WorldWideScience

Sample records for central middle ear

  1. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections ... eventually leading to an ear infection. continue About Middle Ear Infections Inflammation in the middle ear area ...

  2. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Middle Ear Infections Page Content Article Body What are ... serious illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? ...

  3. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  4. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009, and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage.

  5. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  6. Osteomas of the middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sente Marko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Osteomas of the middle ear are small, single, usually unilateral, peduncular growths, off-white in color, with smooth or multilobular surface, asymptomatic or causing functional disorders (progressive hearing loss, pathological appearance of the eardrum, vertigo and otorrhea, of unclear or unknown etiology. Fleury described three types of osteomas: massive, diffuse atticoantral and localized type. The therapy is surgical. Small and asymptomatic ones are followed-up. Cremers suggests surgical intervention in cases of progressive growth and increased hearing loss. Case description Discharge and pain in the left ear started twelve years ago, accompanied by impaired hearing and tinnitus. Four months ago the symptoms aggravated and discharge and pain increased. Otomicroscopic findings revealed: perforation in the posterior attic and a prominent polypous, clustered bright red formation. Schüller X-ray showed total absence of pneumocyte cells, with distinct sclerotic changes. Retroauricular access showed a biventricular bony formation in the cavum and partly in the antrum. A cholesteatoma extended from the cavum into the antrum, above the osteatoma. The bony formation was separated transmeatally from the grip in the posterior attic using a chisel, partially removing the bone wall of the exterior aural tube, removing it completely through the mastoid antrum. The removed bony mass, sized 5 x 8 x 8 mm, included also the incus. DISCUSSION Osteoma was discovered accidentally. Regarding clinical features, it belonged to the second group, due to progressive hearing loss, recurrent episodes of otorrhea, pain, biventricular shape and association with cholesteatoma. It was removed using a combined method. It was not possible to establish when the osteoma exactly started generating. It is possible that the initial complaints twelve years ago were the first signs of illness, and chronic otitis may have occurred as a consequence of the tumor.

  7. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  8. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  9. Compensating for Deviant Middle Ear Pressure in Otoacoustic Emission Measurements, Data, and Comparison to a Middle Ear Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Janny R.; de Kleine, Emile; Avan, Paul; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Koopmans, Peter J.; van Dijk, Pim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Deviant middle ear pressure has a negative effect on the forward and backward transmission of stimulus and emissions through the middle ear. Resolving this deviant middle ear pressure is expected to lead to better middle ear transmission and, as a result of this, stronger otoacoustic emis

  10. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  11. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  12. Passive and active middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutner, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants.

  13. Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanne, Elina; Kantola, Olli; Parviainen, Tapani

    2004-08-01

    Although carcinoid tumors are labeled as neuroendocrine tumors they can also originate in tissue lacking neuroendocrine cells, such as that in the middle ear. Symptoms of a carcinoid tumor in the middle ear are common ear symptoms such as fullness, pain and hearing loss. Carcinoid tumors have also been considered to be slow-growing. Both these aspects can easily lead to a relatively late diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the middle ear. The diagnosis is made histologically, and the tumor is primarily treated surgically. In the follow-up of patients, octreotide scanning has proved to be a sensitive method in cases of both recurrence and metastasis. Our patient was a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy female with left-sided acute otitis media and facial palsy in her left ear. She had also suffered from the same symptoms 4 years earlier. She was treated with an operation, and the histologic diagnosis was a carcinoid tumor. In the follow-up of the patient we used octreotide scanning.

  14. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    2002-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  15. Animal Models of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda; Haruo Takahashi; Takehiko Koji

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have b...

  16. [The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name.

  17. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minovi, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids.

  18. Effect of anesthetic gas on middle ear fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, L W; Tsao, F; Marsh, R R; Kessler, A; Konkle, D F

    1994-07-01

    Tympanometry was performed before (preoperative) and after (intraoperative) the administration of inhalation anesthesia including nitrous oxide and halothane on 109 children undergoing myringotomy with pressure equalization tube insertion. A total of 213 preoperative tympanograms were compared with their intraoperative counterparts and the presence or absence of middle ear effusion at myringotomy. When preoperative tympanograms were consistent with pneumatized middle ears, intraoperative findings demonstrated a mean middle ear pressure increase of +147 daPa. When preoperative tympanometry suggested middle ear effusion, less than 1% demonstrated intraoperative tympanometric changes and/or findings at surgery that would support anesthesia clearing middle ear effusion. Preoperative tympanometric data were poor predictors of the presence or absence of effusion at myringotomy. The relationship between inhalation anesthetics (i.e., nitrous oxide and halothane) and middle ear fluids, and the reliability of tympanometry to predict middle ear effusion are discussed. PMID:8022245

  19. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  20. [Materials for reconstruction of the middle ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, G

    1999-02-01

    To rehabilitate most cases of conductive hearing loss closure of ear drum perforations and rebuilding of the ossicular chain can be performed. Due to the great number of biocompatible bone substitute materials available it is occasionally difficult for the surgeon to choose the most favorable substitute. Autogenous structures (ossicles, cortical bone, cartilage) and allogenous tissues (ossicles, cortical bone, cartilage, dentin) are possible bone replacement materials. Xenogenic tissue is currently not used in middle ear surgery. Ionomer cement is a hybrid material for replacement of bone but does not fit direct classification of the various classes of alloplastic materials in current use: that is, metals (gold, steel wire, platinum, titanium), plastics (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene) and ceramics (ceramic oxide, carbon, calcium-phosphate ceramic, vitreous ceramic). For restoration of the sound conductive apparatus preference is given to autogenous ossicles because cortical bone is resorbed and cartilage weakens over time. Most surgeons do not use allogenous tissue, because of the possible transmission of such infectious disease as immunodeficiency syndrome or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Only dentin deserves special attention as a possible bone substitute in the middle ear because its form can be preserved during sterilization. Based on the observations available to date, it becomes apparent that titanium implants hold greater promise than gold. Form-stable synthetic materials are not generally recommended due to foreign body reactions which have been confirmed by many investigators. Ceramic materials (e.g. ceramic oxide, carbon, calcium-phosphate ceramic, glass ceramic) are well tolerated in the middle ear and have also proved to be useful over time. Hybrid bone substitute ionomer cement is easily workable and well integrated, showing a good functional outcome. For many years good results in otosclerosis surgery have been achieved with a prosthesis made of

  1. Using the shortwave infrared to image middle ear pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jessica A; Valdez, Tulio A; Bruns, Oliver T; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2016-09-01

    Visualizing structures deep inside opaque biological tissues is one of the central challenges in biomedical imaging. Optical imaging with visible light provides high resolution and sensitivity; however, scattering and absorption of light by tissue limits the imaging depth to superficial features. Imaging with shortwave infrared light (SWIR, 1-2 μm) shares many advantages of visible imaging, but light scattering in tissue is reduced, providing sufficient optical penetration depth to noninvasively interrogate subsurface tissue features. However, the clinical potential of this approach has been largely unexplored because suitable detectors, until recently, have been either unavailable or cost prohibitive. Here, taking advantage of newly available detector technology, we demonstrate the potential of SWIR light to improve diagnostics through the development of a medical otoscope for determining middle ear pathologies. We show that SWIR otoscopy has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy. We show that in healthy adult human ears, deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows better visualization of middle ear structures through the tympanic membrane, including the ossicular chain, promontory, round window niche, and chorda tympani. In addition, we investigate the potential for detection of middle ear fluid, which has significant implications for diagnosing otitis media, the overdiagnosis of which is a primary factor in increased antibiotic resistance. Middle ear fluid shows strong light absorption between 1,400 and 1,550 nm, enabling straightforward fluid detection in a model using the SWIR otoscope. Moreover, our device is easily translatable to the clinic, as the ergonomics, visual output, and operation are similar to a conventional otoscope. PMID:27551085

  2. Ondansetron and dexamethasone in middle ear procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Usmani, Hammad; Quadir, A.; Siddiqui, Rehan Asif; S C Sharma

    2003-01-01

    A randomised, double-blind study was conducted on 90 ASA I & II patients undergoing middle ear surgery to compare the efficacy of ondansetron, dexamethasone and a combination of Ondansett on+dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Group I patients received ondansetron (0. 1 mg/kg), group IIpatients received dexamethasone(0.1z mg./Kg) while group III received ondansetron (0.1 mg./kg) + dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg), 10 minute before induction of general anaesthesia....

  3. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  4. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  5. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  6. Hearing results of the total middle ear reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yuan-ping; XU An-ting; CHEN Ying

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the success of hearing results in total middle ear reconstruction with cartilage ossiculoplasty for the patients with old open- mastoidectomy cavities. Method: A retrospective review of 69 patients who underwent total middle ear reconstruction with cartilage ossiculoplasty was performed. Results: In this series, the successful hearing results were obtained in 61 % of the patients after operation, but 93% of the ears were dry. For patients with stapes, the successful rate was 65%; for patients without stapes,it was 58 %. The mean hearing gain was 10.7dB. Conclusion: Total middle ear reconstruction offers an effective treatment algorithia of hearing reconstruction for patients with old mastoidectomy cavities. 1. Stapes is important for hearing improvement; 2. Staged operation is good for hearing restoration; 3. For a large number of patients with a problematic cavitites, hearing restoration is possible by total middle ear reconstruction.

  7. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  8. Gain and maximum output of two electromagnetic middle ear implants: are real ear measurements helpful?

    OpenAIRE

    Snik, A.F.M.; Noten, J.F.P.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the output of two electronic middle ear implants: the Otologics MET device and the Vibrant Soundbridge device. Both devices were programmed in the linear amplification mode. Aided minus unaided sound pressure levels recorded in the ear canal (objective gain) were compared to unaided minus aided soundfield thresholds (functional gain) in 13 patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss. In addition, input/output characteristics were studied with the help of ear canal measurements...

  9. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  10. Fresh Clues about the Origin of Mammalian Middle Ear Revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jianlan

    2002-01-01

    @@ CAS paleontologists have identified a rod-like bone from two early Cretaceous mammals as ossified Meckel's cartilage (OMC). This clears some doubts on the controversial topic of the origin of definitive mannalian middle ear (DMME).

  11. Prevalence of middle ear disorders in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempert, B.L.; Hopkinson, N.T.; Keith, R.W.; Motl, M.L.; Horine, J.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented from a study of the prevalence of middle and external ear disorders in coal miners who work underground. The study followed from an earlier NIOSH report (1976) that indicated a possibly large number of otoscopic abnormalities in this population of workers. Otoscopic examinations, pure tone air- and bone-conduction audiometry tests, and impedance tests were administered to 350 underground miners and 150 industrial workers not associated with mining. The study was conducted completely within a hospital otolaryngology/audiology clinic setting. Results of the investigation showed a highly similar prevalence of middle ear and ear canal abnormalities in the miner group and the control group (19 percent). Middle ear abnormalities observed in the miners were judged by the examining otolaryngologists to have preceded their experience in the mines and were not related solely to underground noise exposure or coal dust. Nearly half of the subjects who had an air-bone gap had no middle ear abnormality observable by otoscopic examination. There was substantial agreement between the finding of abnormal otoscopy and abnormal tympanometry. By itself, acoustic reflex was not useful in identifying middle ear disorders, since this reflex may be absent for other reasons, including presence of severe sensorineural hearing loss.

  12. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-10-01

    Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis--carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna--to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  13. Modification of closed tympanoplasty in middle ear cholesteatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-gang; LIU Xiang; CHEN Sui-jun; CHEN Bin; ZHENG Yi-qing

    2010-01-01

    Background Classic mastoidectomy and modified mastoidectomy are traditional surgical procedures for middle ear cholesteatoma with goals of eradicating diseases, creating dry ears and preventing severe complications. However, the drawback of these procedures is the lack of hearing improvement. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effects and safety of a modification of closed tympanoplasty for middle ear cholesteatoma.Methods Eighty-three patients were recruited in this study based on the following two criteria: each patient had middle ear cholesteatoma in one ear; the affected ears had a functional eustachian tube and had neither intracranial nor extracranial complications. All the patients received a modification of closed tympanoplasty which included ossicular reconstruction with total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) or partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) and membrane repair with conchal cartilage-perichondral complex.Results All the 83 cases had dry ears with membranes healed within 4-6 postoperative weeks. After 6 postoperative months, there were 3 cases with re-perforation at the tympanic membrane center and after 1.5 postoperative years, there were 5 cases with cholesteatoma recurrence (6.02%). Function tests after one postoperative year exhibited an improvement of pure tone audiometry (PTA) in 27 cases that was more than 30 dB, in 33 cases between 20-29 dB, 14 cases with improvement between 10-19 dB, and in 9 cases there was no improvement.Conclusions The modified closed tympanoplasty procedure for middle ear cholesteatoma in the present study has all the advantages of both close-cavity and open-cavity procedures. It has low recurrence rate and good hearing improvement.

  14. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  15. Tympanoplasty without use of gelfoam in the middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghiasi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  In usual technique of tympanoplasty almost all of otologic surgeons use gelfoam in the middle ear for support of graft against margin of tympanic membrane perforation. In this study we use technique that we did not use gelfoam in the middle ear. We compared results of graft taking rate in two techniques. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study during 2 years 181 patients with COM underwent tympanoplasty with underlay grafting. In 83 patients used gelfoam in the middle ear for tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy (CCTM, OCTM. In 98 patients we did not use gelfoam in the middle ear. Results: In 83 patients with use of gelfoam, graft taking rate in 59 (71.1% cases with tympanoplasty and CCTM was 54 (91% and in 24 (28.9% cases with OCTM was 20 (83%. In 98 patients without use of gelfoam, graft taking rate in 61 (62.2% cases with tympanoplasty and CCTM was 54 (89% and in 37 (37.8% cases with OCTM were 31 (84%. Conclusion: In this study, results of graft taking rate were similar in 2 groups. On the other hand, gelfoam entirely reabsorbed during 45 to 54 days in the middle ear and immune system react by a round cell response. This sponge encourages the formation of the fibrous tissue at a higher rate than naturally occurs in the ear. In our technique we had not these problems. Another advantage of this technique is rapid improvement of patient hearing after removing of the external ear canal rosebud. We think this technique could be used in tympanoplasty and tympanomastoidectoy routinely. ‍‍‍

  16. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas;

    2016-01-01

    performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified......Otitis media is a common disease in childhood. In adults, the disease is relatively rare, but more frequently associated with complications. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are age-related differences in pathogen exposure, anatomy of the Eustachian tube and immune system. The objective...... of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been...

  17. Rotation of middle ear ossicles during cetacean development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkel, M D; Thewissen, J G; Oelschläger, H A

    2001-08-01

    Cetacean middle ears are unique among mammals in that they have an elongated tympanic membrane, a greatly reduced manubrium mallei, and an incudal crus longum that is shorter than the crus breve. Elongation of the tympanic membrane and reduction of the manubrium is thought to be related to an evolutionary rotation of the incus and malleus out of the plane of the tympanic membrane. We examined if rotation also occurs during ontogeny by comparing the middle ears of two species of dolphins (Delphinus delphis, Stenella attenuata) at different stages of development. We observed that: the incus has the body and crural proportions as in terrestrial mammals early in development; the incudomallear complex rotates approximately 90 degrees following ossification; the tympanic membrane is not elongated until relatively late in development. Therefore, some of the unique characteristics of the cetacean middle ear develop as modifications of an initially terrestrial-like morphology. PMID:11466740

  18. Distance Measurement in Middle Ear Surgery using a Telemanipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Thomas; Strauss, Gero; Bauer, Franz; Grasser, Andreas; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tim C. Lueth

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a new tool for the intraoperative measurement of distances within the middle ear by means of a micromanipulator is presented. The purpose of this work was to offer the surgeon a highly accurate tool for measuring the distances between two points in the 3D operational field. The tool can be useful in various operations; this article focuses, however, on measuring the distance between the stapes footplate and the long process of the incus of the middle ear. This distance is imp...

  19. Primary T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Shixi; Yang, Hui; Wang, Weiya

    2016-03-01

    T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a highly aggressive lymphoma characterized by precursor T-cell malignancy and lymphadenopathy or mediastinal involvement. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with a diagnosis of middle ear T-LBL, which manifested as a headache, hearing loss and peripheral facial paralysis. The child was given intensive chemotherapy and had a complete response. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of T-LBL originating in the middle ear. This case aims to help clinicians to be vigilant about the possibility of primary lesions at atypical sites in some special diseases.

  20. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Moreira, Wanderval; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: fauassis@hotmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  1. Acoustic Reflectometry versus Tympanometry in Pediatric Middle Ear Screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Alice E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Use of acoustic reflectometry was compared with tympanometry in middle ear screenings for 357 children, aged 5 months to 19 years. Results were analyzed according to sex, age, and sensorineural hearing status. Intratest reliability was highly significant and positive predictive accuracy and specificity rates were excellent, but sensitivity rates…

  2. Reconstructive Middle Ear Surgery: Techniques to improve hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, R.R.F.; Ballagh, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss is a common cause of deafness and disability, particularly in children and young adults. This article presents a brief overview of the various methods currently available for reconstructing the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicular chain, including some comments as to their indications and limitations. Schematic diagrams showing these techniques illustrate the various types of repair described.

  3. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  4. The middle ear immune defense changes with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Winther, Ole; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a common disease in childhood. In adults, the disease is relatively rare, but more frequently associated with complications. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are age-related differences in pathogen exposure, anatomy of the Eustachian tube and immune system. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified, of which 51 genes were involved in the middle ear mucosal immune system. Genes related to the innate immune system, including alpha-defensin, calcium-binding proteins S100A9 and S100A8, were upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system, including CD3 molecules, zeta-chain T-cell receptor-associated protein kinase and linker of activated T-cells, were upregulated in the adult. This study concludes that the normal middle ear immune system changes with age. Genes related to the innate immune system are upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system are upregulated in adults.

  5. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell’s palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. Case presentation We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery...

  6. Effect of the middle ear reflex on sound transmission to the inner ear of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, P K; Ostwald, J; Kreiter, A; Schnitzler, H U

    1997-03-01

    The effect of the acoustic middle ear reflex (MER) was quantified using electrodes chronically implanted in the middle ears of rats. Cochlear microphonics (CM) and middle ear muscle EMG were measured under light Ketamin anesthesia after stimulation with tone pulses of 5-20 kHz ranging between 75 and 120 dB SPL. With increasing intensity, the CM measured before the onset of the MER increased to a maximum amplitude and then decreased with higher SPLs. At 10 kHz this maximum was reached at 95 dB SPL, for other stimulus frequencies at higher SPLs. After a latency of 10-20 ms, CM to 10 kHz stimuli of 80-95 dB SPL were decreased by the attenuating action of the MER. The lowest threshold of the MER was also measured at 10 kHz (77 dB SPL in the mean). To stimuli greater than 100 dB SPL after a latency of 6-10 ms, the CM amplitude was increased. That this CM increase to intense stimuli is caused by the action of the MER was confirmed by control experiments such as cutting the tendons of the middle ear muscles. The CM decrease to stimuli below 100 dB SPL, as well as the increase to very intense stimuli, can be explained by sound attenuation caused by the MER, together with the nonlinear dependence of CM amplitude on stimulus level. The observed shift of the maxima of the CM input-output function by the MER to higher stimulus levels probably indicates an increase of the dynamic range of the ear.

  7. Poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections: any relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3-12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was determined by using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index of Greene and Vermillion. The scores of 0-1 were classified as low, and of 2-3 as high oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The low OHI-S was taken as the control group (30 patients). The high OHI-S was taken as the study group (29 patients). The effusion scores, the compliance values and the middle ear pressure values in the two groups were compared. The difference between the effusion score values of the control and study groups was found to be statistically meaningful (p = 0.338, and the χ(2) = 2.167). The compliance values of the control and study groups did not differ meaningfully statistically (p = 0.671). However, there was a statistically meaningful low middle ear pressure (p = 0.044, χ(2) = 4.069) in the control group. Since this finding is expected in the study group, instead of the control group, we did not make an issue of this result. We conclude from these clinical results that there is no statistically meaningful relation between the oral hygiene index and the middle ear.

  8. Evolution of the mammalian middle ear: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Wolfgang; Ruf, Irina

    2016-02-01

    Here we present a brief, historical review of research into the mammalian middle ear structures. Most of their essential homologies were established by embryologists, notably including Reichert, during the 19th century. The evolutionary dimension was confirmed by finds of fossil synapsids, mainly from the Karroo of South Africa. In 1913, Ernst Gaupp was the first to present a synthesis of the available embryological and paleontological data, but a number of morphological details remained to be solved, such as the origin of the tympanic membrane. Gaupp favoured an independent origin of the eardrum in anurans, sauropsids, and mammals; we support most of his ideas. The present review emphasizes the problem of how the mammalian middle ear structures that developed at the angle of the lower jaw were transferred to the basicranium; the ontogenesis of extant marsupials provides important information on this question. PMID:26397963

  9. Rheologic studies on middle ear effusions and their mucus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, J E; Green, G G; Birchall, J P; Pearson, J P

    1989-04-01

    The properties of pooled thick and thin middle ear effusions, from children with otitis media with effusion, were studied by viscometry. Mucus glycoproteins were responsible for effusion viscosity. Their percentage by weight in thick and thin effusions was 25% and 8.2%, respectively. N-acetylcysteine and 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol caused a 39% viscosity drop in a 5-mg/mL glycoprotein solution, whereas S-carboxymethylcysteine had no effect. Treatment of thick effusions with 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol initially caused a viscosity decrease followed by a gradual increase. Higher reducing agent concentrations (0.5 mol/L) caused a more rapid decrease followed by a rapid increase, presumably by causing nonspecific aggregation of reduced protein molecules. These results suggest that the concentration of and the time that a mucolytic is in the middle ear would be of prime importance in achieving the desired decrease in viscosity.

  10. Asymptomatic mucormycosis of middle ear: An incidental finding during tympanoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Biniyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a fungal infection, commonly affecting the paranasal sinuses. An aggressive invasive form of infection is common in people with uncontrolled diabetes and in immunocompromised people. Mucormycosis affecting temporal bone is a rare entity, most of the reported cases are of invasive disease in diabetic people. We report a case of mucormycosis of middle ear cavity which was found incidentally in a healthy nondiabetic woman while performing revision tympanoplasty for chronic suppurative otitis media.

  11. HRCT diagnosis in the evaluation of chronic middle ear inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Sik; Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Though the preoperative high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) evaluation of the patients with chronic middle ear inflammation, the nature and potential complications of the lesions can be evaluated more accurately than previous imaging modalities. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of chronic middle ear inflammation in 50 surgically proven cases during recent 2 years. We also compared findings of HRCT and otologic surgery in order to know the diagnostic ability of HRCT about the true nature and extent of soft tissue inflammatory masses within the middle ear and various complications. The results obtained were as follows : 1. HRCT demonstrated the soft tissue inflammatory lesions in the middle ear cavity in all 50 cases. Among these, 32 cases were confirmed to have cholesteatoma, and 12 cases of granulations tissue including 2 cases of cholestrol granuloma, 3 cases of thickened mucosa and 3 cases of inflammatory exude were verified respectively. 2. Among the 32 cases of cholesteatoma, HRCT showed the ossicular erosion in 87% and other complications in 38% of cases. The types of cholesteatoma can be predicted according to the site and extension of soft tissue mass except in 6 cases. 3. Among the 12 cases of granulation tissue, HRCT also showed the erosion of ossicles in 50% and facial nerve canal in 17%. 4. Pars flaccida type cholesteatomas (21 cases) were most frequently noted in atticoantral area (67%) and pars tensa type (4 cases) in mesotympanum (75%). 5. Incus body and malleus head were the most vulnerable portions of bony erosion in pars flaccida type (10/21). 6. We met some difficulty in differentiation of the soft tissue inflammatory mass in 7 cases.

  12. Imaging Finding of Malignant Melanoma of Eustachian Tube with Extension to Middle Ear Cavity: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Km Hong Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Han Won [Daekyung Radiologic Clinics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of Eustachian tube with extension to the middle ear cavity and nasopharynx in a 51-year-old woman who presented with right ear fullness. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity and caused the widening and eroding of the bony eustachian tube. Magnetic resonance imaging showed well enhancing mass in eustachian tube extending nasopharynx to middle ear cavity. A biopsy of the middle ear cavity mass revealed a malignant amelanotic melanoma.

  13. Imaging Finding of Malignant Melanoma of Eustachian Tube with Extension to Middle Ear Cavity: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Chul; Jang, Han Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of Eustachian tube with extension to the middle ear cavity and nasopharynx in a 51-year-old woman who presented with right ear fullness. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity and causedthe widening and eroding of the bony eustachian tube. Magnetic resonance imaging showed well enhancing mass in eustachian tube extending nasopharynx to middle ear cavity. A biopsy of the middle ear cavity mass revealed a malignant amelanotic melanoma. PMID:23118582

  14. Influence of middle ear mucosal condition on post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chan Il; Hong, Hye Ran; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the association between the middle ear mucosal condition and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome was investigated in patients with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma. One hundred and forty-three patients with chronic otitis media were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Asan Medical Center between January, 2009 and December, 2011. In the course of tympanoplasty, the status of the middle ear mucosa was divided into normal or abnormal by one surgeon. Pure tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and post-tympanoplasty tympanogram was also conducted to estimate the condition of middle ear cavity. Of the 143 patients, there were 73 patients with normal middle ear mucosa and 70 patients with abnormal middle ear mucosa around Eustachian tube opening. The mean ABG of subjects with normal middle ear mucosa was 20.1 dB preoperatively, and 9.7 dB postoperatively (p ear mucosa group (p = 0.137). Postoperative ABGs for 500 and 1000 Hz (7.1, 7.7 dB) in normal middle ear mucosa patients were significantly lower than those (17.2, 19.4 dB) in abnormal middle ear mucosa patients (p ear mucosa status and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcomes. The better condition of middle ear ventilation, the better postoperative hearing thresholds revealed after tympanoplasty.

  15. Anatomic Considerations on the Middle Ear in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explain some aspects of middle ear anatomy in dog. The study was conducted on five dog skulls (different ages from common, large size dogs. The skulls were processed by maceration and submitted to a treatment of mechanical cleaning with perhydrol. The temporal bone was collected first; the external wall was opened carefully to study the tympanic cavity. The ossicles were collected separately and subsequently described. From research carried promontory appears as an elongated projection that separates the oval window and round window. Vestibular window is oval or slightly ovoid shape of a hole, located dorso-medially to the promontory, which communicates with the middle ear vestibule. Cochlearia window appears as a round or circular hole located caudo-lateral to the promontory . it is blocked by a membrane called the tympanum secondary, cavity separating the ramp of the snail. In the ventro-oral cavity openings ductus faringo tympanicum. The osicules sound represented by hammer, anvil and stirrup are articulated with each other and form a chain as a link between the eardrum and vestibular window. Bones are driven by two muscles: the tensor muscle and muscle stirrup eardrum is very thin. osicules ear are relatively large and resemble those of humans. Lenticular bone is the lenticular process of the long arm of anvile.

  16. Inflammatory responses to Hydroxyapatite implants in middle ear in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; JIANG Yi; WANG Xiao-yan; ZHENG Ke-fei

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study local inflammatory response after implantation of hydroxyapatite synthetic ossicular prosthesis. Methods Hydroxyapatite gantries were implanted in the bulla in 32 rats. Sham surgical procedures were performed in 10 rats as the control. Animals were sacrificed at 1 to 300 days after surgery. Bulla sections, stained with HE and Mallory's azan, were examined for numbers and percentages of various inflammatory cell types. Results Slightly more inflammatory reaction was seen in animals with the implant than in the controls, mostly during the early stage following the implantation procedure. Few inflammatory cells were observed at later times. There were satisfactory fibrosis in both implanted and control ears. Conclusion The results indicate that hydroxyapatite synthetic prosthesis is a biocompatible implantation material in the middle ear. Nonetheless, the presence of inflammatory reaction immediately following implantation implies that control of infection is important in the early times after the implantation procedure.

  17. Phonemic Awareness and Middle-Ear Disease among Bedouin Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of middle-ear infections on phonemic awareness on first-grade Bedouin Arab elementary school children in northern Israel. Divides 49 children who were screened according to their infant medical records into two groups: one with repeated middle-ear infection and one without. Indicates a nonsignificant effect of middle-ear…

  18. Radiographic appearance of the middle ear after ventral bulla osteotomy in five dogs with otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs of the middle ear were made in five dogs 60 to 78 months after ventral bulla osteotomy was performed to treat otitis media. The clinical results of surgery were considered satisfactory in four dogs and unsatisfactory in one. In 4 dogs with satisfactory results, radiographs demonstrated complete reformation of the bulla in 3 operated middle ears (3 dogs), with partial bulla reformation in the three middle ears (3 dogs). Radiographs in one dog with unsatisfactory results showed complete bulla reformation with no increase in lumen opacity. The proliferative bony response obliterating the middle ear previously reported in normal dogs after ventral bulla osteotomy was not seen in any of these patients

  19. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, I J

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness.

