarly recorded. The effects of RN stimulation on nociceptive responses (C-fibers-evoked responses, C-responses) of WDR neurons were observed. The influence of muscle spindle afferents elicited by intravenous administration of succinylcholine (Sch) on the spontaneous discharge of RN neurons and on C-responses of WDR neurons were observed. The effect of muscle spindle afferents on C-responses of WDR neurons after unilateral lesions of RN was also observed. Results Electrical stimulation of the RN produced a significantly inhibitory effect on the nociceptive responses of WDR neurons. RN neurons were excited by muscle spindle afferents. Muscle spindle afferents significantly inhibited C-response of WDR neurons and this inhibitory effect was reduced by lesions of RN. Conclusion RN neurons have a significant antinociceptive effect and might be involved in the antinociceptive effects elicited by muscle spindle afferents.

  3. Migration Processes from Eastern and Central Europe in Spain: Legal Status, Social Identity and Job Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ibáñez Angulo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern and Central Europe, the collapse of the socialist model and the incorporation of the neoliberal model plunged the region into a deep economic and social crisis. In this context, emigration came to be viewed as a way out, at least on a temporary basis. Transnational migration from this region has also been interpreted as a response to the crisis of values generated following the collapse of the Socialist States. This text analyses migration flows from Eastern and Central Europe from three perspectives: politics (which defines their legal status; sociocultural (from whence their social identities and imaginaries are derived and the economic (which establishes specific forms of job placement. The aim of the study isto show that choosing migration destinations is not only determined by a rational economic logic, but also by political and socio-cultural factors; the study also stresses the point that social integration is a reciprocal, multidimensional process.

  4. Effects of acid on vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes in guinea pig esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian; Yu, Shaoyong

    2014-08-15

    Acid reflux-induced heartburn and noncardiac chest pain are processed peripherally by sensory nerve endings in the wall of the esophagus, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of acid on esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in guinea pig vagal nodose or jugular C fiber neurons by using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. We recorded action potentials (AP) of esophageal nodose or jugular C fibers evoked by acid perfusion and compared esophageal distension-evoked AP before and after acid perfusion. Acid perfusion for 30 min (pH range 7.4 to 5.8) did not evoke AP in nodose C fibers but significantly decreased their responses to esophageal distension, which could be recovered after washing out acid for 90 min. In jugular C fibers, acid perfusion not only evoked AP but also inhibited their responses to esophageal distension, which were not recovered after washing out acid for 120 min. Lower concentration of capsaicin perfusion mimicked acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fibers. Pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810, but not acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor amiloride, significantly inhibited acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fiber. These results demonstrate that esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent nerve subtypes display distinctive responses to acid. Acid activates jugular, but not nodose, C fibers and inhibits both of their responses to esophageal distension. These effects are mediated mainly through TRPV1. This inhibitory effect is a novel finding and may contribute to esophageal sensory/motor dysfunction in acid reflux diseases.

  5. Changes in Aβ non-nociceptive primary sensory neurons in a rat model of osteoarthritis pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a major debilitating factor in osteoarthritis (OA, yet few mechanism-based therapies are available. To address the need to understand underlying mechanisms the aim of the present study was to determine changes in sensory neurons in an animal model of OA pain. Results The model displayed typical osteoarthritis pathology characterized by cartilage degeneration in the knee joint and also manifested knee pathophysiology (edema and increased vasculature permeability of the joint and altered nociception of the affected limb (hind paw tenderness and knee articulation-evoked reduction in the tail flick latency. Neurons included in this report innervated regions throughout the entire hind limb. Aβ-fiber low threshold mechanoreceptors exhibited a slowing of the dynamics of action potential (AP genesis, including wider AP duration and slower maximum rising rate, and muscle spindle neurons were the most affected subgroup. Only minor AP configuration changes were observed in either C- or Aδ-fiber nociceptors. Conclusion Thus, at one month after induction of the OA model Aβ-fiber low threshold mechanoreceptors but not C- or Aδ-fiber nociceptors had undergone changes in electrophysiological properties. If these changes reflect a change in functional role of these neurons in primary afferent sensory processing, then Aβ-fiber non-nociceptive primary sensory neurons may be involved in the pathogenesis of OA pain. Further, it is important to point out that the patterns of the changes we observed are consistent with observations in models of peripheral neuropathy but not models of peripheral inflammation.

  6. The role of Drosophila Piezo in mechanical nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Coste, Bertrand; Chadha, Abhishek; Cook, Boaz; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2012-03-01

    Transduction of mechanical stimuli by receptor cells is essential for senses such as hearing, touch and pain. Ion channels have a role in neuronal mechanotransduction in invertebrates; however, functional conservation of these ion channels in mammalian mechanotransduction is not observed. For example, no mechanoreceptor potential C (NOMPC), a member of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family, acts as a mechanotransducer in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans; however, it has no orthologues in mammals. Degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) family members are mechanotransducers in C. elegans and potentially in D. melanogaster; however, a direct role of its mammalian homologues in sensing mechanical force has not been shown. Recently, Piezo1 (also known as Fam38a) and Piezo2 (also known as Fam38b) were identified as components of mechanically activated channels in mammals. The Piezo family are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins. It is unknown whether they function in mechanical sensing in vivo and, if they do, which mechanosensory modalities they mediate. Here we study the physiological role of the single Piezo member in D. melanogaster (Dmpiezo; also known as CG8486). Dmpiezo expression in human cells induces mechanically activated currents, similar to its mammalian counterparts. Behavioural responses to noxious mechanical stimuli were severely reduced in Dmpiezo knockout larvae, whereas responses to another noxious stimulus or touch were not affected. Knocking down Dmpiezo in sensory neurons that mediate nociception and express the DEG/ENaC ion channel pickpocket (ppk) was sufficient to impair responses to noxious mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, expression of Dmpiezo in these same neurons rescued the phenotype of the constitutive Dmpiezo knockout larvae. Accordingly, electrophysiological recordings from ppk-positive neurons revealed a Dmpiezo-dependent, mechanically activated current. Finally, we found that Dmpiezo

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Senthil Kumar; Balasubramanian Rajkapoor; Perumal Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extract ofIndigofera cassioides(I. cassioides)(MEIC) using various animal models.Methods:Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities ofMEIC was assessed by using different animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated by using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma method.Anti-nociceptive activity of the extract was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions by usingEddy’s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing respectively.The study was carried out using dose of200 &400 mg/kg orally.Aceclofenac, aspirin and pentazocine was used as standard drugs to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, respectively.Results:Treatment withMEIC significantly (P<0.001) decrease the paw volume and weight of cotton pellet in the tested models.It also exhibit potent analgesic activity on chemical and thermal induced pain in mice.MEIC exhibit potent and dose dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in all the tested animal models. Conclusions:All the results obtained revealed that the extractMEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used.The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  8. Security central processing unit applications in the protection of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New or upgraded electronic security systems protecting nuclear facilities or complexes will be heavily computer dependent. Proper planning for new systems and the employment of new state-of-the-art 32 bit processors in the processing of subsystem reports are key elements in effective security systems. The processing of subsystem reports represents only a small segment of system overhead. In selecting a security system to meet the current and future needs for nuclear security applications the central processing unit (CPU) applied in the system architecture is the critical element in system performance. New 32 bit technology eliminates the need for program overlays while providing system programmers with well documented program tools to develop effective systems to operate in all phases of nuclear security applications

  9. Nociceptive responses to thermal and mechanical stimulations in awake pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Herskin, Mette S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Porcine skin exhibits a high degree of homology to human skin, and the pig has recently been used as a cutaneous pain model. However, before the full potential of this novel in vivo cutaneous pain model can be achieved, several methodological aspects related to the management of awake...... animal studies in a large species require further examination. This manuscript describes the initial development of a porcine model of cutaneous nociception and focuses on interactions between the sensory modality, body size and the anatomical location of the stimulation site. METHODS: Pigs of different...... body sizes (30 and 60 kg) were exposed to thermal (CO(2) laser) and mechanical (pressure application measurement device) stimulations to the flank and the hind legs in a balanced order. The median response latency and the type of behavioural response were recorded. RESULTS: Small pigs exhibited...

  10. Specific activation of the paralemniscal pathway during nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangeul, Laura; Porrero, Cesar; Garcia-Amado, Maria; Maimone, Benedetta; Maniglier, Madlyne; Clascá, Francisco; Jabaudon, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Two main neuronal pathways connect facial whiskers to the somatosensory cortex in rodents: (i) the lemniscal pathway, which originates in the brainstem principal trigeminal nucleus and is relayed in the ventroposterior thalamic nucleus and (ii) the paralemniscal pathway, originating in the spinal trigeminal nucleus and relayed in the posterior thalamic nucleus. While lemniscal neurons are readily activated by whisker contacts, the contribution of paralemniscal neurons to perception is less clear. Here, we functionally investigated these pathways by manipulating input from the whisker pad in freely moving mice. We report that while lemniscal neurons readily respond to neonatal infraorbital nerve sectioning or whisker contacts in vivo, paralemniscal neurons do not detectably respond to these environmental changes. However, the paralemniscal pathway is specifically activated upon noxious stimulation of the whisker pad. These findings reveal a nociceptive function for paralemniscal neurons in vivo that may critically inform context-specific behaviour during environmental exploration.

  11. Regulation of the Na,K-ATPase gamma-subunit FXYD2 by Runx1 and Ret signaling in normal and injured non-peptidergic nociceptive sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Ventéo

    Full Text Available Dorsal root ganglia (DRGs contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons which relay nociceptive, thermoceptive, mechanoceptive and proprioceptive information from peripheral tissues toward the central nervous system. These neurons establish constant communication with their targets which insures correct maturation and functioning of the somato-sensory nervous system. Interfering with this two-way communication leads to cellular, electrophysiological and molecular modifications that can eventually cause neuropathic conditions. In this study we reveal that FXYD2, which encodes the gamma-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase reported so far to be mainly expressed in the kidney, is induced in the mouse DRGs at postnatal stages where it is restricted specifically to the TrkB-expressing mechanoceptive and Ret-positive/IB4-binding non-peptidergic nociceptive neurons. In non-peptidergic nociceptors, we show that the transcription factor Runx1 controls FXYD2 expression during the maturation of the somato-sensory system, partly through regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret. Moreover, Ret signaling maintains FXYD2 expression in adults as demonstrated by the axotomy-induced down-regulation of the gene that can be reverted by in vivo delivery of GDNF family ligands. Altogether, these results establish FXYD2 as a specific marker of defined sensory neuron subtypes and a new target of the Ret signaling pathway during normal maturation of the non-peptidergic nociceptive neurons and after sciatic nerve injury.

  12. Sertraline inhibits formalin-induced nociception and cardiovascular responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Santuzzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperalgesic effect of sertraline, measured indirectly by the changes of sciatic afferent nerve activity, and its effects on cardiorespiratory parameters, using the model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception in anesthetized rats. Serum serotonin (5-HT levels were measured in order to test their correlation with the analgesic effect. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into 4 groups (N = 8/per group: sertraline-treated group (Sert + Saline (Sal and Sert + Formalin (Form; 3 mg·kg-1·day-1, ip, for 7 days and saline-treated group (Sal + Sal and Sal + Form. The rats were injected with 5% (50 µL formalin or saline into the right hind paw. Sciatic nerve activity was recorded using a silver electrode connected to a NeuroLog apparatus, and cardiopulmonary parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency, assessed after arterial cannulation and tracheotomy, were monitored using a Data Acquisition System. Blood samples were collected from the animals and serum 5-HT levels were determined by ELISA. Formalin injection induced the following changes: sciatic afferent nerve activity (+50.8 ± 14.7%, mean arterial pressure (+1.4 ± 3 mmHg, heart rate (+13 ± 6.8 bpm, respiratory frequency (+4.6 ± 5 cpm and serum 5-HT increased to 1162 ± 124.6 ng/mL. Treatment with sertraline significantly reduced all these parameters (respectively: +19.8 ± 6.9%, -3.3 ± 2 mmHg, -13.1 ± 10.8 bpm, -9.8 ± 5.7 cpm and serum 5-HT level dropped to 634 ± 69 ng/mL (P < 0.05. These results suggest that sertraline plays an analgesic role in formalin-induced nociception probably through a serotonergic mechanism.

  13. Sertraline inhibits formalin-induced nociception and cardiovascular responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Futuro Neto, H.A. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Gonçalves, W.L.S. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Tiradentes, R.V.; Gouvea, S.A.; Abreu, G.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperalgesic effect of sertraline, measured indirectly by the changes of sciatic afferent nerve activity, and its effects on cardiorespiratory parameters, using the model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception in anesthetized rats. Serum serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured in order to test their correlation with the analgesic effect. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups (N = 8 per group): sertraline-treated group (Sert + Saline (Sal) and Sert + Formalin (Form); 3 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, ip, for 7 days) and saline-treated group (Sal + Sal and Sal + Form). The rats were injected with 5% (50 µL) formalin or saline into the right hind paw. Sciatic nerve activity was recorded using a silver electrode connected to a NeuroLog apparatus, and cardiopulmonary parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency), assessed after arterial cannulation and tracheotomy, were monitored using a Data Acquisition System. Blood samples were collected from the animals and serum 5-HT levels were determined by ELISA. Formalin injection induced the following changes: sciatic afferent nerve activity (+50.8 ± 14.7%), mean arterial pressure (+1.4 ± 3 mmHg), heart rate (+13 ± 6.8 bpm), respiratory frequency (+4.6 ± 5 cpm) and serum 5-HT increased to 1162 ± 124.6 ng/mL. Treatment with sertraline significantly reduced all these parameters (respectively: +19.8 ± 6.9%, -3.3 ± 2 mmHg, -13.1 ± 10.8 bpm, -9.8 ± 5.7 cpm) and serum 5-HT level dropped to 634 ± 69 ng/mL (P < 0.05). These results suggest that sertraline plays an analgesic role in formalin-induced nociception probably through a serotonergic mechanism.

  14. A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringkamp, Matthias; Schepers, Raf J; Shimada, Steven G; Johanek, Lisa M; Hartke, Timothy V; Borzan, Jasenka; Shim, Beom; LaMotte, Robert H; Meyer, Richard A

    2011-10-19

    Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of nonhistaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in nonhistaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: (1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a subgroup of subjects with A-fiber-dominated itch, (2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber- versus C-fiber-dominated itch, (3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, (4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, (5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber-dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and (6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber-dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that nonhistaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. PMID:22016517

  15. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing.

  16. Guess you're right on this one too : Central and peripheral processing in attitude changes in large populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Amblard, Frederic; Takahashi, S; Scallach, D; Rouchier, J

    2007-01-01

    In processes of attitude change people may employ different mechanisms, for example focussing on arguments (central processing) versus focusing on the reputation of the source (peripheral processing). In this paper we formalise these processes and systematically explore bow this affects the relation

  17. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI technique, (SPN, has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain. The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  18. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafinski T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tania Stafinski1, Devidas Menon2, Caroline Davis1, Christopher McCabe31Health Technology and Policy Unit, 2Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute for Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process.Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers.Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations

  19. Aeolian Processes and Landforms in River Valleys of Central Russian Plain in MIS 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Late Pleistocene terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain were subject to aeolian reworking after the alluvial sedimentation had finished. Severe natural conditions of LGM (cold and dry climate, scarce vegetation) contributed activation of aeolian processes. Ground water lowering because of deep pre-LGM incision of rivers made deep aeolian reworking possible at low hypsometric levels of valley bottom. We studied lithological structure of terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain. The key sites were located in Seim (the middle Dnieper catchment) and Khoper (the middle Don catchment) river valleys. Field data was combined with quartz grains morphoscopy technique (study of texture of sediment particles using scanning electron microscope). Wide participation of aeolian sediments in terrace deposits was detected. During this study a new technique of the distinguishing of short-term aeolian reworking of alluvial deposits using quartz grains morphoscopy technique was developed. The main problem of interpretation the results of quartz grains morphoscopy is that aeolian signals are sometimes not clear due to short duration of wind action over alluvial sands. However, detailed studies of the quartz grains surfaces under scanning electron microscope helped to solve this problem. We used scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-661 LV and worked with magnification from ×160 to ×400 for whole grains and up to ×1800 for some parts of grains. Deep aeolian reworking of Late Pleistocene terrace alluvium in river valleys of Central Russian Plain during LGM led to the formation of aeolian covers on the terrace surfaces. Also there are many relict dunes on Late Pleistocene river terrace surfaces. Sometimes the development of aeolian processes could led to more significant changes in the shape of the valley and formation of aeolian aprons. The thickness of aeolian covers can reach 3-5 m or more. Due to this reason morphology and topography of river terraces could

  20. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality

  1. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peryshkin, A. Yu., E-mail: alexb700@yandex.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Makarov, P. V., E-mail: bacardi@ispms.ru; Eremin, M. O., E-mail: bacardi@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.

  2. Modulation of Visceral Nociception, Inflammation and Gastric Mucosal Injury by Cinnarizine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cinnarizine, a drug used for the treatment of vertigo was assessed in animal models of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury. Cinnarizine (1.25–20 mg/kg, s.c. caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by i.p. injection of acetic acid by 38.7–99.4%. This effect of cinnarizine (2.5 mg/kg was unaffected by co-administration of the centrally acting dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, sulpiride, haloperidol or metoclopramide, the peripherally acting D2 receptor antagonist domperidone, but increased by the D2 receptor agonist bromocryptine and by the non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist chlorpromazine. The antinociception caused by cinnarizine was naloxone insenstive, but enhanced by propranolol, atropine and by yohimbine. The antinociceptive effect of cinnarizine was prevented by co-treatment with the adenosine receptor blocker theophylline or by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP blocker glibenclamide. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reversed the baclofen-induced antinociception. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reduced immobility time in the Porsolt’s forced-swimming test by 24%. Cinnarizine inhibited the paw oedema response to carrageenan and reduced gastric mucosal lesions caused by indomethacin in rats. It is suggested that cinnarizine exerts anti-infl ammatory, antinociceptive and gastric protective properties. The mechanism by which cinnarizine modulates pain transmission is likely to involve adenosine receptors and KATP channels.

  3. Modulation of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury by cinnarizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E

    2007-01-01

    The effect of cinnarizine, a drug used for the treatment of vertigo was assessed in animal models of visceral nociception, inflammation and gastric mucosal injury. Cinnarizine (1.25-20 mg/kg, s.c.) caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by i.p. injection of acetic acid by 38.7-99.4%. This effect of cinnarizine (2.5 mg/kg) was unaffected by co-administration of the centrally acting dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, sulpiride, haloperidol or metoclopramide, the peripherally acting D2 receptor antagonist domperidone, but increased by the D2 receptor agonist bromocryptine and by the non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist chlorpromazine. The antinociception caused by cinnarizine was naloxone insenstive, but enhanced by propranolol, atropine and by yohimbine. The antinociceptive effect of cinnarizine was prevented by co-treatment with the adenosine receptor blocker theophylline or by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) blocker glibenclamide. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reversed the baclofen-induced antinociception. Cinnarizine at 2.5 mg/kg reduced immobility time in the Porsolt's forced-swimming test by 24%. Cinnarizine inhibited the paw oedema response to carrageenan and reduced gastric mucosal lesions caused by indomethacin in rats. It is suggested that cinnarizine exerts anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and gastric protective properties. The mechanism by which cinnarizine modulates pain transmission is likely to involve adenosine receptors and K(ATP) channels. PMID:21901060

  4. Alpha and gamma oscillation amplitudes synergistically predict the perception of forthcoming nociceptive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiheng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tan, Ao; Peng, Weiwei; Hung, Yeung Sam; Moayedi, Massieh; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Hu, Li

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing fluctuations of intrinsic cortical networks determine the dynamic state of the brain, and influence the perception of forthcoming sensory inputs. The functional state of these networks is defined by the amplitude and phase of ongoing oscillations of neuronal populations at different frequencies. The contribution of functionally different cortical networks has yet to be elucidated, and only a clear dependence of sensory perception on prestimulus alpha oscillations has been clearly identified. Here, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy participants to investigate how ongoing fluctuations in the activity of different cortical networks affect the perception of subsequent nociceptive stimuli. We observed that prestimulus EEG oscillations in the alpha (at bilateral central regions) and gamma (at parietal regions) bands negatively modulated the perception of subsequent stimuli. Combining information about alpha and gamma oscillations predicted subsequent perception significantly more accurately than either measure alone. In a parallel experiment, we found that prestimulus fMRI activity also modulated the perception of subsequent stimuli: perceptual ratings were higher when the BOLD signal was higher in nodes of the sensorimotor network and lower in nodes of the default mode network. Similar to what observed in the EEG data, prediction accuracy was improved when the amplitude of prestimulus BOLD signals in both networks was combined. These findings provide a comprehensive physiological basis to the idea that dynamic changes in brain state determine forthcoming behavioral outcomes. Hum Brain Mapp 37:501-514, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of silymarin on neuropathic pain and formalin-induced nociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Vahdati Hassani

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion:Results of the present study indicated that repeated administration of silymarin prevents the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior. However, it is not effective in the treatment of sciatic neuropathic pain.

  6. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Yiheng eTu; Ao eTan; Yanru eBai; YeungSam eHung; Zhiguo eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely ...

  7. Similar itch and nociceptive sensations evoked by punctate cutaneous application of capsaicin, histamine and cowhage

    OpenAIRE

    Sikand, Parul; Shimada, Steven G.; Green, Barry G.; LaMotte, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Itch evoked by cowhage or histamine is reduced or blocked by capsaicin desensitization, suggesting that pruriceptive neurons are capsaicin-sensitive. Topical capsaicin can evoke both nociceptive sensations and itch, whereas intradermal injection of capsaicin evokes only burning pain. To dissociate the pruritic and nociceptive sensory effects caused by the chemical activation of sensory neurons, chemicals were applied in a punctiform manner to the skin of the forearm using individual, heat-ina...

  8. Mrgprd-expressing polymodal nociceptive neurons innervate most known classes of substantia gelatinosa neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zylka, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D (Mrgprd) marks a distinct subset of sensory neurons that transmit polymodal nociceptive information from the skin epidermis to the substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) of the spinal cord. Moreover, Mrgprd-expressing (Mrgprd+) neurons are required for the full expression of mechanical but not thermal nociception. While such anatomical and functional specificity suggests Mrgprd+ neurons might synapse with specific postsynaptic targets in the SG, pre...

  9. Influence of Stimulation Location and Posture on the Reliability and Comfort of the Nociceptive Flexion Reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Gwyn N.; David A Rice; Kathryn Jourdain; McNair, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The lower limb nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) is commonly used to assess the function of the nociceptive system. Currently, there is a lack of standardized stimulation procedures to determine the NFR threshold, making comparisons of thresholds across studies difficult.OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the within- and between-session reliability of NFR threshold when elicited from two common stimulation locations: the medial arch of the foot (while standing) and the sural nerve (...

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM SEED EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Jeetendra Kumar; Sharma Sandeep Kumar; Misra Vimlesh; Patel Kanika

    2011-01-01

    The plant Punica granatum of family Punicaceae is distributed throughout India and reputed to have numerous applications in traditional medicine system. In order to justify its folkloric use in nociception and inflammation, the study was performed.In this study, the extraction of Punica granatum seed extract was carried out in aqueous media. In order to explore its potency, various experimental models of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were taken. The oral administration of ...

  11. Involvement of spinal glutamate in nociceptive behavior induced by intrathecal administration of hemokinin-1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Chizuko; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2016-03-23

    The most recently identified tachykinin, hemokinin-1, was cloned from mouse bone marrow. While several studies indicated that hemokinin-1 is involved in pain and inflammation, the physiological functions of hemokinin-1 are not fully understood. Our previous research demonstrated that the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of hemokinin-1 (0.00625-1.6 nmol) dose-dependently induced nociceptive behaviors, consisting of scratching, biting and licking in mice, which are very similar with the nociceptive behaviors induced by the i.t. administration of substance P. Low-dose (0.0125 nmol) hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behavior was inhibited by a specific NK1 receptor antagonist; however, high-dose (0.1 nmol) hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behavior was not affected. In the present study, we found that the nociceptive behaviors induced by hemokinin-1 (0.1 nmol) were inhibited by the i.t. co-administration of MK-801 or D-APV, which are NMDA receptor antagonists. Moreover, we measured glutamate in the extracellular fluid of the mouse spinal cord using microdialysis. The i.t. administration of hemokinin-1 produced a significant increase in glutamate in the spinal cord, which was significantly reduced by co-administration with NMDA receptor antagonists. These results suggest that hemokinin-1-induced nociceptive behaviors may be mediated by the NMDA receptor in the spinal cord. PMID:26899156

  12. Effects of Parecoxib and Fentanyl on nociception-induced cortical activity

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    Wang Ying-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analgesics, including opioids and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs reduce postoperative pain. However, little is known about the quantitative effects of these drugs on cortical activity induced by nociceptive stimulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the neural activity in response to a nociceptive stimulus and to investigate the effects of fentanyl (an opioid agonist and parecoxib (a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on this nociception-induced cortical activity evoked by tail pinch. Extracellular recordings (electroencephalogram and multi-unit signals were performed in the area of the anterior cingulate cortex while intracellular recordings were made in the primary somatosensory cortex. The effects of parecoxib and fentanyl on induced cortical activity were compared. Results Peripheral nociceptive stimulation in anesthetized rats produced an immediate electroencephalogram (EEG desynchronization resembling the cortical arousal (low-amplitude, fast-wave activity, while the membrane potential switched into a persistent depolarization state. The induced cortical activity was abolished by fentanyl, and the fentanyl's effect was reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Parecoxib, on the other hand, did not significantly affect the neural activity. Conclusion Cortical activity was modulated by nociceptive stimulation in anesthetized rats. Fentanyl showed a strong inhibitory effect on the nociceptive-stimulus induced cortical activity while parecoxib had no significant effect.

  13. Identification and quantification of neuropeptides in naïve mouse spinal cord using mass spectrometry reveals [des-Ser1]-cerebellin as a novel modulator of nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie; Sandor, Katalin; Sköld, Karl; Hökfelt, Tomas; Svensson, Camilla I; Kultima, Kim

    2014-07-01

    Neuropeptide transmitters involved in nociceptive processes are more likely to be expressed in the dorsal than the ventral horn of the spinal cord. This study was designed to examine the relative distribution of neuropeptides between the dorsal and ventral spinal cord in naïve mice using liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry. We identified and relatively quantified 36 well-characterized full-length neuropeptides and an additional 168 not previously characterized peptides. By extraction with organic solvents we identified seven additional full-length neuropeptides. The peptide [des-Ser1]-cerebellin (desCER), originating from cerebellin precursor protein 1 (CBLN1), was predominantly expressed in the dorsal horn. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of CBLN1 immunoreactivity with a punctate cytoplasmic pattern in neuronal cell bodies throughout the spinal gray matter. The signal was stronger in the dorsal compared to the ventral horn, with most CBLN1 positive cells present in outer laminae II/III, colocalizing with calbindin, a marker for excitatory interneurons. Intrathecal injection of desCER induced a dose-dependent mechanical hypersensitivity but not heat or cold hypersensitivity. This study provides evidence for involvement of desCER in nociception and provides a platform for continued exploration of involvement of novel neuropeptides in the regulation of nociceptive transmission. Neuropeptides involved in nociceptive processes are more likely to be expressed in the dorsal than the ventral horn of spinal cord. Well-characterized full-length neuropeptides as well as uncharacterized neuropeptides were quantified by mass spectrometry. The CBLN1-derived peptide [des-Ser1]-cerebellin (desCER) is predominantly expressed in the dorsal horn, and intrathecal injection of desCER induced a dose-dependent mechanical hypersensitivity.

  14. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat at retail and processing plants’ levels in Central Italy

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    Ziad Mezher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human campylobacteriosis remains the most commonly reported gastrointestinal disease in Europe and Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli are the two species most frequently involved in such foodborne disease. Based on the sampling plan established in the region of Lazio (Central Italy the aim of our work was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations collected by the local veterinary authority at retail shops and processing plants. We also observed whether various factors such as animal species or type of product affected the isolation rate. Occurrence was significantly lower than previous surveys (12/209, 5.7% and chicken meat was more contaminated than turkey meat.

  15. Processos inflamatorios cronicos do sistema nervoso central: aspectos neurocirurgicos Inflamatory chronic processes of the central nervous system: neurosurgical aspects

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    Nubor Orlando Facure

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 35 casos de pacientes com síndrome de hipertensão intra-craniana causada por processos inflamatórios crônicos do sistema nervoso central. Apesar da multiplicidade dos agentes etiológicos, a conduta neuro-cirúrgica para a solução da hipertensão intracraniana é semelhante nestes processos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo 1 inclui 7 pacientes nos quais o quadro clínico e neuro-radiológico era de lesão expansiva intracerebral. Estes pacientes foram submetidos a cranotomia com exerese do processo expansivo: tratava-se de cisticercos múltiplos em 5 casos, tuberculoma em um e granuloma blastomicótico em outro. A mortalidade foi nula e não houve recidiva da hipertensão intracraniana. Nos pacientes do grupo 2 as lesões fundamentais são representadas pela ependimite granulosa e leptomeningite crônica das cisternas basais. Os quadros clínico e neuro-radiológico são de hidrocefalia com dilatação ventricular e frequentemente sem sintais neurológicos focais. O prognóstico nestes casos é mais grave devido quase sempre à progressão da doença. Nos 28 pacientes incluídos neste grupo o tratamento de escolha foi a derivação ventriculoatrial ou ventrículoperitonial. A mortalidade foi de 39,2%.A study into the neurosurgical approach to thirty-five patients with increased intracranial pressure due to inflamatory diseases affecting the central nervous system and meninges is reported. The entities under consideration were found to have similar surgical aspects despite the heterogeneity of etiologic agents. As regards the surgical treatment, two groups of cases were recognized. Group 1 comprises 7 patientes with symptoms of a space-occupying lesion; in these patients craniotomies were perfomed with good results. Group 2 included the remainder 28 cases with acquired hydrocephalus. In this group differents methods for ventricular drainage were used, but ventriculo-auriculostomy and specially ventriculo

  16. D-Aspartate Modulates Nociceptive-Specific Neuron Activity and Pain Threshold in Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Condition in Mice

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    Serena Boccella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available D-Aspartate (D-Asp is a free D-amino acid found in the mammalian brain with a temporal-dependent concentration based on the postnatal expression of its metabolizing enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO. D-Asp acts as an agonist on NMDA receptors (NMDARs. Accordingly, high levels of D-Asp in knockout mice for Ddo gene (Ddo−/− or in mice treated with D-Asp increase NMDAR-dependent processes. We have here evaluated in Ddo−/− mice the effect of high levels of free D-Asp on the long-term plastic changes along the nociceptive pathway occurring in chronic and acute pain condition. We found that Ddo−/− mice show an increased evoked activity of the nociceptive specific (NS neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (L4–L6 and a significant decrease of mechanical and thermal thresholds, as compared to control mice. Moreover, Ddo gene deletion exacerbated the nocifensive responses in the formalin test and slightly reduced pain thresholds in neuropathic mice up to 7 days after chronic constriction injury. These findings suggest that the NMDAR agonist, D-Asp, may play a role in the regulation of NS neuron electrophysiological activity and behavioral responses in physiological and pathological pain conditions.

  17. D-Aspartate Modulates Nociceptive-Specific Neuron Activity and Pain Threshold in Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Condition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccella, Serena; Vacca, Valentina; Errico, Francesco; Marinelli, Sara; Squillace, Marta; Di Maio, Anna; Vitucci, Daniela; Palazzo, Enza; De Novellis, Vito; Maione, Sabatino; Pavone, Flaminia; Usiello, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid found in the mammalian brain with a temporal-dependent concentration based on the postnatal expression of its metabolizing enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-Asp acts as an agonist on NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Accordingly, high levels of D-Asp in knockout mice for Ddo gene (Ddo−/−) or in mice treated with D-Asp increase NMDAR-dependent processes. We have here evaluated in Ddo−/− mice the effect of high levels of free D-Asp on the long-term plastic changes along the nociceptive pathway occurring in chronic and acute pain condition. We found that Ddo−/− mice show an increased evoked activity of the nociceptive specific (NS) neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (L4–L6) and a significant decrease of mechanical and thermal thresholds, as compared to control mice. Moreover, Ddo gene deletion exacerbated the nocifensive responses in the formalin test and slightly reduced pain thresholds in neuropathic mice up to 7 days after chronic constriction injury. These findings suggest that the NMDAR agonist, D-Asp, may play a role in the regulation of NS neuron electrophysiological activity and behavioral responses in physiological and pathological pain conditions. PMID:25629055

  18. Mechanisms involved in the nociception triggered by the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gewehr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The frequency of accidental spider bites in Brazil is growing, and poisoning due to bites from the spider genus Phoneutria nigriventer is the second most frequent source of such accidents. Intense local pain is the major symptom reported after bites of P. nigriventer, although the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms involved in nociception triggered by the venom of Phoneutria nigriventer (PNV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty microliters of PNV or PBS was injected into the mouse paw (intraplantar, i.pl.. The time spent licking the injected paw was considered indicative of the level of nociception. I.pl. injection of PNV produced spontaneous nociception, which was reduced by arachnid antivenin (ArAv, local anaesthetics, opioids, acetaminophen and dipyrone, but not indomethacin. Boiling or dialysing the venom reduced the nociception induced by the venom. PNV-induced nociception is not dependent on glutamate or histamine receptors or on mast cell degranulation, but it is mediated by the stimulation of sensory fibres that contain serotonin 4 (5-HT4 and vanilloid receptors (TRPV1. We detected a kallikrein-like kinin-generating enzyme activity in tissue treated with PNV, which also contributes to nociception. Inhibition of enzymatic activity or administration of a receptor antagonist for kinin B2 was able to inhibit the nociception induced by PNV. PNV nociception was also reduced by the blockade of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+ channels, acid-sensitive ion channels (ASIC and TRPV1 receptors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that both low- and high-molecular-weight toxins of PNV produce spontaneous nociception through direct or indirect action of kinin B2, TRPV1, 5-HT4 or ASIC receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels present in sensory neurons but not in mast cells. Understanding the mechanisms involved in nociception caused by PNV are of

  19. Satellite Remote Sensing Analysis to Monitor Desertification Processes in Central Plateau of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, R.; González Sosa, E.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Hernández-Tellez, M.

    2013-05-01

    Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to climatic variations and human activities. Therefore there is a need to monitor the desertification process in the spatiotemporal scale in order to develop strategies to fight against desertification (Wu and Ci, 2002). In this sense, data provided by remote sensing is an important source for spatial and temporal information, which allows monitoring changes in the environment at low cost and high effectiveness. In Mexico, drylands hold 65% of the area, with about 1,280,494 km2 (UNESCO, 2010), where is located 46% of the national population (SEMARNAT, 2008). Given these facts, there is interest in monitoring the degradation of these lands, especially in Mexico because no specific studies have identified trends and progress of desertification in the country so far. However, it has been considered land degradation as an indicator of desertification process. Thus, it has been determined that 42% of soils in Mexico present some degradation degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal dynamics of desertification for 1993, 2000 and 2011 in the semiarid central plateau in Mexico based on demographic, climatic and satellite data. It took into consideration: 1) the Anthropogenic Impact Index (HII), based on the spatial population distribution and its influence on the use of resources and 2) the Aridity Index (AI), calculated with meteorological station records for annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Mosaics were made with Landsat TM scenes; considering they are a data source that allows evaluate surface processes regionally and with high spectral resolution. With satellite information five indices were estimated to assess the vegetation and soil conditions: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI), Grain Size Index (GSI) and Bare Soil Index (BSI). The rates

  20. Modeling Central Carbon Metabolic Processes in Soil Microbial Communities: Comparing Measured With Modeled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, P.; Fairbanks, D.; Miller, E.; Salpas, E.; Hagerty, S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating C cycling is hindered by our inability to directly observe and measure the biochemical processes of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle in intact and complex microbial communities. Position-specific 13C labeled metabolic tracer probing is proposed as a new way to study microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, C use efficiency (the proportion of substrate incorporated into microbial biomass), and enables the quantification of C fluxes through the central C metabolic network processes (Dijkstra et al 2011a,b). We determined the 13CO2 production from U-13C, 1-13C, 2-13C, 3-13C, 4-13C, 5-13C, and 6-13C labeled glucose and 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate in parallel incubations in three soils along an elevation gradient. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the results indicate a high pentose phosphate pathway activity in soils. Agreement between modeled and measured CO2 production rates for the six C-atoms of 13C-labeled glucose indicate that the metabolic model used is appropriate for soil community processes, but that improvements can be made. These labeling and modeling techniques may improve our ability to analyze the biochemistry and (eco)physiology of intact microbial communities. Dijkstra, P., Blankinship, J.C., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011a. Probing C flux patterns of soil microbial metabolic networks using parallel position-specific tracer labeling. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 126-132. Dijkstra, P., Dalder, J.J., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011b. Modeling soil metabolic processes using isotopologue pairs of position-specific 13C-labeled glucose and pyruvate. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 1848-1857.

