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Sample records for central nervous system infections

  1. Emerging infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer; McArthur, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Emerging infections affecting the central nervous system often present as encephalitis and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires not only careful history taking, but also the application of newly developed diagnostic tests. These diseases frequently occur in outbreaks stemming from viruses that have mutated from an animal host and gained the ability to infect humans. With globalization, this can translate to the rapid emergence of infectious clusters or the establishment of endemicity in previously naïve locations. Since these infections are often vector borne and effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis and institution of supportive care. In this review, we focus on some of the recent literature addressing emerging and resurging viral encephalitides in the United States and around the world-specifically, West Nile virus, dengue, polio, and cycloviruses. We also discuss new, or "emerging," techniques for the precise and rapid diagnosis of encephalitides. PMID:24136412

  2. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

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    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  3. Stroke in central nervous system infections

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    Carod-Artal Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke subtypes and etiology may differ between developing and developed countries. Infections are a relatively common cause of stroke in tropical regions. Objective: To review the main infectious diseases associated with stroke. Discussion: Prevalence of stroke in HIV patients is around 1%. Pathogenic mechanisms include HIV vasculopathy, vasculitis, cardioembolism, acquired hypercoagulability, and the effect of opportunistic infections. Treatment with protease inhibitors has been associated with premature atherosclerotic vascular disease. Emerging viral infections that are associated with stroke include viral hemorrhagic fevers, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and West Nile virus. Vasculitis involving perforating vessels of the brain is a cerebrovascular complication of tuberculous meningitis. Small, medium, and large arteries of the anterior circulation can be involved. A progressive intracranial arteriopathy after Leptospira interrogans infection has been described, which involves the large intracranial arteries. Cerebrovascular complications of mycosis are associated with large vessel vasculitis, direct vessel damage by invasion or embolization, and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to mycotic aneurysm rupture. Pathological findings of cerebral malaria include diffuse cerebral edema, perivascular ring hemorrhages, white matter necrosis, parenchyma petechial hemorrhages, occlusion of brain vessels, and sequestration of infected erythrocytes in cortical and perforating arteries. Stroke can occur in subarachnoid neurocysticercosis and the lesions in such cases consist mostly of deep lacunar infarctions resulting from endarteritis of small penetrating arteries. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, apical aneurysm, and mural thrombus are the conditions that predispose patients with American trypanosomiasis to cardioembolism. Gnathostoma spinigerum infestation is a cause of hemorrhagic stroke in Asia. Conclusion: Infectious and

  4. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

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    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  5. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  6. Gemella morbillorum: an underestimated aetiology of central nervous system infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Paolo; Rassu, Mario; Branscombe, Michele; Sefton, Armine; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2009-12-01

    A case is reported of cerebellar abscess and diffuse cerebritis due to Gemella morbillorum. The clinical course was 'biphasic', developing with an acute meningeal infection followed shortly afterwards by suppuration in the cerebellar and cerebral parenchyma; this pattern seemed to suggest a latent survival of the aetiological agent, probably within the central nervous system (CNS), despite systemic antibiotic therapy. Based upon a review of cases so far described, infections of the CNS caused by G. morbillorum appear to be an emerging reality. PMID:19713361

  7. Evolving character of chronic central nervous system HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard W; Spudich, Serena S; Peterson, Julia; Joseph, Sarah; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) begins early in systemic infection and continues throughout its untreated course. Despite a common cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory response, it is usually neurologically asymptomatic for much of this course, but can evolve in some individuals to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe encephalopathy with characteristic cognitive and motor dysfunction. While widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a marked decline in both the CNS infection and its neurologic severe consequence, HAD continues to afflict individuals presenting with advanced systemic infection in the developed world and a larger number in resource-poor settings where ART is more restricted. Additionally, milder CNS injury and dysfunction have broader prevalence, including in those treated with ART. Here we review the history and evolving nomenclature of HAD, its viral pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24715483

  8. Neuroinvasion and Inflammation in Viral Central Nervous System Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroten, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses can cause devastating central nervous system (CNS) infections, especially in young children and the elderly. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) have been described as relevant sites of entry for specific viruses as well as for leukocytes, which are recruited during the proinflammatory response in the course of CNS infection. In this review, we illustrate examples of established brain barrier models, in which the specific reaction patterns of different viral families can be analyzed. Furthermore, we highlight the pathogen specific array of cytokines and chemokines involved in immunological responses in viral CNS infections. We discuss in detail the link between specific cytokines and chemokines and leukocyte migration profiles. The thorough understanding of the complex and interrelated inflammatory mechanisms as well as identifying universal mediators promoting CNS inflammation is essential for the development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:27313404

  9. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  10. Central nervous system infections in the intensive care unit

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    B. Vengamma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurological infections constitute an uncommon, but important aetiological cause requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU. In addition, health-care associated neurological infections may develop in critically ill patients admitted to an ICU for other indications. Central nervous system infections can develop as complications in ICU patients including post-operative neurosurgical patients. While bacterial infections are the most common cause, mycobacterial and fungal infections are also frequently encountered. Delay in institution of specific treatment is considered to be the single most important poor prognostic factor. Empirical antibiotic therapy must be initiated while awaiting specific culture and sensitivity results. Choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy should take into consideration the most likely pathogens involved, locally prevalent drug-resistance patterns, underlying predisposing, co-morbid conditions, and other factors, such as age, immune status. Further, the antibiotic should adequately penetrate the blood-brain and blood- cerebrospinal fluid barriers. The presence of a focal collection of pus warrants immediate surgical drainage. Following strict aseptic precautions during surgery, hand-hygiene and care of catheters, devices constitute important preventive measures. A high index of clinical suspicion and aggressive efforts at identification of aetiological cause and early institution of specific treatment in patients with neurological infections can be life saving.

  11. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  12. Central nervous system infections caused by varicella-zoster virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Francisco J; Gilarranz, Raúl; Hernández, Melisa; Ramos, Diana; Pena, María José

    2016-08-01

    We carried out a clinical and epidemiological study of adult patients with varicella-zoster virus central nervous system infection diagnosed by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Twenty-six patients were included. Twelve (46.2 %) patients were diagnosed with meningitis and fourteen (53.8 %) with meningoencephalitis. Twelve (46.2 %) had cranial nerves involvement (mainly the facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerves), six (23.1 %) had cerebellar involvement, fourteen (53.8 %) had rash, and four (15.4 %) developed Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Three (11.5 %) patients had sequelae. Length of stay was significantly lower in patients diagnosed with meningitis and treatment with acyclovir was more frequent in patients diagnosed with meningoencephalitis. We believe routine detection of varicella-zoster virus, regardless of the presence of rash, is important because the patient may benefit from a different clinical management. PMID:26769041

  13. Imaging features of central nervous system fungal infections

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    Jain Krishan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS are rare in the general population and are invariably secondary to primary focus elsewhere, usually in the lung or intestine. Except for people with longstanding diabetes, they are most frequently encountered in immunocompromised patients such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or after organ transplantation. Due to the lack of inflammatory response, neuroradiological findings are often nonspecific and are frequently mistaken for tuberculous meningitis, pyogenic abscess or brain tumor. Intracranial fungal infections are being identified more frequently due to the increased incidence of AIDS patients, better radiological investigations, more sensitive microbiological techniques and better critical care of moribund patients. Although almost any fungus may cause encephalitis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is most frequently seen, followed by aspergillosis and candidiasis. The biology, epidemiology and imaging features of the common fungal infections of the CNS will be reviewed. The radiographic appearance alone is often not specific, but the combination of the appropriate clinical setting along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance may help to suggest the correct diagnosis.

  14. MRI in central nervous system infections: A simplified patterned approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krithika; Rangarajan; Chandan; J; Das; Atin; Kumar; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Recognition and characterization of central nervous system infections poses a formidable challenge to the neuro-radiologist.Imaging plays a vital role,the lesions typically being relatively inaccessible to tisue sampling.The results of an accurate diagnosis are endlessly re-warding,given the availability of excellent pharmaco-logical regimen.The availability of numerous magnetic resonance(MR)sequences which provide functional and molecular information is a powerful tool in the hands of the radiologist.However,the plethora of se-quences and the possibilities on each sequence is also intimidating,and often confusing as well as time con-suming.While a large number of reviews have already described in detail the possible imaging findings in each infection,we intend to classify infections based on their imaging characteristics.In this review we describe an algorithm for first classifying the imaging findings into patterns based on basic MR sequences(T1,T2 and enhancement pattern with Gadolinium),and then sub-classify them based on more advanced molecular and functional sequences(Diffusion,Perfusion,Susceptibili-ty imaging,MR Spectroscopy).This patterned approachis intended as a guide to radiologists in-training and in-practice for quickly narrowing their list of differentials when faced with a clinical challenge.The entire content of the article has also been summarised in the form of flow-charts for the purpose of quick reference.

  15. MRI in central nervous system infections: A simplified patterned approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Krithika; Das, Chandan J; Kumar, Atin; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2014-09-28

    Recognition and characterization of central nervous system infections poses a formidable challenge to the neuro-radiologist. Imaging plays a vital role, the lesions typically being relatively inaccessible to tisue sampling. The results of an accurate diagnosis are endlessly rewarding, given the availability of excellent pharmacological regimen. The availability of numerous magnetic resonance (MR) sequences which provide functional and molecular information is a powerful tool in the hands of the radiologist. However, the plethora of sequences and the possibilities on each sequence is also intimidating, and often confusing as well as time consuming. While a large number of reviews have already described in detail the possible imaging findings in each infection, we intend to classify infections based on their imaging characteristics. In this review we describe an algorithm for first classifying the imaging findings into patterns based on basic MR sequences (T1, T2 and enhancement pattern with Gadolinium), and then sub-classify them based on more advanced molecular and functional sequences (Diffusion, Perfusion, Susceptibility imaging, MR Spectroscopy). This patterned approach is intended as a guide to radiologists in-training and in-practice for quickly narrowing their list of differentials when faced with a clinical challenge. The entire content of the article has also been summarised in the form of flow-charts for the purpose of quick reference. PMID:25276314

  16. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  17. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, J. [Dept. de Imagiologia, Hospital Geral De Santo Antonio, Porto (Portugal); Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  18. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome.

  19. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  20. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Vestergaard, Bent Faber; Wandall, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare with meningitis as the most common clinical presentation. We have investigated the clinical spectrum of CNS infections in 49 adult consecutive patients with HSV-2 genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). HSV...

  2. Central nervous system aspergillus infection complicating renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of catastrophic intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to aspergillus infection in an immunocompromised renal transplant patient is presented. The pathological features and related images are described and the radiology of CNS aspergillus infection is reviewed. A 37-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. She had recently received a cadaveric renal transplant following failure of the previous live donor kidney. Gastroscopy showed changes suspicious of cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastroduodenitis and she was treated with gancyclovir, with resolution of her symptoms. While in hospital her creatinine began to rise. The renal biopsy was suggestive of cyclosporin toxicity and the cyclosporin level was raised 537 mg/mL (normal 160-360 mg/mL). Several days later, she developed slurred speech and weakness in her right arm. Non-contrast CT showed multifocal regions of low attenuation over the right temporal convexity, within the basal ganglia, inferior frontal lobe and corona radiata on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging on the same day showed multiple areas of high signal on the FLAIR images, some of which contained central areas of low signal. There was no significant enhancement post gadolinium but several of the lesions showed increased signal on the diffusion-weighted images, reflecting cytotoxic oedema. Repeat CT showed an increase in the size of the cerebral lesions with haemorrhagic transformation of the right basal ganglia mass. A further lesion with a peripheral dense rim on the non-contrast images was identified in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The possibility of a vasculitis secondary to a fungal infection was raised. Two days later the patient became comatose with CT showing a large intracerebral haematoma in the left basal ganglia, intraventricular blood and hydrocephalus. The patient died soon afterwards. Post-mortem examination showed multifocal cerebral haemorrhage associated with necrotizing vasculitis and aspergillus infection

  3. Mouse model for abortive rabies infection of the central nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J S

    1981-01-01

    When adult mice were injected by the footpad route with the attenuated rabies virus ERA/BHK, serum- and brain-associated antibody and interferon were produced, nonspecific cytotoxic cells and virus-specific cytolytic T cells in the spleen were activated, and a nonlethal infection of the central nervous system occurred. Cyclophosphamide treatment of these animals 1 day after virus infection suppressed antibody formation and induction of cytolytic T cells and resulted in a lethal infection. Vir...

  4. Central Nervous System Viral Invasion and Inflammation During Acute HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Valcour, V.; Chalermchai, T; Sailasuta, N; Marovich, M; Lerdlum, S; Suttichom, D; Suwanwela, NC; Jagodzinski, L.; Michael, N.; Spudich, S; van Griensven, F.; Souza, M.; Kim, J; Ananworanich, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the earliest central nervous system (CNS) events during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is crucial to knowledge of neuropathogenesis, but these have not previously been described in humans. METHODS: Twenty individuals who had acute HIV infection (Fiebig stages I-IV), with average 15 days after exposure, underwent clinical neurological, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) characterization. RESUL...

  5. Surgical treatment of refractory epilepsy, secondary to central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunpeng Wang; Guojun Zhang; Lixin Cai; Yongjie Li

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on medial temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to central nervous system infections.Several large-sample analyses of multi-lobe injuries or complications of medial temporal lobe epilepsy have been reported.The present study selected 29 patients (10 males and 19 females with a mean age of 18 years) with refractory epilepsy secondary to central nervous system infections (meningitis in 8, encephalitis in 21)from Beijing Functional Neurosurgical Institute from May 2006 to August 2008.All patients underwent computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, as well as electroencephalogram examinations; cortical electrodes were embedded in 11 patients.In addition, 13 (45%) patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy,and 16 (56%) underwent extratemporal corcticectomy.Results showed that 18 (62%) patients obtained favorable outcomes following surgical treatment, including 80% with temporal lobe epilepsy and 50% with extratemporal epilepsy.Central nervous system infection was not a contraindication for epilepsy treatment, and identification of epileptic foci proved to be crucial.In addition, a young age at infection, as well as prolonged latent period from time of infection to initial afebrile seizure, were 2 predictive factors for all patients.Cortical electrodes significantly increased the detection rate of epileptic foci, but did not improve prognosis of foci excision.

  6. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central nervous system dysfunction in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kalubi M.

    2011-01-01

    Background :¦In addition to opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS), which are due to immunosuppression related to HIV, the latter virus, itself, can cause neuropathological abnormalities which are located mainly in the basal ganglia and are characterized by microglial giant cells, reactive astrocytosis and perivascular monocytes. This HIV encephalopathy is characterized, clinically, by psycho-motor slowing, memory loss, difficulties in complex tasks requiring executive f...

  8. Clinical and laboratory characteristic of cases of primary HIV infection with the central nervous system impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Musatov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In article results of study of the incidence and the characteristics of the central nervous system impairment at the primary HIV-infection among adults are presented. In 2007–2010 to the infectious hospital were admitted 106 330 patients (HIV positive patient were excluded from these date. According to laboratory testing procedures primary HIV infection were detected among 513 (4.8% patients. Different neurologic disorders have been diagnosed among 35 patients (6.8%. Among 16 patients with the impairment of the central nervous system the most frequent clinical variant was aseptic meningitis (14 cases. HIV infection 2Б stage was detected for 2 patients, 2В stage – 14 patients, or category А1 – 1 patients, А2 – 6 patients, А3 – 8 patients (1 case without detection of СD4 cells. Clinical and laboratory criteria of different forms of meningitis (subclinical, easy, moderate, and severe are established. The majority of patients with signs of the central nervous system disorders had the various clinical symptoms characterizing an acute retroviral syndrome. Among 14 cases secondary diseases have been detected, including candidiasis (8 cases, 1 case for pneumocystic pneumonia, seborrheic dermatitis, pneumonia, a sinusitis, cryptococcal meningitis and neurosyphilis.

  9. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome. METHODS: All episodes of Candida isolated from the central nervous system were identified by searching our laboratory database. Review of the cases was performed by means of a retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Eleven episodes of Candida CSF infection following neurosurgery were identified over a 12-year period. Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated (n = 8, 73%). All infections were associated with foreign intracranial material, nine with external ventricular drains (82%), one with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, one with a lumbar drain, and one with Gliadel wafers (1,3-bis [2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosurea). Fluconazole or liposomal amphotericin B were the most common anti-fungal agents used. The mortality rate identified in our series was 27%. CONCLUSIONS: Candida infection following neurosurgery remains a relatively rare occurrence but one that causes significant mortality. These are complex infections, the management of which benefits from a close liaison between the clinical microbiologist and neurosurgeon. Prompt initiation of antifungal agents and removal of infected devices offers the best hope of a cure.

  10. Intraventricular ciprofloxacin usage in treatment of multidrug-resistant central nervous system infections: report of four cases

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    Ayse Karaaslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multidrug-resistant microorganisms appear as important nosocomial pathogens which treatment is quite difficult. As sufficient drug levels could not be achieved in cerebrospinal fluid during intravenous antibiotic therapy for central nervous system infections and due to multidrug-resistance treatment alternatives are limited. In this study, four cases of central nervous system infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms who were successfully treated with removal of the devices and intraventricular ciprofloxacin are presented. In conclusion, intraventricular ciprofloxacin can be used for treatment of central nervous system infections if the causative microorganism is sensitive to the drug and no other alternative therapy is available.

  11. Imaging findings of central nervous system infections. Case-based review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt detection and an accurate diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infections are important because most of these disorders are readily treatable. Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of the disorders. Infections of CNS pose a worldwide public health problem. Global scale transportation means that disorders once relatively confined to certain geographic areas are now readily ''outside the window'' of practicing radiologists everywhere. Therefore, we, neuroradiologists are in the need of studying foreign infectious diseases, such as West Nile fever, enterovirus poliomyelitis, etc. (author)

  12. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Christian; Benfield, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    .01). Among patients with purulent meningitis, CSF MIF levels were significantly higher in patients infected with pneumococci as compared to infection due to meningococci (11569 ng/L (8615-21935) vs. 5006 ng/L (1717-10905) respectively, P=0.02), in patients requiring assisted ventilation (10493 ng/L (5961......ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) plays an essential pathophysiological role in septic shock; however, its role in central nervous system infection (CNS) remains to be defined. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF...... suspected of but had no evidence of CNS infection. RESULTS: CSF MIF levels were significantly higher in patients with purulent meningitis of known aetiology (8639 ng/L (3344-20600)) as compared to patients with purulent meningitis of unknown aetiology (2209 ng/L (1516-6550), Mann Whitney test, P=0.003), to...

  13. Creatine kinase in the serum of patients with acute infections of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterslund, N A; Heinsvig, E M; Christensen, K D

    1985-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase was assessed in 94 consecutive patients without convulsions admitted to hospital due to suspicion of infection of the central nervous system. No reliable discrimination between patients with aseptic and those with bacterial meningitis was obtained. Patients with bacterial...... bacterial meningitis. The highest serum CK value found in patients with encephalitis was 725 U/l. Reference values for control patients with meningism were 16-269 U/1. In a subset of 9 patients creatine kinase isoenzyme analysis was performed. In all cases only muscle type (MM) isoenzyme was found...

  14. Incidence, risk factors and outcome of nosocomial pneumonia in patients with central nervous system infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajović Olgica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pneumonia is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units. The reported frequency varies with definition, the type of hospital or intensive care units and the population of patients. The incidence ranges from 6.8-27%. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors and mortality of nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care patients. Methods. We analyzed retrospectively and prospectively the collected data of 180 patients with central nervous system infections who needed to stay in the intensive care unit for more than 48 hours. This study was conducted from 2003 to 2009 at the Clinical Centre of Kragujevac. Results. During the study period, 54 (30% patients developed nosocomial pneumonia. The time to develop pneumonia was 10±6 days. We found that the following risk factors for the development of nosocomial pneumonia were statistically significant: age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score <9, mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, presence of nasogastric tube and enteral feeding. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Klebsiella-Enterobacter spp. (33.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.1%, Acinetobacter spp. (16.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. Conclusion. Nosocomial pneumonia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients with central nervous system infections. Patients on mechanical ventilation are particularly at a high risk. The mortality rate of patients with nosocomial pneumonia was 54.4% and it was five times higher than in patients without pneumonia.

  15. The diagnosis of HIV-associated central nervous system opportunistic infections

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    GONG Qi-ming

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS are very common and severe complications of advanced immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining conditions according to 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among Adolescents and Adults published by USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The etiologic microorganisms of CNS opportunistic infections include virus, bacteria, fungus, mycobacterium and parasite. The clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory examinations of these diseases are different from that of patients with non-immunodeficiency. Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, worsening conditions or new infections may occur. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of such disorders are critical. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS in HIV-1 infected patients in the initiating antiretroviral therapy results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non-infectious antigens. This study reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis of some common CNS disorders in HIV-1 infected patients. Physicians caring for such patients must be aware of the new diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options of these diseases.

  16. Fulminant listerial infection of the central nervous system in an otherwise healthy patient: a case report

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    Karakitsos Dimitrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The mortality of listerial rhombo-encephalitis exceeds 26% and may involve otherwise healthy patients. A case is presented of a man with fatal listerial infection of the central nervous system that was monitored in an intensive care unit. Case presentation A 42-year-old, previously healthy man was admitted with fever of 39°C, blurred vision, confusion and headache. He had right-sided central facial paresis, bilateral absent gag reflex and bilateral cerebellar ataxia. After a few hours, he became septic and developed bilateral vocal cord paralysis and airway obstruction. He was intubated and put on mechanical ventilation. Computed tomography brain scans revealed multiple frontal hypodense areas and slight hydrocephalus. Cerebrospinal fluid findings included pleocytosis of 4200 cells/μL (77% neutrophils, protein of 114 mg/dL and normal glucose levels. Listerial infection was suspected; therefore ampicillin was added to his initial therapeutic regimen, already including ceftriaxone and gentamicin. All cultures were negative, and no immunologic abnormality could be documented, but the patient's clinical condition deteriorated rapidly. Continuous neuromonitoring by means of transcranial Doppler and optic nerve sonography along with follow-up computed tomography brain scans confirmed the severity of the brain damage; hence, dexamethasone and mannitol were also administered. The patient was clinically documented as 'brain dead' 7 days after his admission to the intensive care unit; thereafter, blood- and post-mortem brain tissue cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. Conclusion This case report illustrates the importance of neuromonitoring in patients with severe brain damage. We also show that, despite prompt antibiotic treatment and dexamethasone administration, listerial infection of the central nervous system can be lethal.

  17. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  18. Central nervous system: brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present radiopharmaceuticals and detector systems have provided nuclear medicine physicians with tools capable of detecting a variety of brain abnormalities with little radiation exposure to pediatric patients. It is essential that the referring physician as well as the physician performing the procedure recognize both the limitations and virtues of these techniques. Appropriate selection of brain imaging procedures in each specific case must be the rule. Brain scintigraphy reliably solves certain problems, such as detecting or excluding intracranial tumors and identifying early cerebral inflammatory disease, cerebral ischemic disease, and a variety of congenital anomalies. Other situations, such as seizures without a focal neurologic deficit, acute meningitis, and hydrocephalus, are less often benefited by these studies. The role of these procedures in acute trauma and its sequelae is at the present time limited in pediatric practice. (auth)

  19. Employment and disability pension after central nervous system infections in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J;

    2015-01-01

    In this nationwide population-based cohort study using national Danish registries, in the period 1980-2008, our aim was to study employment and receipt of disability pension after central nervous system infections. All patients diagnosed between 20 and 55 years of age with meningococcal (n = 451......), pneumococcal (n = 553), or viral (n = 1,433) meningitis or with herpes simplex encephalitis (n = 115), who were alive 1 year after diagnosis, were identified. Comparison cohorts were drawn from the general population, and their members were individually matched on age and sex to patients. Five years after...... corresponding differences in probability of receiving disability pension were 20.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 26.7) and 16.2% (95% CI: 6.2, 26.3). The differences in probability of being employed or receiving disability pension in former meningococcal or viral meningitis patients versus members of the comparison cohorts...

  20. Iatrogenic aspergillus infection of the central nervous system in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokuhetty Menaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A healthy postnatal woman succumbed to fulminant iatrogenic Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system, following accidental inoculation into the subarachnoid space at spinal anesthesia, during an outbreak of Aspergillus meningitis in Sri Lanka. Autopsy revealed extensive Aspergillus meningitis and culture confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. The thalamic parenchyma in the brain was invaded by fungal hyphae producing necrotizing angitis with thrombosis, thalamic infarcts and fungal abscesses. The directional growth of fungal hyphae from the extra-luminal side of blood vessels towards the lumen favored extension from the brain parenchyma over hematogenous spread. The spinal parenchyma was resistant to fungal invasion in spite of the heavy growth within the spinal meninges and initial inoculation at spinal level. Modulation of the immune response in pregnancy with depression of selective aspects of cell-mediated immunity probably contributed to rapid spread within the subarachnoid space, to involve the brain parenchyma leading to clinical deterioration and death.

  1. Biopsy developed by computerized tomography in diagnosis of clinical infections on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral biopsy is reasonable in patients with possible degenerate and inflammatory infections of the CNS (Central Nervous System), as: leucodystrophies, encephalitis, cerebritis, Creutzfeld-Jakob illness, allowing a quick recognition and diagnostic confirmation, thus improving the treatment of these illness. Biopsy developed by computerized tomography (CT), without the use of stereotaxic guides, improves the precision of the biopsies; complications caused by surgeon as: craneotomies or biopsies by needles, protect the neuro surgeons against the risk of contamination. Biopsy by CT is a cheap making, with precision, security, and it does not scanners of high generation. The technic above explained, although resumed to injuries bigger than an inch and quarter of cortico subcortical locality, gives the patients a certain benefit with injuries completely accessible in our environment. (author)

  2. Etiologic agents of central nervous system infections among febrile hospitalized patients in the country of Georgia.

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    Tamar Akhvlediani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a large spectrum of viral, bacterial, fungal, and prion pathogens that cause central nervous system (CNS infections. As such, identification of the etiological agent requires multiple laboratory tests and accurate diagnosis requires clinical and epidemiological information. This hospital-based study aimed to determine the main causes of acute meningitis and encephalitis and enhance laboratory capacity for CNS infection diagnosis. METHODS: Children and adults patients clinically diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis were enrolled at four reference health centers. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected for bacterial culture, and in-house and multiplex RT-PCR testing was conducted for herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2, mumps virus, enterovirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV, Streptococcus pneumoniae, HiB and Neisseria meningitidis. RESULTS: Out of 140 enrolled patients, the mean age was 23.9 years, and 58% were children. Bacterial or viral etiologies were determined in 51% of patients. Five Streptococcus pneumoniae cultures were isolated from CSF. Based on in-house PCR analysis, 25 patients were positive for S. pneumoniae, 6 for N. meningitidis, and 1 for H. influenzae. Viral multiplex PCR identified infections with enterovirus (n = 26, VZV (n = 4, and HSV-1 (n = 2. No patient was positive for mumps or HSV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings indicate that S. pneumoniae and enteroviruses are the main etiologies in this patient cohort. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve health outcomes of CNS infection cases in Georgia.

  3. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

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    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  4. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  5. Novel approaches and challenges to treatment of central nervous system viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Avindra; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2013-09-01

    Existing and emerging viral central nervous system (CNS) infections are major sources of human morbidity and mortality. Treatments of proven efficacy are currently limited predominantly to herpesviruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Development of new therapies has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal model systems for some important viruses and by the difficulty in conducting human clinical trials for diseases that may be rare, or in the case of arboviral infections, often have variable seasonal and geographic incidence. Nonetheless, many novel approaches to antiviral therapy are available, including candidate thiazolide and pyrazinecarboxamide derivatives with potential broad-spectrum antiviral efficacy. New herpesvirus drugs include viral helicase-primase and terminase inhibitors. The use of antisense oligonucleotides and other strategies to interfere with viral RNA translation has shown efficacy in experimental models of CNS viral disease. Identifying specific molecular targets within viral replication cycles has led to many existing antiviral agents and will undoubtedly continue to be the basis of future drug design. A promising new area of research involves therapies based on enhanced understanding of host antiviral immune responses. Toll-like receptor agonists and drugs that inhibit specific cytokines as well as interferon preparations have all shown potential therapeutic efficacy. Passive transfer of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes has been used in humans and may provide an effective therapy for some herpesvirus infections and potentially for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Humanized monoclonal antibodies directed against specific viral proteins have been developed and in several cases evaluated in humans in settings including West Nile virus and HIV infection and in pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies. PMID:23913580

  6. Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We aimed to audit the regional management of central nervous system (CNS infection in children. Methods The study was undertaken in five district general hospitals and one tertiary paediatric hospital in the Mersey region of the UK. Children admitted to hospital with a suspected CNS infection over a three month period were identified. Children were aged between 4 weeks and 16 years old. Details were recorded from the case notes and electronic records. We measured the appropriateness of management pathways as outlined by national and local guidelines. Results Sixty-five children were identified with a median age of 6 months (range 1 month to 15 years. Ten had a CNS infection: 4 aseptic meningitis, 3 purulent meningitis, 3 encephalitis [2 with herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1]. A lumbar puncture (LP was attempted in 50 (77% cases but only 43 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF available for analysis. Of these 24 (57% had a complete standard set of tests performed. Fifty eight (89% received a third generation cephalosporin. Seventeen (26% also received aciclovir with no obvious indication in 9 (53%. Only 11 (65% of those receiving aciclovir had CSF herpes virus PCR. Seventeen had cranial imaging and it was the first management step in 14. Treatment lengths of both antibiotics and aciclovir were highly variable: one child with HSV encephalitis was only treated with aciclovir for 7 days. Conclusions The clinical management of children with suspected CNS infections across the Mersey region is heterogeneous and often sub-optimal, particularly for the investigation and treatment of viral encephalitis. National guidelines for the management of viral encephalitis are needed.

  7. Central Nervous System Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Nathan; Boulware, David R; Marais, Suzaan; Scriven, James; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS) develops in 9 %–47 % of persons with HIV infection and a CNS opportunistic infection who start antiretroviral therapy and is associated with a mortality rate of 13 %–75 %. These rates vary according to the causative pathogen. Common CNS-IRIS events occur in relation to Cryptococcus, tuberculosis (TB), and JC virus, but several other mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses have been associated with IRIS. IRIS symptoms often...

  8. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System infections in adults in Kathmandu, Nepal: A prospective hospital-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Abhishek; Arjyal, Amit; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Rishav; Van Tan, Le; Thi Thuy Chinh, Bkrong Nguyen; Krishna K. C., Radheshyam; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Shakya, Mila; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a prospective hospital based study from February 2009-April 2011 to identify the possible pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital (Patan Hospital) in Kathmandu, Nepal. The pathogens of CNS infections were confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using molecular diagnostics, culture (bacteria) and serology. 87 patients were recruited for the study and the etiological diagnosis was established in 38% (n = 33). The bacter...

  9. Hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction in acute nonmycobacterial infections of central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS infections are not uncommon in tropical countries and are associated with high morbidity and mortality if specific targeted therapy is not instituted in time. Effects of tubercular meningitis, a form of chronic meningitis on hypothalamic pituitary axis, are well known both at the time of diagnosis and after few months to years of illness. However, there are few reports of pituitary dysfunction in subjects with acute CNS infections. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the pituitary hormonal profile in patients with nonmycobacterial acute meningitis at the time of presentation. Materials and Methods: This prospective case series study included 30 untreated adult patients with acute meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or encephalitis, due to various nonmycobacterial agents, admitted and registered with Lok Nayak Hospital, Maulana Aazd Medical College, New Delhi, between September 2007 and March 2009. Patients with preexisting endocrine diseases, tubercular meningitis and patients on steroids were carefully excluded from the study. The basal pituitary hormonal profile was measured by the electrochemilumniscence technique for serum cortisol, luetinizing hormone (LH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, thyrotropin (TSH, free tri-iodothyronine (fT3, and free thyroxine (fT4. Results: The cases (n = 30 comprised of patients with acute pyogenic meningitis (n = 23, viral meningoencephalitis (n = 4, brain abscess (n = 2, and cryptococcal meningitis (n = 1. The mean age of patients was 28.97 ± 11.306 years. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7% were males and 16 (58.1% were females. Adrenal insufficiency both absolute and relative was seen in seven (23.3% and hyperprolactinemia was seen in nine (30.0% of the patients. One study subject had central hypothyroidism and seven (23.3 showed low levels of LH and/or FSH. None of patients showed clinical features suggestive of

  10. Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 and Central Nervous System Infection in Children1

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Asad; Li, Shaobing; Abzug, Mark J.; Weinberg, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    The role and frequency of human herpesviruses (HHV)-6 and -7 in central nervous system (CNS) diseases of children are unclear. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 245 pediatric patients (median age 43 days), submitted for evaluations of possible sepsis or of neurologic symptoms, were tested for HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA by polymerase chain reaction. HHV-6 DNA was found in 3 of 245 samples, and HHV-7 was found in 0 of 245 samples. The three patients with HHV-6 DNA were

  11. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159344.html HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System But symptoms tend to subside once antiretroviral drugs ... mild, it is clear that HIV affects the nervous system within days of infection," she said in a ...

  12. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented o...

  13. Comparison of nested PCR and real time PCR of Herpesvirus infections of central nervous system in HIV patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolone Rosaria; Giuliani Giuseppe; De Vecchi Elena; Lombardi Alessandra; Drago Lorenzo; Gismondo Maria

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Molecular detection of herpesviruses DNA is considered as the reference standard assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections. In this study nested PCR and real time PCR techniques for detection of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in cerebrospinal fluid of HIV patients were compared. Methods Forty-six, 85 and 145 samples previously resulted positive for HSV-1, CMV and EBV by nested PCR and 150 randomly chos...

  14. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  15. Peripheral, but not central nervous system, type I interferon expression in mice in response to intranasal vesicular stomatitis virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Mark D.; Lyles, Douglas S.; REISS, CAROL SHOSHKES

    2007-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is critical for resistance of mice to infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Wild type (wt) VSV infection did not induce type I IFN production in vitro or in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice; however IFN-β was detected in lungs, spleen, and serum within 24 h. The M protein mutant VSV, T1026R1 (also referred to as M51R), induced type I IFN production in vitro and in the CNS, with poor expression in spleens. In addition, VSV T1026R1 was not pathogenic t...

  16. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka;

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions, with...... focus specifically on the Type I IFNs in physiological and pathological conditions. IFN-α and IFN-β are the predominant Type I IFNs in the CNS. They are produced in the CNS by glial cells, mostly microglia and astrocytes, as well as by neurons. A variety of mechanisms stimulate IFN production in glial...

  17. Interleukin-27 as a Novel Biomarker for Early Cardiopulmonary Failure in Enterovirus 71-Infected Children with Central Nervous System Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingyuan; Du, Wenjing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Longbin; Yang, Weiqing; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhiyong; Wei, Pei; Wu, Weiquan; Huang, Zhulin; Fang, Ying; Lin, Qiling; Qin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which leads to severe neurological complications and has high morbidity and mortality. Reliable biomarker for the prediction of deterioration in EV71-infected children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement may reduce the cardiopulmonary failure and mortality. Here, we found that serum IL-27 levels were significantly higher in stage III EV71-infected HFMD patients with early cardiopulmonary failure and strong correlation with CRP levels. IL27p28 polymorphisms (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) did not influence IL-27 production, and these three SNPs were not associated with EV71 infection risk and clinical stage. IL-27 can be used as an prediction indicator for early cardiopulmonary failure in EV71-infected children with CNS involvement. PMID:27403033

  18. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21921682

  19. Peripheral neuropathy in primary HIV infection associates with systemic and central nervous system immune activation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, SXY; Ho, EL; Grill, M.; Lee, E.; Peterson, J.; Robertson, K; Fuchs, D.; Sinclair, E.; Price, RW; Spudich, S

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Background: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a frequent complication of chronic HIV infection. We prospectively studied individuals with primary HIV infection (

  20. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  1. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  2. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions. (author)

  3. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  4. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more of...... behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part of this...... the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  5. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Ho Dang Trung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. METHODS: We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. RESULTS: We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.

  6. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravish Parekh; Alexis Haftka; Ashleigh Porter

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as we...