  20. STUDY OF INCIDENCE OF MIDDLE EAR HEMORRHAGE IN DROWNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidanand

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: An autopsy study of deaths due to drowning with special reference to middle ear hemorrhage and spleen findings was done. METHODS: Data were collected from the police, relatives, and photographic evidences from the scene, postmortem findings and chemical analysis /histopathological examinations representative control groups. 101 cases of drowning deaths were studied. RE SULTS: The presence of froth, wrinkling, bleaching, soddening, overlapping of anterior margin of lungs, antemortem ingestion of water and postmortem aquatic bite marks were seen in 58%, 83%, 59%, 23%, 52%, 45% and 8% of cases respectively. Middle ear hemorrhage was seen in 72.27% of cases with an odd's ratio of 23.73 and it increased with increase in duration and depth of submersion. The mean organ weights observed in the drowning group were 1112.54±295.01, 1208.84±264.60, 121.68±53.28, 361.96±99.59gms for the combined lung, liver, spleen and combined kidney respectively; the increase in lung and kidney weight were statically significant and a 16% drop in the spleen weight seen after a postmortem interval of >24 hours was statistically insignificant . CONCLUSION: Males and the young population constituted the bulk and more than half of the deaths were unintentional and a significant number died in drainages. A good number of drowning deaths are preventable

  1. A short-wave infrared otoscope for middle ear disease diagnostics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jessica A.; Valdez, Tulio; Bruns, Oliver; Bawendi, Moungi

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media, a range of inflammatory conditions of the middle ear, is the second most common illness diagnosed in children. However, the diagnosis can be challenging, particularly in pediatric patients. Otitis media is commonly over-diagnosed and over-treated and has been identified as one of the primary factors in increased antibiotic resistance. We describe the development of a short-wave infrared (SWIR) otoscope for objective middle ear effusion diagnosis. The SWIR otoscope can unambiguously detect the presence of middle ear fluid based on its strong light absorption in the SWIR. This absorption causes a stark, visual contrast between the presence and absence of fluid behind the tympanic membrane. Additionally, when there is no middle ear fluid, the deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows the SWIR otoscope to better visualize middle ear anatomy through the tympanic membrane than is possible with visible light. We demonstrate that in healthy, adult human ears, SWIR otoscopy can image a range of middle ear anatomy, including landmarks of the entire ossicular chain, the promontory, the round window niche, and the chorda tympani. We suggest that SWIR otoscopy can provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy in the diagnosis of middle ear effusions, otitis media, and other maladies of the middle ear.

  2. Opacification of the middle ear and mastoid: imaging findings and clues to differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, A C C; Nemec, S F

    2015-05-01

    Opacification of the middle ear and mastoid represents a spectrum of inflammatory, neoplastic, vascular, fibro-osseous, and traumatic changes. This article reviews the most important clinical and pathological characteristics, emphasizing CT and MRI findings. Knowledge of subtle patterns of middle ear and mastoid opacification at CT and MRI provide guidance towards the correct diagnosis. PMID:25573814

  3. Opacification of the middle ear and mastoid: imaging findings and clues to differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opacification of the middle ear and mastoid represents a spectrum of inflammatory, neoplastic, vascular, fibro-osseous, and traumatic changes. This article reviews the most important clinical and pathological characteristics, emphasizing CT and MRI findings. Knowledge of subtle patterns of middle ear and mastoid opacification at CT and MRI provide guidance towards the correct diagnosis

  4. Decreasing incidence rate for surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma in Denmark 1977-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Faber, Christian Emil; Skytthe, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to estimate the annual incidence rate of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma (STMEC) in Denmark from 1977 to 2007, taking age, gender and secular trends into consideration.......The objective was to estimate the annual incidence rate of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma (STMEC) in Denmark from 1977 to 2007, taking age, gender and secular trends into consideration....

  5. [The reactions of human middle ear mucous membrane (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W

    1977-04-20

    Healthy middle ear mucous membrane of newborns differs from the respiratory mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, in that it lacks a mucociliary epithelial pattern and because it has an absence of cells responsible for immunological resistance. Irritations over a short period of time and intensity cause a mucous membrane edema, which leaves behind, when the irritation disappeares, no permanent morphological changes in the structure of the mucous membrane. Severe irritations over a long period of time cause a characteristic change in the epithelium and submucosa: the single layered flat epithelium is replaced by respiratory epithelium; in the submucosa a proliferation of the connective tissue occurs simultaneously with the development of a local immunologically potent, cellular defense system. The actively secretive epithelial cells serve as the means whereby the antibodies are transported to the surface of the mucous membrane. Whereas at the time of mucous membrane edema, serum components (transsudate) are the primary source of the resulting "serotympanum", an increase in viscosity of the mucous allows one to recognize the active secretive work of the metaplastic epithelium. The biochemical composition of the various effusions givens a direct a direct indication of their origin: it is, however, no key to the cause! Only in the case of purulent secretions is it possible to recognize the cause by cellular or bacteriological identification. The same is valid for the norphological changes of the middle ear mucous membrane since the membrane will generally react in a similar manner, even though the types of irritation differ. When the stimulus which brought about the proliferation of the mucous membrane since the membrane will generally react in a similar manner, even though the types of irritation differ. When the stimulus which brought about the proliferation of the mucous membrane and the epithelial metaplasy disappears, the active production of mucous stops

  6. Bone Signaling in Middle Ear Development: A Genome‐Wide Differential Expression Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Bertelsen, Tomas Martin; Friis, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Common middle ear diseases may affect bone behavior in the middle ear air cell system. To understand this pathologic pneumatization, the normal development of bone in the middle ear should be investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze gene expression of bone‐related signaling factors...... and gene sets in the developing middle ear. Microarray technology was used to identify bone‐related genes and gene sets, which were differentially expressed between the lining tissue of adult (quiescent) bulla and young (resorbing/forming) bulla. Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics...... and expression levels of selected genes were validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The candidate gene products were compared with previously published data on middle ear bone metabolism. No differentially expressed genes were found on the outer surface of bulla. On the inner lining a total...

  7. Middle ear cavity morphology is consistent with an aquatic origin for testudines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Ketten, Darlene R;

    2013-01-01

    evolved to hear in different environments, we examined middle ear morphology and scaling in most extant families, as well as some extinct species, using 3-dimensional reconstructions from micro magnetic resonance (MR) and submillimeter computed tomography (CT) scans. All families of testudines exhibited...... a similar shape of the bony structure of the middle ear cavity, with the tympanic disk located on the rostrolateral edge of the cavity. Sea Turtles have additional soft tissue that fills the middle ear cavity to varying degrees. When the middle ear cavity is modeled as an air-filled sphere of the same...... volume resonating in an underwater sound field, the calculated resonances for the volumes of the middle ear cavities largely fell within testudine hearing ranges. Although there were some differences in morphology, there were no statistically significant differences in the scaling of the volume...

  8. Real ear unaided gain and its relation with the equivalent volume of the external and middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old age is associated with changes in the characteristics of the middle ear transmission system and in external ear resonance, and these carry implications for the hearing aid (HA verification process for which targets and measures of the real ear insertion gain (REIG are used. Aim: To compare the real ear unaided gain (REUG and the equivalent volumes of the external ear (VeqEE and the middle ear (VeqME between elderly and adult patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 28 elderly patients (aged between 61 and 102 years, average hearing thresholds between 38.75 and 85 dB HL and 23 adult patients (aged 20-59, mean hearing thresholds between 31.25 and 116.25 dB HL with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and no history of middle ear abnormalities were analyzed. Immittance measurements (VeqEE, VeqME, and pressure of the peak of maximum compliance and the REUG (frequency and amplitude of the primary peak were recovered for a total of 40 ears. These data were compared between elderly and adults as well as between men and women, using Student's t test. Correlations (Pearson between immittance and REUG data were also verified. Results: No statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 were found for immittance and REUG data between elderly and adults, or between men and women. A negative and weak but significant correlation was observed between the REUG primary peak and VeqEE. Conclusion: Hearing aid verification can be performed with target and measures of the REIG in the elderly population.

  9. Middle ear cavity morphology is consistent with an aquatic origin for testudines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Willis

    Full Text Available The position of testudines in vertebrate phylogeny is being re-evaluated. At present, testudine morphological and molecular data conflict when reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. Complicating matters, the ecological niche of stem testudines is ambiguous. To understand how turtles have evolved to hear in different environments, we examined middle ear morphology and scaling in most extant families, as well as some extinct species, using 3-dimensional reconstructions from micro magnetic resonance (MR and submillimeter computed tomography (CT scans. All families of testudines exhibited a similar shape of the bony structure of the middle ear cavity, with the tympanic disk located on the rostrolateral edge of the cavity. Sea Turtles have additional soft tissue that fills the middle ear cavity to varying degrees. When the middle ear cavity is modeled as an air-filled sphere of the same volume resonating in an underwater sound field, the calculated resonances for the volumes of the middle ear cavities largely fell within testudine hearing ranges. Although there were some differences in morphology, there were no statistically significant differences in the scaling of the volume of the bony middle ear cavity with head size among groups when categorized by phylogeny and ecology. Because the cavity is predicted to resonate underwater within the testudine hearing range, the data support the hypothesis of an aquatic origin for testudines, and function of the middle ear cavity in underwater sound detection.

  10. CT and magnetic resonance imaging features of middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Middle ear adenoma is a rare benign epithelial tumor. We report the CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case of middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation in a 36-year-old man. On high-resolution CT, the mass was found to fill the middle ear, in which the ossicles were embedded, but not destroyed, with outward bulging of the intact tympanic membrane. On MRI, the mass, which was intensely enhanced on 3-dimensional (3D) gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence, involved the middle ear, aditus ad antrum and a portion of mastoid antrum. Histological and immunohistochemical findings of the specimen obtained by surgical excisions were consistent with middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation. Middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intensely enhancing mass filling the middle ear/mastoid antrum without ossicular destructions. The extent of the mass can be excellently assessed with 3D Gd-enhanced SPGR sequence.

  11. CT and magnetic resonance imaging features of middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middle ear adenoma is a rare benign epithelial tumor. We report the CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case of middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation in a 36-year-old man. On high-resolution CT, the mass was found to fill the middle ear, in which the ossicles were embedded, but not destroyed, with outward bulging of the intact tympanic membrane. On MRI, the mass, which was intensely enhanced on 3-dimensional (3D) gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence, involved the middle ear, aditus ad antrum and a portion of mastoid antrum. Histological and immunohistochemical findings of the specimen obtained by surgical excisions were consistent with middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation. Middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intensely enhancing mass filling the middle ear/mastoid antrum without ossicular destructions. The extent of the mass can be excellently assessed with 3D Gd-enhanced SPGR sequence.

  12. Middle ear osteoma: a rare cause of conductive hearing loss with normal tympanic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérillaud, B; Guilleré, L; Williams, M T; El Bakkouri, W; Ayache, D

    2011-01-01

    Osteomas of the temporal bone are benign osseous tumors usually located to the external auditory canal. Osteomas involving the middle ear are very rare. We report the case of a patient presenting with a progressive hearing loss caused by a middle ear osteoma involving the incus and contiguous to the tympanic segment of the facial nerve. This report highlights the value of CT scan in the work-up of conductive or mixed hearing loss with normal tympanic membrane. The management of middle ear osteoma is discussed.

  13. Oral Pseudoephedrine Decreases the Rate of Trans-mucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miriam S.; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Martin, Brian S; Cullen Doyle, Brendan M.; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if oral pretreatment with a vasoconstrictor decreases the blood to middle-ear exchange-rate of the perfusion-limited gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Study Design Randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Methods Ten adult subjects with and 10 without past middle-ear disease completed paired experimental sessions, identical but for oral pretreatment with either pseudoephedrine HCL or lactose placebo. At each session, subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes (acclimation period), 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes (experimental period) and 100% O2 for 10 minutes (recovery period). Throughout, heart-rate, blood-pressure and O2 saturation were monitored and bilateral middle-ear pressures were recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome was the slope of the middle-ear pressure-time function for the experimental period which estimates the volume N2O exchange-rate. Using repeated measures ANOVA, the effects of Group (disease history), Treatment (active vs. placebo) and Period (1 vs. 2) on the recorded vital signs, and of Group, Treatment and Ear (left/right) on the middle-ear pressure-time slope were evaluated for statistical significance. Results Statistically significant effects of Period on O2 saturation (Period 2>Period 1) and of Treatment on heart-rate (Active>Placebo) were documented. Only Treatment was statistically significant for the middle-ear pressure-time slope with a shallower slope characterizing the active treatment session. Conclusion The volume exchange-rate across the middle-ear mucosa of perfusion-limited gases can be modulated pharmacologically. Theoretically, similar drugs can be used to reduce the requisite Eustachian tube opening efficiency for adequate middle-ear pressure regulation. PMID:26152838

  14. Ear barotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air ... body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  15. The malleable middle ear: an underappreciated player in the evolution of hearing in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Manley, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The middle ear of tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) originated from nonauditory structures, and has been modified by adaptations arising from the lifestyle of the tetrapods. These accessory structures for the inner ear increased the sensitivity to airborne sound, the frequency range of hearing, and ...

  16. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  17. Persistent middle ear effusion presumably biofilm-related in a paediatric patient with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Torretta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms play a role in upper respiratory tract diseases, including acute and chronic middle ear diseases, and are involved in chronic infections and resistance to antibiotic treatment. In particular, the nasopharynx and the surrounding tissues act as important reservoirs of resistant bacterial biofilms, which have been detected in biopsies taken from adenoid and/or middle ear mucosa of children with chronic middle ear effusion. Here we describe the management of a child with congenital immunodeficiency and a chronic middle ear effusion, resistant to traditional medical treatment and presumably due to nasopharyngeal colonization by bacterial biofilms, which has been successfully treated by means of medicated nasal douches delivering antibiotic and a biofilm-destroying compound.

  18. [Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal flora can be a reservoir of bacteria caused acute otitis media in children. The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with acute otitis media. The study comprised 128 children ages 1 year to 14 years with diagnosed of acute otitis media with purulent discharge. The nasopharyngeal and middle ear samples were collected at the same time. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 196 organisms from nasopharynx and 325 organisms from middle ear were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--75.6% in nasopharynx and 77.8% in middle ear. We observed statistically significant (p bacteria from nasopharynx and 81.8% of bacteria from middle ear. Most organisms were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--60.7% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 62.6% of bacteria from middle ear. Penicillin resistance was observed in 25.0% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 25.6% of bacteria from middle ear. The correlation in resistance of bacteria between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin (r = 0.4886) and between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and penicillin (r = 0.5027) was observed. Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media is similar. In that case susceptibility of bacteria from the nasopharynx can be useful for empirical treatment of acute otitis media in children.

  19. The Efficiency of Titanium Middle Ear Prosthesis in Ossicular Chain Reconstruction: Our Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kshitij Dhaval; Bradoo, Renuka A.; Joshi, Anagha A.; Sapkale, Deepti D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear ossicular reconstruction is a challenging task for any otologist. Over a period of time, surgeons have tried various types of materials as ossicular prosthesis with varying amount of success. In the last decade, numerous studies have been conducted that have proved that titanium prosthesis is biocompatible. We have conducted this study to investigate the efficiency of titanium middle ear prosthesis (Eon Meditech Pvt. Ltd.) in tympanoplasty. Nineteen patients who underwent tympanopl...

  20. Assessment of middle ear function in patients with cleft palate treated under "Smile Train Project"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the middle ear function in patients of cleft palate treated under "Smile Train Project". Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (120 ears; 32 male and 28 female of cleft palate with or without cleft lip were evaluated in pediatrics and ENT OPD in preoperative period. A general medical check up was performed in pediatrics OPD to evaluate the associated craniofacial anomalies. Middle ear function was evaluated in ENT OPD. Otoscopy was done in all patients. Cases under five years of age were evaluated for middle ear function by tympanometry and cases with more than five years of age were evaluated by tympanometry for middle ear function and pure tone audiometry to establish the type of hearing loss. The results are presented as number of ears. Results: A total of 50% of the patients in the study group were in zero- to two-year age group. Otoscopy findings in 120 ears showed that 66.66% of the patients had dull tympanic membrane suggesting a diagnosis of otitis media with effusion. Tympanometry was done in 110 ears, of which, 72.72% of ears had type B tympanogram suggesting otitis media with effusion. Pure tone audiometry in more than five years age group showed that 81.25% ears had conductive hearing loss. Conclusion: This study suggests the need of preoperative ENT check up and audiological assessment in patients of cleft palate undergoing palatal surgery under "Smile Train Project". The association of otitis media with effusion in patients with cleft palate appears strong and a high degree of suspicion for the disease should be kept in them. The anatomical defect and possible causative pathophysiology also supports the inference. Otitis media with effusion causing hearing loss in these patients causes speech delay and unfavorable outcome despite aggressive speech therapy in postoperative period. A co-ordinate team approach of concerned specialists involved in managing these patients would definitely improve their outcome.

  1. Presence of viral nucleic acids in the middle ear: acute otitis media pathogen or bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Ruohola, Aino; Hendley, J Owen

    2012-04-01

    Viruses play an important role in acute otitis media (AOM) pathogenesis, and live viruses may cause AOM in the absence of pathogenic bacteria. Detection of AOM pathogens generally relies on bacterial culture of middle ear fluid. When viral culture is used and live viruses are detected in the middle ear fluid of children with AOM, the viruses are generally accepted as AOM pathogens. Because viral culture is not sensitive and does not detect the comprehensive spectrum of respiratory viruses, polymerase chain reaction assays are commonly used to detect viral nucleic acids in the middle ear fluid. Although polymerase chain reaction assays have greatly increased the viral detection rate, new questions arise on the significance of viral nucleic acids detected in the middle ear because nucleic acids of multiple viruses are detected simultaneously, and nucleic acids of specific viruses are detected repeatedly and in a high proportion of asymptomatic children. This article first reviews the role of live viruses in AOM and presents the point-counterpoint arguments on whether viral nucleic acids in the middle ear represent an AOM pathogen or a bystander status. Although there is evidence to support both directions, helpful information for interpretation of the data and future research direction is outlined.

  2. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FACIAL NERVE DEHISCENCE ENCOUNTERED DURING MIDDLE EAR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study to evaluate the incidence and localization of facial nerve dehiscence in patients undergoing middle ear surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study done at our ENT center consists of 103 patients undergoing various middle ear surgery. The patients who have been operated in our ENT center for middle ear problems in last 3 years were enrolled for the study. Among 103 patients, 35 were women, 68 were men with age ranging from 7 to 59. STATISTICAL TOOL: proportion and percentage, Chi square test. Statistical method analyzed by Graph Pad Instat software. RESULTS: Facial nerve dehiscence occurred in 15 (14.5% of 103 patients. Involvement of tympanic segment more common than other segments. CONCLUSION: Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always keeping in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Facial nerve is most vulnerable structure in middle ear and that should be dealt carefully to avoid complications.

  3. Carcinoid Tumors in the Middle Ear: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Entong; GONG Weixi; DA Jiping

    2006-01-01

    Middle ear carcinoid tumor (MEC T) is rare. Only 46 cases of MECT have been reported in the literature since the first case of MECT was described in 1980. We present here a case of primary MECT initially diagnosed as inflammatory aural polyp. The case was a 43-year-old women complaining of right ear chronic otorrhea and hearing loss over a period of five years, with a blockage sensation in the right ear for two years. Audiometry showed conductive hearing loss in the right ear. Physical examination and CT scans showed a mass in the right external auditory canal and middle ear, surrounding the ossicular chain. Pathologic study of surgically removed specimen revealed features of carcinoid tumor with positive staining to chromogranin A and synaptophysin in tumor cells. Local radiation of 60 Gy was applied. The patient has been followed up for more than one year. Postoperative histopathological examination showed no evidence of MECT recurrence one year after surgery, but inflammatory changes in the middle ear. Relevant literatures were reviewed. Clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of MECT, and strategies in MECT diagnosis and management are discussed.

  4. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  5. Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: New bone formation in the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Andreou, Zenon; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Owa, Anthony

    2014-09-16

    The objective of this study is to increase awareness of the rare presentation, diagnostic difficulties and management of glomus tympanicum of the middle ear. A 49 years old male, with a background of hypertension and epilepsy, presented with a two month history of left sided conductive hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus and headache. Clinically and radiologically a diagnosis of glomus tympanicum was made. Intraoperatively, extensive osteogenesis of the middle ear resulting in ossicular fixation and erosion was found. This patient required a two stage operation for full clearance of disease. A stapedectomy drill was used to drill off the bony overgrowth surrounding the ossicles resulting in improved hearing thresholds and full clearance of the disease at two year follow up. Glomus tympanicum can result in new bone formation in the middle ear with resultant ossicular fixation and conductive hearing loss. This can be effectively treated surgically with restoration of hearing. PMID:25232551

  6. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear. Its effectiveness, limits of diagnosis and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu (Iwaki Kyoritsu General Hospital, Fukushima (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was observed in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases.

  7. Effects of polylactic acid film on middle ear mucosa and cochlear function in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Nuray; Tutar, Hakan; Ekinci, Ozgur; Ugur, Mehmet Birol; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A; Gokdogan, Cagil; Goksu, Nebil

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to assess the effects of polylactic acid (PLA) on middle ear mucosa and cochlea, to be used as a film barrier for postoperative adhesion prevention in the middle ear. Twenty-one albino Guinea pigs were included in the study. A window was opened on both tympanic bulla and on one side PLA material was placed in the middle ear and on the other side only fenestration was performed and used as a control. All Guinea pigs underwent evaluation of tympanic membranes microscopically; functional hearing was analyzed by auditory brainstem responses preoperatively, in the first and the sixth month. All Guinea pigs were killed on the sixth month for histopathologic evaluation of their temporal bones. There was no statistical difference between both groups regarding hearing thresholds, interpeak wave latencies preoperatively and on first and the sixth months postoperatively. Histopathological evaluation revealed no specific changes. There was a mild local inflammation both in the PLA implanted and control ears. PLA film barrier most likely has no toxic effects on Guinea pig middle ear and does not show any ototoxic side effects.

  8. Middle ear impedance studies in elderly patients implications on age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ayodele Sogebi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Controversies arise with respect to functioning of the middle ear over time.OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in middle ear impedance that may be related to aging, and/or if there was an association of these changes with those of the inner ear in the elderly patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional, comparative study of elderly patients managed in ear, nose and throat clinics. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain clinical information. Pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and acoustic reflexes were performed. Comparative analyses were performed to detect intergroup differences between clinico-audiometric findings and middle ear measures, viz. tympanograms and acoustic reflexes.RESULTS: One hundred and three elderly patients participated in the study; 52.4% were male, averagely 70.0 ± 6.3 years old, age-related hearing loss in 59.2%, abnormal tympanograms in 39.3%, absent acoustic reflex in 37.9%. There was no association between age and gender in patients with abnormal tympanograms and absent acoustic reflex. Significantly more patients with different forms and grades of age-related hearing loss had abnormal tympanometry and absent acoustic reflex.CONCLUSION: Some abnormalities were observed in the impedance audiometric measures of elderly patients, which were significantly associated with parameters connected to age-related hearing loss.

  9. Assessment of middle ear effusion and audiological characteristics in young children with adenoid hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Dong-dong; WANG Wu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Otitis media with effusion is a highly concurrent disease in young children with adenoid hypertrophy.The aim of this study was to assess the middle ear effusion and audiological characteristics in children with adenoid hypertrophy and compare the various assessment methods.@@Methods Two hundred and seven candidates who were to undergo adenoidectomy were analyzed using otoscopy,tympanometry,air-conduction auditory steady-state responses (AC-ASSR),and computerized tomography (CT) before adenoidectomy.@@Results About 73.4% (304/414) of ears were confirmed to have middle ear effusion (MEE) by otoscopy; 75.4% (312/414) of ears revealed MEE by CT.CT scan correctly predicted all the myringotomy results,giving 100% accuracy on the diagnosis of MEE.Additionally,CT revealed two children with inner ear malformations.Type B tracing tympanogram provided a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 92.2%.Type C tympanogram with peak pressure <-200 daPa indicated effusion; type C tympanogram having acoustic stapedius reflex could exclude MEE.We excluded the AC-ASSR results of the 4 ears with malformation; 54.4% (223/410) of ears were confirmed of hearing loss.Furthermore,5.2%(16/310) of the ears with MEE suffered from severe to profound hearing loss.The average threshold level in the 0.25 kHz frequency of children was found to have poorer hearing thresholds than those in the 0.5,1,2,and 4 kHz (P <0.001) frequencies; 29.7% (92/310) of ears with MEE were regarded as normal hearing level.About 55.8% (173/310) of ears with MEE were classified as having slight-mild hearing loss.@@Conclusions The practitioners should pay much attention to the middle ear condition and be aware of a possible development of severe to profound hearing loss during the course of MEE in young children with adenoid hypertrophy.CT scan is good for the assessment of MEE before ventilation tube insertion.

  10. Antibodies mediate formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in the middle ear and facilitate secondary pneumococcal otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kirsty R; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Langereis, Jeroen D; Chew, Keng Yih; Job, Emma R; Armitage, Charles W; Hatcher, Brandon; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Reading, Patrick C; Hermans, Peter W; Wijburg, Odilia L; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) (a middle ear infection) is a common childhood illness that can leave some children with permanent hearing loss. OM can arise following infection with a variety of different pathogens, including a coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). We and others have demonstrated that coinfection with IAV facilitates the replication of pneumococci in the middle ear. Specifically, we used a mouse model of OM to show that IAV facilitates the outgrowth of S. pneumoniae in the middle ear by inducing middle ear inflammation. Here, we seek to understand how the host inflammatory response facilitates bacterial outgrowth in the middle ear. Using B cell-deficient infant mice, we show that antibodies play a crucial role in facilitating pneumococcal replication. We subsequently show that this is due to antibody-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the middle ear, which, instead of clearing the infection, allows the bacteria to replicate. We further demonstrate the importance of these NETs as a potential therapeutic target through the transtympanic administration of a DNase, which effectively reduces the bacterial load in the middle ear. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into how pneumococci are able to replicate in the middle ear cavity and induce disease.

  11. Femtosecond laser microstructuring of titanium surfaces for middle ear ossicular replacement prosthesis: results of preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S.; Ilgner, J. F. R.; Fadeeva, E.; Chichkov, B.; Prescher, A.; Bovi, M.; Westhofen, M.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize titanium surfaces by means of Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser to improve the attachment of human cartilage cells on titanium prosthesis in middle ear surgery. The application of microstructures on titanium samples was evaluated and the influence of these microstructures on human auricular chondrocytes was studied in-vitro. After establishing the ear chondrocyte cell culture, cells were seeded on titanium platelets with selected microstructure patterns. Whereas the phenotype of cells seeded on unstructured titanium was similar to cells grown on standard tissue culture surfaces, the morphology of chondrocytes grown on structured titanium samples was influenced by the pattern. For future titanium middle ear prosthesis structural optimizations will be developed to promote chondrocyte growth and adhesion while impeding fibrocyte proliferation to avoid scarring on implant interfaces.

  12. Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase Enhances Middle Ear Mucosal Proliferation during Bacterial Otitis Media▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Masayuki; Ebmeyer, Jörg; Pak, Kwang; Austin, Darrell A.; Melhus, Åsa; Webster, Nicholas J. G.; Ryan, Allen F.

    2007-01-01

    Mucosal hyperplasia is a characteristic component of otitis media. The present study investigated the participation of signaling via the Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase in middle ear mucosal hyperplasia in animal models of bacterial otitis media. Otitis media was induced by the inoculation of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae into the middle ear cavity. Western blotting revealed that phosphorylation of JNK isoforms in the middle ear mucosa preceded but paralleled mucosal hyperplasia in this in vivo rat model. Nuclear JNK phosphorylation was observed in many cells of both the mucosal epithelium and stroma by immunohistochemistry. In an in vitro model of primary rat middle ear mucosal explants, bacterially induced mucosal growth was blocked by the Rac/Cdc42 inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin B, the mixed-lineage kinase inhibitor CEP11004, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Finally, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly inhibited mucosal hyperplasia during in vivo bacterial otitis media in guinea pigs. Inhibition of JNK in vivo resulted in a diminished proliferative response, as shown by a local decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expression by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that activation of JNK is a critical pathway for bacterially induced mucosal hyperplasia during otitis media, influencing tissue proliferation. PMID:17325051

  13. Influenza A virus alters pneumococcal nasal colonization and middle ear infection independently of phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Perez, Antonia C; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is both a widespread nasal colonizer and a leading cause of otitis media, one of the most common diseases of childhood. Pneumococcal phase variation influences both colonization and disease and thus has been linked to the bacteria's transition from colonizer to otopathogen. Further contributing to this transition, coinfection with influenza A virus has been strongly associated epidemiologically with the dissemination of pneumococci from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Using a mouse infection model, we demonstrated that coinfection with influenza virus and pneumococci enhanced both colonization and inflammatory responses within the nasopharynx and middle ear chamber. Coinfection studies were also performed using pneumococcal populations enriched for opaque or transparent phase variants. As shown previously, opaque variants were less able to colonize the nasopharynx. In vitro, this phase also demonstrated diminished biofilm viability and epithelial adherence. However, coinfection with influenza virus ameliorated this colonization defect in vivo. Further, viral coinfection ultimately induced a similar magnitude of middle ear infection by both phase variants. These data indicate that despite inherent differences in colonization, the influenza A virus exacerbation of experimental middle ear infection is independent of the pneumococcal phase. These findings provide new insights into the synergistic link between pneumococcus and influenza virus in the context of otitis media.

  14. Clinical investigation of flat panel CT following middle ear reconstruction: a study of 107 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaoui, K. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht Karls University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Kromeier, J. [St. Josefs Hospital, RkK, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Neudert, M.; Beleites, T.; Zahnert, T. [University Hospital Dresden, Technical University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Laszig, R.; Offergeld, C. [University Hospital Freiburg, Albert Ludwigs University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    After middle ear reconstruction using partial or total ossicular replacement prostheses (PORP/TORP), an air-bone gap (ABG) may persist because of prosthesis displacement or malposition. So far, CT of the temporal bone has played the main role in the diagnosis of reasons for postoperative insufficient ABG improvement. Recent experimental and clinical studies have evaluated flat panel CT (fpCT) as an alternative imaging technique that provides images with high isovolumetric resolution, fewer metal-induced artefacts and lower irradiation doses. One hundred and seven consecutive patients with chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma underwent reconstruction by PORP (n = 52) or TORP (n = 55). All subjects underwent preoperative and postoperative audiometric testing and postoperative fpCT. Statistical evaluation of all 107 patients as well as the sole sub-assembly groups (PORP or TORP) showed a highly significant correlation between hearing improvement and fpCT-determined prosthesis position. FpCT enables detailed postoperative information on patients with middle ear reconstruction. FpCT is a new imaging technique that provides immediate feedback on surgical results after reconstructive middle ear surgery. Specific parameters evaluated by fpCT may serve as a predictive tool for estimated postoperative hearing improvement. Therefore this imaging technique is suitable for postoperative quality control in reconstructive middle ear surgery. (orig.)