  1. Visual processing of coherent rotation in the central visual field: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Mervi; Pääkkönen, Ari; Pihlajamäki, Maija; Partanen, Kaarina; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Soimakallio, Seppo; Aronen, Hannu J

    2003-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the brain areas that process coherent motion. To reduce the activity related to eye-movement planning and self-motion perception, rotation was used as coherent motion and the stimulus was restricted to the central visual field. Coherent rotation relative to incoherent random-dot motion resulted in consistent activation in the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in the lateral occipital gyrus (presumptive kinetic occipital region, KO), and in the fusiform gyrus (FG). The main novel finding in present study is the bilateral SPL activation, which has not been found in any previous study contrasting coherent and incoherent motion. It is suggested that the SPL activation is related to form-from-motion processing. The stimulus modification that prevented abrupt appearances of dots at the borders of the stimulus field increased the strength of rolling disk-like percept of the coherent stimulus. This perception of form may also be at least partly responsible for the activation in KO and FG. With this explanation, our three consistent activation areas are in line with previous findings. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that even delicate changes in some stimulus aspects can lead to significant changes in the activation of the brain. PMID:14700259

  2. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  3. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  4. Mobilisation processes responsible for iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Central Adriatic Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmucci, William; Rusi, Sergio; Di Curzio, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Iron and manganese are two of the most common contaminants that exceed the threshold imposed by international and national legislation. When these contamination occurs in groundwater, the use of the water resource is forbidden for any purposes. Several studies investigated these two metals in groundwater, but research focused in the Central Adriatic area are still lacking. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the origin of Fe and Mn contamination in groundwater and the hydrogeochemical processes that can enrich aquifers with these metals. This work is based on hydrogeochemical and multivariate statistical analysis of analytical results undertaken on soils and groundwater. Fe and Mn contamination are widespread in the alluvial aquifers, and their distribution is regulated by local conditions (i.e. long residence time, presence of peat or organic-rich fine sediments or anthropic pollution) that control redox processes in the aquifers and favour the mobilisation of these two metals in groundwater. The concentration of iron and manganese identified within soil indicates that the latter are a concrete source of the two metals. Anthropic impact on Fe and Mn contamination of groundwater is not related to agricultural activities, but on the contrary, the contribution of hydrocarbons (e.g. spills) is evident. PMID:26948970

  5. Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

  6. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

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    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD, we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS. Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP, such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Results Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Conclusion Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  7. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  8. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  9. Nociception- and anxiety-like behavior in rats submitted to different periods of restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Gameiro, Paula Hauber; Andrade, Annicele da Silva; Pereira, Lígia Ferrinho; Arthuri, Mariana Trevisani; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Veiga, Maria Cecília Ferraz de Arruda

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute, sub-chronic and chronic stress on nociception induced by formalin injection in rats' temporomandibular joint (TMJ). It was evaluated the relation between blood levels of adrenocorticotropin, corticosterone, the levels of anxiety and nociceptive responses recorded after different stress protocols. Animals were initially submitted to acute restraint stress (15; 30 min and 1 h), or exposed to sub-chronic (3 days-1 h/day) or chronic stress (40 days-1 h/day). Then, animals were (1) killed immediately to collect blood for hormonal determinations; or (2) submitted to the elevated plus-maze to evaluate anxiety; or (3) submitted to the TMJ formalin test to evaluate nociception. It was also evaluated the role of serotoninergic and opioid systems in nociceptive changes induced by stress. For this, the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine 10 mg/kg) and the opioid agonist (morphine 1-5 mg/kg) were administered before the nociception test. All stress protocols significantly raised the levels of ACTH or corticosterone, as well as the anxiety behavior. In relation to nociception, the chronic stressed animals showed an increase in nociceptive responses (hyperalgesia). In this group, there was a reduction in the morphine analgesic effects, suggesting dysfunction in the endogenous opioid system. Fluoxetine had an analgesic effect in both stressed and control groups, although this effect was more evident in the stressed group. It was concluded that stress-induced hyperalgesia may result from changes in the serotoninergic and opioid systems, which can explain, at least in part, the important link between stress and orofacial pain. PMID:16488452

  10. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  11. Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh V.; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-04-22

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian cycle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece 51142 can fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. Thus, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of two processes: photosynthesis during the day, and nitrogen fixation at night. While previous studies have examined periodic changes transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. We found that ~30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes in numerous individual pathways, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen metabolism, were co-regulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. Our analyses suggest that the demands of nitrogen fixation greatly influence major metabolic activities inside Cyanothece cells and thus drive various cellular activities. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium

  12. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  13. Effects of salt-loading hypertension on nociception in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi AO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ayobami Oladele Afolabi,1 Saheed Kolade Mudashiru,1 Isiaka Abdullateef Alagbonsi21Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo, Nigeria; 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kogi State University, PMB 1008, Anyigba, Kogi, NigeriaBackground: There is on going controversy on the effect of experimentally induced hypertension on nociception. The effect of salt-loading-induced hypertension on pain was studied in male rats.Method: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (160–280 g were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 12 was treated with normal-feed diet (control, while group B (n = 12 was treated with 8% salt-loaded diet for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks of the treatment, six rats each from groups A and B were used for blood pressure measurement, while the remaining six rats were used for both the tail-flick and formalin tests. Thermal and chemical pain test were assessed using tail immersion test (tail flick and formalin test pain paradigms at onset of salt-loading diet and after 10 weeks of salt loading.Results: Chronic administration of salt-loading diet caused significant increases (P < 0.001 in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure. Moreover, salt-loading-induced hypertension was found to significantly reduce pain sensitivity in the tail-immersion test (P < 0.001 and in the early and late phase of the formalin test (P < 0.01. However, the hypoalgesia was higher in the late phase (94.8% than in the early phase (56.8% of the formalin test.Conclusion: The present study suggests that high salt-loading-induced hypertension causes hypoalgesia in rats, which might be due more to reduction in inflammatory response.Keywords: formalin test, tail-flick test

  14. Antinociceptive activity of atranorin in mice orofacial nociception tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Rosana S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Araújo, Adriano A S; Araújo, Bruno E S; Melo, Marcélia G D; Oliveira, Marília G B; Gelain, Daniel P; Silva, Francilene A; DeSantana, Josimari M; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Rocha, Ricardo F; Moreira, José C F; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of atranorin (AT) extracted from Cladina kalbii Ahti in formalin- and capsaicin-induced orofacial pain and anti-inflammatory tests in rodents were studied. Physicochemical characterization showed that AT has the general formula C19H18O8. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with AT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.p.), morphine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), or vehicle (0.9% saline with two drops of 0.2% Tween 80) before formalin (20 microl, 2%) or capsaicin (20 microl, 2.5 microg) were injected into the right vibrissa. Our results showed that i.p. treatment with AT displayed marked inhibitory effects in different orofacial pain tests in mice. AT (400 mg/kg, i.p.) was effective in reducing the nociceptive face-rubbing behavioural response in both phases of the formalin test, which was also naloxone-sensitive. Additionally, AT produced a significant antinociceptive effect at all doses in the capsaicin test. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality, since AT-treated mice exhibited no performance alteration on the rota rod apparatus. AT exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in the acute model of inflammation (leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity), carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema in rats. Additionally, AT exhibited a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in vitro, as assessed by total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter and total antioxidant reactivity assays. All these findings suggest that AT might represent an important tool for the management of orofacial pain and/or inflammatory disorders. PMID:21138055

  15. Sida cordifolia leaf extract reduces the orofacial nociceptive response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjardim, L R; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M G B; Guimarães, A G; Antoniolli, A R; Santana, M F; Serafini, M R; Santos, R C; Araújo, A A S; Estevam, C S; Santos, M R V; Lyra, A; Carvalho, R; Quintans-Júnior, L J; Azevedo, E G; Botelho, M A

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we describe the antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract (EE), chloroform (CF) and methanol (MF) fractions obtained from Sida cordifolia, popularly known in Brazil as "malva branca" or "malva branca sedosa". Leaves of S. cordifolia were used to produce the crude ethanol extract and after CF and MF. Experiments were conducted on Swiss mice using the glutamate and formalin-induced orofacial nociception. In the formalin test, all doses of EE, CF and MF significantly reduced the orofacial nociception in the first (p < 0.001) and second phase (p < 0.001), which was also naloxone-sensitive. In the glutamate-induced nociception test, only CF and MF significantly reduced the orofacial nociceptive behavior with inhibition percentage values of 48.1% (100 mg/kg, CF), 56.1% (200 mg/kg, CF), 66.4% (400 mg/kg, CF), 48.2 (200 mg/kg, MF) and 60.1 (400 mg/kg, MF). Furthermore, treatment of the animals with EE, CF and MF was not able to promote motor activity changes. These data demonstrate that S. cordifolia has a pronounced antinociceptive activity on orofacial nociception. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are necessary in order to characterize the responsible mechanisms for this antinociceptive action and also to identify other bioactive compounds present in S. cordifolia.

  16. Nociceptive-Evoked Potentials Are Sensitive to Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus Displacements in Egocentric Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedi, M; Di Stefano, G; Stubbs, M T; Djeugam, B; Liang, M; Iannetti, G D

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection has been extensively studied in the context of goal-directed behavior, where it is heavily driven by top-down factors. A more primitive version of this function is the detection of bottom-up changes in stimulus features in the environment. Indeed, the nervous system is tuned to detect fast-rising, intense stimuli that are likely to reflect threats, such as nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. These stimuli elicit large brain potentials maximal at the scalp vertex. When elicited by nociceptive laser stimuli, these responses are labeled laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). Although it has been shown that changes in stimulus modality and increases in stimulus intensity evoke large LEPs, it has yet to be determined whether stimulus displacements affect the amplitude of the main LEP waves (N1, N2, and P2). Here, in three experiments, we identified a set of rules that the human nervous system obeys to identify changes in the spatial location of a nociceptive stimulus. We showed that the N2 wave is sensitive to: (1) large displacements between consecutive stimuli in egocentric, but not somatotopic coordinates; and (2) displacements that entail a behaviorally relevant change in the stimulus location. These findings indicate that nociceptive-evoked vertex potentials are sensitive to behaviorally relevant changes in the location of a nociceptive stimulus with respect to the body, and that the hand is a particularly behaviorally important site. PMID:27419217

  17. Numerical and experimental investigation of central cavity formation in aluminum during forward extrusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S. H.; Sedighi, M.; Mosayebnezhad, J. [Iran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the presented paper central cavity formation during the forward extrusion of commercially pure aluminum was investigated. For this purpose finite element analysis was utilized for simulation of this defect. The experimental tests were carried out on commercially pure aluminum. A good agreement between finite element simulations and experimental tests verified the adaptability of finite element simulations with the real process conditions. Taguchi method was performed for classifying the simulations regarding to consider synergistic parameters. The parameters include reduction of area, friction coefficient and die angle. Critical thickness, the representative waste material, was presented as a new criterion for optimizing the parametric study. By utilizing the Analyze Taguchi design, critical thickness was optimized and the effect of each parameter was recognized for different levels. In addition, the best levels with the minimum waste material were gained in which friction coefficient, die angle and reduction of area were 0.2, 5 .deg. and 20%, respectively. Also the amount of waste material was forecasted by just about 2% errors without FEA by Taguchi method.

  18. Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Subha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2 of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81% was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87% was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  19. Optimization of photo-Fenton process parameters on carbofuran degradation using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li A; Ma, Ying S; Daverey, Achlesh; Lin, Jih G

    2012-01-01

    Carbofuran, one of the most toxic and biorefractory carbamate compounds, is widely used in insecticides in Taiwan (9-18% of total insecticides production per year). In the present study, a central composite design experiment was used to study the effect of photo-Fenton treatment on carbofuran solution and to optimize the process variables such as carbofuran concentration (1-100 mg L(-1)), H(2)O(2) dosage rate (0.25-6 mg L(-1) min(-1)) and Fe(3+) dosage (1-50 mg L(-1)), which influenced the efficiency of carbofuran degradation and mineralization. The results indicated that all the variables investigated in this study had significant roles in the degradation and mineralization of carbofuran in solution. The carbofuran degradation and mineralization efficiencies were increased with increase in H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage, and with decrease in carbofuran concentration. Furthermore, optimum values of both H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage were found to shift to higher values as carbofuran concentration increased. Based on the model obtained in this study, optimum H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage were found to be 4 mg L(-1) min(-1) and 20 mg L(-1), respectively, for 51 mg L(-1) of carbofuran concentration. Under these conditions, carbofuran was completely removed within 30 min and coupled with 78% mineralization at the end of experiment.

  20. Morphological variation and the process of domestication of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, A; Caballero, J; Valiente-Banuet, A; Soriano, J A; Dávila, P

    1999-04-01

    Morphological variation was analyzed in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in central Mexico. The purpose was to evaluate whether morphological divergence between manipulated and wild populations has resulted from domestication processes. Variation of 23 morphological characters was analyzed among 324 individuals from 19 populations of the Tehuacán Valley and La Mixteca Baja. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to group individuals and populations according to their morphological similarity. Individuals grouped according to the way of management and fruit characteristics were the most relevant for grouping. Within each region, sweet fruits with pulp colors other than red were more frequent in cultivated populations, where fruits were also larger, contained more and bigger seeds, and had thinner peel and fewer spines than fruits from wild individuals. Phenotypes common in managed in situ and cultivated populations generally occur in the wild but in lower frequencies. Artificial selection has thus operated by enhancing and maintaining desirable rare phenotypes in managed in situ and cultivated populations, causing divergent patterns of morphological variation from wild populations. Cultivation has caused the strongest level of divergence, but divergence has also been significant with management of wild populations in situ.

  1. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates central sensitization in the spinal cord of rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hind paw of rats induces spinal cord central sensititzation, a process in which the responsiveness of central nociceptive neurons is amplified. In central sensitization, many signal transduction pathways composed of several cascades of intracellular enzymes are involved. As the phosphorylation state of neuronal proteins is strictly controlled and balanced by the opposing activities of protein kinases and phosphatases, the involvement of phosphatases in these events needs to be investigated. This study is designed to determine the influence of serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A on the central nociceptive amplification process, which is induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Results In experiment 1, the expression of PP2A protein in rat spinal cord at different time points following capsaicin or vehicle injection was examined using the Western blot method. In experiment 2, an inhibitor of PP2A (okadaic acid, 20 nM or fostriecin, 30 nM was injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord, and the spontaneous exploratory activity of the rats before and after capsaicin injection was recorded with an automated photobeam activity system. The results showed that PP2A protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly upregulated following intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Capsaicin injection caused a significant decrease in exploratory activity of the rats. Thirty minutes after the injection, this decrease in activity had partly recovered. Infusion of a phosphatase inhibitor into the spinal cord intrathecal space enhanced the central sensitization induced by capsaicin by making the decrease in movement last longer. Conclusion These findings indicate that PP2A plays an important role in the cellular mechanisms of spinal cord central sensitization induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats, which may have implications in

  2. Interaction and regulatory functions of μ- and δ-opioid receptors in nociceptive afferent neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhang; Lan Bao

    2012-01-01

    μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists such as morphine are powerful analgesics used for pain therapy.However,the use of these drugs is limited by their side-effects,which include antinociceptive tolerance and dependence.Earlier studies reported that MOR analgesic tolerance is reduced by blockade of δ-opioid receptors (DORs) that interact with MORs.Recent studies show that the MOR/DOR interaction in nociceptive afferent neurons in the dorsal root ganglion may contribute to morphine analgesic tolerance.Further analysis of the mechanisms for regulating the trafficking of receptors,ion channels and signaling molecules in nociceptive afferent neurons would help to understand the nociceptive mechanisms and improve pain therapy.

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM SEED EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Jeetendra Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Punica granatum of family Punicaceae is distributed throughout India and reputed to have numerous applications in traditional medicine system. In order to justify its folkloric use in nociception and inflammation, the study was performed.In this study, the extraction of Punica granatum seed extract was carried out in aqueous media. In order to explore its potency, various experimental models of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were taken. The oral administration of the extract 100mg and 200mg per kg body weight showed significant pharmacological action. Furthermore the anti-ulcer activity was carried out with the help of Indomethacin induced ulceration model using Mesoprostol as standard drug and it showed no ulcerogenic effect in wistar albino rats.Overall, the extract was found to be significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity with no ulcerogenic adverse effect.

  4. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Esherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria;

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS...

  5. Possible effects of mobilisation on acute post-operative pain and nociceptive function after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Kristensen, B B; Gaarn-Larsen, L;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animals, healthy volunteers, and patients with chronic pain suggest exercise to provide analgesia in several types of pain conditions and after various nociceptive stimuli. To our knowledge, there is no data on the effects of exercise on pain and nociceptive fu...

  6. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects...

  7. The tree water isoscape of a central Pennsylvania catchment: ecohydrologic patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, K. M.; Gaines, K.

    2015-12-01

    The connections between vegetation and catchment hydrology are important for tree physiology, plant geography, stream flow, and transport of solutes within a watershed. While water isotopes from tree stems have been studied extensively to examine source-water differences at a small scale, there has been little emphasis on modeling of plant stem water isotopes at larger scales, due to the expensive and laborious extraction and analysis processes. We characterized the tree stem water for stable isotopes over a landscape (isoscape) at a first-order catchment in central Pennsylvania in order to address the following questions: 1) How does tree water isotopic composition relate to catchment topography and tree characteristics? 2) What are the underlying hydrologic processes that are revealed by tree water isotopes? We used 267 observations of tree xylem water δ18O from 121 trees to build a statistical model with candidate variables related to topography and tree characteristics. We then applied the final model to predict the tree xylem water δ18O composition during the growing season of the remaining trees defined as > 18-cm diameter (at breast height; DBH) in the catchment. The final model included tree canopy height and slope magnitude as predictors, and explained about 56% of variance in tree water δ18O composition in the catchment. Tree canopy height and degree of slope were both negatively related to tree water δ18O suggesting the tallest trees and trees on the steepest slopes had tree water isotopic compositions most depleted in heavy isotopes. Each of these suggested the influence of cool-season isotopic inputs. On the valley floor, where tree canopy heights were tallest, the tree water δ18O composition was likely due to early growing season soil saturation from a shallow ground water table. Conversely, the steep hill slope δ18O composition may be a result of tree water use of tightly-bound soil water originating from cool season precipitation. The model

  8. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  9. Five years of ozonesoundings from the central Himalayas: role of dynamical processes and biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Manish; Bhardhwaj, Piyush; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, Sethuram; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-04-01

    Higher water vapour, intense solar radiation and increasing levels of trace species over the tropical Asia are making this region more complex for understanding the physical, dynamical and chemical process over here. One of the most populated regions (The Indo-Gangetic Plain, IGP) of the world and a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources are also housing in the foothill of one of the pristine region, i.e. Himalaya. Uplifting and transport of polluted air-masses to the higher heights is a major concern in the South Asia. However, observations of vertical distribution of ozone, and other trace gases including water vapour, aerosols and meteorological parameters are very limited in South Asia. In view of this, an observational facility was setup at ARIES, Nainital (29.4N, 79.5E; 1950 m) in the central Himalayas. Regular, once in a week, balloon borne measurements of ozone, RH, temperature and GPS winds are being made since January 2011. Surface observations of different trace gases (Ozone, CO, NO, NOy, light NMHCs, SO2, CO2 and other GHGs) and aerosols are also being made at this site. Here, we present five years of ozonesoundings observations. A strong seasonal cycle in the lower tropospheric ozone with highest values during spring (~ 100 ppbv) and lowest during summer-monsoon (20-40 ppbv) is discerned. Elevated ozone levels (~120 ppbv) were observed in the middle-upper troposphere along with very high wind speed (~50 m/s) which indicates the role of dynamics in bringing ozone rich air from higher altitude. The signatures of ozone downward transport have also been noticed in TES water vapour and PV. In contrast, such influence is seen to be weaker in the eastern part of the Himalayas. A very clear enhancement (20-30 ppbv) in the lower tropospheric ozone is seen that is induced by the biomass burning. Further analysis of these observations with the help of air trajectories and satellite data will be presented.

  10. Aquatic ecosystems in Central Colorado are influenced by mineral forming processes and historical mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.S.; Church, S.E.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Fey, D. L.; Wanty, R.B.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.; Klein, T.L.; deWitt, E.H.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water and sediment toxicity to aquatic insects were quantified from central Colorado catchments to distinguish the effect of geologic processes which result in high background metals concentrations from historical mining. Our sampling design targeted small catchments underlain by rocks of a single lithology, which allowed the development of biological and geochemical baselines without the complication of multiple rock types exposed in the catchment. By accounting for geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish between the environmental effects caused by mining and the weathering of different mineralized areas. Elevated metal concentrations in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments. Impairment of aquatic communities also occurred in unmined catchments influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration style, deposit type, and mining were important determinants of water and sediment quality and aquatic community structure. Weathering of unmined porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences resulted in water (median toxic unit (TU) = 108) and sediment quality (TU = 1.9) that exceeded concentrations thought to be safe for aquatic ecosystems (TU = 1). Metalsensitive aquatic insects were virtually absent from streams draining catchments with porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences (1.1 individuals/0.1 m2 ). However, water and sediment quality (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively) and presence of metalsensitive aquatic insects (204 individuals/0.1 m2 ) for unmined polymetallic vein occurrences were indistinguishable from that for unmined and unaltered streams (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively; 201 individuals/0.1 m2 ). In catchments with mined quartz-sericite-pyrite altered polymetallic vein deposits, water (TU = 8.4) and sediment quality (TU = 3.1) were degraded and more toxic to aquatic insects (36 individuals/0.1 m2 ) than water (TU = 0.4) and sediment quality (TU = 1.7) from mined propylitically altered

  11. Memory and Working-with-Memory: A Component Process Model Based on Modules and Central Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, M

    1992-01-01

    Abstract A neuropsychological model of memory is proposed that incorporates Fodor's (1983) idea of modules and central systems. The model has four essential components: (1) a non-frontal neocortical component that consists of perceptual (and perhaps interpretative semantic) modules that mediate performance on item-specific, implicit tests of memory, (2) a modular medial temporal/hippocampal component that mediates encoding, storage, and retrieval on explicit, episodic tests of memory that are associative/cue dependent, (3) a central system, frontal-lobe component that mediates performance on explicit tests that are strategic and on procedural tests that are rule-bound, and (4) a basal ganglia component that mediates performance on sensorimotor, procedural tests of memory. The usefulness of the modular/central system construct is explored and evidence from studies of normal, amnesic, agnosic, and demented people is provided to support the model. PMID:23964882

  12. RELIABLE ASSESSMENT OF THE HUMAN NOCICEPTIVE WITHDRAWAL REFLEX AND REFLEX RECEPTIVE FIELDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Brun

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) is considered a reliable and objective tool in pain assessment. It is often assessed by estimation of a single NWR threshold (NWR-T) but spatial assessment is possible by quantification of the reflex receptive field (RRF). Both methods are sufficiently...

  13. Long-term potentiation in spinal nociceptive pathways as a novel target for pain therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruscheweyh, R.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drdla, R.; Liu, X.G.; Sandkuhler, J.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in nociceptive spinal pathways shares several features with hyperalgesia and has been proposed to be a cellular mechanism of pain amplification in acute and chronic pain states. Spinal LTP is typically induced by noxious input and has therefore been hypothesized to contr

  14. Reliability of Subjective Pain Ratings and Nociceptive Flexion Reflex Responses as Measures of Conditioned Pain Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Jurth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The endogenous modulation of pain can be assessed through conditioned pain modulation (CPM, which can be quantified using subjective pain ratings or nociceptive flexion reflexes. However, to date, the test-retest reliability has only been investigated for subjective pain ratings.

  15. A system for inducing concurrent tactile and nociceptive sensations at the same site using electrocutaneous stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, P.; Buitenweg, J.R.; Trojan, J.; Heide, E.M. van der; Heuvel, T.J. van den; Flor, H.; Veltink, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the interaction between mechanoception and nociception would benefit from a method for stimulation of both modalities at the same location. For this purpose, we developed an electrical stimulation device. Using two different electrode geometries, discs and needles, the device is capable o

  16. Neurophysiological correlates of nociceptive heterosynaptic long-term potentiation in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Rijn, C.M. van; Biurrun Manresa, J.A.; Andersen, O.K.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model of synaptic plasticity and reflects an increase of synaptic strength. LTP is also present in the nociceptive system and is believed to be one of the key mechanisms involved in the manifestations of chronic pain. LTP manifested as an increased response

  17. Neurophysiological Correlates of Nociceptive Heterosynaptic Long-Term Potentiation in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Rijn, C.M. van; Biurrun Manresa, J.A.; Andersen, O.K.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model of synaptic plasticity and reflects an increase of synaptic strength. LTP is also present in the nociceptive system and is believed to be one of the key mechanisms involved in the manifestations of chronic pain. LTP manifested as an increased response

  18. Carnosine has antinociceptive properties in the inflammation-induced nociceptive response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Masahiro; Mutoh, Junpei; Asato, Megumi; Yamamoto, Shohei; Ono, Hideki; Hisa, Hiroaki; Kamei, Junzo

    2012-05-01

    Carnosine is a biologically active dipeptide that is found in fish and chicken muscle. Recent studies have revealed that carnosine has neuroprotective activity in zinc-induced neural cell apoptosis and ischemic stroke. In the present study, we examined the expression of carnosine in the spinal cord, and the antinociceptive potency of carnosine in a mouse model of inflammation-induced nociceptive pain. Immunohistochemical studies with antiserum against carnosine showed an abundance of carnosine-immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. Double-immunostaining techniques revealed that carnosine was expressed in the neurons and astrocytes in the spinal cord. Oral administration of carnosine attenuated the number of writhing behaviors induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 0.6% acetic acid. Treatment with carnosine also attenuated the second phase, but not the first phase, of the nociceptive response to formalin. Moreover, intrathecal, but not intraplanter, administration of carnosine attenuated the second phase of the nociceptive response to formalin. Our immunohistochemical and behavioral data suggest that carnosine has antinociceptive effects toward inflammatory pain, which may be mediated by the attenuation of nociceptive sensitization in the spinal cord. PMID:22366199

  19. Neuropeptides amplify and focus the monoaminergic inhibition of nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapiak, Vera; Summers, Philip; Ortega, Amanda; Law, Wen Jing; Stein, Andrew; Komuniecki, Richard

    2013-08-28

    Monoamines and neuropeptides interact to modulate most behaviors. To better understand these interactions, we have defined the roles of tyramine (TA), octopamine, and neuropeptides in the inhibition of aversive behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. TA abolishes the serotonergic sensitization of aversive behavior mediated by the two nociceptive ASH sensory neurons and requires the expression of the adrenergic-like, Gαq-coupled, TA receptor TYRA-3 on inhibitory monoaminergic and peptidergic neurons. For example, TA inhibition requires Gαq and Gαs signaling in the peptidergic ASI sensory neurons, with an array of ASI neuropeptides activating neuropeptide receptors on additional neurons involved in locomotory decision-making. The ASI neuropeptides required for tyraminergic inhibition are distinct from those required for octopaminergic inhibition, suggesting that individual monoamines stimulate the release of different subsets of ASI neuropeptides. Together, these results demonstrate that a complex humoral mix of monoamines is focused by more local, synaptic, neuropeptide release to modulate nociception and highlight the similarities between the tyraminergic/octopaminergic inhibition of nociception in C. elegans and the noradrenergic inhibition of nociception in mammals that also involves inhibitory peptidergic signaling.

  20. Cogeneration in large processing power stations; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel [Observatorio Ciudadano de la Energia A. C., (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this communication it is spoken of the cogeneration in large processing power stations with or without electricity surplus, the characteristics of combined cycle power plants and a comparative analysis in a graph entitled Sale price of electricity in combined cycle and cogeneration power plants. The industrial plants, such as refineries, petrochemical, breweries, paper mills and cellulose plants, among others, with steam necessities for their processes, have the technical and economical conditions to cogenerate, that is, to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. In fact, many of such facilities that exist at the moment in any country, count on cogeneration equipment that allows them to obtain their electricity at a very low cost, taking advantage of the existence steam generators that anyway are indispensable to satisfy their demand. In Mexico, given the existing legal frame, the public services of electricity as well as the oil industry are activities of obligatory character for the State. For these reasons, the subject should be part of the agenda of planning of this power sector. The opportunities to which we are referring to, are valid for the small industries, but from the point of view of the national interest, they are more important for the large size facilities and in that rank, the most numerous are indeed in PEMEX, whereas large energy surplus and capacity would result into cogenerations in refineries and petrochemical facilities and they would be of a high value, precisely for the electricity public service, that is, for the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de la cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso con o sin excedentes de electricidad, las caracteristicas de plantas de ciclo combinado y se muestra el analisis comparativo en una grafica titulada precio de venta de electricidad en plantas de ciclo combinado y de cogeneracion. Las plantas industriales, tales como refinerias, petroquimicas

  1. Consequences of a human TRPA1 genetic variant on the perception of nociceptive and olfactory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schütz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TRPA1 ion channels are involved in nociception and are also excited by pungent odorous substances. Based on reported associations of TRPA1 genetics with increased sensitivity to thermal pain stimuli, we therefore hypothesized that this association also exists for increased olfactory sensitivity. METHODS: Olfactory function and nociception was compared between carriers (n = 38 and non-carriers (n = 43 of TRPA1 variant rs11988795 G>A, a variant known to enhance cold pain perception. Olfactory function was quantified by assessing the odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification, and by applying 200-ms pulses of H2S intranasal. Nociception was assessed by measuring pain thresholds to experimental nociceptive stimuli (blunt pressure, electrical stimuli, cold and heat stimuli, and 200-ms intranasal pulses of CO2. RESULTS: Among the 11 subjects with moderate hyposmia, carriers of the minor A allele (n = 2 were underrepresented (34 carriers among the 70 normosmic subjects; p = 0.049. Moreover, carriers of the A allele discriminated odors significantly better than non-carriers (13.1±1.5 versus 12.3±1.6 correct discriminations and indicated a higher intensity of the H2S stimuli (29.2±13.2 versus 21±12.8 mm VAS, p = 0.006, which, however, could not be excluded to have involved a trigeminal component during stimulation. Finally, the increased sensitivity to thermal pain could be reproduced. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are in line with a previous association of a human TRPA1 variant with nociceptive parameters and extend the association to the perception of odorants. However, this addresses mainly those stimulants that involve a trigeminal component whereas a pure olfactory effect may remain disputable. Nevertheless, findings suggest that future TRPA1 modulating drugs may modify the perception of odorants.

  2. Phorbol Ester Modulation of Ca2+ Channels Mediates Nociceptive Transmission in Dorsal Horn Neurones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Stephens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phorbol esters are analogues of diacylglycerol which activate C1 domain proteins, such as protein kinase C (PKC. Phorbol ester/PKC pathways have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets for chronic pain states, potentially by phosphorylating proteins involved in nociception, such as voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs. In this brief report, we investigate the potential involvement of CaV2 VDCC subtypes in functional effects of the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA on nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Effects of PMA and of selective pharmacological blockers of CaV2 VDCC subtypes on nociceptive transmission at laminae II dorsal horn neurones were examined in mouse spinal cord slices. Experiments were extended to CaV2.3(−/− mice to complement pharmacological studies. PMA increased the mean frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs in dorsal horn neurones, without an effect on event amplitude or half-width. sPSC frequency was reduced by selective VDCC blockers, w-agatoxin-IVA (AgTX; CaV2.1, w-conotoxin-GVIA (CTX; CaV2.2 or SNX-482 (CaV2.3. PMA effects were attenuated in the presence of each VDCC blocker and, also, in CaV2.3(−/− mice. These initial data demonstrate that PMA increases nociceptive transmission at dorsal horn neurones via actions on different CaV2 subtypes suggesting potential anti-nociceptive targets in this system.

  3. Optimization of Ozonation Process for the Reduction of Excess Sludge Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    OpenAIRE

    Subha, B.; Muthukumar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the c...

  4. Effect of Forest Harvesting on Hydrogeomorphic Processes in Steep Terrain of Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest harvesting activities affect various hydrogeomorphic processes in forest terrain, including increases in occurrence of mass movements (i.e., landslides and debris flows), and changes in sediment transport rate in channels. Thus, the influence of harvesting on these process...

  5. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2014-01-01

    . In this article we use the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeo-stratigraphic record from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (les Roches d'Abilly site, Central France), a Bayesian analysis of the ages obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon on ultrafiltered collagen and by luminescence on quartz...... and feldspar grains, to establish a timeline for material culture and sedimentary dynamic changes during the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition. Technology, refitting studies and taphonomy of lithic artifacts recovered in the geoarchaeological field units D1 and D2 permit to characterize 3 reduction...

  6. Central limit approximations for Markov population processes with countably many types

    CERN Document Server

    Barbour, A D

    2012-01-01

    When modelling metapopulation dynamics, the influence of a single patch on the metapopulation depends on the number of individuals in the patch. Since there is usually no obvious natural upper limit on the number of individuals in a patch, this leads to systems in which there are countably infinitely many possible types of entity. Analogous considerations apply in the transmission of parasitic diseases. In this paper, we prove central limit theorems for quite general systems of this kind, together with bounds on the rate of convergence in an appropriately chosen weighted $\\ell_1$ norm.

  7. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [18F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [18F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [18F]DOPA net influx constant Kinapp /[18F]DMFP-binding potential (BPND) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  8. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias [University of Mainz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Braus, Dieter F. [University of Hamburg, Neuroimage Nord, Department of Psychiatry, Hamburg (Germany); Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl [Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Roesch, Frank [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cumming, Paul [PET Center and Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Gruender, Gerhard [Aachen University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry of the RWTH, Mainz (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [{sup 18}F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [{sup 18}F]DOPA net influx constant K{sub in}{sup app} /[{sup 18}F]DMFP-binding potential (BP{sub N}D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  9. The multilevel organization of vicarious pain responses: effects of pain cues and empathy traits on spinal nociception and acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Martel, Marc O; Roy, Mathieu; Caron, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L; Rainville, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The shared-representation model of empathy suggests that vicarious pain processes rely partly on the activation of brain systems underlying self-pain in the observer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that self-pain may be facilitated by the vicarious priming of neural systems underlying pain perception. Pictures illustrating painful agents applied to the hand or the foot (sensory information), or painful facial expressions (emotional information) were shown to 43 participants to test the effects of vicarious pain on the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) of the lower limb and pain intensity and unpleasantness produced by transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied over the sural nerve. Results confirmed the expected priming effects of vicarious pain on spinal and perceptual processes. However, for comparable pain intensity and arousal evoked by the pain pictures, the facilitation of the NFR and the self-pain unpleasantness measurements was more robust in response to pictures depicting pain sensory compared to emotional information. Furthermore, the facilitation of the NFR by pain pictures was positively correlated with the empathy trait of the observer. In contrast, the change in perceived shock-pain intensity was negatively correlated with empathic traits. This dissociation implies that low-level vicarious priming processes underlying pain facilitation may be downregulated at higher pain-processing stages in individuals reporting higher levels of empathy. We speculate that this process contributes to reducing self-other assimilation and is necessary to adopt higher-order empathic responses and altruistic behaviors.

  10. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNFalpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine. PMID:27027895

  11. Clinical implications of basic science discoveries: nociceptive neurons as targets to control immunity--potential relevance for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larregina, A T; Divito, S J; Morelli, A E

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the existence of a complex cross-regulation between the most important biosensors of the human body: The immune and nervous systems. Cytokines control body temperature and trigger autoimmune disorders in the central nervous system, whereas neuropeptides released in peripheral tissues and lymphoid organs modulate inflammatory (innate) and adaptive immune responses. Surprisingly, the effects of nerve fibers and the antidromic release of its pro-inflammatory neuropeptides on the leukocytes of the immune system that mediate graft rejection are practically unknown. In the transplantation field, such area of research remains practically unexplored. A recent study by Riol-Blanco et al has revealed new details on how nociceptive nerves regulate the pro-inflammatory function of leukocytes in peripheral tissues. Although the mechanism(s) by which neuroinflammation affects the immune response against the allograft remains unknown, recent data suggest that this new area of research is worth exploring for potential development of novel complementary therapies for prevention/treatment of graft rejection.

  12. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir; Mohammed Munawar Hossain; Md. Mominur Rahman; Shabbir Ahmad; Abul Hasanat; Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury; Md. Akramul Hoque; Nishan Chakrabarty; Md. Shakhawat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia) leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia,respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models) of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg) and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution) (P Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia leaves.

  13. Involvement of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the modulation of spinal nociceptive signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaorong Yang; Yu Zhang; Xin Zhao; Naihong Liu; Jiantian Qiao; Ce Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous morphological studies have demonstrated that group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are commonly found in nociceptive pathways,particularly in the terminals of primary afferent fibers in the spinal dorsal horn.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the role of group III mGluRs in a rat model of spinal nociception by intrathecal administration of a selective agonist,L-Serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP).DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled,animal experiment.The study was performed at the Department of Physiology and Neurobiology,Shanxi Medical University,between March 2007 and May 2008.MATERIALS:L-SOP of group III mGluRs (Tocris Cookson Ltd,UK),formalin (Sigma,USA),rabbit anti-c-Fos polyclonal antibody and biotin-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG (Cell Signaling Technology,USA) were used in this study.METHODS:A total of 26 healthy Wistar rats,aged 1 month and weighing 100-120 g,were subjected to intrathecal catheter implantation.After 5-8 days,10 rats were selected according to experimental requirements.L-SOP 250 nmol in 10 μL,or the equivalent volume of normal saline,was administered by intrathecal injection into the L3-5 region of the spinal cord in the experimental and control groups,respectively.After 15 minutes,formalin (5%,50 μL) was subcutaneously injected into the plantar of the left hindpaw of each rat to establish formalin-induced pain models.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nociceptive behavioral responses and immunohistochemical examination of Fos expression.RESULTS:Intrathecal injection of L-SOP significantly attenuated the second phase nociceptive response compared with the control group (P<0.05),and Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn was significantly decreased along with the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Group III mGluRs are involved in the modulation of nociceptive signals,and their activation suppresses the transmission of nociceptive signals.

  14. Functional divisions for visual processing in the central brain of flying Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T.; Dickinson, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Although anatomy is often the first step in assigning functions to neural structures, it is not always clear whether architecturally distinct regions of the brain correspond to operational units. Whereas neuroarchitecture remains relatively static, functional connectivity may change almost instantaneously according to behavioral context. We imaged panneuronal responses to visual stimuli in a highly conserved central brain region in the fruit fly, Drosophila, during flight. In one substructure, the fan-shaped body, automated analysis revealed three layers that were unresponsive in quiescent flies but became responsive to visual stimuli when the animal was flying. The responses of these regions to a broad suite of visual stimuli suggest that they are involved in the regulation of flight heading. To identify the cell types that underlie these responses, we imaged activity in sets of genetically defined neurons with arborizations in the targeted layers. The responses of this collection during flight also segregated into three sets, confirming the existence of three layers, and they collectively accounted for the panneuronal activity. Our results provide an atlas of flight-gated visual responses in a central brain circuit. PMID:26324910

  15. Application of a handheld Pressure Application Measurement device for the characterisation of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in intact pig tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Sandercock, Dale A.; Malcolm, Emma M.;

    2016-01-01

    as tail docking or tail biting. The Pressure Application Measurement (PAM) device is used here for the first time on the tail of pigs to determine the reliability of the methods and to provide novel data on mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) associated with four different age groups (9, 17, 24...... measurement of mechanical nociceptive threshold in pig tails. This methodological approach is possibly suitable for assessing changes in tail stump MNTs after tail injury caused by tail docking and biting.......The assessment of nociceptive thresholds is employed in animals and humans to evaluate changes in sensitivity potentially arising from tissue damage. Its application on the intact pig tail might represent a suitable method to assess changes in nociceptive thresholds arising from tail injury, such...