  7. Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation and Historical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Robert Y; Koeller, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in prevention and treatment, infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system remain an important source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in less-developed countries and in immunocompromised persons. Bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens are derived from living organisms and affect the brain, spinal cord, or meninges. Infections due to these pathogens are associated with a variety of neuroimaging patterns that can be appreciated at magnetic resonance imaging in most cases. Bacterial infections, most often due to Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Neisseria species, cause significant meningitis, whereas the less common cerebritis and subsequent abscess formation have well-documented progression, with increasingly prominent altered signal intensity and corresponding contrast enhancement. Atypical bacterial infections are characterized by the development of a granulomatous response, classically seen in tuberculosis, in which the tuberculoma is the most common parenchymal form of the disease; spirochetal and rickettsial diseases are less common. Fungal infections predominate in immunocompromised hosts and are caused by yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal infection, whereas candidiasis is the most common nosocomial infection. Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are characterized by angioinvasiveness and are associated with high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In terms of potential exposure in the worldwide population, parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, echinococcosis, malaria, and schistosomiasis, are the greatest threat. Rare amebic infections are noteworthy for their extreme virulence and high mortality. The objective of this article is to highlight the characteristic neuroimaging manifestations of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation and historical perspectives

  8. SAMHD1 transcript upregulation during SIV infection of the central nervous system does not associate with reduced viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Erin L; Espinoza, Diego A; McAlexander, Melissa A; Myers, Stephanie L; Moyer, Adam; Witwer, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    Restriction of HIV-1 in myeloid-lineage cells is attributed in part to the nucleotidase activity of the SAM-domain and HD-domain containing protein (SAMHD1), which depletes free nucleotides, blocking reverse transcription. In the same cells, the Vpx protein of HIV-2 and most SIVs counteracts SAMHD1. Both Type I and II interferons may stimulate SAMHD1 transcription. The contributions of SAMHD1 to retroviral restriction in the central nervous system (CNS) have been the subject of limited study. We hypothesized that SAMHD1 would respond to interferon in the SIV-infected CNS but would not control virus due to SIV Vpx. Accordingly, we investigated SAMHD1 transcript abundance and association with the Type I interferon response in an SIV model. SAMHD1 transcript levels were IFN responsive, increasing during acute phase infection and decreasing during a more quiescent phase, but generally remaining elevated at all post-infection time points. In vitro, SAMHD1 transcript was abundant in macaque astrocytes and further induced by Type I interferon, while IFN produced a weaker response in the more permissive environment of the macrophage. We cannot rule out a contribution of SAMHD1 to retroviral restriction in relatively non-permissive CNS cell types. We encourage additional research in this area, particularly in the context of HIV-1 infection. PMID:26936683

  9. Epigenetics of μ-Opioid receptors: Intersection with HIV-1 infection of the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Patrick M.; Dave, Rajnish S.; Datta, Prasun K.; Khalili, Kamel

    2012-01-01

    The abuse of intravenous drugs, such as heroin, has become a major public health concern due to the increased risk of HIV-1 infection. Opioids such as heroin were originally identified and subsequently abused for their analgesic effects. However, many investigations have found additional effects of opioids, including regulation of the immune system. As such, chronic opioid abuse has been shown to promote HIV-1 pathogenesis and facilitate HIV-1-associated neurocognitive dysfunction. Clinical o...

  10. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  11. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. van der Linden; R.R. Jansen; D. Bresters; C.E. Visser; S.E. Geerlings; E.J. Kuijper; W.J.G. Melchers; P.E. Verweij

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  12. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  13. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive...

  14. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling reveals two distinct outcomes in central Nervous system infections of rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiting eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains a major public health concern in many developing countries. The precise neuropathogenesis of rabies is unknown, though it is hypothesized to be due to neuronal death or dysfunction. Mice that received intranasal inoculation of an attenuated rabies virus (RABV strain HEP-Flury exhibited subtle clinical signs, and eventually recovered, which is different from the fatal encephalitis caused by the virulent RABV strain CVS-11. To understand the neuropathogenesis of rabies and the mechanisms of viral clearance, we applied RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq to compare the brain transcriptomes of normal mice versus HEP-Flury or CVS-11 intranasally inoculated mice. Our results revealed that both RABV strains altered positively and negatively the expression levels of many host genes, including genes associated with innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation and cell death. It is found that HEP-Flury infection can activate the innate immunity earlier through the RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling, and the innate immunity pre-activated by HEP-Flury or Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection can effectively prevent the CVS-11 to invade central nervous system (CNS, but fails to clear the CVS-11 after its entry into the CNS. In addition, following CVS-11 infection, genes implicated in cell adhesion, blood vessel morphogenesis and coagulation were mainly up-regulated, while the genes involved in synaptic transmission and ion transport were significantly down-regulated. On the other hand, several genes involved in the MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation pathway were activated to a greater extent after the HEP-Flury infection as compared with the CVS-11 infection suggesting that the collaboration of CD4+ T cells and MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation is critical for the clearance of attenuated RABV from the CNS. The differentially regulated genes reported here are likely to include potential therapeutic targets for expanding the postexposure treatment window

  15. Differential effects of interleukin-17 receptor signaling on innate and adaptive immunity during central nervous system bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidlak Debbie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although IL-17A (commonly referred to as IL-17 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS autoimmune disease, its role during CNS bacterial infections remains unclear. To evaluate the broader impact of IL-17 family members in the context of CNS infection, we utilized IL-17 receptor (IL-17R knockout (KO mice that lack the ability to respond to IL-17, IL-17F and IL-17E (IL-25. In this article, we demonstrate that IL-17R signaling regulates bacterial clearance as well as natural killer T (NKT cell and gamma-delta (γδ T cell infiltrates during Staphylococcus aureus-induced brain abscess formation. Specifically, when compared with wild-type (WT animals, IL-17R KO mice exhibited elevated bacterial burdens at days 7 and 14 following S. aureus infection. Additionally, IL-17R KO animals displayed elevated neutrophil chemokine production, revealing the ability to compensate for the lack of IL-17R activity. Despite these differences, innate immune cell recruitment into brain abscesses was similar in IL-17R KO and WT mice, whereas IL-17R signaling exerted a greater influence on adaptive immune cell recruitment. In particular, γδ T cell influx was increased in IL-17R KO mice at day 7 post-infection. In addition, NK1.1high infiltrates were absent in brain abscesses of IL-17R KO animals and, surprisingly, were rarely detected in the livers of uninfected IL-17R KO mice. Although IL-17 is a key regulator of neutrophils in other infection models, our data implicate an important role for IL-17R signaling in regulating adaptive immunity during CNS bacterial infection.

  16. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Two Distinct Outcomes in Central Nervous System Infections of Rabies Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daiting; He, Feilong; Bi, Shuilian; Guo, Huixia; Zhang, Baoshi; Wu, Fan; Liang, Jiaqi; Yang, Youtian; Tian, Qin; Ju, Chunmei; Fan, Huiying; Chen, Jinding; Guo, Xiaofeng; Luo, Yongwen

    2016-01-01

    Rabies remains a major public health concern in many developing countries. The precise neuropathogenesis of rabies is unknown, though it is hypothesized to be due to neuronal death or dysfunction. Mice that received intranasal inoculation of an attenuated rabies virus (RABV) strain HEP-Flury exhibited subtle clinical signs, and eventually recovered, which is different from the fatal encephalitis caused by the virulent RABV strain CVS-11. To understand the neuropathogenesis of rabies and the mechanisms of viral clearance, we applied RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the brain transcriptomes of normal mice vs. HEP-Flury or CVS-11 intranasally inoculated mice. Our results revealed that both RABV strains altered positively and negatively the expression levels of many host genes, including genes associated with innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation and cell death. It is found that HEP-Flury infection can activate the innate immunity earlier through the RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling, and the innate immunity pre-activated by HEP-Flury or Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection can effectively prevent the CVS-11 to invade central nervous system (CNS), but fails to clear the CVS-11 after its entry into the CNS. In addition, following CVS-11 infection, genes implicated in cell adhesion, blood vessel morphogenesis and coagulation were mainly up-regulated, while the genes involved in synaptic transmission and ion transport were significantly down-regulated. On the other hand, several genes involved in the MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation pathway were activated to a greater extent after the HEP-Flury infection as compared with the CVS-11 infection suggesting that the collaboration of CD4+ T cells and MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation is critical for the clearance of attenuated RABV from the CNS. The differentially regulated genes reported here are likely to include potential therapeutic targets for expanding the post-exposure treatment window for RABV

  17. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a determinant of pathogenesis and disease progression in mycobacterial infection in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenova, L; Bergtold, A; Freedman, V H; Young, R A; Kaplan, G

    1999-05-11

    The pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis, a devastating complication of tuberculosis in man, is poorly understood. We previously reported that rabbits with experimental tuberculous meningitis were protected from death by a combination of antibiotics and thalidomide therapy. Survival was associated with inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by thalidomide. To test whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of TNF-alpha correlated with pathogenesis, the response of rabbits infected in the central nervous system (CNS) with various mycobacterial strains was studied. CNS infection with Mycobacterium bovis Ravenel, M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Pasteur, and M. bovis BCG Montreal were compared. M. bovis Ravenel induced the highest levels of TNF-alpha in the CSF in association with high leukocytosis, protein accumulation, and severe meningeal inflammation. BCG Pasteur had intermediate effects, and BCG Montreal was the least virulent. In addition, M. bovis Ravenel numbers were highest in the brain and CSF and the bacilli also disseminated more efficiently to distant organs, compared with BCG Pasteur and BCG Montreal. In subsequent experiments, rabbits were infected with either recombinant M. bovis BCG Montreal (vector), or BCG Montreal expressing the murine gene for TNF-alpha (BCG mTNF-alpha). BCG Montreal was rendered virulent by the expression of murine TNF-alpha, as demonstrated by high CSF leukocytosis, high protein accumulation, severe meningeal inflammation, persistent bacillary load, and progressive clinical deterioration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the level of TNF-alpha produced during mycobacterial CNS infection determines, at least in part, the extent of pathogenesis. PMID:10318940

  19. Rapid virological diagnosis of central nervous system infections by use of a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Nicolas; Van Haecke, Adrien; Renois, Fanny; Boutolleau, David; Talmud, Deborah; Andreoletti, Laurent

    2011-11-01

    Viruses are the main etiological cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections. A rapid molecular diagnosis is recommended to improve the therapeutic management of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of a DNA microarray, the Clart Entherpex kit (Genomica, Coslada, Spain), allowing the rapid and simultaneous detection of 9 DNA and RNA neurotropic viruses: herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, HHV-8, and the human enteroviruses (HEVs). This evaluation was performed with 28 samples from the European proficiency panels (Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics [QCMD]; Glasgow, Scotland) and then with 78 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. The majority of the QCMD results obtained by the DNA microarray were similar to those recorded by the overall QCMD participants. The main discrepant results were observed for low concentrations of HSV-2 and HEVs. From the clinical samples, the kit detected 27 of the 28 herpesvirus CNS infections and all of the 30 HEV-positive CSF samples. No false-positive result was observed among the 20 virus-negative CSF samples. The clinical sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the assay were 98.3, 100, 95.2, and 100%, respectively, when the results were compared to those of commercially available PCR assays. Interestingly, HHV-7 was detected in 11 (37%) of the 30 HEV-positive CSF samples from children suffering from aseptic meningitis causing significantly longer lengths of stay at the hospital than infection with HEVs alone (2.4 versus 1.4 days; P = 0.038). In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that this DNA microarray could be a valuable molecular diagnostic tool for single and mixed DNA and RNA virus infections of the CNS. PMID:21918017

  20. Is semen a useful diagnostic tool for rare infections of the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Ruqaiyyah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given that the blood-testis barrier is more permeable than the blood–brain barrier, the use of semen to detect rare parasitic antigens/infections of the CNS in males is hypothesized.

  1. The role of biopsy in the diagnosis of infections of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jansen, M

    2010-01-01

    CNS infections require prompt appropriate therapy, but do not usually require tissue biopsy for diagnosis. We performed a 5 year audit of CNS infections which required brain or spinal biopsy to determine or confirm a diagnosis of CNS infection. Sixteen cases were identified in which clinical, radiological or additional investigations including culture, serology or PCR for the suspected specific infective agents were not diagnostic. 6 (37.5%) were bacterial abscesses presenting as space-occupying intracerebral lesions with a differential diagnosis of neoplasm. There were 3 (18.7%) cases of toxoplasmosis and 2 (12.5%) cases of aspergillosis. There was one case (6.2%) of herpes simplex encephalitis, one cysticercosis and one progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, all biopsied as possible neoplasms. There were 2 (12.5%) cases of spinal tuberculosis, one multifocal, mimicking neurofibromatosis. This review highlights the usefulness of targeted biopsy in the rapid diagnosis of CNS infections. It also emphasizes the lack of specificity of \\'negative\\' culture and serology in certain cases, especially in the setting of immune-compromise.

  2. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Rhailana Fontes; Jéssica Ribeiro; Gupta, Daya S.; Dionis Machado; Fernando Lopes-Júnior; Francisco Magalhães; Victor Hugo Bastos; Kaline Rocha; Victor Marinho; Gildário Lima; Bruna Velasques; Pedro Ribeiro; Marco Orsini; Bruno Pessoa; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms...

  3. Central nervous system tumors: a histopathological study

    OpenAIRE

    Kailash Chand Jat; S. P. Vyas; Naseem A. Bihari; Kuldeep Mehra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors can originate in almost any type of tissue, cell or mixture of cell types in the brain or spinal cord. Tumors in different areas of the central nervous system may be treated differently and have a different prognosis. Methods: In the period between 2011-2015, we studied on 59 patients diagnosed with CNS tumors according to the World Health Organization's diagnostic criteria. Patient data were retrieved from the archives of the department of Pathology, Sardar Patel...

  4. Diagnosis of Nocardia paucivorans central nervous system infection by DNA sequencing from paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; De Carolis, Elena; Mello, Enrica; Pallotto, Carlo; Leli, Christian; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Baldelli, Franco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    Infections by Nocardia spp. are generally regarded as opportunistic diseases in immunocompromised patients, but can also affect immunocompetent subjects. Such infections represent an important diagnostic challenge for clinicians and microbiologists, and diagnosis is frequently delayed or even conducted post mortem. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of ventriculitis and relapsing brain abscess. Five months prior, this patient had undergone external ventricular drain and surgery for a cerebellar abscess. Histopathology demonstrated pyogenic inflammatory reaction, microbiologic investigations proved negative and empiric antimicrobial therapy was administered for a total of eight weeks. Six weeks later, the patient developed relapsing neurologic manifestations. On reviewing the patient's clinical history it emerged that the patient had suffered pneumonia two months prior to neurosurgery, treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate 3g a day and levofloxacin 500mg a day for three weeks. On the CNS relapsing manifestations, nocardiosis was suspected and DNA sequencing from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebellar tissue collected during neurosurgery allowed diagnosis of Nocardia paucivorans infection. The patient received medical therapy for 11 months. At follow-up, eight months after treatment was discontinued, the patient was aymptomatic. Nocardia spp. infections need to be suspected not only in immunocompromised, but also in immunocompetent patients. Proper samples need to be collected for proper microbiologic investigations. Paraffin-embedded tissue genomic sequencing can be a useful tool for diagnosis of nocardiosis. PMID:27367327

  5. Postneurosurgical Central Nervous System Infection Due to Enterococcus faecalis Successfully Treated With Intraventricular Vancomycin

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Trisha; Lewis, Mark E.; Niesley, Michelle L.; Chowdhury, Mashiul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Infections from Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are uncommon in the post-neurosurgical intervention setting., [1, 2, 3, 4] Intraventricular antibiotics are recommended when standard intravenous therapy fails. [5] Here we present a case of post-neurosurgical ventriculitis, meningitis, and cerebritis in an oncology patient caused by refractory Enterococcus faecalis successfully treated with intraventricular vancomycin.

  6. Parasite infections in central nervous system in humans%中枢神经寄生虫感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翊; 谷俊朝

    2011-01-01

    Parasite infections in central nervous system (CNS) in human beings can result in very serious outcomes.Early diagnosis is important to reduce mortality. Parasitic infections in CNS include nematodes,cestodes,trematodes,and protozoans. This article discusses the clinical presentation,diagnosis,and treatment of some of the most common parasitic infections in CNS,these are Angiostrongylus cantonensis ,Trichinella spiralis ,Gnathostoma spinigerum,Strongyloides stercoralis ,Toxocara spp. ,Echinococcus spp. ,Taenia solium,Spirometra spp. (sparganosis ) ,Paragonimus westermani,Schistosorna spp., Trypanosoma spp. ,and Naegleria fowlerii.%中枢神经感染寄生虫结果十分严重,早期诊断并治疗是降低死亡率重要手段,本综述介绍了中枢神经感染的线虫、绦虫、吸虫和原虫,其中线虫有广州管圆线虫(Angiostrongylus cantonensis),旋毛线虫(Trichinella spiralis),棘鄂口线虫(Gnathostoma spinigerum),粪类圆线虫(Strogyloides stercoralis)和弓首蛔线虫属(Toxocara spp.);绦虫有棘球绦虫属(Echinococcus spp.),猪带绦虫(Taenia solium)和遮宫绦虫属(Spirormetra spp.);吸虫有卫氏并殖吸虫(Paragonimus westermani)和血吸虫属(Schistosoma spp.);原虫有克氏锥虫(Trypanosoma cruzi)、布氏雏虫(Trypanosoma brucei)和福氏耐格阿米巴(Noe gleria fowlerii)

  7. The Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Parasitic Infections Involving the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bruschi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs represent a large family of over twenty different secreted or membrane-bound endopeptidases, involved in many physiological (embryogenesis, precursor or stem cell mobilization, tissue remodeling during wound healing, etc., as well as pathological (inflammation, tumor progression and metastasis in cancer, vascular pathology, etc. conditions. For a long time, MMPs were considered only for the ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM molecules (e.g., collagen, laminin, fibronectin and to release hidden epitopes from the ECM. In the last few years, it has been fully elucidated that these molecules have many other functions, mainly related to the immune response, in consideration of their effects on cytokines, hormones and chemokines. Among others, MMP-2 and MMP-9 are endopeptidases of the MMP family produced by neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes. When infection is associated with leukocyte influx into specific organs, immunopathology and collateral tissue damage may occur. In this review, the involvement of MMPs and, in particular, of gelatinases in both protozoan and helminth infections will be described. In cerebral malaria, for example, MMPs play a role in the pathogenesis of such diseases. Also, trypanosomosis and toxoplasmosis will be considered for protozoan infections, as well as neurocysticercosis and angiostrongyloidosis, as regards helminthiases. All these situations have in common the proteolytic action on the blood brain barrier, mediated by MMPs.

  8. Clinico-radiological spectrum in enterovirus 71 infection involving the central nervous system in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Yun-Jin; Kim, Tae Hyoung; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Nam, Sang-Ook

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease in children, and can produce diverse neurologic complications. Epidemics occurring in Korea between 2009 and 2012 resulted in the death of some patients. The present study aimed to clarify the correlation between clinical features and MRI findings in patients presenting with acute neurologic manifestations related to enterovirus 71 infection. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into four clinical groups: (1) brainstem encephalitis (n=17), characterized by myoclonus, tremor, ataxia, and autonomic dysregulation such as pulmonary hemorrhage; (2) aseptic meningitis (n=2); (3) encephalitis (n=2), characterized by decreased consciousness, seizure, and fever without myoclonus, tremor, ataxia, and autonomic dysregulation; and (4) acute flaccid paralysis (n=1). Thirteen of the 17 patients with brainstem encephalitis showed characteristic lesions in the dorsal brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei on brain MRI, whereas three had no abnormality. One of the two patients with meningitis had a small lesion in the left dorsal pons. Two patients with encephalitis had no apparent MRI abnormality. One patient with acute flaccid paralysis of the right leg had contrast-enhancement of the bilateral ventral nerve roots at the lumbar spine level on MRI. Five of 13 patients with lesions in the bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum exhibited no cerebellar symptoms, while two with no cerebellar lesions developed ataxia. Although most patients presenting with neurologic manifestations of enterovirus 71 infection had characteristic clinical features together with typical MRI findings, the clinical features were not necessarily consistent with MRI findings. PMID:24169271

  9. Reduced Genetic Diversity in Lymphoid and Central Nervous System Tissues and Selection-Induced Tissue-Specific Compartmentalization of Neuropathogenic SIVsmmFGb during Acute Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, Aaron B.; Patel, Kalpana; Pearce, Nicholas C.; Augustus, Katherine V.; Domingues, Heber G.; O'Neil, Shawn P.; Novembre, Francis J.

    2009-01-01

    The simian lentivirus strain SIVsmmFGb is a viral swarm population inducing neuropathology in over 90% of infected pigtailed macaques and serves as a reliable model for HIV neuropathogenesis. However, little is understood about the genetic diversity of this virus, how said diversity influences the initial seeding of the central nervous system and lymph nodes, or whether the virus forms distinct genetic compartments between tissues during acute infection. In this study, we establish that our S...

  10. Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NINDS Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... 496-5717 "Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet", NINDS, Publication date July 2011. NIH ...

  11. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined

  12. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  13. Central Nervous System Complications of Oncologic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Ellen G

    2016-08-01

    Traditional and newer agents used to treat cancer can cause significant toxicity to the central nervous system. MRI of the brain and spine is the imaging modality of choice for patients with cancer who develop neurologic symptoms. It is important to be aware of the agents that can cause neurotoxicity and their associated imaging findings so that patients are properly diagnosed and treated. In some instances conventional MRI may not be able to differentiate posttreatment effects from disease progression. In these instances advanced imaging techniques may be helpful, although further research is still needed. PMID:27444003

  14. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  15. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system

  16. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  17. High Frequency of Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells in the Central Nervous System of Macaques Chronically Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251

    OpenAIRE

    Moniuszko, Marcin; Brown, Charlie; Pal, Ranajit; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta; Tsai, Wen-Po; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2003-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induces virus-specific CD8+ T cells that traffic to lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. In this study, we used Gag-specific tetramer staining to investigate the frequency of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and the central nervous system of Mamu-A*01-positive SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Most of these infected macaques were vaccinated prior to SIVmac251 exposure. The frequency of Gag181-189 CM9 tetramer-positive...

  18. High variability in viral load in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with herpes simplex and varicella-zoster infections of the central nervous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Piskunova, N.; Žampachová, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 12 (2007), s. 1217-1219. ISSN 1198-743X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cerebrospinal fluid, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus * herpes simplex virus * varicella-zoster virus * central nervous system infections * quantitative real-time PCR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2007

  19. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate and......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated and...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  1. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop...... survival. Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36......%), radiculopathy (27%), headache (25%), confusion (21%), peripheral neuropathy (9%), dizziness (7%) and seizures (6%). MRI of the brain and/or spine were performed in 156 patients (91%), and showed evidence of disease in 145 (93%). After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median OS for the entire group was 7...

  2. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  3. Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

  4. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  5. Plants and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668

  6. Utility of Measuring (1,3)-β-d-Glucan in Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Fungal Central Nervous System Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Jennifer L.; Thakur, Kiran T.; Lee, Rick; Watkins, Tonya; Pardo, Carlos A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Markley, Barbara; Finkelman, Malcolm A.; Kieren A Marr; Roos, Karen L.; Zhang, Sean X.

    2014-01-01

    (1-3)-β-d-Glucan (BDG) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising marker for diagnostic and prognostic aid of central nervous system (CNS) fungal infection, but its relationship to serum values has not been studied. Herein, we detected BDG from CSF at levels 2-fold lower than those in serum in patients without evidence of fungal disease but 25-fold higher than those in in serum in noncryptococcal CNS fungal infections. CSF BDG may be a useful biomarker in the evaluation of fungal CNS disea...

  7. Pathogenesis of HIV in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Valcour, Victor; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Letendre, Scott; Ances, Beau

    2010-01-01

    HIV can infect the brain and impair central nervous system (CNS) function. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has not eradicated CNS complications. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain common despite cART, although attenuated in severity. This may result from a combination of factors including inadequate treatment of HIV reservoirs such as circulating monocytes and glia, decreased effectiveness of cART in CNS, concurrent illnesses, stimulant use, and factors associated...

  8. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano­neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, blood–brain barrier, autophagy, ROS

  9. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  10. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S.; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  11. The spectrum of computerized tomography (CT findings in central nervous system (CNS infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in immunocompetent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORRÊA Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial CT scans of eleven immunocompetent children with central nervous system (CNS infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii were retrospectively reviewed. These children had an average age of 8.8 years and positive culture for C. n. var. gattii in cerebrospinal fluid. The most common signs and symptoms were headache, fever, nuchal rigidity, nausea and vomiting. No normal cranial CT was detected in any patient. Hypodense nodules were observed in all patients . The remaining scan abnormalities were as follows: nine had diffuse atrophy, six had hydrocephalus, and five had hydrocephalus coexistent with diffuse atrophy.

  12. Changes of MMP-9 and IL-1β in serum and cerebrospinal-fluid in children with central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Qin Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To provide a new basis for the detection of the central nervous system infection cases, we explored and compared the role of cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF), matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) and interleukin 1 (the level of IL -1β) in the central nervous system (CNS).Methods:Sixty cases of children acute central nervous system infection were selected, including 30 cases of viral encephalitis children (VE) and 30 cases of purulent meningitis children (PM). Forty cases of non-central nervous system infection children were control group. The serum albumin (SA1b) of each group was detected by full-automatic analysis instrument, and the CSF albumin (CA1b) was detected by immunoephelometry and the albumin index (AQ) was accounted. ELISE was used to detect the levels of MMP-9 and IL-1β in serum and cerebrospinal-fluid.Results:The level of MMP-9 in the serum of groups of VE, PM and control were (267.84 ± 91.88) μg/L, (488.98 ± 159.07) μg/L and (133.04 ± 31.68) μg/L, while in the CSF were (37.18 ± 17.78) μg/L, (117.9 ± 42.87) μg/L and (10.36 ± 5.43) μg/L; The level of IL-1β in serum of groups of PM, VE and control were (19.69 ± 11.12) ng/L, (24.37 ± 4.13) ng/L and (15.01 ± 3.89) ng/L, while in the CSF were (66.94 ± 10.65) ng/L, (106.27 ± 12.79) ng/L and (49.98 ± 12.59) ng/L; The level of CAlb were (0.53 ± 0.15) g/L, (1.05 ± 0.27) g/L and (0.17 ± 0.07) g/L and AQ were (13.75 ± 3.44), (26.99 ± 7.28) and (4.63 ± 2.04). The PM, VE were respectively compared with the control, the levels of IL-1β and MMP-9 in serum and CSF all increased, with statistically significant difference.The VE, compared to the PM, the level of IL-1β in serum and CSF all decreased, with statistically significant difference; The level of MMP-9 in serum and CSF all decreased, with statistically significant difference. The level of CA1b and AQ in the VE and PM all increased, with a statistically significant difference. The level of MMP-9 and IL-1β in serum and CSF of the

  13. Apoptosis of infiltrating T cells in the central nervous system of mice infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), DA strain, induces in susceptible strain of mice a biphasic disease consisting of early acute disease followed by late chronic demyelinating disease. Both phases of the disease are associated with inflammatory infiltrates of the central nervous system (CNS). Late chronic demyelinating disease induced by TMEV serves as an excellent model to study human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. During early acute disease, the virus is partially cleared from the CNS by CD3+ T cells. These T cells express Fas, FasL, negligible levels of Bcl-2 proteins and undergo activation-induced cell death as determined by TUNEL assay leading to resolution of the inflammatory response. In contrast, during late chronic demyelinating disease, and despite dense perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrates, only very few cells undergo apoptosis. Mononuclear cells infiltrating the CNS express Bcl-2. It appears that the lack of apoptosis of T cells during late chronic demyelinating disease leads to the accumulation of these cells in the CNS. These cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of the demyelinating disease

  14. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  15. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  16. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja;

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating the...... need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  17. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Department of Radiology, AZ St-Maarten, Campus Duffel, Rooienberg 25, 2750 Duffel (Belgium); Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Altena, R. van [Tuberculosecentrum Beatrixoord, Dilgtweg 5, 9751 ND Haren (Netherlands); Laridon, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Coeman, V. [Department of Radiology, AZ St-Jan, Ruddershove 10, 8000 Brugge (Belgium)

    2003-08-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  18. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  19. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...... and/or demyelinating pathology. This article will review the molecular and cellular dynamics of immune responses in the CNS, with particular emphasis on autoimmune inflammation, as has been studied in the authors' laboratory....

  20. Regulation of Peripheral Inflammation by the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Waldburger, Jean-Marc; Firestein, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    In inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, cytokines and danger signals are sensed by the central nervous system, which adapts behavior and physiologic responses during systemic stress. The central nervous system can also signal the periphery to modulate inflammation through efferent hormonal and neuronal pathways. The brain and spinal cord are involved in this bidirectional interaction. A variety of neuronal pathways that modulate synovial inflammation have been implicated, incl...

  1. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 expression in the central nervous system following infection with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are capable of degrading components of the basal lamina of cerebral vessels, thereby disrupting the blood-brain barrier and inducing leukocyte recruitment. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the cell specificity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 and their binding tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 in the central nervous system during viral and bacterial meningitis. Specifically, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of MMPs and TIMPs in various cell types in brain parenchyma and meninges obtained from autopsy tissues. We found that a higher proportion of endothelial cells were positive for MMP-9 during meningitis when compared to controls. In addition, the immunoreactivity of MMP-9 decreased and the immunoreactivity of TIMP-1 increased in astrocytes upon infection. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed that mononuclear cells were highly immunoreactive for TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MMP-9 during viral meningitis and that the expression of TIMPs in polymorphonuclear cells was even higher during bacterial meningitis. Taken together the results of this study indicated that the central nervous system resident cells and inflammatory infiltrates contribute to MMPs activity and that the expression patterns vary between cell types and in response to viral and bacterial meningitis.

  3. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  4. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor responds to treatment. Newly Diagnosed CNS Teratomas Treatment of newly diagnosed mature and immature central nervous system (CNS) teratomas may include the following: Surgery to remove as ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  6. General Information about Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  7. Functional analysis of the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) on virus-specific CD8+ T cells following coronavirus infection of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial infection of C57BL/6 mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results in an acute encephalomyelitis followed by a demyelinating disease similar in pathology to the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). T cells participate in both defense and disease progression following MHV infection. Expression of chemokine receptors on activated T cells is important in allowing these cells to traffic into and accumulate within the central nervous system (CNS) of MHV-infected mice. The present study evaluated the contributions of CCR5 to the activation and trafficking of virus-specific CD8+ T cells into the MHV-infected CNS mice. Comparable numbers of virus-specific CD8+ T cells derived from immunized CCR5+/+ or CCR5-/- mice were present within the CNS of MHV-infected RAG1-/- mice following adoptive transfer, indicating that CCR5 is not required for trafficking of these cells into the CNS. RAG1-/- recipients of CCR5-/--derived CD8+ T cells exhibited a modest, yet significant (P ≤ 0.05), reduction in viral burden within the brain which correlated with increased CTL activity and IFN-γ expression. Histological analysis of RAG1-/- recipients of either CCR5+/+or CCR5-/--derived CD8+ T cells revealed only focal areas of demyelination with no significant differences in white matter destruction. These data indicate that CCR5 signaling on CD8+ T cells modulates antiviral activities but is not essential for entry into the CNS

  8. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome involving the central nervous system in a patient with HIV infection: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffiri, Lorenzo; Verma, Rajanshu; Struzzieri, Kevin; Monterroso, Joanne; Batts, Donald H; Loehrke, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    IRIS is described as a paradoxical deterioration of clinical status upon initiation of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in patients with HIV infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS) involving the central nervous system is rarely reported. We describe the case of 57-year-old man who developed a fatal case of CNS- IRIS. A rapid deterioration of neurological status was associated with progression of patchy T2-weighted hyperintensities involving different vascular territories on brain MRI. Diagnosis of CNS-IRIS is based of laboratory and radiologic findings, however brain biopsy is supportive. Despite immune restoration being involved in clinical deterioration, discontinuation of cART is not recommended. The use of corticosteroids is highly controversial. Prompt recognition of CNS-IRIS is crucial for preventing neurological complications and ensuing sequelae. PMID:23435821

  10. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2015-11-19

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  11. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  12. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  13. [Spontaneous recovery of function in central nervous system lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghinah, A

    1975-12-01

    A rewiev of the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous recuperation of function in patients with lesions of the central nervous sistem is made. The spontaneous reorganization theories of the nervous structures and the vicarious function are also referred to. In the last two decades experimental contributions have been accentuated, specially the one conducted by the group of researchers directed by Windle and Guth, who had shown the possibility of regeneration in the central nervous system, as well Lawrende and Kuypers, Brodal, Goldberger and others, which defended the vircarious function as the probable mechanisms of recuperation. PMID:1191098

  14. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB. We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as well as in the inferior parietal lobe on the left. The patient was placed on an empiric antibiotic regimen. Preliminary testing for infectious causes was negative. Chest radiography and CT of chest showed no positive findings. He was not on any immunosuppressive medications and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA test was negative. A subsequent MRI one month later showed profound worsening of the lesions with increasing vasogenic edema and newly found mass effect impinging on the fourth ventricle. Brain biopsy showed focal exudative cerebellitis and inflamed granulation tissue consistent with formation of abscesses. The diagnosis of CNS TB was finally confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB cultures. The patient was started on standard tuberculosis therapy but expired due to renal failure and cardiac arrest.

  15. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joao E.; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the ...

  16. Axon Regeneration in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Eric A.; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is extremely limited after injury. Consequently, functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury, stroke, and related conditions that involve axonal disconnection. This situation differs from that in the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS), where long- distance axon regeneration and substantial functional recovery can occur in the adult. Both extracellular molecules and the intrinsi...

  17. Expression of extracellular matrix components and their receptors in the central nervous system during experimental Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM expression in the central nervous system (CNS usually associated with inflammatory lesions have been described in several pathological situations including neuroblastoma and demyelinating diseases. The participation of fibronectin (FN and its receptor, the VLA-4 molecule, in the migration of inflammatory cells into the CNS has been proposed. In Trypanosoma cruzi infection encephalitis occurs during the acute phase, whereas in Toxoplasma infection encephalitis is a chronic persisting process. In immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients, T. cruzi or T. gondii infection can lead to severe CNS damage. At the moment, there are no data available regarding the molecules involved in the entrance of inflammatory cells into the CNS during parasitic encephalitis. Herein, we characterized the expression of the ECM components FN and laminin (LN and their receptors in the CNS of T. gondii- and T. cruzi-infected mice. An increased expression of FN and LN was detected in the meninges, leptomeninges, choroid plexus and basal lamina of blood vessels. A fine FN network was observed involving T. gondii-free and T. gondii-containing inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, perivascular spaces presenting a FN-containing filamentous network filled with a4+ and a5+ cells were observed. Although an increased expression of LN was detected in the basal lamina of blood vessels, the CNS inflammatory cells were a6-negative. Taken together, our results suggest that FN and its receptors VLA-4 and VLA-5 might be involved in the entrance, migration and retention of inflammatory cells into the CNS during parasitic infections.

  18. A prospective study of magnetic resonance imaging patterns of central nervous system infections in pediatric age group and young adults and their clinico-biochemical correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections of the central nervous system (CNS are common and routinely encountered. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroimaging features of the various infections of the CNS so as to differentiate them from tumoral, vascular, and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy. Aims: Our aim was to analyze the biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features in CNS infections. Settings and Design: This was a longitudinal, prospective study over a period of 1½ years. Subjects and Methods: We studied cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings and MRI patterns in 27 patients of 0–20 years age group with clinical features of CNS infections. MRI was performed on MAGNETOM Avanto 18 Channel 1.5 Tesla MR machine by Siemens India Ltd. The MRI protocol consisted of diffusion-weighted and apparent diffusion coefficient imaging, turbo spin echo T2-weighted, spin echo T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR, and gradient-echo in axial, FLAIR in coronal, and T2-weighted in sagittal plane. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequence and MR spectroscopy were done whenever indicated. Results and Conclusions: We found that most of the children belong to 1–10 years age group. Fungal infections were uncommon, mean CSF adenosine deaminase values specific for tuberculosis and mean CSF glucose-lowered in pyogenic. Hemorrhagic involvement of thalamus with/without basal ganglia and brainstem involvement may indicate Japanese encephalitis or dengue encephalitis. Diffusion restriction or hemorrhage in not expected in the brainstem afflicted lesions of rabies. Congenital cytomegalovirus can cause cortical malformations. T1 hyperintensities with diffusion restriction may represent viral encephalitis. Lesions of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM may mimic viral encephalitis. Leptomeningeal enhancement is predominant in pyogenic meningitis. Basilar meningitis in the presence of tuberculomas is highly sensitive and specific for

  19. Gait Rehabilitation Device in Central Nervous System Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system diseases cause the gait disorder. Early rehabilitation of a patient with central nervous system disease is shown to be benefit. However, early gait training is difficult because of muscular weakness and those elderly patients who lose of leg muscular power. In the patient's walking training, therapists assist the movement of patient's lower limbs and control the movement of patient's lower limbs. However the assistance for the movement of the lower limbs is a serious hard labor for therapists. Therefore, research into and development of various gait rehabilitation devices is currently underway to identify methods to alleviate the physical burden on therapists. In this paper, we introduced the about gait rehabilitation devices in central nervous system disease.