  15. Short term and long term subjective taste disorder after middle ear cleft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a prospective study that looks into the prevalence of chorda tympani nerve injury and related symptoms following varying degrees of trauma to the nerve during four common types of middle-ear operations; namely, Tympanomastoid operations, myringoplasty, Tympanoplasty and Exploratory tympanotomy. Materials and Methods: 178 patients who underwent middle ear cleft surgery were included in this prospective study. Childrens below 20 years and patients with other potential cause of taste disturbance were excluded. Patients were given a single questionnaire, so as to assess their post-operative taste disturbance. Patient name, Age, Sex, Type of middle ear surgery, side of surgery were recorded. Any change in sense of taste immediately (after 2-4 weeks or delayed (2-3 yearswere recorded. Results: The number of patients with Chorda tympani nerve-related symptoms varied widely between these four groups. Increased occurrence of the nerve related symptoms were observed in Tympanomastoid and Myringoplasty, and a prolonged recovery time were observed in the tympanomastoid group. Stretching of the nerve produced more symptomatic cases than thermal injury or drying. Conclusion: It is important to inform patients about the possibility of Chorda Tympani Nerve injury during middle-ear operations, and it should also be emphasized that symptoms related to Chorda Tympani Nerve injury can occur irrespective of the type of damage to the nerve.

  16. Fenestration operation in middle ear bone with pulsed infrared lasers:an in-vivo study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzeng Zhang; Xiaoyan Wang; Zhenlin Zhan; Qing Ye; Shusen Xie

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of fenestration operation in middle ear bone with pulsed infrared laser is evaluated.Healthy male New Zealand rabbits in vivo are used in the experiment.Middle ear mastoid bone of animal model is complctely exposed with conventional methods,and then a pulsed CO2 laser(10.6 μm)and an Er:YAG laser(2.94 μm)are used to perform the fenestration operation.Diamond drill is also used as a control group.The total operation time and light irradiation time are recorded and the opening efficiency is assessed.The morphological changes and thermal damage around the opening window on the middle ear bone are examined.It is shown that both laser systems are suitable for the fenestration operation in middle ear bone,and this no-touch technique has a lot of benefits compared with traditional methods.The bleeding during operation has an important effect on operation time and thermal injury and needs to be controlled efficiently in further study.

  17. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi. The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+ bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90% of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria.

  18. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D. M.; Cheeseman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  19. Comparison of different computed tomography post-processing modalities in assessment of various middle ear disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Ahmed Mohamed; Baki, Fatthi Abdel; Eid, Mohamed; Negm, Magdy

    2015-06-01

    Several anatomic structures of the middle ear are not optimally depicted in the standard axial and coronal planes. Several 2D and 3D image-processing modalities are currently available for CT examinations in clinical radiology departments. Till now 3D reconstructions of the temporal bone have not been widely used yet, and attracted only academic interest. The aim of this study was to compare axial (source images), 2D and 3DCT post-processing modalities, and to evaluate the value of 3D reconstructed images/virtual endoscopy (VE) in assessment of various middle ear disorders for identification of the best modality/view for assessment of a particular middle ear structure or pathology. 40 patients with various middle ear disorders, planned for surgical intervention were included in prospective study. Multi-slice CT was performed for all patients. Scans were acquired in the axial plane. The axial source datasets were utilized for generation of 2D reformations and 3D reconstructed images. All studied images were divided into three categories: axial (source images), 2D reformations (MPR and sliding-thin-slab MIP) and 3D reconstruction (virtual endoscopy). The visibility of middle ear structures and pathologies with each modality were scored qualitatively using three-point scoring system in reference to operative findings. Stapes superstructure and footplate, incudostapedial joint, oval and round windows, tympanic segment of the facial nerve and tegmen were not optimally depicted in the axial plane. Sinus tympani and facial recess were best visualized with axial images or VE. 3D reconstruction/VE allowed good visualization of all parts of ossicular chain except stapes superstructure. Regarding pathologic changes, 2D reformations and 3D reconstructed images allowed better visualization of erosion of ossicles and tegmen. 3D reconstruction/VE did not allow detection of foci of otospongiosis. 2D reformations can be considered the mainstay in assessment of most middle ear

  20. CT and MR imaging after middle ear surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Bootz, F

    2001-11-01

    This article describes the current value of imaging in patients after stapes surgery and surgery after chronic otitis media including cholesteatoma. Possibilities and limits of computed tomography (CT) and MRI are described and most important investigation parameters are mentioned. After otosclerosis surgery, CT is the method of first choice in detection of reasons for vertigo and/or recurrent hearing loss in the later postoperative phase. CT may show the position and condition of prosthesis, scarring around the prosthesis and otospongiotic foci. Sometimes, it gives indirect hints for perilymphatic fistulas and incus necrosis. MRI is able to document inner ear complications. CT has a high negative predictive value in cases with a free cavity after mastoidectomy. Localized opacities or total occlusion are difficult to distinguish by CT alone. MRI provides important additional information in the differentiation of cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma, effusion, granulation and scar tissue.

  1. Connectivity analysis of suggestive brain areas involved in middle ear pressure regulation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SA, Sami; Gaihede, Michael

    2010-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS:: Middle ear pressure (MEP) is actively regulated by both the Eustachian tube and the mastoid air cell system. BACKGROUND:: MEP is a highly significant factor involved in many clinical conditions related to otitis media. Basic knowledge on its overall regulation remains insufficient...... of these distinct mechanisms were found. CONCLUSION:: The human mastoid as well as the Eustachian tube was capable of active counter-regulation of the MEP in short-term experimental pressure changes in healthy ears. Thus, these 2 systems seemed to function in a complementary way, where the mastoid was related...

  2. [Clinical evaluation of congenital cholesteatoma of the middle ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Shinohara, Shogo; Shiomi, Yousaku; Fujiwara, Keizo; Shiomi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Futoshi; Tanabe, Makito

    2003-08-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to identify the clinical features and surgical observations of congenital cholesteatoma. Sixty patients were diagnosed and underwent surgery for congenital cholesteatoma between April 1987 and May 2002. All diagnoses were made on the basis of two operative findings: 1. the tympanic membrane manifested neither retraction, perforation, nor granulation. 2. the tympanic membrane was not continuous with the cholesteatoma. In this series, congenital cholesteatoma accounted for 7% of all cholesteatomas (853 ears). The patient age ranged from 2 to 48 years. The male to female ratio was 4:1. Seventeen patients had multiple cholesteatoma. Fifty-three patients exhibited closed-type cholesteatomas, while the remaining 7 patients had open-type cholesteatomas that had formed as a flat surface of the epidermis. Patients with open-type cholesteatomas presented with a much more pronounced conductive hearing loss and ossicular erosion or malformation. Twenty-two patients with relatively small cholesteatomas were analyzed to estimate the origin of their cholesteatomas. Of the 22 patients, 13 had anterior superior quadrant (ASQ-type) and 9 had posterior superior quadrant (PSQ-type) cholesteatomas. The mean age at the time of detection was older in the PSQ-type group than in the ASQ-type group and the frequency of ossicular erosion or malformation was more prominent in the PSQ-type group than in the ASQ-type group. The primary site of origin was thought to be the portion between the tympanic ostium of the auditory canal and the semicanal for tensor tympani in the ASQ-type group and near the incudostapedial joint in the PSQ-type group. A planned staged procedure was performed in 29 patients, 15 patients (52%) had residual lesions situated mostly on the oval window, the round window, an exposed facial nerve or an exposed lateral semicircular canal. The frequency of residual lesions in patients who presented with extended, multiple cholesteatoma and

  3. Design of Floating Mass Type Piezoelectric Actuator for Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Houguang; TA Na; MING Xiaofeng; RAO Zhushi

    2009-01-01

    To overcome some of the problems inherent in conventional hearing aids such as low gain at high frequencies due to acoustic feedback, discomfort in occlusion of the external ear canal and so on, implantable middle ear hearing devices (IMEHDs) have been developed over the past two decades. For such kinds of IMEHDS, this paper presents the design of a floating mass piezoelectric actuator using a PMN-30%PT stack as a new type of vibrator. The proposed piezoelectric actuator consists of only three components of a piezoelectric stack, a metal case and a clamp. For the purpose of aiding the design of this actuator, a coupling biomechanics model of human middle ear and the piezoelectric actuator was constructed. This model was built based on a complete set of computerized tomography section images of a healthy volunteer's left ear by reverse engineering technology. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the motion of the tympanic membrane and stapes footplate obtained by this model with published experimental measurements on human temporal bones. It is shown that the designed actuator can be implanted on the incus long process by a simple surgical operation, and the stapes footplate displacement by its excitation at 10.5 V root-mean-square(RMS) voltage was equivalent to that from acoustic stimulation at 100 dB sound pressure level(SPL), which is adequate stimulation to the nssicular chain. The corresponding power consumption is 0.04 mW per volt of excitation at 1 kHz, which is low enough for the transducer to be used in an implantable middle ear device.

  4. Spatial Motion in Natural and Reconstructed Middle Ears and the Impact on Sound Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, Albrecht; Heckeler, Christoph; Lauxmann, Michael; Maier, Hannes; Saffarini, Mohammed

    2011-11-01

    During sound transmission the elements of the middle ear carry out frequency dependent motions in all three spatial directions. Particularly the stapes exhibits a piston and rocking motion and recent studies show that rocking also has an impact on hearing. Here the spatial motions of natural and reconstructed ears are considered on the basis of experiments and numerical simulations based on Multibody System (MBS) approach and Finite Element Method (FEM). In case of a passive reconstruction with a PORP the stapes carries out pronounced rocking motions as well as the piston driven by the natural incus in classical stapedotomy. In the active, electromagnetic middle ear implant Phonak Ingenia, a piston prosthesis is driven by the actuator. Due to anatomical restrictions, the axes of the actuator and the prosthesis are not in line and thus a rocking motion of the prosthesis occurs. Compared to passive reconstructions and the natural ear, this rocking is about in the same range of magnitude. In particular, the coupling between actuator and prosthesis is important for the hearing sensation. Thus, a standardized coupling configuration between the Phonak Ingenia actuator and the piston prosthesis with predefined coupling stiffness and damping offers optimal sound transfer.

  5. Conditioning the middle ear reflex at sensation levels below reflex threshold: air jet and electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel-Bacon, L; Fulton, R T; Laskowski, R P

    1980-01-01

    An ABAB functional analysis, conditioning and generalization, design was used in 3 experiments (2 were formal studies and 1 was empirical in nature) to investigate the conditionability of the middle ear reflex. The conditioned stimuli were subreflex threshold pure tones of various frequencies and intensities. The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was an auricular air jet to the contralateral ear in the first experiment and cutaneous electrical stimulation to the ipsolateral, probe ear in the last 2 experiments. Reflexes were monitored by an otoadmittance meter, storage oscilloscope, and strip chart recorder. In the first experiment (air jet UCS), no subjects met the conditioning criterion within the maximum presentation of 400 paired trials, despite pilot evidence which indicated conditioning was feasible. In the second experiment (electrical stimulation UCS), 2 subjects met conditioning criterion; however, only one subject reconditioned and demonstrated partial generalization to other conditioned stimuli. In the third experiment (electrical stimulation UCS), one of 3 subjects who had previously been unconditionable with the air jet UCS met conditioning and reconditioning criterion and demonstrated partial generalization. Results indicate that the middle ear reflex can be conditioned to be elicited by subreflex threshold pure tones, however, results are limited.

  6. Study Of The Effect Of Nasal- Septal Deviation On The Middle Ear Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motesaddi Zarandi M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Eustachian tube connects middle ear space to the nasopharyngeal space. Upper airway obstruction, with any cause, can derange Eustachian tube function. Nasal septal deviation is one of the prevalent causes of upper airway obstruction which can affects the ventilation function of Eustachian tube."nMaterials and Methods: This study was conducted on the patients who underwent septoplasty due to severe septal deviation leading to unilateral nasal obstruction in Amiraalam hospital from summer of 1378 till the spring of 1379."nResults: There was 140 patients whose data were as: female patients 34 (24.3% male patients 106 (75.7%, mean age (22.7. Median age (20 years and mode of age (18 years of age. they were from 12 to 40 years of age."nConclusion: Comparison between preoperative and postoperative middle ear pressures shows no any significant statistical difference (p=0.798.

  7. Effects of changes in dynamic characteristics of the middle ear on transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špirić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions are transmitted through the middle ear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic properties of the transmission system on the measurability of transient otoacoustic emissions. The authors analyzed the presence of transient otoacoustic emissions in 48 children with serous otitis media regarding the tympanogram, presence and type of effusion and pure tone average findings. The results obtained in this research show the predominant absence of transient otoacoustic emissions in patients with type B tympanogram (69.1% especially if the effusion is mucoid (77.5% with the hearing loss of 15 decibel hearing level. This research shows that disorders in dynamic characteristics of the middle ear in patients with serous otitis obstruct the transmission of acoustic energy and affect the measurability of transient otoacoustic emissions, especially if the effusion is mucoid and hearing loss of 15 decibel hearing level.

  8. Virus and bacteria enhance histamine production in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Patel, J A; Lett-Brown, M A; Uchida, T; Garofalo, R; Owen, M J; Howie, V M

    1994-06-01

    Histamine levels were measured in 677 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples from 248 children (aged 2 months to 7 years) with acute otitis media (AOM); of these, 116 (47%) had documented viral infection. Histamine content was higher in bacteria-positive than in bacteria-negative MEF samples (P = .007) and higher in samples from patients with viral infection than in those from patients with no viral infection (P = .002). Bacteria and viruses together had an additive effect on histamine content in MEF. Histamine concentration in the initial MEF sample tended to be higher in patients with persistent otitis than in those with good response to treatment (P = .14). Results suggest that viruses, bacteria, or both induce histamine production, which leads to increased inflammation in the middle ear. Antihistaminic drugs may be beneficial. Large, prospective, controlled trials of the effects of antihistamine as an adjunct therapy in bacterial and viral AOM are required before recommendations can be made.

  9. One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Robert C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because previous studies have indicated that otitis media may be a polymicrobial disease, we prospectively analyzed middle ear effusions of children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for four otopathogens. Methods Middle ear effusions from 207 children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement were collected and were classified by the surgeon as acute otitis media (AOM for purulent effusions and as otitis media with effusion (OME for non-purulent effusions. DNA was isolated from these samples and analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Results 119 (57% of 207 patients were PCR positive for at least one of these four organisms. 36 (30% of the positive samples indicated the presence of more than one bacterial species. Patient samples were further separated into 2 groups based on clinical presentation at the time of surgery. Samples were categorized as acute otitis media (AOM if pus was observed behind the tympanic membrane. If no pus was present, samples were categorized as otitis media with effusion (OME. Bacteria were identified in most of the children with AOM (87% and half the children with OME (51%, p Haemophilus influenzae was the predominant single organism and caused 58% of all AOM in this study. Alloiococcus otitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis were more frequently identified in middle ear effusions than Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in the middle ear effusions of some patients with otitis media. Overall, we found AOM is predominantly a single organism infection and most commonly from Haemophilus influenzae. In contrast, OME infections had a more equal distribution of single organisms, polymicrobial entities, and non-bacterial agents.

  10. Middle ear myoclonus: a new technique for suppression of spontaneous clicking tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Palaniappan, Rudrapathy

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear myoclonus is one of the causes of clicking tinnitus and can be psychologically distressing. Current management of intractable clicking includes medication or tenotomy. Two cases with spontaneous intrusive irregular clicking are presented where relief and a sense of control were obtained using non-invasive self - administered zygomatic pressure. This technique may be useful in selected patients before resorting to medication or tenotomy. PMID:21609914

  11. Bilateral use of Active Middle Ear Implants: Speech Discrimination Results in Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf-Magele, A; Koci, V; Sprinzl, G; Zorowka, P; Riechelmann, H.; Schnabl, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Binaural sound reception has advantages over unilateral perception, including better localization and sound quality as well as speech and tone reception in both quiet and noisy environments. Up to now, most active middle ear implant (AMEI) users have been unilaterally implanted, but patient demand for an implant on the other side is increasing.Material & Methods: Ten bilaterally-AMEI implanted native German-speaking adults were included in the study. The Oldenburg sentence test...

  12. SuperSILAC Quantitative Proteome Profiling of Murine Middle Ear Epithelial Cell Remodeling with NTHi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Val

    Full Text Available Chronic Otitis Media with effusion (COME develops after sustained inflammation and is characterized by secretory middle ear epithelial metaplasia and effusion, most frequently mucoid. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, the most common acute Otitis Media (OM pathogen, is postulated to promote middle ear epithelial remodeling in the progression of OM from acute to chronic. The goals of this study were to examine histopathological and quantitative proteomic epithelial effects of NTHi challenge in a murine middle ear epithelial cell line.NTHi lysates were generated and used to stimulate murine epithelial cells (mMEEC cultured at air-liquid interface over 48 hours- 1 week. Conditional quantitative Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC of cell lysates was performed to interrogate the global protein production in the cells, using the SuperSILAC technique. Histology of the epithelium over time was done to measure bacterial dependent remodeling.Mass spectrometry analysis identified 2,565 proteins across samples, of which 74 exhibited differential enrichment or depletion in cell lysates (+/-2.0 fold-change; p value<0.05. The key molecular functions regulated by NTHi lysates exposure were related to cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion and inflammation. Finally, chronic exposure induced significant epithelial thickening of cells grown at air liquid interface.NTHi lysates drive pathways responsible of cell remodeling in murine middle ear epithelium which likely contributes to observed epithelial hyperplasia in vitro. Further elucidation of these mediators will be critical in understanding the progression of OM from acute to chronic at the molecular level.

  13. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  14. Prophylactic antiemetic effects of midazolam, dexamethasone, and its combination after middle ear surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of the combination of midazolam and dexamethasone, with midazolam and dexamethasone alone, for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in female patients undergoing middle ear surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 female patients (mean age 32.6 years), undergoing middle ear surgery with general anesthesia at Ohud Hospital, Madina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2007 to May 2008. Patients were classified into 4 groups. They received intravenous normal saline (S group), midazolam 0.075 mg/kg (M group), or dexamethasone 10 mg (D group), or a combination of midazolam and dexamethasone (MD group), before the induction of anesthesia. Postoperatively for 24 hours observation and assessment of nausea, vomiting, rescue anti-emetics, and side effects of the study drugs such as headache and drowsiness were carried out. There was a significant difference between the 4 groups. The MD group was the least to develop PONV compared to other groups (p<0.01). Regarding nausea, there was a non-significant difference between the 4 groups, although the MD group developed the least symptoms among the 4 groups, there were no significant differences in pain intensity and side effects such as, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness between the 4 groups. The combination of midazolam 0.075 mg/kg and dexamethasone 10 mg intravenously is better than either drug alone in reducing the incidence of PONV in female patients after middle ear surgery. (author)

  15. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media.

  16. High-resolution computed tomography of the middle ear and mastoid. Part III. Surgically altered anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, J.D.; Goodman, R.S.; Russell, K.B.; Ladenheim, S.F.; Wolfson, R.J.

    1983-08-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) provides an excellent method for examination of the surgically altered middle ear and mastoid. Closed-cavity and open-cavity types of mastoidectomy are illustrated. Recurrent cholesteatoma in the mastoid bowl is easily diagnosed. Different types of tympanoplasty are discussed and illustrated, as are tympanostomy tubes and various ossicular reconstructive procedures. Baseline high-resolution CT of the postoperative middle ear and mastoid is recommended at approximately 3 months following the surgical procedure.

  17. Histological Changes of the Middle Ear Ossicles Harvested During Cholesteatoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Školoudík

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the cholesteatoma surgery ossicles can be replaced to reconstruct middle ear function. It is important that these ossicles are free of squamous epithelium, to prevent residual disease. This study focuses on the histological findings of the malleus and incus harvested during cholesteatoma surgery. Materials and Methods: Eighty middle ears ossicles were examined in vivo and histologically to consider the relationship of cholesteatoma to ossicles, grade of bone destruction and invasion of cholesteatoma to deeper layers of bone. Results: Serious ossicular destruction was observed more frequently in incus compared to malleus (p = 0.0065. Difference of ossicles destruction between children and adults was not significant (p = 0.3032. Deep invasion of cholesteatoma into the vascular spaces or inner core of the bone was not observed. Conclusions: Autograft ossicles from cholesteatomatous ears should not necessarily be rejected for reconstruction of the ossicular chain. Regarding the histological finding, the authors suggest mechanical cleaning of the ossicle surface to eliminate residual disease.

  18. Contralateral suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions and the middle-ear muscle reflex in human ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2008-03-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured in the absence and presence of contralateral noise at five levels--below, equal to, and above the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex threshold. The resultant changes in DPOAE level and phase were dependent on stimulus frequency and noise level. Both low-level noise, believed to elicit the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex, and high-level noise, thought to activate both MOC and MEM reflexes, significantly decreased the DPOAE level. However, the shift from sole MOC effect to mixed MOC and MEM effects was not as dramatic as we thought. While low-level noise resulted in a minimum DPOAE phase change, high-level noise caused a substantial phase lead for 1 and 2kHz. With increasing frequency, phase lag became more notable. The present study suggests the following: (1) DPOAE contralateral suppression by low-level sound most likely does not involve the effect of the MEM reflex and signal crossover; and (2) combined analysis of DPOAE level and phase changes warrants further investigations to overcome the difficulty in separating the effects of MOC efferents and MEM contraction. The results also imply that OAE measurement has the potential for being used to investigate the effect of the MEM reflex on sound transmission. PMID:18258398

  19. Limited cone-beam computed tomography imaging of the middle ear: a comparison with multislice helical computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltonen, L.I.; Aarnisalo, A.A.; Kortesniemi, M.K.; Suomalainen, A.; Jero, J.; Robinson, S. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology and Dept. of Radiology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To determine the applicability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in otological imaging, and to compare its accuracy with the routinely used multislice helical CT (MSCT) for imaging of the middle- and inner-ear areas. Material and Methods: Thirteen unoperated human cadaver temporal bones were imaged with CBCT and MSCT. Sixteen landmarks of the middle and adjacent inner ear were evaluated and compared for their conspicuity according to a modified Likert scale. Total scores and scores for subgroups including landmarks of specific clinical interest were also compared. Results: No significant differences were found between the imaging techniques or subgroups when scores of individual structures were compared. While the middle ear itself was visible in all cases with CBCT, parts of the inner ear were 'cut off' in four cases due to the limited field of view. For the same reason, the evaluation of the whole mastoid was not possible with CBCT. The cochlear and vestibular aqueducts were not visualized in either CT techniques. The contrast-to-noise ratio was more than 50% lower in CBCT than in MSCT, but still adequate for diagnostic task. Conclusion: CBCT proved to be at least as accurate as routinely used MSCT in revealing the clinically and surgically important middle-ear structures. The results show that high-quality imaging of the middle ear is possible with the current CBCT device.

  20. Three-dimensional CT of the ossicles of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Yamashita, Koichi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of the ossicular chain in the middle ear by high speed helical CT. One dissected human temporal bone, five normal ears, and twelve diseased ears (trauma, ossicular anomaly, cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media) were scanned in 1.0 mm slices and reconstructed at a thickness of 0.2-0.5 mm. All 3-D CT specimens can be observed in any plane and from any direction. Ossicular 3-D CT temporal bone images were reconstructed as if the malleus, incus and stapes were being observed under a microscope. No defect in the ossicles or their joints was seen in the images. The entire structure of the stapes could not be represented by conventional two-dimensional CT, but the 3-D CT in our study showed the head, crus and foot plate of the stapes in detail. Ossicular 3-D CT images of normal ears yielded the same findings as those recorded in the temporal bone. Preoperative diagnostic findings of ossicles in diseased ears were very useful. 3-D CT was diagnostic and its accuracy was confirmed by surgical observations, especially in ossicular anomalies. 3-D CT was also an important method of postoperative evaluation of ossicular reconstruction, i.e. TORP and PORP. It could represent the anatomical relation between prosthesis and the oval window. Postoperative hearing improvement can be compared with 3-D CT findings. High-speed helical CT can scan an object more quickly and clearly than conventional CT, and its biological damage in humans is less than that of other methods. 3-D CT allows obviously clearer reconstruction by helical CT than the other methods. (author).

  1. UTILITY OF VIBRANT SOUNDBRIDGE IN PATIENTS WITH CONGENITAL MIDDLE AND OUTER EAR DEFORMITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU; Yihui; LI; Jianan; CHEN; Aiting; DAI; Bu; HAN; Dongyi; LIU; Huizhan; YANG; Shiming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report use of the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) in patients with congenital deformation of the middle and outer ears and investigate its utility in this patient population.Method Four patients with congenital deformation of middle and outer ears underwent VSB implantation. All were male (aged 3-18 years,average 13.5 years) and operated on the left side.Malformation was bilateral in 3 patients and unilateral in 1 patient. Surgical techniques were modified to accommodate each patient’s unique conditions and needs.The implant site was approached via the facial recess in 3 patients and through a retro-facial nerve route in 1 patient. The VSB implant was connected to either the stapes (2 cases) or the round window (2 cases).Pure tone and speech audiometry results and daily communication capabilities before and after VSB activation were compared.Results The operations were successful in all patients, with no complications. The patient communication level improved significantly after VSB activation. Average air conduction pure tone threshold or conditioned reflex audiometry threshold improved by 35 dB in the 0.25-4 kHz range,from 69 dB HL before VSB activation to 34 dB HL after.The sentence recognition rate in quiet at 65 dB SPL went up to 86% from 0% without VSB for patients with bilateral deformation and remained at 100% for the patient with unilateral deformity. However, for the latter patient, the rate improved to 20% from 0% without VSB in noise (-8 dB SNR).Conclusion VSB is an excellent solution for improving hearing in patients with congenital deformation of middle and outer ears.Operation can be completed and good results can be achieved even in patients with unique conditions and needs.

  2. In vitro interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with human middle ear epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mittal

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM is an inflammation of the middle ear which can be acute or chronic. Acute OM is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. CSOM is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the middle ear characterized by infection and discharge. The survivors often suffer from hearing loss and neurological sequelae. However, no information is available regarding the interaction of P. aeruginosa with human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs.In the present investigation, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa is able to enter and survive inside HMEECs via an uptake mechanism that is dependent on microtubule and actin microfilaments. The actin microfilament disrupting agent as well as microtubule inhibitors exhibited significant decrease in invasion of HMEECs by P. aeruginosa. Confocal microscopy demonstrated F-actin condensation associated with bacterial entry. This recruitment of F-actin was transient and returned to normal distribution after bacterial internalization. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the surface of HMEECs, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the internalization of P. aeruginosa located in the plasma membrane-bound vacuoles. We observed a significant decrease in cell invasion of OprF mutant compared to the wild-type strain. P. aeruginosa induced cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the determination of lactate dehydrogenase levels in culture supernatants of infected HMEECs and by a fluorescent dye-based assay. Interestingly, OprF mutant showed little cell damage compared to wild-type P. aeruginosa.This study deciphered the key events in the interaction of P. aeruginosa with HMEECs in vitro and highlighted the role of bacterial outer membrane protein, OprF, in this process. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CSOM will help in identifying

  3. External auditory canal and middle ear cholesteatoma and osteonecrosis in bisphosphonate-treated osteoporosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, A-L; Vestergaard, P; Eiken, P

    2014-01-01

    reported in the world literature. Our aim was to describe the incidence of external auditory canal and middle ear diseases in Danish patients exposed to BPs in the treatment of osteoporosis. METHODS: This register-based nationwide cohort study was conducted on the Danish population of approximately 5......UNLABELLED: Long-term treatment with bisphosphonates against osteoporosis may cause atypical femur fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Eight cases of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal area are published. Based on Danish national registers, we report a time...

  4. Middle ear capillary haemangioma: Review of literature and appraisal of management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Ali A; Casselden, Elizabeth; Theaker, Jeffrey; Batty, Vincent; Thomas, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Infantile middle ear capillary haemangiomas (MECH) are a rare entity with only five reported cases in the literature. At present there is no consensus regarding the management of such lesions. Extra-cutaneous haemangiomas have been successfully managed with oral propranolol but not yet reported in MECH. We present a further case and appraise the management options. At present oral propranolol has not been used in the treatment of MECH. The literature suggests that infantile MECH have a higher propensity to spontaneously involute and a greater likelihood of response to propranolol. Surgical excision is the best option in older children and adults. PMID:26992272

  5. Prophylactic antiemetic effects of Midazolam, Ondansetron, and their combination after middle ear surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Chegeni, Mansoureh; Hirmanpour, Anahita; Nazem, Masoud; Sarizdi, Seyyad Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of midazolam-ondansetron combination in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after middle ear surgery and its comparison with using midazolam or ondansetron alone. Methods: One hundred and forty patients were enrolled in four groups to receive midazolam 0.75 mg/kg in group M, ondansetron 4 mg in group O, midazolam 0.75 mg/kg and ondansetron 4 mg in group MO, and saline 0.90% in group S intravenously jus...