  16. The Impact of Implementation of Total quality Management on Plants' Productivity: Evidence from Poultry Processing Plants- Saudi Arabia- Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELHAJ ABDELMOULA.ELSIDDIG MUSA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity index as an important business determinant factor for profitability and business performance has been studied in this research versus TQM varibles. The study highlighted out the impacts ofimplementation of TQM on productivity in poultry processing plants in Saudi Arabia – Central Region. The significance of this research represented in exploring the impact of TQM practices on Poultry Processing Plants' productivity. Seven determinants of TQM practices and their impacts were measured against productivity. The determinants included top management commitment, customer focus, rewards & training, continual improvement, cooperation & teamwork, prevention focus and measurement system. Data was collected by using Questionnaire tool. The Questionnaire is of closed ended questions. It consists of three parts, the first part is demographic information about the study sample, the second part about implementation of the total quality management and the third part is to measure productivity. A sample of three poultry processing plants that effectively implemented total quality management were purposively chosen out of eight plants in Saudi Arabia Central Region. The study respondents are purposively chosen which consists quality team, production supervisors, Total quality management and production managers. 73 respondents out 75 participated in the survey. The finding indicated that the TQM practices have positive impact on poultry processing plants' productivity.

  17. Evaluation process service activation digital in central teleamigo NEAX61E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rangel de Fonseca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad de la investigación fue evaluar el proceso de activación del servicio Teleamigo, permitiendo agilizar el mismo y completar de las órdenes de servicio en las centrales digitales Neax61E que están comprendidas en la región zuliana en la empresa CANTV (Compañía Anónima Nacional Teléfonos de Venezuela, tomando como referencia la central digital San Francisco de la ciudad de Maracaibo, a solicitud de la empresa. Esta evaluación además de agilizar el proceso, permitirá la satisfacción del cliente (usuario del servicio por la prontitud en la activación del mismo y de la empresa debido a que el servicio no es facturado al cliente hasta tanto la orden no sea completada a nivel de sistema (esto sucede en el momento en que el servicio es activado. La metodología empleada para poder llevar a cabo este estudio fue propia de CANTV y adecuada a sus necesidades y las del cliente. Los resultados de la investigación indican la necesidad de implementar la automatización del servicio como prioridad número uno, ya que la mayoría de las fallas ocurridas en el proceso llevaron a esta conclusión y además, debido a que la CANTV con la apertura de las Telecomunicaciones en Venezuela, necesita crear nuevos servicios y optimizar en lo posible los ya existentes para estar a la par de las nuevas empresas de telecomunicaciones que llegan al país con la finalidad de superar en calidad y cantidad todos los servicios ofrecidos por la empresa que por muchos años se ha mantenido como el líder de las telecomunicaciones en Venezuela.Palabras Clave:Servicio Teleamigo, Proceso, Central Digital, Activación, orden de servicio, abonado, Facturación.

  18. Self-reported sleep duration associated with distraction analgesia, hyperemia, and secondary hyperalgesia in the heat-capsaicin nociceptive model

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Claudia M.; Bounds, Sara C.; Simango, Mpepera B.; Witmer, Kenneth R.; Campbell, James N.; Edwards, Robert R.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Smith, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep deprivation is known to heighten pain sensitivity, the mechanisms by which sleep modifies nociception are largely unknown. Few studies of sleep-pain interactions have utilized quantitative sensory testing models that implicate specific underlying physiologic mechanisms. One possibility, which is beginning to receive attention, is that differences in sleep may alter the analgesic effects of distraction. We utilized the heat-capsaicin nociceptive model to examine whether self-rep...

  19. Integration of a central protein repository into a standard data processing application for mining proteomics data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzemeier, Kai; Kristensen, Jakob; Larsen, Martin Røssel;

    efficient data mining and categorizing of large data sets. Methods All samples were analyzed on an Orbitrap mass Spectrometer coupled to a nano Easy LC. The proteomics repository database is built using the Sun Java technology and the Microsoft mySQL database technology for optimal performance. Proteome......Novel Aspect All major protein repositories integrated into a central domain for direct analyses and interpretation in a standard proteomics data analysis software. Introduction Modern proteomics must face the challenge of performing bioinformatics analysis and comparison of large datasets....... It is a time consuming and at times nearly impossible task to distinguish known proteins from novel proteins in these data sets without proper annotation and comparison with literature sources. Tools are needed that can handle the complexity of these data including: redundancy (same protein but different...

  20. Trend analysis of sediment grain size and sedimentary process in the central South Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the method of trend analysis of sediment grain size, the sediment transport trend of the fine-grained sediments area in the central South Yellow Sea was studied. The results demonstrated that there is a sedimentation center around the point of 123.4°E, 35.1°N, and the sediments outside the center are transported to it. The patterns of sediment transportation and deposition in the Yellow Sea should be controlled by cyclonic circulation (including the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass) and cold water gyre. The study also showed that the method of trend analysis of sediment grain size has prospective utilization in the fine-grained sediment deposited area on large-scale continental shelf.

  1. Stress accumulation process in and around the Atotsugawa fault, central Japan, estimated from focal mechanism analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Youichiro; Katsumata, Kei; Katao, Hiroshi; Kosuga, Masahiro; Iio, Yoshihisa; Sagiya, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We estimated 275 focal mechanisms from P-wave first-motion polarities of small earthquakes obtained in an extensive seismic survey during 2004-2008 in and around the Atotsugawa fault, central Japan, where ongoing dextral shear strain concentration has been observed. Along the fault trace, the azimuth direction of P-axes is oriented WNW-ESE, which agrees well with previous studies. The regional stress disturbance is detected by stress inversion analysis. The azimuth of the maximum principal stress axis systematically rotates counterclockwise as the distance from the fault trace decreases. The regional stress disturbance is explained by a cumulative slip deficit in the shallower portion of the Atotsugawa fault relative to the surrounding fault surface (i.e., the eastern, western, and deeper extensions of the fault plane).

  2. The combined predictive capacity of rat models of algogen-induced and neuropathic hypersensitivity to clinically used analgesics varies with nociceptive endpoint and consideration of locomotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Gordon; Storm, Ann; Hansen, Merete K.;

    2012-01-01

    by morphine (3-10 mg/kg, s.c.) and gabapentin (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.). Weight bearing deficits and cold hypersensitivity were reversed only by high doses of each drug. Surprisingly, duloxetine (10-60 mg/kg, s.c.) was largely ineffective in neuropathic rats although it partially reduced formalin......-induced spontaneous nocifensive behaviours; especially during interphase, a period associated with activation of descending monoaminergic inhibition. Morphine and gabapentin markedly attenuated second phase formalin- and in addition capsaicin-induced nocifensive behaviours; indicative of effects on central...... sensitization and nociceptor hyperexcitability mechanisms. Only gabapentin consistently attenuated nociceptive behaviours at a dose that did not impair exploratory locomotor behaviour in naïve rats. Accordingly, this comparative analysis indicates that the pharmacological sensitivity of evoked and non...

  3. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S.; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways. PMID:26985027

  4. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter; Schafer, William R

    2016-03-16

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways.

  5. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    OpenAIRE

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    PDF file available for free at http://pubs.ub.ro/?pg=revues&rev=cscc6&num=201011&vol=1&aid=2975 International audience This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to giv...

  6. Commentary: Europe needs a central, transparent, and evidence based regulation process for devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikermaan, Michaela; Gluud, Christian; Perleth, Matthias;

    2013-01-01

    with the body, invasiveness, and whether it has a local or a systemic effect. Medium and high risk devices must be certified by one of the notified bodies, organisations that are accredited to assess a product’s compliance with EU legislation (CE mark). At a first glance this seems a structured process....... But examples such as the withdrawal of Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) breast implants show that the process cannot guarantee safe and effective patient care.3 The certification process is inconsistent, opaque, and operates in the interests of manufacturers. It requires insufficient evidence of efficacy...

  7. THE IMPACT OF THE CREDIT EXPANSION PROCESS ON SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE AREA OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PERCIC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at performing an econometric analysis of the credit expansion process and social welfare from a comparative perspective, with a focus on eight developing and advanced economies from Central and South-Eastern Europe (including the case of Romania. The author aims to better understand the real impact of the credit expansion process on social welfare through the financial dimension. In order to achieve this aim, the research seeks to analyze the short-term dynamics (from one quarter to the other of the relationships between the total volume of credits given to the non-banking private sector by the credit institutions (highlighting thus the credit expansion process and the GDP per capita and GDP per person employed (proxies for social welfare. The usefulness of the present study becomes higher given the fact that nowadays the socio-economic development is often assisted by a stronger and more acute crisis.

  8. Aspects of the relationship between the processing of stimuli in the peripheral perceptual field and in the perceptual central field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Anitei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As humans have limited information processing abilities and rely on three fallible mental functions: perception, attention and memory, the driving error is easy to appear. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the male/female differences in processing the perceptive information from the external stimuli in the peripheral visual field and to demonstrate that the mean of the estimate errors in evaluating the speed and distances in the central visual perceptual field is in inverse ratio to the reaction time value at the visual stimuli from the peripheral driving tasks simulation. Between the variables number of wrong reactions and number of omissions there has been obtained a relatively high negative correlation (r=-0.728, p<0.001. The result has a strong implication in visual stimuli processing during driving tasks.

  9. Hydrothermal processes in mylonitic rocks at the NW edge of the Grong culmination, central Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, H.

    1984-01-01

    The cataclasite and mylonites, and the brittle/ductile deformation processes that produced them, were studied in relation to the regional geology at exposures along the northern rim of the Grong culmination, a transverse basement antiform in the Scandinavian Caledonides.

  10. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    CERN Document Server

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  11. The Diffusion Process of planting (Grevillea robusta) among Rural Households in North-Central Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    YASU, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the characteristics of planting Grevillea robusta, a popular exotic tree in east Africa, and to know the conditions stimulating its diffusion process among rural households, taking as an example north-sentral Tanzania. It makes clear that the process was promoted by various time-specific incentives and motivations, such as introduction of coffee growing, need for securing right on the farm during the villagization, enforcement of new agricultural policy, and free...

  12. Contributions of calcitonin gene-related peptide in ischemia, inflammation and nociception

    OpenAIRE

    Brodda Jansen, Gunilla

    1996-01-01

    The sensory neuropeptide Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a very potent vaso- dilator with a wide distribution in peripheral sensory nerves, often co-stored with sub- stance P. In the present study, the effects of CGRP in different models of ischemia, inflammation and nociception were examined. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, but not substance P (SP), was found to inhibit edema-promoting actions of inflammatory mediators (histamine, leukotrine B4, 5-hydroxytryp...

  13. Medulla Oblongata Mechanism of Inhibitory Effect of Thermal Stimulation to Nociceptive Colorectal Distention in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Li; Pei-Jing Rong; Xin-Yan Gao; Hui Ben; Hong Cai; Bing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss mechanism of moxibustion (thermal stimulation) effect and best moxibustion stimulus parameter. Methods: Experiments were performed on 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Unit discharges from individual single neuron were recorded extracellularly with glass-microelectrode in Subnucleus Reticularis Dorsalis (SRD). Visceral-intrusive stimulation is done by colorectal distension. Thermal stimulation with different temperature (40°C, 42°C, 44°C, 46°C, 48°C, 50°C, 52°C) and different stimulus area (diameter of circle:1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm, 2.5 cm, 3.0 cm, 3.5 cm, 4.0cm) was applied around RN12 during nociceptive colorectal distension. Results: SRD neurons could be activated by visceral stimulation within noxious range. Under low temperature of stimulus, especially under 45°C of pain threshold to ordinary people, visceral nociceptive afferent facilitated thermal stimulus from the body surface. While after thermal stimulation reached a harmful degree, the thermal stimulus will inhibit visceral nociceptive afferent. Moreover, statistics show that the higher the temperature is, the smaller the size of stimulation area is needed, and they correlate with each other negatively. Conclusion: Visceral nociception could be inhibited by somatic thermal stimulation with specific parameter at medulla level. According to our finding, best thermal stimulation temperature is around 48°C and the best size of stimulation area is around 3.14-7.07cm2 (with 2.0-3.0cm diameter).

  14. Suppression of formalin-induced nociception by cilnidipine, a voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koganei, Hajime; Shoji, Masataka; Iwata, Seinosuke

    2009-10-01

    Cilnidipine is a 1,4-dihydropyridine-derived voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker and suppresses N-type VDCC currents in addition to L-type VDCC currents. An earlier investigation has suggested that intrathecally injected cilnidipine produces antinociception by blocking N-type VDCCs in mice. The present study using the rat formalin model examined antinociceptive effects of intrathecally and orally administered cilnidipine to elucidate a putative site of antinociception of cilnidipine, assess the efficacy of oral cilnidipine for pain relief, and clarify the mechanism(s) responsible for the antinociceptive effect of oral cilnidipine. Cilnidipine (whether intrathecal or oral) suppressed nociception in phases 1 and 2 of the formalin model. In addition, the potency of oral cilnidipine to suppress formalin-induced nociception in phase 2 was greater than that of oral gabapentin, a clinically available drug for treatment of neuropathic pain. Cilnidipine elicited antinociceptive effects without neurological side-effects including serpentine-like tail movement, whole body shaking, and allodynia. Such side-effects can be induced by higher doses of intrathecal ziconotide, a clinically available N-type VDCC blocker. In contrast, orally administered nifedipine, an L-type VDCC blocker, had no effect on either phase of formalin-induced nociception. These results suggest that cilnidipine acts on the spinal cord to produce antinociception and is efficacious for pain relief after oral administration with better safety profile than that of ziconotide. Furthermore, the failure of orally administered nifedipine to affect formalin-induced nociception raises the possibility that oral cilnidipine produces antinociception through, at least in part, spinal N-type VDCC blockade. PMID:19801830

  15. Standardization of elektromyographic magnitude and threshold criteria of the nociceptive blink reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Koppe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To observe narcoses and analgosedation it would be preferable to have an objective measurement for pain evaluation. The nociceptive blink reflex is possibly such an applicative measurement. It is a trigeminofacial brain-stem reflex. We investigated which electromyographic parameter shows the best correlation with subjective pain ratings. Furthermore we investigated which electromyographic parameter shows the highest accuracy and lowest variability to define the blink reflex threshold. The...

  16. Inhibitory effect of tetramethylpyrazine on P2X receptor-mediated excitation of nociceptive afferents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-DongLiang; YunGao; Bao-HuaXu; Song-NiuMu; Chang-ShuiXu

    2004-01-01

    Object: In this study we investigated the effects of intrathecally administered TMP on the acute nociception mediated by the local administration of P2X receptor agonists ( ATP or α,β-meATP) or formalin in mouse hindpaw and the effects of TMP on the current evoked by P2X receptor agonists ( ATP or α, β-meATP) in rat DRG neurons using the whole cell

  17. Process Domains in Synthetic Landscapes: Slope-Area Relationships in the Mountaintop Mining Region of Central Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Ross, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes and the governing geomorphic processes that shape them have been described in a conceptual framework of process domains. At a coarse scale, process domains are segregated between hillslope, colluvial, and alluvial processes, which can be distinguished by governing erosional processes and partitioned by local slope-drainage area relationships. In landscapes that have experienced dramatic topographic alteration such as the mountaintop coal-mining (MTM) region of central Appalachia, the resulting modified environment may be considered a synthetic landscape. Such a landscape has process domains that are decoupled from prior landscape evolution trajectories. In particular, landslide and debris flow processes, which are a predominant geomorphic agent in these steep mountain systems and a primary sediment delivery mechanism to the downstream fluvial network, may be eliminated from this landscape and detectable through changes in slope-area relationships. We evaluate differences in slope-area relationships using 10-m DEMs between two time periods, pre-mined and post-mined. At five study site located within the MTM region in the central Appalachian Mountains, US, we compare slope-area changes to adjacent unmined landscapes over the same time periods. Distinct differences exist in the character of slope-area relationships between unmined and MTM sites and local slopes are systematically and considerably reduced in all process zones of mined sites. In particular, there is an expansion of the unchanneled valley zone through either an individual or simultaneous upslope shift into the hillslope region and downslope shift into the debris flow region. In addition, local slopes are markedly reduced (33% to 44%) in the post-mined period relative to the pre-mined period at all sites and are generally below the threshold required to trigger landslides and debris flows. The consequence of altered erosion processes in this upper portion of the catchment, particularly the

  18. Do sex hormones influence emotional modulation of pain and nociception in healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; Martin, Satin L; Delventura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L

    2013-12-01

    Sex hormones may contribute to inter- and intra-individual differences in pain by influencing emotional modulation of pain and nociception. To study this, a well-validated picture-viewing paradigm was used to assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; physiologic measure of nociception) during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in healthy normally cycling women (n=40). Salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were assessed at each testing session. Emotional modulation of pain/NFR did not differ across menstrual phases, but low estradiol was associated with weaker emotional modulation of NFR (during all phases) and emotional modulation of pain (ovulatory and late-luteal phases). Given evidence that a failure to emotionally modulate pain might be a risk factor for chronic pain, low estradiol may promote chronic pain via this mechanism. However, future research is needed to extend these findings to women with disturbances of pain, emotion, and/or sex hormones.

  19. Synaptic Conversion of Chloride-Dependent Synapses in Spinal Nociceptive Circuits: Roles in Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Cooper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological conversion of chloride-dependent synapses from inhibitory to excitatory function, as a result of aberrant neuronal chloride homeostasis, is a known mechanism for the genesis of neuropathic pain. This paper examines theoretically how this type of synaptic conversion can disrupt circuit logic in spinal nociceptive circuits. First, a mathematical scaling factor is developed to represent local aberration in chloride electrochemical driving potential. Using this mathematical scaling factor, electrophysiological symbols are developed to represent the magnitude of synaptic conversion within nociceptive circuits. When inserted into a nociceptive circuit diagram, these symbols assist in understanding the generation of neuropathic pain associated with the collapse of transmembrane chloride gradients. A more generalized scaling factor is also derived to represent the interplay of chloride and bicarbonate driving potentials on the function of GABAergic and glycinergic synapses. These mathematical and symbolic representations of synaptic conversion help illustrate the critical role that anion driving potentials play in the transduction of pain. Using these representations, we discuss ramifications of glial-mediated synaptic conversion in the genesis, and treatment, of neuropathic pain.

  20. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh A Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae, also known as "Gambhari", is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda. There are no meticulous scientific reports on effect of the plant on inflammation and pain. Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of aqueous extracts (AE and methanol extracts (ME of G. arborea. Materials and Methods: The AE and ME of stembark of G. arborea was prepared by cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction technique respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in Wistar albino rats in a model of acute plantar inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by using hot plate test and writhing test in Swiss albino mice. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: AE and ME at dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammation up to 30.15 and 31.21% respectively. In hot plate test, the AE and ME showed the maximum response of 8.8 ± 0.97 (P < 0.01 and 8.2 ± 1.24 (P < 0.01 respectively at dose of 500 mg/kg when compared with control. AE showed maximum inhibition of writhing response (84.3% as compared to ME (77.9% in writhing test at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings suggested that G. arborea possess significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

  1. Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Harshini; Tallarida, Ronald J; Reichenbach, Zachary W; Tuma, Ronald F; Ward, Sara J; Walker, Ellen A

    2015-04-01

    Cannabinoid and opioid agonists can display overlapping behavioral effects and the combination of these agonists is known to produce enhanced antinociception in several rodent models of acute and chronic pain. The present study investigated the antinociceptive effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD) and the µ-opioid agonist morphine, both alone and in combination, using three behavioral models in mice, to test the hypothesis that combinations of morphine and CBD would produce synergistic effects. The effects of morphine, CBD, and morphine/CBD combinations were assessed in the following assays: (a) acetic acid-stimulated stretching; (b) acetic acid-decreased operant responding for palatable food; and (c) hot plate thermal nociception. Morphine alone produced antinociceptive effects in all three models of acute nociception, whereas CBD alone produced antinociception only in the acetic acid-stimulated stretching assay. The nature of the interactions between morphine and CBD combinations were assessed quantitatively based on the principle of dose equivalence. Combinations of CBD and morphine produced synergistic effects in reversing acetic acid-stimulated stretching behavior, but subadditive effects in the hot plate thermal nociceptive assay and the acetic acid-decreased operant responding for palatable food assay. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms of action underlie the interactions between CBD and morphine in the three different behavioral assays and that the choice of appropriate combination therapies for the treatment of acute pain conditions may depend on the underlying pain type and stimulus modality. PMID:25485642

  2. A Comparison of Central Composite Design and Taguchi Method for Optimizing Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anam Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. Dyeini, Dye : Fe+2, H2O2 : Fe+2, and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.

  3. Spatial-temporal evolution of topography of the central Andes and implications for deep tectonic processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzione, C. N.; Auerbach, D. J.; Bershaw, J. T.; Kar, N.; Smith, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Resolving the spatial and temporal evolution of changes in the elevation of mountain belts provides constraints on the geodynamic mechanisms that caused surface uplift of these regions. Several recent studies in the Central Andean plateau (between 13°S and 28°S) have used multiple climate proxies to demonstrate punctuated (several myr) changes in the composition of meteoric water and surface temperature inferred to reflect significant (≥1000 m) surface uplift. These studies suggest that different regions experienced surface uplift at different times. In comparison with crustal thickening histories derived from reconstructions of crustal shortening, it is also clear that crustal thickening and surface uplift are temporally decoupled, with significant crustal thickening preceding punctuated surface uplift events by several tens of millions of years. Here we compile results from paleoclimate studies of the Central Andean plateau to infer regional patterns of surface uplift. Limited paleoclimate data and geologic evidence indicate that the Eastern Cordillera experienced an earlier pulse of surface uplift than the Altiplano zone, associated with an eastward sweep of magmatism that marks the current limits of the plateau. Within the Altiplano zone, the southern Altiplano appears to have risen beginning in middle Miocene time and continuing through late Miocene time. During this time, the north-central Altiplano remained low and experienced increasing rates of sedimentation. In late Miocene time, sedimentation rates slowed dramatically at the same time that climate proxy data suggest rapid surface uplift of the north-central Altiplano. The northernmost Altiplano of Peru experienced a pulse of surface uplift in middle Miocene to early Pliocene time, with the exact timing unconstrained as of yet. Crustal shortening reconstructions from the southern through the north-central plateau (between 17°S and 24°S) yield upper estimates that range between 300×20 km, sufficient

  4. Density functional theory calculation on many-cores hybrid central processing unit-graphic processing unit architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Luigi; Ospici, Matthieu; Deutsch, Thierry; Méhaut, Jean-François; Neelov, Alexey; Goedecker, Stefan

    2009-07-21

    We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code.

  5. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate...

  6. The Role of Multinational Enterprises in the Transition Process of Central and Eastern European Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Globalisering en de liberalisering van handel en kapitaalstromen hebben grote economische gevolgen in Centraal en Oost Europa, waar het economisch systeem na de val van de Muur opnieuw ingericht diende te worden. Het process van institutionele verandering, structurele economische transformatie en pr

  7. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted considerab

  8. Agricultural land for urban development: The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, C.P.; Westen, A.C.M. van; Zoomers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam’s progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted considerab

  9. The role of sleep problems in central pain processing in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yvonne C.; Lu, Bing; Edwards, Robert R.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Nassikas, Nicholas J.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, pain may exist out of proportion to peripheral inflammation. This observation suggests that central nervous system pain amplification mechanisms, such as diminished conditioned pain modulation (CPM), may play a role in enhancing pain perception among some RA patients. We examined CPM, pressure pain threshold and pressure pain tolerance among RA patients compared to controls. Methods Fifty-eight female RA patients and 54 age-matched controls without chronic pain underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess CPM, pressure pain threshold and pressure pain tolerance. CPM was induced using a cold water bath, and pain threshold (when patients first felt pain) and tolerance (when pain was too much to bear) were assessed with an algometer. Associations between RA and QST measures were analyzed using linear regression. Sleep problems, mental health and inflammation were assessed as mediators of the relationship between RA and QST measures. Results Median CPM levels were 0.5 kg/cm2 (interquartile range (IQR) −0.1, 1.6) among RA patients compared to 1.5 kg/cm2 (IQR −0.1, 2.5) among controls (P = 0.04). Relative to controls, RA patients had lower pain threshold and tolerance at the wrists (P ≤ 0.05). Compared to controls, RA patients had greater problems with sleep, catastrophizing, depression and anxiety (P < 0.0001). Mediation analyses suggested that low CPM levels may be partially attributable to sleep disturbance (P = 0.04). Conclusion RA patients have impaired CPM relative to pain-free controls. Sleep problems may mediate the association between RA and attenuated CPM. PMID:23124650

  10. The central role of the nurse in process improvement relating to pharmacologic stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Nancy P; Baranyay, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacologic stress myocardial perfusion imaging is a noninvasive method for evaluating coronary artery disease in patients unable to exercise sufficiently to achieve a heart rate high enough to facilitate satisfactory imaging. The nuclear cardiology nurse is an invaluable member of the laboratory team that performs these tests. In this specialist role, the nurse must have a thorough knowledge of the different pharmacologic stress agents (dipyridamole, adenosine, regadenoson, and dobutamine) that can be used. This should comprise an understanding of their mechanisms of action, contraindications, drug-drug interactions, adverse effects, and administration protocols. By drawing on this knowledge, the nurse is able to verify that the right agent has been selected for each patient based on his/her medical history. The nurse also can help patients follow pretest instructions (such as withholding caffeine and certain medications) by explaining that the measures are necessary for a safe and successful procedure and that violation may result in test cancellation or postponement. On the day of the stress test, the nurse has an important role in safeguarding the patient as well as providing support and reassurance throughout the different stages of the examination. Responsibilities include explaining the entire procedure to the patients, notably, what they will be asked to do, the effect of the stress agent, the timing of each step, the adverse effects that they may experience, how any adverse events will be managed, and the importance of remaining still during imaging. This central role of the nuclear cardiology nurse in overseeing the practical aspects of the pharmacologic stress test has important implications in terms of optimizing the productivity and efficiency of their noninvasive cardiology laboratory and nuclear medicine department. PMID:21760522

  11. A corollary discharge mechanism modulates central auditory processing in singing crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, J F A; Hedwig, B

    2003-03-01

    Crickets communicate using loud (100 dB SPL) sound signals that could adversely affect their own auditory system. To examine how they cope with this self-generated acoustic stimulation, intracellular recordings were made from auditory afferent neurons and an identified auditory interneuron-the Omega 1 neuron (ON1)-during pharmacologically elicited singing (stridulation). During sonorous stridulation, the auditory afferents and ON1 responded with bursts of spikes to the crickets' own song. When the crickets were stridulating silently, after one wing had been removed, only a few spikes were recorded in the afferents and ON1. Primary afferent depolarizations (PADs) occurred in the terminals of the auditory afferents, and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were apparent in ON1. The PADs and IPSPs were composed of many summed, small-amplitude potentials that occurred at a rate of about 230 Hz. The PADs and the IPSPs started during the closing wing movement and peaked in amplitude during the subsequent opening wing movement. As a consequence, during silent stridulation, ON1's response to acoustic stimuli was maximally inhibited during wing opening. Inhibition coincides with the time when ON1 would otherwise be most strongly excited by self-generated sounds in a sonorously stridulating cricket. The PADs and the IPSPs persisted in fictively stridulating crickets whose ventral nerve cord had been isolated from muscles and sense organs. This strongly suggests that the inhibition of the auditory pathway is the result of a corollary discharge from the stridulation motor network. The central inhibition was mimicked by hyperpolarizing current injection into ON1 while it was responding to a 100 dB SPL sound pulse. This suppressed its spiking response to the acoustic stimulus and maintained its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. The corollary discharge therefore prevents auditory desensitization in stridulating crickets and allows the animals to respond to external

  12. The role of axonopathy in the mechanisms of development of demyelination processes in the central and peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulov, Yu A; Zavalishin, I A; Merkulova, D M

    2009-01-01

    The role of axonopathy in the development of demyelinating processes in the CNS and peripheral nervous system was addressed in studies of 43 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 144 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDPN). Patients with MS were found to have foci of reduced MRI intensity in the T1 regime ("black holes," present in 28%) and regional atrophy of the cerebral cortex (in 46%), which showed a significant association with the degree of invalidity on the EDSS (Kendall tau = 0.38 and 0.43; p = 0.038 and 0.021, respectively). The mean fatigue score on the FSS was 4.9 (3.6; 5.4). A significant increase in the central conduction time on the background of fatigue (p = 0.016), along with an absence of signs of impaired reliability of neuromuscular transmission and an absence of past-activation phenomena, suggested that central mechanisms were predominant in the formation of fatigue phenomena in MS. In addition, 34.9% of patients with MS showed signs of peripheral nervous system involvement, while the clinical-electrophysiological pattern in 12.5% of patients with CIDPN showed signs of CNS involvement. These data widen existing concepts of the mechanisms of formation of axonopathy in the CNS, based on evidence for the development of axon-demyelinating processes in CIDPN, which is the most accessible model of demyelination for study using contemporary neurophysiological methods. PMID:19089637

  13. Central-local authority relationships and the institutional process of city creation

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Chi-Han; Elosua, Miguel; Li, Shantong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, China is experiencing the largest scale of urbanisation in human history. More and more land is required to support this massive urbanisation. However, rural land acquisition and compensation to the changes in farmers’ household registration (hukou) are complex issues in the process of urbanisation under the dual land tenure between city and rural areas in China. Furthermore, local government has been under increasing financial pressure af...

  14. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz; Yolanda R. Penaloza-Lopez; Felipe Garcia-Pedroza; Adrian Poblano

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to...

  15. Central sensitization in spinal cord injured humans assessed by reflex receptive fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biurrun Manresa, José Alberto; Finnerup, Nanna Susanne Brix; Johannesen, Inger Lauge;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of central sensitization, elicited by intramuscular injection of capsaicin, by comparing the reflex receptive fields (RRF) of spinally-intact volunteers and spinal cord injured volunteers that present presensitized spinal nociceptive mechanisms. METHODS......: Fifteen volunteers with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) and fourteen non-injured (NI) volunteers participated in the experiment. Repeated electrical stimulation was applied on eight sites on the foot sole to elicit the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR). RRF were assessed before, 1min after and 60min...

  16. The Purinergic System and Glial Cells: Emerging Costars in Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that glial cells not only provide mechanical and trophic support to neurons but can directly contribute to neurotransmission, for example, by release and uptake of neurotransmitters and by secreting pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. This has greatly changed our attitude towards acute and chronic disorders, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches targeting activated glial cells to indirectly modulate and/or restore neuronal functions. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia communication that can be pharmacologically targeted is therefore a mandatory step toward the success of this new healing strategy. This holds true also in the field of pain transmission, where the key involvement of astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system and satellite glial cells in peripheral ganglia has been clearly demonstrated, and literally hundreds of signaling molecules have been identified. Here, we shall focus on one emerging signaling system involved in the cross talk between neurons and glial cells, the purinergic system, consisting of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their membrane receptors. Specifically, we shall summarize existing evidence of novel “druggable” glial purinergic targets, which could help in the development of innovative analgesic approaches to chronic pain states.

  17. TRPV1 expression level in isolectin B₄-positive neurons contributes to mouse strain difference in cutaneous thermal nociceptive sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Ye, Yi; Viet, Chi T; Dang, Dongmin; Schmidt, Brian L

    2015-05-01

    Differential thermal nociception across inbred mouse strains has genetic determinants. Thermal nociception is largely attributed to the heat/capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1); however, the contribution of this channel to the genetics of thermal nociception has not been revealed. In this study we compared TRPV1 expression levels and electrophysiological properties in primary sensory neurons and thermal nociceptive behaviors between two (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) inbred mouse strains. Using immunofluorescence and patch-clamp physiology methods, we demonstrated that TRPV1 expression was significantly higher in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive trigeminal sensory neurons of C57BL/6 relative to BALB/c; the expression in IB4-negative neurons was similar between the strains. Furthermore, using electrophysiological cell classification (current signature method), we showed differences between the two strains in capsaicin sensitivity in IB4-positive neuronal cell types 2 and 13, which were previously reported as skin nociceptors. Otherwise electrophysiological membrane properties of the classified cell types were similar in the two mouse strains. In publicly available nocifensive behavior data and our own behavior data from the using the two mouse strains, C57BL/6 exhibited higher sensitivity to heat stimulation than BALB/c, independent of sex and anatomical location of thermal testing (the tail, hind paw, and whisker pad). The TRPV1-selective antagonist JNJ-17203212 inhibited thermal nociception in both strains; however, removing IB4-positive trigeminal sensory neurons with IB4-conjugated saporin inhibited thermal nociception on the whisker pad in C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c. These results suggest that TRPV1 expression levels in IB4-positive type 2 and 13 neurons contributed to differential thermal nociception in skin of C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c. PMID:25787958

  18. The ongoing dome emplacement and destruction cyclic process at Popocatépetl volcano, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vazquez, Angel; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing eruptive activity of Popocatépetl volcano has been characterized by emplacement and subsequent destruction of a succession of lava domes. Between the onset of the current eruption in 1994 and the time of this submission, 38 episodes of lava dome formation and removal have been identified. Each dome has showed particular features related to the magma extrusion process. Among other manifestations, dome-emplacement events have been usually accompanied by relatively low-intensity, protracted explosions referred to as exhalations. After variable times of residence, emplacements have ended in partial or total destruction of the domes by strong vulcanian explosions that produced sizeable ash plumes, with most of them also ejecting incandescent debris onto the volcano flanks. Here, we present a detailed account for the observed activity related to the domes' growth and destruction, related seismic monitoring signals, and morphological features of the domes based on 19 years of visual observations and image analysis. We then discuss a model for the process of dome growth and destruction and its hazard implications.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Acid Neutralizing Processes in Steep Headwater Catchments in Tanakami Mountains, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Y.; Uchida, T.; Ohte, N.; Tani, M.

    2001-05-01

    The areas characterized by steep slope, thin soils, and unreactive bedrock types are often considered as acid-sensitive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial distribution of acid neutralizing processes in steep headwater catchment in the humid temperate region, and to discuss the long-term change in acid neutralizing processes associated with the forest growth and soil development. The observations were conducted at two adjacent unchannelled steep catchment, Fudoji (0.10ha) and Rachidani (0.18ha). Two catchments share similar climatic condition and the same bedrock geology (granite). The mean hollow gradient is 37degrees in Fudoji and 34degrees in Rachidani. Fudoji is forested with mean soil depth of 77cm, while Rachidani is non-vegetated with mean soil depth of about 10cm. In both catchments, hydrometric and isotopic measurements illustrated the substantial downward water flux into the bedrock in upslope area and emerging of this water from bedrock to soil layer within 2m from the perennial spring points. The mean pH of soil water and groundwater were dispersed over a wide range of 4.00 to 5.84 in Fudoji and 5.29 to 6.28 in Rachidani, while stream pHs converged very closely to neutral value in two catchments. In both catchments, major H+ sources distributed at the near-surface soil layer and the intensity of internal H+ production was greater in forested Fudoji than non-vegetated Rachidani, attributed to the biological cycles in forest ecosystems. Calculation of budget for base cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) presented that 72 to 84 percent (Fudoji) and 34percent (Rachidani) of the net base cation production in each catchment was derived from the bedrock, indicating that a considerable amount of the H+ was consumed within the bedrock. Moreover, the H+ consumption rate per unit volume of soil in Fudoji was almost one order of magnitude smaller than that of Rachidani. These results suggested that the dominant H+ sink in catchments shifted from

  20. Berry-Esseen's central limit theorem for non-causal linear processes in Hilbert space

    CERN Document Server

    Machkouri, Mohamed EL

    2010-01-01

    Let $H$ be a real separable Hilbert space and $(a_k)_{k\\in\\mathbb{Z}}$ a sequence of bounded linear operators from $H$ to $H$. We consider the linear process $X$ defined for any $k$ in $\\mathbb{Z}$ by $X_k=\\sum_{j\\in\\mathbb{Z}}a_j(\\varepsilon_{k-j})$ where $(\\varepsilon_k)_{k\\in\\mathbb{Z}}$ is a sequence of i.i.d. centered $H$-valued random variables. We investigate the rate of convergence in the CLT for $X$ and in particular we obtain the usual Berry-Esseen's bound provided that $\\sum_{j\\in\\mathbb{Z}}\\vert j\\vert\\|a_j\\|_{\\mathcal{L}(H)}<+\\infty$ and $\\varepsilon_0$ belongs to $L_H^{\\infty}$.

  1. Rodingitization and carbonization processes in Triassic ultramafic cumulates and lavas, Othris Mt, Central Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Magganas, Andreas; Economou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    A Triassic magmatic sequence from the south Othris region is comprised of early stage basaltic pillow lavas, as well as late stage ultramafic rocks, lava flows, high-Mg doleritic dykes and pyroclastic tuffs. The ultramafic rocks include slightly serpentinized wehrlites and lavas consisting of cumulate olivine, variably textured clinopyroxene (cumulate, quench, hollow, skeletal or blade shaped), magnesiohornblende, tremolite, phlogopite, spinel, chlorite, garnet, serpentine, calcite and devitrified glass[1]. Part of their secondary mineralogy developed due to percolation of metasomatic fluids during rodingitization and carbonization processes. In ultramafic rocks from Agia Marina and Mili, rodingitization was rather penetratively and expressed with crystallization of hydrogarnets, accompanied by secondary diopside and chlorite. Hydrogarnets are characterized by their low Ti-contents (recycling thermal carbonated seawater, leached from the rifted Triassic platform carbonates. References. [1] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Ntaflos 2012: Lithos 144-145, 177-193; [2] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis, Ntaflos 2013: Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

  2. Determining novel functions of Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins in central metabolic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Celine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins are considered master regulators of many signal transduction cascades in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have major roles as regulators of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, conclusions based on the studies of a few specific 14-3-3 targets. Results In this study, extensive novel roles of 14-3-3 proteins in plant metabolism were determined through combining the parallel analyses of metabolites and enzyme activities in 14-3-3 overexpression and knockout plants with studies of protein-protein interactions. Decreases in the levels of sugars and nitrogen-containing-compounds and in the activities of known 14-3-3-interacting-enzymes were observed in 14-3-3 overexpression plants. Plants overexpressing 14-3-3 proteins also contained decreased levels of malate and citrate, which are intermediate compounds of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. These modifications were related to the reduced activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of TCA cycle. In addition, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 proteins interacted with one isocitrate dehydrogenase and two malate dehydrogenases. There were also changes in the levels of aromatic compounds and the activities of shikimate dehydrogenase, which participates in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that 14-3-3 proteins play roles as crucial tuners of multiple primary metabolic processes including TCA cycle and the shikimate pathway.