  20. CT findings of central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant. Methods: CT findings of central nervous system in 11 infants with clinically proved congenital syphilis were analyzed retrospectively. Results: CT findings in 10 syphilis neonates were diffuse hypodense lesions in the white matter, with subarachnoid and intra-encephalic hemorrhage in 3 and 1 cases, respectively. One 2-month-old syphilis infant case and 5 cases of follow-up after 45 days to 6 months of treatment demonstrated bilateral widened sulci and cistern with enlarged ventricles in 3 of them. Conclusion: CT findings of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant are similar to those of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates, and extra-encephalic hydrocephalus or brain hypogenesis ensues later on. (authors)

  1. Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with multiple central nervous system lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meshkini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranulomatosis (JXG is an uncommon histiocytic disorder that is usually benign and limited to the skin. The systemic form of JXG is rare and may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality especially in central nervous system (CNS involvement. Here, we describe a six-year-old boy with disseminated skin lesions and neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnostic work up revealed multiple brain lesions. A skin biopsy and a stereotactic brain biopsy considered suggestive of systemic JXG. Treatment with prednisolone, vinblastine and methotrexate was successful with regression of skin and CNS lesions. The patient has been in remission for almost three years.

  2. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstanding Central Nervous System anomalies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 77-89

  3. IL-1RI (interleukin-1 receptor type I signalling is essential for host defence and hemichannel activity during acute central nervous system bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Kielian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common aetiological agent of bacterial brain abscesses. We have previously established that a considerable IL-1 (interleukin-1 response is elicited immediately following S. aureus infection, where the cytokine can exert pleiotropic effects on glial activation and blood–brain barrier permeability. To assess the combined actions of IL-1α and IL-1β during CNS (central nervous system infection, host defence responses were evaluated in IL-1RI (IL-1 receptor type I KO (knockout animals. IL-1RI KO mice were exquisitely sensitive to intracerebral S. aureus infection, as demonstrated by enhanced mortality rates and bacterial burdens within the first 24 h following pathogen exposure compared with WT (wild-type animals. Loss of IL-1RI signalling also dampened the expression of select cytokines and chemokines, concomitant with significant reductions in neutrophil and macrophage infiltrates into the brain. In addition, the opening of astrocyte hemichannels during acute infection was shown to be dependent on IL-1RI activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IL-1RI signalling plays a pivotal role in the genesis of immune responses during the acute stage of brain abscess development through S. aureus containment, inflammatory mediator production, peripheral immune cell recruitment, and regulation of astrocyte hemichannel activity. Taken in the context of previous studies with MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2 KO animals, the current report advances our understanding of MyD88-dependent cascades and implicates IL-1RI signalling as a major antimicrobial effector pathway during acute brain-abscess formation.

  4. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of...

  5. Heterotopic ossification after central nervous system trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, M. P.; Torres, S. J.; Mehta, S; Ahn, J

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is a disorder of aberrant bone formation affecting one in five patients sustaining a spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury. Ectopic bone forms around joints in characteristic patterns, causing pain and limiting movement especially around the hip and elbow. Clinical sequelae of neurogenic heterotopic ossification include urinary tract infection, pressure injuries, pneumonia and poor hygiene, making early diagnosis and treatment clinically compel...

  6. Vesicular stomatitis virus infects resident cells of the central nervous system and induces replication-dependent inflammatory responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection of mice via intranasal administration results in a severe encephalitis with rapid activation and proliferation of microglia and astrocytes. We have recently shown that these glial cells express RIG-I and MDA5, cytosolic pattern recognition receptors for viral RNA. However, it is unclear whether VSV can replicate in glial cells or if such replication is required for their inflammatory responses. Here we demonstrate that primary microglia and astrocytes are permissive for VSV infection and limited productive replication. Importantly, we show that viral replication is required for robust inflammatory mediator production by these cells. Finally, we have confirmed that in vivo VSV administration can result in viral infection of glial cells in situ. These results suggest that viral replication within resident glial cells might play an important role in CNS inflammation following infection with VSV and possibly other neurotropic nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses.

  7. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  8. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary. (R.B.). 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemoki

  11. Isolated central nervous system Whipple's disease: Two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Atay; Acar, Nazire Pinar; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Oguz, Kader K; Dericioğlu, Neşe; Saka, Esen

    2015-12-01

    Although it is an orphan disease, isolated central nervous system Whipple's disease is one of the "must be known" conditions in neurology because it belongs to the list of "treatable disorders". Here, we present two cases which highlight the importance of early diagnosis. Additionally, we provide a discussion on up to date diagnostic approach to this life-threatening disorder. PMID:26407049

  12. Radiotherapy of the central nervous system in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a site of occult and overt involvement with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Prophylactic treatment of the cranial and spinal meninges can significantly reduce the incidence of CNS relapse. This review addresses the issues associated with the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of the CNS in ALL.20 references

  13. The Role of Central Nervous System Plasticity in Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is a vexing disorder of hearing characterized by sound sensations originating in the head without any external stimulation. The specific etiology of these sensations is uncertain but frequently associated with hearing loss. The "neurophysiogical" model of tinnitus has enhanced appreciation of central nervous system (CNS) contributions.…

  14. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  15. Tumor necrosis factor α is a determinant of pathogenesis and disease progression in mycobacterial infection in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Tsenova, Liana; Bergtold, Amy; Freedman, Victoria H.; Young, Richard A.; Kaplan, Gilla

    1999-01-01

    The pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis, a devastating complication of tuberculosis in man, is poorly understood. We previously reported that rabbits with experimental tuberculous meningitis were protected from death by a combination of antibiotics and thalidomide therapy. Survival was associated with inhibition of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by thalidomide. To test whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of TNF-α correlated with pathogenesis, the response of rabbits infect...

  16. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  18. Detection of rabies virus nucleoprotein-RNA in several organs outside the Central Nervous System in naturally-infected vampire bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. P Vieira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a neurological disease, but the rabies virus spread to several organs outside the central nervous system (CNS. The rabies virus antigen or RNA has been identified from the salivary glands, the lungs, the kidneys, the heart and the liver. This work aimed to identify the presence of the rabies virus in non-neuronal organs from naturally-infected vampire bats and to study the rabies virus in the salivary glands of healthy vampire bats. Out of the five bats that were positive for rabies in the CNS, by fluorescent antibody test (FAT, viral isolation in N2A cells and reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 100% (5/5 were positive for rabies in samples of the tongue and the heart, 80% (4/5 in the kidneys, 40% (2/5 in samples of the salivary glands and the lungs, and 20% (1/5 in the liver by RT-PCR test. All the nine bats that were negative for rabies in the CNS, by FAT, viral isolation and RT-PCR were negative for rabies in the salivary glands by RT-PCR test. Possible consequences for rabies epidemiology and pathogenesis are discussed in this work.

  19. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Ruth; Goldsworthy Graham; Mortazavi Parisa N; Khan Naveed A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 gen...

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 expression in the central nervous system following infection with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Chyczewski; Artur Sulik

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are capable of degrading components of the basal lamina of cerebral vessels, thereby disrupting the blood-brain barrier and inducing leukocyte recruitment. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the cell specificity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and their binding tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in the central nervous system during viral and bacterial meningitis. Specifically, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of MMPs and TIMPs...

  1. Nocardia farcinica Meningitis Masquerading as Central Nervous System Metastasis in a Child With Cerebellar Pilocytic Astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer; Kreppel, Andrew J; Brady, Rebecca C; Jones, Blaise; Stevenson, Charles B; Fouladi, Maryam; Hummel, Trent R

    2015-08-01

    Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common pediatric central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm, characteristically displays an indolent growth pattern and rarely demonstrates metastatic dissemination. Reports of infections mimicking CNS metastatic disease are also rare and can impact treatment. We report the youngest known case of a child with a CNS Nocardia farcinica infection who had a known cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, review other infections that may masquerade as CNS neoplasms, and discuss N. farcinica CNS infections. PMID:26181420

  2. Viral Aetiology of Central Nervous System Infections in Adults Admitted to a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Southern Vietnam over 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Le Van; Thai, Le Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chuong, Ly Van; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Hien, Vo Minh; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important diseases in both children and adults worldwide. The spectrum of infections is broad, encompassing bacterial/aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Viruses are regarded as the most common causes of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Better understanding of the viral causes of the diseases is of public health importance, in order to better inform immunization policy, and may influence clinical management. Methodology/Principal Findings Study was conducted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, a primary, secondary, and tertiary referral hospital for all southern provinces of Vietnam. Between December 1996 and May 2008, patients with CNS infections of presumed viral origin were enrolled. Laboratory diagnostics consisted of molecular and serological tests targeted at 14 meningitis/encephalitis-associated viruses. Of 291 enrolled patients, fatal outcome and neurological sequelae were recorded in 10% (28/291) and 27% (78/291), respectively. Mortality was especially high (9/19, 47%) amongst those with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis which is attributed to the limited availability of intravenous acyclovir/valacyclovir. Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses were the most common viruses detected, responsible for 36 (12%), 19 (6.5%), 19 (6.5%) and 8 (2.7%) respectively, followed by rubella virus (6, 2%), varicella zoster virus (5, 1.7%), mumps virus (2, 0.7%), cytomegalovirus (1, 0.3%), and rabies virus (1, 0.3%). Conclusions/Significance Viral infections of the CNS in adults in Vietnam are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite extensive laboratory testing, 68% of the patients remain undiagnosed. Together with our previous reports, the data confirm that Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses are the leading identified causes of CNS viral infections in Vietnam, suggest that the

  3. MRT of the central nervous system. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on MRT of the central nervous system includes the following chapters: anatomy, vascular diseases, brain tumors, craniocerebral injuries, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis and related diseases, metabolic diseases, degenerative diseases, malformations and developmental disorders, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension, spinal marrow, degenerative caused spinal and foraminal stenosis, traumata, tumors and tumor-like neoplasm, vascular diseases, inflammations, infections and related diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

  4. MRT of the central nervous system. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Jansen, Olav (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-11-01

    The book on MRT of the central nervous system includes the following chapters: anatomy, vascular diseases, brain tumors, craniocerebral injuries, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis and related diseases, metabolic diseases, degenerative diseases, malformations and developmental disorders, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension, spinal marrow, degenerative caused spinal and foraminal stenosis, traumata, tumors and tumor-like neoplasm, vascular diseases, inflammations, infections and related diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

  5. 儿童中枢神经系统感染脑脊液降钙素原测定的意义%Significance of cerebrospinal fluid procalcitonin determination of children's central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛静; 韩虹; 王文徽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨中枢神经系统感染患儿脑脊液降钙素原(PCT)变化的临床意义。方法:采用酶联荧光分析技术检测64例中枢神经系统感染患儿脑脊液降钙素原,25例无神经系统疾病且需腰麻的外科手术患儿作为对照组。结果:化脓性脑膜炎患者脑脊液中的PCT阳性率高于病毒性脑膜炎和对照组(P<0.05)。结论:患儿脑脊液PCT的检测可有助于鉴别中枢神经系统感染性质,对儿童中枢感染性疾病诊治具有重要意义。%Objective:To explore the clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid procalcitonin change of children with central nervous system infection.Methods:The cerebrospinal fluid procalcitonins of 64 children with central nervous system infection were detected by enzyme-linked fluorescent analysis technology.25 cases of surgical operation children needing lumbar anesthesia and without nervous system diseases were as the control group.Results:The procalcitonin positive rate in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suppurative meningitis was higher than that of virus meningitis and the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The children's cerebrospinal fluid procalcitonin determination can help to identify the central nervous system infection properties.It has important significance on the diagnosis and treatment of children's central nervous system infection.

  6. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy. PMID:26259280

  7. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso; Ana Claudia Lyon; Stanley de Almeida Araújo; Juliana Márcia Ribeiro Veloso; Enio Roberto Pietra Pedroso; Antônio Lucio Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC) and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseas...

  8. The Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Marmiroli, PL; Cavaletti, GA

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is one of the major neurotrasmitters in mammalian brain and changes in its concentration have been associated with a number of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular diseases and epilepsy. Moreover, recently a possible role for glutamatergic system dysfunction has been suggested also in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter will revise the current knowledge in the distribution of glutamate and of its receptors and transporters in the central nervo...

  9. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis. PMID:27056851

  10. Language disorders in children with central nervous system injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Children with injury to the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit a variety of language disorders that have been described by members of different disciplines, in different journals, using different descriptors and taxonomies. This paper is an overview of language deficits in children with CNS injury, whether congenital or acquired after a period of normal development. It first reviews the principal CNS conditions associated with language disorders in childhood. It then describes a functional ...

  11. The central nervous system in childhood chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S; Duquette, Peter J; Icard, Phil F; Hooper, Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits in pediatric and adult survivors of childhood onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been documented for many years. This paper reviews the available literature on central nervous system involvement incurred in childhood CKD. The studies reviewed include recent work in neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and neuropsychology, along with commentary on school functioning and long-term outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for monitoring the neurodevelopmental status and pursuing appropriate early interventions for children with CKD. PMID:17072652

  12. The role of Pumilio2 in central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-ling WU; Yang-mei CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Pumilio2 (Pum2) is one of the newly discovered transcription regulatory factors in recent years, which exhibits similar function to microRNA (miRNA). Pumilio2 hinders the formation of translation initiation complexes and represses target gene expression from the combination of its specific structure domain with mRNA. Recent studies suggest that Pumilio2 is closely related to the morphogenesis and function of central nervous system. The different expression levels of Pumilio2 are involve...

  13. Spontaneous electrical activity recorded from the aphid central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dan-Thanh T.; Blacker, Melissa J.; Goodchild, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst many classes of insecticides target the insect central nervous system (CNS), their effects in the CNS of pest aphids have not been demonstrated. In this report, we describe an electrophysiological method for recording spontaneous neuronal activity from the giant willow aphid (Tuberolachnus salignus). Using extracellular recording electrodes and two analysis methods (threshold and template search), spontaneous spike activity was shown to exhibit sensitivity to the neuroexcitatory insect...

  14. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Arnoud

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is roughly 12 months and only 5 % of the patients survive more than 5 years after diagnosis. Fifty % of astrocytomas are ryped as glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant form of glioma. Glioblast...

  15. Heroin-associated lesions within the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare patterns of heroin-associated lesions within the central nervous systems are described. In one case, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the combination of a border zone infarct within the thoracal spinal cord and a bilateral lesion within the globus pallidus. In a second case, cerebral border zone infarctions were observed which were attributed to a vasospasm of the basal cerebral arteries. Drug-abuse should be considered as a potential cause of these unusual manifestations of ischemic lesions in young patients. (orig.)

  16. Neurotrophic effects of neudesin in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Ikuo; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Zhao, Ying; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Neudesin (neuron-derived neurotrophic factor; NENF) was identified as a neurotrophic factor that is involved in neuronal differentiation and survival. It is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, and its neurotrophic activity is exerted via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Neudesin is also an anorexigenic factor that suppresses food intake in the hypothalamus. It is a member of the membrane-associated progesterone rece...

  17. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  18. Neuronal Chemokines: Versatile Messengers In Central Nervous System Cell Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; Jong, E.K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemokines are generally found under both physiological and pathological conditions. Whereas many reports describe chemokine expression in astrocytes and microglia and their role in the migration of leuko...

  19. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  20. Central nervous system vasculitis and polyneuropathy as first manifestations of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto J Carvalho-Filho; Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon; Luciano HL Tolentino; Leonardo L Schiavon; Maria Lucia G Ferraz; Antonio Eduardo B Silva

    2012-01-01

    Sensory or motor peripheral neuropathy may be observed in a significant proportion of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, central nervous system (CNS) involvement is uncommon, especially in cryoglobulin-negative subjects. We describe a case of peripheral neuropathy combined with an ischemic CNS event as primary manifestations of chronic HCV infection without cryoglobulinemia. Significant improvement was observed after antiviral therapy. We discuss the spectrum of neurological manifestations of HCV infection and review the literature.

  1. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a clinical fellow in the department of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). " ... early [HIV] infection." Valcour is a professor of neurology at UCSF. "Additionally, the ubiquity of symptoms in ...

  2. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs. Chr

  3. Infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en un hospital de Lima, Perú Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván O Espinoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1, virus herpes simple 2 (VHS-2 y virus varicela-zoster (VZV mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR. Resultados. Se enrolaron 97 pacientes de los cuales 69 % presentaron encefalitis aguda y 31 % meningitis aguda. Se identificó enterovirus en 52,6 % del total de infecciones agudas no bacterianas del sistema nervioso central; encontrándose en 83,3 % de las meningitis y en 38,8 % de las encefalitis. No hubo casos de infección por VHS-1, VHS-2 ni VZV. Las infecciones por enterovirus alcanzaron el 82,9 % en los meses cálidos de noviembre a enero y el 28,6 % en los meses fríos de mayo a julio. Conclusiones. Los enterovirus fueron los principales agentes etiológicos en las encefalitis y meningitis asépticas agudas en pacientes pediátricos de Lima, Perú. Los enterovirus tienen un comportamiento epidemiológico estacional con un claro aumento del número de casos en los meses de verano. Resulta útil tener disponible un método de diagnóstico rápido, como una ayuda para el manejo de las infecciones agudas del sistema nervioso.Objectives. To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the

  4. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs... and circulation) of the central nervous system. The BBB is an area consisting of specialized...

  5. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in bone marrow transplantation recipients: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is being seen with an increased frequency, particularly due to the increased number of immunosuppressed patients. The major cause of invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, aspergillosis develops in the paranasal sinuses and in the lungs, and secondarily spreads to the brain. Imaging of cerebral aspergillosis may present different patterns depending on the lesion's age and the immunologic status of the patient. Lesions of the spinal cord are far less common but has been encountered in our series. In this article we review the clinical and radiologic features of aspergillosis affecting the central nervous system in patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Different CT and MR patterns are presented, including pertinent clinical and pathologic material. Significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with this fungal infection, and it is therefore incumbent upon the radiologist to identify intracranial aspergillosis as early as possible so that appropriate therapy can be administered. (orig.)

  6. Isolated Central Nervous System Vasculitis Associated with Antiribonuclear Protein Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer M. Awad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young woman who was referred to a tertiary care center with unexplained subacute progressive encephalopathy preceded by long-standing severe headaches. Her extensive workup was remarkable for abnormal intracranial angiography suggestive of small- and medium-vessel vasculitis, persistently elevated protein in the cerebrospinal fluid and persistently high titers of antiribonuclear protein antibody. The patient showed a modest response to intravenous high-dose steroids. We propose that the patient's neurologic disease is secondary to immune-mediated central nervous system vasculitis, possibly as an initial manifestation of mixed connective tissue disease.

  7. Central Nervous System Aspergillosis causing Spinal Cord Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Ahmed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS aspergillosis is a rare and uniformly fatal complication of disseminated disease, involving the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum in the majority of cases. It is a ubiquitous mold and refers to a group of diseases caused by monomorphic mycelial fungi of the genus Aspergillosis fumigatus. Outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis are a problem in immunocompromized persons after they are exposed to air-borne spores.1 Aspergillosis causing spinal cord compression due to epidural abscess formation and hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare entity, thus such a case is presented herewith.

  8. Central nervous system relapse of treated stage IV neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, S.; Egelhoff, J.C.; Koch, B.L.; Ball, W.S. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Morris, J.D. [Department of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in pediatrics. The long-term survival of patients with advanced-stage neurobastoma has remarkably improved secondary to aggressive treatment protocols including autologous bone marrow transplant (BMT). As a result, a different natural history of this disease is being reported with unusual, late manifestations. The central nervous system (CNS), once a rare site of disease, is being involved with increasing frequency. Appropriate neuroimaging in these patients is important. Two cases of patients with treated stage IV neuroblastoma who developed isolated CNS metastases are presented. The proposed pathogenesis and neuroradiologic manifestations of this complication are reviewed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 23 refs.

  9. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  10. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  11. Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Carolyn J; Cree, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Fulminant demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, the related acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis variants, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and idiopathic transverse myelitis. These syndromes are often managed with similar acute treatments including high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis; however, long-term management varies. Although the prognosis of fulminant demyelinating disease was historically poor, outcomes today may be improved due to earlier diagnosis, rapid implementation of anti-inflammatory therapies such as high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis, and improved supportive care. PMID:26595866

  12. Glycosaminoglycan Binding Facilitates Entry of a Bacterial Pathogen into Central Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yung-Chi; Wang, Zhipeng; Flax, Lindsay A.; Xu, Ding; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Nizet, Victor; Baron, Miriam J.

    2011-01-01

    Certain microbes invade brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) to breach the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and establish central nervous system (CNS) infection. Here we use the leading meningitis pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS) together with insect and mammalian infection models to probe a potential role of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interactions in the pathogenesis of CNS entry. Site-directed mutagenesis of a GAG-binding domain of the surface GBS alpha C protein impeded GBS penetration ...

  13. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Rebecca A.; Collar, Amanda L.; Muthulekha Swamydas; Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Jean K. Lim; Laura M Mendez; Fink, Danielle L.; Hsu, Amy P.; Bing Zhai; Hatice Karauzum; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Rose, Stacey R.; Ferre, Elise M. N.; Lynne Yockey; Kimberly Lemberg

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary CARD9 is a molecule expressed by mammalian immune cells and is centrally positioned downstream of several C-type lectin receptors, which sense fungi. The critical role of CARD9 in the activation of antifungal host defense has been highlighted by the demonstration that human mutations that disrupt the function of CARD9 are associated with the development of spontaneous life-threatening fungal infections, many of which target the central nervous system (CNS). However, why CARD9-d...

  14. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T2-weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T1-weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were not as good as T2-weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  15. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  16. Radiobiology of Radiosurgery for the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santacroce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Leksell radiosurgery is defined as “the delivery of a single, high dose of irradiation to a small and critically located intracranial volume through the intact skull.” Before its birth in the early 60s and its introduction in clinical therapeutic protocols in late the 80s dose application in radiation therapy of the brain for benign and malignant lesions was based on the administration of cumulative dose into a variable number of fractions. The rationale of dose fractionation is to lessen the risk of injury of normal tissue surrounding the target volume. Radiobiological studies of cell culture lines of malignant tumors and clinical experience with patients treated with conventional fractionated radiotherapy helped establishing this radiobiological principle. Radiosurgery provides a single high dose of radiation which translates into a specific toxic radiobiological response. Radiobiological investigations to study the effect of high dose focused radiation on the central nervous system began in late the 50s. It is well known currently that radiobiological principles applied for dose fractionation are not reproducible when single high dose of ionizing radiation is delivered. A review of the literature about radiobiology of radiosurgery for the central nervous system is presented.

  17. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  18. Detection of BMAA in the human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntzon, L; Ronnevi, L O; Bergman, B; Eriksson, J

    2015-04-30

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an extremely devastating neurodegenerative disease with an obscure etiology. The amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) produced by globally widespread phytoplankton has been implicated in the etiology of human motor neuron diseases [corrected]. BMAA was recently proven to be present in Baltic Sea food webs, ranging from plankton to larger Baltic Sea organisms, some serving as important food items (fish) for humans. To test whether exposure to BMAA in a Baltic Sea setting is reflected in humans, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from individuals suffering from ALS were analyzed, together with sex- and age-matched individuals not inflicted with ALS. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), in conjunction with diagnostic transitions revealed BMAA in three (12%) of the totally 25 Swedish individuals tested, with no preference for those suffering from ALS. The three BMAA-positive samples were all retrieved from the CSF, while BMAA was not detected in the blood. The data show that BMAA, potentially originating from Baltic Sea phytoplankton, may reach the human central nervous system, but does not lend support to the notion that BMAA is resident specifically in ALS-patients. However, while dietary exposure to BMAA may be intermittent and, if so, difficult to detect, our data provide the first demonstration of BMAA in the central nervous system of human individuals ante mortem quantified with UHPLC-MS/MS, and therefore calls for extended research efforts. PMID:25725357

  19. Prolactin gene expression in primary central nervous system tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Graziella Alebrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin (PRL is a hormone synthesized in both the pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites. It has been associated with the occurrence of neoplasms and, more recently, with central nervous system (CNS neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate prolactin expression in primary central nervous system tumors through quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IH. Results Patient mean age was 49.1 years (SD 15.43, and females accounted for 70% of the sample. The most frequent subtype of histological tumor was meningioma (61.5%, followed by glioblastoma (22.9%. Twenty cases (28.6% showed prolactin expression by immunohistochemistry, most of them females (18 cases, 90%. Quantitative real-time PCR did not show any prolactin expression. Conclusions Despite the presence of prolactin expression by IH, the lack of its expression by quantitative real-time PCR indicates that its presence in primary tumors in CNS is not a reflex of local production.

  20. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  1. Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark A; Burda, Joshua E; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O'Shea, Timothy M; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S; Deming, Timothy J; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2016-04-14

    Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  2. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author)

  3. Viral immune surveillance: Toward a TH17/TH9 gate to the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D.; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Viral cellular immune surveillance is a dynamic and fluid system that is driven by finely regulated cellular processes including cytokines and other factors locally in the microenvironment and systemically throughout the body. It is questionable as to what extent the central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged organ protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent evidence suggests converging pathways through which viral infection, and its associated immune surveillance processes, ...

  4. Multifaceted interactions between adaptive immunity and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-19

    Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system, both under homeostatic conditions and in diseases. Unanswered questions include those relating to the diversity and specificity of the meningeal T cell repertoire; the routes taken by immune cells that patrol the meninges under healthy conditions and invade the parenchyma during pathology; the opposing effects (beneficial or detrimental) of these cells on CNS function; the role of immune cells after CNS injury; and the evolutionary link between the two systems, resulting in their tight interaction and interdependence. This Review summarizes the current standing of and challenging questions related to interactions between adaptive immunity and the CNS and considers the possible directions in which these aspects of neuroimmunology will be heading over the next decade. PMID:27540163

  5. Breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Robert J; Palmieri, Diane C; Bronder, Julie L; Stark, Andreas M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2005-10-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in approximately 10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  6. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10-5M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  7. Applications of Nanotechnology to the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumling, James P., II

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials, in general, have become prominent areas of academic research. The ability to engineer at the nano scale is critical to the advancement of the physical and medical sciences. In the realm of physical sciences, the applications are clear: smaller circuitry, more powerful computers, higher resolution intruments. However, the potential impact in the fields of biology and medicine are perhaps even grander. The implementation of novel nanodevices is of paramount importance to the advancement of drug delivery, molecular detection, and cellular manipulation. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development of nanotechnology for applications in neuroscience. The nervous system provides unique challenges and opportunities for nanoscale research. This thesis discusses some background in nanotechnological applications to the central nervous system and details: (1) The development of a novel calcium nanosenser for use in neurons and astrocytes. We implemented the calcium responsive component of Dr. Roger Tsien's Cameleon sensor, a calmodulin-M13 fusion, in the first quantum dot-based calcium sensor. (2) The exploration of cell-penetrating peptides as a delivery mechanism for nanoparticles to cells of the nervous system. We investigated the application of polyarginine sequences to rat primary cortical astrocytes in order to assess their efficacy in a terminally differentiated neural cell line. (3) The development of a cheap, biocompatible alternative to quantum dots for nanosensor and imaging applications. We utilized a positively charged co-matrix to promote the encapsulation of free sulforhodamine B in silica nanoparticles, a departure from conventional reactive dye coupling to silica matrices. While other methods have been invoked to trap dye not directly coupled to silica, they rely on positively charged dyes that typically have a low quantum yield and are not extensively tested biologically, or they implement reactive dyes bound

  8. Radiation therapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shibamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Up until the late 1970s, radiation therapy played an important role in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL but more recently its role has changed due to the increased use of systemic chemotherapy. In this article, the current status of radiotherapy for PCNSL and optimal forms of radiotherapy, including the treatment volume and radiation dose, are discussed. Data from nationwide Japanese surveys of PCNSL patients treated with radiation therapy suggest that the prognosis of PCNSL patients improved during the 1990s, in part due to the use of high-dose methotrexate-containing chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients treated with radiation alone also improved. Radiotherapy still seems to play an important role in the attempt to cure this disease.

  9. Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis With Optic Nerve Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Christy E; Knezevic, Alexander; Lynch, Shannon C

    2016-06-01

    A 20-year-old woman presented with headache, decreased vision, eye pain, and urinary retention. During her clinical course, visual acuity declined to 20/800, right eye, and 20/50, left eye, associated with bilateral optic disc edema. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhancement of the leptomeninges, right optic nerve, and right side of the optic chiasm. Extensive evaluation of the central nervous system (CNS) for an infectious cause was negative. Brain biopsy showed a pattern consistent with vasculitis. The patient was treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide, resulting in improvement of her vision and systemic symptoms. Primary CNS vasculitis is a rare condition that may affect the anterior visual pathways. PMID:26693942

  10. Glycosaminoglycans and Glycomimetics in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáire Rowlands

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in the construction of synthetic glycans, selective targeting of the extracellular matrix (ECM as a potential treatment for a wide range of diseases has become increasingly popular. The use of compounds that mimic the structure or bioactive function of carbohydrate structures has been termed glycomimetics. These compounds are mostly synthetic glycans or glycan-binding constructs which manipulate cellular interactions. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs are major components of the ECM and exist as a diverse array of differentially sulphated disaccharide units. In the central nervous system (CNS, they are expressed by both neurons and glia and are crucial for brain development and brain homeostasis. The inherent diversity of GAGs make them an essential biological tool for regulating a complex range of cellular processes such as plasticity, cell interactions and inflammation. They are also involved in the pathologies of various neurological disorders, such as glial scar formation and psychiatric illnesses. It is this diversity of functions and potential for selective interventions which makes GAGs a tempting target. In this review, we shall describe the molecular make-up of GAGs and their incorporation into the ECM of the CNS. We shall highlight the different glycomimetic strategies that are currently being used in the nervous system. Finally, we shall discuss some possible targets in neurological disorders that may be addressed using glycomimetics.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB

  12. Epidemiology of primary central nervous system tumors in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liigant, A; Asser, T; Kulla, A; Kaasik, A E

    2000-01-01

    During the period from 1986 to 1996, 1,665 cases of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors were identified in the resident population of Estonia. Histological verification was available in 81% of the cases. Gliomas were more common in men, while meningiomas and neurinomas were more common in women. No significant difference was observed between the sexes for all primary CNS tumors. The age-specific incidence increased from the age of 30, reached a maximum in the age range of 50-69 years and declined in the elderly which may reflect under-diagnosis. The age-adjusted incidence rate for CNS tumors was 8.5/100,000 population. A comparison of our results with those of a previous study carried out in Estonia revealed a significant histology-specific increase in incidence in all age groups. PMID:11060504

  13. Central nervous system hypoxia in children due to near drowning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen children who experienced acute, profound central nervous system hypoxia secondary to near drowning, aspiration, or respiratory arrest underwent CT examination. During the first week after the episode, the most frequent finding was a loss of gray-white matter differentiation. Other findings included effacement of sulci and cisterns, focal areas of edema in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, and hemorrhagic infarctions of the basal ganglia. Subsequent CT scans obtained from two weeks to five months after the hypoxic episode showed progression of cerebral loss from cortical infarction with gyral hemorrhage and enhancement to global parenchymal atrophy. The prognosis is poor in these patients: seven children experienced severe neurologic deficits and seven died

  14. Studies on central nervous system serotonin receptors in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A; Goodwin, G M

    1991-01-01

    The evidence from studies of central nervous system serotonin (5-HT) receptors is reviewed and the role of these in the pathogenesis of mood disorders is discussed. Clinical evidence indicates that 5-HT function is abnormal in mood disorders. 5-HT precursors and selective inhibitors of 5-HT uptake are effective antidepressives and inhibition of 5-HT synthesis can block the action of antidepressives. Studies of 5-HT in experimental animals after chronic administration of antidepressive treatments suggest that intact 5-HT neurons are necessary for the action of these treatments. Multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes have recently been identified and the effects of chronic antidepressive treatment on some receptor subtypes function in experimental animals have been established. The increasing availability of powerful new in vivo imaging techniques like single photon emission tomography (SPET), and positron emission tomography (PET) may make possible a more direct examination of 5-HT receptor function in patients suffering from mood disorders. PMID:2029163

  15. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  16. Outcomes of persons with blastomycosis involving the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jonathan W; Wuerz, Terry; Embil, John M; Del Bigio, Marc R; McDonald, Patrick J; Krawitz, Sherry

    2013-06-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus which is potentially life-threatening if central nervous system (CNS) dissemination occurs. Sixteen patients with proven or probable CNS blastomycosis are presented. Median duration of symptoms was 90 days; headache and focal neurologic deficit were the most common presenting symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) consistently demonstrated an abnormality, compared to 58% of computed tomography scans. Tissue culture yielded the pathogen in 71% of histology-confirmed cases. All patients who completed treatment of an amphotericin B formulation and extended azole-based therapy did not relapse. Initial nonspecific symptoms lead to delayed diagnosis of CNS blastomycosis. A high index of suspicion is necessary if there is history of contact with an area where B. dermatitidis is endemic. Diagnostic tests should include MRI followed by biopsy for tissue culture and pathology. Optimal treatment utilizes a lipid-based amphotericin B preparation with an extended course of voriconazole. PMID:23566338

  17. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  18. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  19. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  20. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; LIU Ai-fen; MA Lin; YAN Chuan-zhu; ZHAO Yu-ying; SHAN Pei-yan

    2011-01-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare and difficult entity.Here we represented the clinical and pathological features of a patient with little response to steroid before definite diagnosis.The 50-year-old male had a fluctuating disease course for more than 3 years.He presented visual disorders,seizure,cognitive impairment,hypersomnia,unsteady gait,dysphasia,dysphagia,and incontinence.Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple,supratentorial and infratentorial abnormal signals,while cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral angiography were normal.Magnetic resonance spectrum showed a decrease of N-acetyl-aspartate.Brain biopsy revealed nongranulomatous lymphatic vasculitis with reactive gliosis,cicatrization,demyelination and focal hemorrhages.

  1. Adult neural stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengke K Ma; Michael A Bonaguidi; Guo-li Ming; Hongjun Song

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present not only during the embryonic development but also in the adult brain of all mammalian species, including humans. Stem cell niche architecture in vivo enables adult NSCs to continuously generate functional neurons in specific brain regions throughout life. The adult neurogenesis process is subject to dynamic regulation by various physiological, pathological and pharmacological stimuli. Multipotent adult NSCs also appear to be intrinsically plastic, amenable to genetic programing during normal differentiation, and to epigenetic reprograming during de-differentiation into pluripotency. Increasing evidence suggests that adult NSCs significantly contribute to specialized neural functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Fully understanding the biology of adult NSCs will provide crucial insights into both the etiology and potential therapeutic interventions of major brain disorders. Here, we review recent progress on adult NSCs of the mammalian central nervous system, in-cluding topics on their identity, niche, function, plasticity, and emerging roles in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  2. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  3. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Moreno-Burriel, B.; Chinarro, E.