  6. The clinical efficacy of 1 mm-slice CT of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Noiri, Teruhisa [Kawanishi Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Doi, Katsumi; Koizuka, Izumi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Mishiro, Yasuo; Okumura, Shin-ichi; Kubo, Takeshi

    2000-02-01

    The efficacy of the preoperative 1 mm-slice CT for evaluating the condition of the ossicular chain and the facial canal was assessed. CT findings were compared with the operative findings of middle ears in 120 cases of chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma that underwent tympanoplasty. The reliability of 1 mm-slice CT in detecting any defect of the ossicular chain was much superior to those of 2 mm-slice CT previously reported, and the difference between them is essential for preoperative information. On the other hand, thinner slice than 1 mm may be unnecessary, especially in routine use. (author)

  7. Simulations and Measurements of Human Middle Ear Vibrations Using Multi-Body Systems and Laser-Doppler Vibrometry with the Floating Mass Transducer

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Strenger; Stefan Lehner; Frank Böhnke; Theodor Bretan

    2013-01-01

    The transfer characteristic of the human middle ear with an applied middle ear implant (floating mass transducer) is examined computationally with a Multi-body System approach and compared with experimental results. For this purpose, the geometry of the middle ear was reconstructed from μ-computer tomography slice data and prepared for a Multi-body System simulation. The transfer function of the floating mass transducer, which is the ratio of the input voltage and the generated force, is deri...

  8. Determinants of sensorineural hearing loss in chronic middle-ear disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Neeraj; Joshi, Sanjeev; Pareek, S M

    2004-10-01

    A statistical study was carried out on SNHL in CSOM. The study group consisted of 1,828 patients suffering from CSOM who underwent surgery at our centre from 1982 to 2001, out of these 510 cases with unilateral CSOM were selected for this study by a strict selection criteria so as to eliminate covariables such as exposure to acoustic trauma, head injury, previous ear surgery and hereditary causes. The healthy ear served as control. We determined the average SNHL in relation to the age of onset, duration of disease, examining it in relation to other eventual aural complications such as cholesteatoma, ossicular chain erosion und otorrhea.On the basis of data obtained we observed consistent co-relation between severity of SNHL and duration of the disease, presence of cholesteatoma, ossicular erosion, attic and subtotal perforations. These findings suggest that more severe middle ear disease may result in SNHL and thus early intervention in cases of chronic suppurative Otitis media is desired. PMID:23120094

  9. [Histological evaluation of the condition of the trepanation cavity coating after radical surgery on the middle ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I A; Bykova, V P; Patiakina, O K; Portenko, E G

    1998-01-01

    Tissue samples obtained intraoperatively from different parts of the middle ear in the course of the radical operation (35 cases) or reconstructive operations in patients with the history of surgical intervention on the ear (67 cases) were examined histologically. Fibrous-atrophic changes in the trepanation cavity coating correlated with the duration of the disease and the time since the radical operation. Pathomorphological and topographic profile of the changes in the operated ear coating copies relevant picture of otitis media purulenta chronica. The tympanomastoid cavity coating was characterized by increasing fibrous-atrophic changes reflecting regeneratory-plastic insufficiency of the epithelium and persistent tympanofibrosis in conditions of open trepanation cavity with disturbed anatomic relations in the middle ear.

  10. Diagnostic Performance of Endoscopic and Microscopic Procedures for Identifying Different Middle Ear Structures and Remaining Disease in Patients with Chronic Otitis Media: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Farahani

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of endoscopic and microscopic procedures for detecting diseases of the middle ear in patients with chronic otitis media (COM has rarely been investigated. This study was conducted to compare the performance of these procedures for identifying middle ear structures and their associated diseases in COM patients.In this prospective cohort study, 58 patients with chronic COM, who were candidates for tympanoplasty with or without a mastoidectomy, were enrolled. Before the surgical intervention, the middle ear was examined via an operating microscope and then through an endoscope to identify the middle ear structures as well as diseases associated with the middle ear.The patients were 15 years of age or older. The anatomical parts of the middle ear - the epitympanic, posterior mesotympanic, and hypotympanic structures - were more visible through an endoscope than through a microscope. In addition, the various segments of the mesotympanum, oval window, round window, and Eustachian tube were more visible via endoscopy. The post-operative endoscopic reevaluation of the middle ear revealed that a cholesteatoma had remained in four of 13 patients after surgery.According to the results of this study, in cases in which there is poor visibility with the operating microscope or the surgeon suspects remaining disease within the middle ear, endoscopy could be utilized to improve the evaluation of more hidden middle ear pits and structures, particularly if there is a potentially recrudescent pathology.

  11. Evaluation of concordance between the microorganisms detected in the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Thijs M A; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Zon, Alice; Bogaert, Debby; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M

    2013-05-01

    Studies of microorganisms involved in otitis media in children often use a nasopharyngeal sample as a proxy for the middle ear fluid to test for bacteria and viruses. The question is whether such studies provide an accurate estimate of the prevalence of microorganisms involved in otitis media. We performed a systematic review of the literature reporting on the concordance between test results of nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid samples for the most prevalent microorganisms in children with otitis media. Our findings show that the concordances vary from 68% to 97% per microorganism. For the most prevalent microbes, positive predictive values are around 50%. Most negative predictive values are moderate to high, with a range from 68% up to 97%. These results indicate that test results from nasopharyngeal samples do not always provide an accurate proxy for those of the middle ear fluid. It is important to interpret and use results of such studies carefully.

  12. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  13. Transducer Type and Design Influence on the Hearing Loss Compensation Behaviour of the Electromagnetic Middle Ear Implant in a Finite Element Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Houguang; Ge, Shirong; Cheng, Gang; Yang, Jianhua; Rao, Zhushi; Huang, Xinsheng

    2014-01-01

    Several types of electromagnetic transducer for the middle ear implants (MEIs) have been developed as an alternative to conventional hearing aids for the rehabilitation of sensorineural hearing loss. Electromagnetic transducer type and design are thought to have a significant influence on their hearing compensation performance. To investigate these effects, a middle ear computational model was constructed based on a complete set of microcomputerized tomography section images of a human ear. I...

  14. Inadvertent insertion of hearing aid impression material into the middle ear: Case report and implications for future community hearing services ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Algudkar, Ashwin; Maden, Belma; Singh, Arvind; Tatla, Taran

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The creation of ear moulds for hearing aids is generally considered a safe and routine procedure for trained professionals. In the literature there are reports of otological complications caused by hearing aid mould impression material in the middle ear cavity but such complications are considered rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a patient in whom impression material entered the middle ear through a perforation of the tympanic membrane during the process of makin...

  15. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

  16. [Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the middle ear: description of a case with long-term survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesi, L; Sbrocca, M

    1990-01-01

    A case is described of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (E.R.) of the middle ear in a 4-year-old child; survival has been over 9 years. R.E. is the most common malignant tumor of the auricular region in children and is most often fatal due to locoregional extensions or secondary metastases carried through the bloodstream and lymphatic systems. The basis for treatment is a multidisciplinary approach to the disease: surgery with as broad an exeresis as possible; radiotherapy with tumor-killing doses of 5,500/6,000 rads; and polychemotherapy (Vincristina, Endoxan, Methotrexate). Such "aggressive" treatment often results in a high rate of morbidity with complications involving the blood, bones, eyes and meninx often requiring temporary suspension of treatment and prolonged hospitalization. PMID:2260443

  17. Comparative anatomy of the middle ear ossicles of extant hominids--Introducing a geometric morphometric protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Alexander; Gunz, Philipp; David, Romain; Spoor, Fred

    2016-02-01

    The presence of three interconnected auditory ossicles in the middle ear is a defining characteristic of mammals, and aspects of ossicle morphology are related to hearing sensitivity. However, analysis and comparison of ossicles are complicated by their minute size and complex three-dimensional shapes. Here we introduce a geometric morphometric measurement protocol for 3D shape analysis based on landmarks and semilandmarks obtained from μCT images and apply it to ossicles of extant hominids (great apes and humans). We show that the protocol is reliable and reproducible over a range of voxel resolutions, and captures even subtle shape differences. Using this approach it is possible to distinguish the hominid taxa by mean shapes of their malleus and incus (p morphometric studies analyzing ossicles of extinct hominids, with a bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny and auditory function. PMID:26852810

  18. Advances tomographic in evaluation of middle ear; Avancos tomograficos na avaliacao da orelha media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Mayara Alves Pinheiro dos; Ledo, Mirelle D& #x27; arc Frota; Ribeiro, Marcio Duarte, E-mail: may_anjos@yahoo.com.br [Fundacao Bahiana para o Desenvolvimento das Ciencias, Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography has a key role in the study of hearing, since through it can be evaluated structures not seen by otoscope. In many clinical situations the diagnosis through this test proves limited, being fundamental examination of the associated image reconstructions: multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and volume-rendering technique. The ossicular chain is a complex formed by the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes, situated in the middle ear; it is difficult to view them in orthogonals planes. This review article intends to demonstrate the importance of post-processing the image of the ossicular chain for a better representation of the anatomy and possible diseases. Reformatting of images helps, significantly, to a better visualization of these structures as related congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, inflammatory conditions, neoplasia and traumas. (author)

  19. Diagnosis of ossicular chain in the middle ear by high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Takeo (Hanamaki-Kosei Hospital, Iwate (Japan)); Aoyagi, Masaru; Koike, Yoshio; Sugai, Yukio

    1992-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the usefulness and limitation of high-resolution CT for evaluating the condition of ossicular chain in the middle ear. Preoperative CT findings of the ossicular chain were compared with the operative findings of ossicles in 26 patients with chronic otitis media or congenital ossicular anomaly who underwent tympanoplasty. Total defect of head of the malleus, body of the incus and long process of the incus were completely detected by high-resolution CT. But the reliability in detecting the defect of handle of the malleus and superstructure of the stapes were 33.3% and 60%, respectively. Defect of the I-S joint (1 case) and partial defect of stapes crus (2 cases) could not be diagnosed correctly in the preoperative estimation. Although these findings demonstrate the limitations of high-resolution CT in the diagnosis of ossicular chain, it will be diminished by the advanced space resolution of CT in the future. (author).

  20. Topical administration of hyaluronic acid in children with recurrent or chronic middle ear inflammations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Sara; Marchisio, Paola; Rinaldi, Vittorio; Gaffuri, Michele; Pascariello, Carla; Drago, Lorenzo; Baggi, Elena; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment has been successfully performed in patients with recurrent upper airway infections or rhinitis. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the topical nasal administration of an HA-based compound by investigating its effects in children with recurrent or chronic middle ear inflammations and chronic adenoiditis. A prospective, single-blind, 1:1 randomised controlled study was performed to compare otoscopy, tympanometry and pure-tone audiometry in children which received the daily topical administration of normal 0.9% sodium chloride saline solution (control group) or 9 mg of sodium hyaluronate in 3 mL of a 0.9% sodium saline solution. The final analysis was based on 116 children (49.1% boys; mean age, 62.9 ± 17.9 months): 58 in the control group and 58 in the study group. At the end of follow-up, the prevalence of patients with impaired otoscopy was significantly lower in the study group (P value = 0.024) compared to baseline but not in the control group. In comparison with baseline, the prevalence of patients with impaired tympanometry at the end of the follow-up period was significantly lower in the study group (P value = 0.047) but not in the control group. The reduction in the prevalence of patients with conductive hearing loss (CHL) (P value = 0.008) and those with moderate CHL (P value = 0.048) was significant in the study group, but not in the control group. The mean auditory threshold had also significantly improved by the end of treatment in the study group (P value = 0.004) but not in the control group. Our findings confirm the safety of intermittent treatment with a topical nasal sodium hyaluronate solution and are the first to document its beneficial effect on clinical and audiological outcomes in children with recurrent or chronic middle ear inflammations associated with chronic adenoiditis. PMID:27481884

  1. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh C Ngo

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention.A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM and otitis media with effusion (OME from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases.This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the complex combination of

  2. Estimated cost-effectiveness of active middle-ear implantation in hearing-impaired patients with severe external otitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Duijnhoven, N.T.L.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of middle-ear implantations in hearing-impaired patients with severe external otitis in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis, using single-subject repeated measures of quality of life and total cost determinations. SETTING: Hospital base

  3. Antibodies mediate formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in the middle ear and facilitate secondary pneumococcal otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Short, K.R.; Kockritz-Blickwede, M. von; Langereis, J.D.; Chew, K.Y.; Job, E.R.; Armitage, C.W.; Hatcher, B.; Fujihashi, K.; Reading, P.C.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Wijburg, O.L.; Diavatopoulos, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) (a middle ear infection) is a common childhood illness that can leave some children with permanent hearing loss. OM can arise following infection with a variety of different pathogens, including a coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococc

  4. Antibodies mediate formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in the middle ear and facilitate secondary pneumococcal otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Short (Kirsty); M. von Köckritz-Blickwede (Maren); J.D. Langereis (Jeroen); K.Y. Chew (Keng Yih); E.R. Job (Emma); S. Armitage (Shane); P. Hatcher (Pascale); K. Fujihashi (Kohtaro); C.L. Reading (Chris ); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); O.L. Wijburg (Odilia); D.A. Diavatopoulos (Dimitri)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractOtitis media (OM) (a middle ear infection) is a common childhood illness that can leave some children with permanent hearing loss.OMcan arise following infection with a variety of different pathogens, including a coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (the

  5. Differential Gene Expression in the Otic Capsule and the Middle Ear-An Annotation of Bone-Related Signaling Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle C.; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    and stria vascularis) and the lining tissues from the middle ear of the rat. Data was analyzed with statistical bioinformatics tools. Gene expression levels of selected genes were validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 413 genes were identified when young inner bulla...

  6. Amphiphilic γ-PGA nanoparticles administered on rat middle ear mucosa produce adjuvant-like immunostimulation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Johan S; Broos, Sissela; Akagi, Takami;

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Amphiphilic biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) composed of poly(γ-glutamic acid) conjugated with L-phenylalanine ethylester (γ-PGA-Phe NPs) applied on the rat middle ear mucosa produce an inflammatory type 1 response. The observation is of relevance for the use of γ-PGA-Phe NPs...

  7. Middle ear influence on otoacoustic emissions. I : Noninvasive investigation of the human transmission apparatus and comparison with model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avan, P; Buki, B; Maat, B; Dordain, M; Wit, HP

    2000-01-01

    Evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) are generated within the cochlea in response to external sounds, and they can be acoustically detected in the external auditory meatus after backward propagation through the middle ear. In addition to being used to probe the cochlear mechanisms, they are expected

  8. Ear tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  9. Increasing rate of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare;

    2014-01-01

    ventilation tube insertions distributed among 269,459 different children were identified. From 1997 to 2010 the age standardized incidence rate in 0-15-year-olds increased from 26 to 40 per 1000 person years with an estimated annual increase of 2.0% (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.1%). The largest increase......OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence rates of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children aged 0 to 15 years in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. METHODS: Using two national registers, the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register, practically all cases of middle...... in incidence rate was found in 1-year-olds with an annual increase of 4.5% (95% confidence interval 4.4-4.6%). Age-specific incidence rates remained at maximum around the age of 14 months throughout the period. The cumulative incidence proportion for the 2010 birth cohort by the time they reach the age of 5...

  10. Middle ear structures in the Permian Glanosuchus sp. (Therocephalia, Therapsida, based on thin sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Maier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse sections of the skull of the Permian therocephalian Glanosuchus sp. were studied with regard to the structures of the middle ear region. It is generally accepted that most of the skeletal elements of the mammalian middle ear are derived from the postdentary bones of the lower jaw. During synapsid evolution there is a gradual transition from a primitive amniote condition to derived mammalian condition; the latter is characterized by the decoupling of the remaining middle ear elements (angular, prearticular, articular from the dentary, which forms a secondary jaw articulation with the squamosal. Morganucodon from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary represents an evolutionary stage, where both jaw articulations are present in a coaxial position and where the primary joint is a Pready a fully effective sound transmitter. Therocephalians are considered to be a good representation of the transitory state of this evolutionary process; this may be especially true for primitive taxa such as the lycosuchid Glanosuchus, whose anatomy may represent the "groundplan" (ancestral morphotype of Lower to Middle Permian eutheriodonts. We studied a complete sectional series of a young specimen of Glanosuchus sp. prepared using the grind-and peel-technique. This showed that the reflected lamina of Glanosuchus is in major parts an extremely thin bony plate, which is best interpreted as a sound-receiving element overlying an air-filled recessus of the pharynx. In this specimen, the vestibular foramen and the stapes are preserved in situ; it is likely, however, that both structures were framed by cartilage which fixed the anular ligament. Both the stapes and the quadrate process of the pterygoid are in direct contact with the quadrate. Comparison of the area of the reflected lamina and the vestibular foramen shows that impedance matching was still very ineffective in Therocephalia when compared to extant mammals. In dieser Arbeit wurden Transversalschnitte des

  11. Effect of low-intensity focused ultrasound on the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kanako; Hirano, Takashi; Noda, Kenji; Kodama, Satoru; Ichimiya, Issei; Suzuki, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesized that low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) increases vessel permeability and antibacterial drug activity in the mouse middle ear. We determined appropriate settings by applying LIFU to mouse ears with the external auditory canal filled with normal saline and performed histologic and immunohistologic examination. Acute otitis media was induced in mice with nontypable Haemophilus influenzae, and they were given ampicillin (50, 10, or 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days with or without LIFU (1.0 W/cm(2), 20% duty cycle, 30 s). In the LIFU(+) groups receiving the 2- and 10-mg/kg doses, viable bacteria counts, number of inflammatory cells and IL-1β and TNF-α levels in middle ear effusion were significantly lower than in the LIFU(-) groups on the same doses. Severity of AOM also tended to be reduced more in the LIFU(+) groups than in the LIFU(-) groups. LIFU application with antibiotics may be effective for middle ear infection.

  12. [Middle ear salivary gland choristoma related to branchio-oto-renal syndrome diagnosed by array-CGH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, P; Sittel, C; Spaich, C; Kohlhase, J; Boppert, R; Kohlhof, P; Koitschev, A

    2014-05-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is characterized by ear malformations associated with sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. In addition, preauricular tags, preauricular pits, branchial cleft fistulas and cysts, as well as renal dysplasia are seen. A genetic mutation on chromosome 8, either autosomal dominantly inherited or occuring as a spontaneous mutation, is the cause in the majority of cases. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), it is possible to detect even the smallest genetic changes. Salivary gland choristoma in the middle ear is very rare. Surgical removal and histological clarification are required. PMID:23868653

  13. Middle ear risk index as a prognostic factor in pediatric ossicular reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Almazrou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the hearing results in children following ossicular reconstruction and to determine if the middle ear risk index (MERI is a useful tool for predicting the outcome of surgery. Design: A retrospective case series. Setting: A tertiary academic center. Patients: Forty-four children underwent ossicular reconstruction using autologous or alloplastic prostheses from January 1995 to January 2005. Materials and Methods: Patients′ audiograms were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively for pure-tone average (PTA and air-bone gap (ABG. Each ear was scored using the MERI and a total index was calculated. Results: 23 boys and 21 girls were included in the study. The mean preoperative ABG was 38 dB, and the mean postoperative ABG was 25.3 dB. The mean MERI was 3.40 for excellent results (0-10 dB postoperative ABG, 4.42 for good results (11-20 dB postoperative ABG, 4.45 for fair results (21-30 dB postoperative ABG, and 4.06 for poor results (ABG > 30 dB. The complications included perforation of tympanic membrane (13.6%, worsening of the conductive hearing loss (6.8%, retraction pockets (9.1%, recurrent or residual cholesteatoma (6.8%, high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (4.45%, and prosthesis extrusion (2.3%. The mean follow-up period was 14 months. Conclusion: Children have poorer hearing outcome following ossicular reconstruction in comparison to the published adults′ results. The MERI was not a reliable tool for predicting the hearing results of ossicular reconstruction in children.

  14. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael Lyhne; Donghua, Liao; Gregersen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are r...... finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus.......The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems...... are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between...

  15. Morphological variation in the ear region of pleistocene elephantimorpha (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G

    2011-04-01

    A large sample of isolated elephantimorph petrosal bones was recovered from Pleistocene deposits in Friesenhahn Cave, Bexar County, Texas. Morphology of the middle and inner ear of the elephantimorphs is described and variation within the sample is identified. Observed variations occur in the stapedial ratio, morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii, and connection of the crista interfenestralis to the tympanohyal on the posterior portion of the petrosal to form a foramen for passage of the stapedius muscle. The morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii supports an ontogenetic explanation for some variation, and a sequence of ossification surrounding the aquaeductus Fallopii, from the anterior end of the canal to the posterior, is hypothesized. The stapedial ratio varies to a high degree across the sample, and such variation should be considered when the ratio is used in phylogenetic analyses. Within the inner ear, the absence of the secondary lamina suggests evolution of low-frequency hearing in extinct proboscideans, which is known for extant elephants. The morphology of the petrosals from Friesenhahn Cave is compared to published descriptions of the ear regions of other extinct proboscideans, and the distribution and evolution of morphologic characters are discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A method for three-dimensional displacement and deformation measurement applied to the statically loaded middle ear ossicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decraemer, Willem F.; Gea, Stefan L.; Maas, Steve A.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2008-06-01

    The middle ear ossicles transmit sound from eardrum to inner ear under largely varying ambient pressure conditions. To protect the structures within the cochlea from excessive footplate incursions the configuration of the ossicles changes with pressure. Sequences of micro CT-scans were acquired from gerbil temporal bones under static ear canal pressures ranging from -450 to +450 daPa. These image stacks were used to track the 3D motion and deformations of the ossicles as a function of pressure using hyperelastic warping. Using the scans for zero pressure, accurate finite-element reference models were generated for each of the ossicles. With the difference between these template images and the target image data recorded in a deformed configuration as a driving force, the warping algorithm displaced and deformed the finite-element models of the ossicles in order to align the deformed template with the target data. Position changes of the ossicles within the middle ear cavity and deformation of the ossicles and the tympanic membrane were all measured in a same preparation. For each static pressure load a finite-element ossicular chain model is obtained in the run and can be used for further analysis under acoustic stimulation.

  17. Hearing loss and potential hazards of metallic middle-ear implants in NMR-magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenbrink, K.B.

    1987-08-01

    Concurrent with the expanding clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, patients with metallic middle-ear implants will certainly be exposed to this strong magnetic field in the future. To determine potential hazards, associated with movements of steel- or Platinium stapes-prostheses, several tests were performed in a 0.5 tesla NMR unit and the induced forces were calculated. Although the commonly used paramagnetic steel-wire or platinium-alloys will not dislodge in vivo, ferromagnetic prostheses may present a hazardous risk. Prior to exposure to the magnetic field, information about the implanted material should therefore be obtained. A side-effect of the induced current flow is the attenuation of the sound-vibrations of the stapes prosthesis. This, 5-10 dB impairment of transmission develops only at a certain position of the patient's head, when the prosthesis vibrates perpendicularly to the magnetic field's Z-axis. Patients with a metallic prosthesis should be informed about this purely physical, harmless phenomenon prior to entering the NMR-cylinder.

  18. External unit for a semi-implantable middle ear hearing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garverick, S L; Kane, M; Ko, W H; Maniglia, A J

    1997-06-01

    A miniaturized, low-power external unit has been developed for the clinical trials of a semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device (SIMEHD) which uses radio-frequency telemetry to couple sound signals to the internal unit. The external unit is based on a commercial hearing aid which provides proven audio amplification and compression. Its receiver is replaced by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which: 1) adjusts the direct-current bias of the audio input according to its peak value; 2) converts the audio signal to a one-bit digital form using sigma-delta modulation; 3) modulates the sigma-delta output with a radio-frequency (RF) oscillator; and 4) drives the external RF coil and tuning capacitor using a field-effect transistor operated in class D. The external unit functions as expected and has been used to operate bench-top tests to the SIMEHD. Measured current consumption is 1.65-2.15 mA, which projects to a battery lifetime of about 15 days. Bandwidth is 6 kHz and harmonic distortion is about 2%. PMID:9210807

  19. Femtosecond laser microstructuring of titanium surfaces for middle ear ossicular replacement prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgner, Justus; Biedron, Slavomir; Fadeeva, Elena; Chichkov, Boris; Westhofen, Martin

    2009-02-01

    Introduction: While a variety of materials has been evaluated for replacement of human middle ear ossicles following inflammation, titanium and its alloys have shown excellent sound transmission properties and biocompatibility. However, cartilage thickness at the tympanic membrane interface deteriorates over time, while fibrous tissue formation may dislodge the titanium prosthesis. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of microstructures on titanium surfaces in contact with adjacent biological tissue. Materials and Methods: Titanium samples of 5mm diameter and 0,25mm thickness were structured by means of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser operating at 970nm. The structures applied were lines of parabolic shape (cross-sectional) of 5µm (parallel), 5µm (cross-hatch) and 10µm width (parallel). The inter-groove distance between two maxima was exactly twice the line width. Results: Lines smaller than 5µm were not feasible due to the natural irregularity of the basic material with pits and level changes of up to 2µm. The process showed little debris and constant microstructure shape over the whole structured area (2x2mm). The resulting debris was examined for toxic by-products on human fibrobcytes and chondrocytes. Discussion: The results show that microstructures can be applied on titanium surfaces for human implantation with reproducible and constant shapes. Further studies will focus on cell culture which has suggested a relative selectivity for chondrocyte compared to fibrocyte growth in earlier studies with selected microstructures.

  20. Bilateral use of active middle ear implants: speech discrimination results in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Koci, Viktor; Schnabl, Johannes; Zorowka, Patrick; Riechelmann, Herbert; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Binaural sound reception has advantages over unilateral perception, including better localization and sound quality as well as speech and tone reception in both quiet and noisy environments. Up to now, most active middle ear implant (AMEI) users have been unilaterally implanted, but patient demand for an implant on the other side is increasing. Ten bilaterally-AMEI implanted native German-speaking adults were included in the study. The Oldenburg sentence test was used to measure speech reception thresholds in noise. The subject's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at a speech reception score of 50 % was calculated for different noise conditions. SRT was measured as a function of noise condition (nc) and listening condition (lc)-for example, SRT (lc, nc), with nc from S0N0, S0N-90, or S0N90 and lc from left, right or both. For each noise condition, the squelch effect and the binaural summation effect were calculated. Patients in this study demonstrated improvement with bilateral AMEIs compared to right or left AMEI only in all three tested listening conditions. Statistical significance was found in the S0N0 condition to favor usage of bilateral AMI versus either the right or left side only. The benefits of binaural hearing are well known, also in normal-hearing individuals. In the future every bilateral implantation should be a part of the clinical routine. Bilateral implantation can help to reduce problems in background noise and restore directional hearing. PMID:26385811

  1. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bianchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome, suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration was not optimal. The decision made was to position Vibrant Soundbridge, a middle ear implant, with an original surgical application due to hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity. Intubation procedure was complicated due to child craniofacial deformities. Postoperative hearing rehabilitation involved a multidisciplinary team, showing improved social skills and language development.

  2. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Giovanni; Tribi, Lorenzo; Reverzani, Aronne; Formigoni, Patrizia; Polizzi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration was not optimal. The decision made was to position Vibrant Soundbridge, a middle ear implant, with an original surgical application due to hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity. Intubation procedure was complicated due to child craniofacial deformities. Postoperative hearing rehabilitation involved a multidisciplinary team, showing improved social skills and language development. PMID:26491591

  3. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bianchin; Lorenzo Tribi; Aronne Reverzani; Patrizia Formigoni; Valeria Polizzi

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration ...

  4. Evaluation of the subjective effect of middle ear implantation in hearing-impaired patients with severe external otitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Snik, A.F.M.; van Duijnhoven, N. T. L.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The subjective benefit of middle ear implantation was studied in a group of 23 hearing-impaired patients who could not use conventional hearing aids owing to severe chronic external otitis. Changes in hearing disability (Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit [APHAB]) and changes in quality of life (Glasgow Benefit Inventory [GBI]) were determined. Mean benefit value on the APHAB for the subscale Ease of Communication was close to the mean reference value for conventional hearing aids. Fo...

  5. Dexmedetomidine infusion during middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia to provide oligaemic surgical field: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgery requires bloodless surgical field for better operating conditions, deep level of anaesthesia and rapid emergence. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists could provide desired surgical field, sedation and analgesia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine infusion as anaesthetic adjuvant during middle ear surgery using operating microscope. Methods: Sixty four adult patients aged 18-58 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grades I and II, of both gender were randomised into two comparable equal groups of 32 patients each for middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia with standard anaesthetic technique. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients of Group I were given dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h and patients of Group II were given placebo infusion of normal saline. Isoflurane concentration was titrated to achieve a systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline value. All patients were assessed intra-operatively for bleeding at surgical field, haemodynamic changes, awakening time and post-operative recovery. Results: Statistically significant reduction was observed in the required percentage of isoflurane (0.8 ± 0.6% to maintain the systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline values in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion when compared to those receiving placebo infusion (1.6 ± 0.7%. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion had statistically significant lesser bleeding at surgical field (P < 0.05. The mean awakening time and recovery from anaesthesia did not show any significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion can be safely used to provide oligaemic surgical field for better visualization using operating microscope for middle ear surgery.

  6. Mammalian development does not recapitulate suspected key transformations in the evolutionary detachment of the mammalian middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E; Wroe, Stephen W; Selwood, Lynne; Hinds, Lyn A; Leigh, Chris; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Weisbecker, Vera

    2016-01-13

    The ectotympanic, malleus and incus of the developing mammalian middle ear (ME) are initially attached to the dentary via Meckel's cartilage, betraying their origins from the primary jaw joint of land vertebrates. This recapitulation has prompted mostly unquantified suggestions that several suspected--but similarly unquantified--key evolutionary transformations leading to the mammalian ME are recapitulated in development, through negative allometry and posterior/medial displacement of ME bones relative to the jaw joint. Here we show, using µCT reconstructions, that neither allometric nor topological change is quantifiable in the pre-detachment ME development of six marsupials and two monotremes. Also, differential ME positioning in the two monotreme species is not recapitulated. This challenges the developmental prerequisites of widely cited evolutionary scenarios of definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) evolution, highlighting the requirement for further fossil evidence to test these hypotheses. Possible association between rear molar eruption, full ME ossification and ME detachment in marsupials suggests functional divergence between dentary and ME as a trigger for developmental, and possibly also evolutionary, ME detachment. The stable positioning of the dentary and ME supports suggestions that a 'partial mammalian middle ear' as found in many mammaliaforms--probably with a cartilaginous Meckel's cartilage--represents the only developmentally plausible evolutionary DMME precursor.