  3. GABAB receptors in the NTS mediate the inhibitory effect of trigeminal nociceptive inputs on parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the rat masseter muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hisayoshi; Izumi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-15

    The present study was designed to examine whether trigeminal nociceptive inputs are involved in the modulation of parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the jaw muscles. This was accomplished by investigating the effects of noxious stimulation to the orofacial area with capsaicin, and by microinjecting GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor agonists or antagonists into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), on masseter hemodynamics in urethane-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) in sympathectomized animals bilaterally increased blood flow in the masseter muscle (MBF). Increases in MBF evoked by cVN stimulation were markedly reduced following injection of capsaicin into the anterior tongue in the distribution of the lingual nerve or lower lip, but not when injected into the skin of the dorsum of the foot. Intravenous administration of either phentolamine or propranolol had no effect on the inhibitory effects of capsaicin injection on the increases of MBF evoked by cVN stimulation, which were largely abolished by microinjecting the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen into the NTS. Microinjection of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP-35348 into the NTS markedly attenuated the capsaicin-induced inhibition of MBF increase evoked by cVN stimulation, while microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline did not. Our results indicate that trigeminal nociceptive inputs inhibit vagal-parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the masseter muscle and suggest that the activation of GABA(B) rather than GABA(A) receptors underlies the observed inhibition in the NTS.

  4. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sobral Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury, exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise, lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise, and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise. LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p=0.012 and larger than LG and LEG (p<0.001. Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons.

  5. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  6. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region. PMID:27286412

  7. Regeneration-degeneration processes in the inland dune forests in protected areas of central Poland (Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to quantify the differences in the regeneration-degeneration processes in pine and mixed oak-pine forest habitats in the Kampinos Forest (central Poland. We investigated whether the regeneration rate depends on habitat type, whether there is a relationship between the bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus cover and the degree of community deformation, and which habitat type has been most invaded by alien plant species. Our results indicate that the constant loss of pine forest habitats, which has been observed since the 1970s, is continuing. The less deformed communities generally have more bilberry coverage, the stands in pine forest habitats are older and less deformed, and the stands in mixed oak-pine forest habitats are more susceptible to the spread of alien species, but are able to regenerate faster after a disturbance. These results are in line with observations from other parts of Poland and other European countries.

  8. Solar power tower design guide: Solar thermal central receiver power systems. A source of electricity and/or process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battleson, K. W.

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary evaluations of whether a solar thermal central receiver plant is technically and economically feasible and desirable, for the potential user's application are reported. The cost elements, performance, and operation of solar central receiver systems are described.

  9. Autoimmunity contributes to nociceptive sensitization in a mouse model of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wu; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Shi, Xiaoyou; Czirr, Eva; Stan, Trisha; Sahbaie, Peyman; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Kingery, Wade S; Clark, J David

    2014-11-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, disabling, chronic condition whose etiology remains poorly understood. The recent suggestion that immunological mechanisms may underlie CRPS provides an entirely novel framework in which to study the condition and consider new approaches to treatment. Using a murine fracture/cast model of CRPS, we studied the effects of B-cell depletion using anti-CD20 antibodies or by performing experiments in genetically B-cell-deficient (μMT) mice. We observed that mice treated with anti-CD20 developed attenuated vascular and nociceptive CRPS-like changes after tibial fracture and 3 weeks of cast immobilization. In mice with established CRPS-like changes, the depletion of CD-20+ cells slowly reversed nociceptive sensitization. Correspondingly, μMT mice, deficient in producing immunoglobulin M (IgM), failed to fully develop CRPS-like changes after fracture and casting. Depletion of CD20+ cells had no detectable effects on nociceptive sensitization in a model of postoperative incisional pain, however. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that CD20+ cells accumulate near the healing fracture but few such cells collect in skin or sciatic nerves. On the other hand, IgM-containing immune complexes were deposited in skin and sciatic nerve after fracture in wild-type, but not in μMT fracture/cast, mice. Additional experiments demonstrated that complement system activation and deposition of membrane attack complexes were partially blocked by anti-CD20+ treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that CD20-positive B cells produce antibodies that ultimately support the CRPS-like changes in the murine fracture/cast model. Therapies directed at reducing B-cell activity may be of use in treating patients with CRPS. PMID:25218828

  10. A system for inducing concurrent tactile and nociceptive sensations at the same site using electrocutaneous stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Peter; Buitenweg, Jan R; Trojan, Jörg; van der Heide, Esther M; van den Heuvel, Teun; Flor, Herta; Veltink, Peter H

    2012-12-01

    Studies of the interaction between mechanoception and nociception would benefit from a method for stimulation of both modalities at the same location. For this purpose, we developed an electrical stimulation device. Using two different electrode geometries, discs and needles, the device is capable of inducing two distinct stimulus qualities, dull and sharp, at the same site on hairy skin. The perceived strength of the stimuli can be varied by applying stimulus pulse trains of different lengths. We assessed the perceived stimulus qualities and intensities of the two electrode geometries at two levels of physical stimulus intensity. In a first series of experiments, ten subjects participated in two experimental sessions. The subjects reported the perceived quality and intensity of four different stimulus classes on visual analogue scales (VASs). In a second series, we added a procedure in which subjects assigned descriptive labels to the stimuli. We assessed the reproducibility of the VAS scores by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients. The results showed that subjects perceived stimuli delivered through the disc electrodes as dull and those delivered through the needles as sharp. Increasing the pulse train length increased the perceived stimulus intensities without decreasing the difference in quality between the electrode types. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the VAS scores ranged from .75 to .95. The labels that were assigned for the two electrode geometries corresponded to the descriptors for nociception and touch reported by other researchers. We concluded that our device is capable of reliably inducing tactile and nociceptive sensations of controllable intensity at the same skin site. PMID:22806702

  11. Postnatal temporal, spatial and modality tuning of nociceptive cutaneous flexion reflexes in human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cornelissen

    Full Text Available Cutaneous flexion reflexes are amongst the first behavioural responses to develop and are essential for the protection and survival of the newborn organism. Despite this, there has been no detailed, quantitative study of their maturation in human neonates. Here we use surface electromyographic (EMG recording of biceps femoris activity in preterm (4 seconds to a single noxious skin lance which decreases significantly with gestational age. This reflex is not restricted to the stimulated limb: heel lance evokes equal ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes in preterm and term infants. We further show that infant flexion withdrawal reflexes are not always nociceptive specific: in 29% of preterm infants, tactile stimulation evokes EMG activity that is indistinguishable from noxious stimulation. In 40% of term infants, tactile responses are also present but significantly smaller than nociceptive reflexes. Infant flexion reflexes are also evoked by application of calibrated punctate von Frey hairs (vFh, 0.8-17.2 g, to the heel. Von Frey hair thresholds increase significantly with gestational age and the magnitude of vFh evoked reflexes are significantly greater in preterm than term infants. Furthermore flexion reflexes in both groups are sensitized by repeated vFh stimulation. Thus human infant flexion reflexes differ in temporal, modality and spatial characteristics from those in adults. Reflex magnitude and tactile sensitivity decreases and nociceptive specificity and spatial organisation increases with gestational age. Strong, relatively non-specific, reflex sensitivity in early life may be important for driving postnatal activity dependent maturation of targeted spinal cord sensory circuits.

  12. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiheng; Tan, Ao; Bai, Yanru; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Further, we used support vector machine (SVM) to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:27148029

  13. Role of spinal GABAA receptors in pudendal inhibition of nociceptive and nonnociceptive bladder reflexes in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiying; Reese, Jeremy; Schwen, Zeyad; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-04-01

    Picrotoxin, an antagonist for γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype A (GABAA), was used to investigate the role of GABAA receptors in nociceptive and nonnociceptive reflex bladder activities and pudendal inhibition of these activities in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia. Acetic acid (AA; 0.25%) was used to irritate the bladder and induce nociceptive bladder overactivity, while saline was used to distend the bladder and induce nonnociceptive bladder activity. To modulate the bladder reflex, pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) was applied at multiple threshold (T) intensities for inducing anal sphincter twitching. AA irritation significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bladder capacity to 34.3 ± 7.1% of the saline control capacity, while PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.01) increased AA bladder capacity to 84.0 ± 7.8 and 93.2 ± 15.0%, respectively, of the saline control. Picrotoxin (0.4 mg it) did not change AA bladder capacity but completely removed PNS inhibition of AA-induced bladder overactivity. Picrotoxin (iv) only increased AA bladder capacity at a high dose (0.3 mg/kg) but significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2T PNS inhibition at low doses (0.01-0.1 mg/kg). During saline cystometry, PNS significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 147.0 ± 7.6% at 2T and 172.7 ± 8.9% at 4T of control capacity, and picrotoxin (0.4 mg it or 0.03-0.3 mg/kg iv) also significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity. However, picrotoxin treatment did not alter PNS inhibition during saline infusion. These results indicate that spinal GABAA receptors have different roles in controlling nociceptive and nonnociceptive reflex bladder activities and in PNS inhibition of these activities. PMID:24523385

  14. Somatic modulation of spinal reflex bladder activity mediated by nociceptive bladder afferent nerve fibers in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiying; Rogers, Marc J; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-09-15

    The goal of the present study was to determine if supraspinal pathways are necessary for inhibition of bladder reflex activity induced by activation of somatic afferents in the pudendal or tibial nerve. Cats anesthetized with α-chloralose were studied after acute spinal cord transection at the thoracic T9/T10 level. Dilute (0.25%) acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder, activate nociceptive afferent C-fibers, and trigger spinal reflex bladder contractions (amplitude: 19.3 ± 2.9 cmH2O). Hexamethonium (a ganglionic blocker, intravenously) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the amplitude of the reflex bladder contractions to 8.5 ± 1.9 cmH2O. Injection of lidocaine (2%, 1-2 ml) into the sacral spinal cord or transection of the sacral spinal roots and spinal cord further reduced the contraction amplitude to 4.2 ± 1.3 cmH2O. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at frequencies of 0.5-5 Hz and 40 Hz but not at 10-20 Hz inhibited reflex bladder contractions, whereas tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) failed to inhibit bladder contractions at all tested frequencies (0.5-40 Hz). These results indicate that PNS inhibition of nociceptive afferent C-fiber-mediated spinal reflex bladder contractions can occur at the spinal level in the absence of supraspinal pathways, but TNS inhibition requires supraspinal pathways. In addition, this study shows, for the first time, that after acute spinal cord transection reflex bladder contractions can be triggered by activating nociceptive bladder afferent C-fibers using acetic acid irritation. Understanding the sites of action for PNS or TNS inhibition is important for the clinical application of pudendal or tibial neuromodulation to treat bladder dysfunctions. PMID:25056352

  15. Induction of muscle cramps by nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Zhang, Yang; Boudreau, Shellie; Yue, Shou-Wei; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypothesis that nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) increases the occurrence of local muscle cramps. Nociceptive muscle stimulation was obtained by a bolus injection of glutamate (0.1 ml, 0.5 M) into a latent MTrP and a control point (a non-MTrP) located in the right or left gastrocnemius medialis muscles in 14 healthy subjects. A bolus of isotonic saline (0.9%, 0.1 ml) injection served as a control. The injections were guided by intramuscular electromyography (EMG) showing resting spontaneous electrical activity at a latent MTrP and no such activity at a non-MTrP. Intramuscular and surface EMG activities in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle were recorded pre-, during-, and post-injection for a period of 8 min to monitor the occurrence of muscle cramps, which are characterized by a brief episodic burst of high levels of EMG activity. The results showed that glutamate and isotonic saline injections into the latent MTrPs induced higher peak pain intensity than into the non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Glutamate injection induced higher peak pain intensity than isotonic saline injection into either latent MTrPs or non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Muscle camps were observed in 92.86% of the subjects following glutamate injection into the latent MTrPs, but not into the non-MTrPs (P < 0.001). No muscle cramps were recorded following isotonic saline injection into either the latent MTrPs or the non-MTrPs. These results suggest that latent MTrPs could be involved in the genesis of muscle cramps. Focal increase in nociceptive sensitivity at MTrPs constitutes one of the mechanisms underlying muscle cramps.

  16. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiheng eTu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR. Further, we used support vector machine (SVM to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications.

  17. A small, silent, low friction, linear actuator for mechanical nociceptive testing in veterinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Michael; Taylor, Polly M.; Slingsby, Louisa S; Hoffmann, M.; Kastner, Sabine; Murrell, Jo C

    2010-01-01

    Air pressure is commonly used to drive a mechanical stimulus for nociceptive threshold testing. This may be bulky, noisy, non-linear and suffer from friction, hence development of a better system is described. A novel, light (14 g) rolling diaphragm actuator was constructed, which supplied 20 N force via a constant actuation area irrespective of the pressure and position in the stroke. Three round-ended pins, 2.5 mm diameter, mounted in a triangle on the piston, provided the stimulus. Pressur...

  18. Can preoperative electrical nociceptive stimulation predict acute pain after groin herniotomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Hansen, J.B.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    recently been shown to correlate to acute postoperative pain after cesarean section, but the findings have not been confirmed in larger studies or other procedures. Preoperative electrical pain detection threshold and pain tolerance were assessed in patients undergoing a primary unilateral groin hernia...... pain (rho = -0.13, P = .09, and rho = -1.2, P = .4, respectively. PERSPECTIVE: Although preoperative electrical nociceptive stimulation may predict patients at risk of high-intensity acute pain after other surgical procedures, this was not the case in groin hernia repair patients receiving concomitant...

  19. Fault and anthropogenic processes in central California constrained by satellite and airborne InSAR and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Lundgren, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) system is the primary plate boundary in California, with the central SAF (CSAF) lying adjacent to the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), a vast structural trough that accounts for about one-sixth of the United Sates' irrigated land and one-fifth of its extracted groundwater. The CSAF displays a range of fault slip behavior with creeping in its central segment that decreases towards its northwest and southeast ends, where the fault transitions to being fully locked. At least six Mw ~6.0 events since 1857 have occurred near the Parkfield transition, most recently in 2004. Large earthquakes also occurred on secondary faults parallel to the SAF, the result of distributed deformation across the plate boundary zone. Recent studies have revealed the complex interaction between anthropogenic related groundwater depletion and the seismic activity on adjacent faults through stress interaction. Despite recent progress, many questions regarding fault and anthropogenic processes in the region still remain. For example, how is the relative plate motion accommodated between the CSAF and off-fault deformation? What is the distribution of fault creep and slip deficit at shallow depths? What are the spatiotemporal variations of fault slip? What are the spatiotemporal characteristics of anthropogenic and lithospheric processes and how do they interact with each other? To address these, we combine satellite InSAR and NASA airborne UAVSAR data to image on and off-fault deformation. The UAVSAR data cover fault perpendicular swaths imaged from opposing look directions and fault parallel swaths since 2009. The much finer spatial resolution and optimized viewing geometry provide important constraints on near fault deformation and fault slip at very shallow depth. We performed a synoptic InSAR time series analysis using ERS-1/2, Envisat, ALOS and UAVSAR interferograms. The combined C-band ERS-1/2 and Envisat data provide a long time interval of SAR data over the region

  20. The effect of social isolation, gender and familiarity with the experimental procedure on tests of porcine nociceptive thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Stausholm, Julie S.; Viitasaari, Eliina;

    2015-01-01

    receiving the mechanical challenge in the pelvic limbs were tested inside a cage, whereas pigs exposed to stimuli at the tail region were tested in an open arena. For both experiments, the effect of familiarity to the procedure was evaluated by comparing thresholds of nociception in habituated versus naïve...... was reflected in the lower mechanical nociceptive thresholds (medians with 25–75 percentiles) recorded for familiar pigs compared with naïve animals [495 g (302–675) versus 745 g (479–1000), respectively; p = 0.026]. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds measured at the tail of the pigs in the open arena were...... not affected by the familiarity of the animals with the experimental procedure. Conclusions and clinical relevance The current results reiterate the value of habituation in research involving animal behaviour. Further characterization of the methodology is needed to allow its application in the evaluation...

  1. Multidisciplinary characterisation of sedimentary processes in a recent maar lake (Lake Pavin, French Massif Central and implication for natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chapron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation processes occurring in the most recent maar lake of the French Massif Central (Lake Pavin are documented for the first time based on high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric surveys and by piston coring and radiocarbon dating on a sediment depocentre developed on a narrow sub aquatic plateau. This new data set confirms the mid Holocene age of maar lake Pavin formation at 6970±60 yrs cal BP and highlights a wide range of gravity reworking phenomena affecting the basin. In particular, a slump deposit dated between AD 580–640 remoulded both mid-Holocene lacustrine sediments, terrestrial plant debris and some volcanic material from the northern crater inner walls. Between AD 1200 and AD 1300, a large slide scar mapped at 50 m depth also affected the southern edge of the sub aquatic plateau, suggesting that these gas-rich biogenic sediments (laminated diatomite are poorly stable. Although several triggering mechanisms can be proposed for these prehistoric sub-aquatic mass wasting deposits in Lake Pavin, we argue that such large remobilisation of gas-rich sediments may affect the gas stability in deep waters of meromictic maar lakes. This study highlights the need to further document mass wasting processes in maar lakes and their impacts on the generation of waves, favouring the development of dangerous (and potentially deadly limnic eruptions.

  2. A role for pre-collision processes in the origin of the aseismic zone of the southern Taiwan Central Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Cavallotti, C. J.; Rau, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although Taiwan is one of the most seismically active areas on Earth, two areas on the island are notable for their lack of earthquakes, the coastal plain of central western Taiwan and an elongate area centered on the eastern flank of the southern Central Range. I focus on the latter area and suggest that pre-collision processes may have contributed to its development. Seismogenic strain offshore southeastern Taiwan reveals that the west side of the Luzon arc hosts a forearc sliver that was initially uplifted during basin inversion then tectonically thinned by pull-apart basin formation as collision initiated. This pre-collision history favors the tectonic insertion of a sliver of oceanic crust at depth in the orogenic suture zone. The presence of oceanic crust in this region is consistent with high seismic velocity observations as well as existing analog models. Strain inversions spanning the aseismic zone broadly show crustal thickening and NW-directed shortening to the east, and crustal thinning and SW-directed stretching to the west. Oceanic crust at depth could contribute to the aseismic zone by acting as a relatively strong body sandwiched between the accreted arc and weaker transitional continental crust to the west. In this scenario the aseismic zone is largely composed of forearc rocks that are not internally deforming by elastic deformation mechanisms. Alternatively the sliver may act as a west-pointing wedge (in profile view) that is promoting weaker transitional continental material to detach, imbricate or delaminate in front of the colliding continental promontory (i.e., the Peikang high) that appears to contribute to the low rates of seismicity in western Taiwan. In any of these latter scenarios it would be reasonable to expect changes in crustal architecture that might promote shallowing of the brittle-plastic transition as is observed around the aseismic zone. The specific mechanism for this shallowing remains unresolved and clearly the presence of

  3. Contrasting the eastern Pacific El Niño and the central Pacific El Niño: process-based feedback attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Yang, Song; Cai, Ming

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the roles of radiative and non-radiative air-sea coupled thermodynamic processes in modifying sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies driven by (air-sea coupled) oceanic dynamic processes, focusing on their contributions to the key differences between the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño and the central Pacific (CP) El Niño. The attribution is achieved by decomposing SST anomalies into partial temperature anomalies due to individual processes using a coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method. Oceanic processes induce warming from the central to the eastern equatorial Pacific and cooling over the western basin with a maximum warming center in the central Pacific for both types of El Niño. The processes that act to oppose the oceanic process-induced SST anomalies are surface latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, cloud, and atmospheric dynamic feedbacks, referred to as negative-feedback processes. The cooling due to each of the four negative-feedback processes is the strongest in the region where the initial warming due to oceanic processes is the largest. Water-vapor feedback is the sole process that acts to enhance the initial warming induced by oceanic processes. The increase in atmospheric water vapor over the eastern Pacific is much stronger for the EP El Niño than for the CP El Niño. It is the strong water-vapor feedback over the eastern Pacific and the strong negative feedbacks over the central equatorial Pacific that help to relocate the maximum warming center from the central Pacific to the eastern basin for the EP El Niño.

  4. Behavioral Signs of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder in Children With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Parental Questionnaire Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Objective Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate often have a high prevalence of middle ear dysfunction. However, there are also indications that they may have a higher prevalence of (central) auditory processing disorder. This study used Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist for caregivers to determine whether children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate have potentially more auditory processing difficulties compared with craniofacially normal children. Methods Caregivers of 147 school-aged children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate were recruited for the study. This group was divided into three subgroups: cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate. Caregivers of 60 craniofacially normal children were recruited as a control group. Hearing health tests were conducted to evaluate peripheral hearing. Caregivers of children who passed this assessment battery completed Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist, which contains 25 questions related to behaviors linked to (central) auditory processing disorder. Results Children with cleft palate showed the lowest scores on the Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist questionnaire, consistent with a higher index of suspicion for (central) auditory processing disorder. There was a significant difference in the manifestation of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors between the cleft palate and the control groups. The most common behaviors reported in the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate group were short attention span and reduced learning motivation, along with hearing difficulties in noise. Conclusion A higher occurrence of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors were found in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, particularly cleft palate. Auditory processing abilities should not be ignored in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, and it is necessary to consider assessment tests for (central) auditory processing disorder when an

  5. Antinociceptive activity of a synthetic curcuminoid analogue, 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone, on nociception-induced models in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Tatt, Lee; Khalivulla, Shaik Ibrahim; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Khalid, Mohamed Hanief; Akira, Ahmad; Lajis, Nordin; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the potential antinociceptive efficacy of a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue, 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (BHMC), using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception test models in mice. BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) administered via intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced significant dose-related inhibition in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice with an ID(50) of 0.15 (0.13-0.18) mg/kg. It was also demonstrated that BHMC produced significant inhibition in both neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory phases (second phase) of the formalin-induced paw licking test with an ID(50) of 0.35 (0.27-0.46) mg/kg and 0.07 (0.06-0.08) mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, BHMC also exerted significant increase in the response latency period in the hot-plate test. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of the BHMC in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot-plate test was antagonized by pre-treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Together, these results indicate that the compound acts both centrally and peripherally. In addition, administration of BHMC exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociception induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin with ID(50) of 0.66 (0.41-1.07) mg/kg and 0.42 (0.38-0.51) mg/kg, respectively. Finally, it was also shown that BHMC-induced antinociception was devoid of toxic effects and its antinociceptive effect was associated with neither muscle relaxant nor sedative action. In conclusion, BHMC at all doses investigated did not cause any toxic and sedative effects and produced pronounced central and peripheral antinociceptive activities. The central antinociceptive activity of BHMC was possibly mediated through activation of the opioid system as well as inhibition of the glutamatergic system and TRPV1 receptors, while the peripheral antinociceptive activity was perhaps mediated through inhibition of

  6. Frutalin reduces acute and neuropathic nociceptive behaviours in rodent models of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Marina B M V; de Melo Júnior, José de Maria A; Santos, Sacha Aubrey A R; Melo, Luana T M; Leite, Laura Hévila I; Vieira-Neto, Antonio E; Moreira, Renato de A; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de O; Campos, Adriana R

    2016-08-25

    Orofacial pain is a highly prevalent clinical condition, yet difficult to control effectively with available drugs. Much attention is currently focused on the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of lectins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of frutalin (FTL) using rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic orofacial pain. Acute pain was induced by formalin, glutamate or capsaicin (orofacial model) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In one experiment, animals were pretreated with l-NAME and naloxone to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. The involvement of the lectin domain in the antinociceptive effect of FTL was verified by allowing the lectin to bind to its specific ligand. In another experiment, animals pretreated with FTL or saline were submitted to the temporomandibular joint formalin test. In yet another, animals were submitted to infraorbital nerve transection to induce chronic pain, followed by induction of thermal hypersensitivity using acetone. Motor activity was evaluated with the rotarod test. A molecular docking was performed using the TRPV1 channel. Pretreatment with FTL significantly reduced nociceptive behaviour associated with acute and neuropathic pain, especially at 0.5 mg/kg. Antinociception was effectively inhibited by l-NAME and d-galactose. In line with in vivo experiments, docking studies indicated that FTL may interact with TRPV1. Our results confirm the potential pharmacological relevance of FTL as an inhibitor of orofacial nociception in acute and chronic pain mediated by TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPM8 receptor. PMID:27302204

  7. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Blepharis maderaspatensis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Sowemimo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis maderaspatensis(L. B. Heyne ex Roth, Acanthaceae, is a procumbent or scrambling perennial herb used traditionally for treatment of snakebites, wounds, edema and gout. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of the ethanol extract of the whole plant of B. maderaspatensis was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, xyleneinduced edema in mice, mouse writhing and tail clip tests respectively. The effect of the extract on inflammatory mediators, serotonin and histamine, using the most active dose (75 mg/kg was also carried out. The results showed that the extract of B. maderaspatensis in carrageenan-induced test caused a significant inhibition (84.5%, 90 min of paw edema at a dose of 75 mg/kg while the xylene-induced test caused a significant inhibition (62.65% at 50 mg/kg. The histamine-induced test showed significant inhibition (90.9%, 90 min while serotonin-induced test showed moderate inhibition (54.10%, 180 min. In the mouse writhing and tail clip tests, the extract produced a significant inhibition of 66.21% and 15.81% at 75 mg/kg, respectively. These results collectively demonstrate that the ethanol extract of B. maderaspatensis possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties, and this supports the ethnopharmacological use of the plant in the treatment of inflammation.

  8. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor-mediated anti-nociception in models of acute and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Maulik D; Sagar, Devi R; Elmes, Steven J R; Kendall, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2007-08-01

    The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, endogenous ligands and their synthesising/metabolising enzymes. Cannabinoid receptors are present at key sites involved in the relay and modulation of nociceptive information. The analgesic effects of cannabinoids have been well documented. The usefulness of nonselective cannabinoid agonists can, however, be limited by psychoactive side effects associated with activation of CB(1) receptors. Following the recent evidence for CB(2) receptors existing in the nervous system and reports of their up-regulation in chronic pain states and neurodegenerative diseases, much research is now aimed at shedding light on the role of the CB(2) receptor in human disease. Recent studies have demonstrated anti-nociceptive effects of selective CB(2) receptor agonists in animal models of pain in the absence of CNS side effects. This review focuses on the analgesic potential of CB(2) receptor agonists for inflammatory, post-operative and neuropathic pain states and discusses their possible sites and mechanisms of action.

  9. Minocycline markedly reduces acute visceral nociception via inhibiting neuronal ERK phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Ik-Hyun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minocycline prevents the development of neuropathic and inflammatory pain by inhibiting microglial activation and postsynaptic currents. But, how minocycline obviates acute visceral pain is unclear. The present study investigated whether minocycline had an any antinociceptive effect on acetic acid-induced acute abdominal pain after intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of saline or minocycline 1 hour before acetic acid injection (1.0%, 250 μl, i.p.. Results Minocycline (4, 10, or 40 mg/kg significantly decreased acetic acid-induced nociception (0-60 minutes post-injection and the enhancement in the number of c-Fos positive cells in the T5-L2 spinal cord induced by acetic acid injection. Also, the expression of spinal phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK induced by acetic acid was reduced by minocycline pre-administration. Interestingly, intrathecal introduction of PD98059, an ERK upstream kinase inhibitor, markedly blocked the acetic acid-stimulated pain responses. Conclusions These results demonstrate that minocycline effectively inhibits acetic acid-induced acute abdominal nociception via the inhibition of neuronal p-ERK expression in the spinal cord, and that minocycline may have therapeutic potential in suppressing acute abdominal pain.

  10. TMC-1 Mediates Alkaline Sensation in C. elegans through Nociceptive Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Guang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-07-01

    Noxious pH triggers pungent taste and nocifensive behavior. While the mechanisms underlying acidic pH sensation have been extensively characterized, little is known about how animals sense alkaline pH in the environment. TMC genes encode a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we characterize C. elegans TMC-1, which was suggested to form a Na(+)-sensitive channel mediating salt chemosensation. Interestingly, we find that TMC-1 is required for worms to avoid noxious alkaline environment. Alkaline pH evokes an inward current in nociceptive neurons, which is primarily mediated by TMC-1 and to a lesser extent by the TRP channel OSM-9. However, unlike OSM-9, which is sensitive to both acidic and alkaline pH, TMC-1 is only required for alkali-activated current, revealing a specificity for alkaline sensation. Ectopic expression of TMC-1 confers alkaline sensitivity to alkali-insensitive cells. Our results identify an unexpected role for TMCs in alkaline sensation and nociception. PMID:27321925

  11. Threshold Effect of Capital Structure on Firm Value: Evidence from Seafood Processing Enterprises in the South Central Region of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Cuong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there is an optimal capital structure at which point firm is able to maximize its value. An advanced panel threshold regression model is applied to test the panel threshold effect of capital structure on firm value among 90 unlisted Seafood Processing Enterprises in the South Central region of Vietnam (SEASCRs during 2005–2011 period. In this study, I use BVE and ROE as surrogate for firm value and debt ratio (TD/TA as surrogate for capital structure and as the threshold variable. The empirical results strongly indicate that triple threshold effect exists between debt ratio and firm value when BVE is selected to proxy firm value. However, when ROE is selected to proxy firm value, the result shows that there exists double thresholds effect between debt ratio and firm value. From these results, I may conclude that the relationship between capital structure and firm value has a nonlinear relationship represents an convex Parapol shape. In addition, the findings suggest implications for SEASCRs on flexible usage of financial leverage. Specifically, SEASCRs should not use loans over 57.39%. To ensure and enhance the Firm value, the scope of the optimal debt ratio should be less than 57.39%.

  12. Late Cenozoic sedimentary process and its response to the slip history of the central Altyn Tagh fault, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正乐; 张岳桥; 陈宣华; 王小凤; A.S.Ramon; W.B.Zack

    2001-01-01

    The ENE-striking Altyn Tagh fault (ATF), extending along the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the major important strike-slip faults, and has been known as one of the key areas to debate the eastward extrusion and crustral shortening models of the Tibetan Plateau during and after India-Asia collision. This paper mainly presents new evidence of Late Cenozoic sedimentary process to reconstruct the slip history of the ATF during the Late Cenozoic. Field measurements and laboratory analyses of the sedimentary characteristics in the Late Cenozoic basins in the central Altyn Tagh fault suggest that Late Cenozoic sedimentary sequence should be divided into three units according to facies changes. The paleo-topography reconstruction shows that the sedimentation in these basins was tightly related with the fault, indicating that the ATF has experienced at least three stages of strike slipping in the Late Cenozoic. New geological data from the Late Cenozoic sedimentary basins and the formation of th

  13. Process modeling studies of physical mechanisms of the formation of an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Changsheng

    2014-02-01

    Surface drifters released in the central Red Sea during April 2010 detected a well-defined anticyclonic eddy around 23°N. This eddy was ∼45–60 km in radius, with a swirl speed up to ∼0.5 m/s. The eddy feature was also evident in monthly averaged sea surface height fields and in current profiles measured on a cross-isobath, shipboard CTD/ADCP survey around that region. The unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) was configured for the Red Sea and process studies were conducted to establish the conditions necessary for the eddy to form and to establish its robustness. The model was capable of reproducing the observed anticyclonic eddy with the same location and size. Diagnosis of model results suggests that the eddy can be formed in a Red Sea that is subject to seasonally varying buoyancy forcing, with no wind, but that its location and structure are significantly altered by wind forcing, initial distribution of water stratification and southward coastal flow from the upstream area. Momentum analysis indicates that the flow field of the eddy was in geostrophic balance, with the baroclinic pressure gradient forcing about the same order of magnitude as the surface pressure gradient forcing.

  14. Identification of a site critical for kinase regulation on the central processing unit (CPU) helix of the aspartate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, M A; Falke, J J

    1999-01-01

    Ligand binding to the homodimeric aspartate receptor of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium generates a transmembrane signal that regulates the activity of a cytoplasmic histidine kinase, thereby controlling cellular chemotaxis. This receptor also senses intracellular pH and ambient temperature and is covalently modified by an adaptation system. A specific helix in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, helix alpha6, has been previously implicated in the processing of these multiple input signals. While the solvent-exposed face of helix alpha6 possesses adaptive methylation sites known to play a role in kinase regulation, the functional significance of its buried face is less clear. This buried region lies at the subunit interface where helix alpha6 packs against its symmetric partner, helix alpha6'. To test the role of the helix alpha6-helix alpha6' interface in kinase regulation, the present study introduces a series of 13 side-chain substitutions at the Gly 278 position on the buried face of helix alpha6. The substitutions are observed to dramatically alter receptor function in vivo and in vitro, yielding effects ranging from kinase superactivation (11 examples) to complete kinase inhibition (one example). Moreover, four hydrophobic, branched side chains (Val, Ile, Phe, and Trp) lock the kinase in the superactivated state regardless of whether the receptor is occupied by ligand. The observation that most side-chain substitutions at position 278 yield kinase superactivation, combined with evidence that such facile superactivation is rare at other receptor positions, identifies the buried Gly 278 residue as a regulatory hotspot where helix packing is tightly coupled to kinase regulation. Together, helix alpha6 and its packing interactions function as a simple central processing unit (CPU) that senses multiple input signals, integrates these signals, and transmits the output to the signaling subdomain where the histidine kinase is bound. Analogous CPU

  15. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  16. Calculation of centrality bias factors in $p$+A collisions based on a positive correlation of hard process yields with underlying event activity

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsa, Dennis V

    2014-01-01

    Hard scattering yields in centrality-selected proton-- and deuteron--nucleus ($p$+A) collisions are generally compared to nucleon--nucleon ($NN$) cross-sections scaled to the appropriate partonic luminosity using geometric models derived from an analysis of minimum bias $p$+A interactions. In general, these models assume that hard process rates and the magnitude of the soft event activity in the underlying $NN$ collisions is uncorrelated. When included, these correlations influence the measured yield in a nominal centrality interval, an effect typically referred to as a "centrality bias". In this work, the impact of a positive correlation between the hard scattering yield and the underlying event activity in individual $NN$ collisions is investigated. This correlation is incorporated into the centrality calculations used by ATLAS and PHENIX, both based on a similar Monte Carlo Glauber approach but with different models of the per-collision or per-participant event activity. It is found that the presence of th...

  17. Optimization of ozonation process for the reduction of excess sludge production from activated sludge process of sago industry wastewater using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, B; Muthukumar, M

    2012-01-01

    Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R(2)) of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All the results obtained revealed that the extract MEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used. The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  19. THE PARABRACHIAL NUCLEUS IS A CRITICAL LINK IN THE TRANSMISSION OF SHORT LATENCY NOCICEPTIVE INFORMATION TO MIDBRAIN DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coizet, V.; Dommett, E. J.; Klop, E. M.; Redgrave, P.; Overton, P. G.

    2010-01-01

    Many dopaminergic neurons exhibit a short-latency response to noxious stimuli, the source of which is unknown. Here we report that the nociceptive-recipient parabrachial nucleus appears to be a critical link in the transmission of pain related information to dopaminergic neurons. Injections of retro

  20. Motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neuronal circuitry may involve in modulation of nociception: a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study in spinally transected transgenic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that motor cortex stimulation provided pain relief by motor cortex plasticity and activating descending inhibitory pain control systems. Recent evidence indicated that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R in the periaqueductal gray played an important role in neuropathic pain. This study was designed to assess whether MC4R signaling existed in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neuronal circuitry modulated the activity of sympathetic pathway by a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study. Pseudorabies virus (PRV-614 was injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle in adult male MC4R-green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice (n = 15. After a survival time of 4-6 days, the mice (n = 5 were randomly assigned to humanely sacrifice, and spinal cords and brains were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV-614 visualization. Neurons involved in the efferent control of the left gastrocnemius muscle were identified following visualization of PRV-614 retrograde tracing. The neurochemical phenotype of MC4R-GFP-positive neurons was identified using fluorescence immunocytochemical labeling. PRV-614/MC4R-GFP dual labeled neurons were detected in spinal IML, periaqueductal gray and motor cortex. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC4R signaling in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neural pathway may participate in the modulation of the melanocortin-sympathetic signaling and contribute to the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission, suggesting that MC4R signaling in motor cortex-periaqueductal gray-spinal cord neural pathway may modulate the activity of sympathetic outflow sensitive to nociceptive signals.