    2014-07-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as secondary injury. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon. (Author)

  4. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central Nervous System (CNS) can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as secondary injury. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon. (Author)

  5. Radiologic findings of cysticercosis involving central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of cysticercosis of central nervous system should be considered in patients with seizures, symptoms of increased I.C.P. or focal neurologic sign, with a history of having lived in an endemic area, particularly in Korea. Since these cysts usually continue to grew and medical treatment is very limited it is important to identify them and consider the feasibility of removing them surgically. 20 cases of surgically proven cysticercosis of the central nervous system were radiologically analyzed, experienced at Seoul National University Hospital. Radiologic studies include plain radiography of the skull, angiography, and CT scanning which is especially effective in diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal cysticercosis.The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 11 : 9 and mean age of the patients is 36 years. The cardinal symptoms and sign are seizures (50%), symptoms of increased I.C.P. (45%). mental change (20%) and focal neurologic sign (20%). 2. The distribution od cysts are cerebral parenchymal (40%), 4th ventricle (30%), 3rd ventricle (10%), leptomeningeal (30%), and intraspinal form (15%). 3. Simple skull film shows sign of increased I.C.P. (25%) but no case of calcification. In carotid angiography hydrocephalus is detected in all 13 cases. Displacement of adjacent vessels is seen n 2 cases of parenchymal form. Ventriculography shows dilated ventricles with free floating avoid filling defect in intraventricular form and 4th ventricle obstruction in leptomeningeal form. 4. Of spinal cysticercosis 2 cases are leptomeningeal and 1 case intramedullary form. 2 case are found in cervical portion and 1 case in cauda equina region. Myelography reveals filling defect not distinguishable from other tumorous condition.

  6. Radiologic findings of cysticercosis involving central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kang, Ik Won; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Soo; Sim, Bo Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    The diagnosis of cysticercosis of central nervous system should be considered in patients with seizures, symptoms of increased I.C.P. or focal neurologic sign, with a history of having lived in an endemic area, particularly in Korea. Since these cysts usually continue to grew and medical treatment is very limited it is important to identify them and consider the feasibility of removing them surgically. 20 cases of surgically proven cysticercosis of the central nervous system were radiologically analyzed, experienced at Seoul National University Hospital. Radiologic studies include plain radiography of the skull, angiography, and CT scanning which is especially effective in diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal cysticercosis.The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 11 : 9 and mean age of the patients is 36 years. The cardinal symptoms and sign are seizures (50%), symptoms of increased I.C.P. (45%). mental change (20%) and focal neurologic sign (20%). 2. The distribution od cysts are cerebral parenchymal (40%), 4th ventricle (30%), 3rd ventricle (10%), leptomeningeal (30%), and intraspinal form (15%). 3. Simple skull film shows sign of increased I.C.P. (25%) but no case of calcification. In carotid angiography hydrocephalus is detected in all 13 cases. Displacement of adjacent vessels is seen n 2 cases of parenchymal form. Ventriculography shows dilated ventricles with free floating avoid filling defect in intraventricular form and 4th ventricle obstruction in leptomeningeal form. 4. Of spinal cysticercosis 2 cases are leptomeningeal and 1 case intramedullary form. 2 case are found in cervical portion and 1 case in cauda equina region. Myelography reveals filling defect not distinguishable from other tumorous condition.

  7. HAM/TSP-derived HTLV-1-infected T cell lines promote morphological and functional changes in human astrocytes cell lines: possible role in the enhanced T cells recruitment into Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Silva-Barbosa, Suse Dayse; Linhares-Lacerda, Leandra; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Real, Suzana Corte; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Savino, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanisms through which HTLV-1 leads to and maintains damage in the central nervous system of patients undergoing HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) are still poorly understood. In recent years, increasing evidence indicates that, not only lymphocytes but also glial cells, in particular astrocytes, play a role in the pathophysiology of HAM/TSP. In this study we used a model of co-culture between human HTLV-1-infected (CIB and C91PL) and non-inf...

  8. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...

  9. [Malignant lymphoma in the central nervous system: overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Michito

    2014-08-01

    Malignant lymphoma can affect the central nervous system (CNS) in three different ways: as a consequence (relapse or invasion) of systemic lymphoma, as a primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) without systemic involvement, and through intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL). It is essential to distinguish PCNSL from the others, since the therapeutic strategy for treating this disease differs. FDG-PET/CT fusion imagery is a powerful tool for detecting systemic lesions. If a marked elevation of lactate dehydrogenase and the soluble IL-2 receptor suggests IVL, a random skin biopsy can permit a differential diagnosis. It is not certain why PCNSL occurs solely in the CNS, where there is no lymphatic system. The special environment, so-called "sanctuary site", where is free from attack of the immune system and penetration of chemotherapeutic agents by blood-brain barrier is deeply related to malignant transformation. The prognoses for patients with CNS invasion of systemic lymphoma and those with PCNSL remain bleak in the post-rituximab era. Over half of the patients who received high-dose methotrexate will subsequently relapse. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are earnestly sought. PMID:25082313

  10. Role of Interleukin-2 and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 in Central Nervous System Demyelination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, Kevin R; Zandian, Mandana; Allen, Sariah J.; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2013-01-01

    We have reported previously that ocular infection of different strains of mice with recombinant herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) constitutively expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2) provokes central nervous system (CNS) demyelination and optic neuropathy, as determined by changes in visual evoked cortical potentials and pathological changes in the optic nerve and CNS, whereas recombinant viruses expressing IL-4, gamma interferon, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, or IL-12p70 do not induce this neuropathy. The goal...

  11. Computerized rehabilitation for cognitive deficits after central nervous system malaria in Ugandan children

    OpenAIRE

    Bangirana, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria infecting the central nervous system (CNS) affects over 575,000 children annually in sub-Saharan Africa leading to cognitive deficits. The effect of this form of malaria on everyday behaviour and academic achievement has not been investigated in Uganda. In addition, no interventions have been carried out for children whose cognitive functioning has been affected by CNS malaria. Main objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program for cognitive de...

  12. Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System with Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1

    OpenAIRE

    Béguelin, Charles Antoine; Vázquez, Miriam; Bertschi, Manuel; Yerly, S; de Jong, Denise; Gutbrod, Klemens; Rauch, Andri; Cusini, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the case of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 who developed ataxia and neurocognitive impairment due to viral escape within the central nervous system (CNS) with a multidrug-resistant HIV-1 despite long-term viral suppression in plasma. Antiretroviral therapy optimization with drugs with high CNS penetration led to viral suppression in the CSF, regression of ataxia, and improvement of neurocognitive symptoms.

  13. Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System with Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguelin, C; Vázquez, M; Bertschi, M; Yerly, S; de Jong, D; Gutbrod, K; Rauch, A; Cusini, A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the case of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 who developed ataxia and neurocognitive impairment due to viral escape within the central nervous system (CNS) with a multidrug-resistant HIV-1 despite long-term viral suppression in plasma. Antiretroviral therapy optimization with drugs with high CNS penetration led to viral suppression in the CSF, regression of ataxia, and improvement of neurocognitive symptoms. PMID:26885540

  14. Two uncommon manifestations of leptospirosis:Sweet’s syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter George

    2011-01-01

    To leptospirosis is the commonest spirocheatal infection in the tropical and temperate countries of Indian sub-continent and Africa and the most common zoonosis worldwide. The protean manifestation of this infectious disease is a challenge for practising clinicians across the world. In poor developing countries, at most clinical suspicion it is essential in the diagnosis of this disease. In this report, we are able to document two uncommon manifestations of leptospirosis, namely Sweet’s syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis.

  15. Herpesvirus-Associated Central Nervous System Diseases after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Meiqing Wu; Fen Huang; Xinmiao Jiang; Zhiping Fan; Hongsheng Zhou; Can Liu; Qianli Jiang; Yu Zhang; Ke Zhao; Li Xuan; Xiao Zhai; Fuhua Zhang; Changxin Yin; Jing Sun; Ru Feng

    2013-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Herpesv...

  16. MR imaging with pathologic correlation of central nervous system manifestations of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the MR findings with the pathologic correlation of various examples of the opportunistic infection and other related conditions of head and neck involvement in patients with AIDS. Included in this exhibit are cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, demyelinating white matter disease, aspergillosis, cervical osteomyelitis, transverse myelitis, primary central nervous system lymphoma, metastatic lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, parotid cysts, AIDS-related otomastoiditis, and severe nasopharyngeal lymphadenopathy. The basis pathology and MR findings of each entity are described

  17. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis causes central nervous system pathology without inducing the 72-kd heat shock protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Täuber, M G; Kennedy, S L; Tureen, J H; Lowenstein, D. H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined whether experimental pneumococcal meningitis induced the 72-kd heat shock protein (HSP72), a sensitive marker of neuronal stress in other models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Brain injury was characterized by vasculitis, cerebritis, and abscess formation in the cortex of infected animals. The extent of these changes correlated with the size of the inoculum (P less than 0.003) and with pathophysiologic parameters of disease severity, i.e., cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactat...

  18. Multiple myeloma invasion of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by the presence of neoplastic proliferating plasma cells. The tumor is generally restricted to the bone marrow. The most common complications include renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, anemia and reccurent infections. The spectrum of MM neurological complications is diverse, however, involvement of MM in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and leptomeningeal infiltration are rare considered. In about 1% of the cases, the disease affects the central nervous system (CNS and presents itself in the form of localized intraparenchymal lesions, solitary cerebral plasmocytoma or CNS myelomatosis (LMM. Case report. We presented the clinical course of a 55-year-old man with MM and LMM proven by malignant plasma cells in the CSF, hospitalized with the pain in the thoracic spine. His medical history was uneventful. There had been no evidence of mental or neurological impairment prior to the seizures. Physical examination showed no abnormalities. After a complete staging, the diagnosis of MM type biclonal gammopathia IgG lambda and free lambda light chains in the stage III was confirmed. The treatment started with systemic chemotherapy (with vincristine, doxorubicin plus high-dose dexamethasone - VAD protocol, radiotherapy and bisphosphonate. The patient developed weakness, nausea, febrility, dispnea, bilateral bronchopneumonia, acute renal insufficiency, confusions, headaches and soon thereafter sensomotor aphasias and right hemiparesis. The patient was treated with the adequate therapy including one hemodyalisis. His neurological status was deteriorated, so Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT of the head was performed and the findings were normal. Analysis of CSF showed pleocytosis, 26 elements/ mL and increased concentrations of proteins. Cytological analysis revealed an increased number of plasma cells (29%. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins disclosed the existance of monoclonal components in the serum

  19. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda Z; Carvalho, João E; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once - in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position - either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates

  20. Radiation therapy for histologically confirmed primary central nervous system germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and patterns of recurrence in patients with primary central nervous system germinoma treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Data regarding 48 patients with histologically confirmed, primary central nervous system germinoma were reviewed. All had been operated on at the Mayo Clinic between the years 1935 and 1993. Thirty-two patients (67%) were treated since 1973. The study group included 39 males and 9 females, with a median age at diagnosis of 17 years (range, 6-42 years). Twelve patients (25%) were treated with craniospinal axis irradiation, 11 (23%) received whole-brain irradiation without spinal axis irradiation, and 24 (50%) underwent partial-brain irradiation. Treatment volumes were unknown in one patient. The median dose to the primary tumor was 44.00 Gy (range, 7.44-59.40 Gy). The median follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 4 months to 37 years). Results: Actuarial 5-year and 10-year survival for the entire study group of patients was 80%. There was a trend toward improved survival in patients treated after 1973 (introduction of computed tomography) with 5-year and 10-year survival of 91% vs. 63% in prior years (p = 0.07). For the group of 31 patients treated since 1973 with known treatment volumes, the spinal axis failure rate at 5 years was 49% for patients treated with partial brain fields (11 patients) vs. 0% for those having undergone whole brain (10 patients) or craniospinal axis (10 patients) irradiation (p 0.007). The rate of brain failure was also significantly higher in patients receiving less than whole-brain irradiation; at 5 years, 45% of the patients treated with partial-brain fields had intracranial recurrence of disease compared to 6% of patients treated with craniospinal axis or whole-brain irradiation (p 0.01). Among the 32 modern era patients, the rate of brain failure was higher in patients who received doses less than 40 Gy (median dose, 48.55 Gy; range, 30.60-59.40 Gy) to the primary tumor (5

  1. Transport of diphenhydramine in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport and metabolism of diphenhydramine was studied in vitro in the isolated rabbit choroid plexus and in vivo in New Zealand white rabbits and Sprague-Dawley rats. In vitro, [14C] diphenhydramine was accumulated by a saturable, energy-requiring system in choroid plexus. In vivo, 20 min after intraventricular injection into rabbits, [14C]diphenhydramine was cleared from cerebrospinal fluid much more rapidly than [3H]sucrose, a molecule transported in the central nervous system by simple diffusion. In vivo, employing the in situ rat brain perfusion technique, [14C]diphenhydramine was cleared from the cerebral perfusion fluid as rapidly as [14C]diazepam. However, the clearance of [14C]diphenhydramine, but not [14C]diazepam, was inhibited by the addition of 10 mM unlabeled diphenhydramine to the perfusate. These in vivo and in vitro results show that diphenhydramine, unlike diazepam, is transported between blood, brain and cerebrospinal fluid, in part, by saturable, carrier-mediated transport processes at both the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers

  2. Database mining applied to central nervous system (CNS) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintore, M; Taboureau, O; Ros, F; Chrétien, J R

    2001-04-01

    A data set of 389 compounds, active in the central nervous system (CNS) and divided into eight classes according to the receptor type, was extracted from the RBI database and analyzed by Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), also known as Kohonen Artificial Neural Networks. This method gives a 2D representation of the distribution of the compounds in the hyperspace derived from their molecular descriptors. As SOM belongs to the category of unsupervised techniques, it has to be combined with another method in order to generate classification models with predictive ability. The fuzzy clustering (FC) approach seems to be particularly suitable to delineate clusters in a rational way from SOM and to get an automatic objective map interpretation. Maps derived by SOM showed specific regions associated with a unique receptor type and zones in which two or more activity classes are nested. Then, the modeling ability of the proposed SOM/FC Hybrid System tools applied simultaneously to eight activity classes was validated after dividing the 389 compounds into a training set and a test set, including 259 and 130 molecules, respectively. The proper experimental activity class, among the eight possible ones, was predicted simultaneously and correctly for 81% of the test set compounds. PMID:11461760

  3. Gamma Interferon Signaling in Macrophage Lineage Cells Regulates Central Nervous System Inflammation and Chemokine Production ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Adora A.; Tripathi, Pulak K.; Sholl, Allyson; Jordan, Michael B.; Hildeman, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Intracranial (i.c.) infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) results in anorexic weight loss, mediated by T cells and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Here, we assessed the role of CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ on immune cell recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production in the central nervous system (CNS) after i.c. LCMV infection. We found that T-cell-depleted mice had decreased recruitment of hematopoietic cells to the CNS and diminished levels of IFN-γ, CCL2 (MCP...

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy

  5. Deoxyribozymes: New Therapeutics to Treat Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grimpe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on a knockdown technology called deoxyribozymes, which has rarely been utilized in the field of neurobiology/neuroscience. Deoxyribozymes are catalytic DNA molecules, which are also entitled DNA enzyme or DNAzyme. This mini-review presents a description of their development, structure, function and therapeutic application. In addition, information on siRNA, ribozymes and antisense are given. Further information on two deoxyribozymes against c-Jun and xylosyltransferase (XT mRNA are summarized of which the first is important to influence many neurological disorders and the last potentially treats spinal cord injuries (SCIs. In particular, insults to the central nervous system (CNS such as SCI generate an inhibitory environment (lesion scar at the injury site that prevents the endogenous and therapy-induced axonal regeneration and thereby limits repair strategies. Presently, there are no treatments available. Hence, deoxyribozymes provide an opportunity for new therapeutics that alter the inhibitory nature of the lesion scar and thus promote axonal growth in the injured spinal cord. When used cautiously and within the limits of its ability the deoxyribozyme technology holds promise to become a major contributing factor in repair strategies of the CNS.

  6. Fetal central nervous system anomalies: fast MRI vs ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fast MRI to detect fetal central nervous system (CNS) anomalies and to compare its performance with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Methods Forty-eight pregnant women were detected by conventional prenatal US and MRI. Twenty-two fetuses with CNS anomalies were conformed by autopsy and follow-up. The MR and US appearances of fetal CNS structure were compared to each other and to that of autopsy. Results: A total of 26 CNS anomalies were identified by autopsy (n=17) and follow-up (n=9) including anencephaly (n=6), rachischisis (n=2), encephalocele (n=3), congenital hydrocephalus (n=7), alobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), porencephalia (n=3), arachnoid cyst (n=2) and choroids plexus cyst (n=2). US diagnosed 24 CNS anomalies, the correct diagnostic rate was 92.3%, the false-positive rate was 3.8%, the missed-diagnostic rate was 3.8%. MRI diagnosed 23 CNS anomalies, the correct-diagnostic rate was 88.5%, the false-positive rate was 3.8% ,the missed-diagnostic rate was 7.7%. There was no difference between US and MRI (P>0.05), but MRI have larger FOV, higher tissues resolution, and can demonstrate gray-white matter in detail. Conclusions: MR imaging has a similar sensitivity to that of US in the detection of fetal CNS anomalies. (authors)

  7. Microglia in central nervous system repair after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuemei; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that immune cells perform crucial inflammation-related functions including clearing dead tissue and promoting wound healing. Thus, they provide a conducive environment for better neuronal regeneration and functional recovery after adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) injury. However, activated immune cells can also induce secondary damage of intact tissue and inhibit post-injury CNS repair. The inflammation response is due to the microglial production of cytokines and chemokines for the recruitment of peripheral immune cell populations, such as monocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes. Interestingly, microglia and T lymphocytes can be detected at the injured site in both the early and later stages after nerve injury, whereas other peripheral immune cells infiltrate the injured parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord only in the early post-injury phase, and subsequently disappear. This suggests that microglia and T cells may play crucial roles in the post-injury functional recovery of the CNS. In this review, we summarize the current studies on microglia that examined neuronal regeneration and the molecular signalling mechanisms in the injured CNS. Better understanding of the effects of microglia on neural regeneration will aid the development of therapy strategies to enhance CNS functional recovery after injury. PMID:26861995

  8. Role of Wnt Signaling in Central Nervous System Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Catherine; Cisternas, Pedro; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-05-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is highly sensitive to external mechanical damage, presenting a limited capacity for regeneration explained in part by its inability to restore either damaged neurons or the synaptic network. The CNS may suffer different types of external injuries affecting its function and/or structure, including stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury. These pathologies critically affect the quality of life of a large number of patients worldwide and are often fatal because available therapeutics are ineffective and produce limited results. Common effects of the mentioned pathologies involves the triggering of several cellular and metabolic responses against injury, including infiltration of blood cells, inflammation, glial activation, and neuronal death. Although some of the underlying molecular mechanisms of those responses have been elucidated, the mechanisms driving these processes are poorly understood in the context of CNS injury. In the last few years, it has been suggested that the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway could be important in the regenerative response after CNS injury, activating diverse protective mechanisms including the stimulation of neurogenesis, blood brain structure consolidation and the recovery of cognitive brain functions. Because Wnt signaling is involved in several physiological processes, the putative positive role of its activation after injury could be the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to CNS injury. PMID:25976365

  9. Prenatal irradiation: radioinduced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe mental retardation (SMR) is the most significant effect of prenatal irradiation. The high radiosensitivity of developing brain is related with the chronology of morpho genetic phenomena regarding neuroblast proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, synaptogenesis and dendritic arborization. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) normally occurs during development in central nervous system (CNS). Apoptosis is a direct result of the expression of specific genes with a final common pathway leading to a characteristic DNA fragmentation pattern. A wide variety of situations and toxic agents have been reported to result in apoptotic death in developing CNS. The aim of this work was the characterization and quantification of apoptosis using an in vitro model of prenatal irradiation. Primary cell cultures from rat brain cortex of 17 days g.a. were irradiated with a gamma source, with doses between 0.2 Gy to 2 Gy. Apoptosis was evaluated 4 hours and 20 hours after irradiation by hematoxylin/eosin, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis. It was also evaluated the neuro protective effect of L-NAME, SOD and glutathion. A dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell fraction was observed. A protector effect related with the presence of glutathion was observed. (author)

  10. MRI findings of central nervous system granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize MRI findings of central nervous system (CNS) granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) and to analyse the points which differentiate it from other CNS tumors. We evaluated MRI in six patients with CNS granulocytic sarcoma proven by surgery or bone marrow biopsy (intracranical, one case and spine five cases). A 0.5T superconductive MR machine was used for diagnosis and, axial, coronal and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. We retrospectively analized the location, signal intensity, margin, contrast enhancement and homogeneity, and bony change around the tumor. MRI findings of CNS granulocytic sarcomas were as follows : one tumor was seen to be an extra-axial mass in the posterior fossa of the brain, four were epidural, and one was an epidural and presacral masses in the spine;tumor magins were lobulated and three were smooth. On T1-weighted images, all tumors were of isoignal intensity;on T2-weighted images, four were of isosignal intersity and two were of high signal intensity. Contrast enhancement was inhomogeneous in five of six cases. Bony change around the tumor was seen in two cases. On T1-weighted images, CNS granulocytic sarcomas (chloromas) were of isosignal intensity, relative to brain parenchyma or spinal cord;on T2-weighted images, they were of iso or high signal intensity, with relative contrast enhancement. These points could be useful in differentiating them from other CNS tumors

  11. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  12. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  13. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  14. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  15. Growth Cone Biomechanics in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Jeffrey; Koch, Daniel; Rosoff, Will; Geller, Herbert

    2012-02-01

    The growth cone, a highly motile structure at the tip of an axon, integrates information about the local environment and modulates outgrowth and guidance, but little is known about effects of external mechanical cues and internal mechanical forces on growth-cone mediated guidance. We have investigated neurite outgrowth, traction forces and cytoskeletal substrate coupling on soft elastic substrates for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (from the peripheral nervous system) and hippocampal neurons (from the central) to see how the mechanics of the microenvironment affect different populations. We find that the biomechanics of DRG neurons are dramatically different from hippocampal, with DRG neurons displaying relatively large, steady traction forces and maximal outgrowth and forces on substrates of intermediate stiffness, while hippocampal neurons display weak, intermittent forces and limited dependence of outgrowth and forces on substrate stiffness. DRG growth cones have slower rates of retrograde actin flow and higher density of localized paxillin (a protein associated with substrate adhesion complexes) compared to hippocampal neurons, suggesting that the difference in force generation is due to stronger adhesions and therefore stronger substrate coupling in DRG growth cones.

  16. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  17. Intranasal treatment of central nervous system dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Frey, William H; Craft, Suzanne; Danielyan, Lusine; Hallschmid, Manfred; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-10-01

    One of the most challenging problems facing modern medicine is how to deliver a given drug to a specific target at the exclusion of other regions. For example, a variety of compounds have beneficial effects within the central nervous system (CNS), but unwanted side effects in the periphery. For such compounds, traditional oral or intravenous drug delivery fails to provide benefit without cost. However, intranasal delivery is emerging as a noninvasive option for delivering drugs to the CNS with minimal peripheral exposure. Additionally, this method facilitates the delivery of large and/or charged therapeutics, which fail to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, for a variety of growth factors, hormones, neuropeptides and therapeutics including insulin, oxytocin, orexin, and even stem cells, intranasal delivery is emerging as an efficient method of administration, and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diseases with CNS involvement, such as obesity, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, seizures, drug addiction, eating disorders, and stroke. PMID:23135822

  18. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  19. The Central Nervous in system Rhabdoid tumor primitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primitive Rhabdoid tumors of the Central Nervous system are entities of very low frequency and since 1942 is the first event observed in a total of 16,000 cases studied in the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Clinical Hospital. Until 2003 were described 118 case in the literature. The case is about the 3 years old child with no previous medical history consulted for 3 months with headaches, repeated vomiting, irritability and non specific abnormal gait. On examination is found a physical waking depression and great hydrocephalus in V I bilateral pair so is submitted to a emergency surgery. RMI CT and MRI performed reveals large frontal tumor that reaches the oval center with cystic and calcifications areas. Three days after is operates for the intraventricular tumor without post operative complications. Receive chemotherapy and the patient died 2 years later. The neuro pathological and ultrastructural study reveals a Rhabdoid malignancy brain tumor of grade IV as well as were analyzed histopathological and ultrastructural aspects of this entity

  20. Headache and inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mantia, L; Erbetta, A

    2004-10-01

    The subcommittee of the International Headache Society for headache classification (ICHD-II) has recently recognised that secondary headaches may occur in patients affected by inflammatory diseases (ID) of the central nervous system (CNS), classifying them among the headaches attributed to non-vascular intracranial disorders. The aim of the study was to verify the association between headache and inflammatory non-infectious diseases of the CNS, by a review of the literature data on the topic, integrated by personal cases and data. Secondary headaches may occur in four main disorders: neurosarcoidosis (sec 7.3.1), aseptic (non-infectious) meningitis (7.3.2), other non-infectious ID (7.3.3) and lymphocytic hypophysitis (7.3.4). Headache and/or primary headaches are frequently reported in patients with neurosarcoidosis (30%), Behcet's syndrome (BS) (55%) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (45-58%). Recent data show a high incidence of headache also in multiple sclerosis (MS) (58%) (not mentioned in ICHD-II). The association between headache and inflammatory dysimmune diseases of the CNS, in particular BS and MS, might suggest a pathogenetic relationship. PMID:15549526

  1. Systematic review of central nervous system anomalies in incontinentia pigmenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Snežana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to present a systematic review of the central nervous system (CNS types of anomalies and to consider the possibility to include CNS anomalies in Incontinentia pigmenti (IP criteria. The analyzed literature data from 1,393 IP cases were from the period 1993–2012. CNS anomalies were diagnosed for 30.44% of the investigated IP patients. The total number of CNS types of anomalies per patient was 1.62. In the present study there was no significantly higher number of anomalies per patient in females than males. The most frequent CNS types of anomalies were seizures, motor impairment, mental retardation, and microcephaly. The most frequently registered CNS lesions found using brain imaging methods were brain infarcts or necrosis, brain atrophies, and corpus callosum lesions. IKBKG exon 4–10 deletion was present in 86.00% of genetically confirmed IP patients. The frequency of CNS anomalies, similar to the frequency of retinal anomalies in IP patients, concurrent with their severity, supports their recognition in the list of IP minor criteria.

  2. 弓形虫感染对中枢神经影响的研究进展%Advances in the study of the effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银哲

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a significant foodborne parasitic disease in China and a serious health hazard to human beings. Infection during pregnancy may cause fetal abnormalities, abortion, or stillbirth. Congenital infection is a major factor for developmental delays and intellectual impairment. Toxoplasma gondii infection is closely associated with a series of psychiatric symptoms (particularly schizophrenia) in adults possibly as a result of damage to the central nervous system by T. gondii. The complex life cycle of T. gondii causes various clinical symptoms, greatly hampering its correct diagnosis and treatment. This paper discusses the effects of T. gondii infection on the central nervous system.%刚地弓形虫是我国重要的食源性寄生虫之一,对人类身体健康造成严重危害.孕期感染造成胎儿发育异常、流产、死胎等不良孕产结果,先天感染是婴幼儿发育迟缓、智力障碍的重要因素,弓形虫感染还与成年人一系列神经精神症状(特别是精神分裂症)密切相关,可能与弓形虫偏向损害中枢神经系统的现象有关.复杂的生活史造成临床症状的多样性,给明确诊断和正确治疗带来巨大困扰.本文综述弓形虫感染对中枢神经系统的影响.

  3. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  4. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  5. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  6. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  7. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  8. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  9. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  10. Primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a young dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Na-Hyun; Ciesielski, Thomas; Kim, Jung H; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Nam, Hae-Mi; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old intact female Maltese dog. Canine primary central nervous system lymphomas constitute about 4% of all intracranial primary neoplasms, but comprehensive histopathologic classifications have rarely been carried out. This is the first report of this disease in a young adult dog.

  11. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  12. Doppler colour flow mapping of fetal intracerebral arteries in the presence of central nervous system anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); R. Heydanus (Rogier); P.A. Stewart (Patricia)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe adjunctive role of Doppler colour flow mapping in the evaluation of intracerebral morphology and arterial blood flow in the presence of normal and abnormal central nervous system morphology was determined. A total of 59 fetuses with suspected central nervous system pathology between

  13. The pleiotropic effects of erythropoietin in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, M; Cavallaro, E; Floccari, F; Sturiale, A; Aloisi, C; Trimarchi, M; Corica, F; Frisina, N

    2003-03-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hydrophobic sialoglycoproteic hormone produced by the kidney and responsible for the proliferation, maturation, and differentiation of the precursors of the erythroid cell line. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEpo) is used to treat different types of anemia, not only in uremic patients but also in newborns with anemia of prematurity, in patients with cancer-related anemia or myeloproliferative disease, thalassemias, bone marrow transplants, or those with chronic infectious diseases. The pleiotropic functions of Epo are well known. It has been shown that this hormone can modulate the inflammatory and immune response, has direct hemodynamic and vasoactive effects, could be considered a proangiogenic factor because of its interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor, and its ability to stimulate mitosis and motility of endothelial cells. The multifunctional role of Epo has further been confirmed by the discovery in the central nervous system of a specific Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR) system. Both Epo and EpoR are expressed by astrocytes and neurons and Epo is present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Therefore, novel functions of Epo, tissue-specific regulation, and the mechanisms of action have been investigated. In this review we have tried to summarize the current data on the role of Epo on brain function. We discuss the different sites of cerebral expression and mechanisms of regulation of Epo and its receptor and its role in the development and maturation of the brain. Second, we discuss the neurotrophic and neuroprotective function of Epo in different conditions of neuronal damage, such as hypoxia, cerebral ischemia, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the consequent possibility that rHuEpo therapy could soon be used in clinical practice to limit neuronal damage induced by these diseases. PMID:12638727

  14. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October 1976 to August 2008. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and follow-up data were registered. RESULTS: Eight patients presented NPCM. The observed NPCM prevalence was 3.8%. One patient presented the subacute form of PCM and the other seven presented the chronic form of the disease. The parenchymatous form of NPCM occurred in all patients. 60% of the patients who proceeded from the north/ northeast region of Minas Gerais State developed NPCM. The neurological involvement of a mother and her son was observed. NPCM patients exhibited demographical and clinical profiles similar to what is described in the literature. When NPCM cases were compared to PCM patients, there were differences in relation to origin and positive PCM family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the clinical view that the neurological findings are extremely important in the evaluation of PCM patients. Despite the limitations of this study, the differences in relation to patient's origins and family history point to the need of further studies to determine the susceptibility factors involved in the neurological compromise.

  15. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  16. 极低出生体质量儿中枢神经系统假丝酵母菌感染诊断%Diagnosis for the very low birth weight infant with central nervous system Candida infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛健

    2011-01-01

    Disseminated Candida infection in the very and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most pathogens for the late onset of sepsis. Central nervous system Candida infection, such as microabscess, does not show specific manifestations in spite of multiple pathological involvements which often could not be demonstrated by microbiological and cellular examinations of cerebral spinal fluid. The examination of cerebral spinal fluid combined with brain imaging should be taken into consideration on the diagnosis of central nervous system Candida infection, particularly diffusion-weighted MRI could play more important role in early diagnosis of cerebral microabscess.%全身播散性假丝酵母菌感染已成为极低和超低出生体质量儿晚发感染的主要病原之一,而其导致的中枢神经系统受累的临床表现缺乏特异性、神经病理学的多样性使得脑脊液微生物学和常规细胞学分析不能除外特殊的损伤类型,特别是微小脑脓肿.因此中枢神经系统假丝酵母菌感染的诊断必须结合脑脊液和影像学检查,磁共振弥散加权成像可能成为早期诊断微小脓肿的重要方法.

  17. Study of Congenital Malformations in Central Nervous System AND Gastro- Intestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyad SS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations comprise 8% of the perinatal mortality in India. They rank fifth as a cause of perinatal mortality, after asphyxia, respiratory problems, infections and cerebral trauma. However, the pattern is changing rapidly with improvement in health care and living standards. Material & Method: In the present study, authors have tried to study the cases of congenital malformations specially related to Central nervous system and Gastro-intestinal system. 5240 cases of newborn babies were studied and results were analyzed and classified in to various categories. Findings: The results show that malformations are more common in still birth, more in female babies and more in central nervous system In live born babies the percentage of malformation is0.63 % whereas in still born baby it is6.53 %. Conclusions: Chances of having malformations increases as the age advances. Parity of mother also influences the incidence. Exposure to radiation & drugs also influences malformations. Incidence of congenital malformation is highest in central nervous system. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 121-123

  18. Current opinions on radiotherapy of pediatric central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are the most frequent solid tumors in childhood accounting for 20% of all pediatric malignancies. Despite developments in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, a significant proportion of these patients suffer progressive disease. A good treatment management strategy should consider not only survival but also the quality of life of the child. Irradiation is ann essential part of the management of the majority of CNS tumors. During then last decade, there significant advances in the technology of planning and delivery of radiation treatment. These new radiotherapy techniques such as conformal, intensity modulated photon beam and stereotactic methods allow a high homogenous dose to the tumor region with minimal doses to normal tissue. This is particularly important in children with localized low-grade tumors, whose prognosis of long-term survival is often excellent and should be accompanied by smallest risk of treatment toxicity. For small tumors fractionated radiotherapy stereotactic radiotherapy using multiple fixed non-coplanar beams is an appropriate treatment. Modification of craniospinal technique, lowering of the total craniospinal dose with adjuvant chemotherapy, new radiotherapy modalities to treat the posterior fossa may be employed to possibly decrease the late rectifies of radiation therapy. For malignant glioma and brain stem tumors we need new approaches, as chemo sensitization, angiogenesis inhibitors and gene therapies. These new methods in therapy of pediatric brain tumors and our experience in treatment of children with medulloblastoma, low-grade astrocytoma, craniopharyngioma and brain stem tumors are presented. We summarize therapeutic aspects of most childhood brain tumors. (author)

  19. Hox gene regulation in the central nervous system of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar Gummalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes specify the structures that form along the anteroposterior (AP axis of bilateria. Within the genome, they often form clusters where, remarkably enough, their position within the clusters reflects the relative positions of the structures they specify along the AP axis. This correspondence between genomic organization and gene expression pattern has been conserved through evolution and provides a unique opportunity to study how chromosomal context affects gene regulation. In Drosophila, a general rule, often called “posterior dominance”, states that Hox genes specifying more posterior structures repress the expression of more anterior Hox genes. This rule explains the apparent spatial complementarity of Hox gene expression patterns in Drosophila. Here we review a noticeable exception to this rule where the more-posteriorly expressed Abd-B hox gene fails to repress the more-anterior abd-A gene in cells of the central nervous system (CNS. While Abd-B is required to repress ectopic expression of abd-A in the posterior epidermis, abd-A repression in the posterior CNS is accomplished by a different mechanism that involves a large 92kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA encoded by the intergenic region separating abd-A and Abd-B (the iab8ncRNA. Dissection of this lncRNA revealed that abd-A is repressed by the lncRNA using two redundant mechanisms. The 1st mechanism is mediated by a microRNA (mir-iab-8 encoded by intronic sequence within the large iab8-ncRNA. Meanwhile, the second mechanism seems to involve transcriptional interference by the long iab-8 ncRNA on the abd-A promoter. Recent work demonstrating CNS-specific regulation of genes by ncRNAs in Drosophila, seem to highlight a potential role for the iab-8-ncRNA in the evolution of the Drosophila hox complexes

  20. Space radiation risks to the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Alp, Murat; Sulzman, Frank M.; Wang, Minli

    2014-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) risks which include during space missions and lifetime risks due to space radiation exposure are of concern for long-term exploration missions to Mars or other destinations. Possible CNS risks during a mission are altered cognitive function, including detriments in short-term memory, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, which may affect performance and human health. The late CNS risks are possible neurological disorders such as premature aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementia. Radiation safety requirements are intended to prevent all clinically significant acute risks. However the definition of clinically significant CNS risks and their dependences on dose, dose-rate and radiation quality is poorly understood at this time. For late CNS effects such as increased risk of AD, the occurrence of the disease is fatal with mean time from diagnosis of early stage AD to death about 8 years. Therefore if AD risk or other late CNS risks from space radiation occur at mission relevant doses, they would naturally be included in the overall acceptable risk of exposure induced death (REID) probability for space missions. Important progress has been made in understanding CNS risks due to space radiation exposure, however in general the doses used in experimental studies have been much higher than the annual galactic cosmic ray (GCR) dose (∼0.1 Gy/y at solar maximum and ∼0.2 Gy/y at solar minimum with less than 50% from HZE particles). In this report we summarize recent space radiobiology studies of CNS effects from particle accelerators simulating space radiation using experimental models, and make a critical assessment of their relevance relative to doses and dose-rates to be incurred on a Mars mission. Prospects for understanding dose, dose-rate and radiation quality dependencies of CNS effects and extrapolation to human risk assessments are described.