  7. Electromyographic monitoring of facial nerve under different levels of neuromuscular blockade during middle ear microsurgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yi-rong; XU Jing; CHEN Lian-hua; CHI Fang-lu

    2009-01-01

    Background The evoked electromyography (EMG) is frequently used to identify facial nerve in order to prevent its damage during surgeries. Partial neuromuscular blockade (NMB) has been suggested to favor EMG activity and insure patients' safety. The aim of this study was to determine an adequate level of NMB correspondent to sensible facial nerve identification by evaluating the relationship between facial EMG responses and peripheral NMB levels during the middle ear surgeries.Methods Facial nerve evoked EMG and NMB monitoring were performed simultaneously in 40 patients who underwent tympanoplasty. Facial electromyographic responses were recorded by insertion of needle electrodes into the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles after electrical stimulation on facial nerve. The NMB was observed objectively with the hypothenar muscle's twitching after electrical stimulation of ulnar nerve, and the intensity of blockade was adjusted at levels of 0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, and 100% respectively with increased intravenous infusion of Rocuronium (muscle relaxant).Results All of the patients had detectable EMG responses at the levels of NMB ≤50%. Four out of forty patients had no EMG response at the levels of NMB ≥75%. A significant linear positive correlation was present between stimulation thresholds and NMB levels while a linear negative correlation was present between EMG amplitudes and NMB levels.Conclusions The facial nerve monitoring via facial electromyographic responses can be obtained when an intraoperative partial neuromuscular blockade is induced to provide an adequate immobilization of the patient. The 50% NMB should be considered as the choice of anesthetic management for facial nerve monitoring in otologic microsurgery based on the relationship of correlation.

  8. Ears and Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the middle ear pressure cannot be equalized. The air already there is absorbed and a vacuum occurs, sucking the eardrum ... a pressure buildup but do not let the air out your mouth The ears have been ... of a physician who has experience in the care of ear disorders. The ear ...

  9. Otitis media with effusion: Accuracy of tympanometry in detecting fluid in the middle ears of children at myringotomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khurshid; Khan, Saeed; Rehman, Habib ur; Javaid, Mohammad; Shahabi, Isteraj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: (1) The diagnostic accuracy of tympanometry in detecting fluid in the middle ear space in children with otitis media with effusion by comparing its findings with those of myringotomies. (2) Identify the age group most commonly affected by OME. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT& Head and Neck Surgery, Postgraduate Medical Institute Hayatabad Medical complex, Peshawar from July 1, 2012 to April 30, 2015. Patients with suspicion of OME underwent tympanometry and later myringotomies. Using Jerger’s classification, Type B tympanogram with normal canal volume was considered as conclusive evidence of fluid in the middle ear space. Its findings were compared with those of the respective myringotomies. From the data collected, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were calculated. Results: A total 117 ears of 63 patients were operated. The age range was 3 to 12 years. The commonest age group (58.7%) affected by OME was 6-8 years. Type B tympanogram with flat curve and normal canal volume was obtained in 71.4% of the ears. Comparison with myringotomy findings showed TP 85, TN 13, FP 5 and FN 14. The diagnostic value of tympanometry was; Sensitivity 85.85%, Specificity 72.22%, PPV 94.44%, NPV 48.14% and Accuracy of 83.76%. P value calculated using chi square test showed that there was significant difference between tympanometry and myringotomy findings in OME (p < 0.05). Conclusions: OME is common in age group 6-8 years. Tympanogram Type B with normal canal volume is fairly sensitive in diagnosing this condition. However for occurrence of false positive results, final decision regarding management should be made on clinical findings and other supportive audiological tests. PMID:27182263

  10. Radiation-Induced Middle Ear and Mastoid Opacification in Skull Base Tumors Treated With Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ahmed, Salmaan [Department of Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Woo, Shiao Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); DeMonte, Franco [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Eric L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mahajan, Anita, E-mail: amahajan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of middle ear (ME) pathology in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) for skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 61 patients treated with RT between 2003 and 2008 for skull base tumors was conducted. Clinical outcomes and demographics were reviewed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed on the eustachian canal (EC), ME, mastoid air cells, vestibular apparatus, cochlea, internal auditory canal, lateral and posterior nasopharynx, and temporal lobes to relate doses to symptoms and radiographic change. Otomastoid opacification was rated 0 (none), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), and 3 (severe) by a neuroradiologist blinded to clinical outcomes and doses. Results: The median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 14-74 Gy). The ME mean dose was 14 Gy and 34 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3 opacification, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean mastoid dose was 10 Gy and 26 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean EC dose was 17 Gy and 32 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3, respectively (p = 0.0001). Otomastoid opacification resolved in 17 of 40 patients (42.5%), at a mean of 17 months after RT (range, 2-45 months). Otomastoid opacification persisted in 23 of 40 patients (57.5%), with a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 2-55 months). Multivariate analysis showed that mastoid dose >30 Gy (odds ratio = 28.0, p < 0.001) and posterior nasopharynx dose of >30 Gy (odds ratio = 4.9, p = 0.009) were associated with Grade 2-3 effusions, whereas other factors including dose to EC and ME were not significant. Conclusions: A mean RT dose >30 Gy to the mastoid air cells or posterior nasopharynx is associated with increased risk of moderate to severe otomastoid opacification, which persisted in more than half of patients at 2-year follow-up.

  11. Efficacy of nasopharyngeal culture in identification of pathogens in middle ear fluid in chronic otitis media with effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic otitis media with effusion (OME is the leading cause of hearing loss during childhood. In bacterial etiology of OME, the most frequent pathogens responsible are Haemophilus influenzae followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis . This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of nasopharyngeal (NP specimens in the identification of pathogens in the middle ear fluid (MEF in patients with OME. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional, case-control study, 95 MEFs and 53 NP secretion specimens were obtained from 53 children. As a control group, 102 NP specimens were taken from children having an operation other than an otological disease. Conventional culture methods and multiplex-PCR method have been used to determine the etiology of OME; NP carriage between cases and control groups were compared using conventional culture methods. Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher′s Exact tests were used in statistical analysis. Results : Bacteria were isolated by culture in 37.9% of MEF specimens, 14.7% of which belonged to the group H. influenzae , S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis. PCR was positive in 30.5% specimens targeting the same pathogens. There was a two-fold increase in carriage rate of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in patients than controls for each pathogen. Conclusion: PCR is a more reliable method to detect middle ear pathogens in MEF in comparison with the conventional culture methods. The NP colonization wasn′t found to be an indicator of the pathogen in MEF although middle ear pathogens colonize more in nasopharynx of diseased children.

  12. Pneumatic otoscopy in the diagnosis of middle ear effusion: the use of video as a teaching aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, P; Jones, W

    1989-01-01

    A recent survey has shown that the average general practitioner could expect to see 40 episodes of middle ear effusion in one year. It is an important condition because of its frequency, its insidious onset, and its persistence. It is presently associated with hearing loss, resulting in educational and social disadvantages. A more accurate diagnosis can be made over other conventional methods by the use of pneumatic otoscopy. It is a technique that is not widely used by general practitioners in this country. A videotape was produced to demonstrate the behaviour of the normal and abnormal eardrum during pneumatic otoscopy. This paper gives a review of how this was achieved. PMID:2809076

  13. Role of Sialic Acid and Complex Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in Biofilm Formation by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in the Chinchilla Middle Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Jurcisek, Joseph; Greiner, Laura; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Zaleski, Anthony; Apicella, Michael A.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

    2005-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an important pathogen in respiratory tract infections, including otitis media (OM). NTHI forms biofilms in vitro as well as in the chinchilla middle ear, suggesting that biofilm formation in vivo might play an important role in the pathogenesis and chronicity of OM. We've previously shown that SiaA, SiaB, and WecA are involved in biofilm production by NTHI in vitro. To investigate whether these gene products were also involved in biofilm production...

  14. Ribotyping of strains of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, K; Sørensen, C H; Colding, H;

    1998-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhaomella) catarrhalis is frequently present in the nasopharyngeal microflora of small children, especially during episodes of acute otitis media . By means of ribotyping (restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNA combined with rRNA probing), we studied the genetic....... The distribution of these types was found to be almost identical to the distribution among 16 M. catarrhalis strains cultured from middle ear exudates of 16 children with acute otitis media. Ribotype HAPA was found in two-thirds of all the cultures investigated, and 44% of the children harboured more than one...

  15. Simulations and Measurements of Human Middle Ear Vibrations Using Multi-Body Systems and Laser-Doppler Vibrometry with the Floating Mass Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Strenger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer characteristic of the human middle ear with an applied middle ear implant (floating mass transducer is examined computationally with a Multi-body System approach and compared with experimental results. For this purpose, the geometry of the middle ear was reconstructed from μ-computer tomography slice data and prepared for a Multi-body System simulation. The transfer function of the floating mass transducer, which is the ratio of the input voltage and the generated force, is derived based on a physical context. The numerical results obtained with the Multi-body System approach are compared with experimental results by Laser Doppler measurements of the stapes footplate velocities of five different specimens. Although slightly differing anatomical structures were used for the calculation and the measurement, a high correspondence with respect to the course of stapes footplate displacement along the frequency was found. Notably, a notch at frequencies just below 1 kHz occurred. Additionally, phase courses of stapes footplate displacements were determined computationally if possible and compared with experimental results. The examinations were undertaken to quantify stapes footplate displacements in the clinical practice of middle ear implants and, also, to develop fitting strategies on a physical basis for hearing impaired patients aided with middle ear implants.

  16. Pili play an important role in enhancing the bacterial clearance from the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media with Moraxella catarrhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Toshiaki; Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Mitsui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Nishizono, Akira; Suzuki, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative aerobic diplococcus that is currently the third most frequent cause of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) in children. In this study, we developed an experimental murine AOM model by inoculating M. catarrhalis in the middle ear bulla and studied the local response to this inoculation, and modulation of its course by the pili of M. catarrhalis. The pili-positive and pili-negative M. catarrhalis showed differences in bacterial clearance and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the middle ear. Pili-negative M. catarrhalis induced a more delayed and prolonged immune response in the middle ear than that of pili-positive M. catarrhalis. TLR2, -4, -5 and -9 mRNA expression was upregulated in neutrophils that infiltrated the middle ear cavity during AOM caused by both pili-positive and pili-negative bacteria. TLR5 mRNA expression and TLR5 protein in the neutrophils were induced more robustly by pili-positive M. catarrhalis. This immune response is likely to be related to neutrophil function such as toll-like 5-dependent phagocytosis. Our results show that mice may provide a useful AOM model for studying the role of M. catarrhalis. Furthermore, we show that pili play an important role in enhancing M. catarrhalis clearance from the middle ear that is probably mediated through neutrophil-dependent TLR5 signaling.

  17. [Investigation of viral nucleic acids in middle-ear effusion specimens from children with acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Sitteh, Muhammed H; Sener, Kenan; Yapar, Mehmet; Kiliç, Abdullah; Güney, Cakir; Kubar, Ayhan

    2008-07-01

    Acute otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the major causes of antibiotic use, indication for operation and hearing loss in children. In two third of the cases the etiologic agents are bacteria. Nonetheless, increasing numbers of reports have implicated viruses as etiologic agents that may have some effect on prognosis of OME. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of nucleic acids of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) type A and B, influenza type A virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and enteroviruses in the middle ear effusion specimens from children with otitis media by TaqMan real-time PCR. As a result, 18 of 30 (60%) OME samples were found positive in terms of viral nucleic acids by real-time PCR. RSV-A was detected in nine samples (30%), CMV in 3 (10%) samples and HSV-1 in 1 (3.3%) sample. In five of the samples two viruses were detected in the same sample (three were positive for adenovirus and RSV-A, and two were positive for CMV and RSV-A). Our data have supported the importance of viruses as etiologic agents of OME. Additionally, it was thought that TaqMan real-time PCR may be used as a reliable and rapid method for the detection of viruses in the middle ear effusion samples.

  18. Sing It, Hear It, Play It! Ear Training for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenink, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to increase student skills in ear training. Offers suggestions used with fifth through eighth grade band students, such as sing with your bands or teach the band solfege syllables. Includes a list of songs, research resources, and tonal patterns. (CMK)

  19. Chronic otorrhea caused by myospherulosis in the middle ear after tympanoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honings, J.; Dammeijer, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Myospherulosis is a foreign body reaction induced by the application of oil-based ointments. Myospherulosis in the ear is extremely rare. Only 4 cases have been described, all of which occurred after (repeated) mastoid surgery. METHODS: We present a case of persistent otorrhea and conduc

  20. Ex vivo evaluation of ferromagnetism for metallic ocular and middle-ear prostheses exposed to a 1.5-T MR imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines ferromagnetism by measuring deflection angles for nine different metallic ocular and middle-ear biomedical implants exposed to a 1.5-T MR imager. Deflection angles were determined at the bore of a 1.5-t MR imager for two ocular (Fatio eyelid wire 0.008, Fatio eyelid wire 0.01) and seven middle-ear (House tantalum single loop, House tantalum double loop, IRP, Schuknecht tef-wire piston, Austin tytan piston, McGee piston, Robinson stapes prosthesis) biomedical implants. A previously described, standardized methodology was used to measure deflection angles. Deflection angles for the biomedical implants were 90 degrees for the first ocular implant, over 90 degrees for the second, and 0 degrees (no deflection measured) for the seven middle-ear implants

  1. Biostratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Brachiopods from Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Abril, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.; Villas, E.

    2011-01-01

    A recent taxonomic study on the rhynchonelliformean brachiopods from the Darriwilian dark shales of the Central-Iberian Zone, Central Spain (Reyes-Abril, 2009; Reyes-Abril et al., 2010) has considerably increased the number of orthides and strophomenides known across the whole Iberian Peninsula. The studied brachiopods were collected in 58 localities of 6 provinces from the regions of Castilla-La Mancha, Andalucía and Extremadura. Middle Ordovician brachiopods previously known in ...

  2. Middle and inner ear malformations in mutation-proven branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melissa T; Blaser, Susan; Papsin, Blake; Meschino, Wendy; Reardon, Willie; Klatt, Regan; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Milunsky, Jeff; Chitayat, David

    2012-08-01

    Hearing impairment is common in individuals with branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome. The majority of described individuals have conductive hearing impairment due to malformed ossicles and/or external canal stenosis or atresia, although a sensorineural component to the hearing impairment in BOF syndrome is increasingly being reported. Sophisticated computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone has revealed middle and inner ear malformations in three previous reports. We present middle and inner ear abnormalities in three additional individuals with mutation-proven BOF syndrome. We suggest that temporal bone CT imaging be included in the medical workup of a child with BOF syndrome, in order to guide management.

  3. Vibro-acoustic modelling of the outer and middle ear using the finite-element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, P J; Ferris, P; Rice, H J; Blayney, A W

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a computer-based method called finite-element analysis is used to predict the forced-frequency response of the ear, with and without an ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP 0362, Xomed Surgical Products). The method allows visualisation of the dynamical behaviour of the tympanic membrane (TM) and of the ossicles. The finite-element model is fully three-dimensional and includes both ligaments and muscles, and accounts for damping caused by the TM, ligaments, incudostapedial joint and the fluids of the inner ear. For validation, comparison is made with experimental measurements of umbo displacement taken from the literature. The translation and rotation (both anterior-posterior and inferior-superior) of the stapedial footplate are investigated. It is predicted that the translatory motion of the footplate decreases with increasing frequency, except when the frequency of the acoustic signal matches the natural frequencies of the ossicular chain or outer ear canal. The tilting motion of the stapedial footplate is also predicted to depend on frequency of excitation. The presence of a prosthesis changes the dynamical response considerably by shifting the natural frequencies of the ossicular chain. Ratios of stapes motion with and without the prostheses are plotted as a function of frequency allowing this effect to be clearly observed. PMID:10187928

  4. Middle ear meningiomas: a case series reviewing the clinical presentation, radiologic features, and contemporary management of a rare temporal bone pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristin L; Carlson, Matthew L; Pelosi, Stanley; Haynes, David S

    2014-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most common extra-axial intracranial neoplasm and frequently develop in the parasagittal region. Rarely, meningiomas may involve the middle ear and mastoid, resulting from contiguous spread of adjacent intracranial tumor, or less commonly as an isolated primary tumor of the middle ear. Patients with primary middle ear meningiomas (MEMs) often present with non-specific otologic complaints including hearing loss, otorrhea and otalgia thereby mimicking common chronic otitis media, while secondary lesions more frequently manifest sensorineural hearing loss, cranial neuropathy and other neurologic symptoms from the associated intracranial component. The radiological appearance of MEMs often overlaps with other tumors of the temporal bone. Therefore, a correct diagnosis cannot always be made prior to surgical biopsy. While gross total resection with preservation of existing neurological function is possible with smaller lesions, complete tumor removal may be extremely morbid with more extensive or adherent MEMs. In such cases, aggressive subtotal resection with close radiologic follow-up should be considered. Given the rarity of the studied condition, the literature addressing MEMs is sparse. The current study reviews ten additional cases of MEMs, highlighting the clinicopathologic and radiological features that distinguish meningiomas from other middle ear and mastoid pathology. PMID:24650749

  5. Comparison of the antiemetic effect of ramosetron with the combination of dexamethasone and ondansetron in middle ear surgery: A double-blind, randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a frequent complication of middle ear surgery. Ondansetron has been shown to be effective for early PONV and dexamethasone has been shown to be effective for late PONV. Therefore, a combination of dexamethasone and ondansetron is commonly used for middle ear surgery. This study was conducted to compare the combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone with ramosetron for early and late PONV up to 48 h after middle ear surgery. Methods: One hundred and twenty adults scheduled for middle ear surgery were allocated to receive either dexamethasone 8 mg and ondansetron 4 mg ( n=60 or ramosetron 0.3 mg ( n=60. General anesthesia with inhalation agents was used for all the patients. The incidence and severity of PONV, administration of rescue antiemetic, and the side effects of the antiemetic were documented during the first 48 h after surgery. Results: The incidence of nausea was significantly lower in the dexamethasone and ondansetron group compared to the ramosetron group between 2 and 24 h. The complete response, which is patients with no nausea or vomiting, was significantly more in dexamethasone and ondansetron group compared to ramosetron group between 2 and 24 h and between 24 and 48 h (76% vs. 56%, P=0.02, 93% vs. 81%, P=0.05, respectively. Overall, complete response was more in dexamethasone and ondansetron group compared to ramosetron group (71% vs. 40%, P=0.01. Conclusion: The combination of dexamethasone and ondansetron is superior to ramosetron for prevention of PONV after middle ear surgeries.

  6. Can use of a cold light source in endoscopic middle ear surgery cause sensorineural hearing loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Terzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate possible sensorineural hearing loss created by the use of a cold light source in patients undergoing endoscopic tympanoplasty surgery. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 203 patients, who underwent endoscopic Type 1 tympanoplasty surgery in our ear, nose, and throat clinic between 2012 and 2015, were checked retrospectively. Ninety-one patients were male and 112 were female, and their mean age was 34.4 ± 11.2 years. Results of audiometric measurements performed during the preoperative period and repeated 1 and 3 months postsurgery were compared to each other. Results: The mean duration of the operations was determined to be 52.4 ± 9.1 min. In addition, average preoperative bone-conduction was 11.4 ± 7.4 dB nHL. However, it was 9.57 ± 7.1 dB nHL and 9.51 ± 7.4 dB nHL, respectively, in the 1st and 3rd postoperative months. Levels of postoperative average bone-conduction at the 1st and 3rd month, as well as the thresholds of bone-conduction at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, were significantly lower than the preoperative results (P 0.05. Conclusion: Based on our findings, the increased heat generated by the use of a cold light source during an endoscopic tympanoplasty surgery is unlikely to cause the development of sensorineural hearing loss.

  7. Electrophysiological aspects of the middle ear muscle reflex in the rat: latency, rise time and effect on sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, H; Kingma, H; Kluge, C; Marres, E H

    1990-10-01

    The latency, the rise time and the influence of the acoustic reflex on sound transmission were investigated in the adult rat during ketamin anesthesia. This was done by recordings of the cochlear microphonics (CM) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the reflex responses of the tensor tympani muscle. The acoustic reflex was elicited by contralateral acoustic stimuli of which the intensity and frequency was varied. Ipsilaterally, the effect on sound transmission was determined by estimating the change in amplitude of the CM's of ipsilateral administered subliminal stimuli. It was shown that both the tensor tympani muscle and the stapedius muscle contribute in the reflex. The latency as well as the rise time of the reflex determined by CM recordings showed to be short (minimal values: 12 and 7 ms respectively). The mean latency of the tensor tympani muscle reflex, measured by EMG, was about 7 ms. The attenuation of 0.25-8 kHz tone bursts upto 115 dB SPL is limited to a mean maximum of 15 dB SPL. The maximal attenuation was shown to occur at 1 kHz. Frequencies above 2 kHz appeared to be the best elicitor of the middle ear muscle reflex.

  8. Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging of Primary and Recurrent Middle Ear Cholesteatoma: An Assessment by Readers with Different Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elefante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI has been proven to be valuable in the diagnosis of middle ear cholesteatoma. The aims of our study were to evaluate the advantage of multi-shot turbo spin echo (MSh TSE DWI compared to single-shot echo-planar (SSh EPI DWI for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma. Material and Methods. Thirty-two patients with clinical suspicion of unilateral cholesteatoma underwent preoperative MRI (1.5T with SSh EPI and MSh TSE. Images were separately analyzed by 4 readers with different expertise to confirm the presence of cholesteatoma. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were assessed for each observer and interrater agreement was assessed using kappa statistics. Diagnosis was obtained at surgery. Results. Overall MSh TSE showed higher diagnostic accuracy and lower negative predictive value (NPV compared to conventional SSh EPI. Interreader agreement between the observers revealed the superiority of MSh TSE compared to SSh EPI. Interrater agreement among all the four observers was higher by using MSh TSE compared to SSh EPI. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that MSh TSE DWI has higher sensitivity for detection of cholesteatoma and lower probability of misdiagnosis. MSh TSE DWI is useful in guiding less experienced observers to the diagnosis.

  9. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (pacute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  10. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration of antimicrobial agents against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluids of intractable acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Shin; Hotomi, Muneki; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2013-06-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) makes the clinical course of acute otitis media (AOM) intractable by forming a biofilm that may hamper the clearance of the bacteria from middle ear cavity. In this study, we evaluated the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of antimicrobial agents against biofilm-forming NTHi strains. Twelve NTHi strains isolated from middle ear fluids of Japanese children with intractable AOM before antimicrobial treatment were evaluated for MBEC of fluoroquinolones in comparison with those of β-lactams and macrolides. AMPC and CDTR required much higher concentration, i.e., high MBECs, to suppress the biofilm formation of NTHi. In contrast, fluoroquinolones followed by macrolides showed lower MBECs. MBEC would be a good parameter to infer the efficacies of antimicrobials against NTHi in biofilm.

  11. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Raekil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM. Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  12. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (10(7) CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear.

  13. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wan-Yu [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Sung-Hsin [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ruey-Long [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ya-Fang [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping [Department of Otolaryngology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chong, Fok-Ching [Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chun-Wei, E-mail: cwwang@ntuh.gov.tw [Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6-33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  14. Conscious sedation for middle ear surgeries: A comparison between fentanyl-propofol and fentanyl-midazolam infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu S Thota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Middle ear surgeries can be performed under local anesthesia and sedation and can be well tolerated by the patient with minimal discomfort. This study was undertaken to compare two techniques of conscious sedation, intravenous midazolam, and propofol infusion for tympanoplasty. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for right or left tympanoplasty. American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II in age group 18-75 years were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into one of the two groups to receive either propofol (group I or midazolam (group II. Results: The mean duration of anesthesia was 116.00 ± 33.94 min in group I, while 97.50 ± 30.76 min in group II (P = 0.07. The modified Ramsay sedation scale was not statistically significant in both the groups. In group I, 70% of the patients and 95% of the patients in group II had amnesia during the surgery (P = 0.091. The mean visual analog scale (VAS score for surgeons and patients was not statistically significant in both the groups. In group I there was a positive correlation between the total dose of fentanyl and VAS score for surgeons (P = 0.02. There was also a positive correlation between the total dose of propofol and VAS score for surgeons (P = 0.034 and patients (P = 0.039 in group I. Conclusion: Though propofol had shown a faster recovery and less nausea vomiting, we need a larger sample size to conclude, which of the technique is better. Both the techniques are safe, simple and versatile and provide excellent sedation with rapid trouble free recovery.

  15. Primary investigations on the potential of a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for middle ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian

    2016-02-01

    Flashlamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are successfully used clinically for both precise soft and hard tissue ablation. Since several years a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system (Pantec Engineering AG) is available, with mean laser power up to 40 W and pulse repetition rate up to 1 kHz. The aim of the study was to investigate the suitability of the laser system specifically for stapedotomy. Firstly an experimental setup was realized with a beam focusing unit and a computer controlled translation stage to move the samples (slices of porcine bone) with a defined velocity while irradiation with various laser parameters. A microphone was positioned in a defined distance to the ablation point and the resulting acoustic signal of the ablation process was recorded. For comparison, measurements were also performed with a flash lamp pumped Er:YAG laser system. After irradiation the resulting ablation quality and efficacy were determined using light microscopy. Using a high speed camera and "Töpler-Schlierentechnik" the cavitation bubble in water after perforation of a bone slice was investigated. The results show efficient bone ablation using the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system. Also a decrease of the sound level and of the cavitation bubble volume was observed with decreasing pulse duration. Higher repetition rates lead to a slightly increase of thermal side effects but have no influence on the ablation efficiency. In conclusion, these first experiments demonstrate the high potential of the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for use in middle ear surgery.

  16. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  17. ROLE OF HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF SUPPURATIVE DISEASES OF MIDDLE EAR AND MASTOIDS AND THEIR COMPLICATIONS WITH SURGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Kr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT, a modification of routine CT, provides a direct visual window in the temporal bone providing minute structural details. Purpose of the present study was to evaluate the suppurative diseases of middle ear and mastoid with their complications on HRCT and to correlate these imaging findings surgically. Our study shows good correlation of various HRCT findings in suppurative diseases of middle ear & mastoids with intra-operative findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective study included 60 patients who were referred to the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Assam Medical College with clinically suspected temporal bone or ear pathologies. After detailed clinical examination, the patients were subjected to HRCT examination. The imaging findings of all cases were correlated with the surgical findings. RESULTS Out of 60 patients, 63.3% had unsafe CSOM with cholesteatoma. The HRCT findings with surgical correlation showed a high 91.89% sensitivity for identifying cholesteatoma. HRCT also provided good sensitivity for detecting erosion of scutum (90.32%, erosion of ossicular chain (86.96% and erosion of lateral semi-circular canal (80%. HRCT had lower sensitivity (66.67% for identifying facial canal dehiscence. CONCLUSION The HRCT findings showed a good sensitivity with intraoperative findings in identification of cholesteatoma, erosion of scutum, ossicular chain and semi-circular canal.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the biological properties of bone bioimplants Tutoplast® and bioactive ceramic material "Syntekost" when implanted in the middle ear in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko S.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Trepanation cavity formed during sanitizing operation subsequently leads to a recurrence of inflammation in the middle ear cavity. A special importance in mastoidoplastics is to eliminate the postoperative cavity. One of the current problems is to create an alternative plastic material that could be used for healing of the bone defect with the newly formed bone tissue without causing further injury to the patient. Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the features of reparative processes of bone implant Tutoplast® and bioactive ceramic material "Sintekost" as well as to assess the reaction of the inner ear to the materials which were replanted into the tympanic bullae of guinea pigs while creating an experimental model of antromastoidotomy. Methods. Experimental studies were carried out on 72 male guinea pigs of 300-400 g. Depending on the used plastic material animals were divided into 3 groups. Studies were performed on the left ear of the animal, the right ear was used as a control. Animals were withdrawn from the experiment on the 14th, 30th, 90th, 120th, 330th day. To evaluate the results of the study common histological methods were used. Results. After implanting of bioactive ceramic material "Sintekost" into tympanic bullae of guinea pigs signs of resorption of the material were mild and these processes were not always accompanied by the formation of bone tissue. The newly formed bone trabeculae were not observed until 90 day. After implanting cancellous bone crumbs "Tutoplast" into tympanic bullae of guinea pigs the initiation of osteogenesis was observed on the one hand and the resorption of bone fragments on the other. This resulted in formation of newly formed bone tissue whose volume gradually grew, filling the cavity of the tympanic bullae in that area. Implant "Tutoplast" possessed osteoplastic properties, which contributed to the growth of bone, acting as a matrix on which bone islands

  19. Comparison of the Effect of Ondansetrone - Dexamethasone, Dexamethasone – Metoclopeamide and Ondansetron - Normal Saline in Decreasing Post Operative Nausa and Vomitting (PONV after Middle Ear Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddadi Soudabeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of post-operative nausea and vomitting (PONV is increased after middle ear surgery and it may complicate and interact with reconstruction after surgery, so prevention and treatment of these complications are necessary.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anti-emetic combinations in decreasing the PONV after middle ear surgery.Materials and methods: This double blind clinical trial was carried out during 2007-2008 on 111 patients of 15-45 years old with ASA I-II who were candidates for elective middle ear surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were divided into three groups. Patients in the ON group received Ondansetrone 0.1mg/kg + Nacl 0.9% 2cc, OD group received Ondansetrone 0.1mg/kg + Dexamethasone 0.15mg/kg and MD group received Dexamethasone 0.15mg/kg+ Metoclopramide 0.15mg/kg intravenously just before the end of surgery. The patients were evaluated for nausea, vomiting, need of anti-emetic drugs and drug dosage in recovery, 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 hours after operation and then all data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software, Chi-square, ANOVA and t- Test. P<0.05 was significant.Results: There were no significant differences among three groups in age and sex. The incidence of PONV among 3 groups was not significantly different during 24 hours after operation. (P=0.271 but the incidence of PONV in the first six hours was different among 3 groups (P=0.007 (ON: 8.1%, OD: 0%, MD: 21.6%. Also Metoclopramide consumption was significant between three groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the need to anti-emetic drugs in first 6 hours was the least in OD group, but the difference in the incidence of PONV was not significant otherwise.