  1. Prostaglandin metabolite induces inhibition of TRPA1 and channel-dependent nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Yingqi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP ion channel TRPA1 is a key player in pain pathways. Irritant chemicals activate ion channel TRPA1 via covalent modification of N-terminal cysteines. We and others have shown that 15-Deoxy-Δ12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 similarly activates TRPA1 and causes channel-dependent nociception. Paradoxically, 15d-PGJ2 can also be anti-nociceptive in several pain models. Here we hypothesized that activation and subsequent desensitization of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons underlies the anti-nociceptive property of 15d-PGJ2. To investigate this, we utilized a battery of behavioral assays and intracellular Ca2+ imaging in DRG neurons to test if pre-treatment with 15d-PGJ2 inhibited TRPA1 to subsequent stimulation. Results Intraplantar pre-injection of 15d-PGJ2, in contrast to mustard oil (AITC, attenuated acute nocifensive responses to subsequent injections of 15d-PGJ2 and AITC, but not capsaicin (CAP. Intraplantar 15d-PGJ2—administered after the induction of inflammation—reduced mechanical hypersensitivity in the Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA model for up to 2 h post-injection. The 15d-PGJ2-mediated reduction in mechanical hypersensitivity is dependent on TRPA1, as this effect was absent in TRPA1 knockout mice. Ca2+ imaging studies of DRG neurons demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 pre-exposure reduced the magnitude and number of neuronal responses to AITC, but not CAP. AITC responses were not reduced when neurons were pre-exposed to 15d-PGJ2 combined with HC-030031 (TRPA1 antagonist, demonstrating that inhibitory effects of 15d-PGJ2 depend on TRPA1 activation. Single daily doses of 15d-PGJ2, administered during the course of 4 days in the CFA model, effectively reversed mechanical hypersensitivity without apparent tolerance or toxicity. Conclusions Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that 15d-PGJ2 induces activation followed by persistent inhibition of TRPA1 channels

  2. Effects of awareness and nociception on heart rate variability during general anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During anaesthesia awareness and nociception are serious complications that may further lead to haemodynamic instability. Specific monitoring of depth of hypnosis and depth of analgesia based on heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is eligible to improve patient safety and reduce efforts in post-operative care. Consequently, in this analysis we assess the applicability of HRV parameters during surgical interventions with standardized intravenous propofol-remifentanil-anaesthesia. Peri-operative electrocardiograms were recorded from cardiovascular stable patients (ASA Score I/II, N = 32, age: 36.4 ± 11.23 a, BMI: 25.2 ± 3.16) scheduled for trauma and dentofacial surgery. HRV time- and frequency-domain parameters, measures of complexity and nonlinear dynamics were compared by analysing longitudinally distributed 300 s intervals preceding/following induction of anaesthesia (BL–I1), intubation (I1–I2) and extubation (E1–E2). Mean value (meanNN) and standard deviation (sdNN) of the heart rate are influenced in BL–I1 (p < 0.001), I1–I2 (p < 0.05) and E1–E2 (p < 0.001). The number of forbidden words of symbolic dynamics changes significantly for BL–I1 (p < 0.001) and not for I1–I2 and E1–E2 (p > 0.05). Probability of low-variability POLVAR10 is significantly altered in all comparisons (BL–I1: Δ = 0.032, p < 0.01, I1–I2: Δ = 0.12, p < 0.05, E1–E2: Δ = 0.169, p < 0.01) but especially during nociception. While standard time-domain parameters lacked selectivity, parameters of symbolic dynamics appear to be specifically influenced by changes in depth of hypnosis and nociception, respectively. However, the lack of steady-state ventilation/breathing in this study needs to be considered in future research. To be used for clinical anaesthesia monitoring our results have to be prospectively validated in clinical studies. (paper)

  3. Application of a process-based shallow landslide hazard model over a broad area in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Eleonora; Speranza, Gabriella; Ferretti, Maurizio; Godt, Jonathan W.; Baum, Rex L.; Marincioni, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Process-based models are widely used for rainfall-induced shallow landslide forecasting. Previous studies have successfully applied the U.S. Geological Survey’s Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) model (Baum et al. 2002) to compute infiltration-driven changes in the hillslopes’ factor of safety on small scales (i.e., tens of square kilometers). Soil data input for such models are difficult to obtain across larger regions. This work describes a novel methodology for the application of TRIGRS over broad areas with relatively uniform hydrogeological properties. The study area is a 550-km2 region in Central Italy covered by post-orogenic Quaternary sediments. Due to the lack of field data, we assigned mechanical and hydrological property values through a statistical analysis based on literature review of soils matching the local lithologies. We calibrated the model using rainfall data from 25 historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. We compared the variation of pressure head and factor of safety with the landslide occurrence to identify the best fitting input conditions. Using calibrated inputs and a soil depth model, we ran TRIGRS for the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, comparing the model’s output with a shallow landslide inventory, shows that TRIGRS effectively simulated the instability conditions in the post-orogenic complex during historical rainfall scenarios. The implication of this work is that rainfall-induced landslides over large regions may be predicted by a deterministic model, even where data on geotechnical and hydraulic properties as well as temporal changes in topography or subsurface conditions are not available.

  4. FLUID DYNAMICS PROCESSES AT THE CENTRAL SAKHALIN FAULT (BASED ON OBSERVATIONS OF THE YUZHNO-SAKHALINSK MUD VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Ershov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk mud volcano is located in the southern part of the Sakhalin Island within the area of the Central Sakhalin fault, one of the largest disjunctive dislocations of the island. The volcano was monitored during field seasons in the period from 2005 to 2007, and data on flow rates, chemical and isotope compositions of gases, temperature and chemical composition of watermud mixture in the volcano’s blowouts were collected and analysed. During the observation period, seismic activity in the region under study was significantly variable in time and space. The monitoring results revealed «traces» of two earthquakes in the blowout activity of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk mud volcano – the Gornazavodsk earthquake, that took place on 17 (18 August 2006, and the Nevelsk earthquake of 2 August 2007. Based on results of our analyses of the field data and mathematical simulation data, it is possible to conclude that an additional inflow of «deep geofluids» could not have been a major trigger of the activity of the volcano after the earthquakes. In our opinion, all the observed anomalies may result from «water – rock – gas» interactions in the top part of the mud volcano’s feeder channel. A combination of water and gas flows in the volcano’s channel and silica-alumina rocks comprises a specific geochemical system that is sensitive to external (seismic impacts. Therefore, comprehensive consideration of physical and chemical processes within fluid-dynamic systems is required for assurance of correct interpretation of empirical data.

  5. 中央核处理器的真空热解%The Vacuum Pyrolysis of Central Processing Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓雅

    2012-01-01

    The low temperature pyrolysis of an important electronic waste,central processing unit(CPU) was investigated under vacuum condition and was compared with the results of higher temperature pyrolysis.Results showed that the pyrolysis of CPU took place adequately with a high pyrolysis oils yield which was good for the recovery of organics in the CPU and the pins could be separated from the base plates at pyrolysis temperature of 500~700 ℃.When the pyrolysis was carried out at 300~400 ℃,the solder mask of the CPU was pyrolysed and the pins could be separated from the base plates with a relatively intact gold-plated layer.Meanwhile,the pyrolysis oils yield was lower but the composition of the pyrolysis oils was relatively simple which was easy for separation and purification.%在真空条件下对中央核处理器(CPU)这一重要的电子废弃物进行低温热解研究,并对比较高温度下的热解效果。结果表明:500~700℃热解温度下,CPU基板充分裂解,产油率高,有利于CPU中有机物的回收,且针脚可与基板分离完全。低温热解300~400℃条件下,CPU的阻焊层发生裂解,针脚可与基板分离,且针脚镀金层较为完整,产油率相对较低,但液体产物组分较为单一,易于分离提纯。

  6. Optimization of permeate flux produced by solar energy driven membrane distillation process using central composite design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguecha, Salah T; Boubakri, Ali; Aly, Samir E; Al-Beirutty, Mohammad H; Hamdi, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is considered as a relatively high-energy requirement. To overcome this drawback, it is recommended to couple the MD process with solar energy as the renewable energy source in order to provide heat energy required to optimize its performance to produce permeate flux. In the present work, an original solar energy driven direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) pilot plant was built and tested under actual weather conditions at Jeddah, KSA, in order to model and optimize permeate flux. The dependency of permeate flux on various operating parameters such as feed temperature (46.6-63.4°C), permeate temperature (6.6-23.4°C), feed flow rate (199-451L/h) and permeate flow rate (199-451L/h) was studied by response surface methodology based on central composite design approach. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that all independent variables had significant influence on the model (where P-value <0.05). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9644 and R(adj)(2) = 0.9261) obtained by ANOVA demonstrated good correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response. The optimized conditions, determined using desirability function, were T(f) = 63.4°C, Tp = 6.6°C, Q(f) = 451L/h and Q(p) = 451L/h. Under these conditions, the maximum permeate flux of 6.122 kg/m(2).h was achieved, which was close to the predicted value of 6.398 kg/m(2).h.

  7. Optimization of permeate flux produced by solar energy driven membrane distillation process using central composite design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguecha, Salah T; Boubakri, Ali; Aly, Samir E; Al-Beirutty, Mohammad H; Hamdi, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is considered as a relatively high-energy requirement. To overcome this drawback, it is recommended to couple the MD process with solar energy as the renewable energy source in order to provide heat energy required to optimize its performance to produce permeate flux. In the present work, an original solar energy driven direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) pilot plant was built and tested under actual weather conditions at Jeddah, KSA, in order to model and optimize permeate flux. The dependency of permeate flux on various operating parameters such as feed temperature (46.6-63.4°C), permeate temperature (6.6-23.4°C), feed flow rate (199-451L/h) and permeate flow rate (199-451L/h) was studied by response surface methodology based on central composite design approach. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that all independent variables had significant influence on the model (where P-value <0.05). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9644 and R(adj)(2) = 0.9261) obtained by ANOVA demonstrated good correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response. The optimized conditions, determined using desirability function, were T(f) = 63.4°C, Tp = 6.6°C, Q(f) = 451L/h and Q(p) = 451L/h. Under these conditions, the maximum permeate flux of 6.122 kg/m(2).h was achieved, which was close to the predicted value of 6.398 kg/m(2).h. PMID:27386986

  8. Theta burst stimulation applied over primary motor and somatosensory cortices produces analgesia unrelated to the changes in nociceptive event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M E Torta

    Full Text Available Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 can alleviate pain although the neural basis of this effect remains largely unknown. Besides, the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 is thought to play a pivotal role in the sensori-discriminative aspects of pain perception but the analgesic effect of cTBS applied over S1 remains controversial. To investigate cTBS-induced analgesia we characterized, in two separate experiments, the effect of cTBS applied either over M1 or S1 on the event-related brain potentials (ERPs and perception elicited by nociceptive (CO2 laser stimulation and non-nociceptive (transcutaneous electrical stimulation somatosensory stimuli. All stimuli were delivered to the ipsilateral and contralateral hand. We found that both cTBS applied over M1 and cTBS applied over S1 significantly reduced the percept elicited by nociceptive stimuli delivered to the contralateral hand as compared to similar stimulation of the ipsilateral hand. In contrast, cTBS did not modulate the perception of non-nociceptive stimuli. Surprisingly, this side-dependent analgesic effect of cTBS was not reflected in the amplitude modulation of nociceptive ERPs. Indeed, both nociceptive (N160, N240 and P360 waves and late-latency non-nociceptive (N140 and P200 waves ERPs elicited by stimulation of the contralateral and ipsilateral hands were similarly reduced after cTBS, suggesting an unspecific effect, possibly due to habituation or reduced alertness. In conclusion, cTBS applied over M1 and S1 reduces similarly the perception of nociceptive inputs originating from the contralateral hand, but this analgesic effect is not reflected in the magnitude of nociceptive ERPs.

  9. Untangling nociceptive, neuropathic and neuroplastic mechanisms underlying the biological domain of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hush, Julia M; Stanton, Tasha R; Siddall, Philip; Marcuzzi, Anna; Attal, Nadine

    2013-05-01

    SUMMARY Current clinical practice guidelines advocate a model of diagnostic triage for back pain, underpinned by the biopsychosocial paradigm. However, limitations of this clinical model have become apparent: it can be difficult to classify patients into the diagnostic triage categories; patients with 'nonspecific back pain' are clearly not a homogenous group; and mean effects of treatments based on this approach are small. In this article, it is proposed that the biological domain of the biopsychosocial model needs to be reconceptualized using a neurobiological mechanism-based approach. Recent evidence about nociceptive and neuropathic contributors to back pain is outlined in the context of maladaptive neuroplastic changes of the somatosensory system. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  10. Effects of glia metabolism inhibition on nociceptive behavioral testing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lefèvre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroacetate has been widely used to inhibit glia metabolism in vivo. It has yet to be shown what the effects of chronic intrathecal infusion of fluoroacetate on nociceptive behavioral testing are. The effects of chronic infusion of fluoroacetate (5 nmoles/h for 2 weeks were examined in normal rats. Chronic intrathecal fluoroacetate did not alter mechanical threshold (von Frey filaments, responses to supra-threshold mechanical stimuli (von Frey filaments, responses to hot (hot plate or cool (acetone test stimuli and did not affect motor performance of the animals, which was tested with rotarod. This suggests that fluoroacetate at appropriate dose did not suppress neuronal activity in the spinal cord.

  11. Pain sensation and nociceptive reflex excitability in surgical patients and human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Erichsen, C J; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A;

    1992-01-01

    Pain threshold, nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold and responses to suprathreshold stimulation were investigated in 15 female patients (mean age 32 yr (range 22-48 yr)) before and 68 (range 48-96) h after gynaecological laparotomy. Control measurements were performed in 17 healthy human...... volunteers (five males, age 30 yr (range 24-41 yr)). In the surgical patients, pain threshold decreased and pain to suprathreshold stimulation increased significantly (P = 0.006 and P = 0.04, respectively) from before to after surgery. A corresponding trend was demonstrated in neurophysiological measurements......, although the decrease in NFR threshold and increase in NFR amplitude to suprathreshold stimulation were not significant (P = 0.08 and P = 0.24, respectively). The correlations between the relative change in pain and reflex thresholds, and time from surgery, were statistically significant (pain threshold...

  12. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  13. A Validation Process for the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Faultless Nuclear Test at Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2003-01-01

    Many sites of groundwater contamination rely heavily on complex numerical models of flow and transport to develop closure plans. This has created a need for tools and approaches that can be used to build confidence in model predictions and make it apparent to regulators, policy makers, and the public that these models are sufficient for decision making. This confidence building is a long-term iterative process and it is this process that should be termed ''model validation.'' Model validation is a process not an end result. That is, the process of model validation cannot always assure acceptable prediction or quality of the model. Rather, it provides safeguard against faulty models or inadequately developed and tested models. Therefore, development of a systematic approach for evaluating and validating subsurface predictive models and guiding field activities for data collection and long-term monitoring is strongly needed. This report presents a review of model validation studies that pertain to groundwater flow and transport modeling. Definitions, literature debates, previously proposed validation strategies, and conferences and symposia that focused on subsurface model validation are reviewed and discussed. The review is general in nature, but the focus of the discussion is on site-specific, predictive groundwater models that are used for making decisions regarding remediation activities and site closure. An attempt is made to compile most of the published studies on groundwater model validation and assemble what has been proposed or used for validating subsurface models. The aim is to provide a reasonable starting point to aid the development of the validation plan for the groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The review of previous studies on model validation shows that there does not exist a set of specific procedures and tests that can be easily adapted and

  14. A study on the evolution of Indian Ocean triple junction and the process of deformation in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    It is generally presumed that the intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) is a direct consequence of spreading across the South East Indian Ridge and the resistance to shortening at the continental collision between India...

  15. Hydrocarbons in the Bay of Bengal and Central Indian Basin bottom sediments: Indicators of geochemical processes in the lithosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chernova, T.G.; Paropkari, A.L.; Pikovskii, Yu.I.; Alekseeva, T.A.

    that the hydrocarbons are mostly derived from marine sources. Sharp increases fo hydrocarbons are found in the vicinity of the tectonically active region of the Central Indian Basin, particularly in the sediments collected from the fracture zone. The total concentration...

  16. Roles of isolectin B4-binding afferents in colorectal mechanical nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Jun-Ho; Feng, Bin; Kaji, Kaori; Schwartz, Erica S; Gebhart, G F

    2016-02-01

    Isolectin B4-binding (IB4+) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are distinct from peptidergic DRG neurons in their terminal location in the spinal cord and respective contributions to various classes and modalities of nociception. In DRG neurons innervating the mouse colon (c-DRG neurons), the reported proportion of IB4+ population is inconsistent across studies, and little is known regarding their role in colorectal mechanonociception. To address these issues, in C57BL/6J mice, we quantified IB4+ binding after labeling c-DRG neurons with Fast Blue and examined functional consequences of ablating these neurons by IB4-conjugated saporin. Sixty-one percent of Fast Blue-labeled neurons in the L6 DRG were IB4+, and 95% of these IB4+ c-DRG neurons were peptidergic. Intrathecal administration of IB4-conjugated saporin reduced the proportion of IB4+ c-DRG neurons to 37%, which was due to the loss of c-DRG neurons showing strong to medium IB4+ intensity; c-DRG neurons with weak IB4+ intensity were spared. However, this loss altered neither nociceptive behaviors to colorectal distension nor the relative proportions of stretch-sensitive colorectal afferent classes characterized by single-fiber recordings. These findings demonstrate that more than 1 half of viscerosensory L6 c-DRG neurons in C57BL/6J mouse are IB4+ and suggest, in contrast to the reported roles of IB4+/nonpeptidergic neurons in cutaneous mechanonociception, c-DRG neurons with strong-to-medium IB4+ intensity do not play a significant role in colorectal mechanonociception. PMID:26447707

  17. Presynaptic modulation of spinal nociceptive transmission by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salio, Chiara; Ferrini, Francesco; Muthuraju, Sangu; Merighi, Adalberto

    2014-10-01

    The role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in nociceptive pathways is still controversial, as both pronociceptive and antinociceptive actions have been reported. To elucidate this role in the mouse, we performed combined structural and functional studies in vivo and in acute spinal cord slices where C-fiber activation was mimicked by capsaicin challenge. Nociceptors and their terminals in superficial dorsal horn (SDH; laminae I-II) constitute two separate subpopulations: the peptidergic CGRP/somatostatin+ cells expressing GDNF and the nonpeptidergic IB4+ neurons expressing the GFRα1-RET GDNF receptor complex. Ultrastructurally the dorsal part of inner lamina II (LIIid) harbors a mix of glomeruli that either display GDNF/somatostatin (GIb)-IR or GFRα1/IB4 labeling (GIa). LIIid thus represents the preferential site for ligand-receptor interactions. Functionally, endogenous GDNF released from peptidergic CGRP/somatostatin+ nociceptors upon capsaicin stimulation exert a tonic inhibitory control on the glutamate excitatory drive of SDH neurons as measured after ERK1/2 phosphorylation assay. Real-time Ca(2+) imaging and patch-clamp experiments with bath-applied GDNF (100 nM) confirm the presynaptic inhibition of SDH neurons after stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive, nociceptive primary afferent fibers. Accordingly, the reduction of the capsaicin-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise and of the frequency of mEPSCs in SDH neurons is specifically abolished after enzymatic ablation of GFRα1. Therefore, GDNF released from peptidergic CGRP/somatostatin+ nociceptors acutely depresses neuronal transmission in SDH signaling to nonpeptidergic IB4+ nociceptors at glomeruli in LIIid. These observations are of potential pharmacological interest as they highlight a novel modality of cross talk between nociceptors that may be relevant for discrimination of pain modalities.

  18. Effect of tramadol on immune responses and nociceptive thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-min LIU; Sheng-mei ZHU; Kui-rong WANG; Zhi-ying FENG; Qing-lian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects oftramadol on the proinflammatory responses in a rat model of incisional pain by investigating its effects on nociceptive thresholds and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-2 levels. Methods: Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats scheduled for plantar incision were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=6 in each group). Rats in Group 1 receiving general anesthesia with no incision were served as control; At 30 min before skin incision, Groups 2~5 were given 5 ml normal saline or 1, 10, and 20 mg/kg tramadol, respectively, intraperitoneally (i.p.); Group 6 received 10 mg/kg tramadol after operation; Group 7 received 10 mg/kg tramadol before incision, followed by 200 μg/kg naloxone after operation. Mechanical allodynia was measured by electronic von Frey filament to evaluate the nociceptive thresholds 1 h before incision, and 1 h and 2 h after operation. Serum IL-6 and IL-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 2 h after operation. Results: Mechanical thresholds decreased significantly and serum IL-6 level increased significantly after operation in Group 2 compared with control (P<0.01), and these changes were reversed respectively by tramadol in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). IL-2 level remained unchanged after operation in Group 2, but decreased in Group 3 (P<0.05), then gradually returned to the normal level in Groups 4 and 5. The intraperitoneally injected tramadol (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced a potent and dose-dependent antinocicptive effect on the lesioned paw. The antinocicptive effects of tramadol were partially an-tagonized by naloxone (200 μg/kg), suggesting an additional non-opioid mechanism. Conclusion: The results suggest that tramadol could be a good choice for the treatment of pain under the conditions that immunosuppression may be particularly contraindicated.

  19. Calpain inhibitor, MDL 28170 confer electrophysiological, nociceptive and biochemical improvement in diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharatmal, Shivsharan B; Singh, Jitendra N; Sharma, Shyam S

    2015-10-01

    Calpain plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurological and cardiovascular complications, but its functional association in diabetic neuropathy is not yet elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of calpain in modulation of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels (TTX-R Na(+) channels) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using a pharmacological approach. The effects of a calpain inhibitor, MDL 28170 (3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) on TTX-R Na(+) channels in DRG neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were assessed by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. In addition to this biochemical, functional and behavioral deficits were also measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia with reduced nerve perfusion and conduction velocity as compared to control. MDL 28170 treatments significantly recovered these functional and nociceptive deficits. Moreover, diabetic rats exhibited increased calpain activation, lipid peroxidation and proinflammatory cytokines as compared to control. Drug treatment significantly improved these biochemical deficits. Additionally, DRG neurons from diabetic rats illustrated a significant increase in TTX-R sodium current (INa) density as compared to control. MDL 28170 treatments in diabetic rats significantly blocked the altered channel kinetics with hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependence of steady-state activation and inactivation curves. All together, our study provides evidence that calpain activation is directly associated with alterations in TTX-R Na(+) channels and triggers functional, nociceptive and biochemical deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy. The calpain inhibitor, MDL 28710 have shown beneficial effects in alleviating diabetic neuropathy via modulation of TTX-R Na(+) channel kinetics and reduction of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation.

  20. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  1. Nociceptive-induced myocardial remote conditioning is mediated by neuronal gamma protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eric R; Hsu, Anna K; Urban, Travis J; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Gross, Garrett J

    2013-09-01

    Deciphering the remote conditioning molecular mechanism may provide targets to develop therapeutics that can broaden the clinical application. To further investigate this, we tested whether two protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, the ubiquitously expressed epsilon PKC (εPKC) and the neuronal-specific gamma PKC (γPKC), mediate nociceptive-induced remote myocardial conditioning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for both in vivo and ex vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion protocols. For the in vivo studies, using a surgical abdominal incision for comparison, applying only to the abdomen either bradykinin or the εPKC activator (ψεRACK) reduced myocardial infarct size (45 ± 1, 44 ± 2 %, respectively, vs. incision: 43 ± 2 %, and control: 63 ± 2 %, P classical PKC isozyme activator (activating α, β, βII, and γ), reduced myocardial injury. Importantly, the classical PKC isozyme activator given to the abdomen in vivo (with an intact nervous system including γPKC) during myocardial ischemia reduced infarct size as effectively as an abdominal incision or ψεRACK (45 ± 1 vs. 45 ± 2 and 47 ± 1 %, respectively). The classical PKC activator-induced protection was also blocked by spinal cord surgical transection. These findings identified potential remote conditioning mimetics, with these strategies effective even during myocardial ischemia. A novel mechanism of nociceptive-induced remote conditioning, involving γPKC, was also identified.

  2. Riparian leaf litter processing by benthic macroinvertebrates in a woodland stream of central Chile Procesamiento de detritus ripariano por macroinvertebrados bentónicos en un estero boscoso de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litter input from riparian landscapes has been identified as both a major energy flow to stream ecosystems and as a food source for stream macroinvertebrates. In riparian landscapes of woodland streams of central Chile, the native deciduous hardwoods are being artificially replaced by exotic coniferous trees at a large spatial scale. It is suggested that this process has a significant impact on the stream communities of central Chile. Today, exotic plantations occur throughout central Chile, with Pinus radiata (D. Don (Monterrey pine accounting for about 80 % of the more than 1,800,000 ha of exotic forests. The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of the litter beds of a dominant native species (Nothofagus pumilio and an exotic species (P. radiata on the detritus processing carried out by benthic macroinvertebrates, in an experimental catchment of central Chile (Rucúe Creek; 36° 26'00" S, 71° 35'40" W. Results revealed that processing rates of native leaf packs are higher than rates of coniferous leaf packs, suggesting that the replacement of the native hardwoods by exotic coniferous riparian flora has an important impact on the stream energy flow in central Chile. The decay rate coefficients (k were 0.0072 for N. pumilio, and 0.0027 for P. radiata. The greater abundance and biomass of shredders per gram of leaf pack of native Nothofagus would explain the differences in leaf processing rates, especially through the activity of two Plecoptera Gripopterygidae, Limnoperla jaffueli and Antarctoperla michaelseniLa entrada de detritus foliar procedente de áreas riparianas ha sido reconocido como un componente importante en la energética de ecosistemas fluviales y como fuente de alimento de macroinvertebrados acuáticos. En áreas riparianas de esteros boscosos de Chile central los componentes nativos caducifolios están siendo artificialmente reemplazados a gran escala por coníferas exóticas, sugiriendo que este proceso tiene

  3. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  4. microRNAs in nociceptive circuits as predictors of future clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Kress; Alexander Hüttenhofer; Marc Landry; Rohini Kuner; Greenberg, David S.; Josef Bednarik; Paul Heppenstall; Marzia Malcangio; Heike Rittner; Peter Mouritzen; Frank Birklein

    2013-01-01

    Neuro-immune alterations in the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) – and microRNAs (miRNAs) in particular - regulate both immune and neuronal processes. Specifically, miRNAs control macromolecular complexes in neurons, glia and immune cells and regulate signals used for neuro-immune communication in the pain pathway. Therefore, miRNAs may be hypothesised as critically important master switches modulating chron...

  5. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

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    David R. Spiegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective, neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system, or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system. The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed.

  6. Spatial pattern and temporal variability of runoff processes in Mediterranean Mountain environments - a case study of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzen, V.; Seeger, K.M.; Casper, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain environments like the Central Spanish Pyrenees show a highly variable rainfall-runoff response, mainly explained by the intense intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitation yield. This leads to a highly differentiated moisture status and therefore it is assumed to lead

  7. Pain Mechanisms and Centralized Pain in Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D E; Schrepf, A; Clauw, D J

    2016-09-01

    Until recently, most clinicians and scientists believed that the experience of pain is perceptually proportional to the amount of incoming peripheral nociceptive drive due to injury or inflammation in the area perceived to be painful. However, many cases of chronic pain have defied this logic, leaving clinicians perplexed as to how patients are experiencing pain with no obvious signs of injury in the periphery. Conversely, there are patients who have a peripheral injury and/or inflammation but little or no pain. What makes some individuals experience intense pain with minimal peripheral nociceptive stimulation and others experience minimal pain with serious injury? It is increasingly well accepted in the scientific community that pain can be generated and maintained or, through other mechanisms, suppressed by changes in the central nervous system, creating a complete mismatch between peripheral nociceptive drive and perceived pain. In fact, there is no known chronic pain condition where the observed extent of peripheral damage reproducibly engenders the same level of pain across individuals. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are no exception. This review focuses on the idea that TMD patients range on a continuum-from those whose pain is generated peripherally to those whose pain is centralized (i.e., generated, exacerbated, and/or maintained by central nervous system mechanisms). This article uses other centralized chronic pain conditions as a guide, and it suggests that the mechanistic variability in TMD pain etiology has prevented us from adequately treating many individuals who are diagnosed with the condition. As the field moves forward, it will be imperative to understand each person's pain from its own mechanistic standpoint, which will enable clinicians to deliver personalized medicine to TMD patients and eventually provide relief in even the most recalcitrant cases. PMID:27422858

  8. Pre-test habituation improves the reliability of a handheld test of mechanical nociceptive threshold in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundal, P. M.; Andersen, P. H.; Toft, Nils;

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) testing has been used to investigate aspects of painful states in bovine claws. We investigated a handheld tool, where the applied stimulation force was monitored continuously relative to a pre-encoded based target force. The effect on MNT of two pre......-testing habituation procedures was performed in two different experiments comprising a total of 88 sound Holsteins dairy cows kept either inside or outside their home environment. MNT testing was performed using five consecutive mechanical nociceptive stimulations per cow per test at a fixed pre-encoded target rate...... of 2.1 N/s. The habituation procedure performed in dairy cows kept in their home environment led to lowered intra-individual coefficient of variation of MNT (P force during stimulations (P

  9. Intrathecal administration of clonidine or yohimbine decreases the nociceptive behavior caused by formalin injection in the marsh terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makau, Christopher M; Towett, Philemon K; Abelson, Klas S P;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of noradrenergic system in the control of nociception is documented in some vertebrate animals. However, there are no data showing the role of this system on nociception in the marsh terrapins. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the antinociceptive action of intrathecal administration...... of the α 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine and α 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine was evaluated in the African marsh terrapin using the formalin test. The interaction of clonidine and yohimbine was also evaluated. RESULTS: Intrathecal administration of clonidine (37.5 or 65 μg/kg) caused...... a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Yohimbine, at a dose of 25 μg/kg, significantly blocked the effect of clonidine (65 μg/kg). However, administration of yohimbine (40 or 53 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Intrathecal...

  10. Astroglial glutamate-glutamine cycle is involved in the modulation of inflammatory nociception in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiancheng Wang; Jing Wang; Bin Geng; Hongyu Guo; Haili Shen; Yayi Xia

    2011-01-01

    Our previous behavioral studies have indicated that the astroglial glutamate-glutamine cycle is involved in the process of formalin-induced spinal cord central sensitization, but there was little morphological evidence. In this study, double-labeling immunofluorescence techniques showed that after rats were intrathecally injected with PBS and plantarly injected with formalin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthesase (GS) expression were increased and GFAP/GS coexpression was changed to include layers III and IV. After intrathecal injection of methionine sulfoximine, a GS specific inhibitor, the formalin-induced change in expression and coexpression of GFAP and GS in spinal cord dorsal horns was inhibited. The morphology, distribution and quantity of astrocytes recovered to normal levels. An intrathecal glutamine injection reversed the inhibitory effect of methionine sulfoximine. Astrocytes showed significant activation and distribution extended to layers V and VI. The present study provides morphological evidence that the astroglial glutamate-glutamine cycle is involved in the process of formalin-induced spinal cord central sensitization.

  11. Spinal Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors (mGluRs) are Involved in the Melittin-induced Nociception in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chul Hyun; Shin, Hong Kee

    2008-01-01

    Intraplantar injection of melittin has been known to induce sustained decrease of mechanical threshold and increase of spontaneous flinchings. The present study was undertaken to investigate how the melittin-induced nociceptive responses were modulated by changes of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activity. Changes in paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), number of flinchings and paw thickness were measured at a given time point after injection of melittin (10 µg/paw) into the mid-plantar a...

  12. Melittin activates TRPV1 receptors in primary nociceptive sensory neurons via the phospholipase A2 cascade pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yi-Ru; Xiao, Yong; Lu, Zhuo-Min; Ding, Jing; Xie, Fang; Fu, Han; Wang, Yan; Strong, Judith A.; Zhang, Jun-Ming; Chen, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that melittin, the main peptide in bee venom, could cause persistent spontaneous pain, primary heat and mechanical hyperalgesia, and enhance the excitability of spinal nociceptive neurons. However, the underlying mechanism of melittin-induced cutaneous hypersensitivity is unknown. Effects of melittin applied topically to acutely dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were studied using whole-cell patch clamp and calcium imaging techniques. Melittin induced ...

  13. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Karvat, Jhenifer; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Vieira, Lizyana; Higuchi, Guilherme Hideaki; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury), exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise), lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise), and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise). LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after...

  14. Adaptability of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Eckert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nociceptive withdrawal reflex is a protective mechanism to mediate interactions within a potentially dangerous environment. The reflex is formed by action-based sensory encoding during the early post-natal developmental period, and it is unknown if the protective motor function of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in the human upper-limb is adaptable based on the configuration of the arm or if it can be modified by short-term practice of a similar or opposing motor action. In the present study, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked by a brief train of electrical stimuli applied to digit II, 1 in five different static arm positions and, 2 before and after motor practice that was opposite (EXT or similar (FLEX to the stereotyped withdrawal response, in 10 individuals. Withdrawal responses were quantified by the electromyography (EMG reflex response in several upper limb muscles, and by the forces and moments recorded at the wrist. EMG onset latencies and response amplitudes were not significantly different across the arm positions or between the EXT and FLEX practice conditions, and the general direction of the withdrawal response was similar across arm positions. In addition, the force vectors were not different after practice in either the practice condition or between EXT and FLEX conditions. We conclude the withdrawal response is insensitive to changes in elbow or shoulder joint angles as well as remaining resistant to short-term adaptations from the practice of motor actions, resulting in a generalized limb withdrawal in each case. It is further hypothesized that the multisensory feedback is weighted differently in each arm position, but integrated to achieve a similar withdrawal response to safeguard against erroneous motor responses that could cause further harm. The results remain consistent with the concept that nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are shaped through long-term and not short-term action based sensory encoding.

  15. Paclitaxel-induced hyposensitivity to nociceptive chemical stimulation in mice can be prevented by treatment with minocycline

    OpenAIRE

    Willias Masocha

    2014-01-01

    Development of peripheral neuropathy, which can present as painful neuropathy or loss of sensation, sometimes limit the use of paclitaxel in the treatment of solid tumors such as breast cancer. Previous studies reported development of thermal hyperalgesia in mice treated with paclitaxel. In this study an automated flinch detection system for the formalin test (20 μl of 5% formalin injected subcutaneously into the paw dorsum) was used to evaluate chemical nociception in BALB/c mice treated wit...

  16. Protease activated receptors 1 and 4 sensitize TRPV1 in nociceptive neurones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magherini Pier C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protease-activated receptors (PAR1-4 are activated by proteases released by cell damage or blood clotting, and are known to be involved in promoting pain and hyperalgesia. Previous studies have shown that PAR2 receptors enhance activation of TRPV1 but the role of other PARs is less clear. In this paper we investigate the expression and function of the PAR1, 3 and 4 thrombin-activated receptors in sensory neurones. Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization show that PAR1 and PAR4 are expressed in 10 - 15% of neurons, distributed across all size classes. Thrombin or a specific PAR1 or PAR4 activating peptide (PAR1/4-AP caused functional effects characteristic of activation of the PLCβ/PKC pathway: intracellular calcium release, sensitisation of TRPV1, and translocation of the epsilon isoform of PKC (PKCε to the neuronal cell membrane. Sensitisation of TRPV1 was significantly reduced by PKC inhibitors. Neurons responding to thrombin or PAR1-AP were either small nociceptive neurones of the peptidergic subclass, or larger neurones which expressed markers for myelinated fibres. Sequential application of PAR1-AP and PAR4-AP showed that PAR4 is expressed in a subset of the PAR1-expressing neurons. Calcium responses to PAR2-AP were by contrast seen in a distinct population of small IB4+ nociceptive neurones. PAR3 appears to be non-functional in sensory neurones. In a skin-nerve preparation the release of the neuropeptide CGRP by heat was potentiated by PAR1-AP. Culture with nerve growth factor (NGF increased the proportion of thrombin-responsive neurons in the IB4- population, while glial-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF and neurturin upregulated the proportion of thrombin-responsive neurons in the IB4+ population. We conclude that PAR1 and PAR4 are functionally expressed in large myelinated fibre neurons, and are also expressed in small nociceptors of the peptidergic subclass, where they are able to potentiate TRPV1 activity.

  17. Participation of cannabinoid receptors in peripheral nociception induced by some NSAIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.C.R.; Romero, T.R.L.; Guzzo, L.S.; Duarte, I.D.G. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used extensively to control inflammatory pain. Several peripheral antinociceptive mechanisms have been described, such as opioid system and NO/cGMP/KATP pathway activation. There is evidence that the cannabinoid system can also contribute to the in vivo pharmacological effects of ibuprofen and indomethacin. However, there is no evidence of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the peripheral antinociception induced by NSAIDs. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the participation of the endocannabinoid system in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of NSAIDs. All experiments were performed on male Wistar rats (160-200 g; N = 4 per group). Hyperalgesia was induced by a subcutaneous intraplantar (ipl) injection of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}, 2 µg/paw) in the rat's hindpaw and measured by the paw pressure test 3 h after injection. The weight in grams required to elicit a nociceptive response, paw flexion, was determined as the nociceptive threshold. The hyperalgesia was calculated as the difference between the measurements made before and after PGE{sub 2}, which induced hyperalgesia (mean = 83.3 ± 4.505 g). AM-251 (80 µg/paw) and AM-630 (100 µg/paw) were used as CB{sub 1} and CB{sub 2} cannabinoid receptor antagonists, respectively. Ipl injection of 40 µg dipyrone (mean = 5.825 ± 2.842 g), 20 µg diclofenac (mean = 4.825 ± 3.850 g) and 40 µg indomethacin (mean = 6.650 ± 3.611 g) elicited a local peripheral antinociceptive effect. This effect was not antagonized by ipl CB{sub 1} cannabinoid antagonist to dipyrone (mean = 5.00 ± 0.9815 g), diclofenac (mean = 2.50 ± 0.8337 g) and indomethacin (mean = 6.650 ± 4.069 g) or CB{sub 2} cannabinoid antagonist to dipyrone (mean = 1.050 ± 6.436 g), diclofenac (mean = 6.675 ± 1.368 g) and indomethacin (mean = 2.85 ± 5.01 g). Thus, cannabinoid receptors do not seem to be involved in the peripheral antinociceptive mechanism of

  18. Objective evaluation for venous leg ulcer-related nociceptive pain using thermography

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    Goto T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taichi Goto,1 Ayumi Naito,1,2 Nao Tamai,1 Gojiro Nakagami,1 Makoto Mo,3 Hiromi Sanada1 1Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Fujisawa City Hospital, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan Purpose: We aimed to identify distinguishing characteristics in thermographic images of venous leg ulcer (VLU, for objective evaluation of VLU-related nociceptive pain. Patients and methods: Secondary analysis was performed, using existing data obtained from April to November 2010, for patients with VLU. Thermographic images of wounds and their surrounding area were classified according to the periwound temperature pattern as "normal temperature" or "high temperature". These results were compared with the self-reported pain intensity assessed by the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Cohen's kappa coefficients were used to evaluate the interrater reliability for temperature assessment, and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare pain intensities between the two groups. Results: Among 39 thermographic examinations in eight patients, 22 were classified into the high-temperature group and 17 into the normal-temperature group. Kappa coefficients for the temperature classification were 0.90 between the wound, ostomy, and continence nurse and a wound care specialist, and 0.90 between the wound, ostomy, and continence nurse and a graduate student. The pain rating index (Z=−2.981, P=0.003, sensory pain (Z=−3.083, P=0.002, affective pain (Z=−2.764, P=0.006, and present pain intensity (Z=−2.639, P=0.006 ratings were significantly higher in the high-temperature group than in the normal-temperature group, but the visual analog scale (Z=−0.632, P=0.527 was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Thermographic pattern may reflect VLU

  19. Participation of cannabinoid receptors in peripheral nociception induced by some NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.R. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been used extensively to control inflammatory pain. Several peripheral antinociceptive mechanisms have been described, such as opioid system and NO/cGMP/KATP pathway activation. There is evidence that the cannabinoid system can also contribute to the in vivo pharmacological effects of ibuprofen and indomethacin. However, there is no evidence of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the peripheral antinociception induced by NSAIDs. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the participation of the endocannabinoid system in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of NSAIDs. All experiments were performed on male Wistar rats (160-200 g; N = 4 per group. Hyperalgesia was induced by a subcutaneous intraplantar (ipl injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 2 μg/paw in the rat’s hindpaw and measured by the paw pressure test 3 h after injection. The weight in grams required to elicit a nociceptive response, paw flexion, was determined as the nociceptive threshold. The hyperalgesia was calculated as the difference between the measurements made before and after PGE2, which induced hyperalgesia (mean = 83.3 ± 4.505 g. AM-251 (80 μg/paw and AM-630 (100 μg/paw were used as CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonists, respectively. Ipl injection of 40 μg dipyrone (mean = 5.825 ± 2.842 g, 20 μg diclofenac (mean = 4.825 ± 3.850 g and 40 μg indomethacin (mean = 6.650 ± 3.611 g elicited a local peripheral antinociceptive effect. This effect was not antagonized by ipl CB1 cannabinoid antagonist to dipyrone (mean = 5.00 ± 0.9815 g, diclofenac (mean = 2.50 ± 0.8337 g and indomethacin (mean = 6.650 ± 4.069 g or CB2 cannabinoid antagonist to dipyrone (mean = 1.050 ± 6.436 g, diclofenac (mean = 6.675 ± 1.368 g and indomethacin (mean = 2.85 ± 5.01 g. Thus, cannabinoid receptors do not seem to be involved in the peripheral antinociceptive mechanism of the NSAIDs dipyrone, diclofenac and

  20. The Impact of Legislature and Citizens on the Budgeting Process in Switzerland: Lessons for Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Tóth

    2005-01-01

    Scholars evaluating national and local budget procedures in Central and Eastern Europe generally advocate a greater role for legislative bodies and citizens. Mature federations and decentralised countries in Western Europe are often cited as prime examples of participatory budgeting which is supposed to lead to greater fiscal discipline, a better allocation of public resources and higher administrative efficiency. This paper investigates the strengths and weaknesses of legislative activism in...