  1. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  2. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  4. Control of the Cutaneous Circulation by the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, William; McAllen, Robin; McKinley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS), via its control of sympathetic outflow, regulates blood flow to the acral cutaneous beds (containing arteriovenous anastomoses) as part of the homeostatic thermoregulatory process, as part of the febrile response, and as part of cognitive-emotional processes associated with purposeful interactions with the external environment, including those initiated by salient or threatening events (we go pale with fright). Inputs to the CNS for the thermoregulatory process include cutaneous sensory neurons, and neurons in the preoptic area sensitive to the temperature of the blood in the internal carotid artery. Inputs for cognitive-emotional control from the exteroceptive sense organs (touch, vision, sound, smell, etc.) are integrated in forebrain centers including the amygdala. Psychoactive drugs have major effects on the acral cutaneous circulation. Interoceptors, chemoreceptors more than baroreceptors, also influence cutaneous sympathetic outflow. A major advance has been the discovery of a lower brainstem control center in the rostral medullary raphé, regulating outflow to both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to the acral cutaneous beds. Neurons in the medullary raphé, via their descending axonal projections, increase the discharge of spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons controlling the cutaneous vasculature, utilizing glutamate, and serotonin as neurotransmitters. Present evidence suggests that both thermoregulatory and cognitive-emotional control of the cutaneous beds from preoptic, hypothalamic, and forebrain centers is channeled via the medullary raphé. Future studies will no doubt further unravel the details of neurotransmitter pathways connecting these rostral control centers with the medullary raphé, and those operative within the raphé itself. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1161-1197, 2016. PMID:27347889

  5. Kynurenines and Multiple Sclerosis: The Dialogue between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rajda; Zsófia Majláth; Dániel Pukoli; László Vécsei

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has additionally been implicated as having a regulatory function in the immune system. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway have been described in ...

  6. The role of myelin in Theiler's virus persistence in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Roussarie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Theiler's virus, a picornavirus, persists for life in the central nervous system of mouse and causes a demyelinating disease that is a model for multiple sclerosis. The virus infects neurons first but persists in white matter glial cells, mainly oligodendrocytes and macrophages. The mechanism, by which the virus traffics from neurons to glial cells, and the respective roles of oligodendrocytes and macrophages in persistence are poorly understood. We took advantage of our previous finding that the shiverer mouse, a mutant with a deletion in the myelin basic protein gene (Mbp, is resistant to persistent infection to examine the role of myelin in persistence. Using immune chimeras, we show that resistance is not mediated by immune responses or by an efficient recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system. With both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that the mutation does not impair the permissiveness of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and macrophages to the virus. We demonstrate that viral antigens are present in cytoplasmic channels of myelin during persistent infection of wild-type mice. Using the optic nerve as a model, we show that the virus traffics from the axons of retinal ganglion cells to the cytoplasmic channels of myelin, and that this traffic is impaired by the shiverer mutation. These results uncover an unsuspected axon to myelin traffic of Theiler's virus and the essential role played by the infection of myelin/oligodendrocyte in persistence.

  7. Herpesvirus-associated central and peripheral nervous system involvement: two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses can directly affect the structure of the nervous system, resulting in encephalitis, and also induce immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system as sensory-predominant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. Patients with immunodeficiency may simultaneously develop two pathological processes, determining the severity of the condition. Parainfectious limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses from the family Herpes viridae is a form of chronic herpes encephalitis, which is characterized by dysfunction of the limbic system and by a long-term course with exacerbations. CIDP is a dysimmune disease leasing to peripheral nervous system involvement, which belongs to a class of myelinopathies. The paper describes two clinical cases of a concurrence of chronic PILE and CIDP in middle-aged men who have symptomatic status epilepticus and iatrogenic complications. It characterizes difficulties in diagnosis and the clinical features of chronic herpes infection involving the central and peripheral nervous systems. The given clinical cases suggest that not only neurologistsand epileptologists, but also resuscitation specialists and ngiosurgeons should be particularly alert to the pathology in question.

  8. Chronic meningitis and central nervous system vasculopathy related to Epstein Barr virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar B Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic active Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection causes a wide spectrum of manifestation, due to meningeal, parenchymal and vascular involvement. An 11-year-old boy presented with chronic headache, fever and seizures of 18 months duration. His magnetic resonance imaging Brain showed fusiform aneurysmal dilatations of arteries of both the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF showed persistent lymphocytic pleocytosis, raised proteins and low sugar with positive polymerase chain reaction for EBV. He later developed pancytopenia due to bone marrow aplasia, with secondary infection and expired. From clinical, imaging and CSF findings, he had chronic lymphocytic meningitis with vasculopathy, which was isolated to the central nervous system. He later had marrow aplasia probably due to X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder related to EBV infection. Vasculopathy, especially diffuse fusiform aneurysmal dilatation associated with chronic EBV infection, is rare, but has been described, similar to our case report.

  9. Presence of amastigotes in the central nervous system of hamsters infected with Leishmania sp. Presença de amastigotas em sistema nervoso central de hamster infectado com Leishmania sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe chronic disease caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Better knowledge on the effects caused by this disease can help develop adequate clinical management and treatment. Parasitological and immunohistochemical studies were performed golden hamsters Mesocricetus auratus infected with bone marrow from individuals with VL in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-west Brazil. The effects of parasitism in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and brain of the animals were examined. Eighteen hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally, and six healthy animals were used as negative controls. The animals were kept in the animal house and checked for clinical signs. Specimens of each organ were examined for the presence of amastigotes. Immunohistochemical technique was performed in all brain specimens and organs negative on the direct examination of parasites. Direct examination of amastigotes was positive in the spleen and liver of all infected animals; 33.3% showed the parasite in the kidneys and lungs, and 16.7% in the heart. Parasitic forms were seen in 83.3% (15/18 of the brain examined. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the results of the direct examination, except in two specimens of lung tissue and in the brain specimens. Other studies are needed to further clarify the effect of the parasite in the central nervous system.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é uma doença crônica grave, causada pelo parasito Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Esclarecer as alterações provocadas pela doença é fundamental para que se adotem condutas clínicas e de tratamento adequadas. Com o objetivo de analisar a infecção experimental em hamsters da linhagem golden, Mesocricetus auratus, infectados com tecido de medula óssea de pacientes com LV no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram realizados estudos parasitológicos e de imunomarcação. Foi verificada a distribuição do parasitismo no baço, f

  10. Glycosaminoglycan binding facilitates entry of a bacterial pathogen into central nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Chi; Wang, Zhipeng; Flax, Lindsay A; Xu, Ding; Esko, Jeffrey D; Nizet, Victor; Baron, Miriam J

    2011-06-01

    Certain microbes invade brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) to breach the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and establish central nervous system (CNS) infection. Here we use the leading meningitis pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS) together with insect and mammalian infection models to probe a potential role of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interactions in the pathogenesis of CNS entry. Site-directed mutagenesis of a GAG-binding domain of the surface GBS alpha C protein impeded GBS penetration of the Drosophila BBB in vivo and diminished GBS adherence to and invasion of human BMECs in vitro. Conversely, genetic impairment of GAG expression in flies or mice reduced GBS dissemination into the brain. These complementary approaches identify a role for bacterial-GAG interactions in the pathogenesis of CNS infection. Our results also highlight how the simpler yet genetically conserved Drosophila GAG pathways can provide a model organism to screen candidate molecules that can interrupt pathogen-GAG interactions for future therapeutic applications. PMID:21731486

  11. Glycosaminoglycan binding facilitates entry of a bacterial pathogen into central nervous systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chi Chang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain microbes invade brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs to breach the blood-brain barrier (BBB and establish central nervous system (CNS infection. Here we use the leading meningitis pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS together with insect and mammalian infection models to probe a potential role of glycosaminoglycan (GAG interactions in the pathogenesis of CNS entry. Site-directed mutagenesis of a GAG-binding domain of the surface GBS alpha C protein impeded GBS penetration of the Drosophila BBB in vivo and diminished GBS adherence to and invasion of human BMECs in vitro. Conversely, genetic impairment of GAG expression in flies or mice reduced GBS dissemination into the brain. These complementary approaches identify a role for bacterial-GAG interactions in the pathogenesis of CNS infection. Our results also highlight how the simpler yet genetically conserved Drosophila GAG pathways can provide a model organism to screen candidate molecules that can interrupt pathogen-GAG interactions for future therapeutic applications.

  12. New model to determine the central nervous system reaction to peripheral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring the activity of the central nervous system with the 14C-2-deoxyglucose method of Sokoloff was utilized to explore the possibility to develop a model for the study of central nervous system reaction to peripheral trauma. Preliminary evidence indicates that the activation caused by tactile stimuli to one hindlimb nerve is that expected from earlier physiologic studies. However, an increase of stimulation intensity to recruit nociceptive (pain) fibers seems to abolish the changes, indicating that inhibitory systems have been activated

  13. HIV/AIDS合并中枢神经系统机会性感染73例临床分析%Seventy-three AIDS patients complicated with opportunistic infections of central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 代丽丽; 易银; 牟丹蕾; 郭彩萍; 吴昊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨HIV感染及AIDS患者群(HIV/AIDS)的各种中枢神经系统机会性感染(opportunistic infections,OIs)情况,以提高诊断水平及临床治愈率,改善预后.方法 统计73例HIV/AIDS中枢神经系统OIs的临床数据,分析其临床表现、实验室检查结果和头颅影像学表现,评价其疗效及预后.结果 73例HIV/AIDS的中枢神经系统OIs中,新型隐球菌性脑膜炎36例(49.3%),弓形体脑炎18例(24.7%),结核性脑膜炎5例(6.8%),HIV脑病5例(6.8%),进行性多灶性脑白质病4例(5.5%),巨细胞病毒性脑炎3例(4.1%),原因不明急性脑梗死2例(2.7%).好转47例,占64.3%;死亡8例,占11.0%;病情无改善、自动出院18例,占24.7%.结论 HIV/AIDS中枢神经系统的OIs诊断困难,病死率高.HIV/AIDS患者,尤其是CD4+T淋巴细胞计数<200/μl者,一旦出现中枢神经系统症状,应尽早进行脑脊液及头颅影像学等相关检查,如条件允许,行脑活体组织检查更有助于明确诊断.早诊断、早治疗是降低HIV/AIDS各种中枢神经系统OIs病死率以及提高治愈率的关键.%Objective To investigate the opportunistic infections (Ois) of central nervous system in HIV/AIDS patients so as to increase the diagnostic level and the curative rate, and improve the prognosis. Methods Clinical data of 73 AIDS patients complicated with the Ois of central nervous system were collected, the clinical menifestations, laboratory test results and head CT or MRI findings were analyzed, and the treatment efficacy and the prognosis were evaluated. Results Among the 73 patients, 36 (49.3%) were complicated with cryptoeocal meningitis, 18 (24.7%) with toxoplasmosis, 5 (6.8%) with tuberculous meningitis, 5 (6.8% ) with HIV encephalopathy, 4 (5.5%) with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, 3 (4.1%) with CMV encephalitis and 2 (2.7%) with cerebral infarction of unknown reason. Totally 47 patients (64.3%) recovered completely or improved partially, 8 (11

  14. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the clinical, immunological and pathological data of 5 eases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Each of the five cases has typical SLE damages on the skin and multiple organs. Among

  15. Radiologic studies in two outbreaks of isolated vasculitis in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral vasculitis is only occasionally diagnosed with angiography. Two outbreaks of isolated central nervous system vasculitis permitted a comparison of the accuracy of diagnostic radiologic studies. Two new radiologic features and methods of diagnosis are discussed

  16. Treatment Options for Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors and Childhood Pineoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  17. Central nervous system involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: diagnosis by immunophenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Peres Cancela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system is the most commonly affected extramedullary site in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although morphologic evaluation of the cerebrospinal fluid has been traditionally used for diagnosing central nervous system involvement, it is a method of low sensitivity. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of immunophenotyping in the detection of blasts in the cerebrospinal fluid from children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  18. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant. (J.P.N.)

  19. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K;

    2010-01-01

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease.......An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease....

  20. Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    R Nassen; Donald, K; Walker, K.; S Paruk; M Vujovic; Duncan, W.; Laughton, B; B Moos

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive children and adolescents are at increased risk of both central nervous system (CNS) sequelae and mental disorders owing to a number of factors, including the impact of HIV infection on the brain, social determinants of health (e.g. poverty and orphanhood) and psychosocial stressors related to living with HIV. Every effort should be made to identify perinatally HIV-infected children and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy early in life. HIV clinicians should ideally screen for...

  1. Risk factors and disposition in development of the nervous system infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Ljiljana; Čanović Predrag; Mijailović Željko; Đoković Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Although well protected, brain is not resistant to infection agents. Acute infections of our nervous system appear more often in children and in persons who have medical history data about previous disorders, especially disorders of the nervous system. It is difficult to list possible risk factors which can be responsible for the appearance of infections of CNS and the resulting conditions. It is often difficult or impossible to determine what previous neural damage was (trauma,...

  2. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michiels

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  3. SJL mice infected with Acanthamoeba castellanii develop central nervous system autoimmunity through the generation of cross-reactive T cells for myelin antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massilamany, Chandirasegaran; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno da;

    2014-01-01

    SJL mice reminiscent of the diseases induced with their corresponding cognate peptides. We now demonstrate that mice infected with ACA also show the generation of cross-reactive T cells, predominantly for PLP 139-151, as evaluated by T cell proliferation and IAs/dextramer staining. We verified that......, suggesting that ACA infection can trigger CNS autoimmunity in the presence of preexisting repertoire of autoreactive T cells. Taken together, the data provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infections, and the potential role of infectious agents with mimicry epitopes to self-antigens in...

  4. HIV 相关性中枢神经系统感染的诊断思路%The diagnosis of HIV-associated central nervous system opportunistic infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚启明

    2013-01-01

    人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染患者若出现中枢神经系统机会性感染,即符合美国疾病控制与预防中心1993 年修订的真性获得性免疫缺陷综合征(艾滋病)期的诊断标准,临床上属于危重患者.病原微生物涉及病毒、细菌、分枝杆菌、真菌、寄生虫等,临床症状与体征、实验室检查等亦与非免疫缺陷患者有所不同,尤其是经抗HIV 治疗后,仍可出现病情加重或新的感染发生,对临床医师极具挑战意义.及时明确诊断是临床治疗转归的基础.%Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are very common and severe complications of advanced immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining conditions according to 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among Adolescents and Adults published by USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The etiologic microorganisms of CNS opportunistic infections include virus, bacteria, fungus, mycobacterium and parasite. The clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory examinations of these diseases are different from that of patients with non- immunodeficiency. Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), worsening conditions or new infections may occur. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of such disorders are critical. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV - 1 infected patients in the initiating antiretroviral therapy results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non - infectious antigens. This study reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis of some common CNS disorders in HIV - 1 infected patients. Physicians caring for such patients must be aware of the new diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options of these

  5. Glial biomarkers in human central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Gwenn A; Campbell, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing understanding that aberrant GLIA function is an underlying factor in psychiatric and neurological disorders. As drug discovery efforts begin to focus on glia-related targets, a key gap in knowledge includes the availability of validated biomarkers to help determine which patients suffer from dysfunction of glial cells or who may best respond by targeting glia-related drug mechanisms. Biomarkers are biological variables with a significant relationship to parameters of disease states and can be used as surrogate markers of disease pathology, progression, and/or responses to drug treatment. For example, imaging studies of the CNS enable localization and characterization of anatomical lesions without the need to isolate tissue for biopsy. Many biomarkers of disease pathology in the CNS involve assays of glial cell function and/or response to injury. Each major glia subtype (oligodendroglia, astroglia and microglia) are connected to a number of important and useful biomarkers. Here, we describe current and emerging glial based biomarker approaches for acute CNS injury and the major categories of chronic nervous system dysfunction including neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric, neoplastic, and autoimmune disorders of the CNS. These descriptions are highlighted in the context of how biomarkers are employed to better understand the role of glia in human CNS disease and in the development of novel therapeutic treatments. GLIA 2016;64:1755-1771. PMID:27228454

  6. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment,general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza; Izadi; Annan; Is’haqi; Mohammad; Ali; Is’haqi; Nematollah; Jonaidi; Jafari; Fatemeh; Rahamaty; Abdolali; Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers.Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system,which may require in-patient care.Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis.An overview of the available evidence in the field is.therefore,Urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research.In November 2013,data were collected from PubMed,Scopus,and Web of knowledge(1980 to2013) including books,reviews,and peer-reviewed literature,Works pertained to pre-travel care,interventions,vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved.Here we provide information on pre-travel care,vaccination,chronic nervous system disorders,and post-travel complications.Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps,and state-of-the-art research are made.Given an increasing number of international travellers,novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections.Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications,detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness.Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine,further research is required for vaccine development,state-of-the-art laboratory tests,and genetic engineering of vectors.

  7. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment, general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Izadi; Arman Ishaqi; Mohammad Ali Ishaqi; Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari; Fatemeh Rahamaty; Abdolali Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.

  8. Antibody producing B lineage cells invade the central nervous system predominantly at the time of and triggered by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection: A hypothesis on the origin of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Carolin; Hofmann, Jörg; Ruprecht, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), typically have an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Intrathecal IgG is produced by B lineage cells that entered the CNS, but why and when these cells invade the CNS of patients with MS is unknown. The intrathecal IgG response in patients with MS is polyspecific and part of it is directed against different common viruses (e.g. measles virus, rubella virus, varicella zoster virus). Strong and consistent evidence suggests an association of MS and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and EBV seroprevalence in patients with MS is practically 100%. However, intriguingly, despite of the universal EBV seroprevalence, the frequency of intrathecally produced IgG to EBV in patients with MS is much lower than that of intrathecally produced IgG to other common viruses. The acute phase of primary EBV infection is characterized by a strong polyclonal B cell activation. As typical for humoral immune responses against viruses, EBV specific IgG is produced only with a temporal delay after acute EBV infection. Aiming to put the above facts into a logical structure, we here propose the hypothesis that in individuals going on to develop MS antibody producing B lineage cells invade the CNS predominantly at the time of and triggered by acute primary EBV infection. Because at the time of acute EBV infection EBV IgG producing B lineage cells have not yet occurred, the hypothesis could explain the universal EBV seroprevalence and the low frequency of intrathecally produced IgG to EBV in patients with MS. Evidence supporting the hypothesis could be provided by large prospective follow-up studies of individuals with symptomatic primary EBV infection (infectious mononucleosis). Furthermore, the clarification of the molecular mechanism underlying an EBV induced invasion of B lineage cells into the CNS of individuals going on to develop MS could corroborate it, too. If true, our

  9. Research progress of central nervous system lymphatic circulation and related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-ming LÜ; Xiao-yu HUANG; Shi, Cui-Li

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have reviewed the central nervous system (CNS) lymphatic circulation and related diseases. The lymphatic system is an important component of circulatory system. However, classic lymphatic vessels consisted of endotheliocytes are not found within CNS. Indeed, the central lymphatic circulation exists. Virchow-Robin space (VRS) is regarded as main component of the central lymphatic circulation, which resembles peripheral lymphatic system functionally and plays an important role...

  10. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  11. Epidemics of the central nervous system infections caused by West Nile virus in the territory of the South Bačka District, Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sević Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic RNA virus particle which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is sustained in arthropods within the transmission cycle between the mosquitoes and birds. Most commonly (80% of cases WNV infections are asymptomatic among people. Less than 1% of patients develop neuroinvasive forms of the disease - meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. The aim of the research is to determine most common clinical and laboratory manifestations, to emphazise the presence of comorbidities and outcomes of treatment among patients with WNV infection. Methods. This retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, evaluated 32 patients who were diagnosed with WNV infection based on clinical findings, laboratory, and serological tests. To assess statistical significance we used χ2, and t-test. Results. The study involved 22 (69% males and 10 (31% females aged from 31 to 65 years. On admission, there were 16 (50% febrile individuals, 27 (84.4% with positive meningeal signs, 17 (53.2% with pathological neurological signs, and 10 (31.3% with consciousness disorders. WNV infection was confirmed by the method enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA in all the patients, while Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR test was positive in 3 (30% of the tested patients. Cardiovascular comorbidities dominated in 7 (21.9% of the cases. Full recovery was accomplished in 87.5 % of the cases. Conclusion. The results of our study show that the absence of meningeal signs and fever on the day 7 of hospital treatment are indicators of good course and prognosis of neuroinvasive forms of WNV infection. Comorbidities do not increase the risk of disease. ELISA test is a sovereign diagnostic method. In most cases, after the administered symptomatic therapy, the complete recovery of patients was achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  12. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs.

  13. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  14. Lipomas of the central nervous system in childhood. Apropos of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipomas of the central nervous system occur as a phenomenon consequences developmental malformations of the central nervous system (CNS) and are not considered neoplasms . It is often associated with other congenital malformations. Representing 0.5 percent of intracranial tumors. Imaging studies are central CT or MRI for diagnosis. They are generally associated with other malformations of the CNS. The surgical treatment is always discussed by the high morbidity associated with it. We present three cases of children with lipomas of different topography. (author)

  15. Turning sex inside-out: Peripheral contributions to sexual differentiation of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Swift-Gallant Ashlyn; Niel Lee; Monks D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sexual differentiation of the nervous system occurs via the interplay of genetics, endocrinology and social experience through development. Much of the research into mechanisms of sexual differentiation has been driven by an implicit theoretical framework in which these causal factors act primarily and directly on sexually dimorphic neural populations within the central nervous system. This review will examine an alternative explanation by describing what is known about the role of p...

  16. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Menasria

    Full Text Available The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE. To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6 plaque forming units. Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05 and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001 significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01 at a later time point (day 8, which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus

  17. Opposing effects of CXCR3 and CCR5 deficiency on CD8+ T cell-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system of virus-infected mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lemos, Carina; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Nansen, Anneline;

    2005-01-01

    T cells play a key role in the control of viral infection in the CNS but may also contribute to immune-mediated cell damage. To study the redundancy of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 in regulating virus-induced CD8+ T cell-mediated inflammation in the brain, CXCR3/CCR5 double-deficient mice...... and therefore protect mice against the otherwise fatal CD8+ T cell-mediated immune attack. Contrary to expectations, the accumulation of mononuclear cells in cerebrospinal fluid was only slightly delayed compared with mice with normal expression of both receptors. Even more surprising, CXCR3/CCR5...... plays an important role in controlling CNS inflammation, other receptors but not CCR5 also contribute significantly. Additionally, our results suggest that CCR5 primarily functions as a negative regulator of the antiviral CD8+ T cell response....

  18. Pulmonary and central nervous system pathology in fatal cases of hand foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijun; Nicholls, John M; Liu, Fengfeng; Wang, Joshua; Feng, Zijian; Liu, Dongge; Sun, Yanni; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Yunqian; Li, Hai; Qi, Shunxiang; Huang, Xueyong; Sui, Jilin; Liao, Qiaohong; Peiris, Malik; Yu, Hongjie; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    In the past 17 years, neurological disease associated with enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has increased dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region with a high fatality rate in young infants, often due to pulmonary oedema, however the mechanism of this oedema remains obscure. We analysed the brainstem, heart and lungs of 15 fatal cases of confirmed EV-A71 infection in order to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of death and pulmonary oedema. In keeping with other case studies, the main cause of death was neurogenic pulmonary oedema. In the brainstem, 11 cases showed inflammation and all cases showed parenchymal inflammation with seven cases showing moderate or severe clasmatodendrosis. No viral antigen was detected in sections of the brainstem in any of the cases. All fatal cases showed evidence of pulmonary oedema; however, there was absence of direct pulmonary viral damage or myocarditis-induced damage and EV-A71 viral antigen staining was negative. Though there was no increase in staining for Na/K-ATPase, 11 of the 15 cases showed a marked reduction in aquaporin-4 staining in the lung, and this reduction may contribute to the development of fatal pulmonary oedema. PMID:27020504

  19. Comparison of three neurotropic viruses reveals differences in viral dissemination to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, Lauren N; Erickson, Andrea K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Ikizler, Mine; Dermody, Terence S; Pfeiffer, Julie K

    2016-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses initiate infection in peripheral tissues prior to entry into the central nervous system (CNS). However, mechanisms of dissemination are not completely understood. We used genetically marked viruses to compare dissemination of poliovirus, yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D), and reovirus type 3 Dearing in mice from a hind limb intramuscular inoculation site to the sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and brain. While YFV-17D likely entered the CNS via blood, poliovirus and reovirus likely entered the CNS by transport through the sciatic nerve to the spinal cord. We found that dissemination was inefficient in adult immune-competent mice for all three viruses, particularly reovirus. Dissemination of all viruses was more efficient in immune-deficient mice. Although poliovirus and reovirus both accessed the CNS by transit through the sciatic nerve, stimulation of neuronal transport by muscle damage enhanced dissemination only of poliovirus. Our results suggest that these viruses access the CNS using different pathways. PMID:26479325

  20. Adrenalectomy alters the sensitivity of the central nervous system melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Drazen, DL; Wortman, MD; Schwartz, MW; Clegg, DJ; Van Dijk, G.; Woods, SC; Seeley, RJ; Drazen, Deborah L.; Wortman, Matthew D.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2003-01-01

    Removal of adrenal steroids by adrenalectomy (ADX) reduces food intake and body weight in rodents and prevents excessive weight gain in many genetic and dietary models of obesity. Thus, glucocorticoids appear to play a key role to promote positive energy balance in normal and pathological conditions. By comparison, central nervous system melanocortin signaling provides critical inhibitory tone to regulate energy balance. The present experiments sought to test whether glucocorticoids influence...

  1. The central nervous system sites mediating the orexigenic actions of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B L; Wang, Q; Zigman, J M

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  2. Microglia are the crucial regulators of neuro-immunity during central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system (CNS is the most devastating manifestation of tuberculosis, with both high mortality and morbidity. Although research has been fueled by the potential therapeutic target microglia offer against neurodegenerative inflammation, their part in tuberculosis infection of the CNS has not been fully evaluated nor elucidated. Yet, as both the preferential targets of M. tuberculosis and the immune-effector cells of the CNS, microglia are likely to be key determinants of disease severity and clinical outcomes. Following pathogen recognition, bacilli are internalized and capable of replicating within microglia. Cellular activation ensues, utilizing signaling molecules that may be neurotoxic. Central to initiating, orchestrating and modulating the tuberculous immune response is microglial secretion of cytokines and chemokines. However, the neurological environment is unique in that inflammatory signals, which appear to be damaging in the periphery, could be beneficial by governing neuronal survival, regeneration and differentiation. Furthermore, microglia are important in the recruitment of peripheral immune cells and central to defining the pro-inflammatory milieu of which neurotoxicity may result from many of the participating local or recruited cell types. Microglia are capable of both presenting antigen to infiltrating CD4+ T-lymphocytes and inducing their differentiation - a possible correlate of protection against M. tuberculosis infection. Clarifying the nature of the immune effector molecules secreted by microglia, and the means by which other CNS-specific cell types govern microglial activation or modulate their responses is critical if improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are to be attained. Therefore, this review evaluates the diverse roles microglia play in the neuro-immunity to M. tuberculosis infection of the CNS.

  3. Toxocariasis of the central nervous system: with report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira-Silva Sandra F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical involvement of the nervous system in visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara is rare, although in experimental animals the larvae frequently migrate to the brain. A review of the literature from the early 50's to date found 29 cases of brain involvement in toxocariasis. In 20 cases, various clinical and laboratory manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis or radiculopathy were reported. We report two children with neurological manifestations, in which there was cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis with marked eosinophilia and a positive serology for Toxocara both in serum and CSF. Serology for Schistosoma mansoni, Cysticercus cellulosae, Toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus were negative in CSF, that was sterile in both cases. Improvement of signs and symptoms after specific treatment (albendazole or thiabendazole was observed in the two cases. A summary of data described in the 25 cases previously reported is presented and we conclude that in cases of encephalitis and myelitis with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and eosinophilia, parasitic infection of the central nervous system should be suspected and serology should be performed to establish the correct diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Detection of borna disease virus p24 RNA from human brain tissue in patients with central nervous system tumors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao; XIE Peng; XU Ping; PENG Dan; ZHU Dan; ZENG Zhi-lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective:It intended to examine whether there is BDV infection in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China and investigate the correlation between BDV infection and tumom of central nervous system.Methods:Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(nRT-PCR)and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(FQ-PCR)was used to detect the BDV p24 fragments in 60 samples of human tumor tissues of central nervous system and 14 normal brain tissues.Results:The study indicated the positive rate of the BDV p24 fragment in human tumor tissues of the central nervous system (6.67%)was higher than that in normal brain tissues(0),but no statistical significance(P>0.05).Concluswn:It suggests that the BDV infection is present in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China.while the sample size wa.sn't large enough and we could not certify the possible correlation between BDV infection and cenfral nervous system tumors.

  5. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Drummond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common human fungal pathogen and causes systemic infections that require neutrophils for effective host defense. Humans deficient in the C-type lectin pathway adaptor protein CARD9 develop spontaneous fungal disease that targets the central nervous system (CNS. However, how CARD9 promotes protective antifungal immunity in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we show that a patient with CARD9 deficiency had impaired neutrophil accumulation and induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid despite uncontrolled CNS Candida infection. We phenocopied the human susceptibility in Card9-/- mice, which develop uncontrolled brain candidiasis with diminished neutrophil accumulation. The induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines is significantly impaired in infected Card9-/- brains, from both myeloid and resident glial cellular sources, whereas cell-intrinsic neutrophil chemotaxis is Card9-independent. Taken together, our data highlight the critical role of CARD9-dependent neutrophil trafficking into the CNS and provide novel insight into the CNS fungal susceptibility of CARD9-deficient humans.

  6. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Collar, Amanda L; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Lim, Jean K; Mendez, Laura M; Fink, Danielle L; Hsu, Amy P; Zhai, Bing; Karauzum, Hatice; Mikelis, Constantinos M; Rose, Stacey R; Ferre, Elise M N; Yockey, Lynne; Lemberg, Kimberly; Kuehn, Hye Sun; Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Lin, Xin; Chittiboina, Prashant; Datta, Sandip K; Belhorn, Thomas H; Weimer, Eric T; Hernandez, Michelle L; Hohl, Tobias M; Kuhns, Douglas B; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-12-01

    Candida is the most common human fungal pathogen and causes systemic infections that require neutrophils for effective host defense. Humans deficient in the C-type lectin pathway adaptor protein CARD9 develop spontaneous fungal disease that targets the central nervous system (CNS). However, how CARD9 promotes protective antifungal immunity in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we show that a patient with CARD9 deficiency had impaired neutrophil accumulation and induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid despite uncontrolled CNS Candida infection. We phenocopied the human susceptibility in Card9-/- mice, which develop uncontrolled brain candidiasis with diminished neutrophil accumulation. The induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines is significantly impaired in infected Card9-/- brains, from both myeloid and resident glial cellular sources, whereas cell-intrinsic neutrophil chemotaxis is Card9-independent. Taken together, our data highlight the critical role of CARD9-dependent neutrophil trafficking into the CNS and provide novel insight into the CNS fungal susceptibility of CARD9-deficient humans. PMID:26679537

  7. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important ...

  8. Early Detection of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in the Central Nervous System Following Oral Administration to Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Milush, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Hui-Ling; Atteberry, Ginger; Sodora, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The timing of HIV dissemination to the central nervous system (CNS) has the potential to have important implications regarding HIV disease progression and treatment. The earlier HIV enters the CNS the more difficult it might be to remove with antiretroviral therapy. Alternatively, HIV may only enter the CNS later in the course of disease as a result of disruption of the blood-brain-barrier. We utilized the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques to evaluate the oral r...

  9. In vivo transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus in the central nervous system in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, J; Buzy, J M; Lindstrom, L; Clements, J E

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and has been implicated as the causative agent of AIDS-associated encephalopathy and the AIDS dementia complex. The development of in vivo models of HIV-1-mediated gene expression has shown that the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) from the viral isolate HIV(JR-CSF) specifically supports gene expression in adult and developing CNS. To determine the molecular basis for HIV-1 developmental CNS gene e...

  10. Pathological features of the central nervous system lesions with Epstein-Barr virus in patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozko V.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV infection/AIDS is a social disease and morbidity in some segments of the population is threatening. One of the target organs for HIV is the nervous system. The central nervous system lesion occurring in the form of meningoencephalitison the background of HIV infection is one of the leading death causes in patients with severe immunosuppression. Objective. Reveal the typicalmorphologic changes in the central nervous system during Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods. Brain tissue and meningesof deceased patients with Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis. Selected 6 deaths – three women and three men, aged 28 to 34 years. Following routine procedure histologic sections were produced, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl. Results. We showed signs of development of subacute encephalitis with the presence of giant areas of demyelination by morphological study of the combination of clinical cases of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection. In brain tissue we identified giant cells. In addition to this significant feature of the combination of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection can be considered productive development of vasculitis with thrombosis and ischemic brain lesions. During histological studies in HIV-infected patients were found: infiltration of the vessel wall by leukocytes, edema and proliferative changes in the intima. All this leads to a narrowing of the lumen and thrombosis with further possible infarct, vessel rupture and hemorrhage. Conclusion. It is established that in case of damage of the central nervous system with Epstein-Barr virus in HIV patients develops subacute giant cell encephalitis with the presence of demyelination areas, a bland astrogliosis, development of productive vasculitis with thrombosis, that complicated by ischemic lesions of the brain.

  11. Primary central nervous system lymphoma presenting as isolated oculomotor nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Tan, MBBS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors report an unusual case of primary central nervous system lymphoma presenting with isolated pupil-involved oculomotor nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated leptomeningeal involvement of the midbrain and interpeduncular cistern, a single hypothalamic lesion, and intraventricular involvement. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was confirmed by stereotactic intraventricular biopsy. Combination chemotherapy with methotrexate, vincristine, procarbazine and rituximab was instituted with resolution of oculomotor nerve palsy and complete disease remission. An interdisciplinary approach involving neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, neuropathologists and neurologists is crucial in the management of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

  12. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  13. MRI及脑脊液分析在中枢神经系统感染鉴别中的作用%Role of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analysis in early differential diagnosis of central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛; 张爱武; 方燕南; 徐如祥; 邸伟; 肖子建; 漆薇韡; 郑振扬

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨脑脊液(CSF)常规以及MRI特点对中枢神经系统感染性疾病鉴别诊断的意义. 方法 中山大学附属第一医院神经内科自2007年1月至2011年12月收住院并确诊中枢神经系统感染性疾病患者274例,其中病毒性脑/脑膜炎(病毒脑)166例、化脓性脑膜炎(化脑)45例、结核性脑膜炎(结脑)47例、隐球菌性脑膜炎(隐脑)16例;回顾性分析患者的MRI常规及增强扫描结果、CSF常规、血中性粒细胞百分比检查结果,采用逐步判别分析各项指标对4种感染的鉴别诊断价值. 结果 MRI扫描结果显示MRI异常患者76例(27.74%),其中病毒脑38例,化脑10例,结脑26例,隐脑2例;4种感染患者的CSF压力、蛋白质、氯化物、糖、中性粒细胞含量、血中性粒细胞百分比不同,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).逐步回归分析筛选出CSF压力、蛋白质、氯化物、血中性粒细胞百分比、有无MRI病灶5项指标建立判别函数,诊断的总准确率为59.1%.诊断化脑的敏感性、特异性和准确率分别为24.4%、73.4%和65.3%,结脑为61.7%、80.6%和77.4%,隐脑为62.5%、56.9%和57.3%,病毒脑为67.5%、75.0%和70.4%. 结论 CSF压力、蛋白质、氯化物、血中性细胞百分比、有无MRI病灶对中枢神经系统感染性疾病的鉴别诊断最有意义,建立的判别函数对鉴别诊断具有一定价值,但临床上仍需病原学进行确诊.%Objective To investigate the significance of cerebrospinal fluid pressure,cytology and biochemistry,and MRI features in the early differential diagnosis of central nervous system infections.Methods The clinical data of 274 patients with central nervous system infections (viral encephalitis/meningitis in 166 patients,purulent meningitis in 45,tuberculous meningitis in 47 and cryptococcal meningitis in 16),admitted to our hospital from January 2007 to December 2011,were analyzed retrospectively.The cerebrospinal fluid pressure

  14. Chemokines and their receptors in central nervous system disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biber, K; de Jong, EK; van Weering, HRJ; Boddeke, HWGM

    2006-01-01

    Almost a decade ago, it was discovered that the human deficiency virus (HIV) makes use of chemokine receptors to infect blood cells. This appreciation of the clinical relevance of specific chemokine receptors has initiated a considerable boost in the field of chemokine research. It is clear today th

  15. An altered form of pp60c-src is expressed primarily in the central nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Beau, J M; Wiestler, O D; Walter, G.