  20. 放疗后中耳胆固醇肉芽肿的治疗%Cholesterin Granuloma of the Middle Ear in Post-irradiated Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海弟; 许耀东; 张志钢; 陈穗俊; 郑亿庆

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究放疗后中耳胆固醇肉芽肿行乳突根治及鼓室成型术手术的效果.[方法]对在我科确诊为鼻咽癌放疗后中耳胆固醇肉芽肿的9例患者9耳进行手术治疗研究,放疗与手术间隔时间为6~14年(平均9年),术前接受的放射剂量为68~75 Gy.所有患耳采取的手术治疗方法包括开放乳突根治或完壁乳突根治术,同时行鼓室成型,其中3例行开放乳突根治+鼓室成型;6例行完壁乳突根治+鼓室成型.[结果]所有患者术后均随访2年以上,7耳鼓膜完整(占77.8%),2耳在术后3个月出现鼓膜再穿孔,但耳流脓、耳闷塞感明显较术前减少.平均纯音听阈PTA和A-B Gap分别由术前的90.5 dB和45.8 dB改善至术后6个月的62.3dB和25.5 dB.[结论]大多数鼻咽癌放疗后中耳胆固醇肉芽肿患者可采取手术改善症状,放疗引起的慢性中耳炎不是鼓室成型的禁忌证.%[Objective] To evaluate the surgical outcome of mastoidectomy plus tympanoplasty for cholesterin granuloma of the middle ear in post-irradiated patients. [Methods] Nine ears diagnosed cholesterin granuloma in the middle ear in post-irradiated NPC patients were included in this study. The time from radiotherapy termination to surgery ranged from 6 to 14 years (median 9 years). All the patients with NPC received radiotherapy of 68 to 75 Gy before surgery. All patients underwent radical tympanoplasty plus mastoidectomy with canal wall down or up. Three ears underwent canal wall down mastoidectomy plus tympanoplasty and six ears underwent canal wall up mastoidectomy plus tympanoplasty. [Results] All the patients were followed up for 2 years at least. There were 7 ears (77.8%) had intact tympanic membrane and 2 ears developed reperforation of eardrum 3 months after surgery, but otorrhea decreased significantly. All these patients reported improved quality of daily life after the surgery. The pure tone average (PTA) of pre-operation was 90.5 dB and air-bone gap

  1. Swimmer's Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb ... TOPIC Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  2. Ear wax

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, George GG

    2008-01-01

    Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment, or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears.Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes.

  3. Neutrophil extracellular traps and bacterial biofilms in middle ear effusion of children with recurrent acute otitis media--a potential treatment target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B Thornton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteria persist within biofilms on the middle ear mucosa of children with recurrent and chronic otitis media however the mechanisms by which these develop remain to be elucidated. Biopsies can be difficult to obtain from children and their small size limits analysis. METHODS: In this study we aimed to investigate biofilm presence in middle ear effusion (MEE from children with recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM and to determine if these may represent infectious reservoirs similarly to those on the mucosa. We examined this through culture, viability staining and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH to determine bacterial species present. Most MEEs had live bacteria present using viability staining (32/36 and all effusions had bacteria present using the universal FISH probe (26/26. Of these, 70% contained 2 or more otopathogenic species. Extensive DNA stranding was also present. This DNA was largely host derived, representing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs within which live bacteria in biofilm formations were present. When treated with the recombinant human deoxyribonuclease 1, Dornase alfa, these strands were observed to fragment. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial biofilms, composed of multiple live otopathogenic species can be demonstrated in the MEEs of children with rAOM and that these contain extensive DNA stranding from NETs. The NETs contribute to the viscosity of the effusion, potentially contributing to its failure to clear as well as biofilm development. Our data indicates that Dornase alfa can fragment these strands and may play a role in future chronic OM treatment.

  4. A Study of Relationship between the Acoustic Sensitivity of Vestibular System and the Ability to Trigger Sound-Evoked Muscle Reflex of the Middle Ear in Adults with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Emami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The vestibular system is sound sensitive and the sensitivity is related to the saccule. The vestibular afferents are projected to the middle ear muscles (such as the stapedius. The goal of this research was studying the relationship between the vestibular hearing and the sound-evoked muscle reflex of the middle ear to 500 HZ. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross sectional-comparison done in audiology department of Sheikholreis C‍‍linic (Hamadan, Iran. The study groups consisted of thirty healthy people and thirty patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Inclusion criteria of the present study were to have normal hearing on pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, and speech discrimination scores. Based on ipsilateral acoustic reflex test at 500HZ, they were divided to normal and abnormal groups. Then they were evaluated by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and finally classified in three groups (N Normal ear , (CVUA Contra lateral vertiginous ear with unaffected saccular sensitivity to sound,(IVA Ipsilateral vertiginous ear with affected saccular sensitivity to sound. Results: Thirty affected ears (IVA with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by ab-normal cVEMPs, revealed abnormal findings of acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Whereas, both un-affected (CVUA and normal ears (N had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs (p13,n23 and acoustic reflex at500HZ among the three groups were sig-nificant. The correlation between acoustic reflex at 500HZ and p13 latencies was significant. The n23 latencies showed significant correlation with acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Conclusion: The vestibular sensitivity to sound retains the ability to trigger sound-evoked re-flex of the middle ear at 500 HZ. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:99-104

  5. Ear canal cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J J

    1992-06-01

    Although cholesteatomas are more commonly found in the middle ear and the mastoid, the disease can occur in the external ear canal. All cases of ear canal cholesteatoma treated by the author were reviewed. There were nine ears in seven patients, who had an average age of 62 years. The lesions ranged in size from a few millimeters to extensive mastoid destruction. Smaller lesions can be managed by frequent cleaning as an office procedure. Larger lesions require surgery, either canaloplasty or mastoidectomy. The otolaryngologist should suspect this disease in the elderly. Microscopic examination of the ear with meticulous cleaning of all wax, especially in elderly patients, is most useful in detecting early disease. Frequent applications of mineral oil to the canal should be used in the management of the disease and to prevent recurrence. PMID:1376388

  6. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  7. Effect on cochlea function of guinea pig after controlled release recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 transplanted into the middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-sheng; SUN Jian-jun; JIANG Wei; LIU Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Background The recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) has been used to induce osteogenesis in animals' middle ear and this technique is possible to be used to reconstruct the defects of ossicles. The side effects of the rhBMP-2 in middle ear should be observed before using in clinic. Thus we prepared the controlled release rhBMP-2 and implanted it into the acoustic bulla of guinea pigs. The effect on the cochlea was observed. Methods We prepared the acellular cancellous bone, accompanied with rhBMP-2. The material accompanied with rhBMP-2 was implanted into one acoustic bulla of the animal and the opposite side of the acoustic bulla was implanted with acellular cancellous bone without rhBMP-2. Totally 20 guinea pigs were undergone this procedure. After the operation, the auditory brainstem response (ABR) of the animals was tested according to the time sequence. Three months after the operation, the animals were sacrificed. The osteogenesis induced by rhBMP-2, the acoustic bulla and cochlea affected by rhBMP-2 were observed. The structures of hair cells were observed after silver nitrate staining. Results The animals were recovered soon after surgery. The hearing thresholds of the animals were declined slightly just after the surgery and come back completely after 3 months. Also, the bulla and cochlea were normal in shape. The osteogenesis occurred in the pore of the acellular cancellous bone with rhBMP-2. There was not any abnormal hyperplasia of bone in the bulla and cochlea. The articulation between the stapes and oval window was not merged. The shapes of the hair cells were normal and there was no obvious deletion of the hair cells compared with control group. Conclusions The controlled release rhBMP-2 transplanted into the middle ear could induce osteogenesis in the bulla of the animals. It did not affect the shape of the bulla and the hearing threshold of the animal, and did not induce the abnormal hyperplasia of bone in the bulla and might

  8. Single Prophylactic Dose Of Dexamethasone Antiemetic Versus Ondansteron In Patients Undergoing Middle Ear Surgery: A Comparative Clinical And Experimental Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Taha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in which 150 ASA I-II patients scheduled for middle ear surgery were randomized into three equal groups. The dexamethasone group (group D received a single dose of dexamethasone 10 mg IV at induction of anesthesia, ondansetron group (group O received 4 mg IV ondansetron and the control group (group C received 5 ml saline IV as placebo by the same technique. The study demonstrated that the incidence of early postoperative nausea, retching and vomiting (PONV was significantly greater in the placebo group than the dexamethasone group (P 0.05. More over, the severity of late PONV (6-24h was markedly less in the dexamethasone group than the ondansetron group (P< 0.05 and still the incidence of late PONV was markedly less in both dexamethasone and ondansetron groups than the control group (P< 0.001. The study also reported that postoperative analgesic requirement was notably lower in the dexamethasone group than the ondansetron and control groups. An experimental animal study was also done to assess the extrapyramidal reaction associated with the use of both dexamethasone and ondansetron. Increasing doses of both drugs were given IV to the rats, up to 5 times the therapeutic dose of each drug. The rats then stimulated for 24h after injection by light, sound and 6 volt electric current in the Rat Conditioning Chamber. No one rat developed akathisa or acute dystonic reaction. In conclusion, dexamethasone and ondansetron were quite effective and have limited side-effects profile when given as single prophylactic antiemetic doses in patients undergoing middle ear surgery. The advantages of dexamethasone over ondansetron were its prolonged antiemetic effect, its analgesic effect and the lower cost.

  9. Wavelet Frequency-division Based Signal Processing Design for a Piezoelectric Middle Ear Implant%基于小波分频的压电式人工中耳信号处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵小峰; 刘后广; 田佳彬; 饶柱石

    2011-01-01

    基于一新型压电式人工中耳,提出利用小波分频方法对其信号进行处理,使该植入装置能模拟正常中耳的传递特性.首先,基于Bark频谱理论,利用小波分频技术将输入信号分为17个频带;再参考中耳传递特性,对每个频带的信号赋以相应的增益系数;最终,通过实验验证该方法的可行性.结果表明,该法可使压电叠堆的输出能较好地反应正常中耳的传递特性.%To make an actuator of a new middle ear implant vibrate simulating middle ear transfer property,wavelet frequency division based signal processing method is proposed. Firstly, the wavelet transform separates the input signals into seventeen frequency bands based on Bark frequency scale. Then, each frequency band is multiplied with the wavelet coefficients by the gain corresponding to the transfer property of the human middle ear system. At last, the validity of this method is confirmed by an experiment. The results show this algorithm can make the output of the piezoelectric stack have a good performance of simulating the normal human middle ear transfer property.

  10. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  11. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90% and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and external auditory canal, EAC, middle ear and inner ear, not infrequently in combination. Formal classification is advisable in order to be able to predict the prognosis and compare treatment schedules. Various classifications have been proposed: pinna and EAC malformations according to Weerda [1], middle ear malformations according to Kösling [2], and inner ear malformations according to Jackler [3], [4], to Marangos [5] and to Sennaroglu [6]. Additionally, we describe Altmann’s classification of atresia auris congenita [7] and the Siegert-Mayer-Weerda score [8] for EAC and middle ear malformations, systems of great practicability that are in widespread clinical use. The diagnostic steps include clinical examination, audiological testing, genetic analysis and, especially, CT and MRI. These imaging methods are most usefully employed in combination. Precise description of the malformations by means of CT and MRI is indispensable for the planning and successful outcome of operative ear reconstruction and rehabilitation procedures, including cochlear implantation.

  12. Chronic suppurative otitis media, middle ear pathology and corresponding hearing loss in a cohort of Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Homøe, Preben; Bjerregaard, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) has been observed at elevated prevalence rates in Greenlandic children. OM associated hearing loss (HL) may compromise the children's linguistic skills, social development and educational achievements. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of chronic suppurative...... otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and tympanic membrane sequelae of OM, and compared the corresponding hearing thresholds. METHODS: In 2010 we examined a cohort of 223 Greenlandic children aged 4-10 years by video otoscopy, tympanometry and tested hearing thresholds for the low......-frequencies: 500, 1000 and 2000Hz and the high-frequencies: 4000 and 6000Hz. HL was categorized according to the worst hearing ear and was compared within the groups: CSOM, OME, tympanic membrane sequelae of OM and normal. RESULTS: Of 207 children, 5.8% had CSOM, 13.9% had OME and 55.6% had tympanic membrane...

  13. A case of neuroglia choristoma in middle ear%中耳神经胶质迷芽瘤1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李康; 张志茂

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old young man presented with a white oval mass on the right side of external auditory canal.Physical examination:Under ear endoscope,a size of 0.6 cm × 0.8 cm× 0.6 cm,smooth and unmovable mass was on the right side of external auditory canal.In surgery,a cystic neoplasm which is connected to neoplasm of the external auditory canal by bone defect was found in aditus of drum sinus,and local bone defect in the back wall of drum sinus.Tympanic membrane and auditory ossicle chain is complete.Postoperative pathologic findings were consistent with neuroglia choristoma.The diagnosis mainly relied on the postoperative pathological findings.

  14. Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Cardona, A.

    2014-12-01

    The final closure of the Panama Isthmus and permanent separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters is thought to have modified their salinity, faunistic assemblages, and ultimately, ocean circulation patterns and global climate. The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) is thought to have been the result of Plio-Pleistocene closure of the Isthmus that allowed land animals to massively cross the Isthmus. Similarly, the separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters by a rising Isthmus is thougth to be a prime example of vicariance. The role of Isthmus closure on global changes, however, remains controversial due in part to the difficulty of establishing a precise chronology of seaway closure. While timing of glaciation is well established, new data on the chronology of Isthmus emergence suggests that the process of closure is more complex, long, and old than previously thought. We sampled fluvial and shallow marine strata in northwesternmost South America to recover zircon grains for provenance analyses in the immediate vicinity of the docking site. Because the ages of magmatic provinces in northwestern South America and the Panama Isthmus are mutually exclusive, detrital zircon analyses provides a tool to evaluate land connections. We found that an uniquely Panamanian, 40-45 Ma (early Lutetian) detrital zircon fingerprint is abundant in middle Miocene strata, but absent in underlying lower Miocene and Oligocene strata of the northern Andes. This fingerprint represents the beginning of fluvial detrital exchange between the Panama arc and South America, and therefore marks the time of docking and the end of deep-water, and probably shallow-water connections by middle Miocene times.

  15. 探讨中耳乳突根治手术的临床疗效%The Clinical Efficacy of Radical Operation of Middle Ear and Mastoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增贤

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分析中耳乳突根治手术的临床治疗效果。方法2010~2012年我院共接收了180例慢性中耳炎患者,根据这些患者的临床手术治疗来进行疗效探讨分析。结果临床中完璧式乳突根治以及鼓室成形治疗的患者干耳率达到了94.7%,开放式乳突根治和鼓室成形患者有92.5%的干耳率。结论临床中需要结合慢性中耳炎患者的病情以及病变范围来进行手术方式的选择,后鼓室入路探查和清理可以有效的治疗病变范围较广的患者,对于手术炎症的预防起到了比较积极的帮助。%Objective To study the curative effect of radical operation for middle ear and mastoid. Methods From 2010 to 2012, our hospital received a total of 180 cases of chronic otitis media patients, according to the clinical operation treatment for these patients to explore the curative effects. Results Clinical superlative radical mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty in patients treated with dry ear rate reached to 94.7%, open radical mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty in patients with dry ear rate was 92.5%. Conclusion We need to choose the mode of operation in patients with chronic otitis media with the severity and scope of clinical lesions in conclusion, posterior tympanum approach for the exploration and cleaning range can be effective treatment of lesions in patients with wide operation, for the prevention of inlfammation plays a positive help.

  16. Detection of respiratory pathogens in pediatric acute otitis media by PCR and comparison of findings in the middle ear and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana; Mayanskiy, Nikolay; Shipulina, Olga; Kulichenko, Tatiana; Alyabieva, Natalia; Katosova, Lyubovj; Lazareva, Anna; Skachkova, Tatyana; Elkina, Maria; Matosova, Svetlana; Shipulin, German

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) in order to detect bacteria (7 species) and viruses (17 species) in middle ear fluid (MEF) and nasopharynx (Nph) of children with acute otitis media (AOM; n=179). Bacterial and viral nucleic acids were detected in MEF of 78.8% and 14.5% patients, respectively. The prevalence was as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 70.4%; Haemophilus influenzae, 17.9%; Staphylococcus aureus, 16.8%; Streptococcus pyogenes, 12.3%; Moraxella catarrhalis, 9.5%; rhinovirus, 9.5%; and adenovirus, 3.4%. The overall rate of PCR-positive specimens for bacterial pathogens was 2.6 times higher, compared to culture results. The rate of PCR-positive results and the distribution of pathogens in the Nph were similar to those in the MEF. Nph PCR results had variable positive predictive values and high negative predictive values in predicting MEF findings. Our results indicate that Nph PCR could be a practical tool for examining respiratory pathogens in children with acute infections.

  17. CT中耳仿真内窥镜成像对中耳结构空间解剖关系的显示价值%Computed tomography virtual endoscopy imaging for spacial anatomy of the middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智云; 刘春玲; 周旭辉; 严超贵; 谢红波; 彭谦

    2009-01-01

    CT仿真内窥镜耗时不长,可以临床常规使用.%BACKGROUND: The middle ear is a little aerated cavity with a complex anatomy and a deep location. Computed tomagraphy virtual endoscopy (CTVE) can be used to reconstruct the stereoscopic images of internal surface of hollow organs using spiral CT volumetric data, providing findings similar to fiberendoscope.OBJECTIVE: To vedfy the ability to show the normal middle ear and the clinical application of virtual endoscopy based on 64-detector CT data.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A confirmatory controlled observation was performed at Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between October 2005 and March 2006.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 33 patients (66 ears) with suspected middle ear disease who underwent spiral CT examination were included in this study. Among included ears, 35 were normal, and 31 were impaired, including 24 ears presenting with chronic suppurative otitis media (10 simple otitis media, 5 granulomatous otitis media, and 9 middle ear cholesteatoma), 2 ears with post-operative recurred suppurative otitis media, 2 ears with carcinoma of middle ear, and 2 ears with temporal bone fracture, and lear with foreign body granuloma.METHODS: CT images of the temporal bone were obtained using 0.5 mm thick axis slices with a soft reconstruction kemel at 0.3 mm intervals. Virtual endoscopic images of middle ear on CT were generated from volumetric data using the Navigator software. CTVE images were observed from multiple directions using the Fly Through software, and compared with the axial and coronal images and surgery findings.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following structures were observed: auditory ossicle and joints, superior, middle, and inferior tympanum, sinus tympani, external acoustic meatus, tympanum, facial recess, tegmental wall, anterior and superior ligaments of malleus, posterior ligament of incus, and retrotympanum.RESULTS: A series of images were acquired as the virtual

  18. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this condition. Try an over-the-counter decongestant medicine for a few days. Putting a warm heating pad on your ear may help relieve the pain. If the pain is intense or doesn't go away in 1 or 2 days, see your doctor. No 9. Do you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear ...

  19. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2014-01-01

    . In this article we use the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeo-stratigraphic record from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (les Roches d'Abilly site, Central France), a Bayesian analysis of the ages obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon on ultrafiltered collagen and by luminescence on quartz...... and feldspar grains, to establish a timeline for material culture and sedimentary dynamic changes during the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition. Technology, refitting studies and taphonomy of lithic artifacts recovered in the geoarchaeological field units D1 and D2 permit to characterize 3 reduction...

  20. 基于CT图像构建听骨链三维有限元模型%The establishment of finite element model of the middle ear based on CT images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史长征; 吕长生; 李恒国

    2011-01-01

    Aim :To investigate the mechanical characteristics of the ossicular chain in the middle ear.Methods: The finite element model of the middle ear was established based on CT images of one normal hearing person. For the mechanical analysis, the principal strain, principal stress and displacement changes of ossicular chain of the middle ear at different frequencies were observed. Results: The principal strain, principal stress and the displacement changes in the low and intermediate frequency states were larger than those in the high-frequency state, especially in 200 Hz and 1000 Hz to 2 000 Hz stage,the change were most obvious. The principal stress and principal strain changed simultaneously, the ossicular chain was almost no displacement when the stimulus frequency greater than 2 000 Hz. Conclusion:The finite element model of the middle ear is a non-invasive way to study ossicular sound transmission mechanism, which is conducive to clinical assessment in the middle ear preoperative and postoperative stages.%目的:初步探讨中耳听骨链传声机制的力学特点.方法:采用1例听力正常者CT图像,建立中耳的三维有限元模型,进行中耳力学分析,观察不同频率下中耳主应变、主应力和位移的变化.结果:低频和中频中耳主应变、主应力变化较大,而在高频阶段变化并不明显,其中200 Hz和在1 000~2 000 Hz阶段变化最为明显,中耳主应力与主应变变化趋势相一致.当刺激音高于2 000 Hz时,中耳听骨链没有位移产生.结论:通过中耳有限元模型可以无创性地研究听骨链传声机制,有利于术前及术后对听骨链进行临床评估.

  1. 中耳畸形10例临床特点及治疗%Clinical characteristics and treatment of 10 patients with malformation of middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张建; 俞杰; 沈志森

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析中耳畸形的临床和听力学特征,手术探查明确中耳畸形具体形式,观察重建听骨链改善听力的效果。方法10例中耳畸形患者均行鼓室探查术。8例同时行听骨链重建(2例放弃),其中5例采用植入部分人工听骨( PORP)的鼓室成形术,2例采用植入全人工听骨( TORP)的鼓室成形术,1例采用镫骨足板开窗+人工镫骨植入术,1例行鼓岬开窗+人工听骨植入。结果术中发现砧骨畸形最多见,共9例,表现为砧骨长脚发育不全、豆状突缺失;其次是镫骨结构畸形并固定1例,镫骨仅存底板但可正常活动2例,镫骨畸形伴面神经畸形2例,另有1例前庭窗及面神经不能辨认。听力重建后患者听力满意,言语频率气导平均提高27.79 dB。结论中耳畸形的明确诊断依靠鼓室探查术,一定条件下植入PORP的手术效果最为理想。(中国眼耳鼻喉科杂志,2015,15:25-27)%Objective To analyze the diagnosis and treatment of malformation of middle ear .Methods Ten patients were involved in the study .Exploratory tympanotomy was undergone in all patients and 8 patients of which accepted the reconstruction of ossicular chain .Partial replacement prosthesis ( PORP) was used in 5 patients, total replacement prosthesis(TORP) was used in 2 patients, fenestration of stapes footplate with stapes prosthesis in 1 patient and fenestration of promontory of tympanum with prosthesis in 1 patient.Results Exploratory tympanotomy showed a variety of abnormalities of the middle ear which were difficult to identify preoperatively , despite of the modern imaging techniques.Hearing thresholds were obtained without severe complication occurrence . Conclusions Exploratory tympanotomy is essential to identify congenital conductive hearing loss and PORP implantation provides the optimal way for reconstruction of ossicular chain .

  2. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is an ear infection? ... their hearing. How can I tell if my child has an ear infection? Most ear infections happen ...

  3. Pro-inflammatory interleukins in middle ear effusions from atopic and non-atopic children with chronic otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Stankiewicz-Szymczak, Wanda

    2016-06-01

    Chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) is associated with irreversible changes in the middle ear, sometimes leading to hearing loss and abnormal language development in children. While the pathogenesis of OME is not fully understood, inflammatory and allergic factors are thought to be involved. The study aimed to investigate the role of cytokines in the local development of chronic OME, and assess differences in the cytokine profiles between atopic and non-atopic children. 84 atopic and non-atopic children with chronic OME (mean age of 6 years 7 months) were studied. Age-matched children with hypertrophy of the adenoids and Eustachian tube dysfunction served as the control group. The number of past acute otitis media (AOM) episodes, their age, and the type of effusion were recorded for all children. Pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) were determined and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the patients' effusions was examined. High concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were found in the effusions in all children with chronic OME, with the highest levels observed in the non-atopic group. The atopic group showed persistently high IL-1β levels, while in the non-atopic children, IL-1β and TNF-α levels positively correlated with the patient's age and the number of past AOM episodes. Pathogenic bacteria were more frequently isolated from effusions in non-atopic children. In both atopic and non-atopic children, pro-inflammatory cytokines are found at high concentrations. This argues in favor of instituting anti-inflammatory management for treating OME, regardless of atopy. PMID:26078091

  4. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj;

    2014-01-01

    Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow-water palaeoenvironm......Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow......-water palaeoenvironment along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone are of low diversity and represent ca 9% of the entire shelly fauna. Five brachiopod taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; all are endemic to the Amadeus Basin at species level. Two new species...

  5. 慢性中耳乳突炎性疾病不同手术方式的疗效分析%Curative Effects of Different Surgical Procedures for Chronic Middle Ear and Mastoid Inflammatory Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依恒·曲库尔汗; 王远强; 木拉提·阿地力; 冯娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effects of microscopic surgery for inflammatory lesions in the middle ear and mastoid by using different surgical procedures . Methods There were 110 cases of inflammatory lesions in the middle ear and mastoid from January 2009 to October 2013, including middle ear cholesteatoma and chronic suppurative otitis media .According to the scope of the lesions , either canal wall up mastoidectomy with or without tympanoplasty or open mastoidotympanectomy was carried out . Postoperative ear recovery , complications , recurrence , and hearing improvement were observed . Results The canal wall up mastoidectomy was performed in 51 cases, 46 of which received tympanoplasty simultaneously and 6 of which underwent a secondary artificial prosthesis implantation .Two patients with middle ear cholesteatoma experienced recurrence 1 year after surgery , and were given a secondary open operation .Postoperatively, hearing improvement was achieved >25 dB in 27 cases, >15 dB in 16 cases, and hearing loss was seen in 1 case.There were 59 cases of open mastoidectomy , including 31 cases of small tympanic cavity plasty .After open surgery, dry ear was not achieved in 1 case, which was cured after 2 months of dressing changes .The dry ear was achieved in all the remaining cases, with hearing improvement >15 dB in 3 cases and hearing loss in 3 cases. Conclusion According to different lesions in the middle ear and mastoid , different operative methods can be used to obtain satisfactory clinical curative effects .%目的:探讨慢性中耳乳突炎性疾病的不同显微手术方式的疗效。方法2009年1月~2013年10对110例慢性中耳乳突炎性病变,包括中耳胆脂瘤和慢性化脓性中耳炎,根据病变范围显微镜下分别施行完壁式乳突根治或同时鼓室成形术和开放式乳突根治术,观察术后干耳恢复情况、并发症、复发以及术后听力改善程度等。结果完壁式乳突根治术51例,其中46

  6. Buntsandstein-Muschelkalk magnetostratigraphy from Central Germany: detailed correlation with the Middle Triassic geomagnetic polarity timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurlies, M.

    2009-12-01

    There exist many magnetostratigraphic studies across the boundary of the Lower and Middle Triassic from both marine and non-marine section, providing a detailed magnetic record for the Anisian (Middle Triassic) that is age-constrained by conodont and ammonoid zonations from Tethyan sections. In the classic Germanic Triassic, the Anisian sedimentary succession, i.e. the Upper Buntsandstein to Lower Muschelkalk displays a change from mainly terrestrial red beds and marine to hypersaline evaporites and carbonates of the Upper Buntsandstein to marine limestones and marlstones of the overlying Lower Muschelkalk (so-called Muschelkalk transgression). In Central Germany, the about 100 m thick Lower Muschelkalk is dominated by micritic limestones and marlstones, and interbedded bioclastic and oolitic limestones. Overall, the Lower Muschelkalk sedimentary succession is indicated by a pronounced cyclicity, forming a robust high-resolution cyclostratigraphic framework. Furthermore, it is supported by several well-known marker beds, which can be traced over large parts of the intracratonic Central European Basin. In order to well extend the recently established magnetic polarity record of the Buntsandstein into the overlying Muschelkalk, about 150 paleomagnetic samples have been collected from two outcrops from Central Germany. The demagnetization revealed magnetite as main carrier of primary remanence in most of the samples, allowing the construction of a well-documented magnetic record. The Anisian ammonoids Beneckeia tenuis, Beneckeia buchi, and Balatonites ottonis and the conodont Nicoraella kockeli, which occur in the Upper Buntsandstein and Lower Muschelkalk, provide reliable biostratigraphic ties to the marine Middle Triassic.

  7. Paleotectonic Setting of Dongyan Group of Middle and Upper Proterozoic in Central Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Da; Wu Ganguo; Ye Yujiang; Zhang Xiangxin; Peng Runmin; Wu Jianshe; Wang Qunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The central Fujian Province, situated on the juncture of paleo-uplift of Wuyishan, Yongmei Late Paleozoic depression and the eastern volcanic rift-faulting zone, is mainly composed of the outcropped metamorphic basements in the Middle-Late and Early Proterozoic, which constitute two upper and lower giant thick formations of Precambrian volcanic-sedimentary cycles, respectively. The formation of Dongyan Group is an important Middle-Upper Proterozoic component, and the Dongyan Group is directly related to massive sulfide deposit in this area. In recent years, plenty of lead, zinc, copper, silver and gold deposits have been found and explored. The Precambrian paleorift setting of the central Fujian Province served as a favorite metallogenic background for the formation of large- and superlarge-scale volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) lead and zinc polymetal deposits. The Dongyan Group consists chiefly of a set of ancient volcanic sedimentary formations that are composed mainly of greenschist. Its major lithologic types comprise greenschist, marble, quartzite and granofels class including various components. The metamorphic rocks of Dongyan Group are the main composition of Middle and Upper Proterozoic volcanic-sedimentary cycle. The original rock of Dongyan Group, a stable rock association, is volcanic sedimentation and normal marine sedimentation. But the original volcanic rocks, basic and acid, are bimodal. The volcanic rocks were formed in the extensional continental rift setting.