  1. Urethane anesthesia depresses activities of thalamocortical neurons and alters its response to nociception in terms of dual firing modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeowool eHuh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are often used to characterize the activity of single neurons in-vivo for its advantages such as reduced noise level and convenience in noxious stimulations. Of the anesthetics, urethane had been widely used in some thalamic studies under the assumption that sensory signals are still relayed to the thalamus under urethane anesthesia and that thalamic response would therefore reflect the response of the awake state. We tested whether this assumption stands by comparing thalamic activity in terms of tonic and burst firing modes during ‘the awake state’ or under ‘urethane anesthesia’ utilizing the extracellular single unit recording technique. First we have tested how thalamic relay neurons respond to the introduction of urethane and then tested how urethane influences thalamic discharges under formalin-induced nociception. Urethane significantly depressed overall firing rates of thalamic relay neurons, which was sustained despite the delayed increase of burst activity over the 4 hour recording period. Thalamic response to nociception under anesthesia was also similar overall except for the slight and transient increase of burst activity. Overall, results demonstrated that urethane suppresses the activity of thalamic relay neurons and that, despite the slight fluctuation of burst firing, formalin-induced nociception cannot significantly change the firing pattern of thalamic relay neurons that was caused by urethane.

  2. Behavioral and molecular processing of visceral pain in the brain of mice: impact of colitis and psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush eJain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal disorders with abdominal pain are associated with central sensitization and psychopathologies that are often exacerbated by stress. Here we investigated the impact of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and repeated water avoidance stress (WAS on spontaneous and nociception-related behavior and molecular signaling in the mouse brain. DSS increased the mechanical pain sensitivity of the abdominal skin while both WAS and DSS enhanced the mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity of the plantar skin. These manifestations of central sensitization were associated with augmented c-Fos expression in spinal cord, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. While WAS stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK p42/44, DSS activated another signaling pathway, both of which converged on c-Fos. The DSS- and WAS-induced hyperalgesia in the abdominal and plantar skin and c-Fos expression in the brain disappeared when the mice were subjected to WAS+DSS treatment. Intrarectal allyl isothiocyanate (AITC evoked aversive behavior (freezing, reduction of locomotion and exploration in association with p42/44 MAPK and c-Fos activation in spinal cord and brain. These effects were inhibited by morphine, which attests to their relationship with nociception. DSS and WAS exerted opposite effects on AITC-evoked p42/44 MAPK and c-Fos activation, which indicates that these transduction pathways subserve different aspects of visceral pain processing in the brain. In summary, behavioral perturbations caused by colitis and psychological stress are associated with distinct alterations in cerebral signaling. These findings provide novel perspectives on central sensitization and the sensory and emotional processing of visceral pain stimuli in the brain.

  3. Sodium butyrate and its synthetic amide derivative modulate nociceptive behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Avagliano, Carmen; Cristiano, Claudia; La Rana, Giovanna; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Berni Canani, Roberto; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the role of sodium butyrate (butyrate), and its more palatable derivative, the N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA), in animal models of acute and chronic pain. We found that oral administrations of butyrate (10-200mg/Kg) or equimolecular FBA (21.2-424mg/Kg) reduced visceral pain in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both drugs were also effective in the formalin test, showing an antinociceptive effect. This analgesic effect was blocked by glibenclamide, suggesting the involvement of ATP-dependent K(+) channels. Moreover, following repeated administration butyrate (100-200mg/Kg) and FBA (212-424mg/Kg) retained their analgesic properties in a model of neuropathic pain, reducing mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. The involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) -α and -γ for the analgesic effect of butyrate was also investigated by using PPAR-α null mice or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. Western blot analysis, confirmed the role of peroxisome receptors in butyrate effects, evidencing the increase of PPAR-α and -γ expression, associated to the reduction of inflammatory markers (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and cFOS). In conclusion, we describe the role of butyrate-based drugs in pain, identifying different and converging non-genomic and genomic mechanisms of action, which cooperate in nociception maintenance.

  4. Long-term potentiation in spinal nociceptive pathways as a novel target for pain therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xian-Guo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long-term potentiation (LTP in nociceptive spinal pathways shares several features with hyperalgesia and has been proposed to be a cellular mechanism of pain amplification in acute and chronic pain states. Spinal LTP is typically induced by noxious input and has therefore been hypothesized to contribute to acute postoperative pain and to forms of chronic pain that develop from an initial painful event, peripheral inflammation or neuropathy. Under this assumption, preventing LTP induction may help to prevent the development of exaggerated postoperative pain and reversing established LTP may help to treat patients who have an LTP component to their chronic pain. Spinal LTP is also induced by abrupt opioid withdrawal, making it a possible mechanism of some forms of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Here, we give an overview of targets for preventing LTP induction and modifying established LTP as identified in animal studies. We discuss which of the various symptoms of human experimental and clinical pain may be manifestations of spinal LTP, review the pharmacology of these possible human LTP manifestations and compare it to the pharmacology of spinal LTP in rodents.

  5. Nociceptive temporalis inhibitory reflexes evoked by CO2-laser stimulation in tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, M; Guido, M; Libro, G; Losito, L; Sciruicchio, V; Specchio, L M; Puca, F

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the laser-induced suppression periods of the temporalis muscle in patients with tension-type headache, compared with the pattern of temporalis activity suppression induced by electrical stimulation. Fifteen patients with chronic and 10 with episodic tension-type headaches were selected. Suppression periods were recorded simultaneously from both temporalis muscles using both electrical stimuli and CO2-laser stimuli. A significant reduction in the later electrically induced suppression period was found in both tension-type headache groups. Laser stimulation induced a first suppression period (LSP1) with a latency of about 50 ms in all patients. The features of LSP1 were similar across groups. The LSP1 should correspond to the first suppression period induced by electrical stimulus, which is partly a nociceptive response, whereas the second period seemed negligibly linked with the activation of pain-related afferents, though probably their activation may contribute to increase the reflex duration and to emphasize abnormalities in tension-type headache.

  6. Pain and modulation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain is one of the most important and sometimes difficult problems, that patients and physicians are encountered. It may be clinically acute or chronic, acute pain has usually definite cause and favourable response to treatment. On the other hand there are difficulties in diagnosis and management of chronic pain. Peripheral and cranial nerves convey pain impulses toward central nervous system, and modulations take place at several levels. Diagnosis of different pains, including nociceptive, nerve trunk pain and deafferentation types is essential to acceptable management. In this article we review pain pathway, neurotransmitters and modulation.

  7. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) against acute and chronic pain and inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, H; Moallem, S A; Moshiri, M; Sarnavazi, M S; Etemad, L

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cyanocobalamin (Vit B12) against acute and chronic pain and inflammation were evaluated in mice. Vit B12 (0.87, 1 and 1.77 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. The anti-nociceptive effects against acute pain were examined using hot-plate and writhing tests. The chronic pain was examined 14 days after sciatic nerve ligation using the hot-plate test. Morphine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Anti-inflammatory effects of Vit B12 against acute and chronic inflammation were assessed using xylene-induced edema in ears and granuloma caused by compressed cotton implantation, respectively. In these tests, sodium diclofenac (15 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Vit B12 showed a dose related effect in acute anti-nociceptive test and increased the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine in chronic treatment. Vit B12 demonstrated an anti-nociceptive effect in chronic studies as single or continues daily treatment and increased significantly the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine. All doses of Vit B12 significantly decreased xylene-induced ear edema. Maximum anti-inflammatory effect (37.5%) was obtained at dose of 1 mg/kg. In chronic inflammation, Vit B12 significantly decreased granuloma formation in mice. In conclusion our work presents some experimental evidence supporting the administration of cyanocobalamin in controlling acute and chronic neuropathic pain. Cyanocobalamin may have anti-inflammatory effect. It may reduce tolerance to anti-nociceptive effect of morphine as well. PMID:22588629

  8. Grief-Processing-Based Psychological Intervention for Children Orphaned by AIDS in Central China: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2014-01-01

    A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their…

  9. Modeling Potential Impacts of Planting Palms or Tree in Small Holder Fruit Plantations on Ecohydrological Processes in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kunert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon, but little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. To explore the potential impacts of plantations on local to regional water balance, we studied plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region. The study was conducted in a mixed fruit plantation containing a dicot tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum and a monocot palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleracea close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon. Scaling from sap flux measurements, palms had a 3.5-fold higher water consumption compared to trees with a similar diameter. Despite the high transpiration rates of the palms, our plantation had only one third of the potential water recycling capacity of natural forests in the area. Converting natural forest into such plantations will thus result in significantly higher runoff rates.

  10. The spatial variation of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Toki granite, Central Japan. Implications for the intrusion and cooling processes of a granitic pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial variation in initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (SrI) in the Toki granite, Central Japan, shows heterogeneity ranging from 0.708942 to 0.710069, which provides information on the intrusion and cooling processes of plutons. The Toki granite has three mineralogy-based rock facies: muscovite-biotite granite (MBG), hornblende-biotite granite (HBG) and biotite granite (BG). Large SrI values were found to be distributed at the western margin (west MBG) and the lithologically central region (central BG), while small SrI values were found at the northeast margin (northeast MBG). Regions with high and low Sr concentrations were also found in the Toki granite. In the Sr-rich samples, SrI (0.708942-0.709789) increases with 100/Sr (0.7-1.5). This geochemical trend extends towards the country sedimentary rocks of the Mino Terrane, which can be interpreted to result from assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) between the original granitic magma and the Mino sedimentary rocks. The SrI values in the Sr-rich regions show a correlation with the Alumina Saturation Index (ASI). In particular, the west MBG, with large SrI values, is classified as a peraluminous granitoid with large ASI, suggesting that the western margin of the pluton was strongly affected by assimilation during the intrusion process. The Sr-poor samples are present both in the central BG, with large SrI values, and in the northeast MBG, with small SrI values. The Sr-poor samples have small ASI and large differentiation indices, indicating that the central BG and the northeast MBG were generated either by different AFC process with different amounts of contaminants or by the intrusion and fractionation of different source magma with different SrI values. Overall, the geochemical spatial variations found in the Toki granite can be explained by various degrees of assimilation and fractional crystallization in the magma chamber and/or multi-stage intrusions with different degrees of crystallization of plural

  11. The effects of tail biopsy for genotyping on behavioral responses to nociceptive stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena P Morales

    Full Text Available Removal of a small segment of tail at weaning is a common method used to obtain tissue for the isolation of genomic DNA to identify genetically modified mice. When genetically manipulated mice are used for pain research, this practice could result in confounding changes to the animals' responses to noxious stimuli. In this study, we sought to systematically investigate whether tail biopsy representative of that used in standard genotyping methods affects behavioral responses to a battery of tests of nociception. Wild-type littermate C57BL/6J and 129S6 female and male mice received either tail biopsies or control procedural handling at Day 21 after birth and were then tested at 6-9 weeks for mechanical and thermal sensitivity. C57BL/6J mice were also tested in the formalin model of inflammatory pain. In all tests performed (von Frey, Hargreaves, modified Randall Selitto, and formalin, C57BL/6J tail-biopsied animals' behavioral responses were not significantly different from control animals. In 129S6 animals, tail biopsy did not have a significant effect on behavioral responses in either sex to the von Frey and the modified Randall-Selitto tests of mechanical sensitivity. Interestingly, however, both sexes exhibited small but significant differences between tail biopsied and control responses to a radiant heat stimulus. These results indicate that tail biopsy for genotyping purposes has no effect on nocifensive behavioral responses of C57BL/6J mice, and in 129S6 mice, causes only a minor alteration in response to a radiant heat stimulus while other nocifensive behavioral responses are unchanged. The small effect seen is modality- and strain-specific.

  12. Methanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L. possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Tae; Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    As an attempt to identify bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the effects of the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. (MEXS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicate that MEXS is a potent inhibitor of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production. Consistent with these findings, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEXS inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity and the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus by blocking the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of MEXS in vivo. MEXS (100, 200 mg/kg/d, p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activities in an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. Thus, our study suggests that the inhibitions of iNOS, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release by the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. are achieved by blocking NF-kappaB activation, and that this is also responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:15635170

  13. Insights into the structural biology of G-protein coupled receptors impacts drug design for central nervous system neurodegenerative processes**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farfán-García Eunice Dalet; Soriano-Ursúa Marvin Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there have been important new insights into the structural biology of G-protein coupled receptors. It is now known that al osteric binding sites are involved in the affinity and selec-tivity of ligands for G-protein coupled receptors, and that signaling by these receptors involves both G-protein dependent and independent pathways. The present review outlines the physiological and pharmacological implications of this perspective for the design of new drugs to treat disorders of the central nervous system. Specifical y, new possibilities are explored in relation to al osteric and orthosteric binding sites on dopamine receptors for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, and on muscarinic receptors for Alzheimer’s disease. Future research can seek to identify ligands that can bind to more than one site on the same receptor, or simultaneously bind to two receptors and form a dimer. For example, the design of bivalent drugs that can reach homo/hetero-dimers of D2 dopa-mine receptor holds promise as a relevant therapeutic strategy for Parkinson’s disease. Regarding the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, the design of dualsteric ligands for mono-oligomeric musca-rinic receptors could increase therapeutic effectiveness by generating potent compounds that could activate more than one signaling pathway.

  14. ADAPTATIONAL AND LEARNING-PROCESSES DURING HUMAN SPLIT-BELT LOCOMOTION - INTERACTION BETWEEN CENTRAL MECHANISMS AND AFFERENT INPUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PROKOP, T; BERGER, W; ZIJLSTRA, W; DIETZ, [No Value

    1995-01-01

    Split-belt locomotion (i.e., walking with unequal leg speeds) requires a rapid adaptation of biomechanical parameters and therefore of leg muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. This adaptational process during the first strides of asymmetric gait as well as learning effects induced by repetition

  15. Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey based on aridity and climate-process system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry trees. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc. and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.. In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.

  16. Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey based on aridity and climate-process system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry forests. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc. and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.. In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.

  17. The blink reflex and the corneal reflex are followed by cortical activity resembling the nociceptive potentials induced by trigeminal laser stimulation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, M; Libro, G; Guido, M; Sciruicchio, V; Puca, F

    2001-09-01

    Laser stimulation of the supraorbital regions evokes brain potentials (LEPs) related to trigeminal nociception. The aim of this study was to record the R2 component of the blink reflex and the corneal reflex in 20 normal subjects, comparing the scalp activity following these reflexes with the nociceptive potentials evoked by CO2 laser stimulation of supraorbital regions. Cortical and muscular reflexes evoked by stimulation of the first trigeminal branch were recorded simultaneously. The R2 component of the blink reflex and the corneal reflex were followed by two cortical peaks, which resembled morphologically N-P waves of LEPs. The two peaks demonstrated a difference in latency of approximately 40 ms, which is consistent with activation time of nociception. This finding suggests that these reflexes are induced by activation of small pain-related fibers.

  18. Unraveling an antique subduction process from metamorphic basement around Medellín city, Central Cordillera of Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andres; Juliani, Caetano

    2011-10-01

    varies between 400 and 555 °C at pressures of 5-6 kbar in the retrograde metamorphic path. The El Retiro rocks evidence strong decompression with narrow variation in temperature, showing pressure values between 8.7 and 2.7 kbar at temperatures of 740-633 °C. These metamorphic fragments of the basement in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes could represent a close relationship with an antique subduction zone.

  19. Natural attenuation processes of nitrate in a saline lake-aquifer system: Pétrola Basin (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Nicolas; Menchen, Alfonso; Jirsa, Franz; Hein, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gomez-Alday, Juan Jose

    2016-04-01

    Saline wetlands associated with intense agricultural activities in semi-arid to arid climates are among the most vulnerable environments to NO3- pollution. The endorheic Pétrola Basin (High Segura River Basin, Central Spain) was declared vulnerable to NO3- pollution by the Regional Government of Castilla-La Mancha in 1998. The hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified waterbody, due to the inputs of pollutants from agricultural sources and urban waste waters, the latest are discharged directly into the lake without proper treatment. Previous studies showed that the aquifer system has two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas into the lake, and a density-driven flow from the lake to the underlying aquifer. The NO3- inputs derived from agriculture originate from nitrification of synthetic ammonium fertilizers, and afterwards, NO3- is expected to be attenuated by denitrification (up to 60%) in the saltwater-freshwater interface around the lake. However, the spatial and temporal pattern of nitrate reduction in lake sediments is not known. In this study, an isotope pairing technique was used in order to clarify the main pathways for the NO3- attenuation linked to the sediment-water interface. For that purpose mesocosm experiments were performed: organic-rich lake sediment (up to 23% organic carbon content) was incubated for 96 hours with the addition of 15N nitrate tracer. During the experiments two factors were modified: light and oxic conditions. Analyzing inorganic N-species (n=20) over time (72 hours) showed that NO3- attenuation was coupled with an increment in the NH4+ concentration (from 0.8 mg/L up to 5.3 mg/L) and a decrease in redox values (from 135.1 mV up to -422 mV) in the water column. The main outcome of this study was to elucidate the importance of different microbial pathways denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), in controlling the fate

  20. Adjuvant effect of caffeine on acetylsalicylic acid anti-nociception: prostaglandin E2 synthesis determination in carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Sánchez, Sílvia; Planas, Eulàlia; Poveda, Raquel

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we report a synergistic interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAF) on the inhibition of nociception in a model of peripheral inflammation in rat; on the contrary no interaction have been found on anti-inflammatory effects and peripheral prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) synthesis inhibition. Acute inflammation was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hind paw, and the effects of the drugs were evaluated from 0 to 5h. Nociception was assessed using the Randall & Selitto test, and the inflammatory response by plethismometry. Oral administration of ASA (10-400mg/kg) induced dose-related anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. On the other hand, oral CAF administration (5-50mg/kg) did not show a dose-related inhibitory effect, neither on the inhibition of nociception nor on the inflammatory response. To analyze a possible interaction between both drugs a dose-response curve to ASA plus a fixed dose of CAF (5mg/kg) was obtained 3h after the injection of carrageenan, when the inflammatory pain peaked. A fixed dose of CAF was able to improve the anti-nociceptive, but not the anti-inflammatory, effects of ASA. We also assessed, by enzyme immunoassay, the effects of the combination on peripheral PGE-2 levels: CAF did not alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on PGE-2 synthesis. Our results corroborate the well-known clinical effects of combining ASA and CAF; on the other hand, we rule out that prostaglandin synthesis inhibition at peripheral sites would be the mechanism responsible of the adjuvant anti-nociceptive effect of CAF.

  1. Anti-nociceptive role of neuropeptide Y in the nucleus accumbens in rats with inflammation, an effect modulated by mu- and kappa-opioid receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Recent study in our laboratory showed that neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an antinociceptive role in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in intact rats. The present study was performed to further investigate the effect of NPY in nociceptive modulation in the NAc of rats with inflammation, and the possible interaction between NPY and the opioid systems. Experimental inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the left hindpaw of rats. Intra-NAc administration of NPY induced a dose-dependent increase of hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs) to thermal and mechanical stimulations in rats with inflammation. The anti-nociceptive effect of NPY was significantly blocked by subsequent intra-NAc injection of the Y1 receptor antagonist NPY28-36, suggesting an involvement of Y1 receptor in the NPY-induced anti-nociception. Furthermore, intra-NAc administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone significantly antagonized the increased HWLs induced by preceding intra-NAc injection of NPY, suggesting an involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the NPY-induced anti-nociception in the NAc during inflammation. Moreover, the NPY-induced anti-nociception was attenuated by following intra-NAc injection of the μ-opioid antagonist β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA), and κ-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (norBNI), but not by δ-opioid antagonist naltrindole, indicating that μ- and κ-opioid receptors, not δ-opioid receptor, are involved in the NPY-induced anti-nociception in the NAc in rats with inflammation.

  2. Focusing by blocking: Repeatedly generating central density peaks in self-propelled particle systems by exploiting diffusive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas M.

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few years the displacement statistics of self-propelled particles has been intensely studied, revealing their long-time diffusive behavior. Here, we demonstrate that a concerted combination of boundary conditions and switching on and off the self-propelling drive can generate and afterwards arbitrarily often restore a non-stationary centered peak in their spatial distribution. This corresponds to a partial reversibility of their statistical behavior, in opposition to the above-mentioned long-time diffusive nature. Interestingly, it is a diffusive process that mediates and makes possible this procedure. It should be straightforward to verify our predictions in a real experimental system.

  3. Editorial review: an update on central sensitivity syndromes and the issues of nosology and psychobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad B

    2015-01-01

    Central sensitization (CS), simply defined as an amplified response of the central nervous system to peripheral input, is a concept of great importance in clinical medicine. It has helped to explain aspects of the pathophysiology of common diseases, e.g. fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, vulvodynia, headaches, chronic pelvic pain and other overlapping conditions (collectively called central sensitivity syndromes, or CSS). It also applies to pain of complex regional pain syndrome, osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and post-operative pain. The pathology-pain gap in CSS is readily explained by CS. Many FMS and other CSS patients have peripheral pathology, e.g. nociceptive areas in the muscles, arthritis, small fiber neuropathy and inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in some patients. Identification of CS in patients with structural pathology, e.g. OA and RA, has helped to explain why not all patients benefit from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or joint replacement surgery, and require therapy directed at CS. Glial cells are important in pain processing. Remarkable advances have been achieved in neuroimaging, including visualization of grey matter and white matter, not only during provoked pain but also pain at rest. Based on CS mechanisms, targeted individual therapy may now be possible. Appropriate nosology is important particularly for effective patient care. Dichotomy of neurochemical-structural ("functional") and structural ("organic") pathology should be abandoned; many patients have both. Psychobiology is also biology. Patient-blaming terms like somatization, somatizer and catastrophizing should be avoided. For therapy, both pharmacological and non- pharmacological approaches are important, including recognition of subgroups and person/patient-centered care.

  4. Development of the process of energy transfer from a nuclear Power Plant to an intermediate temperature electrolyse; Desarrollo del proceso de transferencia de energia desde una central nuclear a un electrolizador de temperatura intermedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cervantes, A.; Cuadrado Garcia, P.; Soraino Garcia, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fifty million tons of hydrogen are consumed annually in the world in various industrial processes. Among them, the ammonia production, oil refining and the production of methanol. One of the methods to produce it is the electrolysis of water, oxygen and hydrogen. This process needs electricity and steam which a central nuclear It can be your source; Hence the importance of developing the transfer process energy between the two. The objective of the study is to characterize the process of thermal energy transfer from a nuclear power plant to an electrolyzer of intermediate temperature (ITSE) already defined. The study is limited to the intermediate engineering process, from the central to the cell.

  5. Recent (0-8 Ma) tectonics and exhumation processes in Cordilleras Blanca and Negra, Central Peru: Constraints from (U-Th)/He dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, Audrey; Robert, Xavier; Gautheron, Cécile; Audin, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    The Central Andes are a classical example of topography building in front of an oceanic subduction. However, many first order questions are still debated: How do subduction processes and observed tectonic uplift interact along the Andean margin? What is the impact of tectonic, magmatism and climate on exhumation? The Cordilleras Blanca (6768 m) and Negra (5181 m), in north Central Peru, belong to the highest Andean reliefs. Both ranges trend parallel to the subduction zone and are separated by the NW-SE Rio Santa valley. The Cordillera Blanca pluton formed in an active subduction context at 8-5 Ma and renders an abnormal magmatic activity over a planar subduction. In contrast with the Cordillera Blanca, the Cordillera Negra is an older relief, which evolution and exhumation history has never been studied. A remarkable ~200 km-long normal fault system showing ~4500 m of vertical displacement since 5 Ma edges the western flank of the Cordillera Blanca. This region is a perfect target to study the impact of magmatism and subduction processes on exhumation. We perform a morphotectonic study on both cordilleras coupled with low-temperature thermochronology apatite (U-Th)/He dating to quantify these processes. Geomorphic parameters and altitude contrasts between these two ranges indicate a differential uplift. The Cordillera Negra displays a smooth and asymmetric relief from the West to the East whereas the Cordillera Blanca shows higher and sharper relief with North/South and East/West contrasts. We obtain apatite (U-Th)/He ages for twenty samples located along vertical and horizontal profiles at different latitudes of the Cordilleras Blanca and Negra. The (U-Th)/He ages range from 13.4 ± 1.3 to 5.6 ± 0.6 Ma in the Cordillera Negra and range from 11.8 ± 1.2 to 2.0 ± 0.2 Ma in the Cordillera Blanca. We use them as inputs in QTQt tools for time-temperature reconstructions and thus to constrain the exhumation history. Whole ages evidence a more regional exhumation than

  6. Processes and trends of the land use change in Aksu watershed in the central Asia from 1960 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Land use change (LUC) in trans-boundary watersheds is of great importance to environmental assessment. The Aksu River is the largest trans-boundary river crossing Kyrgyzstan and China,but there was little information on the LUC of the watershed. We quantitatively investigated the processes and trends of its LUC by using analytic models based on the land use data derived from the remote sensing images and topographic maps. The LUC was in the quasi-balanced status with a slight difference between the loss and the gain of the area for most land use types during the period of 1960-1990,whereas transferred to the unbalanced status with significant difference between the loss and gain of the area during the period of 1990-2008. At the same time,land conversion direction changed from two-way transition to one-way transition for the most land use types. The integrated rate of net change of land use during the period of 1990-2008 is 2.1 times of that during the period of 1960-1990. Information on the processes and trends of LUC is valuable for better understanding the environmental changes across the whole trans-boundary watershed,and helpful to decision-making management for Kyrgyzstan and China.

  7. The effects of protein phosphatase inhibitors on the duration of central sensitization of rat dorsal horn neurons following injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein kinases and phosphatases catalyze opposing reactions of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which may modulate the function of crucial signaling proteins in central nervous system. This is an important mechanism in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways in nociceptive neurons. To explore the role of protein phosphatase in central sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons following peripheral noxious stimulation, using electrophysiological recording techniques, we investigated the role of two inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid (OA, on the responses of dorsal horn neurons to mechanical stimuli in anesthetized rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin. Central sensitization was initiated by injection of capsaicin into the plantar surface of the left paw. A microdialysis fiber was implanted in the spinal cord dorsal horn for perfusion of ACSF and inhibitors of PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid. We found that in ACSF pretreated animals, the responses to innocuous and noxious stimuli following capsaicin injection increased over a period of 15 min after injection and had mostly recovered by 60 min later. However, pre- or post-treatment with the phosphatase inhibitors, fostriecin or OA, significantly enhanced the effects of capsaicin injection by prolonging the responses to more than 3 hours. These results confirm that blockade of protein phosphatase activity may potentiate central sensitization of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord following capsaicin injection and indicate that protein phosphatase type 2A may be involved in determining the duration of capsaicin-induced central sensitization.

  8. Effect of plantar subcutaneous administration of bergamot essential oil and linalool on formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Soh; Otowa, Akira; Kamio, Satomi; Sato, Kazuma; Yagi, Tomomi; Kishikawa, Yukinaga; Komatsu, Takaaki; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bergamot essential oil (BEO) or linalool, a major volatile component of BEO, on the nociceptive response to formalin. Plantar subcutaneous injection of BEO or linalool into the ipsilateral hindpaw reduced both the first and late phases of the formalin-induced licking and biting responses in mice. Plantar subcutaneous injection of BEO or linalool into the contralateral hindpaw did not yield an antinociceptive effect, suggesting that the antinociceptive effect of BEO or linalool in the formalin test occurred peripherally. Intraperitoneal and plantar subcutaneous injection pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride, an opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated both BEO- and linalool-induced antinociception. Pretreatment with naloxone methiodide, a peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonists, also significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effects of BEO and linalool. Our results provide evidence for the involvement of peripheral opioids in antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. These results suggest that activation of peripheral opioid receptors may play an important role in reducing formalin-induced nociception.

  9. Involvement of mammalian RF-amide peptides and their receptors in the modulation of nociception in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia eAyachi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian RF-amide peptides, which all share a conserved carboxyl-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 sequence, constitute a family of five groups of neuropeptides that are encoded by five different genes. They act through five G protein-coupled receptors and each group of peptide binds to and activates mostly one receptor: RF-amide related peptide (RFRP group binds to NPFFR1, neuropeptide FF (NPFF group to NPFFR2, pyroglutamylated RF-amide peptide (QRFP group to QRFPR, prolactin releasing peptide (PrRP group to PrRPR, and kisspeptin group to Kiss1R. These peptides and their receptors have been involved in the modulation of several functions including reproduction, feeding and cardiovascular regulation. Data from the literature now provide emerging evidence that all RF-amide peptides and their receptors are also involved in the modulation of nociception. This review will present the current knowledge on the involvement in rodents of the different mammalian RF-amide peptides and their receptors in the modulation of nociception in basal and chronic pain conditions as well as their modulatory effects on the analgesic effects of opiates.

  10. Preventive effect of L-carnosine on changes in the thermal nociceptive threshold in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Junzo; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Miyata, Shigeo; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    2008-12-14

    Sensory abnormality is one of the serious complications in diabetes. Since the effective therapeutic regimen to ameliorate the diabetic sensory abnormality is very few, the present study was then designed to investigate the effect of zinc L-carnosine on the changes of nociceptive threshold in diabetic mice. Zinc L-carnosine (75-300 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered once daily from 1 day after streptozotocin treatment. Diabetic mice showed shorter tail-flick latency at 1-4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment and longer tail-flick latency at 6-9 weeks after its treatment. The shortened tail-flick latency in early stage of diabetic mice was ameliorated by treatment with zinc L-carnosine. Moreover, zinc L-carnosine also slowed the onset of hypoalgesia in diabetic mice. Tail-flick latency in non-diabetic mice was not affected by the zinc L-carnosine treatment, indicating that zinc L-carnosine did not affect normal nociceptive transmission. Moreover, L-carnosine, but not zinc sulfate, ameliorated the abnormal sensory perception in diabetic mice. Interestingly, the ameliorative effect of zinc l-carnosine on the abnormal sensory perception in diabetic mice is much stronger than that of L-carnosine. These results provide the evidence of the ameliorative potential of zinc L-carnosine on the progressive diabetic neuropathy. Moreover, L-carnosine combined with zinc shows more potent amelioration of abnormal sensory perception in diabetic mice than by itself. PMID:18930724

  11. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root extract alleviates formalin-induced nociception in mice: involvement of the opioidergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Alessandro; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Tambaro, Simone; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Ruiu, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal extracts (WSEs) may possess therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of inflammation and pain. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive property of a WSE in the formalin test and to investigate the involvement of several neurotransmitter systems in this effect. The time spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded in CD1 mice after pretreatment with increasing doses of WSE. Also, c-Fos spinal cord expression and the effects of different compounds were investigated under these experimental conditions. Finally, the efficacy of WSE was analyzed following an injection of glutamate. WSE reduced the antinociceptive response during the tonic but not the acute phase of the formalin test and decreased formalin-induced c-Fos expression in spinal neurons. These effects were antagonized by the opioid antagonist naltrexone, whereas GABA, cannabinoid, δ-opioid, and nitric oxide compounds were ineffective. The administration of WSE also reduced nociception and c-Fos expression induced by glutamate injection. These results showed that WSE is effective in assays of chemical-induced nociception, indicating that this plant has potential valuable properties for the treatment of specific painful conditions. The antinocicetive effects of WSE in the formalin test appeared to be specifically mediated by the opioidergic system, although the involvement of the glutamatergic system cannot be excluded.

  12. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings.

  13. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710-1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  14. The conservation of the Shahr-e-Zohak archaeological site (central Afghanistan): Geomorphological processes and ecosystem-based mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margottini, Claudio; Fidolini, Francesco; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Ubelmann, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The archaeological remains of Shahr-e Zohak are part of the Bamiyan valley, which has been recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage and is famous for hosting the main heritage of the Buddhist culture in Afghanistan. The site comprises the remains of the Zohak fortress, which is placed on a steep hill at the confluence of the Bamiyan and Kalu rivers. The fortress is protected by ramparts, built along the steep cliffs bounding the site, which are equipped with several watchtowers. The citadel is protected by three more orders of walls and is located on the topmost part of the hill. All the structures are made of mudbricks placed on top of stony foundations. Due to the prolonged exposure to weathering, the lack of conservation measures and the misuse during war periods, many constructions collapsed or are prone to collapse. A new topography (1 m contour lines) of the site was produced using drone-derived 3D photogrammetry combined with GPS data. Then a detailed geomorphological survey of the whole site was carried out in order to identify the main geomorphic processes acting on the land surface and structures. GIS analysis allowed defining the internal drainage system of the studied area. The site is affected by incised erosional phenomena on the eastern side, while the hilltop is mainly hit by diffuse erosion and soil mobilization during snowmelt. Monument deterioration is coupled with the lack of an adequate drainage system to collect runoff. Ramparts located on the steep hillslopes are severely affected by gully erosion and siphoning, which cause depressions infilled by eroded and weathered building material. The access path is locally eroded or buried by debris cones. The western margin of the plateau has been rapidly retreating due to collapses, while the citadel is in danger due to diffuse or gully erosional processes developed on all its sides. A mitigation strategy with low environmental impact (ecosystem-based approach) is proposed in order to adopt sustainable

  15. USING THE GENERAL ELECTRIC / MCKINSEY MATRIX IN THE PROCESS OF SELECTING THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Răzvan Decuseară

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources a company cannot serve all potential markets in the world in a manner that all the clients to be satisfied and the business goals achieved, which is why the company should select the most appropriate markets. It can focus on a single product market serving many geographic areas, but may also decide to serve different product markets in a group of selected geographic areas. Due to the large number and diversity of markets that can choose, analyze of the market attractiveness and the selection the most interesting is a complex process. General Electric Matrix/McKinsey has two dimensions, market attractiveness and the competitive strength of the firm, and aims to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company in a variety of areas, allowing the company to identify the most attractive markets and to guide managers in allocating resources to these markets, improve the weaker competitive position of the company in emerging markets, or to draw firm unattractive markets. We can say that it is a very efficient tool for the company being used by international market specialists, on one hand to select foreign markets for the company, and on the other hand, to determine the strategy that the firm will be using to internationalize on those markets. At the end of this paper we present a part of a larger study in which we showed how General Electric Matrix/McKinsey it is used specifically in select foreign markets.

  16. Significance of silica in identifying the processes affecting groundwater chemistry in parts of Kali watershed, Central Ganga Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arina; Umar, Rashid; Khan, Haris Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Chemical geothermometry using silica was employed in the present study to estimate the sub-surface groundwater temperature and the corresponding depth of the groundwater in parts of Kali watershed in Bulandshahr and Aligarh district. 42 groundwater samples each were collected from borewells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season 2012 and analysed for all major ions and silica. Silica values in the area range from 18.72 to 50.64 mg/l in May 2012 and from 18.89 to 52.23 mg/l in November 2012. Chalcedony temperature >60 °C was deduced for five different locations in each season, which corresponds to a depth of more than 1,000 metres. Spatial variation of silica shows high values along a considerable stretch of River Kali, during pre-monsoon season. Relationship of silica with Total Dissolved Solids and Chloride was established to infer the role of geogenic and anthropogenic processes in solute acquisition. It was found that both water-rock interaction and anthropogenic influences are responsible for the observed water chemistry.

  17. Sources and environmental processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mercury along a southern slope of the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Balram; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Chuanfei; Yao, Tandong

    2016-07-01

    Semi-volatile pollutants can undergo long-range atmospheric transport from low-altitude source regions to high-altitude regions and then accumulate in surface matrices (soil and plants). The Himalayas is the highest mountain range worldwide, but there have been limited studies on the source, transport, and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury (Hg) in the region. In this study, atmospheric PAHs, and the PAHs and Hg in soil and foliage were determined along a transect on a southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal. The study showed anthropogenic emissions of PAHs and Hg occurred in the lowland areas of Nepal, and upslope transport to the high-altitude regions happened for both pollutants. During the upslope transport, forest filter effect and snow scavenging may be the important factors that enhance the deposition of PAHs, contributing to the negative pattern between concentrations of PAHs and altitudes. On the contrary, more Hg accumulated in the high Himalayas, relating to the enhanced deposition in the high altitude caused by the higher input from upper atmosphere. Graphical abstract Distribution and environmental processes of PAHs and Hg along the southern slope of Himalayan mountain. PMID:27032636

  18. Processes affecting oxygen isotope ratios of atmospheric and ecosystem sulfate in two contrasting forest catchments in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Mitchell, Myron J; Jacková, Iva; Buzek, Frantisek; Schweigstillová, Jana; Erbanová, Lucie; Prikryl, Richard; Fottová, Daniela

    2007-02-01

    Sulfate aerosols are harmful as respirable particles. They also play a role as cloud condensation nuclei and have radiative effects on global climate. A combination of delta18O-SO4 data with catchment sulfur mass balances was used to constrain processes affecting S cycling in the atmosphere and spruce forests of the Czech Republic. Extremely high S fluxes via spruce throughfall and runoff were measured at Jezeri (49 and 80 kg S ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively). The second catchment, Na Lizu, was 10 times less polluted. In both catchments, delta18O-SO4 decreased in the following order: open-area precipitation > throughfall > runoff. The delta18O-SO4 values of throughfall exhibited a seasonal pattern at both sites, with maxima in summer and minima in winter. This seasonal pattern paralleled delta18O-H2O values, which were offset by -18 per thousand. Sulfate in throughfall was predominantly formed by heterogeneous (aqueous) oxidation of SO2. Wet-deposited sulfate in an open area did not show systematic delta18O-SO4 trends, suggesting formation by homogeneous (gaseous) oxidation and/or transport from large distances. The percentage of incoming S that is organically cycled in soil was similar under the high and the low pollution. High-temperature 18O-rich sulfate was not detected, which contrasts with North American industrial sites.