    1987-01-01

    The expression of two forms of pp60c-src, pp60 and pp60+, was measured in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. Both forms were expressed in the CNS, whereas only pp60 was primarily detected in the peripheral nervous system. Our findings suggest that pp60+ may play a role in events important to the CNS.

  16. Conservative management of post-transplant central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavoor, Shahul H; Ashraf, Zubair; Narwal, Rawan; Ratnam, Shobha

    2013-08-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare B cell variant non-Hodgkins lymphoma that is confined to the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord and eyes. Its incidence is increasing, primarily due to increase in the number of organ transplantations being undertaken. The majority of the PTLD (post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder) is seen in kidney transplant recipients simply because they constitute a larger group of transplant recipients each year as compared to other solid organ transplantations. Primary infection of previously infected EBV seronegative patients and immunosuppression are found to be the main etiologic factors in the development of PTLD-PCNSL. There are no clear guidelines on treatment regimens, and it should be individualized according to patient comorbidities. We report a case of PCNS lymphoproliferative disorder in a kidney transplant recipient, which underwent complete remission with decreasing immunosuppression. The patient could not undergo chemotherapy/radiotherapy due to underlying comorbidities. We highlight the available treatment modalities for PTLD-PCNSL. PMID:22476860

  17. Localization of Reversion-Induced LIM Protein (RIL) in the Rat Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversion-induced LIM protein (RIL) is a member of the ALP (actinin-associated LIM protein) subfamily of the PDZ/LIM protein family. RIL serves as an adaptor protein and seems to regulate cytoskeletons. Immunoblotting suggested that RIL is concentrated in the astrocytes in the central nervous system. We then examined the expression and localization of RIL in the rat central nervous system and compared it with that of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). RIL was concentrated in the cells of ependyma lining the ventricles in the brain and the central canal in the spinal cord. In most parts of the central nervous system, RIL was expressed in the astrocytes that expressed AQP4. Double-labeling studies showed that RIL was concentrated in the cytoplasm of astrocytes where glial fibrillary acidic protein was enriched as well as in the AQP4-enriched regions such as the endfeet or glia limitans. RIL was also present in some neurons such as Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and some neurons in the brain stem. Differential expression of RIL suggests that it may be involved in the regulation of the central nervous system

  18. Whole transcriptome sequencing enables discovery and analysis of viruses in archived primary central nervous system lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher DeBoever

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL have a dramatically increased prevalence among persons living with AIDS and are known to be associated with human Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. Previous work suggests that in some cases, co-infection with other viruses may be important for PCNSL pathogenesis. Viral transcription in tumor samples can be measured using next generation transcriptome sequencing. We demonstrate the ability of transcriptome sequencing to identify viruses, characterize viral expression, and identify viral variants by sequencing four archived AIDS-related PCNSL tissue samples and analyzing raw sequencing reads. EBV was detected in all four PCNSL samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV, JC polyomavirus (JCV, and HIV were also discovered, consistent with clinical diagnoses. CMV was found to express three long non-coding RNAs recently reported as expressed during active infection. Single nucleotide variants were observed in each of the viruses observed and three indels were found in CMV. No viruses were found in several control tumor types including 32 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples. This study demonstrates the ability of next generation transcriptome sequencing to accurately identify viruses, including DNA viruses, in solid human cancer tissue samples.

  19. Role of taurine in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jang-Yen; Prentice Howard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Taurine demonstrates multiple cellular functions including a central role as a neurotransmitter, as a trophic factor in CNS development, in maintaining the structural integrity of the membrane, in regulating calcium transport and homeostasis, as an osmolyte, as a neuromodulator and as a neuroprotectant. The neurotransmitter properties of taurine are illustrated by its ability to elicit neuronal hyperpolarization, the presence of specific taurine synthesizing enzyme and receptors in t...

  20. Telegamatherapy of the central nervous system in acute lymphoblastic leucosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetric investigations in water phantom on telegamatherapeutic device ROKUS were carried out with a small ionizing chamber. Two opposite lateral fields were used, outlined with lead blocks. The dose was calculated in the middle of the volume designed for irradiation, in applyng 24 Gy for 16 fractions. A comparative evaluation of the dose distribution was made at different distance of the protective screens from the central rays of the flux. Discussion is made of the possibilities for application of adequate dose in the full volume and for optimizing the dose distribution into the retrobulbar tissues by the best possible protection of the occular lens

  1. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Martins-Pinge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  2. Radiotherapy applied to tumours of the intracranial central nervous systems in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As domestic animals such as dogs are living older because of a better life quality and better cares, they may more frequently develop tumours in their intracranial central nervous system. In this research thesis, the author addresses this specific topic. He first recalls fundamental physical and biological aspects for the understanding of radiotherapy action mechanisms, and the modalities of such a treatment. He addresses the general study of intracranial central nervous system tumours in dogs: brief recall on anatomic and histological aspects, presentation of their classification and their prevalence, and precise descriptions of their characteristics. In the third part, the author reports clinical and para-clinical data which allow the diagnosis of an intracranial nervous tissue tumour. The last part presents different available therapeutic modalities, more particularly addresses the interest of radiotherapy in neuro-oncology, and compares published results

  3. Targeting the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL10 in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2004-01-01

    focuses on the present data regarding CXCL10 (previously known as IP-10) and CXRC3 in multiple sclerosis, since consistent data has suggested that this chemokine/chemokine receptor pair has a pivotal role in leukocyte recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis....

  4. Metallothionein expression in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Ortega-Aznar, A;

    2003-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major chronic demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oxidative stress likely plays a pathogenic role in the development of myelin and neuronal damage. Metallothioneins (MTs) are antioxidant proteins induced in the CNS by ti...

  5. Cognitive functions in primary central nervous system lymphoma: Literature review and assessment guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D. Correa; L. Maron; H. Harder (Helena); M. Klein (Martin); C.L. Armstrong; P. Calabrese; J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); L.E. Abrey (Lauren); T.T. Batchelor (Tracy); D. Schiff (David)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Treatment-related neurotoxicity has been recognized as a significant problem in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) as effective treatment has increased survival rates. There is, however, a paucity of research on cognitive functions in this populatio

  6. Dysfunctional astrocytes as key players in the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, Jacques; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.

    2008-01-01

    Once considered little more than the glue that holds neurons in place, astrocytes are now becoming appreciated for the key roles they play in central nervous system functions. They supply neurons and oligodendrocytes with substrates for energy metabolism, control extracellular water and electrolyte

  7. An adult case of chronic myelogenous leukemia with myeloblastic involvement of the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old female with chronic myelogenous leukemia, who developed myeloblastic involvement of the central nervous system during acute myeloblastic transformation of the disease, was treated with methotrexate intrathecally. The therapy produced prompt clinical response and complete reversal of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid findings. However, the patient expired 10 months following the acute blastic crisis.

  8. Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma mimicking meningoencephalomyelitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil-Luna, Silvia; Carrasco, Librado; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Hilbe, Monika; Mínguez, Juan J; Köhler, Kernt; de las Mulas, Juana Martín

    2013-06-01

    A cat was presented with right head tilt and circling. The lack of expression of virus antigens did not support the postmortem diagnosis of encephalomyelitis pointing to a diffuse primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma on the basis of CD3 and CD45R co-expression with absence of CD79α staining. PMID:24155454

  9. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  10. Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Tani, M; Jensen, J;

    1999-01-01

    Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether sp...

  11. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges in a Liver Transplant Recipient with Central Nervous System Invasive Aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dionissios, Neofytos; Shmuel, Shoham; Kerry, Dierberg; Katharine, Le; Simon, Dufresne; Sean, Zhang X; Kieren, Marr A

    2012-01-01

    This is a case report of central nervous system (CNS) invasive aspergillosis (IA) in a liver transplant recipient, which illustrates the utility of enzyme-based diagnostic tools for the timely and accurate diagnosis of IA, the treatment challenges and poor outcomes associated with CNS IA in liver transplant recipients.

  12. Mild hypothermia as a treatment for central nervous system injuries Positive or negative effects?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rami Darwazeh; Yi Yan

    2013-01-01

    Besides local neuronal damage caused by the primary insult, central nervous system injuries may secondarily cause a progressive cascade of related events including brain edema, ischemia, oxida-tive stress, excitotoxicity, and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Hypothermia is a beneficial strategy in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries. Mild hypothermia can treat high intra-cranial pressure fol owing traumatic brain injuries in adults. It is a new treatment that increases sur-vival and quality of life for patients suffering from ischemic insults such as cardiac arrest, stroke, and neurogenic fever fol owing brain trauma. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases free radical produc-tion, inflammation, excitotoxicity and intracranial pressure, and improves cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia, thus protecting against central nervous system dam-age. Although a series of pathological and physiological changes as wel as potential side effects are observed during hypothermia treatment, it remains a potential therapeutic strategy for central nervous system injuries and deserves further study.

  13. Trends in tumors in the central nervous system in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke H; Poulsen, Frantz R; Nguyen, Nina N T T;

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumors in the central nervous system (CNS) comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors with different treatment strategies and prognoses. Current treatment regimens are based on studies on patients mainly younger than 70 years. The aim of the present study was to analyze and describe trends...

  14. Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system: a review with focus on molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters-vandevelde, H.V.; Kusters, B.; Grunsven, A.C.H. van; Groenen, P.J.T.A.; Wesseling, P.; Blokx, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a spectrum of rare tumors. They can be benign or malignant and occur in adults as well as in children, the latter often in the context of neurocutaneous melanosis. Until recently, the genetic alterations in these tumors were la

  15. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Owens, T; Frøkiaer, J;

    2010-01-01

    Asgari N, Owens T, Frøkiaer J, Stenager E, Lillevang ST, Kyvik KO. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).
Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01416.x.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. In the past 10 years, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has...

  16. Pancreatic Metastasis from a Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Osuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system is uncommon, with only around 200 reported cases. Further, extracranial metastasis is extremely rare, and only 5 cases of hematogenous metastases have been reported so far. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system metastasizing to the pancreas. Case report A 62-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a pancreatic mass, which was strongly suspected to be a neuroendocrine tumor. However, the histological findings and immunohistochemical profile indicated the presence of a solitary fibrous tumor. Because the medical history revealed previous transcranial resection for intracranial meningioma 16 years ago, we conducted a pathological review of the brain specimen obtained by the first operation and found that it had the same histology and immunohistochemical profile as the current endoscopic ultrasound-guided fineneedle aspiration specimen. Consequently, the final diagnosis, on the basis of the brain specimen, was changed from meningioma to solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system, and the pancreatic mass was diagnosed as metastasis from solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system. The patient underwent middle pancreatectomy; the pancreatic specimen also had the same histology and immunohistochemical profile as the brain specimen. Conclusion Histological findings and immunohistochemical profile obtained by EUS-FNA are invaluable for the correct diagnosis to avoid excessive surgical procedures.

  17. Central Gi(2) proteins, sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 3 (2016), s. 258-259. ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : inhibitory G proteins * sympathetic nervous system * central blood pressure control Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.382, year: 2014

  18. Consequences for central nervous system functional state of exposure to ionizing radiation modification with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: to estimate the pattern of ionizing radiation effects modification by antioxidants using central nervous system functional state indices. The studies were carried out using 84 rats. Beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were found to significantly improve conditioned activity indices level of the animals exposed to ionizing radiation and emotional-pain stress

  19. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving central nervous system: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) is a systemic disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes in the reticuloendothelial system; CNS involvement outside the hypothalamus or pituitary gland is uncommon. We present a case of LCH involving the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes, and also showing hypothalamic involvement. The lesions were isointense or hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI, and showed multifocal enhancing nodules on post-contrast CT and Gd-enhanced MRI

  20. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving central nervous system: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok; Ju, Kyung Bin [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) is a systemic disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes in the reticuloendothelial system; CNS involvement outside the hypothalamus or pituitary gland is uncommon. We present a case of LCH involving the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes, and also showing hypothalamic involvement. The lesions were isointense or hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI, and showed multifocal enhancing nodules on post-contrast CT and Gd-enhanced MRI.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of frozen section in Central nervous system lesions, a 10-year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh KHODDAMI*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khoddami M, Akbarzadeh A, Mordai A, Bidari Zerehpoush F, Alipour H, Samadzadeh S, Alipour B.Diagnostic Accuracy of Frozen Section of Central Nervous System Lesions: A 10-Year Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:25-30. AbstractObjectiveDefinitive diagnosis of the central nervous system (CNS lesions is unknown prior to histopathological examination. To determine the method and the endpoint for surgery, intraoperative evaluation of the lesion helps the surgeon.In this study, the diagnostic accuracy and pitfalls of using frozen section (FS ofCNS lesions is determined.Materials & MethodsIn this retrospective study, we analyzed the results of FS and permanent diagnoses of all CNS lesions by reviewing reports from 3 general hospitals between March 2001 and March 2011.Results273 cases were reviewed and patients with an age range from 3 to 77 years of age were considered. 166 (60.4% had complete concordance between FS and permanent section diagnosis, 83 (30.2% had partial concordance, and 24 cases (9.5% were discordant. Considering the concordant and partially concordant cases, the accuracy rate was 99.5%, sensitivity was 91.4%, specificity was 99.7%, and positive and negative predictive values were 88.4% and 99.8%, respectively.ConclusionOur results show high sensitivity and specificity of FS diagnosis in the evaluation of CNS lesions. A Kappa agreement score of 0.88 shows high concordance for FS results with permanent section. Pathologist’s misinterpretation, small biopsy samples (not representative of the entire tumor, suboptimal slides, and inadequate information about tumor location and radiologic findings appear to be the major causes for these discrepancies indicated from our study. ReferencesTaxy JB, Anthony G. Biopsy interpretation: the frozen section. 1st ed. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. P.301-3.Somerset HL, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK. Approach to the intraoperative consultation for

  2. Gut Commensalism, Cytokines, and Central Nervous System Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Telesford, Kiel; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing support for the importance of risk factors such as genetic makeup, obesity, smoking, vitamin D insufficiency, and antibiotic exposure contributing to the development of autoimmune diseases, including human multiple sclerosis (MS). Perhaps the greatest environmental risk factor associated with the development of immune-mediated conditions is the gut microbiome. Microbial and helminthic agents are active participants in shaping the immune systems of their hosts. This concept...

  3. Secondary infiltration of the central nervous system in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Maira Bueno da Silveira da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of infiltration of the central nervous system after the initial treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patients treated at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. METHODS: A total of 133 patients treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from January 2001 to April 2008 were retrospectively analyzed in respect to the incidence and risk factors of secondary central nervous system involvement of lymphoma. Intrathecal prophylaxis was not a standard procedure for patients considered to be at risk. This analysis includes patients whether they received rituximab as first-line treatment or not. RESULTS: Nine of 133 (6.7% patients developed central nervous system disease after a mean observation time of 29 months. The median time to relapse or progression was 7.9 months after diagnosis and all but one patient died despite the treatment administered. Twenty-six (19.5% patients of this cohort received rituximab as first-line treatment and nine (7.1% received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis. Of the nine patients that relapsed, seven (77.7% had parenchymal central nervous system involvement; seven (77.7% had stage III or IV disease; one (11.1% had bone marrow involvement; two (22.2% had received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis; and 3 (33.3% had taken rituximab. In a multivariate analysis, the risk factors for this infiltration were being male, previous use of intrathecal chemotherapy and patients that were refractory to initial treatment. CONCLUSION: Central nervous system infiltration in this cohort is similar to that of previous reports in the literature. As this was a small cohort with a rare event, only three risk factors were important for this infiltration

  4. Epstein-Barr virus associated central nervous system leiomyosarcoma occurring after renal transplantation: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare, however, they became more frequent among immuno-deficient patients, either in a patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or after organ transplantation. The data of the literature indicate that the infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causal role in the development of these tumours but its precise role in the onco-genesis remains unresolved. We report a new case of EBV associated leiomyosarcoma of the left cavernous sinus occurring after renal transplantation. The epidemiological, clinical, pathological and therapeutic characteristics of these tumours are discussed. (authors)

  5. The impact of nandrolone decanoate on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P; Frati, Paola; Sanzo, Mariantonia Di; Napoletano, Simona; Pinchi, Enrica; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Nandrolone is included in the class II of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) which is composed of 19-nor-testosterone-derivates. In general, AAS is a broad and rapidly increasing group of synthetic androgens used both clinically and illicitly. AAS in general and nandrolone decanoate (ND) in particular have been associated with several behavioral disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature concerning studies dealing with ND exposure on animal models, mostly rats that mimic human abuse systems (i.e. supraphysiological doses). We have focused in particular on researches that have investigated how ND alters the function and expression of neuronal signaling molecules that underlie behavior, anxiety, aggression, learning and memory, reproductive behaviors, locomotion and reward. PMID:26074747

  6. Medicinal chemical properties of successful central nervous system drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajouhesh, Hassan; Lenz, George R

    2005-10-01

    Fundamental physiochemical features of CNS drugs are related to their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier affinity and exhibit CNS activity. Factors relevant to the success of CNS drugs are reviewed. CNS drugs show values of molecular weight, lipophilicity, and hydrogen bond donor and acceptor that in general have a smaller range than general therapeutics. Pharmacokinetic properties can be manipulated by the medicinal chemist to a significant extent. The solubility, permeability, metabolic stability, protein binding, and human ether-ago-go-related gene inhibition of CNS compounds need to be optimized simultaneously with potency, selectivity, and other biological parameters. The balance between optimizing the physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties to make the best compromises in properties is critical for designing new drugs likely to penetrate the blood brain barrier and affect relevant biological systems. This review is intended as a guide to designing CNS therapeutic agents with better drug-like properties. PMID:16489364

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy

  8. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different...... settle to become microglia. Furthermore various functional properties of microglia in the normal and pathological CNS are now being revealed because of combinations of BM transplantations and experimental disease models. Here, we describe some of the latest findings in microglial biology and discuss the...

  9. Central Nervous System Based Computing Models for Shelf Life Prediction of Soft Mouth Melting Milk Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gyanendra Kumar Goyal; Sumit Goyal

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the latency and potential of central nervous system based system intelligent computer engineering system for detecting shelf life of soft mouth melting milk cakes stored at 10o C. Soft mouth melting milk cakes are exquisite sweetmeat cuisine made out of heat and acid thickened solidified sweetened milk. In today’s highly competitive market consumers look for good quality food products. Shelf life is a good and accurate indicator to the food quality and safety. To achieve g...

  10. 75 FR 56548 - Joint Meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Joint Meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System... the public. Name of Committees: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and...

  11. Immunohistochemical distribution of Calbindin D-28K immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of adult cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; LI Jin-lian; XIONG Kang-hui; LI Ji-shuo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In order to get more information about the possible functions of Calbindin D-28K in the central nervous system of adult cat, the distribution of Calbindin D-28K in the central nervous system of adult cat was examined. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining techniques were used, and immunostained sections were observed under a light microscopy. Results: A high density of both immunoreactive perikarya and fibers were observed in the basal ganglia, amygdaloid complex, nucleus of the fields of Forel, subthalamic nucleus, paracentral nucleus, pulvinar nucleus, subthalamus, dorsal hypothalamic area, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, oculomo-tor nucleus, superior olivary complex, marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, vestibular nuclei, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, cuneate nucleus, inferior olivary complex, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the laminae Ⅱ of the spinal cord, whereas the dentate gyrus, the central medial nucleus of the thalamus, the paracentral and central lateral nucleus of the thalamus, the lateral dorsal nucleus of the thalamus,the ventrolateral complex of the thalamus, the medioventral nucleus of the thalamus, the posterior hypothalamic area, the dorsal hypothalamic area, the infundibular nucleus, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and the interfascicular nucleus had just a high density of immunoreactive perikarya, and no positive fibres were detected in these areas. Conclusion: The present results showed that Calbindin D-28K-like immunoreactivity was widely distributed throughout the central nervous system of adult cat and might play an important role in the activities of the neurons in the central nervous system of adult cat.

  12. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by vascular abnormalities and fibrotic changes in skin and internal organs. The aim of the study was to investigate involvement of the central nervous system in systemic sclerosis and the value of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of central nervous system involvement in systemic sclerosis. 26 patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms in the course of systemic sclerosis were investigated for central nervous system abnormalities by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among these 26 symptomatic patients lesions in brain MRI and CT examinations were present in 54% and in 50% patients respectively. Most common findings (in 46% of all patients), were symptoms of cortical and subcortical atrophy, seen in both, MRI and CT. Single and multiple focal lesions, predominantly in the white matter, were detected by MRI significantly more frequently as compared to CT (62% and 15% patients respectively). These data indicate that brain involvement is common in patients with severe systemic sclerosis. MRI shows significantly higher than CT sensitivity in detection focal brain lesions in these patients. (author)

  13. Central Nervous System Based Computing Models for Shelf Life Prediction of Soft Mouth Melting Milk Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Kumar Goyal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latency and potential of central nervous system based system intelligent computer engineering system for detecting shelf life of soft mouth melting milk cakes stored at 10o C. Soft mouth melting milk cakes are exquisite sweetmeat cuisine made out of heat and acid thickened solidified sweetened milk. In today’s highly competitive market consumers look for good quality food products. Shelf life is a good and accurate indicator to the food quality and safety. To achieve good quality of food products, detection of shelf life is important. Central nervous system based intelligent computing model was developed which detected 19.82 days shelf life, as against 21 days experimental shelf life.

  14. Primary Central Nervous System T-Cell Lymphoma(Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu YÜKSEL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system lymphoma(PCNSL is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Lymphoma in central nervous system may be in a primary form or may be secondary due to intracranial metastasis of systemic lymphoma. Most of the cases are B-cell type. Most frequent symptoms seen in PCNLS are motor disturbances, disturbances in alertness, headache, neausea and vomiting, visual disturbances and seizures respectively. The diagnosis can be done by the combination of clinical and radiologic findings and histopathologic examination. Our case had brain stem symptoms and diagnosis-T-cell PCNLS- was made by MRI scan and CSF cytologic analaysis. We thougt that it is worth to report this rare case and discuss under the light of literature.

  15. Modelling the spatial organization of cell proliferation in the developing central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Clairambault, Jean; Perthame, Benoit; Rapacioli, Melina; Rofman, Edmundo; Verdes, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    How far is neuroepithelial cell proliferation in the developing central nervous system a deterministic process? Or, to put it in a more precise way, how accurately can it be described by a deterministic mathematical model? To provide tracks to answer this question, a deterministic system of transport and diffusion partial differential equations, both physiologically and spatially structured, is introduced as a model to describe the spatially organized process of cell proliferation during the development of the central nervous system. As an initial step towards dealing with the three-dimensional case, a unidimensional version of the model is presented. Numerical analysis and numerical tests are performed. In this work we also achieve a first experimental validation of the proposed model, by using cell proliferation data recorded from histological sections obtained during the development of the optic tectum in the chick embryo.

  16. Cardiac biopotentials influence on central nervous system functioning: first steps in hypothesis verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondal'skaya Yu.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to verify the hypothesis on influence of cardiac biopotentials on central nervous system. Materials: 20 healthy individuals aged 18-26 years old have been participated in the investigations. Two groups composed of 10 patients each have been formed. Double increase in heart biopotentials by means of artificial impulse insertion between natural cardiac contractions has been modeled. Artificial impulses have been similar to unaffected ones, produced in a normal heart work. Additional impulses have been generated using external pacemaker and have been linked up with electrodes on the chest. They have been synchronized with the heart rhythm and located in-between R waves. The duration of those impulses has been fully matched to ventricular complex. Their amplitude has been adjusted individually depending on the height of R wave. Nervous system mobility has been used as the indicator reflecting the central nervous system functioning. Degree of mobility has been defined on the basis of tapping test results. The test has been repeated at specific intervals. Groups have been exposed to two adverse testing modes. Additional impulses have been conducted to the patients of group I within an hour over a period of the first and the third 15-minute intervals and to the patients of group II over a period of the second and the fourth 15-minute intervals. In the middle and in the end of each time interval tapping test has been carried out. After preliminary analysis two other modes of stimulation have been tested. The stimulation has been performed within the 40-minute course: over a period of the first 20-minute interval and vice versa. Results: Detailed evaluation has revealed that short-time increase of nervous processes has been checked in combination with decrease in their stability. Conclusion: The data obtained have shown that there is possible influence on central nervous system functioning. The article ends with prospects of further

  17. Kynurenines and Multiple Sclerosis: The Dialogue between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rajda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has additionally been implicated as having a regulatory function in the immune system. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway have been described in both preclinical and clinical investigations of multiple sclerosis. These observations led to the identification of potential therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis, such as synthetic tryptophan analogs, endogenous tryptophan metabolites (e.g., cinnabarinic acid, structural analogs (laquinimod, teriflunomid, leflunomid and tranilast, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors (1MT and berberine and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase inhibitors (nicotinylalanine and Ro 61-8048. The kynurenine pathway is a promising novel target via which to influence the immune system and to achieve neuroprotection, and further research is therefore needed with the aim of developing novel drugs for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases.

  18. PICK1 expression in the Drosophila central nervous system primarily occurs in the neuroendocrine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Anna M; Nässel, Dick R; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jung, Anita G; Gether, Ulrik; Kjaerulff, Ole

    2009-01-01

    (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR2 and the dopamine transporter. PICK1 is strongly implicated in GluR2 trafficking and synaptic plasticity. In mammals, PICK1 has been characterized extensively in cell culture studies. To study PICK1 in an intact system, we characterized PICK1 expression immunohistochemically...... in the adult and larval Drosophila central nervous system. PICK1 was found in cell bodies in the subesophageal ganglion, the antennal lobe, the protocerebrum, and the neuroendocrine center pars intercerebralis. The cell types that express PICK1 were identified using GAL4 enhancer trap lines. The PICK...... peptidergic neurons in the neuroendocrine system, which express the transcription factor DIMM and the amidating enzyme peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). The PICK1-positive cells include neurosecretory cells that produce the insulin-like peptide dILP2. PICK1 expression in insulin...

  19. Neural Stem Cells: Implications for the Conventional Radiotherapy of Central Nervous System Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in basic neuroscience related to neural stem cells and their malignant counterparts are challenging traditional models of central nervous system tumorigenesis and intrinsic brain repair. Neurogenesis persists into adulthood predominantly in two neurogenic centers: subventricular zone and subgranular zone. Subventricular zone is situated adjacent to lateral ventricles and subgranular zone is confined to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Neural stem cells not only self-renew and differentiate along multiple lineages in these regions, but also contribute to intrinsic brain plasticity and repair. Ionizing radiation can depopulate these exquisitely sensitive regions directly or impair in situ neurogenesis by indirect, dose-dependent and inflammation-mediated mechanisms, even at doses <2 Gy. This review discusses the fundamental neural stem cell concepts within the framework of cumulative clinical experience with the treatment of central nervous system malignancies using conventional radiotherapy

  20. Preventive central nervous system irradiation in children with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study of children with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia an attempt was made to prevent central nervous system relapse and to determine whether this therapy, coupled with multiagent chemotherapy, would be successful in prolonging durations of complete remission. Central nervous system relapses were prevented by irradiation, although patients who received this therapy did no better than those who did not receive irradiation. A small group of patients received irradiation to the liver and spleen, but this modality also failed to improve the duration of remission. Control of extramedullary leukemia, in this study, failed to improve remission duration because bone marrow relapse was not prevented or delayed. It is unlikely that focal therapy will have a significant impact in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia until longer marrow remissions are achieved

  1. Medical management of primary central nervous system lymphoma refractory or resistant to standard of care treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising in the central nervous system. Combined irradiation and methotrexate-based chemotherapy is the standard of care treatment for PCNSL. The median overall survival achieved with this therapy is 25 to 51 months. Failure after first-line treatment has been reported in most patients with PCNSL. Salvage therapy is known to improve outcome, and although many different treatment modes have been attempted the optimal treatment schedule remains to be determined. This review analyses the efficacy of salvage therapy by focusing on data obtained from reports reporting on salvage therapy. Well-designed, randomized trials will help clarify issues such as the best chemotherapy regimen for second-line treatment. (author)

  2. White-matter abnormalities in unirradiated patients cured of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On MRI, primary brain tumors are commonly seen as contrast-enhancing masses surrounded by areas of abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Following successful treatment tumors may no longer show contrast enhancement. The residual abnormalities are assumed to be represent ''edema'' and infiltrating tumor cells. We report nine patients with primary lymphoma of the central nervous system who had complete responses to intravenous methotrexate, but did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy or cranial irradiation. After complete resolution of contrast-enhancing lesions, persistent abnormalities on T2-weighted images in the region of prior tumor were initially assumed to reflect residual viable tumor. As they remained unchanged for years, however, this may not hold true in the cases in which primary central nervous system lymphoma responds to chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  3. Physiological, pathological, and engineered cell identity reprogramming in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek K; Wang, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2016-07-01

    Multipotent neural stem cells persist in restricted regions of the adult mammalian central nervous system. These proliferative cells differentiate into diverse neuron subtypes to maintain neural homeostasis. This endogenous process can be reprogrammed as a compensatory response to physiological cues, traumatic injury, and neurodegeneration. In addition to innate neurogenesis, recent research has demonstrated that new neurons can be engineered via cell identity reprogramming in non-neurogenic regions of the adult central nervous system. A comprehensive understanding of these reprogramming mechanisms will be essential to the development of therapeutic neural regeneration strategies that aim to improve functional recovery after injury and neurodegeneration. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:499-517. doi: 10.1002/wdev.234 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27258392

  4. Connexin: a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Connexin subunits are proteins that form gap junction channels, and play an important role in communication between adjacent cells. This review article discusses the function of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions under physiological conditions, and summarizes the findings regarding the role of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions in the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying central nervous system diseases such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, epilepsy, brain and spinal cord tumor, migraine, neuroautoimmune disease, Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinson′s disease, X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, spastic paraplegia and maxillofacial dysplasia. Connexins are considered to be a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system.

  5. Connexin:a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan Xie; Yu Cui; Fang Deng; Jia-chun Feng

    2015-01-01

    Connexin subunits are proteins that form gap junction channels, and play an important role in communication between adjacent cells. This review article discusses the function of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions under physiological conditions, and summarizes the findings re-garding the role of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions in the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying central nervous system diseases such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, epilepsy, brain and spinal cord tumor, migraine, neuroautoimmune disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Peli-zaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, spastic paraplegia and maxillofacial dysplasia. Connexins are considered to be a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system.

  6. Physical Basis of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and its Application to Central Nervous System Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fayed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is based on the chemical shift property of the atom nuclei when a magnetic field is applied. This technique offers invaluable information about living tissues with special contribution to the diagnosis and prognosis of the central nervous system diseases. Concentration of several metabolites can be assessed in a reproducible manner by means of modern clinical scanners. N-acetyl-aspartate is regarded as a neuronal marker and its levels reflect the neuronal density with significant decreases in degenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. Choline-compounds reflect the cell's membrane turnover and degradation. Myo-inositol has emerged as a glial marker with increases in degenerative diseases. The major usefulness of MRS has been reported in brain tumors, degenerative disorders, myelination defects and encephalopathies. In this review we report the physical basis and the contribution of MR spectroscopy to the diagnosis and prognosis of several diseases of the Central Nervous System.

  7. Comparison of three methods of central-nervous-system prophylaxis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective comparison was made of three methods of central-nervous-system prophylaxis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; (1) intrathecal methotrexate only; (2) intermediate-dose methotrexate infusion and intrathecal methotrexate and; (3) 2400 rads cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate. The incidence of primary meningeal relapse was statistically significantly lower in both standard-risk patients (age > 24 months and 120 months and/or white-cell count > 20 000) whose central-nervous-system prophylaxis included cranial irradiation. The disease-free and overall survival of irradiated increased-risk patients was significantly better than that of unirradiated increased-risk patients. The disease-free survival of standard-risk patients who received intermediate-dose methotrexate was statistically superior to that of the remaining standard-risk patients. There were no significant differences in overall survival between the three groups of standard-risk patients. (author)

  8. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Associated with Central Nervous System Involvement in an Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy L H; Cartagena, Ana M; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2016-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus reactivation affecting the central nervous system is rare. We describe a 55-year-old diabetic female who presented with gait ataxia, right peripheral facial palsy, and painful vesicular lesions involving her right ear. Later, she developed dysmetria, fluctuating diplopia, and dysarthria. Varicella zoster virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. She was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with spread to the central nervous system. Her facial palsy completely resolved within 48 hours of treatment with intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every 8 hours. However, cerebellar symptoms did not improve until a tapering course of steroid therapy was initiated. PMID:27366189

  9. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of Statins in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. McFarland

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly referred to as statins, are widely used in the treatment of dyslipidaemia, in addition to providing primary and secondary prevention against cardiovascular disease and stroke. Statins’ effects on the central nervous system (CNS, particularly on cognition and neurological disorders such as stroke and multiple sclerosis, have received increasing attention in recent years, both within the scientific community and in the media. Current understanding of statins’ effects is limited by a lack of mechanism-based studies, as well as the assumption that all statins have the same pharmacological effect in the central nervous system. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the molecular mechanisms contributing to statins’ possible effects on cognitive function, neurodegenerative disease, and various neurological disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, depression and CNS cancers. Additionally, the pharmacokinetic differences between statins and how these may result in statin-specific neurological effects are also discussed.

  10. Neonatal herpes simplex virus type-1 central nervous system disease with acute retinal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Aye, Aye Mya Min; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Nor, Norazlin Kamal; Visvaraja, Subrayan; Tajunisah, Iqbal; Ong, Lai Choo

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 central nervous system disease with bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN). An infant was presented at 17 days of age with focal seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-1 and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebritis. While receiving intravenous acyclovir therapy, the infant developed ARN with vitreous fluid polymerase chain reaction positive for HSV-1 necessitating intravitreal foscarnet therapy. This is the first reported neonatal ARN secondary to HSV-1 and the first ARN case presenting without external ocular or cutaneous signs. Our report highlights that infants with neonatal HSV central nervous system disease should undergo a thorough ophthalmological evaluation to facilitate prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment of this rapidly progressive sight-threatening disease. PMID:24378951

  11. The PCR-Based Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: Up to Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis, particularly tuberculous meningitis (TBM, is the severest form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.Tb infection, causing death or severe neurological defects in more than half of those affected, in spite of recent advancements in available anti-tuberculosis treatment. The definitive diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis depends upon the detection of M.Tb bacilli in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. At present, the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis remains a complex issue because the most widely used conventional “gold standard” based on bacteriological detection methods, such as direct smear and culture identification, cannot rapidly detect M.Tb in CSF specimens with sufficient sensitivity in the acute phase of TBM. Recently, instead of the conventional “gold standard”, the various molecular-based methods including nucleic acid amplification (NAA assay technique, particularly polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, has emerged as a promising new method for the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis because of its rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the innovation of nested PCR assay technique is worthy of note given its contribution to improve the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis. In this review, an overview of recent progress of the NAA methods, mainly highlighting the PCR assay technique, was presented.

  12. Pulmonary, Gonadal, and Central Nervous System Status after Bone Marrow Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Mark C.; Hardy, Karen; Edwards, Sandie; Adamkiewicz, Thomas; Barkovich, James; Bernaudin, Francoise; Buchanan, George R.; Bunin, Nancy; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giller, Roger; Haut, Paul R.; Horan, John; Hsu, Lewis L.; Kamani, Naynesh; Levine, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, multicenter investigation of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) between 1991 and 2000. To determine if children were protected from complications of SCD after successful BMT, we extended our initial study of BMT for SCD to conduct assessments of the central nervous system (CNS) and of pulmonary function 2 or more years after transplantation. In addition, the impact on g...

  13. Amyloid-Beta Related Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Case Report and Topic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoseBiller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-beta related angiitis (ABRA of the central nervous system (CNS is a rare disorder with overlapping features of primary angiits of the CNS (PACNS and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA. We evaluated a 74-year-old man with intermittent left sided weakness and MRI findings of leptomeningeal enhancement, vasogenic edema and subcortical white matter disease proven to have ABRA. We discuss clinicopathological features and review the topic of ABRA.