  8. Central Obesity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue Yao; ZHENG Fen Ping; ZHOU Jia Qiang; DU Ying; PAN Qian Qian; ZHANG Sai Fei; YU Dan; LI Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Central obesity is considered to be a central component of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference (WC) has been widely used as a simple indicator of central obesity. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of WC cut-off values for predicting metabolic risk factors in middle-aged Chinese. Methods The study involved 923 subjects aged 40-65 years. The metabolic risk factors were defined according to the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. WC cut-off 85-90 cm and≥90 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in males, respectively, while WC 80-85 cm and≥85 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in females. Results First, WC values corresponding to body mass index (BMI) 24 kg/m2 and visceral fat area (VFA) 80 cm2 were 88.55 cm and 88.51 cm in males, and 81.46 cm and 82.51 cm in females respectively. Second, receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal WC cut-off of value was 88.75 cm in males, higher than that in females (81.75 cm). Third, the subjects with higher WC values were more likely to have accumulating metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic risk factors increased linearly and significantly in relation to WC levels. Conclusion WC cut-off values of central pre-/central obesity are optimal to predict multiple metabolic risk factors.

  9. High detection rates of nucleic acids of a wide range of respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and the middle ear of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertsema, Selma P; Chidlow, Glenys R; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Corscadden, Karli J; Mowe, Eva N; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Harnett, Gerald B; Richmond, Peter C

    2011-11-01

    Both bacteria and viruses play a role in the development of acute otitis media, however, the importance of specific viruses is unclear. In this study molecular methods were used to determine the presence of nucleic acids of human rhinoviruses (HRV; types A, B, and C), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV; types A and B), bocavirus (HBoV), adenovirus, enterovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43), influenza viruses (types A, B, and C), parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, 3, 4A, and 4B), human metapneumovirus, and polyomaviruses (KI and WU) in the nasopharynx of children between 6 and 36 months of age either with (n = 180) or without (n = 66) a history of recurrent acute otitis media and in 238 middle ear effusion samples collected from 143 children with recurrent acute otitis media. The co-detection of these viruses with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was analyzed. HRV (58.3% vs. 42.4%), HBoV (52.2% vs. 19.7%), polyomaviruses (36.1% vs. 15.2%), parainfluenza viruses (29.4% vs. 9.1%), adenovirus (25.0% vs. 6.1%), and RSV (27.8% vs. 9.1%) were detected significantly more often in the nasopharynx of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media compared to healthy children. HRV was predominant in the middle ear and detected in middle ear effusion of 46% of children. Since respiratory viruses were detected frequently in the nasopharynx of both children with and without a history of recurrent acute otitis media, the etiological role of specific viruses in recurrent acute otitis media remains uncertain, however, anti-viral therapies may be beneficial in future treatment and prevention strategies for acute otitis media.

  10. A previously unrecognized group of Middle Jurassic triconodontan mammals from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas; Averianov, Alexander O.

    2007-01-01

    Ferganodon narynensis gen. et sp. nov. is represented by a lower molariform tooth from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Balabansai Svita in Kyrgyzstan. The new genus is allied with Klamelia zhaopengi Chow and Rich 1984 from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in Xinjiang, northwest China to the new family Klameliidae based on parallelogram-shaped lower molariforms, imbricating rather than interlocking of cusps e- d- f, by a peculiar distolabial cingulid cusp, and by vertical folding of the enamel on the labial crown side. The new family Klameliidae fam. nov. is most similar to Gobiconodontidae by the structure of the molariform teeth and represents a previously unrecognized radiation of eutriconodontan mammals possibly endemic to Central Asia.

  11. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingxi Liu; Sheng Li; Xiuzhen Sun

    2009-01-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones,middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus,and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  12. Selection for phase variation of LOS biosynthetic genes frequently occurs in progression of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae infection from the nasopharynx to the middle ear of human patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Fox

    Full Text Available Surface structures in Haemophilus influenzae are subject to rapid ON/OFF switching of expression, a process termed phase variation. We analyse tetranucleotide repeats controlling phase variation in lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS genes of H. influenzae in paired isolates from both the nasopharynx and middle ears of paediatric patients with chronic or recurrent otitis media. A change in expression of at least one of the seven phase variable LOS biosynthesis genes was seen in 12 of the 21 strain pairs. Several strains showed switching of expression in multiple LOS genes, consistent with a key role for phase variable LOS biosynthetic genes in human infection.

  13. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  14. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor;

    2014-01-01

    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine...... benthic biodiversity in this clastic-dominated shallow-water palaeoenvironment situated along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The faunas from the Stairway Sandstone are generally of low diversity and dominated by bivalves but include several animal groups, with trilobites representing 25......% of the entire shelly fauna. Thirteen trilobite taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; the fauna displays a high degree of endemism. One new species, Basilicus (Parabasilicus) brumbyensis sp. nov. is described....

  15. A Comparison of Three Drug Combinations for Sedation during Middle Ear Surgeries under Local Anesthesia: A Multicentric Randomized Double Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During Middle Ear Surgeries (MES done under Local Anesthesia (LA, patients may feel discomfort due to noise of suction, manipulation of instruments, positioning of head-neck and sometimes due to pain. A bloodless microscopic field is also essential to facilitate surgical exposure in MES. Various combinations of analgesics and sedatives have been tried to alleviate apprehension of the patients and improve microscopic field which may result into reduction in surgical time. In the present study, we have compared Dexmedetomedine (Dex with Midazolam-Fentanyl (MF and PentazocinePromethazine (PP combinations for their sedoanalgesia, anxiolysis and other pharmacological effects when administered during MES, not lasting for more than 60 min. Material and Methods: Ninety American Society of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA group I /II patients admitted in either of the three hospitals during May 2014 to January 2015 for MES under LA were randomly divided into three groups by an independent observer. Group D received intravenous bolus of Injection Dexmedetomidine 1 µg/ kg over 10 min. Group MF received Injection Midazolam 0.06 mg/ kg + Inj. Fentanyl 1 µg/ kg and Group PP received Injection Pentazocine 0.3 mg/kg + Injection Promethazine 0.5mg/kg given intravenously followed by LA before taking incision for the surgery. Need of a rescue sedoanalgesic dose of (Midazolam 0.01 mg/kg + Fentanyl 0.5 µg/kg during the surgery was noted. All the patients received 500 ml of normal saline infusion till the end of the surgery. All surgeries were finished within 60 min. Vital parameters and Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS of the patients were noted from the time of administration of sedative till the end of the surgery. Patient and surgeon satisfaction scores were recorded immediately after the surgery. Drug combinations of three groups were compared for their effectiveness, adverse effects and satisfaction scores in given doses. Children, mentally

  16. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  17. Effect of tympanostomy tube insertion on middle ear function in children with secretory otitis media%鼓室置管对儿童分泌性中耳炎中耳功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛承刚; 万俐佳; 周小淳; 吴燕; 鲁海涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨鼓室置管治疗儿童分泌性中耳炎对中耳功能的影响.方法 选取47例(58耳)临床诊断为分泌性中耳炎的患儿,分别在鼓室置管术前及术后1个月、6个月进行纯音测听、声导抗、畸变产物耳声发射(distortion product otoacoustic emission,DPOAE)检查和耳镜检查,以评估鼓室置管手术前后中耳功能的变化及术后的并发症.结果 鼓室置管术后1个月、6个月分别行耳镜和声导抗检查,均较术前听力明显提高.术后6个月与术后1个月检查结果比较,听力改变差异无统计学意义.与鼓室置管术前比较,DPOAE引出率及部分频率幅值提高,差异具有统计学意义.鼓室置管术后的并发症主要是中耳感染、分泌性中耳炎复发、鼓膜穿孔和鼓膜内陷.结论 鼓室置管治疗儿童分泌性中耳炎,应用检测纯音测听、声导抗、DPOAE和耳镜检查,了解鼓室置管术后的并发症情况,综合评价对中耳功能的影响,具有临床指导意义.%Objective To investigate the effect of tympanostomy tube insertion on the middle ear function in children with secretory otitis media ( SOM). Methods Pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance , distortion product otoacoustic emission ( DPOAE) examination and otoscopy were carried out in 47 children (58 ears) with SOM before tube insertion, one month and 6 months after tube insertion respectively to evaluate the changes of middle ear function and surgical complications. Results One month and 6 months after tube insertion, hearing of children with catheter patency was significantly improved. In addition, the detection rate and amplitude of DPOAE were significantly increased. The difference of hearing 1 month and 6 months after tube insertion was statistically insignificant. Surgical and postoperative complications included middle ear infection, recurrent SOM, tympanic perforation and tympanic membrane retraction. Conclusion Pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance

  18. Optimal design of a floating mass type piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing devices%人工中耳悬浮式压电振子的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田佳彬; 饶柱石; 塔娜; 许立富

    2015-01-01

    To optimize the implant performance of a floating mass type piezoelectric actuator for implantable hearing devices,a displacement amplifier was designed to improve the output characteristics of the actuator.A finite element model of human ear consisting of the external ear canal,middle ear and simplified cochlea was constructed via micro-computer tomography imaging and the technique of reverse engineering.The validity of the model was verified by comparing the model-derived results with experimental data from reference.Then an ear-actuator coupled mechanical model was developed,and the multi-field coupling was considered to study the implant performance of the actuator before and after the displacement amplifier was added.The results showed that the adoption of displacement amplifier can increase the equivalent sound pressure level of the actuator in the middle and high frequency ranges,and the power consumption can effectively be reduced at the same time.%为了优化人工中耳悬浮式压电振子的植入效果,设计了一种位移放大结构用于改善振子的输出特性。首先采用微 CT 扫描和逆向成型技术建立了包括外耳道、中耳和简化耳蜗的人耳有限元模型,通过与文献的实验数据比对验证模型的有效性。然后建立人耳与悬浮振子的耦合力学模型,通过有限元的耦合场分析研究加入位移放大结构前后的人工中耳植入效果。研究结果表明,采用位移放大结构后,振子于中高频段的等效声压级得到明显提升,可以有效降低压电振子的功耗。

  19. Cochlear aqueduct flow resistance is not constant during evoked inner ear pressure change in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Feijen, RA; Albers, FWJ

    2003-01-01

    Inner ear fluid pressure was measured during 6.25 mHz square wave middle ear pressure manipulation, with a perforated tympanic membrane. After a negative-going middle ear pressure change the calculated flow resistance of the inner ear pressure release routes (mainly the cochlear aqueduct) was approx

  20. Seismic stratigraphy of middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU) in central Gulf of Mexico basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    A widespread high-amplitude reflector seen on seismic data throughout the Gulf of Mexico has been called the middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU). This reflector seems to be a major stratigraphic boundary in the Gulf of Mexico basin. It is believed to correspond to Vail's type 1 unconformity of middle Cenomanian age (97 Ma), which records an eustatic drop in sea level of approximately 200 m. This study area includes the entire Gulf of Mexico, except areas of thick, highly deformed salt where following the MCU with any degree of confidence becomes impossible. The MCU is easy to follow in multichannel seismic reflection profiles collected by the Institute for Geophysics of the University of Texas at Austin in the Gulf of Mexico. In central, deeper part of the gulf, reflectors above and below the MCU are parallel. In the southern and eastern rims of the gulf, along the Campeche and Florida escarpments, reflectors are truncated below the MCU and show onlap relationships above it. Therefore, the MCU may be interpreted as representing an unconformity along the southern and eastern rims of the Gulf of Mexico basin. The unconformity appears to die out and grade into a conformable section toward the center of the basin, and channeling is common along the Campeche and Florida escarpments. These channels can be projected back into canyons in the escarpments, which were probably initiated by subaerial exposure of the top of the escarpments during the middle Cretaceous lowstand. The downslope channels, being sourced by the canyons, were cut in deep water.

  1. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  2. Structural features of the Middle Tirso Valley (Central Sardinia - Italy from geoelectrical and gravity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Tirso Valley is located in Central Sardinia and lies between two structural highs, the Marghine-Goceano chain and the Barbagia Paleozoic horst. The geological structures of the area, potentially interesting for its geothermal resources, are rather complex and dominated by two regional faults – the Marghine fault and the Nuoro fault – which affect the Palaeozoic basement and the Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits. Combined modelling of gravity and geoelectrical data defines the shape and extent of this Tertiary basin. The Bouguer anomaly is mainly characterized by a three-dimensional gravity low which has been named «Bolotana-Sedilo gravity low», corresponding to a structure generated by collapses attributable to transcurrent and extensional tectonic events. The down faulted zone is filled with a Tertiary low density volcano-sedimentary sequence extending southwards and overlain by Pliocene-Quaternary basalts. Another regional structure named «Tirso Fault» is proposed

  3. Early and Middle Holocene evidence for plant use and cultivation in the Middle Cauca River Basin, Cordillera Central (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Francisco J.; Loaiza, Nicolás

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the latest results of research done in the Colombian Andean region known as Middle Cauca River Basin, an important location for the study of the origins of plant use and the dispersal of domesticates throughout the Americas due to its geographical position in northwest South America. We discuss human-environment interactions during Pleistocene/Holocene transition to middle Holocene (ca 10,000-4000 BP), specifically human-plant interaction and environmental factors that led to the adoption of horticultural practices. Three lines of evidence are analyzed: archaeological stratigraphy, lithic technology, and microbotanical remains. Our results suggest that early Holocene environmental stability allowed Middle Cauca settlers to use the diverse local resources for several millennia, altering the local vegetation, and leading to the development of horticultural practices that included the use of both local and foreign plants. These results inform the ongoing debate about the antiquity and nature of plant domestication and dispersals in the Americas.

  4. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, you know ... Topics How Do We Hear? What is Sound? Video Have a question? Information specialists can answer your ...

  5. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  6. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  7. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy, attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  8. Latest Permian to Middle Triassic cyclo-magnetostratigraphy from the Central European Basin, Germany: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity timescale

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Szurlies

    2007-01-01

    In Central Germany, the about 1 km thick mainly clastic Germanic Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) consists of about 60 sedimentary cycles, which are considered to reflect variability in precipitation within the epicontinental Central European Basin, most probably due to solar-induced short eccentricity cycles. They provide a high-resolution cyclostratigraphic framework that constitutes the base for creating a composite geomagnetic polarity record, in which this paper presents a Middle Buntsands...

  9. Monitoring inner ear pressure changes in normal guinea pigs induced by the Meniett (R) 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2000-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during a series of complex escalating middle ear pressure changes induced by the Meniett(R)20 (Pascal Medical, Sweden), a possible therapeutic pressure generator to be used by patients with Meniere's disease. Middle ear pressure changes were t

  10. Herpetofauna of the cedar glades and associated habitats of the Inner Central Basin of middle Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, M.L.; Graham, Reynolds R.; Glorioso, B.M.; Spiess, J.; Miller, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The cedar glades and barrens of the Inner Central Basin (ICB) of middle Tennessee support a unique and diverse flora and fauna and represent some of the state's most valued natural areas. We conducted herpetofaunal inventories of the cedar glades, associated barrens, cedar-hardwood forest, and adjacent aquatic habitats of the Stones River drainage of Middle Tennessee, focusing our sampling effort primarily at seven state- or federally owned properties in Rutherford and Wilson counties. These properties included Stones River National Battlefield (SRNB), Flat Rock State Natural Area (FRSNA), Vesta Cedar Glade State Natural Area (VSNA), Fall Creek Recreation Area (FCRA) on J. Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area, Cedars of Lebanon State Forest (CLSF), Cedars of Lebanon State Forest Natural Area (CLSNA), and Cedars of Lebanon State Park (CLSP). We used a variety of inventory techniques in terrestrial, aquatic, and subterranean habitats to survey these properties periodically from 1989 to 2010. We documented 49 species (22 amphibian and 27 reptile) accounting for 75.4% of the 65 herpetofaunal species thought to occur in the ICB, including records for Cemophora coccinea, Aneides aeneus, Gyrinophilus palleucus, Ambystoma barbouri, and Pseudotriton montanus. We found differences in alpha and beta diversity between sites, with the CLSF complex containing a high of 41 herpetofaunal species and FRSNA containing a low of 23 species. Beta diversity comparisons indicated similarity in amphibian species composition between FRSNA and CLSF and between SRNB and CLSF (9 shared species), and in reptile species composition between VSNA and the CLSF complex (16 shared species). We compare the results of our inventory with two previous studies conducted in the area and discuss the relative abundance, conservation, and threats to the herpetofaunal community of these habitats.

  11. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  12. MICRODISSECTION OF MINIATURE PIG EAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Haijin; GuoWeiwei; Chen Lei; Wu Na; Li Jiana; Ren Lili; Yang Shiming

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitability of miniature pigs as an animal model for otological research. Methods Microdissection of the temporal bone was performed on 10 miniature pigs and recorded on photo-graphs. Results The morphology and measurement of the external, middle and inner ear and the lateral re-cess of the miniature pigs were obtained by microdissection. Conclusion Compared to traditional animal models, the miniature pig may be a better model for biomedical research because of its many similarities in physiological functions with humans. Similarities of the temporal bone structures, including the external, middle and inner ear and the lateral recess, between the miniature pig and human make the animal a poten-tially useful model for otological research.

  13. Multi-frequency tympanometry as a diagnostic test of middle ear function in infants%0-12月龄婴幼儿不同频率声导抗测试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婧; 赵正言; 付勇; 吴磊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report tympanometry results at 226, 678 and 1000 Hz in infants aged from 0 month to 12 months, and to evaluate the value of multiple frequency tympanometry in diagnosing middle ear function in infants. Methods A sample of 200 infants with normal hearing were divided into four groups by age:i.e. Groups 1 (0– 28 days), 2 (1–3 months, ± 3 days), 3 (4–6 months, ± 7 days) and 4 (7–12 months, ±7 days) (n=50 in each group). Tympanograms from different age groups including their frequency characteristics were obtained using a GSI TympStar 2 Middle-Ear analyzer. Results 1) At 226 Hz, tympanom-etry equivalent ear canal volume (Ecv) increased with age, while tympanometric peak pressure (TPP) and peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Ymt) decreased. 2) TPP and Ymt at 678 and 1000 Hz increased with age, although the lowest TPP and Ymt was seen in infants in Group 2. Within each age group, TPP and Ymt at 1000 Hz were greater than those at 678 Hz. Probe tone frequency and age showed a remarkable im-pact on TPP and Ymt. 4) The middle ear resonance frequency was 284 ± 48 Hz for Group1, 293 ± 51 Hz for Group 2, 450±152 Hz for Group 3 and 650±205 Hz for Group 4. Conclusion In evaluating middle ear func-tion in infants younger than 6 months, the 1000 Hz probe tone should be used, while the 678 Hz tone can be a supplementary option in cases when 1000 Hz tympanograms indicate an occlusion effect. For infants between 7 and 12 months, the 226 Hz tone should be used for tympanogram, while the 1000 Hz tone should be used for impedance tests. Probe tones of different frequencies and different reference values should be used for different ages for accurate evaluation of middle ear functions.%目的:分析0~12月龄听力正常婴幼儿226Hz、678Hz和1000Hz探测音声导抗测试的结果,探讨不同频率探测音声导抗鼓室图在评价该年龄段婴幼儿中耳功能中的作用。方法200例0~12月听力正常婴幼儿分成4组,每组50

  14. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  15. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  16. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  17. 中耳细菌感染诱导的急性期HSP-70相关反应的免疫组织化学研究%Immunocytochemical research of HSP-70 correlative response in acute stage induced by bacterial infected middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永清; 邹静; 毕爱芳; 尚耀东

    2001-01-01

    探讨中耳细菌感染急性期时,哺乳动物中、内耳热休克反应的部位,以及中耳细菌感染诱生的热休克蛋白是否可能引发内耳自身免疫损伤。运用中耳注射肺炎克雷伯杆菌制成豚鼠中耳急性感染动物模型,分别于接种后第1、3、5、7天处死动物取材。应用免疫组化技术,研究了中耳粘膜和耳蜗表达热休克蛋白70(HSP-70)的部位。结果表明:正常状态下,中耳粘膜表层的上皮细胞和内耳膜迷路血管纹、螺旋韧带、Corti氏器均有弱的阳性反应,感染应激后,上述同样部位均有强的阳性显色。不同取材时段显示的阳性位置无差异。说明在中耳急性细菌感染期,中耳粘膜和内耳组织均表达了同源HSP-70蛋白分子,这些同源HSP-70为引发内耳自身免疫损伤提供了物质基础。%To illustrate the location of HSP-70 (heat\\|shock protein\\|70)correlative response in acute stage between middle and inner ear when mammalian middle ear infected by bacteria, and investigate the possibility to cause autoimmune inner ear injure by HSP-70 that induced by otitis media. An animal model of acute otitis media was established by inoculating Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p) into middle ear of guinea pigs. Animals were sacrificed 1,3,5 and 7days after inoculation.Investigation of the locations of HSP-70 in middle ear mucosa and cochlea structures were detected by immunocytochemical technique .The results showed that light stain of HSP-70 existed in the superficial epithelium cells of normal mucosa and cochlea structures such as stria vascularis, spiral ligament and Corti′s organ.Heavy stain appeared in the same sites in the infected ears . No different positive sites was observed in all animals.Our findings suggested that HSP-70 were expressed in middle ear mucosa and inner ear structures during acute middle ear infective stage.The HSP-70 provide a material base for causing autoimmune inner ear injure

  18. Influência do tipo de amamentação nas condições de orelha média de lactentes The influence of the type of breastfeeding on middle ear conditions in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Vargas Garcia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Os lactentes devem ser submetidos à triagem auditiva ao nascimento e, para que os resultados sejam completos, é necessário avaliar as condições de orelha média. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o tipo de amamentação em lactentes de zero a quatro meses tem influência nas condições de orelha média por meio da avaliação otorrinolaringológica e das medidas de imitância acústica, comparando neonatos que passaram na triagem auditiva com os que falharam. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Realizaram-se emissões otoacústicas (EOA em 60 lactentes de zero a quatro meses. Foram distribuídos em dois grupos, sendo grupo I lactentes com EOA presente e grupo II lactentes com EOA ausente. Foram submetidos à timpanometria, com tom teste de 1000 Hz e avaliação otorrinolaringológica. RESULTADOS: Os lactentes que eram alimentados por mamadeira exclusiva ou aleitamento misto apresentaram mais alterações na timpanometria e na avaliação otorrinolaringológica, com diferença estatisticamente significante. Os com aleitamento materno apresentaram maior ocorrência de timpanogramas normais e avaliação otorrinolaringológica normal, com diferença estatisticamente significante. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que os lactentes que receberam aleitamento materno apresentaram menos alterações na avaliação otorrinolaringológica e nas medidas de imitância acústica, permitindo, assim, que as EOA estivessem presentes. O aleitamento materno exclusivo poderia ser considerado como fator de proteção contra alterações da orelha média.Infants should be submitted to hearing screening upon birth, and for the results to be complete, it is necessary to assess middle ear conditions. OBJECTIVE: To check whether the type of breastfeeding in infants between zero and four months can impact middle ear conditions my means an ENT assessment and acoustic immittance comparing neonates who were submitted to hearing screening with those who failed it. Materials and METHODS: Otoacoustic

  19. Early Middle Formative Occupation in the Central Maya Lowlands: Recent Evidence from Cahal Pech, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Awe

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available After more than half a century of intensive archaeological research the early Middle Formative (or Middle Preclassic period (1000-600 B.C. continues to be one of the most enigmatic eras in the study of Lowland Maya prehistory. While several factors contribte to this situation, the primary cause for this obscurity lies in the fact that few sites have produced either contextual or stratigraphic evidence of occupation during this phase (Rice 1976; Andrews 1988. Concsequently, any new site with evidence of Middle Formative occupation can contribute substantially to our limited knowledge of this pioneering stage of the lowland Maya. This paper introduces one such site, Cahal Pech, where recent investigations have uncovered a stratigraphic sequence that tentatively spans the early Middle Formative to the Late Classic period. It provides a preliminary description, of the site's early Middle Formative configuration and briefly discusses its possible regional affiliation.

  20. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon,Central Nevada,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; M.Monarrez; Nicole; Bonuso

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction.This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors.This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance,ecological patterns,and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada.Twelve bulk samples were collected.Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation.Beginning in the Late Anisian,we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam,epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy,quiet,inner shelf depositional environment.Through time,epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness.During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment.Finally,we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment.In sum,we observe the dominance of modern taxa(i.e.,bivalves)with Paleozoic ecologies(i.e.,epifaunal),followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies(i.e.,infaunal,thick shells)and then a return to Paleozoic taxa(i.e.,brachiopods)and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  1. Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Lorkiewicz

    Full Text Available For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB. The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0. The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

  2. Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, Wiesław; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Strapagiel, Dominik; Haduch, Elżbieta; Szczepanek, Anita; Grygiel, Ryszard; Witas, Henryk W

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG) from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0). The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

  3. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  4. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receive light-weight earrings. Does Insurance Pay for Cosmetic Ear Surgery? Insurance usually does not cover surgery solely for ... republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. Ears Cosmetic Surgery, Facelift, Rhinoplasty, Blepharoplasty ... Get Involved Professional Development Practice ...

  5. Epitympanoplasty with Cartilage Obliteration in the Canal Wall Up Technique to the Middle Ear Cholesteatoma%保留外耳道后壁上鼓室切开软骨重建术治疗中耳胆脂瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹珩; 刘阳; 孙建军; 林勇生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report the curative effect of the epitympanoplasty with cartilage obliteration in the treatment of middle ear cholesteatoma .Methods This study retrospectively analysed 123 cases ,with middle ear cholesteatoma treated in our department from November 2009 to July 2012 .The operation included mastoidectomy with posterior canal wall preserved ,lateral wall of attic resected ,facial recess opened to the epitympanum ,epitym-panum obliterated with cartilage and mastoid cavity blocked with bone dust .All cases were followed up on complica-tions and hearing improvement .Results All cases were followed up 6~38 months .In 123 cases ,there were 2 ca-ses had cholesteatoma recurrence in the middle ear cavity ,6 cases had infection of post auricular incision after opera-tion ,3 cases had residual marginal tympanic membrane perforation ,2 cases had ossicular replacement prosthesis ex-clusion ,and 6 cases had canal wall skin swelling or defect .The rest cases acquired full -recovery after 2 or 3 wound dressing changes .Out of 123 cases ,83 cases had the whole hearing document ,the average AB gap at 0 .5 ,1 ,2 kHz reduced from 32 .2 ± 11 .2 dB pre-operation to 20 .7 ± 12 .4 dB post -operation .The AB gap of pre - and post -operation had significant difference (P<0 .001) .Conclusion The mastoidectomy with posterior canal wall preserved greatly shortened the healing time .The resection of lateral wall of epitympanum can exposed operating field more completely and remove lesions thoroughly .The cartilage obliteration in the attic can prevent the retraction pocket formation effectively .This technique provides alternative in treating middle ear cholesteatoma .%目的探讨在保持外耳道后壁完整的情况下,切除上鼓室外侧壁并软骨封闭治疗中耳胆脂瘤的疗效。方法2009年11月~2012年7月对123例(123耳)中耳胆脂瘤患者行保留外耳道后壁的乳突切开、上鼓室盾板切除及面神经隐窝向上鼓室开放,清除病

  6. Application of Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB)in patients with congenital deformation of middle and outer ears%振动声桥在先天性中外耳畸形患者的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹艺辉; 李佳楠; 陈爱婷; 戴朴; 韩东一; 刘会占; 杨仕明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report application of the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) in patients with congenital deformation of the middle and outer ears and investigate its indications for this patient population. Method Four patients with congenital deformation of middle and outer ears underwent VSB implantation. All were male (aged 3-18 years, average 13.5 years) and operated on the left side., Malformation was bilateral in 3 patients and unilateral in 1 patient. Surgical techniques were modified to accommodate each patient' s unique conditions. The middle ear space was approached via the facial recess in 3 patients and through a post-facial nerve route in 1 patient. The VSB implant was connected to either the stapes (2 cases) or the round window (2 cases). Pure tone and speech audiometry results and daily communication before and after VSB activation were compared. Results The operations were successful in all patients, with no complications. The patient communication level improved significantly after VSB activation. Average air conduction pure tone threshold or conditioned reflex audiometry improved by 35dB in the 0.25-4 kHz range from 69 dB HL before VSB activation to 34 dB HL after. In quiet, the sentence recognition rate at 65 dB SPL went up to 86% from 0% without VSB for patients with bilateral deformation and remained at 100% for the patient with unilateral deformity. However, for the latter patient, the rate improved to 20% from 0% without VSB in noise (-8 dB SNR). Conclusion VSB is a good solution for improving hearing in patients with congenital deformation of middle and outer ears. Operation can be completed and good results can be achieved even in patients with unique conditions.%目的 报道振动声桥在先天性中外耳畸形患者(尤其有特殊情况者)的应用,探索其在该类患者的适应症.方法 对4例先天性中外耳畸形患者行振动声桥植入术,均为男性,年龄3-18岁(平均13.5岁),3例双耳畸形,1例单耳畸形,均为左侧植

  7. Promoting Energy-Balance Behaviors among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents: Overview and Baseline Findings of the Central Texas CATCH Middle School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E.; Kelder, Steven H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Delk, Joanne E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The Central Texas Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) Middle School Project is a 3.5-year school-based project aimed at promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and obesity prevention among public middle school students in Texas. This article describes the CATCH intervention model and presents baseline findings from spring 2009.…

  8. 不同方法修复先天性外中耳畸形新建耳道的皮肤缺损的临床研究%Clinical study of different methods to repair the skin defect of the new ear canal of the congenital external middle ear malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简洁君; 何超; 田磊; 李妮

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of repairing the skin defect of the new ear canal of the new ear canal with the acellular dermal matrix and the free thin layer of the skin.Methods 40 cases of January 2015 2013 to January 2009 in our hospital were congenital ear canal stenosis or deformity were included. All the patients underwent skeletal reconstruction of external auditory canal treatment. According to the random number table method is divided into two groups with 20 cases in each: in view of the new ear canal skin lesions, the observation group be dissimilar de cellular dermis matrix membrane repair treatment, control group was treated with autologous free thin skin graft treatment, comparative analysis the therapeutic effect of two groups.Results Patients were followed up for 6 months, patients in the two groups there were no graft rejection appeared and shedding phenomenon, the success rate of the two groups of patients transplanted reached 100%; were observed compared with control group, the group of complete epithelization time was significantly shortened (P<0.05); observation group transplantation 3 months and 6 months of Vancouver Scar score were lower than those in the control group decreased signiifcantly (P<0.05). The two groups had no serious abnormal reaction; observation group cosmetic satisfaction reached 95%, compared to the control group 85.00% increased significantly (P<0.05). ConclusionXenogenic deproteinization acellular dermal matrix membrane repair for congenital external and middle ear malformation new ear canal skin defect, as a dermal substitute, can effectively promote the skin defect of healing, reduce scar hyperplasia after the wound healing, good aesthetic effect, is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜与自体游离薄层皮片在先天性外中耳畸形新建耳道的皮肤缺损中的修复作用。方法:纳入2013年1月-2015年1月收治的先天性耳道狭窄或畸形患者40

  9. Latest Permian to Middle Triassic cyclo-magnetostratigraphy from the Central European Basin, Germany: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurlies, Michael

    2007-09-01

    In Central Germany, the about 1 km thick mainly clastic Germanic Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) consists of about 60 sedimentary cycles, which are considered to reflect variability in precipitation within the epicontinental Central European Basin, most probably due to solar-induced short eccentricity cycles. They provide a high-resolution cyclostratigraphic framework that constitutes the base for creating a composite geomagnetic polarity record, in which this paper presents a Middle Buntsandstein to lowermost Muschelkalk magnetostratigraphy obtained from 6 outcrops and 2 wells where a total of 471 samples was collected. Combined with recently established records, a well-documented magnetostratigraphy for the upper Zechstein to lowermost Muschelkalk (latest Permian to Middle Triassic) of Central Germany has been constructed, encompassing an overall stratigraphic thickness of about 1.3 km and 22 magnetozones derived from about 2050 paleomagnetic samples. Along with available biostratigraphy, this multi-disciplinary study facilitates detailed links to the marine realm, in order to directly refer biostratigraphically calibrated Triassic stage boundaries as well as radioisotopic ages to the Buntsandstein cyclostratigraphy and, conversely, to contribute to calibrating the geologic timescale.