  19. The Current Status of Assessment and Diagnosis of Central Auditory Processing Disorder%中枢听处理障碍的评估与诊断现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢海丹; 刘建菊; 刘巧云; 赵航; 黄昭鸣

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了听处理障碍的定义与临床特征,列出了听处理障碍目前常用的评估和诊断方法,并对听处理障碍研究的后继发展进行了展望,为初步了解听处理障碍的定义、评估与诊断方法提供了学习基础.%This paper introduces the definition and clinical characteristics of (Central) auditory processing disorder, outlines the assessment and diagnosis methods of this disorder, and finally gives a prospect of the (C)APD research.

  20. Constraints from Field Geology for Numerical Modeling of the Crustal Overturn Processes During the Cretaceous High-Magma-Flux Episode in the Central and Southern Sierra Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Paterson, S. R.; Kaus, B. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Memeti, V.

    2010-12-01

    Building on prior studies, recent fieldwork combined with geochronology, thermobarometry and geochemistry studies in the Cretaceous Sierra Nevada arc reveal the following arc-scale features: 1) The Middle to Late Cretaceous Sierra Nevada arc has a 30-35 km thick granodioritic to tonalitic upper-middle crust and may have had up to 30-35 km of mafic to ultramafic lower crust, including dehydrated amphibolitic residues. 2) Plutons emplaced during the ~20 myr long High-Magma-Flux Episode (HMFE, 105-85 Ma) include large batholiths (~1000 km2 at exposure level) with growth histories occurring over millions of years (e.g. ~9 myr for Tuolumne Batholith). Magma pulses creating such large intrusions could vary from up to 103 km3 in dimension depending on different growth models. 3) In the central Sierra Nevada, emplacement depths of the granitoid plutons during the HMFE are 7-15 km with shallow emplaced plutons’ solidi at usually ~700 -760 °C. 4) Plutons intruding only slightly older volcanic host rocks in the central and southern Sierra Nevada indicate that host rocks’ downward displacement of ~7-25 km depths occurred within 1-3 myr. This process is accompanied with the long-lived arc exhumation since at least middle Jurassic. 5) Steep syn-emplacement subsolidus lineations, rim monoclines, and plastic shear strain in pluton aureoles suggest ductile deformations of host rock materials. 6) Partial melting occurred along the margins of plutons and in the middle-lower crust, as represented in the more deeply exposed southern Sierra (30-45 km). 7) Magmatic to subsolidus foliations in plutons and ductile shear zones in host rocks indicate NW-trending transpressional tectonics during the HMFE. 8) Isotopic oxygen data and mass balance calculation indicate that crustal components provides more than 50% of the entire arc’s mass. Intra-crustal magma sources of the HMFE are sustained possibly by thickened crust due to contractional tectonics. These observations in the central

  1. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  2. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  3. The application of terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry in measuring erosion and deposition processes in humid badlands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Revuelto, J.; Errea, P.; López-Moreno, J. I.

    2015-04-01

    Erosion and deposition processes in badland areas are usually estimated using traditional observations of topographic changes, measured by erosion pins or profile meters (invasive techniques). In recent times, geomatic techniques (non-invasive) have been routinely applied in geomorphology studies, especially in erosion studies. These techniques provide the opportunity to build high-resolution topographic models at subcentimeter accuracy. By comparing different 3-D point clouds of the same area, obtained at different time intervals, the variations in the terrain and temporal dynamics can be analyzed. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the functioning of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS, RIEGL LPM-321) and close range photogrammetry techniques (Camera FUJIFILM, Finepix x100 and Software PhotoScan by AgiSoft), to evaluate erosion and deposition processes in a humid badland area in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Results show that TLS data sets and photogrammetry techniques provide new opportunities in geomorphological erosion studies. The data we recorded over one year demonstrated that north-facing slopes experienced more intense and faster changing geomorphological dynamics than south-facing slopes as well as the highest erosion rates. Different seasonal processes were observed, with the highest topographic differences observed during winter periods and the high intensity rainfalls in summer. While TLS provided the highest resolution models, photogrammetry was still a faster methodology in the field and precise at short distances. Both techniques do not require direct contact with the soil and thus prevent the usual surface disturbance of traditional and invasive methods.

  4. Fear-induced suppression of nociceptive behaviour and activation of Akt signalling in the rat periaqueductal grey: role of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ryan K; Ford, Gemma K; Hogan, Michelle; Roche, Michelle; Doyle, Karen M; Kelly, John P; Kendall, David A; Chapman, Victoria; Finn, David P

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system regulates nociception and aversion and mediates fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA). We investigated the effects of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which inhibits the catabolism of the endocannabinoid anandamide and related N-acylethanolamines, on expression of FCA and fear and pain related behaviour per se in rats. We also examined associated alterations in the expression of the signal transduction molecule phospho-Akt in the periaqueductal grey (PAG) by immunoblotting. FCA was modelled by assessing formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in an arena previously paired with footshock. URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced FCA and increased fear-related behaviour in formalin-treated rats. Conditioned fear per se in non-formalin-treated rats was associated with increased expression of phospho-Akt in the PAG. URB597 reduced the expression of fear-related behaviour in the early part of the trial, an effect that was accompanied by attenuation of the fear-induced increase in phospho-Akt expression in the PAG. Intra-plantar injection of formalin also reduced the fear-induced increase in phospho-Akt expression. These data provide evidence for a role of FAAH in FCA, fear responding in the presence or absence of nociceptive tone, and fear-evoked increases in PAG phospho-Akt expression. In addition, the results suggest that fear-evoked activation of Akt signalling in the PAG is abolished in the presence of nociceptive tone.

  5. Role of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in pudendal inhibition of the nociceptive bladder reflex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jeremy N; Rogers, Marc J; Xiao, Zhiying; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-04-15

    This study examined the role of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the nociceptive C-fiber afferent-mediated spinal bladder reflex and in the inhibtion of this reflex by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats after spinal cord transection at the T9/T10 level, intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid irritated the bladder, activated nociceptive C-fiber afferents, and induced spinal reflex bladder contractions of low amplitude (<50 cmH2O) and short duration (<20 s) at a smaller bladder capacity ∼80% of saline control capacity. PNS significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity from 85.5 ± 10.1 to 137.3 ± 14.1 or 148.2 ± 11.2% at 2T or 4T stimulation, respectively, where T is the threshold intensity for PNS to induce anal twitch. MTEP {3-[(2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl]pyridine; 3 mg/kg iv, a selective mGluR5 antagonist} completely removed the PNS inhibition and significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity from 71.8 ± 9.9 to 94.0 ± 13.9% of saline control, but it did not change the bladder contraction amplitude. After propranolol (3 mg/kg iv, a β1/β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) treatment, PNS inhibition remained but MTEP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the bladder contraction amplitude from 18.6 ± 2.1 to 6.6 ± 1.2 cmH2O and eliminated PNS inhibition. At the end of experiments, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg iv, a ganglionic blocker) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the bladder contraction amplitude from 20.9 ± 3.2 to 8.1 ± 1.5 cmH2O on average demonstrating that spinal reflexes were responsible for a major component of the contractions. This study shows that spinal mGluR5 plays an important role in the nociceptive C-fiber afferent-mediated spinal bladder reflex and in pudendal inhibition of this spinal reflex. PMID:25673810

  6. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Jejawi Complex of Academics (3), UniMAP, 02600 Arau Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  7. Delayed onset of changes in soma action potential genesis in nociceptive A-beta DRG neurons in vivo in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical data on osteoarthritis (OA suggest widespread changes in sensory function that vary during the progression of OA. In previous studies on a surgically-induced animal model of OA we have observed that changes in structure and gene expression follow a variable trajectory over the initial days and weeks. To investigate mechanisms underlying changes in sensory function in this model, the present electrophysiological study compared properties of primary sensory nociceptive neurons at one and two months after model induction with properties in naïve control animals. Pilot data indicated no difference in C- or Aδ-fiber associated neurons and therefore the focus is on Aβ-fiber nociceptive neurons. Results At one month after unilateral derangement of the knee by cutting the anterior cruciate ligament and removing the medial meniscus, the only changes observed in Aβ-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons were in nociceptor-like unresponsive neurons bearing a hump on the repolarization phase; these changes consisted of longer half width, reflecting slowed dynamics of AP genesis, a depolarized Vm and an increased AP amplitude. At two months, changes observed were in Aβ-fiber high threshold mechanoreceptors, which exhibited shorter AP duration at base and half width, shorter rise time and fall time, and faster maximum rising rate/maximum falling rate, reflecting accelerated dynamics of AP genesis. Conclusion These data indicate that Aβ nociceptive neurons undergo significant changes that vary in time and occur later than changes in structure and in nociceptive scores in this surgically induced OA model. Thus, if changes in Aβ-fiber nociceptive neurons in this model reflect a role in OA pain, they may relate to mechanisms underlying pain associated with advanced OA.

  8. Degradation of antidepressant drug fluoxetine in aqueous media by ozone/H2O2 system: process optimization using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaeinejad-Meybodi, Abbas; Ebadi, Amanollah; Shafiei, Sirous; Khataee, Alireza; Rostampour, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is the modelling and optimization of antidepressant drug fluoxetine degradation in aqueous solution by ozone/H2O2 process using central composite design. The operational parameters were ozone concentration, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, reaction time and initial fluoxetine concentration. A good agreement between the predicted values of fluoxetine removal and experimental results were observed (R2=0.976 and Adj-R2=0.955). Pareto analysis indicated that all selected factors and some interactions were effective on the removal efficiency. It was found that the reaction time is the most effective parameter in the ozone/H2O2 process. The maximum removal efficiency (86.14%) was achieved at ozone concentration of 30 mg L(-1), initial H2O2 concentration of 0.02 mM, reaction time of 20 min and initial fluoxetine concentration of 50 mg L(-1) as the optimum conditions.

  9. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

    2014-07-01

    Strategic management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

  10. Dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, EC, and inorganic ions in wintertime size-segregated aerosols from central India: Sources and formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Deb, Manas K

    2016-10-01

    The size distributions of aerosols can provide evidences for their sources and formation processes in the atmosphere. Size-segregated aerosols (9-sizes) were collected in urban site (Raipur: 21.2°N and 82.3°E) in central India during winter of 2012-2013. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ω-oxocarboxylic acids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and inorganic ions. Diacids showed a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by succinic and azelaic acid whereas ω-oxoacids exhibited a predominance of glyoxylic acid and glyoxal was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. Diacids, ω-oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls showed bimodal size distribution with peaks in fine and coarse modes. High correlations of fine mode diacids and related compounds with potassium and levoglucosan suggest that they were presumably due to a substantial contribution of primary emission from biomass burning and secondary production from biomass burning derived precursors. High correlations of C2 with higher carbon number diacids (C3-C9) suggest that they have similar sources and C2 may be produced via the decay of its higher homologous diacids in fine mode. Considerable portions of diacids and related compounds in coarse mode suggest that they were associated with mineral dust particles by their adsorption and photooxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors via heterogeneous reaction on dust surface. This study demonstrates that biomass burning and dust particles are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds in the urban aerosols from central India. PMID:27414241

  11. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels. PMID:26501253

  12. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  13. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  14. Delayed Exercise Is Ineffective at Reversing Aberrant Nociceptive Afferent Plasticity or Neuropathic Pain After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detloff, Megan Ryan; Quiros-Molina, Daniel; Javia, Amy S; Daggubati, Lekhaj; Nehlsen, Anthony D; Naqvi, Ali; Ninan, Vinu; Vannix, Kirsten N; McMullen, Mary-Katharine; Amin, Sheena; Ganzer, Patrick D; Houlé, John D

    2016-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that correlates with sensory fiber sprouting. Recent data indicate that exercise initiated early after SCI prevents the development of allodynia and modulated nociceptive afferent plasticity. This study determined if delaying exercise intervention until pain is detected would similarly ameliorate established SCI-induced pain. Adult, female Sprague-Dawley rats with a C5 unilateral contusion were separated into SCI allodynic and SCI non-allodynic cohorts at 14 or 28 days postinjury when half of each group began exercising on automated running wheels. Allodynia, assessed by von Frey testing, was not ameliorated by exercise. Furthermore, rats that began exercise with no allodynia developed paw hypersensitivity within 2 weeks. At the initiation of exercise, the SCI Allodynia group displayed marked overlap of peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptive afferents in the C7 and L5 dorsal horn, while the SCI No Allodynia group had scant overlap. At the end of 5 weeks of exercise both the SCI Allodynia and SCI No Allodynia groups had extensive overlap of the 2 c-fiber types. Our findings show that exercise therapy initiated at early stages of allodynia is ineffective at attenuating neuropathic pain, but rather that it induces allodynia-aberrant afferent plasticity in previously pain-free rats. These data, combined with our previous results, suggest that there is a critical therapeutic window when exercise therapy may be effective at treating SCI-induced allodynia and that there are postinjury periods when exercise can be deleterious. PMID:26671215

  15. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of lovastatin in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Statins are among the most prescribed drugs in recent clinical practice. They are also known for their pleiotropic actions, which are independent of their lipid-lowering properties. The effect of lovastatin was investigated against carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Wistar rats (200-250 g and on leukocyte migration, as measured by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in male Swiss mice (20-25 g, which are models of acute inflammation. Lovastatin (administered 1 h prior to carrageenan, at oral doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, markedly attenuated paw edema formation in rats at the 4th hour after carrageenan injection (25, 43, and 37% inhibition, respectively. Inhibitions of 20, 45 and 80% were observed in the leukocyte migration, as evaluated by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice with lovastatin doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg, as compared to controls. Furthermore, lovastatin (administered 1 h before initiation reduced the nociceptive effect of the formalin test in mice, at both phases, at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg: first phase (51, 65, and 70%, respectively and second phase (73, 57, and 66% inhibition of licking time, respectively. The anti-nociceptive activity of lovastatin was inhibited by naloxone (3 mg/kg, sc. Lovastatin (0.01, 0.1, and 1 µg/mL inhibited by 23, 79, and 86%, respectively, the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils. Leukocyte (predominantly neutrophils infiltration was almost completely reduced by lovastatin treatment, as observed in the model of acute paw edema with hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, lovastatin decreased the number of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. Therefore, the alterations in leukocyte activity and cytokine release could contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin.

  16. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    In the Central Region of Russia (CRR) the soil cover patterns usually play the very important role in the soil forming and degradation processes (SFP & SDP) potential and current rates, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and pools, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and soluble SOC fluxes that we need take into attention for better assessment of the natural and especially man-changed ecosystems' services and for best land-use practices development. Central Region of Russia is the biggest one in RF according to its population and role in the economy. CRR is characterized by high spatial variability of soil cover due to as original landscape heterogeneity as complicated history of land-use practices during last 700 years. Our long-term researches include the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and soil cover patterns with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe and agricultural ones) from middle-taiga to steppe zones with different level of continentality. The carried out more than 30-years region- and local-scale researches of representative natural and rural landscapes in Tver', Yaroslavl', Kaluga, Moscow, Vladimir, Saransk (Mordovia), Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov oblasts give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different soil forming and degradation processes rates and soil organic carbon dynamics due to regionally specific soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and dominated microclimate conditions, land-use current practices and history. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of SFP and SDP develop¬ment, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, ecosystem (agroecosystem) principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of SOC structure analysis, regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns detail

  17. Driving forces of main landscape change processes from past 200 years in Central Europe - differences between old democratic and post-socialist countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skokanová Hana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares and points out differences in driving forces of four main landscape change processes that shaped post-socialist countries and old democratic countries of Central Europe during the last two centuries. Studying landscape change processes and corresponding driving forces helps in understanding patterns of present landscape and can help among others in better prediction of future landscape change trends. Here, the presented results are based on review of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014. Driving forces affecting these processes were grouped into four categories. Economic forces drove mainly agricultural intensification; agricultural land abandonment and urbanisation and were pronounced especially in the second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. Technological driving forces affected agricultural intensification especially in the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century while cultural driving forces had the biggest impact on urbanisation at the beginning of the 21st century. Political driving forces affected agricultural intensification, urbanisation as well as agricultural land abandonment and were pronounced mainly during the second half of the 20th century in the post-socialist countries. Political forces in the form of subsidies drove agricultural extensification at the beginning of the 21st century. The drivers for the agricultural intensification as well as urbanisation seem to be similar for both old democratic and post-socialist countries. In contrast, agricultural land abandonment in the old democratic countries was driven by technological, cultural and economic driving forces while in the post-socialist countries the political driving forces were mainly responsible. Changes in systems for subsidies and changes in the agricultural commodity markets are also responsible for different frequencies and rates of extensification of

  18. Central activation by histamine-induced itch: analogies to pain processing: a correlational analysis of O-15 H2O positron emission tomography studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzezga, A; Darsow, U; Treede, R D; Siebner, H; Frisch, M; Munz, F; Weilke, F; Ring, J; Schwaiger, M; Bartenstein, P

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the functional cerebral network involved in the central processing of itch and to detect analogies and differences to previously identified cerebral activation patterns triggered by painful noxious stimuli. Repeated positron emission tomography regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements using O15-labeled water were performed in six healthy right-handed male subjects (mean age 32 +/- 2 years). Each subject underwent 12 sequential rCBF measurements. In all subjects a standardized skin prick test was performed on the right forearm 2 min before each rCBF measurement. For activation, histamine was applied in nine tests in logarithmically increasing concentrations from 0.03 to 8%. Three tests were performed with isotonic saline solution serving as a control condition. Itch intensity and unpleasantness were registered with a visual analogue scale during each test. Subtraction analysis between activation and control conditions as well as correlation analysis with covariates were performed. Itch induced a significant activation in the predominantly contralateral somatosensory cortex and in the ipsilateral and contralateral motor areas (supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex, primary motor cortex). Additional significant activations were found in the prefrontal cortex and the cingulate gyrus, but not in subcortical structures nor in the secondary somatosensory cortex. In correlation analyses, several cortical areas showed a graded increase in rCBF with the logarithm of the histamine concentration (bilateral sensorimotor areas and cingulate cortex; contralateral insula, superior temporal cortex and prefrontal cortex) and with itch unpleasantness (contralateral sensorimotor cortex, prefrontal cortex and posterior insula; ipsilateral SMA). Induction of itch results in the activation of a distributed cerebral network. Itch and pain seem to share common pathways (a medial and a lateral processing pathway and a strong projection

  19. Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of

  20. Central Diffraction at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Lämsä, Jerry W

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  1. Central diffraction at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemsae, J W; Orava, R, E-mail: risto.orava@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Insitute of Physics, and Division of Elementary Particle Physics, Department of Physics, PL 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-02-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  2. On the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Heteromers and Their Allosteric Receptor-Receptor Interactions in the Central Nervous System: Focus on Their Role in Pain Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kjell Fuxe; Tarakanov, Alexander O.; Luigi F. Agnati; Alicia Rivera; Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck; Wilber Romero-Fernandez; Dasiel O. Borroto-Escuela

    2013-01-01

    The modulatory role of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in the pain pathways of the Central Nervous System and the peripheral nociceptors has become of increasing interest. As integrators of nociceptive and antinociceptive wiring and volume transmission signals, with a major role for the opioid receptor heteromers, they likely have an important role in the pain circuits and may be involved in acupuncture. The delta opioid receptor (DOR) exerts an antagonistic allosteric influence on ...

  3. Sediment Transport Processes in a West-central Florida Open Marine Marsh Tidal Creek; the Role of Tides and Extra-tropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Lynn A.; Hine, Albert C.; Luther, Mark E.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Wright, Eric E.

    1995-08-01

    . This study identifies the important processes controlling suspended solid transport in the broad expanses of Juncus roemerianusdominated marsh adjacent to the large arcuate embayments prevalent along the west-central Florida marsh coast as described by Hine and Belknap (1988). The processes exerting control over sediment transport in the Cedar Creek drainage basin are similar to those documented in other marsh systems.

  4. Steady-state evoked potentials to study the processing of tactile and nociceptive somatosensory input in the human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Colon, Elisabeth; Legrain, Valéry; Mouraux, André

    2012-01-01

    The periodic presentation of a sensory stimulus induces, at certain frequencies of stimulation, a sustained electroencephalographic response of corresponding frequency, known as steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EP). In visual, auditory and vibrotactile modalities, studies have shown that SS-EP reflect mainly activity originating from early, modality-specific sensory cortices. Furthermore, it has been shown that SS-EP have several advantages over the recording of transient event-related brai...

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used to explore tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, G.; Fabrizi, L.; Meek, J; Jackson, D; Tracey, I; Robertson, N; Slater, R.; Fitzgerald, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of neonatal infants. Methods We studied 19 term infants with a mean age of 13 days. Brain activation was measured in response to brushing, von Frey hair (vFh) punctate ...

  6. Optimization of the luminescence emission of Si nanocrystals synthesized from non-stoichiometric Si oxides using a Central Composite Design of the deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morana, B. [Dpto. Tecnologia Electronica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sande, J.C.G. de [Dpto. Ingenieria de Circuitos y Sistemas, E.U.I.T. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Dpto. Tecnologia Electronica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: andres.rodriguez.dominguez@upm.es; Sangrador, J.; Rodriguez, T. [Dpto. Tecnologia Electronica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Avella, M.; Jimenez, J. [Dpto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    Si oxide films with a controlled excess of Si were deposited on Si wafers by LPCVD using Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and O{sub 2}, thermally annealed to 1100 deg. C for 1 h to form Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} and subsequently annealed at 450 deg. C in forming gas. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The excess of Si in the as-deposited samples, ranging from 0 to 70% in volume, was obtained from the ellipsometry data analysis. After annealing at 1100 deg. C, the samples show a luminescence band (peaking at 665 nm) at 80 K and at room temperature which is associated to the presence of Si nanocrystals. The growth rate, the excess of Si incorporated to the films and the intensity of the luminescence band were modelled using a Face-Centered Central Composite Design as a function of the main deposition variables (pressure, 185-300 mTorr; temperature, 250-400 deg. C; Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}/O{sub 2} flow ratio, 2-5) aiming to control the growth process and the incorporation of Si in excess as well as to determine the experimental conditions that yield the samples with the maximum intensity of the luminescence emission.

  7. Analysis of the ground vibration produced by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abancó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of ground vibration sensors for debris-flow monitoring has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the seismic signals produced by debris flows still presents many uncertainties. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain two different ground vibration stations with different characteristics in terms of recording systems and site-specific factors have been compared. The shape of the time series has been recognised as one of the key parameters to identify events and to distinguish between different types of torrential processes. The results show that the site-specific factors strongly influence on the ground vibration registered at each geophone. The attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential. In addition, the assembly of the geophones to the terrain also has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task which is clearly influenced by site-specific conditions of the geophones.

  8. 中央维护计算机系统中的故障处理技术%Fault Data Processing Technology Applied in Central Maintenance Computer System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文娟; 贺尔铭; 马存宝

    2014-01-01

    Based on knowledge on how failures are generated and processed onboard the aircraft,Implement functions,modeling strategy and experienced procedure of fault data processing including in central maintenance computer system (CMCS)are analyzed.Fault message generation,cascaded fault screening,multiple fault consolidation and flight deck effect (FDE)correlation with maintenance message are present respectively.It is critical that logic equation-based fault isolation technology is discussed for correlation design strategy to fault diag-nosis module by taking foreign advanced airplane model as the example.With the development and maturity of CMCS,maintenance and man-agement mode for commercial vehicle are changed inevitability.%针对飞机故障的产生逻辑和处理方法,详细分析了中央维护计算机系统故障数据处理模块的主要功能,建模思想和处理流程;再现了故障信息产生、级联效应删除、重复故障合并以及飞机驾驶舱效应与维护信息关联的全过程。并以国外先进机型为例,对基于逻辑方程的故障隔离技术进行了深入分析,使得系统设计思路与机载故障诊断模型相结合;随着 CMCS技术的不断发展和成熟,必将对商用飞机传统维护模式和运营模式产生深远的影响。

  9. The Information Behavior of Puerto Rican Migrants to Central Florida, 2003-2009: Grounded Analysis of Six Case Studies Use of Social Networks during the Migration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mori, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The study of the information behavior of Puerto Ricans and their reliance on personal social networks to procure needed information upon their migration to Central Florida is the core of this research. Life experiences of the researcher, as well as unstructured observations made in Puerto Rico from 1980 to 1996, and in Central Florida from 1996 to…

  10. 3D imaging of crustal structure under the Piedmont province in central Virginia, from reflection RVSP processing of aftershock recordings from the August 23, 2011 Virginia earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, D. A.; Brown, L. D.; Cabolova, A.; Davenport, K. K.; Hole, J. A.; Mooney, W. D.

    2013-12-01

    Aftershocks from the magnitude Mw 5.8 August 23, 2011, central Virginia earthquake were recorded using an unusually dense array of seismometers in what has been termed an AIDA (Aftershock Imaging with Dense Arrays) deployment. Over 200 stations were deployed in the epicentral region of this event to a) more precisely determine hypocentral locations, b) more accurately define velocity structure in the aftershock zone, c) characterize propagation characteristics of the crust in the area, and d) image geologic structures in the hypocentral volume with reflection techniques using aftershocks as sources. The AIDA-Virginia experiment successfully recorded a large number of aftershocks from which local tomographic velocity estimates and accurate hypocentral locations were obtained. These results facilitated the use of aftershocks as sources for reflection imaging. In this study we demonstrate how earthquake sources recorded by surface arrays can be treated using the imaging techniques associated with Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), in particular a variant known as Reverse VSP (RVSP). The central VSP processing algorithms used for this study are VSP normal moveout (VSPnmo) and VSP-to-Common Reflection Point (CRP). Applying these techniques to individual aftershocks from the Virginia experiment results in 3D reflection images of structural complexity in the immediate vicinity of the aftershocks. The most prominent feature observed on these 3D images is a strong moderately east-dipping reflector at a depth of approximately 6 to 8 km that directly underlies, and is continuous beneath, the more steeply dipping aftershock zone. We interpret this reflector as part of a complex imbricate thrust sequence associated with Paleozoic convergence during the Appalachian orogeny. Its apparent continuity beneath the fault zone implied by the aftershock's hypocenters suggests that this inferred fault zone has little or no cumulative offset, supporting the speculation that this event

  11. 三叉神经脊束间质核内一氧化氮参与内脏伤害性信息传递的实验观察%Experimental observation on visceral nociception involving nitric oxide in the interstitial nucleus of spinal trigeminal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊抗辉; 张文斌; 郭峰

    2005-01-01

    背景:一氧化氮合酶(nitric oxide synthase,OS)广泛分布于中枢神经系统并调节神经活动,但鲜见在中枢神经脊上水平有关NOS参与内脏神经传入信息传递的报道.目的:探查三叉神经脊束间质核(interstitial nucleus of trigeminal tract.INV)内内脏传入终末与向臂旁核(parabrachial nucleus,BN)投射的NOS阳性神经元之间的联系.设计:以实验动物为研究对象,验证性对比观察.单位:一所军医大学解剖学教研室.材料:选择成年SD雄性大鼠10只进行动物试验.干预:分别给PBN及舌咽和迷走神经内注射四甲基罗丹明(tetramethvl rhodamine-dextran,MR),生物素化葡聚糖胺(biotinylated dextran-amine.BDA)并进行NOS免疫组织化学反应,结合激光扫描共聚焦显微镜观察.主要观察指标:观察逆行TMR标记细胞、NOS阳性细胞以及跨神经节BDA标记的传入终末在INV内的重叠分布和三者的相互关系.结果:逆行标记细胞主要位于注射侧的INV,大多属20μm以下的中、小型细胞.NOS阳性细胞与TMR逆行标记细胞分布区域重叠.计数显不:NOS/TMR双标记细胞分别占NOS阳性细胞总数的55%(17/31)和TMR逆行标记细胞总数的34%(17/49).跨神经节注射BDA标记的内脏神经初级传入终末点状膨体贴近双标记细胞胞体,呈紧密接触状.结论:存在经INV向PBN投射的内脏信息传导通路,作为神经递质和神经信息分子的一氧化氮可能参与其内脏伤害性信息的传递和调控.%BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide synthase(NOS) is extensively distributed in the central nervous system and modulates neuronal activities. However,there are few reports about NOS' s involvement in nociceptive information transmission at the supraspinal level.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between the primary afferent visceral terminials and the NOS-containing neurons which project from the interstitial nucleus of spinal trigeminal tract(INV) to the parabrachial nucleus(PBN).DESIGN: A

  12. Pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss in the Kali Gandaki valley (Central Nepal): Investigation of Late Eocene-Early Oligocene melting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Langone, Antonio; Visonà, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss of the lower Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Kali Gandaki transect (Central Himalaya) was investigated. In spite of the intense shearing, it was still possible to obtain many fundamental information for understanding the processes active during orogenesis. Using a multidisciplinary approach, including careful meso- and microstructural observations, pseudosection modelling (with PERPLE_X), trace element thermobarometry and in situ monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology, we constrained the pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of the studied rock, located in a structural key position. The migmatitic gneiss has experienced protracted prograde metamorphism after the India-Asia collision (50-55 Ma) from ~ 43 Ma to 28 Ma. During the late phase (36-28 Ma) of this metamorphism, the gneiss underwent high-pressure melting at "near peak" conditions (710-720 °C/1.0-1.1 GPa) leading to kyanite-bearing leucosome formation. In the time span of 25-18 Ma, the rock experienced decompression and cooling associated with pervasive shearing reaching P-T conditions of 650-670 °C and 0.7-0.8 GPa, near the sillimanite-kyanite transition. This time span is somewhat older than previously reported for this event in the study area. During this stage, additional, but very little melt was produced. Taking the migmatitic gneiss as representative of the GHS, these data demonstrate that this unit underwent crustal melting at about 1 GPa in the Eocene-Early Oligocene, well before the widely accepted Miocene decompressional melting related to its extrusion. In general, kyanite-bearing migmatite, as reported here, could be linked to the production of the high-Ca granitic melts found along the Himalayan belt.

  13. Subaerial exposure and drowning processes in a carbonate platform during the Mesozoic Tethyan rifting: The case of the Jurassic succession of Western Sicily (central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulli, A.; Interbartolo, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Liassic carbonate platform succession outcropping at Monte Maranfusa (central Western Sicily) consists of a shallowing-upward sequence of peritidal carbonates, with Jurassic to Paleogene pelagic limestone and siliciclastic Tertiary covers above. The cyclic sequences of subtidal wackestones/packstones, intertidal microcrystalline carbonates with bird's-eye pores, and supratidal bioclastic grainstones are interbedded with dark layers of the following composition: 1) dark-gray, compact, and well-cemented limestone with blackish clasts, interpreted as calcretes (a type of carbonate soil) and 2) reddish calcite laminae, deformed by elongated cavities, filled with vadose silt, interpreted as paleokarst. This succession is crossed by almost vertical faults, of the Late Liassic to Miocene, which often coincides with neptunian dykes, filled by several generations of Toarcian-Early Miocene pelagic sediments. Another system of dykes, known as neptunian sills, filled by injected Upper Lias-Dogger pelagic sediments, lies parallel to the stratification. The parallel dykes were caused by the flexure of the platform during the Jurassic and presumably by a planar slip in the carbonate rocks, whereas neptunian dykes are caused by faulting episodes. Here, we present evidence that the dark layers in the Liassic succession of Monte Maranfusa, previously described by many authors only as parallel dykes, can actually be interpreted as a) neptunian sills, b) pedogenic calcretes, and c) paleospeleothems. Therefore, we found evidence of exposure/flooding intervals in the evolution of the carbonate platform during the Liassic, linked to different pulses in both the subsidence/tectonic activity and the sea-level oscillations. At the top, Fe-Mn crusts (hardgrounds) seal the carbonate platform succession, which is in turn overlain by condensed pelagic deposits, confirming its drowning during rifting processes.

  14. Repeated forced swim stress differentially affects formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and the endocannabinoid system in stress normo-responsive and stress hyper-responsive rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elaine M; Okine, Bright N; Olango, Weredeselam M; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a homotypic stressor such as forced swimming enhances nociceptive responding in rats. However, the influence of genetic background on this stress-induced hyperalgesia is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated forced swim stress on nociceptive responding in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats versus the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic background that is susceptible to stress, negative affect and hyperalgesia. Given the well-documented role of the endocannabinoid system in stress and pain, we investigated associated alterations in endocannabinoid signalling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and amygdala. In SD rats, repeated forced swim stress for 10 days was associated with enhanced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, compared with naive, non-stressed SD controls. In contrast, WKY rats exposed to 10 days of swim stress displayed reduced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour. Swim stress increased levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA in the ipsilateral side of the dorsal spinal cord of SD rats, an effect not observed in WKY rats. In the amygdala, swim stress reduced anandamide (AEA) levels in the contralateral amygdala of SD rats, but not WKY rats. Additional within-strain differences in levels of CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mRNA and levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) were observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the dorsal horn and/or amygdala. These data indicate that the effects of repeated stress on inflammatory pain-related behaviour are different in two rat strains that differ with respect to stress responsivity and affective state and implicate the endocannabinoid system in the spinal cord and amygdala in these differences.

  15. The effects of low-dose ketamine on the analgesia nociception index (ANI) measured with the novel PhysioDoloris™ analgesia monitor: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollag, Laurent; Ortner, Clemens M; Jelacic, Srdjan; Rivat, Cyril; Landau, Ruth; Richebé, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The PhysioDoloris™ analgesia monitor assesses nociception effects on the autonomic nervous system by analyzing changes in heart rate variability (HRV). This non-invasive device analyses ECG signals and determines the analgesia nociception index (ANI), allowing for quantitative assessment of the analgesia/nociception balance in anesthetized patients. Ketamine, an analgesic adjuvant with sympathomimetic properties, has been shown to improve perioperative pain management. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether low-dose ketamine, due to its intrinsic effect on the sino-atrial node, affects HRV and, therefore, interferes with ANI measurements. This pilot study included 20 women undergoing abdominal hysterectomies. Anesthesia and analgesia were maintained with sevoflurane and fentanyl respectively, in a standardized manner. Five minutes after intubation, 0.5 μg kg(-1) of intravenous (i.v.) ketamine was administered. ANI, bispectral index (BIS), heart rate and blood pressure were recorded from the induction of anesthesia until 5 min after skin incision. There was not any significant decrease in mean (±SD) ANI values after intubation (2.11±20.11, p=0.35) or i.v. ketamine administration (1.31±15.26, p=0.28). The mean (±SD) reduction in ANI values after skin incision was statistically significant (13.65±15.44, p=0.01), which is consistent with increased nociception. A single i.v. bolus of 0.5 μg kg(-1) ketamine did not influence the ANI values of 20 women under standardized general anesthesia conditions and absent noxious stimulation. These results suggest that the ANI derived from the PhysioDoloris™ analgesia monitor is feasible under such clinical conditions. PMID:25062948

  16. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  17. Deep dynamical processes in the central-southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau—Receiver functions and travel-time residuals analysis of north Hi-Climb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic receiver functions and travel-time residuals along the north Hi-Climb broadband seismic array in the central-southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau show that the lithosphere structures in the central and western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different. In the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Indian Plate is northward subducted beneath the Qiangtang block and arrives at the greatest depth beneath the central-southern Qiangtang block. The delaminated Indian lithospheric slab remains beneath the central Lhasa block to a depth possibly greater than that of the upper interface of the mantle transform zone. In the western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Indian lithospheric plate is gently northward subducted and may have arrived to the south of Tarim plate. Due to the resistance from the gently northward subduction of the Indian mantle lithosphere in the western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the upwelling mantle material be-neath the Qiangtang block moves mostly toward the east to bring about the lateral eastward flow of the deep mantle hot material in the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  18. Deep dynamical processes in the central-southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau——Receiver functions and travel-time residuals analysis of north Hi-Climb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaiOu; XU XiWei; JIANG Mei

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic receiver functions and travel-time residuals along the north Hi-Climb broadband seismic array in the central-southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau show that the lithosphere structures in the central and western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different.In the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Indian Plate is northward subducted beneath the Qiangtang block and arrives at the greatest depth beneath the central-southern Qiangtang block.The delaminated Indian lithospheric slab remains beneath the central Lhasa block to a depth possibly greater than that of the upper interface of the mantle transform zone.In the western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Indian lithospheric plate is gently northward subducted and may have arrived to the south of Tarim plate.Due to the resistance from the gently northward subduction of the Indian mantle lithosphere in the western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the upwelling mantle material beneath the Qiangtang block moves mostly toward the east to bring about the lateral eastward flow of the deep mantle hot material in the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  19. 半胱胺对小鼠疼痛感受的影响%Effects of cysteamine on nociception in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna CAPASSO; Alberto LOIZZD

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The present study was carried to study the effects of cysteamine on nociception in mice. METHODS: The pain assays were the hot plate and the tail flick test. RESULTS: When cysteamine, a drug well known as a somatostatin depletor, was administered 1 and 4 but not 24 h before the tests (hot plate, tail flick), the nocicep tive threshold was elevated when the drug was adminis tered at high doses (50 and 100 mg/kg) while at a lower dose (10 mg/kg), it was able to elevate the nociceptive threshold in the hot plate test only. In the hot plate as well the tail flick test cysteamine effects are reversed by nalox one administration and potentiated by morphine adminis tration, whereas neither somatostatin nor cyclo-(7-amino heptanoyl-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr [ Bzl ], a reported somato statin antagonist, changes cysteamine effects. CON CLUSION: These results suggest that cysteamine effects on the nociceptive threshold in the hot plate and tail flick test may be mediated by cysteamine interference with the opioid system.