  14. Structure of the central nervous system of a juvenile acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bery, Amandine; Cardona, Albert; Martinez, Pedro; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The neuroarchitecture of Acoela has been at the center of morphological debates. Some authors, using immunochemical tools, suggest that the nervous system in Acoela is organized as a commissural brain that bears little resemblance to the central, ganglionic type brain of other flatworms, and bilaterians in general. Others, who used histological staining on paraffin sections, conclude that it is a compact structure (an endonal brain; e.g., Raikova 2004; von Graff 1891; Delage Arch Zool Exp Gén...

  15. Toxic effects of mercury on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo; Lorena Barros Furieri; Franck Maciel Peçanha; Giulia Alessandra Wiggers; Paula Frizera Vassallo; Maylla Ronacher Simões; Jonaina Fiorim; Priscila Rossi de Batista; Mirian Fioresi; Luciana Rossoni; Ivanita Stefanon; María Jesus Alonso; Mercedes Salaices; Dalton Valentim Vassallo

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritab...

  16. Responses of the central nervous system to high linear energy transfer radiation: NSCOR project highlights

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Gregory; Fike, John; Limoli, Charles; Obenaus, André; Raber, Jacob; Soltesz, Ivan; Vlkolinský, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Overview: The five-university NSCOR project investigates the responses of the central nervous system to space-like charged particle exposure by evaluating: synaptic function, in vitro and in vivo neurogenesis, behavior and behaviorally induced gene expression, and oxidative stress of the mouse hippocampus and cultured neural precursor cells. To test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the effects of radiation exposure, we compare responses in a catalase overexpressing transgenic ...

  17. Direct Central Nervous System Effect of Alcohol Alters Synthesis and Degradation of Skeletal Muscle Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Pruznak, Anne M; Nystrom, Jay; Lang, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol can directly impair protein synthesis in cultured myocytes as well as in in situ perfused skeletal muscle. However, alcohol in the general circulation diffuses rapidly into the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, this study determined whether localized elevation of alcohol within the CNS is capable of decreasing muscle protein synthesis. Methods: Conscious unstrained male rats received a continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of ethanol and skeletal muscle protei...

  18. Mammaglobin-A Immunohistochemistry in Primary Central Nervous System Neoplasms and Intracranial Metastatic Breast Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, Patrick J.; Perrin, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases represent the most common type of intracranial neoplasm. In women, 30% of such tumors derive from breast carcinoma. In neurosurgical cases with ambiguous cellular morphology and/or limited biopsy material, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often performed to distinguish metastases from primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. IHC for mammaglobin-A (MGA), a protein expressed in a majority of breast carcinomas, is commonly applied in this setting, but its utility for distinguishin...

  19. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents retrograde neuronal death in the adult central nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Clatterbuck, R E; Price, D L; Koliatsos, V E

    1993-01-01

    The neurocytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was described originally as an activity that supports the survival of neurons of the chicken ciliary ganglia in vitro. The widespread expression of CNTF and its principal binding protein, CNTF receptor alpha, in the central and peripheral nervous systems suggests a broader trophic role for this peptide. In the present study, we report that CNTF prevents axotomy-induced cell death of neurons in the anteroventral and anterodorsal thalamic nuc...

  20. A biophysical study on molecular physiology of the uncoupling proteins of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Tuan; Kuljanin, Miljan; Smith, Matthew D.; Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCP)2, UCP4 and UCP5 transport protons across the inner membrane of mitochondria in the central nervous system (CNS). Novel recombinant protein expression allowed expression of UCPs in Escherichia coli membranes. Functional neuronal UCPs formed multimers in membranes and interacted with various fatty acids (FAs) to transport protons. Self-association and unique ion transport properties of UCPs distinguish their physiological roles in the CNS.

  1. Comparison of intelligence quotient in children surviving leukemia who received different prophylactic central nervous system treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Reisi Nahid; Khalilian Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive deficits and decrease in intelligence quotient (IQ) is one of the complication of prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. In this study, we compare the IQ in survivors of ALL that were treated with different prophylactic CNS treatments. Materials and Methods : We compared 43 long-term survivors of ALL: 21 survivors with intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX) as CNS prophylaxis, 22 with IT MTX+1800-2400 rads c...

  2. Increase in reflex vasoconstriction with indomethacin in patients with orthostatic hypotension and central nervous system involvement.

    OpenAIRE

    Imaizumi, T; Takeshita, A; Ashihara, T.; Nakamura, M.; Tsuji, S; Shibazaki, H

    1984-01-01

    Since indomethacin may be effective in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension, the ability of this drug to increase reflex vasoconstriction was studied in six patients with orthostatic hypotension and in five normal subjects. Reflex forearm vasoconstriction during lower body negative pressure at 20-40 mm Hg was measured before and after indomethacin 50 mg by mouth. In patients with orthostatic hypotension and central nervous system involvement indomethacin increased recumbent blood pressure...

  3. Central nervous system remyelination in culture — A tool for multiple sclerosis research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A.; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination ...

  4. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  5. Central Nervous System Disease in Hematological Malignancies: Historical Perspective and Practical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Thiel, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 5-year survival rates are approaching 90% in children and 50% in adults who are receiving contemporary risk-directed treatment protocols. Current efforts focus not only on further improving cure rate but also on patient quality of life. Hence, all protocols decrease or limit the use of cranial irradiation as central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy, even in patients with high-risk presenting features, such as the presence of leukemia cells in the cerebr...

  6. Unusual location of central nervous system langerhans cell histiocytosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system (CNS) usually involves the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and T1-weighted MR images normally demonstrate infundibular thickening and/or a mass lesion in the hypothalamus and the absence of a posterior pituitary 'bright spot'. We recently encountered a case of CNS langerhans cell histiocytosis with no posterior pituitary 'bright spot' and with lesions involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia but not the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

  7. Neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid in central nervous system lesions consequent to peripheral nerve injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Tomassoni; Francesco Amenta; Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli; Carla Ghelardini; Nwankwo, Innocent E.; Alessandra Pacini; Seyed Khosrow Tayebati

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS) changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for tre...

  8. Drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS) targets as leads for non-CNS targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kharkar, Prashant S.

    2014-01-01

    Innovative drug discovery approaches are currently needed to rejuvenate the shrinking product pipelines of the pharmaceutical companies across the globe. Here a theme is presented – the use of central nervous system (CNS) drugs as leads for non-CNS targets. The approach is related to the use of existing drugs for new indications. Suitable chemical modifications of the CNS drugs abolish their CNS penetration. These novel analogs may then be screened for activity against non-CNS targets. Carefu...

  9. CD93 and GIPC expression and localization during central nervous system inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, CHUN; Cui, Zhichao; Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    CD93 and GAIP-interacting protein, C termius (GIPC) have been shown to interactively alter phagocytic processes of immune cells. CD93 and GIPC expression and localization during central nervous system inflammation have not yet been reported. In this study, we established a rat model of brain inflammation by lipopolysaccharide injection to the lateral ventricle. In the brain of rats with inflammation, western blots showed increased CD93 expression that decreased over time. GIPC expression was ...

  10. Disseminated Hemangioblastoma of the Central Nervous System without Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sun-Yoon; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Hemangioblastoma (HB) of the central nervous system may occur sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Disseminated HB means malignant spread of the original primary HB without local recurrence at surgically resected site. It has been rarely reported previously, and rarer especially without VHL gene mutation. We report a case of disseminated HB without VHL disease. A 59-year-old man underwent a surgery for total removal of a cerebellar HB. From five years after the...

  11. Teratomas in central nervous system: A clinico-morphological study with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Meetu; Uppin Megha; Patibandla Mohana; Bhattacharjee Suchanda; Panigrahi Manas; Saradhi Vijay; Rani Jyotsna; Purohit A; Challa Sundaram

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cranio-spinal axis teratomas are rare. This subset is interesting because symptoms can be varied, depending on the location. Histopathology is diagnostic; most of the lesions are benign. Rarely, malignancy develops in any of the somatic components. Aims: To study the demographic, clinico-morphological and follow-up data of central nervous system (CNS) teratomas. Materials and Methods: Cases diagnosed as mature or immature teratomas in the CNS over a 20-year period were included in...

  12. Enhancement of the white matter following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of fatal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is reported. The clinical, CT, and neuropathological findings are described. The CT scan demonstrated symmetrical white-matter enhancement. Histological analysis was consistent with the effects of irradiation and methotrexate. The differential diagnosis of the clinical and CT findings is discussed. Brain biopsy is the diagnostic procedure of choice

  13. Efficient Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus from Mouse Central Nervous System Tissues▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shih-Heng; Yao, Hui-Wen; Huang, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lei, Huan-Yao; Shiau, Ai-Li; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2006-01-01

    For decades, numerous ex vivo studies have documented that latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates efficiently from ganglia, but rarely from the central nervous systems (CNS), of mice when assayed by mincing tissues before explant culture, despite the presence of viral genomes in both sites. Here we show that 88% of mouse brain stems reactivated latent virus when they were dissociated into cell suspensions before ex vivo explant culture. The efficient reactivation of HSV from the mouse ...

  14. Lipomas of the central nervous system in the newborns – a report of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system lipomas are rare tumours. In most of the cases they are located in corpus callosum of the brain. The ultrasonographic image of lipomas tends to be quite characteristic. Final diagnosis is however done on a basis of brain resonance. The purpose of this work is to present proceeding in case of central nervous system lipomas with particular attention to diagnostic imaging. This work is based on own research. There are eight patients with central nervous system lipomas described in this work. The ultrasonographic imaging performed upon patients’ birth revealed features of agenesis of corpus callosum with presence of hyperechoic structure in the area of median line within corpus callosum. This image correlated with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance examination results. Our research confirms that patients with central nervous system lipomas represent rare diagnostic and therapeutic cases. Due to characteristic results of ultrasonographic imaging of the brain, recognition of agenesis of corpus callosum would not cause difficulties. However the presence of hyperechoic structure without vascular flow which may suggest lipomas of corpus callosum would require final verification of the diagnosis and wider assessment of brain with NMR examination. We did not recognize any relation between corpus callosum pathology and neuroinfection of cytomegalovirus etiology. In all of the eight research cases there were malformations diagnostics conducted. There were genetic irregularities in case of two of the neonates only. Until today, all of the patients remain under neurological care. Their psychomotor development is regularly controlled. Taking into consideration that numerous malformations occur altogether with brain lipomas, it is recommended to conduct appropriate diagnostics, to inform parents on an essence of diagnosis and on necessity of observing child’s psychomotor development. Obviously, it is crucial to secure a patient with paediatric and neurological

  15. Genome-wide molecular characterization of central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor and pineoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Suzanne; Rogers, Hazel A; Lyon, Paul; Rand, Vikki; Adamowicz-Brice, Martyna; Clifford, Steven C; Hayden, James T.; Dyer, Sara; Pfister, Stefan; Korshunov, Andrey; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Lowe, James; Coyle, Beth; Grundy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS PNET) and pineoblastoma are highly malignant embryonal brain tumors with poor prognoses. Current therapies are based on the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma, even though these tumors are distinct at both the anatomical and molecular level. CNS PNET and pineoblastoma have a worse clinical outcome than medulloblastoma; thus, improved therapies based on an understanding of the underlying biology of CNS PNET and pineoblastoma are n...

  16. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPECTRUM OF THE LESIONS OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish the relative frequency of biopsy proven tumors of central nervous system (CNS. Two hundred and forty two (242 CNS Biopsy specimens were studied in a one year period. Out of 72 CNS tumors, 66 were primary 4 were metastatic. Among 4 metastatic tumors, the most common histological type is adenocarcinoma. The most frequent type of CNS tumour was astrocytoma followed by meningioma.

  17. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Sanei Taheri; Mohammad Ali Karimi; Hamidreza Haghighatkhah; Ramin Pourghorban; Mohammad Samadian; Hosein Delavar Kasmaei

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging ...

  18. The Expression of MGMT and Ku80 in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma and Prognostic Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    The primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCSNL), as one of the uncommon extranodal lymphomas, has been recently paid more attention especially for its increasing incidence, unsatisfactory therapy and poor prognosis. MGMT is one of the most important factors determining drug resistance while Ku80 determining radiosensitivity, the expression of MGMT and Ku80 in PCNSL remains unclear. The aim of our study was to detect the expression of MGMT and Ku80 on PCNSL by IHC staining and to evaluate ...

  19. Immunological Barriers to Stem Cell Therapy in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Tullis, Gregory E.; Kathleen Spears; Kirk, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system is vulnerable to many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease that result in the extensive loss of neuronal cells. Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into many types of cells, which make them ideal for treating such disorders. Although stem cell therapy has shown some promising results in animal models for many brain disorders it has yet to translate into the clinic. A major hurdle to the translation of stem cell therapy into the clinic is ...

  20. The effects of normal aging on myelinated nerve fibers in monkey central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Peters

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aging on myelinated nerve fibers of the central nervous system are complex. Many myelinated nerve fibers in white matter degenerate and are lost, leading to some disconnections between various parts of the central nervous system. Other myelinated nerve fibers are affected differently, because only their sheaths degenerate, leaving the axons intact. Such axons are remyelinated by a series of internodes that are much shorter than the original ones and are composed of thinner sheaths. Thus the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system, the oligodendrocytes, remain active during aging. Indeed, not only do these neuroglial cell remyelinate axons, with age they also continue to add lamellae to the myelin sheaths of intact nerve fibers, so that sheaths become thicker. It is presumed that the degeneration of myelin sheaths is due to the degeneration of the parent oligodendrocyte, and that the production of increased numbers of internodes as a consequence of remyelination requires additional oligodendrocytes. Whether there is a turnover of oligodendrocytes during life has not been studied in primates, but it has been established that over the life span of the monkey, there is a substantial increase in the numbers of oligodendrocytes. While the loss of some myelinated nerve fibers leads to some disconnections, the degeneration of other myelin sheaths and the subsequent remyelination of axons by shorter internodes slow down the rate conduction along nerve fibers. These changes affect the integrity and timing in neuronal circuits, and there is evidence that they contribute to cognitive decline.

  1. A Case Of Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Who Presented With Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sırma Geyik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNV is limited with central nervous system and rare vasculitis that mostly seen in middle-aged men. PCNV vasculitis is usually presented that headache, dementia, stroke and multifocal common neurological symptoms. PCNV especially involves small medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. 43 years old male patient who have been progressive forgetfulness and headache for 3 years. He applied with recurrent that before starting right focal and than sprawling whole body which generalized tonic-clonic seizures to us. During management that he was transfered to the intensive care unit due to status epilepticus (SE. Later than we found right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right babinski positivity in neurologic examination. Diffusion restriction was revealed in left MCA territory in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging(MRI. EEG showed two types abnormality that a slow background ritm and epileptiform activity. Biochemistry of blood, complete blood count, blood sedimentation rate, CRP and markers of vasculitis were found in the normal range. Cerebral anjiography revealed that irregularities in the distal vascular areas and fusiform aneurysm at the top of basilar artery. He was consulted with rheumatology and diagnosed central nervous system vasculitis with the existing findings. Biopsy couldn't be taken from the brain to verify the diagnosis. Finally, we applied treatment that pulse steroid and cyclophosphamide to patient. This case has been presented due to emphasize that PCNV rarely may play a role in the etiology of recurrent stroke and status epilepticus.

  2. Expression of connexin 36 in central nervous system and its role in epileptic seizure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yu-fen; WU Jiong-xing; YANG Heng; DONG Xuan-qi; ZHENG Wen; SONG Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the experimental and clinical studies those show the expression of connexin 36 in the central nervous system and the possible role of connexin 36 in epileptic seizure.Data sources All articles used in this review were mainly searched from PubMed published in English from 1996 to 2012.Study selection Odginal articles and reviews were selected if they were related to the expression of connexin 36 in the central nervous system and its role in epilepsy.Results The distribution of connexin 36 is developmentally regulated,cell-specific and region-specific.Connexin 36 is involved in some neuronal functions and epileptic synchronization.Changes in the connexin 36 gene and protein were accompanied by seizures.Selective gap junction blockers have exerted anticonvulsant actions in a variety of experiments examined in both humans end experimental animals.Conclusions Connexin 36 plays an important role in both physiological and pathological conditions in the central nervous system.A better understanding of the role of connexin 36 in seizure activity may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to treating epilepsy.

  3. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  4. ACE2-Mediated Reduction of Oxidative Stress in the Central Nervous System Is Associated with Improvement of Autonomic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Huijing Xia; Sonia Suda; Sharell Bindom; Yumei Feng; Gurley, Susan B.; Dale Seth; L Gabriel Navar; Eric Lazartigues

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII) into Ang-(1-7), ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells) treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hA...

  5. The gut microbiota and its correlations with the central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, R; Anzalone, M; Calabrese, F; Milazzo, M; Capuana, M; Italia, A; Occhipinti, S; Marotta, F

    2015-09-01

    A mutual impact of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and central nervous system (CNS) functions has been recognized since the mid-twentieth century. It is accepted that the so-called gut-brain axis provides a two-way homeostatic communication, through immunological, hormonal and neuronal signals. A dysfunction of this axis has been associated with the pathogenesis of some diseases both within and outside the GIT, that have shown an increase in incidence over the last decades. Studies comparing germ-free animals and animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotics or antibiotics suggest the participation of the microbiota in this communication and a role in host defense, regulation of immunity and autoimmune disease appearance. The GIT could represent a vulnerable area through which pathogens influence all aspects of physiology and even induce CNS neuro-inflammation. All those concepts may suggest the modulation of the gut microbiota as an achievable strategy for innovative therapies in complex disorders. Moving from this background, the present review discusses the relationship between intestinal microbiota and CNS and the effects in health and disease. We particularly look at how the commensal gut microbiota influences systemic immune response in some neurological disorders, highlighting its impact on pain and cognition in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barrè Syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and Alzheimer's disease. In this review we discuss recent studies showing that the potential microbiota-gut-brain dialogue is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Gaining a better understanding of the relationship between microbiota and CNS could provide an insight on the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of these disorders. PMID:25390799

  6. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with hodgkin lymphoma with central nervous system involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheah, Chan Y; Bröckelmann, Paul J; Chihara, Dai;

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Thus, the clinical features and outcomes are not well described. Cases of histologically confirmed CNS HL diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 were retrospectively identified in institutional (n=7), national (n=2....../refractory disease in 11 (52%). Amongst these 11 patients, the median time from initial diagnosis of HL to development of CNS involvement was 1.9 years (range 0.4 - 6.6) and the median number of prior lines of therapy was 2 (range 1 - 7). Altogether, treatments included radiation, multi-agent systemic chemotherapy...

  7. Quantitative autoradiography of [125I] apamin binding sites in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, P K; Horvath, E; Seibold, G; Habermann, E

    1984-01-01

    The binding sites for [125I] apamin in the central nervous system of rat, guinea-pig, chicken and frog were assessed by quantitative autoradiography on X-ray film. In rat and guinea-pig brain apamin labels preferentially the limbic-olfactory system, i.e. nucleus olfactorius, nuclei septi, habenula and hippocampus. In the rat spinal cord the peptide binds preferentially to the substantia gelatinosa. Tectum opticum and nuclei isthmi are labelled in chicken brain. In frog brain no preferentially "apamin-stained" area was found. The role of the cerebral binding sites is still unknown, whereas the spinal sites may be involved in apamin poisoning. PMID:6335967

  8. Quantitative autoradiography of [125I] apamin binding sites in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding sites for [125I] apamin in the central nervous system of rat, guinea-pig, chicken and frog were assessed by quantitative autoradiography on X-ray film. In rat and guinea-pig brain apamin labels preferentially the limbic-olfactory system, i.e. nucleus olfactorius, nuclei septi, habenula and hippocampus. In the rat spinal cord the peptide binds preferentially to the substantia gelatinosa. Tectum opticum and nuclei isthmi are labelled in chicken brain. In frog brain no preferentially 'apamin-stained' area was found. The role of the cerebral binding sites is still unknown, whereas the spinal sites may be involved in apamin poisoning. (author)

  9. Quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 125/I) apamin binding sites in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicki, P.K.; Horvath, E.; Habermann, E. (Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Rudolf-Buchheim-Institut fuer Pharmakologie); Seibold, G. (Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum)

    1984-12-01

    The binding sites for (/sup 125/I) apamin in the central nervous system of rat, guinea-pig, chicken and frog were assessed by quantitative autoradiography on X-ray film. In rat and guinea-pig brain apamin labels preferentially the limbic-olfactory system, i.e. nucleus olfactorius, nuclei septi, habenula and hippocampus. In the rat spinal cord the peptide binds preferentially to the substantia gelatinosa. Tectum opticum and nuclei isthmi are labelled in chicken brain. In frog brain no preferentially 'apamin-stained' area was found. The role of the cerebral binding sites is still unknown, whereas the spinal sites may be involved in apamin poisoning.

  10. Detection and Cellular Localization of Phospho-STAT2 in the Central Nervous System by Immunohistochemical Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) indicates their involvement in active signaling. Here we describe immunohistochemical staining procedures for detection and identification of the cellular localization of phospho-STAT2 in the central nervous system (CNS...

  11. Protective Effects of Breast Milk on Central Nervous System and the Incidence of Febrile Convulsion in Breast-Fed Children

    OpenAIRE

    A Tayarani Bathayi; KH Farivar

    1999-01-01

    It is known that central nervous system is well protected in breast-fed children, recognized in decreased incidence of multiple sclerosis, infectious and malignant diseases of the central nervous system, sudden infant death syndrome, 5th day convulsion, and botulism as well as an increase in IQ rates. In this retrospective study we have found also an indirect correlation between in incidence of febrile convulsion and length of breast-feeding. Among 270 cases of febrile convulsion 144 (53.3%) ...

  12. Primary Central Nervous System Burkitt Lymphoma With Non-Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Translocation in Right Ventricle: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Guan, Yong-Song; Zou, Li-qun

    2011-01-01

    Primary central nervous system Burkitt lymphoma (PCNSBL) is rare. Few cases of primary central nervous system involvement with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma have been reported and its treatment is now controversial. Here, the authors report a case of a 14-year-old boy suffering from non-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) translocation PCNSBL. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second case report describing primary Burkitt lymphoma involving cerebral ventricles. After receiving combination treat...

  13. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the central nervous system: evidence from experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F H; Bøgh, I B; Lykkesfeldt, J

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) is a major acute complication in type 1 as well as in type 2 diabetes, particularly during intensive insulin therapy. The brain plays a central role in the counter-regulatory response by eliciting parasympathetic and sympathetic hormone responses to restore normoglycaemia. Brain glucose concentrations, being approximately 15-20% of the blood glucose concentration in humans, are rigorously maintained during hypoglycaemia through adaptions such as increased cerebral glucose transport, decreased cerebral glucose utilisation and, possibly, by using central nervous system glycogen as a glucose reserve. However, during sustained hypoglycaemia, the brain cannot maintain a sufficient glucose influx and, as the cerebral hypoglycaemia becomes severe, electroencephalogram changes, oxidative stress and regional neuronal death ensues. With particular focus on evidence from experimental studies on nondiabetic IIH, this review outlines the central mechanisms behind the counter-regulatory response to IIH, as well as cerebral adaption to avoid sequelae of cerebral neuroglycopaenia, including seizures and coma. PMID:24428753

  14. The ultrastructure of prosternal sensory hair afferents within the locust central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A H; Pflüger, H J

    1984-01-01

    The sensory neurones innervating long prosternal hairs of Locusta migratorioides were backfilled with horseradish peroxidase through their dendrites. The neurones' central projections in and around the medial ventral tract were examined with electron microscopy. Most synapses occur on axon collaterals which ramify through the neuropile around the tract where both input and output synapses were observed. Serial sectioning methods were used to determine the relative distribution of inputs and outputs which often lie in close proximity to one another on the axon terminals. The prosternal hair terminals contain agranular synaptic vesicles approximately 37 nm in diameter. Surrounding unidentified neuropilar profiles contain vesicles which are either statistically indistinguishable in size, or are larger, 45 nm diameter agranular vesicles. Neurones which are pre- or postsynaptic to labelled terminals generally contain vesicles of the second type. Input synapses onto the central terminals of primary afferent neurones can be recognised as a widespread phenomenon in the nervous systems of both invertebrates and vertebrates which will allow a fine degree of control of sensory inflow into the central nervous system. PMID:6709188

  15. Central nervous system regulation of eating: Insights from human brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Olivia M; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-05-01

    Appetite and body weight regulation are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) in a rather complicated manner. The human brain plays a central role in integrating internal and external inputs to modulate energy homeostasis. Although homeostatic control by the hypothalamus is currently considered to be primarily responsible for controlling appetite, most of the available evidence derives from experiments in rodents, and the role of this system in regulating appetite in states of hunger/starvation and in the pathogenesis of overeating/obesity remains to be fully elucidated in humans. Further, cognitive and affective processes have been implicated in the dysregulation of eating behavior in humans, but their exact relative contributions as well as the respective underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We briefly review each of these systems here and present the current state of research in an attempt to update clinicians and clinical researchers alike on the status and future directions of obesity research. PMID:27085777

  16. Incidence and risk factors for central nervous system relapse in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Peres Cancela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite all the advances in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system relapse remains an important obstacle to curing these patients. This study analyzed the incidence of central nervous system relapse and the risk factors for its occurrence in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS: This study has a retrospective cohort design. The studied population comprised 199 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia followed up at Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG between March 2001 and August 2009 and submitted to the Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemia da Infância - acute lymphoblastic leukemia (GBTLI-LLA-99 treatment protocol. RESULTS: The estimated probabilities of overall survival and event free survival at 5 years were 69.5% ( 3.6% and 58.8% ( 4.0%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of central nervous system (isolated or combined relapse was 11.0% at 8 years. The estimated rate of isolated central nervous system relapse at 8 years was 6.8%. In patients with a blood leukocyte count at diagnosis > 50 x 10(9/L, the estimated rate of isolated or combined central nervous system relapse was higher than in the group with a count 50 x 10(9/L at diagnosis seems to be a significant prognostic factor for a higher incidence of central nervous system relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  17. MicroRNA in central nervous system trauma and degenerative disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nai-Kui; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of target mRNAs leading to their translational inhibition or sometimes degradation. MiRNAs are predicted to control the activity of at least 20–30% of human protein-coding genes. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) including the brain and spinal cord. Alt...

  18. Meningeous sarcoma: a rare tumor among the central nervous system neoplasia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a case of meningeous malignancy in childhood, diagnosed by the Pediatric Department of the Cancer Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and do revise the world literature as well. The meningeous sarcoma (M S) is an extremely aggressive tumor, which appears in the central nervous system, at any age, but mainly in children. They represent a tiny percentage of brain tumors in children and sporadic cases are related in the world literature. Consequently, there are not enough clinical experiences about this distinct entity to allow the conclusion about which is the best therapeutic approach. (author)

  19. Extracellular matrix molecules play diverse roles in the growth and guidance of central nervous system axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pires-Neto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and guidance represent complex biological processes in which probably intervene diverse sets of molecular cues that allow for the appropriate wiring of the central nervous system (CNS. The extracellular matrix (ECM represents a major contributor of molecular signals either diffusible or membrane-bound that may regulate different stages of neural development. Some of the brain ECM molecules form tridimensional structures (tunnels and boundaries that appear during time- and space-regulated events, possibly playing relevant roles in the control of axon elongation and pathfinding. This short review focuses mainly on the recognized roles played by proteoglycans, laminin, fibronectin and tenascin in axonal development during ontogenesis.

  20. DNA damage-induced cell death: lessons from the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena Lobo Borges; Rafael Linden; Jean YJ Wang

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage can, but does not always, induce cell death. While several pathways linking DNA damage signals to mitochondria-dependent and -independent death machineries have been elucidated, the connectivity of these pathways is subject to regulation by multiple other factors that are not well understood. We have proposed two conceptual models to explain the delayed and variable cell death response to DNA damage: integrative surveillance versus autonomous pathways. In this review, we discuss how these two models may explain the in vivo regulation of cell death induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in the developing central nervous system, where the death response is regulated by radiation dose, cell cycle status and neuronal development.

  1. Unusual location of central nervous system langerhans cell histiocytosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. Yup; Lee, Jae Kyu; Kim, Chan Kyo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Phil Wook [Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system (CNS) usually involves the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and T1-weighted MR images normally demonstrate infundibular thickening and/or a mass lesion in the hypothalamus and the absence of a posterior pituitary 'bright spot'. We recently encountered a case of CNS langerhans cell histiocytosis with no posterior pituitary 'bright spot' and with lesions involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia but not the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  2. Evaluation of central nervous system effects of Citrus limon essential oil in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lidianne Mayra Lopes Campêlo; Sidney Gonçalo Lima; Chistiane Mendes Feitosa; Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) depressant and anticonvulsant activities of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, essential oil (EO) were investigated in animal models. The EO (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) injected by oral route (p.o.) in mice caused a significant decrease in the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to thirty days after the administration and the dose of 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Additio...

  3. Tumors of the central nervous system in the first year of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of 8 patients with tumors of the central nervous system in the first year of life was carried out. They were diagnosed in the Southern Children Hospital of Santiago de Cuba from 1987 to 2008, 5 of them (62,5%) had died when the present article was made. The treatments indicated in this case are the resection of the tumor mass, the most radical surgery depending on its size and localization, as well as the chemotherapy according to the tissular type

  4. Survival of the children population with tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of all the patients with tumors of the central nervous system, admitted to the Southern Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from 1987 to 2006, in order to analyze the survival of this population whose mean was 45-49 months ± 5,84. It was found that age, tissue aspects, anatomical site, and resection degree, as well as the applied treatments (radiotherapy and chemotherapy), constituted decisive factors to improve the life prognosis of the case material. (author)

  5. Dynamics of radioactive water penetration from hydrophilic contact lenses into eye and central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid penetration was shown of radioactivity into the cornea, lens, eye bulb, and by axoplasma transport and by the blood stream into the optic nerve, the visual pathways and into the occipital lobe - the cortical part of the visual pathway. With the application of a corneal hydrophylic lens saturated with tritiated water the penetration of radioactive water into the CNS was rapid and did not exceed 5 minutes in the experimental animals. Attention is drawn to the danger of easy contamination with radioactive water and to the fact that the eye represents a significant entrance for the penetration of radioactivity into eye tissue and into the central nervous system. (author)

  6. Diverse roles of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2010-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), upon activation by Ca(2+) or other physiologically relevant polycationic molecules, performs diverse functions in the brain. The CaSR is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and is characterized by a robust increase in its...... cell surface expression, activation, signaling, and functions. In normal physiology as well as in pathologic conditions, CaSR is activated by signals arising from mineral ions, amino acids, polyamines, glutathione, and amyloid-beta in conjunction with Ca(2+) and other divalent cationic ligands. Ca...

  7. Cysts of the central nervous system : a clinicopathologic study of 145 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram C

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic, non-inflammatory cysts of the central nervous system may cause symptoms because of pressure, rupture or secondary inflammation. A total of 145 cases of cysts were reviewed during a study period of 12 years. The clinical details and histological features were noted in all cases. During this period 53 epidermoid cysts, 16 dermoid cysts, 38 colloid cysts, 23 arachnoid cysts, 5 neurenteric cysts, 5 ependymal and glial cysts, 2 Rathke′s cleft cysts and 3 unclassified cysts were encountered. The possible histogenesis is also discussed.

  8. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal ultrasonography is the primary screening modality for the evaluation of fetal pathology. Ultrafast fetal MRI is a recent development that examines the fetus in utero. The short acquisition times (as short as 400 ms/slice) allow to picture freeze the fetus without the need for fetal sedation. The high spatial resolution, good contrast-to-noise ratio, and the multiplanar capabilities are especially advantageous in pathologies of the fetal central nervous system (CNS). Fetal MRI currently serves as a second-line imaging tool for complex fetal cerebral malformations and pathologies. Fetal ventriculomegaly, lesions within the posterior fossa, and abnormalities in cerebral myelination, migration, and sulcation are particularly well identified. (orig.)

  9. Efficient reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus from mouse central nervous system tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Heng; Yao, Hui-Wen; Huang, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lei, Huan-Yao; Shiau, Ai-Li; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2006-12-01

    For decades, numerous ex vivo studies have documented that latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates efficiently from ganglia, but rarely from the central nervous systems (CNS), of mice when assayed by mincing tissues before explant culture, despite the presence of viral genomes in both sites. Here we show that 88% of mouse brain stems reactivated latent virus when they were dissociated into cell suspensions before ex vivo explant culture. The efficient reactivation of HSV from the mouse CNS was demonstrated with more than one viral strain, viral serotype, and mouse strain, further indicating that the CNS can be an authentic latency site for HSV with the potential to cause recurrent disease. PMID:17005636

  10. Selenium in the central nervous system of the rat after exposure to L-selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    1990-01-01

    the anterior pituitary of rats exposed to sodium selenite (Thorlacius-Ussing and Danscher 1985). This histochemical method demonstrates complexes of exogenous selenium and endogenous metal. In the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary, selenium is suggested to form bonds with zinc...... of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark Received April 7 / Accepted July 27, 1990 Summary. Selenium precipitates were demonstrated Selenium precipitates were demonstrated histochemically by silver amplification at light and electron microscopic levels in the anterior pituitary of...

  11. Modern imaging of tuberculosis in children: thoracic, central nervous system and abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis (TB) can affect any organ in the body. Children are a high-risk group for contracting the disease and pose a constant challenge to clinicians with regard to making a definitive diagnosis. Radiologists are playing a more active role in diagnosing TB, and armed with more accurate diagnostic investigations such as CT and MRI, they must face the cost implications as well as technical limitations. This review aims to guide the reader through the modern imaging techniques useful for diagnosing TB of the thorax, central nervous system and abdomen in children. The more specific features of each modality in the particular anatomical regions are highlighted. (orig.)

  12. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sanei Taheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy.

  13. Central nervous system tuberculosis: an imaging-focused review of a reemerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Pourghorban, Ramin; Samadian, Mohammad; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy. PMID:25653877

  14. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Bøgh, I. B.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    normoglycaemia. Brain glucose concentrations, being approximately 15-20% of the blood glucose concentration in humans, are rigorously maintained during hypoglycaemia through adaptions such as increased cerebral glucose transport, decreased cerebral glucose utilisation and, possibly, by using central nervous...

  15. Analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involving the central nervous system by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) commonly occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). But definitive diagnosis remains difficult even with computed tomography (CT). In this study, we used the recently developed technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for CNS lupus and compared it with CT scans. CT was performed with a General Electric 8800 CT/T scanner. MRI was performed using a Mitsubishi Electric MMI-150 S. Ten patients with CNS lupus were divided into 3 groups. Group I included 4 cases with neurological manifestations alone. All lesions seen on CT were also detected by MRI, with greater clarity and extent. Furthermore, MRI depicted several microinfarcts in white matter without symptoms. Group II included 5 cases with psychiatric features alone. MRI detected a thalamic microinfarct in only one case while CT showed no abnormality in all cases. Group III included 1 case with both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. MRI demonstrated a small infarct of midbrain corresponding with neurological symptoms, more clearly than CT. Therefore MRI demonstrates the degree of brain involvement in SLE more accurately than CT. (author)

  16. Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents

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    R Nassen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive children and adolescents are at increased risk of both central nervous system (CNS sequelae and mental disorders owing to a number of factors, including the impact of HIV infection on the brain, social determinants of health (e.g. poverty and orphanhood and psychosocial stressors related to living with HIV. Every effort should be made to identify perinatally HIV-infected children and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy early in life. HIV clinicians should ideally screen for mental health and neurocognitive problems, as part of the routine monitoring of children attending antiretroviral clinics. This guideline is intended as a reference tool for HIV clinicians to support the early identification, screening and management of mental health disorders and/or CNS impairment in children and adolescents. This guideline covers mental disorders (section 1 and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (section 2 among children and adolescents.  

  17. The Intrinsic Electrophysiological Properties of Mammalian Neurons: Insights into Central Nervous System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Rodolfo R.

    1988-12-01

    This article reviews the electroresponsive properties of single neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In some of these cells the ionic conductances responsible for their excitability also endow them with autorhythmic electrical oscillatory properties. Chemical or electrical synaptic contacts between these neurons often result in network oscillations. In such networks, autorhytmic neurons may act as true oscillators (as pacemakers) or as resonators (responding preferentially to certain firing frequencies). Oscillations and resonance in the CNS are proposed to have diverse functional roles, such as (i) determining global functional states (for example, sleep-wakefulness or attention), (ii) timing in motor coordination, and (iii) specifying connectivity during development. Also, oscillation, especially in the thalamo-cortical circuits, may be related to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review proposes that the autorhythmic electrical properties of central neurons and their connectivity form the basis for an intrinsic functional coordinate system that provides internal context to sensory input.