  20. Comparative study of the effects of toluene, benzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, diethyl ether, and flurothyl on anxiety and nociception in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of solvents from different chemical classes on anxiety and nociception. Independent groups of mice were exposed to air (control group), toluene (1000-4000 ppm), benzene (1000-4000 ppm), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE, 2000-12000 ppm), diethyl ether (10,000-30,000) or flurothyl (200-600 ppm). After a 30-min exposure, animals were tested either in the anxiety paradigm conditioned defensive burying (CDB) test or in the hot plate test. All solvents but flurothyl produced anxiolytic-like actions being the order of potency toluene > benzene > TCE > diethyl ether. When tested in the hot plate paradigm, toluene and TCE increased nociception, benzene and diethyl ether had no effects, and flurothyl decreased nociception Additional groups of mice were conditioned to recognize the aversive stimulus (electrified prod) prior to toluene exposure and then tested in the CDB test. In unconditioned animals, toluene increased the number of shocks that mice received; however, when mice had previous experience in the CDB test, toluene lacked this effect. Taken together, these results show that inhalants have different effects with different potencies both in the CDB and in the hot plate tests. Additionally, data suggest that acute administration of toluene could impair learning

  1. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...

  2. The role of crustal and eruptive processes versus source variations in controlling the oxidation state of iron in Central Andean magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocke, Stephanie B.; Cottrell, Elizabeth; de Silva, Shanaka; Kelley, Katherine A.

    2016-04-01

    The composition of the continental crust is closely tied to subduction zone magmatism. Elevated oxygen fugacity (fO2) plays a central role in fostering crystallization of oxide minerals and thereby aids in generating the calc-alkaline trend of iron depletion that characterizes the continents. Along continental margins, arc magmas erupt through continental crust and often undergo extensive differentiation that may modify magmatic fO2. The importance of the subducting slab and mantle wedge relative to the effects of this differentiation on the fO2 recorded by continental arc magmas remains relatively unconstrained. Here, we focus on the effect of differentiation on magmatic fO2 using a suite of 14 samples from the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the Andes where the continental crust is atypically thick (60-80 km). The samples range in composition from ∼55 to 74 wt% SiO2 and represent the Neogene history of the arc. Samples are basaltic andesite to rhyolite and span a range of radiogenic isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr = ∼0.705-0.712) that represent 30 to 100% crustal assimilation. We use several proxies to estimate the fO2 recorded by lavas, pumice, and scoria: (1) whole rock Fe3+ / Σ Fe ratios, (2) Fe3+ / Σ Fe ratios in quartz-hosted melt inclusions, and (3) Fe-Ti oxide oxygen-barometry. Comparison of the fO2 calculated from bulk Fe3+ / Σ Fe ratios (post-eruptive) with that derived from Fe-Ti oxides or melt inclusion Fe3+ / Σ Fe ratios (pre-eruptive), enables us to quantify the effect of syn- or post-eruptive alteration, and to select rocks for bulk analysis appropriate for the determination of pre-eruptive magmatic fO2 using a strict criterion developed here. Across our sample suite, and in context with samples from the literature, we do not find evidence for systematic oxidation due to crystal fractionation or crustal contamination. Less evolved samples, ranging from 55 to 61 wt% SiO2, record a range of >3 orders of magnitude in fO2, spanning the fO2 range

  3. Attenuation by spinal cord stimulation of a nociceptive reflex generated by colorectal distention in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Johnson, Anthony C; Foreman, Robert D; Linderoth, Bengt

    2003-02-28

    The mechanisms underlying the cause and treatment of visceral pain of gastrointestinal origin are poorly understood. Previous clinical studies have shown that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) attenuates neuropathic and ischemic pain, and animal experiments have provided knowledge about probable physiological mechanisms. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether SCS influences colonic sensitivity in a conscious rat. A visceromotor behavioral response (VMR), induced by colorectal distention, was used to quantify the level of colonic sensitivity. Under anesthesia, an electrode (cathode) was placed on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord at L1. One week after implantation of the SCS electrode, the effects of stimulation delivered with different intensities (50 Hz, 0.2 ms for 30 min) on colonic sensitivity were determined. Nociceptive levels of colorectal distention (60 mm Hg for 10 min) induced an enhanced VMR quantified as an increased number of abdominal muscle contractions compared to controls in which the balloon catheter was inserted into the colorectal region but not distended. Colonic sensitization with acetic acid increased the VMR to innocuous levels of colorectal distention (30 mm Hg for 10 min). We found that SCS induced a significant depression of the VMR produced by colorectal distention in both normal rats and those with sensitized colons. The suppressive effect of SCS on colonic sensitivity suggests that SCS may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of visceral pain of gastrointestinal origin associated with abdominal cramping and painful abdominal spasms. PMID:12559199

  4. Possible involvement of convergent nociceptive input to medullary dorsal horn neurons in intraoral hyperalgesia following peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Ryuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroki; Omura, Shinji; Maruhama, Kotaro; Mizutani, Masahide; Iida, Seiji; Sugimoto, Tomosada

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the number of c-Fos protein-like immunoreactive (c-Fos-IR) neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) evoked by noxious stimulation was increased after peripheral nerve injury, and such increase has been proposed to reflect the development of neuropathic pain state. The aim of this study was to examine the MDH for convergent collateral primary afferent input to second order neurons deafferented by peripheral nerve injury, and to explore a possibility of its contribution to the c-Fos hyperinducibility. Double immunofluorescence labeling for c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) was performed to detect convergent synaptic input. c-Fos expression and the phosphorylation of ERK were induced by the intraoral application of capsaicin and by electrical stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), respectively. The number of c-Fos-IR neurons in the MDH induced by the intraoral application of capsaicin was increased after IAN injury, whereas the number of p-ERK immunoreactive neurons remained unchanged. The number of double-labeled neurons, that presumably received convergent primary afferent input from the lingual nerve and the IAN, was significantly increased after IAN injury. These results indicated that convergent primary nociceptive input through neighboring intact nerves may contribute to the c-Fos hyperinducibility in the MDH and the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain following trigeminal nerve injury. PMID:25407627

  5. Anti-nociceptive and anti-oedematogenic properties of the hydroethanolic extract of Sidastrum micranthum leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mastrangelo Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil. Fryxell, Malvaceae, grows in the northeastern region of Brazil, where the leaves of this species are traditionally used to treat coughs, bronchitis or asthma. Male Swiss mice (20-22 g were tested in models of acute pain (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick and formalin test, oedema assessment test (paw oedema test and model for evaluation of spontaneous motor performance (open field test. The hydroethanolic extract of S. micranthum was administered orally at doses of 50-500 mg/kg. In addition were administered water, vehicle, morphine 5.01 mg/kg (evaluation of pain and motor performance and dexamethasone 2.25 mg/kg (evaluation of oedema formation. The extract showed a significant effect at all doses in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and at the second phase of the formalin test, while in the first phase of this test and in the paw oedema test only at the highest dose (500 mg/kg. In the formalin and paw oedema tests, the extract had a potentiation of the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects by pretreatment with L-NAME and reduction of the effect by pretreatment with L-arginine. The extract was not toxic after oral administration (LD50 > 2000 mg/kg.

  6. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic flower extract of Newbouldia laevis in mice and rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tanko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The ethanolic flower extract of Newbouldia laevis was investigated for possible anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Acetic acid induced writhing (in mice and formalin tests (in rats were used to study. The extract caused a significant decrease (P< 0.05, which was not dose a dependent inhibition on acetic acid-induced writhing and the neurogenic pain induced by formalin. The extract at the doses (25, 50 and 100mg/kg tested showed 59, 71 and 47% inhibition of abdominal constriction in mice respectively. The highest activity resides more at the lowest dose of 50mg/kg on the acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions. The intraperitoneal LD50 value of the extract was found to be 1264.9mg/kg body weight in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. The results suggest the extract contains pharmacologically active principles, and are in agreement with the local application of the plant in painful and inflammatory conditions.   Industrial relevance: Plant sources have provided inspiration in the development of an impressive number of synthetic drugs. These resources provide a host of novel chemical compounds, which have been optimized on the basis of their biological activities. This study will be helpful for the industry to produce herbal formulation more potent with less side effect and less costly than the present synthetic drugs used as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs that is devoid of more seriously adverse effects

  7. Evidence of heterosynaptic LTD in the human nociceptive system: superficial skin neuromodulation using a matrix electrode reduces deep pain sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mücke

    Full Text Available Long term depression (LTD is a neuronal learning mechanism after low frequency stimulation (LFS. This study compares two types of electrodes (concentric vs. matrix and stimulation frequencies (4 and 30 Hz to examine homo- and heterosynaptic effects indirectly depicted from the somatosensory profile of healthy subjects. Both electrodes were compared in a prospective, randomized, controlled cross-over study using 4 Hz as the conditioning LFS compared to 30 Hz (intended sham condition. Quantitative sensory testing (QST was used to examine 13 thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds. Sixteen healthy volunteers (10 women, age 31.0 ± 12.7 years were examined. Depending on the electrodes and frequencies used a divergent pattern of sensory minus signs occurred. Using LFS the concentric electrode increased thermal thresholds, while the matrix electrode rather increased mechanical including deep pain thresholds. Findings after cutaneous neuromodulation using LFS and a matrix electrode are consistent with the concept of heterosynaptic LTD in the human nociceptive system, where deep pain sensitivity was reduced after superficial stimulation of intraepidermal nerve fibres. Cutaneous neuromodulation using LFS and a matrix electrode may be a useful tool to influence deep pain sensitivity in a variety of chronic pain syndromes.

  8. Inducible Lentivirus-Mediated siRNA against TLR4 Reduces Nociception in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ruirui; Di, Huiting; Zhang, Jinming; Huang, Zhangxiang; Sun, Yuming; Yu, Weifeng; Wu, Feixiang

    2015-01-01

    Although bone cancer pain is still not fully understood by scientists and clinicians alike, studies suggest that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in the initiation and/or maintenance of pathological pain state in bone cancer pain. A promising treatment for bone cancer pain is the downregulation of TLR4 by RNA interference; however, naked siRNA (small interference RNA) is not effective in long-term treatments. In order to concoct a viable prolonged treatment for bone cancer pain, an inducible lentivirus LvOn-siTLR4 (tetracycline inducible lentivirus carrying siRNA targeting TLR4) was prepared and the antinociception effects were observed in bone cancer pain rats induced by Walker 256 cells injection in left leg. Results showed that LvOn-siTLR4 intrathecal injection with doxycycline (Dox) oral administration effectively reduced the nociception induced by Walker 256 cells while inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of TLR4. Proinflammatory cytokines as TNF-α and IL-1β in spinal cord were also decreased. These findings suggest that TLR4 could be a target for bone cancer pain treatment and tetracycline inducible lentivirus LvOn-siTLR4 represents a new potential option for long-term treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:26556957

  9. Inducible Lentivirus-Mediated siRNA against TLR4 Reduces Nociception in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruirui Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone cancer pain is still not fully understood by scientists and clinicians alike, studies suggest that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays an important role in the initiation and/or maintenance of pathological pain state in bone cancer pain. A promising treatment for bone cancer pain is the downregulation of TLR4 by RNA interference; however, naked siRNA (small interference RNA is not effective in long-term treatments. In order to concoct a viable prolonged treatment for bone cancer pain, an inducible lentivirus LvOn-siTLR4 (tetracycline inducible lentivirus carrying siRNA targeting TLR4 was prepared and the antinociception effects were observed in bone cancer pain rats induced by Walker 256 cells injection in left leg. Results showed that LvOn-siTLR4 intrathecal injection with doxycycline (Dox oral administration effectively reduced the nociception induced by Walker 256 cells while inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of TLR4. Proinflammatory cytokines as TNF-α and IL-1β in spinal cord were also decreased. These findings suggest that TLR4 could be a target for bone cancer pain treatment and tetracycline inducible lentivirus LvOn-siTLR4 represents a new potential option for long-term treatment of bone cancer pain.

  10. TRPV1 function is modulated by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation: insights into the molecular mechanism of nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendryke, Thomas; Prochazkova, Michaela; Hall, Bradford E; Nordmann, Grégory C; Schladt, Moritz; Milenkovic, Vladimir M; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Wetzel, Christian H

    2016-01-01

    TRPV1 is a polymodally activated cation channel acting as key receptor in nociceptive neurons. Its function is strongly affected by kinase-mediated phosphorylation leading to hyperalgesia and allodynia. We present behavioral and molecular data indicating that TRPV1 is strongly modulated by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation at position threonine-407(mouse)/T406(rat). Increasing or decreasing Cdk5 activity in genetically engineered mice has severe consequences on TRPV1-mediated pain perception leading to altered capsaicin consumption and sensitivity to heat. To understand the molecular and structural/functional consequences of TRPV1 phosphorylation, we generated various rTRPV1T406 receptor variants to mimic phosphorylated or dephosphorylated receptor protein. We performed detailed functional characterization by means of electrophysiological whole-cell and single-channel recordings as well as Ca(2+)-imaging and challenged recombinant rTRPV1 receptors with capsaicin, low pH, or heat. We found that position T406 is critical for the function of TRPV1 by modulating ligand-sensitivity, activation, and desensitization kinetics as well as voltage-dependence. Based on high resolution structures of TRPV1, we discuss T406 being involved in the molecular transition pathway, its phosphorylation leading to a conformational change and influencing the gating of the receptor. Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of T406 can be regarded as an important molecular switch modulating TRPV1-related behavior and pain sensitivity. PMID:26902776

  11. Soil erosion risk as a measure of the effects of land pattern changes on runoff processes in the landscape – case studies from Lower Austria and Central Bohemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devátý, Jan; Strauss, Peter; Hoesl, Rosemarie; Dostal, Tomas; Krása, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Changes in land use, landscape structure and agricultural technologies affect number of soil characteristics as well as rainfall-runoff processes in the landscape. Soil erosion and sediment transport can be easily used for documentation and quantification of the impacts of land use development in time. Extent and structure of arable land within a landscape is driven by technological, social and political, factors and differs between countries. However land structure development is more or less natural process and is driven under normal conditions mainly by climatic and economic forces, the effects of political development is very well documented on different sides of the former iron curtain. There is unique chance to compare the trends in historical development during different historical periods given by both of economic and political forces and to search for optimum land structure, using rainfall-runoff processes as a measure. Land structure analysis and soil erosion risk assessment was carried out for two areas of interest and series of historical periods: • Lower Austrian municipality of Kleinweikersdorf (580 ha) - 1822, 1945, 1966, 1990, 2008 • part of Botic river watershed in Central Bohemia (810 ha) - 1841, 1953, 1971, 1989, 2003, 2013 Land use delimitation and field plots spatial definition was digitized from available data sources (Historical Cadastral maps and aerial photographs). Changes in crop properties and management practices were also taken into account based on historical information. Comparison between time periods shows that political actions can cause substantial impact on field plot sizes. At the Austrian area of interest the number of arable field plot continually decreases from 1203 (in 1822) to 371 (in 2008) whereas at the Czech area of interest the initial number of 469 parcels (in 1841) decreases to 32 (in 1989) and then rises again in the last two time periods. While the trend of rising average parcel size in Austria is continuous

  12. R-phenibut binds to the α2-δ subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels and exerts gabapentin-like anti-nociceptive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvejniece, Liga; Vavers, Edijs; Svalbe, Baiba; Veinberg, Grigory; Rizhanova, Kristina; Liepins, Vilnis; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2015-10-01

    Phenibut is clinically used anxiolytic, mood elevator and nootropic drug. R-phenibut is responsible for the pharmacological activity of racemic phenibut, and this activity correlates with its binding affinity for GABAB receptors. In contrast, S-phenibut does not bind to GABAB receptors. In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of R-phenibut, S-phenibut, baclofen and gabapentin (GBP) for the α2-δ subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) using a subunit-selective ligand, radiolabelled GBP. Binding experiments using rat brain membrane preparations revealed that the equilibrium dissociation constants (Kis) for R-phenibut, S-phenibut, baclofen and GBP were 23, 39, 156 and 0.05μM, respectively. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure test, we found that at doses up to 100mg/kg, R-phenibut did not affect PTZ-induced seizures. The anti-nociceptive effects of R-phenibut were assessed using the formalin-induced paw-licking test and the chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve model. Pre-treatment with R-phenibut dose-dependently decreased the nociceptive response during both phases of the test. The anti-nociceptive effects of R-phenibut in the formalin-induced paw-licking test were not blocked by the GABAB receptor-selective antagonist CGP35348. In addition, treatment with R- and S-phenibut alleviated the mechanical and thermal allodynia induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve. Our data suggest that the binding affinity of R-phenibut for the α2-δ subunit of the VDCC is 4 times higher than its affinity for the GABAB receptor. The anti-nociceptive effects of R-phenibut observed in the tests of formalin-induced paw licking and CCI of the sciatic nerve were associated with its effect on the α2-δ subunit of the VDCC rather than with its effects on GABAB receptors. In conclusion, our results provide experimental evidence for GBP-like, anti-nociceptive properties of R-phenibut, which might be used clinically to treat neuropathic pain

  13. Diverse Physiological Roles of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Migraine Pathology: Modulation of Neuronal-Glial-Immune Cells to Promote Peripheral and Central Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Paul L

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine by promoting the development of a sensitized state of primary and secondary nociceptive neurons. The ability of CGRP to initiate and maintain peripheral and central sensitization is mediated by modulation of neuronal, glial, and immune cells in the trigeminal nociceptive signaling pathway. There is accumulating evidence to support a key role of CGRP in promoting cross excitation within the trigeminal ganglion that may help to explain the high co-morbidity of migraine with rhinosinusitis and temporomandibular joint disorder. In addition, there is emerging evidence that CGRP facilitates and sustains a hyperresponsive neuronal state in migraineurs mediated by reported risk factors such as stress and anxiety. In this review, the significant role of CGRP as a modulator of the trigeminal system will be discussed to provide a better understanding of the underlying pathology associated with the migraine phenotype. PMID:27334137

  14. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  15. Biogeochemical processes involving dissolved CO2 and CH4 at Albano, Averno, and Monticchio meromictic volcanic lakes (Central-Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Fiebig, Jens; Nocentini, Matteo; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Rouwet, Dmitri; Bicocchi, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the chemical and isotopic features of dissolved gases (CH4 and CO2) from four meromictic lakes hosted in volcanic systems of Central-Southern Italy: Lake Albano (Alban Hills), Lake Averno (Phlegrean Fields), and Monticchio Grande and Piccolo lakes (Mt. Vulture). Deep waters in these lakes are characterized by the presence of a significant reservoir of extra-atmospheric dissolved gases mainly consisting of CH4 and CO2. The δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4 values of dissolved gas samples from the maximum depths of the investigated lakes (from -66.8 to -55.6 ‰ V-PDB and from -279 to -195 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively) suggest that CH4 is mainly produced by microbial activity. The δ13C-CO2 values of Lake Grande, Lake Piccolo, and Lake Albano (ranging from -5.8 to -0.4 ‰ V-PDB) indicate a significant CO2 contribution from sublacustrine vents originating from (1) mantle degassing and (2) thermometamorphic reactions involving limestone, i.e., the same CO2 source feeding the regional thermal and cold CO2-rich fluid emissions. In contrast, the relatively low δ13C-CO2 values (from -13.4 to -8.2 ‰ V-PDB) of Lake Averno indicate a prevalent organic CO2. Chemical and isotopic compositions of dissolved CO2 and CH4 at different depths are mainly depending on (1) CO2 inputs from external sources (hydrothermal and/or anthropogenic); (2) CO2-CH4 isotopic exchange; and (3) methanogenic and methanotrophic activity. In the epilimnion, vertical water mixing, free oxygen availability, and photosynthesis cause the dramatic decrease of both CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In the hypolimnion, where the δ13C-CO2 values progressively increase with depth and the δ13C-CH4 values show an opposite trend, biogenic CO2 production from CH4 using different electron donor species, such as sulfate, tend to counteract the methanogenesis process whose efficiency achieves its climax at the water-bottom sediment interface. Theoretical values, calculated on the basis of δ13C-CO2 values, and

  16. Taking Sides with Pain – Lateralization aspects Related to Cerebral Processing of Dental Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Mike; Ettlin, Dominik A.; Meier, Michael; Keller, Thierry; Luechinger, Roger; Barlow, Ashley; Palla, Sandro; Jäncke, Lutz; Lutz, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The current fMRI study investigated cortical processing of electrically induced painful tooth stimulation of both maxillary canines and central incisors in 21 healthy, right-handed volunteers. A constant current, 150% above tooth specific pain perception thresholds was applied and corresponding online ratings of perceived pain intensity were recorded with a computerized visual analog scale during fMRI measurements. Lateralization of cortical activations was investigated by a region of interest analysis. A wide cortical network distributed over several areas, typically described as the pain or nociceptive matrix, was activated on a conservative significance level. Distinct lateralization patterns of analyzed structures allow functional classification of the dental pain processing system. Namely, certain parts are activated independent of the stimulation site, and hence are interpreted to reflect cognitive emotional aspects. Other parts represent somatotopic processing and therefore reflect discriminative perceptive analysis. Of particular interest is the observed amygdala activity depending on the stimulated tooth that might indicate a role in somatotopic encoding. PMID:21344018

  17. Taking sides with pain Lateralization aspects related to cerebral processing of dental pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eBrügger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The current fMRI study investigated cortical processing of electrically induced painful tooth stimulation of both maxillary canines and central incisors in 21 healthy, right handed volunteers. A constant current, 150% above tooth specific pain-perception thresholds was applied and corresponding online ratings of perceived pain intensity were recorded with a computerized visual analog scale during fMRI measurements. Lateralization of cortical activations was investigated by a region of interest analysis. A wide cortical network distributed over several areas, typically described as the pain or nociceptive matrix, was activated on a conservative significance level. Distinct lateralization patterns of analyzed structures allow functional classification of the dental pain processing system. Namely, certain parts are activated independent of the stimulation site, and hence are interpreted to reflect cognitive emotional aspects. Other parts represent somatotopic processing and therefore reflect discriminative perceptive analysis. Of particular interest is the observed amygdala activity depending on the stimulated tooth that might indicate a role in somatotopic encoding.

  18. Phospholipase D-mediated hypersensitivity at central synapses is associated with abnormal behaviours and pain sensitivity in rats exposed to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liting; Gooding, Hayley L; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Mitchell, Rory; Fleetwood-Walker, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Adverse events at critical stages of development can lead to lasting dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS). To seek potential underlying changes in synaptic function, we used a newly developed protocol to measure alterations in receptor-mediated Ca(2+) fluorescence responses of synaptoneurosomes, freshly isolated from selected regions of the CNS concerned with emotionality and pain processing. We compared adult male controls and offspring of rats exposed to social stress in late pregnancy (prenatal stress, PS), which showed programmed behavioural changes indicating anxiety, anhedonia and pain hypersensitivity. We found corresponding increases, in PS rats compared with normal controls, in responsiveness of synaptoneurosomes from frontal cortex to a glutamate receptor (GluR) agonist, and from spinal cord to activators of nociceptive afferents. Through a combined pharmacological and biochemical strategy, we found evidence for a role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1)-mediated signalling, that may involve 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) activation, at both levels of the nervous system. These changes might participate in underpinning the enduring alterations in behaviour induced by PS. PMID:23932932

  19. Expression of Fos protein in the rat central nervous system in response to noxious stimulation: effects of chronic inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudanna A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interactions between the nociceptive system, the sympathetic system and the inflammatory process. Thus, the superior cervical ganglion of rats was submitted to chronic inflammation and Fos expression was used as a marker for neuronal activity throughout central neurons following painful peripheral stimulation. The painful stimulus consisted of subcutaneously injected formalin applied to the supra-ocular region. Fos-positive neurons were identified by conventional immunohistochemical techniques, and analyzed from the obex through the cervical levels of the spinal cord. In the caudal sub-nucleus of the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, the number of Fos-positive neurons was much higher in rats with inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion than in control rats, either sham-operated or with saline applied to the ganglion. There was a highly significant difference in the density of Fos-positive neurons between the inflamed and control groups. No significant difference was found between control groups. These results suggest that the inflammation of the superior cervical ganglion generated an increased responsiveness to painful stimuli, which may have been due to a diminished sympathetic influence upon the sensory peripheral innervation.

  20. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  1. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  2. Effects of juvenile exposure to predator odor on adolescent and adult anxiety and pain nociception

    OpenAIRE

    Post, Ryan J.; Dahlborg, Kaitlyn M.; O’Loughlin, Lauren E.; Bloom, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical researchers have tracked patients with early life trauma and noted generalized anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, and risk-taking behaviors developing in late adolescence and into early adulthood. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural and developmental processes that underlie the relationship between early stress and later abnormal behavior. The present model used repeated exposure to 2,3,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a component of fox feces, as an unc...

  3. Chronic whiplash and central sensitization; an evaluation of the role of a myofascial trigger points in pain modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective it has been established that chronic neck pain following whiplash is associated with the phenomenon of central sensitization, in which injured and uninjured parts of the body exhibit lowered pain thresholds due to an alteration in central pain processing. it has furthermore been hypothesized that peripheral sources of nociception in the muscles may perpetuate central sensitization in chronic whiplash. the hypothesis explored in the present study was whether myofascial trigger points serve as a modulator of central sensitization in subjects with chronic neck pain. Design controlled case series. Setting outpatient chronic pain clinic. Subjects seventeen patients with chronic and intractable neck pain and 10 healthy controls without complaints of neck pain. Intervention symptomatic subjects received anesthetic infiltration of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscles and controls received the anesthetic in the thigh. Outcome measures: pre and post injection cervical range of motion, pressure pain thresholds (ppt over the infraspinatus, wrist extensor, and tibialis anterior muscles. sensitivity to light (photophobia and subjects' perception of pain using a visual analog scale (vas were also evaluated before and after injections. only the ppt was evaluated in the asymptomatic controls. Results immediate (within 1 minute alterations in cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds were observed following an average of 3.8 injections with 1–2 cc of 1% lidocaine into carefully identified trigger points. cervical range of motion increased by an average of 49% (p = 0.000 in flexion and 44% (p = 0.001 in extension, 47% (p = 0.000 and 28% (p Conclusion the present data suggest that myofascial trigger points serve to perpetuate lowered pain thresholds in uninjured tissues. additionally, it appears that lowered pain thresholds associated with central sensitization can be immediately reversed, even when associated

  4. Differences in electrophysiological properties of functionally identified nociceptive sensory neurons in an animal model of cancer-induced bone pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong Fang; Ungard, Robert; Seidlitz, Eric; Zacal, Natalie; Huizinga, Jan; Henry, James L

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone cancer pain is often severe, yet little is known about mechanisms generating this type of chronic pain. While previous studies have identified functional alterations in peripheral sensory neurons that correlate with bone tumours, none has provided direct evidence correlating behavioural nociceptive responses with properties of sensory neurons in an intact bone cancer model. Results In a rat model of prostate cancer-induced bone pain, we confirmed tactile hypersensitivity using the von Frey test. Subsequently, we recorded intracellularly from dorsal root ganglion neurons in vivo in anesthetized animals. Neurons remained connected to their peripheral receptive terminals and were classified on the basis of action potential properties, responses to dorsal root stimulation, and to mechanical stimulation of the respective peripheral receptive fields. Neurons included C-, Aδ-, and Aβ-fibre nociceptors, identified by their expression of substance P. We suggest that bone tumour may induce phenotypic changes in peripheral nociceptors and that these could contribute to bone cancer pain. Conclusions This work represents a significant technical and conceptual advance in the study of peripheral nociceptor functions in the development of cancer-induced bone pain. This is the first study to report that changes in sensitivity and excitability of dorsal root ganglion primary afferents directly correspond to mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia behaviours following prostate cancer cell injection into the femur of rats. Furthermore, our unique combination of techniques has allowed us to follow, in a single neuron, mechanical pain-related behaviours, electrophysiological changes in action potential properties, and dorsal root substance P expression. These data provide a more complete understanding of this unique pain state at the cellular level that may allow for future development of mechanism-based treatments for cancer-induced bone pain. PMID:27030711

  5. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain. PMID:26490459

  6. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  7. Orienting attention modulates pain perception: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C C Chan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that people with chronic pain have difficulty directing their attention away from pain. A mental strategy that incorporates focused attention and distraction has been found to modulate the perception of pain intensity. That strategy involves placing attention on the nociceptive stimulus felt and shifting attention to a self-generated sub-nociceptive image and rehearsing it. Event-related potential was used to study the possible processes associated with the focus-then-orient strategy. METHODS: Eighteen pain-free participants received different levels of 50-ms nociceptive stimulations elicited by electric shocks at the right lateral malleolus (ankle. In perception trials, participants maintained the perceived nociceptive stimulus in working memory for 3,000 ms. In imagery trials, participants mentally generated and maintained the corresponding sub-nociceptive image they had learned previously. After both types of trials, participants evaluated the pain intensity of the incoming stimulus by recalling the feeling of the nociceptive stimulation at the beginning of the trial. RESULTS: Shifting attention from the incoming nociceptive to a self-generated sub-nociceptive image elicited central P2 and centro-parietal P3 waves, which were found to correlate with proportional scores on the Stroop Test. They were followed by a frontal N400 and a parietal P600, denoting generation of sub-nociceptive images in working memory. The voltages elicited in these potentials correlated moderately with attenuation of the pain ratings of the recalled nociceptive stimulations. CONCLUSIONS: Focus-and-orient attention across nociceptive and sub-nociceptive images appears to be related to response inhibition. Mental rehearsal of the sub-nociceptive images was found to modulate the perception of the nociceptive sensation felt prior to the imagery. Such modulation seems to be mediated by generating and maintaining sub-nociceptive images in

  8. Comparison of anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan; Zhang, Hang-Jun; Zhuge, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Liang-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling (Curcuma wenyujin) and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Scutellaria baicalensis). This study used three parts to compare the two herbs. Firstly, animals were randomly divided into a Scutellaria baicalensis group, a Curcuma wenyujin group, an indomethacin group, and a model-control group to perform an ear edema test, a carrageenin-induced paw edema test, a cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation test, and an acetic acid-induced writhing test. Secondly, model rats with pelvic inflammation were established, and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in each group was detected with the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Thirdly, pharmacokinetics analysis of Scutellaria baicalensis and Curcuma wenyujin was conducted on the model rats. The ear edema test, carrageenin-induced paw edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation test, and acetic acid-induced writhing test all showed that Curcuma wenyujin had stronger anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects than Scutellaria baicalensis. There is significant difference between the effects of Curcuma wenyujin and Scutellaria baicalensis on the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 for the model rats. Curcuma wenyujin decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 more than Scutellaria baicalensis. The pharmacokinetics analysis showed that curcumol's Tmax, Cmax, and the area under the curve (AUC) were all higher than baicalin's. This study indicated that for pelvic inflammation, Curcuma wenyujin had better anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects than Scutellaria baicalensis.

  9. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  10. Electromagnetic Field Devices and Their Effects on Nociception and Peripheral Inflammatory Pain Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Christina L; Teli, Thaleia; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2016-03-01

    Context • During cell-communication processes, endogenous and exogenous signaling affects normal and pathological developmental conditions. Exogenous influences, such as extra-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been shown to affect pain and inflammation by modulating G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs), downregulating cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) activity, and downregulating inflammatory modulators, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) as well as the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). EMF devices could help clinicians who seek an alternative or complementary treatment for relief of patients chronic pain and disability. Objective • The research team intended to review the literature on the effects of EMFs on inflammatory pain mechanisms. Design • We used a literature search of articles published in PubMed using the following key words: low-frequency electromagnetic field therapy, inflammatory pain markers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), opioid receptors, G-protein coupling receptors, and enzymes. Setting • The study took place at the Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Results • The mechanistic pathway most often considered for the biological effects of EMF is the plasma membrane, across which the EMF signal induces a voltage change. Oscillating EMF exerts forces on free ions that are present on both sides of the plasma membrane and that move across the cell surface through transmembrane proteins. The ions create a forced intracellular vibration that is responsible for phenomena such as the influx of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and the binding affinity of calmodulin (CaM), which is the primary transduction pathway to the secondary messengers, cAMP and cGMP, which have been found to influence inflammatory pain. Conclusions • An emerging body of evidence indicates the existence of a frequency

  11. Centrality Measures in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Francis; Tebaldi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We show that although the prominent centrality measures in network analysis make use of different information about nodes' positions, they all process that information in an identical way: they all spring from a common family that are characterized by the same simple axioms. In particular, they are all based on a monotonic and additively separable treatment of a statistic that captures a node's position in the network.

  12. Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks in the Khabr-Marvast Tectonized Ophiolite: Evidence for Subduction Processes in the South-Western Margin of Central Iranian Microcontinent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azam SOLTANMOHAMMADI; Mohammad RAHGOSHAY; Morteza KHALATBARI-JAFARI

    2009-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Khabr-Marvast tectonized ophiolite is located in the middle part of the Nain-Baft ophiolite belt, at the south-western edge of the central Iranian microcontinent. Although all the volcanic rocks in the study area indicate subduction-related magmatism (e.g. high LILE (large ion lithophile elements)/ HFSE (high field strenght elements) ratios and negative anomalies in Nb and Ta), geological and geochemical data clearly distinguish two distinct groups of volcanic rocks in the tectonized association: (1) group 1 is comprised of hyaloclustic breccias, basaltic pillow iavas, and andesite sheet flows. These rocks represent the Nain-Baft oceanic crust; and (2) group 2 is alkaline iavas from the top section of the ophiolite suite. These lavas show shoshonite affinity, but do not support the propensity of ophiolite.

  13. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.

  14. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744

  15. Palaeohydrological changes over the last 50 ky in the central Gulf of Cadiz: complex forcing mechanisms mixing multi-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Luise Voelker, Antje Helga; Turon, Jean-Louis

    2016-09-01

    New dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) analyses were carried out at high resolution in core MD99-2339, retrieved from a contouritic field in the central part of the Gulf of Cadiz, for the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 interval, allowing for discussion of palaeohydrological changes over the last 50 ky in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean. Some index dinocyst taxa, according to their (palaeo)ecological significance, shed light on significant sea-surface changes. Superimposed on the general decreasing pattern of dinocyst export to the seafloor over the last 50 ky, paralleling the general context of decreasing aeolian dust fertilization, a complex variability in dinocyst assemblages was detected at the millennial timescale. Enhanced fluvial discharges occurred during Greenland Interstadials (GIs), especially GI 1, 8 and 12, while enhanced upwelling cell dynamics were suggested during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich Stadials. Finally, during the early Holocene, and more specifically during the Sapropel 1 interval (around 7-9 ka BP), we evidenced a strong decrease in dinocyst fluxes, which occurred synchronously to a strong reduction in Mediterranean Outflow Water strength and which we attributed to an advection of warm and nutrient-poor subtropical North Atlantic Central Waters. Over the last 50 ky, our study thus allows for capturing and documenting the fine tuning existing between terrestrial and marine realms in North Atlantic subtropical latitudes, in response to not only the regional climate pattern but also monsoonal forcing interfering during precession-driven Northern Hemisphere insolation maxima. This mechanism, well expressed during the Holocene, is superimposed on the pervasive role of the obliquity as a first major trigger for explaining migration of dinocyst productive centres in the NE Atlantic margin to the subtropical (temperate) latitudes during glacial (interglacial) periods.

  16. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  17. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  18. Potential Nociceptive Regulatory Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM 14870) on Mechanical Sensitivity in Diet-Induced Obesity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsborg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Treatments for obesity have been shown to reduce pain secondary to weight loss. Intestinal microbiota, as an endogenous factor, influences obesity and pain sensitivity but the effect of oral probiotic supplementation on musculoskeletal pain perception has not been studied systematically. The present study examined the effect of a single daily oral dose (1 × 109 CFU) of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM14870) supplement on mechanical pain thresholds in behaving diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and their normal weight (NW) controls. The mice (N = 24, 6-week-old male) were randomly divided into four groups on either standard or high fat diet with and without probiotic supplementation. Both DIO and NW groups with probiotic supplementation maintained an insignificant weight gain while the control groups gained significant weight (P < 0.05). Similarly, both DIO and NW probiotics supplemented groups demonstrated a significantly (P < 0.05) lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulation compared to their corresponding control. The results of this study suggest a protective effect of probiotics on nociception circuits, which propose a direct result of the weight reduction or an indirect result of anti-inflammatory properties of the probiotics. Deciphering the exact underlying mechanism of the weight loss and lowering nociception effect of the probiotic applied in this study require further investigation. PMID:27647980

  19. Plasma levels of a low-dose constant-rate-infusion of ketamine and its effect on single and repeated nociceptive stimuli in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadano, Alessandra; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Theurillat, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    This study quantitatively investigated the analgesic action of a low-dose constant-rate-infusion (CRI) of racemic ketamine (as a 0.5 mg kg(-1) bolus and at a dose rate of 10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) in conscious dogs using a nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and with enantioselective measurement of plasma levels of ketamine and norketamine. Withdrawal reflexes evoked by transcutaneous single and repeated electrical stimulation (10 pulses, 5 Hz) of the digital plantar nerve were recorded from the biceps femoris muscle using surface electromyography. Ketamine did not affect NWR thresholds or the recruitment curves after a single nociceptive stimulation. Temporal summation (as evaluated by repeated stimuli) and the evoked behavioural response scores were however reduced compared to baseline demonstrating the antinociceptive activity of ketamine correlated with the peak plasma concentrations. Thereafter the plasma levels at pseudo-steady-state did not modulate temporal summation. Based on these experimental findings low-dose ketamine CRI cannot be recommended for use as a sole analgesic in the dog. PMID:18706837

  20. Potential Nociceptive Regulatory Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM 14870 on Mechanical Sensitivity in Diet-Induced Obesity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Dardmeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatments for obesity have been shown to reduce pain secondary to weight loss. Intestinal microbiota, as an endogenous factor, influences obesity and pain sensitivity but the effect of oral probiotic supplementation on musculoskeletal pain perception has not been studied systematically. The present study examined the effect of a single daily oral dose (1 × 109 CFU of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM14870 supplement on mechanical pain thresholds in behaving diet-induced obese (DIO mice and their normal weight (NW controls. The mice (N=24, 6-week-old male were randomly divided into four groups on either standard or high fat diet with and without probiotic supplementation. Both DIO and NW groups with probiotic supplementation maintained an insignificant weight gain while the control groups gained significant weight (P<0.05. Similarly, both DIO and NW probiotics supplemented groups demonstrated a significantly (P<0.05 lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulation compared to their corresponding control. The results of this study suggest a protective effect of probiotics on nociception circuits, which propose a direct result of the weight reduction or an indirect result of anti-inflammatory properties of the probiotics. Deciphering the exact underlying mechanism of the weight loss and lowering nociception effect of the probiotic applied in this study require further investigation.