  18. Infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en un hospital de Lima, Perú Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Iván O Espinoza; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Susan Mosquito; Francesca Barletta; Roger Hernández; María del Pilar Medina; María Luisa Stiglich; Claudia Ugarte; Daniel Guillén

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1), virus h...

  19. Central nervous system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae): an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-09-01

    This study performed the ultrastructural description of the synganglion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus males and females, aiming to contribute to the understanding of the cellular organization of this organ. The results show that the central nervous system of these individuals consists of a mass of fused nerves, named synganglion, from where nerves emerge towards several parts of the body. It is surrounded by the neural lamella, a uniform and acellular layer, constituted by repeated layers of homogeneous and finely granular material. The perineurium is just below, composed of glial cells, which extensions invaginate throughout the nervous tissue. The synganglion is internally divided into an outer cortex, which contains the cellular bodies of the neural cells and an inner neuropile. The neural cells can be classified into two types according to cell size, cytoplasm-nucleus relation, and neurosecretory activity. Type I cells are oval or spherical and present a large nucleus occupying most part of the cytoplasm, which contains few organelles. Type 2 cells are polygonal, present a great cytoplasm volume, and their nuclei are located in the cell periphery. The cytoplasm of these cells contains a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi regions, mitochondria, and several neurosecretory granules. The subperineurium and the tracheal ramifications are found between the cortex and the neuropile. The latter is formed mainly by neural fibers, tracheal elements, and glial cells. The results obtained show that R. sanguineus males' and females' nervous tissue present an ultrastructural organization similar to the one described in the literature for other tick species. PMID:22610445

  20. Systemic 5-fluorouracil treatment causes a syndrome of delayed myelin destruction in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ruolan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer treatment with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents often is associated with delayed adverse neurological consequences. Despite their clinical importance, almost nothing is known about the basis for such effects. It is not even known whether the occurrence of delayed adverse effects requires exposure to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, the presence of both chemotherapeutic agents and the body's own response to cancer, prolonged damage to the blood-brain barrier, inflammation or other such changes. Nor are there any animal models that could enable the study of this important problem. Results We found that clinically relevant concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; a widely used chemotherapeutic agent were toxic for both central nervous system (CNS progenitor cells and non-dividing oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Short-term systemic administration of 5-FU caused both acute CNS damage and a syndrome of progressively worsening delayed damage to myelinated tracts of the CNS associated with altered transcriptional regulation in oligodendrocytes and extensive myelin pathology. Functional analysis also provided the first demonstration of delayed effects of chemotherapy on the latency of impulse conduction in the auditory system, offering the possibility of non-invasive analysis of myelin damage associated with cancer treatment. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that systemic treatment with a single chemotherapeutic agent, 5-FU, is sufficient to cause a syndrome of delayed CNS damage and provide the first animal model of delayed damage to white-matter tracts of individuals treated with systemic chemotherapy. Unlike that caused by local irradiation, the degeneration caused by 5-FU treatment did not correlate with either chronic inflammation or extensive vascular damage and appears to represent a new class of delayed degenerative damage in the CNS.

  1. CD93 and GIPC expression and localization during central nervous system inlfammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Liu; Zhichao Cui; Shengjie Wang; Dongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    CD93 and GAIP-interacting protein, C termius (GIPC) have been shown to interactively alter phagocytic processes of immune cells. CD93 and GIPC expression and localization during cen-tral nervous system inflammation have not yet been reported. In this study, we established a rat model of brain inlfammation by lipopolysaccharide injection to the lateral ventricle. In the brain of rats with inlfammation, western blots showed increased CD93 expression that decreased over time. GIPC expression was unaltered. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated extensive distribution of CD93 expression mainly in cell membranes in the cerebral cortex. After lipopoly-saccharide stimulation, CD93 expression increased and then reduced, with distinct staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Double immunolfuorescence staining in cerebral cortex of normal rats showed that CD93 and GIPC widely expressed in resting microglia and neurons. CD93 was mainly expressed in microglial and neuronal cell membranes, while GIPC was expressed in both cell membrane and cytoplasm. In the cerebral cortex at 9 hours after model establishment, CD93-immunoreactive signal diminished in microglial membrane, with cytoplasmic transloca-tion and aggregation detected. GIPC localization was unaltered in neurons and microglia. These results are the ifrst to demonstrate CD93 participation in pathophysiological processes of central nervous system inlfammation.

  2. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortosa Raül

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations.

  3. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the central nervous system: changes and synthesis after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, F; Asher, R A; Fawcett, J W

    2003-04-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are up-regulated in the central nervous system after injury, specifically around the lesion site where the glial scar forms. This structure contains astrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, microglia and meningeal cells, and forms an inhibitory substrate for axon re-growth. CSPGs have been shown to be closely involved in this neuronal growth inhibition, specifically through their sugar chains. These chains are composed of repeats of the same disaccharide unit carrying sulphate groups in different positions. The sulphation pattern directly influences the CSPG binding properties and function; the specific sulphation pattern required for the inhibitory activity of these molecules on axon growth is unknown at present. The expression of the chondroitin sulphotransferases, which sulphate the disaccharide residues of CSPGs and thus are responsible for the structural diversity of the chondroitin sulphate sugar chains, is regulated differently in central nervous system during development and after injury, suggesting the implication of a specific sulphation pattern in the inhibitory activity of CSPGs. PMID:12653631

  4. Gene therapy for misfolding protein diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastian, Waldy; Samaranch, Lluis; Kells, Adrian P; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2013-07-01

    Protein aggregation as a result of misfolding is a common theme underlying neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, most recent studies aim to prevent protein misfolding and/or aggregation as a strategy to treat these pathologies. For instance, state-of-the-art approaches, such as silencing protein overexpression by means of RNA interference, are being tested with positive outcomes in preclinical models of animals overexpressing the corresponding protein. Therapies designed to treat central nervous system diseases should provide accurate delivery of the therapeutic agent and long-term or chronic expression by means of a nontoxic delivery vehicle. After several years of technical advances and optimization, gene therapy emerges as a promising approach able to fulfill those requirements. In this review we will summarize the latest improvements achieved in gene therapy for central nervous system diseases associated with protein misfolding (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion diseases), as well as the most recent approaches in this field to treat these pathologies. PMID:23700209

  5. Poliovirus trafficking toward central nervous system via human poliovirus receptor-dependent and -independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seii eOHKA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In humans, paralytic poliomyelitis results from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus (PV via the blood-brain barrier (BBB. After the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons (MNs, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, neural pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155-transgenic (Tg mice. We demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerve of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralysis in a hPVR-dependent manner. We also showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV exists in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Circulating PV after intravenous inoculation in mice cross the BBB at a high rate in a hPVR-independent manner. Recently, we identified transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells as a binding protein to PV, implicating that TfR1 is a possible receptor for PV to permeate the BBB.

  6. Proposal for research and education: joint lectures and practicals on central nervous system anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Ken; Satoh, Yoshihide; Nanayakkara, Chinthani D; Pallegama, Ranjith W; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    We coordinated anatomy and physiology lectures and practicals to facilitate an integrated understanding of morphology and function in a basic medical science program for dental students and to reduce the time spent on basic science education. This method is a means to provide the essential information and skills in less time. The overall impression was that the practice of joint central nervous system lectures and practicals was an efficient method for students, which suggests that joint lectures might also be useful for clinical subjects. About two-thirds of students felt that the joint anatomy and physiology lecture on the central nervous system was useful and necessary in understanding the relationship between morphology and function, at least for this subject. One-third of students were neutral on the effectiveness of this method. However, the survey results suggest that improvements are needed in the method and timing of joint lectures and practicals. The present teaching approach can be further improved by conducting combined lectures in which the form and function of anatomic structures are presented by the relevant departments during the same lecture. Finally, joint lecturers and practicals offer an opportunity to increase student understanding of the importance of new research findings by the present authors and other researchers. PMID:26621026

  7. Targeting choroid plexus epithelia and ventricular ependyma for drug delivery to the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopa Edward G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the choroid plexus (CP is uniquely suited to control the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, there may be therapeutic benefits to increasing the levels of biologically active proteins in CSF to modulate central nervous system (CNS functions. To this end, we sought to identify peptides capable of ligand-mediated targeting to CP epithelial cells reasoning that they could be exploited to deliver drugs, biotherapeutics and genes to the CNS. Methods A peptide library displayed on M13 bacteriophage was screened for ligands capable of internalizing into CP epithelial cells by incubating phage with CP explants for 2 hours at 37C and recovering particles with targeting capacity. Results Three peptides, identified after four rounds of screening, were analyzed for specific and dose dependant binding and internalization. Binding was deemed specific because internalization was prevented by co-incubation with cognate synthetic peptides. Furthermore, after i.c.v. injection into rat brains, each peptide was found to target phage to epithelial cells in CP and to ependyma lining the ventricles. Conclusion These data demonstrate that ligand-mediated targeting can be used as a strategy for drug delivery to the central nervous system and opens the possibility of using the choroid plexus as a portal of entry into the brain.

  8. In the presence of danger:the extracellular matrix defensive response to central nervous system injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyn B. Jakeman; Kent E. Williams; Bryan Brautigam

    2014-01-01

    Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to formation of the extracellular matrix, which provides adhesive sites, signaling molecules, and a diffusion barrier to enhance efifcient neurotransmission and axon potential propagation. In the normal adult CNS, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is relatively stable except in selected regions characterized by dynamic remodel-ing. However, after trauma such as a spinal cord injury or cortical contusion, the lesion epicenter becomes a focus of acute neuroinlfammation. The activation of the surrounding glial cells leads to a dramatic change in the composition of the ECM at the edges of the lesion, creating a perile-sion environment dominated by growth inhibitory molecules and restoration of the peripheral/central nervous system border. An advantage of this response is to limit the invasion of damaging cells and diffusion of toxic molecules into the spared tissue regions, but this occurs at the cost of inhibiting migration of endogenous repair cells and preventing axonal regrowth. The following review was prepared by reading and discussing over 200 research articles in the ifeld published in PubMed and selecting those with signiifcant impact and/or controversial points. This article highlights structural and functional features of the normal adult CNS ECM and then focuses on the reactions of glial cells and changes in the perilesion border that occur following spinal cord or contusive brain injury. Current research strategies directed at modifying the inhibitory perile-sion microenvironment without eliminating the protective functions of glial cell activation are discussed.

  9. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy. A clinical, computerized tomographic and electrophysiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Ritsuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro; Iwashita, Hiroshi; Kato, Motohiro

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author).

  10. Insulin hormone: Mechanism and effects on the body and relationship with central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zuhal Altunkaynak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most common andchronic disease all over the world. It is characterized witheither insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Insulin is ahormone which is secreted by beta cells in the LangerhansIslets of pancreas and playing a role in carbohydratemetabolism regulation in association with glucagon. Regardingthe insulin’s effects on carbohydrates, almost inall tissues (except brain insulin increases the facilitateddiffusion of glucose into cells and shows and an effect toreduce the blood glucose levels. In other words, it haveregulator role on blood sugar level; insulin secretion isknown to be associated with an increase in the amountof energy. Insulin secretion is related with increasing glucoselevel. It has been shown that it is closely relatedwith intracellular enzymes and has a stimulating effecton transcription of glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, phosphofructokinase and fructose-2,6 biphosphatase thatare glicolytic and an inhibitory effect on transcription ofphosphophenolpyruvate carboxykinase that is gluconeogenetic.Besides being the primary regulator of carbohydratemetabolism, insulin also has an important effect onlipid and protein metabolisms that are interrelated withcarbohydrate metabolism. For the basis of diabetes effectson Central Nervous system (CNS two mechanismsare emphasized; first is the oxidative stress developeddue to metabolic changes and the second is damagesof calcium ion metabolism. In this review, it was intendedto reach detailed information by reviewing insulin’s basiceffect mechanism, its reflection on cellular level and itsrelationship with central nervous system.

  11. Magnetic resonance features of primary central nervous system lymphoma in the immunocompetent patient: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon but important variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents up to 6% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. Recognition of this entity by radiologist on MRI may avoid unnecessary neurosurgical resection and redirect to biopsy. The pretreatment MRI of patients with biopsy proven PCNSL from the last 5 years at our institution was reviewed. Selected examples were used to construct a pictorial essay to illustrate some of the typical and atypical MR features of PCNSL. MRI of other CNS conditions with imaging similarities to PCNSL was included to demonstrate possible mimics. The typical features of PCNSL lymphoma are intra-axial homogenous single or multiple contrast enhancing lesions, with marked surrounding oedema and restricted diffusion, usually contacting a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surface. Necrosis, peripheral enhancement, haemorrhage or calcification are unusual and other diagnoses should be considered if any of these features are present. Potential mimics include high grade glioma, infarcts, metastatic disease, demyelination, abscess and secondary lymphoma. Careful assessment of the MR features and correlation with the clinical findings should enable the radiologists to raise the possibility of PCNSL and minimise the risk of unnecessary resection.

  12. Neuropsychological sequelae of central nervous system prophylaxis in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed neuropsychologically 106 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who had all received cranial irradiation for the prevention of central nervous system (CNS) leukemia 1-13 years previously. Children were assessed for adverse late effects of their therapy, using age-appropriate Wechsler measures of overall intellectual ability and supplementary tests. Forty-five siblings near in age to the patients were tested as controls. The patients who had had the most intensive central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis were found to have a WISC-R Full Scale IQ 17 points lower than the sibling control group. Performance IQ was more affected than verbal IQ. The patients were more easily distracted and less able to concentrate. The severity of the aftereffects was related to younger age at the time of CNS prophylaxis and to a higher dose of cranial irradiation but not to time since CNS prophylaxis. CNS prophylaxis using a combination of cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate has lowered the incidence of CNS relapse in childhood ALL but is associated with considerable long-term morbidity in survivors

  13. Links among glaucoma, neurodegenerative, and vascular diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Carlo; Martucci, Alessio; Cesareo, Massimo; Garaci, Francesco; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Russo, Rossella; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Mancino, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Although the intraocular pressure (IOP) has been considered for long time the key point and the only treatable risk factor of the disease, there are cases in which glaucoma continues to progress despite normal IOP values. Vision loss in glaucoma is related to a selective decrease in the number of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis that is associated to alterations of the central visual pathways. Interestingly, similar events have been also described in disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and cerebrovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss recent evidence supporting pathological links between glaucoma and disorders of the CNS. PMID:26518072

  14. Risk factors and disposition in development of the nervous system infections

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    Nešić Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although well protected, brain is not resistant to infection agents. Acute infections of our nervous system appear more often in children and in persons who have medical history data about previous disorders, especially disorders of the nervous system. It is difficult to list possible risk factors which can be responsible for the appearance of infections of CNS and the resulting conditions. It is often difficult or impossible to determine what previous neural damage was (trauma, anoxic damages etc. from those appearing during infections of CNS. All-inclusive anamnestic research reduces the possibility of approximate judgments. Material and methods. The research was based on the retrospective analysis of medical documentation of 275 patients. All patients were divided into three groups according to the final diagnosis. The first group consisted of 125 patients who were treated for acute virus encephalitis, the second group consisted of 125 patients who were treated for acute bacterial meningoencephalitis and the third group consisted of 25 patients who were treated for cerebritis. Discussion. In our studies sample, the youngest patient was 3 years old and the oldest was 87 years old. The highest number of patients with virus infection of the CNS was in the group under 25 years of age (45.6%. The highest number of patients with bacterial infections of the CNS and cerebritis was in the group of patients over 45 years of age (64%, 37%. Conclusion. Risk factors were more present in bacterial infections of the nervous system and cerebrit thanin virus infection of CNS. In virus infections of the CNS, 28% of patients had some risk factor, most often-chronic ethylism, diabetes mellitus and acquired heart diseases. In bacterial infections of the CNS, 64% of patients had some predisposed factor. The most frequent factor of risk in these patients were chronic otitis (21.6% and craniotrauma (14.4%. In cerebritis, risk factors were present in 76

  15. Structure of the central nervous system of a juvenile acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bery, Amandine; Cardona, Albert; Martinez, Pedro; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-09-01

    The neuroarchitecture of Acoela has been at the center of morphological debates. Some authors, using immunochemical tools, suggest that the nervous system in Acoela is organized as a commissural brain that bears little resemblance to the central, ganglionic type brain of other flatworms, and bilaterians in general. Others, who used histological staining on paraffin sections, conclude that it is a compact structure (an endonal brain; e.g., Raikova 2004; von Graff 1891; Delage Arch Zool Exp Gén 4:109-144, 1886). To address this question with modern tools, we have obtained images from serial transmission electron microscopic sections of the entire hatchling of Symsagittifera roscoffensis. In addition, we obtained data from wholemounts of hatchlings labeled with markers for serotonin and tyrosinated tubulin. Our data show that the central nervous system of a juvenile S. roscoffensis consists of an anterior compact brain, formed by a dense, bilobed mass of neuronal cell bodies surrounding a central neuropile. The neuropile flanks the median statocyst and contains several types of neurites, classified according to their types of synaptic vesicles. The neuropile issues three pairs of nerve cords that run at different dorso-ventral positions along the whole length of the body. Neuronal cell bodies flank the cords, and neuromuscular synapses are abundant. The TEM analysis also reveals different classes of peripheral sensory neurons and provides valuable information about the spatial relationships between neurites and other cell types within the brain and nerve cords. We conclude that the acoel S. roscoffensis has a central brain that is comparable in size and architecture to the brain of other (rhabditophoran) flatworms. PMID:20549514

  16. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  17. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  18. Distribution of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M S; Leunda, M R; Verna, A E; Morán, P E; Odeón, A C; Pérez, S E

    2016-03-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. BoHV-1 encephalitis is only occasionally reported. However, several cases of neurological disease have been recently attributed to BoHV-1. In this study, the distribution and pathological alterations caused by two BoHV-1 strains in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves during acute infection and reactivation are described. Calves were inoculated intranasally with BoHV-1 Los Angeles (BoHV-1.LA) or Cooper (BoHV-1.Cooper) strains. Acutely infected calves were euthanased at 6 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) and 7 days post-inoculation (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2). Latently infected calves that were given dexamethasone to induce reactivation were euthanased at 2 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) or 5 days (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2) after dexamethasone administration. Both BoHV-1 strains were isolated from the brains of acutely infected calves. Distribution of viral DNA in the neural tissues was similar for both strains. During reactivation, neither BoHV-1.LA nor BoHV-1.Cooper was isolated from any brain section or trigeminal ganglia in infected calves. Macroscopic lesions were not evident in any group. In BoHV-1.LA infected calves, microscopic lesions were found in the brain but not in the trigeminal ganglia. Microscopic lesions in the brain of BoHV-1.Cooper infected calves were not as evident as in BoHV-1.LA infected animals. However, mononuclear infiltrates and neuronophagia were present in trigeminal ganglia. The results of this study demonstrated that respiratory BoHV-1 strains are able to replicate and disseminate within the bovine nervous tissue and provide evidence of the neuroinvasiveness of BoHV-1 strains. PMID:26831158

  19. Central nervous system involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively evaluate CT and MR findings of central nervous system (CNS) involvement of leukemia and systemic lymphoma in children. Over a 12-year period, sixty-five patients with leukemia and fifteen patients with systemic lymphoma underwent cerebral CT and/or MR imaging. Nine patients were diagnosed as CNS involvement of leukemia and lymphoma. The CT and MR abnormalities in these patients were correlated with the findings of histology, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and/or treatment. The age of the patients ranged from 0 to 15 years old. They consisted of 6 boys and 3 girls. The CT examinations were performed before and after contrast administration. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T unit, and T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted images were obtained using spin-echo or fast spin-echo sequences. Tumor masses were present in seven with leukemia, and in two with malignant lymphoma. On the CT scan, tumor masses were hyperdense with contrast enhancement. On the MR images, their signals were variable. In all of nine patients, tumor masses were contiguous with a meningeal surface. Postcontrast T1-weighted images were valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. Tumoral hemorrhage was found in two patients. In a patient with tumor at the superior sagittal sinus, venous infarct was observed. CNS leukemic and lymphomatous masses are almost hyperdense on the CT and they are characteristically contiguous with a meningeal surface. MR imaging was valuable in demonstrating meningeal infiltration. (K.H.)

  20. Fetal central nervous system anomalies induced by congenital cytomegalovirus infection%先天性CMV感染致中枢神经系统畸形发育机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅鹰; 陈利玉; 罗敏华

    2006-01-01

    胎儿中枢神经系统(central nervous system,CNS)是人类巨细胞病毒(human cytomegalovirus,HCMV)先天性感染的主要靶器官.胚胎期CMV感染常常导致严重CNS畸形的发生,其前提条件是CNS中的神经前体(干)细胞、神经元及神经胶质细胞对CMV普遍易感.发育期CNS感染CMV具有以下特点:(1)神经系统细胞对CMV的容纳性在CNS的不同发育阶段有所不同;(2)受累的细胞数随着发育的进展而增多;(3)CNS不同部位的细胞对CMV的敏感性存在明显的差异;(4)感染发生时细胞所处细胞周期的时相也与感染严重程度密切相关.CMV感染能诱导宿主细胞特异性的染色体折断,影响Homeobox基因(胚胎发育的主控基因)的表达,进而阻断细胞周期(G1期滞留)、诱导细胞凋亡,导致CNS细胞数量减少与迁徙异常,最终导致CNS发育畸形.

  1. Comparative mapping of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Sakurai, Akira; Katz, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    The relative simplicity of certain invertebrate nervous systems, such as those of gastropod molluscs, allows behaviors to be dissected at the level of small neural circuits composed of individually identifiable neurons. Elucidating the neurotransmitter phenotype of neurons in neural circuits is important for understanding how those neural circuits function. In this study, we examined the distribution of γ-aminobutyric-acid;-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in four species of sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia): Tritonia diomedea, Melibe leonina, Dendronotus iris, and Hermissenda crassicornis. We found consistent patterns of GABA immunoreactivity in the pedal and cerebral-pleural ganglia across species. In particular, there were bilateral clusters in the lateral and medial regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglia as well as a cluster on the ventral surface of the pedal ganglia. There were also individual GABA-ir neurons that were recognizable across species. The invariant presence of these individual neurons and clusters suggests that they are homologous, although there were interspecies differences in the numbers of neurons in the clusters. The GABAergic system was largely restricted to the central nervous system, with the majority of axons confined to ganglionic connectives and commissures, suggesting a central, integrative role for GABA. GABA was a candidate inhibitory neurotransmitter for neurons in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying swimming behaviors in these species, however none of the known swim CPG neurons were GABA-ir. Although the functions of these GABA-ir neurons are not known, it is clear that their presence has been strongly conserved across nudibranchs. PMID:24638845

  2. [Successful treatment with total cranial irradiation for central nervous system involvement of Langerhans cell sarcoma during chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Noriharu; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Yamashita, Takeshi; Kondo, Yukio; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm of Langerhans cell origin characterized by systemic involvement and a poor prognosis. There are, however, few reports of LCS with central nervous system involvement. We experienced a patient with LCS recurrence in the brain that appeared during systemic chemotherapy. The brains lesions eventually responded to total cranial irradiation. A 60-year-old female presented with systemic lymphadenopathy. LCS was diagnosed based on neck lymph node biopsy findings. Two cycles of ESHAP induced marked regression of her lymphadenopathy, but FDG-PET/CT scan revealed new lesions in the central nervous system and her disorientation gradually worsened. We administered 37.5 Gy of total cranial irradiation which improved her consciousness and shrank the brain tumors as demonstrated by MRI. The patient's clinical course indicates that radiation therapy may be effective for central nervous system involvement of LCS even if the lesion is resistant to systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26861100

  3. Central nervous system involvement in the autonomic responses to psychological distress

    OpenAIRE

    de Morree, H. M.; Szabó, B. M.; Rutten, G.-J.; Kop, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological distress can trigger acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death in vulnerable patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism that plays a role in stress-induced cardiac events involves the autonomic nervous system, particularly disproportional sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal. This article describes the relation between psychological distress and autonomic nervous system function, with a focus on subsequent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The rol...

  4. Visualization of cytokine and virus receptors common to the immune and central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and the human retrovirus HTLV-III/LAV represent two distinct molecular and biological constituents that are apparently shared by both the immune and central nervous systems. IL-1 is a cytokine produced principally by monocytes of the immune system and glial cells of brain in situ or in vitro. HTLV-III/LAV represents a unique class of human retrovirus which is the recognized etiological vector of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) which exhibits cellular tropism to helper T lymphocytes or brain by the interactions with an entry protein previously described as the T4 antigen. Autoradiography was used to examine the specific binding distribution of 125I-IL-1 alpha and anti-T4 antibody to rat and squirrel monkey brain sections, respectively. Representative data shows unique neuroanatomical distributions of the IL-1 binding protein (receptor) and the T4 antigen in brain. The autoradiographic study provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of shared receptors between the immune and nervous systems and offers potential for the discovery of new biological or pathological interactions of these common physiological constituents

  5. Radiation therapy treatment planning for tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential to attempt to minimize the effect of radiation on the normal brain and spinal cord in treatment planning. The central nervous system was thought to be resistant to radiation; however, as data have accumulated concerning the late effects of radiation the nervous system has been shown to be more sensitive. Recently the late effects of radiation on the spinal cord have been evaluated and it has been shown the sensitivity of this portion of the nervous system to high doses of radiation and has pointed out the importance of fractionation. It is estimated that the spinal cord increases its sensitivity by 1.6 by increasing the dose per fraction from 2. to 3 Gy. Likewise, the sensitivity of the optic nerve to radiation has been reported particularly when the size of the fraction is greater than 2 Gy. In treatment planning, therefore, the size of the dose given per fraction is important in the initial part of the planning procedure. In order to keep the dose per fraction to a minimum (2 Gy or less), multiple fields may be used to minimize the dose gradient in the high dose area. When treating with multiple fields it is wise to treat each field every day. In planning treatment not only must one consider the normal brain and spinal cord but one must also consider the radiosensitivity of other surrounding organs. The eye, particularly the lens, should be avoided if possible in order to prevent the formation of a radiation cataract. The salivary gland is sensitive to radiation and the ear has recently been reported to have some sensitivity to high doses of radiation. When planning treatment for the spinal cord one must consider the sensitivity of the cord itself and as well as the effect of radiation on the bone marrow in the vertebral bodies adjacent to the spinal cord. The heat, the lungs, and organs in the abdomen must also be considered in planning treatment on the torso

  6. What Are the Parts of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system: The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerve fibers that ...

  7. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced.

  8. Role of Immune Cells in the Course of Central Nervous System Injury: Modulation with Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells actively participate to the central nervous system (CNS) injury either damaging or protecting neural tissue with release of various mediators. Residential microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages play a fundamental role within the injured CNS and, here, special emphasis will be placed on M1 and M2 macrophages for their different functional activities. On the other hand, peripheral T regulatory (Treg) cells exert antiinflammatory activities in the diseased host. In this respect, activation of Treg cells by nutraceuticals may represent a novel approach to treat neuroinflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols will be described as substances endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, taking into account that Treg cells act in the later phase of CNS injury, favoring immune suppression, manipulation of host immune system with both substances requires caution to avoid undesired side effects. PMID:26635268

  9. A case of Erdheim Chester disease with central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erdheim Chester disease (ECD is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, commonly involving the musculoskeletal system. Other tissue can also be involved, including the central nervous system with wide spectrum of clinical features, at times being nonspecific. This can cause diagnostic dilemmas with delay in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here we describe a 63-year-old man who had presented with ataxia and behavioral changes, bony pains, weight loss, and fatigue. His computed tomography (CT, 99Tc scintigraphy and histopathological features on bone biopsy were consistent with ECD. Thus, ECD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bony pain and nonspecific features of multiorgan involvement.

  10. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system with diffuse cerebral mass effect and giant cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-02-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), also called primary CNS vasculitis, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition affecting only intracranial and spinal cord vessels, particularly medium-sized and smaller arteries and arterioles. Angiography and histopathology typically do not reveal evidence of systemic vasculitis.(1,2) Histopathology usually reveals granulomatous inflammation affecting arterioles and small arteries of the parenchyma and\\/or leptomeninges, similar to that seen in Takayasu\\'s or giant cell arteritis.(1-3) We report a patient with biopsy-proven PACNS with giant cells and cerebral mass effect on MRI. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography appeared normal and there was no evidence of extracranial vasculitis.

  11. Immune system modulation in the central nervous system: A possible role for endocannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immune system is designed to protect the body from infection and tumor formation. To perform this function, cells of the immune system can be dangerous for the survival and function of the neuronal network in the brain under the influence of infection or immune imbalance. An attack of immune cells inside the brain includes the potential for severe neuronal damage or cell death and therefore impairment of the CNS function. To avoid such undesirable action of the immune system, the CNS performs a cascade of cellular and molecular mechanisms enabling strict control of immune reactions immune privilege. Under inflammatory and patholological conditions, uncontrolled immune system results in the activation of neuronal damage that is frequently associated with neurological diseases. On the other hand, processes of neuroprotection and neurorepair after neuronal damage depend on a steady and tightly controlled immunesurvelliance. Many immunoprotectants play a role to imbalance the immune reactions in the CNS and other organs which presents an important therapeutic target. It has been reported recently that endocannabinoids are secreted in abundance in the CNS following neuronal insult, probably for its protection. There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Both are coupled to G proteins. CB1 receptors exist primarily on central and peripheral neurons. CB2 receptors are present mainly on immune cells. Endogenous agonists for cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids), have been discovered, the most important being arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG), and 2-archidonyl glyceryl ether. Following their release, endocannabinoids are removed from the extracellular space and then degraded by intracellular enzymic hydrolysis. Therapeutic uses of cannabinoid receptor agonists/antagonists include the management of many disease conditions. They are also involved in immune system suppression and in cell to cell communication

  12. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng X

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1–100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic, which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB, which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs, including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS. Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems. Keywords: dental, nanomaterials, central nervous system, toxicity, testing methods, risk assessment

  13. Localization of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ríos, M; Suess, E; Miller, M W

    1999-10-18

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in the central nervous system of Aplysia californica (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) where its role as a neurotransmitter is supported by pharmacological, biochemical, and anatomical investigations. In this study, the distribution of GABA-immunoreactive (GABAi) neurons and fiber systems in Aplysia was examined by using wholemount immunohistochemistry and nerve backfill methods. GABAi neurons were located in the buccal, cerebral, and pedal ganglia. Major commissural fiber systems were present in each of these ganglia, whereas more limited fiber systems were observed in the ganglionic connectives. Some of the interganglionic fibers were found to originate from two unpaired GABAi neurons, one in the buccal ganglion and one in the right pedal ganglion, each of which exhibited bilateral projections. No GABAi fibers were found in the nerves that innervate peripheral sensory, motor, or visceral organs. Although GABAi cells were not observed in the pleural or abdominal ganglia, these ganglia did receive limited projections of GABAi fibers originating from neurons in the pedal ganglia. The distribution of GABAi neurons suggests that this transmitter system may be primarily involved in coordinating certain bilateral central pattern generator (CPG) systems related to feeding and locomotion. In addition, the presence of specific interganglionic GABAi projections also suggests a role in the regulation or coordination of circuits that produce components of complex behaviors. PMID:10524338

  14. Facilitation of breathing by leptin effects in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, M; Furuya, W I; Zoccal, D B; Menani, J V; Colombari, D S A; Mulkey, D K; Colombari, E

    2016-03-15

    With the global epidemic of obesity, breathing disorders associated with excess body weight have markedly increased. Respiratory dysfunctions caused by obesity were originally attributed to mechanical factors; however, recent studies have suggested a pathophysiological component that involves the central nervous system (CNS) and hormones such as leptin produced by adipocytes as well as other cells. Leptin is suggested to stimulate breathing and leptin deficiency causes an impairment of the chemoreflex, which can be reverted by leptin therapy. This facilitation of the chemoreflex may depend on the action of leptin in the hindbrain areas involved in the respiratory control such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a site that receives chemosensory afferents, and the ventral surface of the medulla that includes the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a central chemosensitive area, and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Although the mechanisms and pathways activated by leptin to facilitate breathing are still not completely clear, evidence suggests that the facilitatory effects of leptin on breathing require the brain melanocortin system, including the POMC-MC4R pathway, a mechanism also activated by leptin to modulate blood pressure. The results of all the studies that have investigated the effect of leptin on breathing suggest that disruption of leptin signalling as caused by obesity-induced reduction of central leptin function (leptin resistance) is a relevant mechanism that may contribute to respiratory dysfunctions associated with obesity. PMID:26095748

  15. Diagnostic reliability of magnetic resonance imaging for central nervous system syndromes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura Katsuji; Kanno Tokiko; Soejima Makoto; Fukasawa Chikako; Kawaguchi Yasushi; Harigai Masayoshi; Katsumata Yasuhiro; Yamada Takayuki; Yamanaka Hisashi; Hara Masako

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic tool for central nervous system (CNS) syndromes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) contained several limitations such as study design, number of enrolled patients, and definition of CNS syndromes. We overcame these problems and statistically evaluated the diagnostic values of abnormal MRI signals and their chronological changes in CNS syndromes of SLE. Methods We prospectively studied 191 patients with...

  16. Relapsing and Progressive Tumefactive Demyelinating Form of Central Nervous System Involvement in a Patient with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Dept. of Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    White matter hyper intensities (WMHI) on MRI are not rare in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). In this presentation, WMHI were developed in both middle cerebellar peduncles and temporal white matter in a patient with PSS, and regressed after medication of high dose steroid. However, new lesions were developed in the subcortices of both precentral gyri, and progressed rapidly to tumefactive hyperintensity on MRI. We report an unusual relapsing and progressive tumefactive demyelinating form of central nervous system involvement in PSS.

  17. Neuritogenesis: A model for space radiation effects on the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M. E.; Broglio, T. M.; Worgul, B. V.; Benton, E. V.

    1994-10-01

    Pivotal to the astronauts' functional integrity and survival during long space flights are the strategies to deal with space radiations. The majority of the cellular studies in this area emphasize simple endpoints such as growth related events which, although useful to understand the nature of primary cell injury, have poor predictive value for extrapolation to more complex tissues such as the central nervous system (CNS). In order to assess the radiation damage on neural cell populations, we developed an in vitro model in which neuronal differentiation, neurite extension, and synaptogenesis occur under controlled conditions. The model exploits chick embryo neural explants to study the effects of radiations on neuritogenesis. In addition, neurobiological problems associated with long-term space flights are discussed.

  18. Gut-central nervous system axis is a target for nutritional therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Gustavo D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake. Likewise, the advances of physiological and molecular mechanisms for patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, bariatric surgery and anorexia-associated diseases has been greatly appreciated by nutritionists. Therefore, this review highlights the relationship between the gut-central nervous system axis and targets for nutritional therapies.

  19. Effects of low-dose prenatal irradiation on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists are in general agreement about the effects of prenatal irradiation, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Differing concepts and research approaches have resulted in some uncertainties about some quantitative relationships, underlying interpretations, and conclusions. Examples of uncertainties include the existence of a threshold, the quantitative relationships between prenatal radiation doses and resulting physical and functional lesions, and processes by which lesions originate and develop. A workshop was convened in which scientists with varying backgrounds and viewpoints discussed these relationships and explored ways in which various disciplines could coordinate concepts and methodologies to suggest research directions for resolving uncertainties. This Workshop Report summarizes, in an extended fashion, salient features of the presentations on the current status of our knowledge about the radiobiology and neuroscience of prenatal irradiation and the relationships between them

  20. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......, hypothalamus, hippocampus, neocortex, olfactory bulb, eye, and pituitary gland. These findings suggest that a large number of mouse CNS-expressed miRNAs may be associated with specific functions within these regions. Notably, more than 50% of the identified mouse CNS-enriched miRNAs showed different expression...... patterns compared to those reported in zebrafish, although the mature miRNA sequences are nearly 100% conserved between the two vertebrate species. The inventory of miRNA profiles in the adult mouse CNS presented here provides an important step toward further elucidation of miRNA function and mi...