  10. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  11. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Guido; Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Haak, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  12. The Middle Miocene Climate Transition in the Central Mediterranean. Geologica Ultraiectina (326)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Miocene Climate Transition (~15-13.7 Ma) is one of the major steps in Cenozoic climate evolution. The rapid expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ~13.9 – 13.7 Ma caused important climate changes on a global scale. The aim of this PhD research has been to study the effects of the Mi

  13. Middle Grades Teachers' Understanding and Teaching of the Central Ideas of the Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The research reported on in this paper addresses the problem of preparing Massachusetts middle school mathematics, science, and computer teachers to teach engineering. The results presented here are part of a larger dissertation study investigating six urban public school teachers and their subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge teachers…

  14. Prótese implantável do ouvido médio: ganho funcional em perda auditiva mista Middle ear implants: functional gain in mixed hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Emilio Zernotti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atresia óssea e otite média crônica são os principais grupos de beneficiários com implantes do ouvido médio. Cirurgia de atresia é tecnicamente complexo, tem muitas complicações e resultados funcionais pobres. Os aparelhos auditivos osseointegrados são uma alternativa. Eles fornecem um ganho funcional muito bom, mas tem muitos problemas de pele e osseointegração. Na otite média crônica, ossiculoplastias resolveram parcialmente o problema de audição. Infelizmente, em alguns casos de otites média e cavidades abertas, equipamentos com aparelhos auditivos convencionais são difíceis e muitas vezes insatisfatórios. OBJETIVO: Determinar a utilidade de um implante do ouvido médio. Desenho de estudo longitudinal. MÉTODOS: Vibrant-Soundbrigde foi implantado em oito pacientes com perda auditiva mista grave. Quatro apresentavam otite média crônica e quatro apresentavam atresia unilateral. A colocação do estimulador (FMT ou Floating Mass Transducer foi em cinco pacientes na janela redonda, dois no estribo e um na janela oval. RESULTADOS: Ganho funcional foi de 35 dB, 40 dB, 48,7 dB e 50 dB para as frequências de 500, 1000, 2000 e 4000 Hz, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Vibrant-Soundbrigde é uma excelente opção no restabelecimento da audição em perda auditiva mista grave e profunda. Ele fornece um excelente ganho funcional em doenças de difícil tratamento com equipamentos convencionais.Osseous atresia and chronic otitis media are diseases benefit with middle ear implants. Surgery for atresia is technically complicated, has significant number of complications and functional results are often poor. The osseointegrated hearing aids are an alternative. They provide a very good functional gain, but have many problems with the skin and osseointegration. In chronic otitis media, the ossiculoplasty solved partially the hearing problem. Unfortunately in some cases of otitis media and in open cavities fitted with conventional hearing

  15. Secreção na orelha média em lactentes - ocorrência, recorrência e aspectos relacionados Secretion of middle ear in infants - occurrence, recurrence and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de O. Saes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a ocorrência e recorrência de secreção na orelha média e os possíveis fatores associados, em 190 recém-nascidos e lactentes observados nos 2 primeiros anos de vida, participantes de um programa de prevenção, detecção e intervenção interdisciplinar desenvolvido na Clínica de Educação para Saúde da Universidade do Sagrado Coração. MÉTODOS: Os recém-nascidos e lactentes foram submetidos mensalmente a anamnese, otoscopia, avaliação audiológica comportamental por meio de instrumentos sonoros e tons puros (audiometria pediátrica e timpanometria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados revelaram que 68,4% dos lactentes apresentaram um ou mais episódios de secreção na orelha média nos 2 primeiros anos, com maior recorrência para o sexo masculino. A idade de maior ocorrência foi entre 4 e 12 meses. Quanto mais cedo ocorreu o primeiro episódio, maior foi a probabilidade de recorrência. Os meses do ano de maior incidência foram de maio a agosto. Das variáveis estudadas, constatou-se que o período de aleitamento materno exclusivo atuou como um fator protetor. Quanto aos fatores de risco, verificou-se que a presença tabagismo passivo, refluxo gastroesofágico, alergia respiratória esteve relacionada à recorrência de efusão. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados revelaram a importância do acompanhamento auditivo periódico para lactentes nos 2 primeiros anos de vida, considerando ser o período crítico para o processo de maturação do sistema auditivo, no qual privações sensoriais auditivas podem ser responsáveis por seqüelas para o desenvolvimento de fala e linguagem.OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at evaluating the occurrence and recurrence of middle ear secretion and possible associated factors in the first two years of life of 190 newborns and infants, participants in the interdisciplinary prevention, detection, and intervention program at the Clínica de Educação para Saúde of

  16. Stratigraphic significance of Middle Triassic radiolarians from the central part of Kotel'nyi Island (New Siberian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, N. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    New data on Middle Triassic radiolarians from the central part of Kotel'nyi Island are discussed. The Triassic section is represented by clays and mudstones with diverse macro- and microfossils, which confirm the presence of lower Anisian, upper Anisian, and upper Ladinian sediments on the island. The lower Anisian Substage 10-15 m thick is composed of clays with ammonoid species Karangatites evolutus. The upper Anisian Substage 20 m thick consists of clays with phosphate concretions and bivalves Daonella sp. cf. D. moussoni Merian, D. americana Smith, ammonoid form Indigirophyllites sp. ex gr. I. spetsbergensis (Oeberg), and radiolarian assemblage with Glomeropyle boreale Bragin. The upper Ladinian Substage 25-30 m thick is composed of clays with phosphate concretions and bivalves including Daonella frami Kittl., ammonoid species Indigirophyllites sp. ex gr. I. oimekonensis Popow, and radiolarian assemblage with Muelleritortis firma (Gorican). The middle Anisian and lower Ladinian substages are missing, which may be explained by the incompleteness of the section. The Middle Triassic section of Kotel'nyi Island is first stratified on the basis of radiolarians, which are supplemented by the data on cephalopods and bivalves. Glomeropyle saccum Bragin, sp. nov. is described.

  17. A RARE FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR: REMOVED BY CANALOPLASTY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Getting an object impact in the ear canal is a relatively common problem in children, the majority of items are lodged in the external auditory canal which is the small channel that ends at the ear drum. The children often place these items in their ears out of curiosity. Common objects found in ear include beads, toys, food material, insects and seeds etc. usually foreign body ear are removed by syringing or with Hartmann’s forceps, we are here presenting a case of foreign body in the middle ear removed by canaloplasty through post - aural approach.

  18. Supervivencia adulta y dinámica poblacional del lauchón orejudo Phyllotis darwini en Chile central Adult survival and population dynamics in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Crespin

    2006-09-01

    with a short generation time, adult survival should not be of such importance. Nonetheless, Yoccoz et al. (1998, Research Population Ecology 40: 107-121 hypothetized that, in small rodents, adult survival should be the demographic parameter driving the population growth rate if one considered a time scale of one month (instead of one year. As far as we know, this hypothesis has not yet been tested with empirical data. To test this hypothesis, we used five years of capture-mark-recapture data to estimate maturation and survival of a rodent, the leaf-eared mice, Phyllotis darwini, in a population of central Chile. This analysis revealed that the probabilities of survival decreased with the average rainfall by year and that the probabilities of maturation decreased with the abundance of the population. Using the probabilities of survival and maturation, we built up a seasonal matrix model and use perturbation analysis (elasticity to be able to actually measure the relative importance of each demographic parameter to the population growth rate. Environmental seasonality was incorporated in the model by using a rainfall season, of five months long, and a dry season. Adult survival was indeed the demographic parameter with the highest elasticity. Such a result plainly supported thus the hypothesis of Yoccoz et al. (1998

  19. The Analysis of the Main Pathogenic Bacteria and Drug Sensitivity in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media and Patients with Middle Ear Cholesteatoma in Xinjiang%新疆地区慢性化脓性中耳炎及中耳胆脂瘤病原菌及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾兴智; 牛良军; 尤乐都斯·克尤木; 张华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the main pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity in patients with chronic sup-purative otitis media and patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in Xinjiang ,and to provide evidence for reasonable u-sing antibiotics for the two diseases .Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the middle ear secretion bac-terial culture results of 409 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media and middle ear cholesteatoma at our hospi-tal from January 2008 to December 2013 .Results ①There were 361 strains of microbes isolated from 409 patients , and 16 of them were fungi ,and 245 were bacteria .There was a statistical significance of the pathogen detection rate about G+ and G- bacteria between chronic suppurative otitis media and middle ear cholesteatoma (χ2 =12 .216 ,P=0 .000) .②Staphylococcus aureus(in 78 of 254 ears ,30 .7% ) ,pseudomonas aeruginosa(in 46 of 254 ears ,18 .1% ) , coagulase-negative staphylococcus(in 42 of 254 ears ,16 .5% ) ,and proteus mirabilis(in 20 of 254 ears ,7 .87% ) were the most frequently insolated pathogens in chronic suppurative otitis media ,while staphylococcus aureus(in 26 of 107 ears ,24 .30% ) ,pseudomonas aeruginosa(in 17 of 107 ears ,15 .9% ) ,coagulase-negative staphylococcus (in 16 of 107 ears ,15 .0% ) ,and proteus mirabilis(in 14 of 107 ears ,13 .1% ) were the most frequently insolated patho-gens in middle ear cholesteatoma .③Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase -negative staphylococcus were all sensi-tive to quinoline nupu ting /dalfopristin ,teicoplanin ,vancomycin ,and moxifloxacin .The sensitivity of coagulase -negative staphylococcus to gentamicin ,trimethoprim -sulfamethoxazole ,and erythromycin in the middle ear chol-esteatoma were higher than those of in chronic suppurative otitis media .The sensitivity of pseudomonas aeruginosa to ceftazidime ,and imipenem were lower in the middle ear cholesteatoma .The drug sensitivity of pseudomonas aeruginosa ,proteus to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and

  20. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  1. 腭裂修复术对咽鼓管功能与中耳的影响%Study on the eustachian tube and on the problems of middle ears of the children with cleft palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖仁发; G.Schmidt; 等

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of the dysfunction of eustachian tube and otitis media witheffusion in young children with cleft palate. Methods: 121 cleft palate cases, including 242 ears are di-vided, according to the time of surgical closure of soft cleft palate, into two groups: early operated groupand delay operated group. All children underwent rourine otoscopic, otomicroscopic examination of theears and they were also performed tympanotomy before and 1 year after veloplasty. Results: A significant-ly (P < 0,01 ) greater prevalence of otitis media with effusion was found among delay operated CP chil-dren than early operated CP children before veloplasty, and more mucotympanon and otitis media suppu-rativa were also found in delay operated CP children. No statistical significance was found 1 year after op-eration. Conclusion: Dysfunction of Eustachian tube and otitis media are commonly present among theCP children, tympanotomy and pressure equalization tube should be performed as early as possible so asto avoid complications of the middle ears, early veloplasty should be adopted for a better rehabilitation.%目的:探讨不同年龄组腭裂患儿施行腭裂修复术对咽鼓管功能障碍与中耳疾病的影响。方法:121例242耳腭裂患儿,分为早期腭帆修复组(手术时平均年龄为3.2个月)与延迟腭帆修复组(手术时平均年龄为15个月),在腭裂修复术前、术后一年进行耳镜、耳显微镜检查,鼓膜穿刺术和(或)鼓膜切开术。结果:2组腭裂患儿手术修复术前90%以上的中耳有病理性渗出,但延迟手术组腭裂患儿的中耳渗出向粘稠化、感染化转变,2组患儿中耳渗出情况在腭裂修复术后一年明显好转。结论:腭裂可导致中耳炎,应尽早作耳科相关检查,对病理性渗出的中耳,应置放鼓室平衡管,以消除负压和引流。早期实施的腭帆修复术,对咽鼓管及中耳功能的恢复有明显的改善。

  2. Natural ear rings

    OpenAIRE

    Sabaretnam, Mayilvaganan; Virupakshaiah, Akash; Baruah, Rishiraj

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Ear lobe keloids are common following ear piercing and these lesions are conspicuous and cosmetically unappealing. Multiple methods including surgery, radiotherapy, anti mitotic agents, silicone sheet, pressure clips, and cryotherapy have been used. The Challenge is to have a good cosmetic outcome with minimal recurrence.

  3. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance ... Committees Contact Us Get Involved You are here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel ...

  4. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, you know you've heard ... the sound through the hair cells to your brain. Last Updated Date: July 30, 2014 Languages Español ...

  5. Alterations in the Contra lateral Ear in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM, a persistent and durable inflammation and infection of the middle ear, is a common disorder. Alterations in the contralateral ear in sufferers have been observed in recent years. Because only a few studies have been reported in this area, we performed this study in order to assess alterations in the contralateral ear of patients with COM.   Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive methods were used in 100 patients with COM who were selected for surgical treatment and admitted to hospital. An information form was completed for all patients including demographic data, medical history of otoscopy and paraclinical examinations such as pure tone audiometry (PTA, tympanometry, Schuller radiography, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All data were processed using SPSS (version 18 software and descriptive statistical tests.   Results: According to otoscopy, PTA, tympanometry and graphical analysis, 60% of patients experienced disorders of the contralateral ear. Otoscopy analysis showed 54% of patients had a disorder of the contralateral ear, with the most common disorder being perforation of the ear drum. PTA showed a 48% incidence of contralateral ear problems (85% conductive hearing impairment; 12.5% sensorineural hearing impairment; 1.2% mixed. A total of 73.2% of patients with conductive hearing loss had a problem across all frequencies, while half of the patients with sensorineural hearing impairment had problems at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. According to tympanometry, 38% of patients had problem in the contralateral ear. HRCT and Schuller graphical analyses indicated 31.5% and 36% occurrence of contralateral ear disorders, respectively.   Conclusion:  More than 50% of patients with COM in one ear have a chance of also presenting with the disease in the other ear. Outcomes of this study and previous studies have shown that COM should not be perceived as a disease limited

  6. Middle Triassic volcanic rocks in the Northern Qiangtang (Central Tibet): Geochronology, petrogenesis, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Shi, Ren-Deng; Yi, Guo-Ding; Zou, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Although voluminous magmatism occurred during the Triassic in the Qiangtang terrane, the petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks and the associated tectonic scenarios remain mysterious. This study focuses on new identified primitive volcanic rocks from the Yanshiping area, Northern Qiangtang subterrane. The whole-rock major-trace elemental, Sr-Nd isotopic data, and zircon U-Pb age of volcanic rocks are reported in this paper in order to understand their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The studied volcanic rocks can be grouped into two types, i.e., Nb-enriched basalts and basaltic andesites (NEBs) in the low sequence and arc basalts in the upper sequence. Zircon U-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS techniques yields the concordant age with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of ca. 242-241 Ma for the NEBs and ca. 240 Ma for the arc basalts. The distinct geochemical and isotopic characteristics of whole-rock and varying Th-U-REE components of zircon grains from the volcanic rocks suggest that the NEBs were derived from partial melting of relatively enriched mantle wedge that have been metasomatised by slab-related melts and that the arc basalts originated from partial melting of mixing of mantle wedge and depleted asthenospheric mantle in response to the slab breakoff. Our new geochemical and geochronological results, in combination with regional studies, imply that the Middle Triassic magmatism was generated in the tectonic setting of northward subduction of the Paleo-Tethys or Bangong-Nujiang Ocean. Subduction-related processes that include melting of the slab and the slab breakoff during the Permian-Middle Triassic made an important contribution to crustal growth in the Qiangtang terrane, whereas vertical crustal growth associated with collision-related setting during the Late Triassic is nonsignificant.

  7. The influence of sea level and cyclones on Holocene reef flat development: Middle Island, central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. J.; Smithers, S. G.; Lewis, S. E.; Clark, T. R.; Zhao, J. X.

    2016-09-01

    The geomorphology and chronostratigraphy of the reef flat (including microatoll ages and elevations) were investigated to better understand the long-term development of the reef at Middle Island, inshore central Great Barrier Reef. Eleven cores across the fringing reef captured reef initiation, framework accretion and matrix sediments, allowing a comprehensive appreciation of reef development. Precise uranium-thorium ages obtained from coral skeletons revealed that the reef initiated ~7873 ± 17 years before present (yBP), and most of the reef was emplaced in the following 1000 yr. Average rates of vertical reef accretion ranged between 3.5 and 7.6 mm yr-1. Reef framework was dominated by branching corals ( Acropora and Montipora). An age hiatus of ~5000 yr between 6439 ± 19 and 1617 ± 10 yBP was observed in the core data and attributed to stripping of the reef structure by intense cyclones during the mid- to late-Holocene. Large shingle ridges deposited onshore and basset edges preserved on the reef flat document the influence of cyclones at Middle Island and represent potential sinks for much of the stripped material. Stripping of the upper reef structure around the outer margin of the reef flat by cyclones created accommodation space for a thin (reef growth after 1617 ± 10 yBP that grew over the eroded mid-Holocene reef structure. Although limited fetch and open-water exposure might suggest the reef flat at Middle Island is quite protected, our results show that high-energy waves presumably generated by cyclones have significantly influenced both Holocene reef growth and contemporary reef flat geomorphology.

  8. Environmental changes and human settlement in the central Marches (Italy) during the early-middle Holocene

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Calderoni; Giuseppe Cilla; Francesco Dramis; Cecilia Gobbi

    2007-01-01

    In the Early Holocene, the central Marches (Italy) underwent a widespread development of forest cover and soils which drastically reduced slope degradation and related aggradation processes in riverbeds. In such conditions, streams deeply incised the previous alluvial sediments. In the Apennine sectors, linear erosion was locally prevented by the growth of travertine dams in correspondence with river channel knickpoints and waterfalls. Fluvial deposition prevailed in the peri-Adriatic hilly b...

  9. Description of piezometers installed in the middle Rio Grande basin area, 1997-99, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, J.R.; Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1993, the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of how ground- water levels are changing over time. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer, installed nine piezometers during 1998-99 at five sites in and near the margin of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. In addition, the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer installed another nine piezometers at three sites during 1997. These piezometers allow for collection of ground-water-level data in areas for which little information is available. Most of the piezometers were constructed of 2.5-inch-diameter flush-joint polyvinyl chloride (PVC) schedule 80 casing with 10-foot stainless steel screens; the shallow piezometer at the Tome site has a 40-foot screen, and the single piezometers at the Dome Road and Phoenix Road sites have steel casing with welded joints and a 10- and a 20-foot screen, respectively. Steel casing with a locking lid covers the uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing. Drillers' logs and petrophysical logs were collected from the deepest borehole at each site.

  10. Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing acute otitis media isolated from children with spontaneous middle-ear drainage over a 12-year period (1999-2010 in a region of northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alonso

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5% in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%, the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n=214 Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n=227, 27.8%, 3 (n=92, 11.2% and 19F (n=74, 9%. Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999-2001 to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008-2010. Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008-2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326 in 1999-2004 to 14.6% (72/492 in 2005-2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and

  11. Rapid middle Miocene collapse of the Mesozoic orogenic plateau in north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    The modern Sierra Nevada and Great Basin were likely the site of a high-elevation orogenic plateau well into Cenozoic time, supported by crust thickened during Mesozoic shortening. Although crustal thickening at this scale can lead to extension, the relationship between Mesozoic shortening and subsequent formation of the Basin and Range is difficult to unravel because it is unclear which of the many documented or interpreted extensional episodes was the most significant for net widening and crustal thinning. To address this problem, we integrate geologic and geochronologic data that bear on the timing and magnitude of Cenozoic extension along an ???200km east-west transect south of Winnemucca, Battle Mountain, and Elko, Nevada. Pre-Cenozoic rocks in this region record east-west Palaeozoic and Mesozoic compression that continued into the Cretaceous. Little to no tectonism and no deposition followed until intense magmatism began in the Eocene. Eocene and Oligocene ash-flow tuffs flowed as much as 200km down palaeovalleys cut as deeply as 1.5km into underlying Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks in a low-relief landscape. Eocene sedimentation was otherwise limited to shallow lacustrine basins in the Elko area; extensive, thick clastic deposits are absent. Minor surface extension related to magmatism locally accompanied intense Eocene magmatism, but external drainage and little or no surface deformation apparently persisted regionally until about 16-17Ma. Major upper crustal extension began across the region ca. 16-17Ma, as determined by cross-cutting relationships, low-temperature thermochronology, and widespread deposition of clastic basin fill. Middle Miocene extension was partitioned into high-strain (50-100%) domains separated by largely unextended crustal blocks, and ended by 10-12Ma. Bimodal volcanic rocks that erupted during middle Miocene extension are present across most of the study area, but are volumetrically minor outside the northern Nevada rift. The modern

  12. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk [Koryo general Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  13. Ear infection and hearing loss amongst headphone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, R; Saim, L; Thomas, A; Said, R; Liyab, B

    2002-07-01

    The use of headphone has been thought to cause infection in the ear canal and contribute to hearing loss. In this study, we examined 136 Customer Service Representative from Celcom (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. who use headphone throughout their working hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ear canal infection and other related diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Their hearing thresholds were also determined using the Amplaid 309 Clinical Audiometer. We found no incidence of infection of the external ear canal amongst the subjects. There were 4 cases of chronic middle ear infection and 4 cases of impacted wax. Hearing impairment was found in 25 subjects (21.2%). However, there was no significant association between hearing loss and the exposure to sound from headphone usage because the high frequencies were not predominantly affected. There was also no association between hearing loss and duration of service.

  14. Ear infection - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter medicines such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain or fever. Do NOT give aspirin ... get worse New symptoms appear, especially severe headache, dizziness, swelling around the ear, or twitching of the ...

  15. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  16. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the middle Miocene climate change in the continental deposits of the Aragonian type area in the Calatayud-Teruel basin (Central Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C.G.; Daams, R.; Meulen, A.J. van der

    1994-01-01

    The exceptionally dense mammalian faunal record of the Aragonian type area in Central Spain shows that an important climate change towards a cooler and more humid climate is recorded during the Neogene Mammal Zone MN 5 [1]. The magnetostratigraphic results from mammal-bearing middle Miocene continen

  17. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  18. Impact of Placement of In-the-Ear Antenna on Ear-to-Ear Path Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    An in-the-ear antenna is rotated in the concha. For the different placements the ear-to-ear path gain is simulated and measured. The simulations and measurements show that the ear-to-ear path gain varies with more than 15 dB even though it is the same antenna that occupies the same volume, which...... has only been rotated. This illustrates the importance of the correct placement of the antenna. The variation of the ear-to-ear path gain is compared with the far-field efficiency in order to explain part of the variation. The best and worst placements’ radiation patterns are analyzed....

  19. Application of autologous cartilage and Tos modified combined approach tympanoplasty in middle ear surgery%自体软骨和Tos改良联合进路鼓室成形术在中耳手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志钢; 陈穗俊; 郑亿庆; 杨海弟; 陈斌; 郭焕萍; 陈洽鑫

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical application of autologous cartilage and Tos modified combined approach tympanoplaty in middle ear surgery. Methods Twenty-three patients with chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma received tympanoplasty with Tos modified combined approach. The lateral walls of epitympanum and posterior tympanum were removed and reconstructed with tragal cartilages. Type Ⅲ ossicular reconstruction was performed either with partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) or total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP), depending on the stapes situation. All the patients were followed up for 3-5 years. Results Four to six weeks after surgery, all the 23 patients experienced dry ear and wellhealed tympanic membranes with normal appearance. Depression of lateral walls of epitympanum and posterior tympanum after cartilage reconstruction was not seen in any case. One year after surgery, pure tone audiometry one showed that speech frequency (500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 Hz), air conduction hearing threshold increased by at least 30 dB in 8 patients (34.78%), by 20-29 dB in 9 (39.13%), 10-19 dB in 4 (17.39%) and no improvement in 2 (8.69%). According to the first 3 years of follow-up, patients were with stable audition, and no cholesteatoma relapsed during follow-up of 5 years. Conclusions The tympanoplasty with Tos modified combined approach can be a good solution for surgical treatment of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma since it can not only remove the lesions completely, but also keep the posterior wall of external tympanic meatus intact, with a satisfying postoperative hearing level obtained. The cartilage reconstruction of the lateral walls of epitympanum and posterior tympanum removed during surgery is effective to prevent depression of new tympanic membrane and formation of secondary cholesteatoma.%目的 探讨自体软骨和Tos改良联合进路鼓室成形术在中耳手术中的临床应用.方法 对23例胆脂瘤型中耳炎用Tos

  20. Environmental changes and human settlement in the central Marches (Italy during the early-middle Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Calderoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Early Holocene, the central Marches (Italy underwent a widespread development of forest cover and soils which drastically reduced slope degradation and related aggradation processes in riverbeds. In such conditions, streams deeply incised the previous alluvial sediments. In the Apennine sectors, linear erosion was locally prevented by the growth of travertine dams in correspondence with river channel knickpoints and waterfalls. Fluvial deposition prevailed in the peri-Adriatic hilly belt, where river valleys still extended from the present coastline to the uprising Adriatic Sea, as testified by a 50-m-deep cored log, drilled near the Potenza River mouth. Several archaeological sites, ranging from the Mesolithic to the Aeneolithic, testify the recurrent presence of small-scale human groups on the alluvial plains of the lower valley sectors. Sandy-clayey sediments, emplaced by flooding episodes, repeatedly buried these settlements which were commonly located on the riversides. Small Aeneolithic communities were also present in the mountain sectors, around travertine-dammed swampy-lacustrine basins. On top of the sequences, Bronze Age sites were locally found. Widespread deforestation started in the early Iron Age (about 3000 yr BP, when alluvial plains and terraces were permanently occupied by large-scale human settlements. Geo-archaeological evidence of systematic deforestation at 2950 ± 50 14C yr BP, consisting of numerous round-shaped 1.5-3 m wide hollows, filled with soil sediments and upturned blocks of alluvial gravels, were found on top of a fluvial terrace in the Esino River basin. From the Iron Age to recent historical times, notwithstanding the progressive increase of debris supply to the drainage systems due to the spreading agricultural-pastoral activities, erosion dominated almost everywhere in the Marches rivers, likely induced by climatic factors.À l’Holocène inférieur, comme ailleurs dans le monde, les Marches

  1. Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M.; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups – a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations – Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  2. Analysis of floodplain storage and sedimentation in the middle Araguaia River, an anabranching system of central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, K. B.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Bayer, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Araguaia River is the largest river that drains the Cerrado, or savanna ecosystem, in central Brazil. With a drainage area of about 377,000 km2 and a mean annual discharge of 6,420 m3s-1, the Araguaia River is an anabranching system with a tendency to braid. The study area is a middle section of the river, which maintains a well-developed alluvial floodplain. We use a water budget approach to analyze discharge data from 1976-2006 from four gauging stations along the study area, demonstrating that up to 30% of the river discharge is lost to floodplain storage during flooding periods in some river reaches. We link floodplain storage of discharge to the morphology of the channel and alluvial floodplain, emphasizing the role of morphological features such as paleomeander and oxbow lakes. Floodplain storage also displays a temporal pattern. In addition, we present initial results of floodplain sedimentation rates obtained through Pb-210 geochronology in a reach of the study area near the Aruanã gauging station. Channel and floodplain morphology is linked to floodplain sedimentation patterns. This research contributes to knowledge of water and sediment fluxes between tropical anabranching rivers and their floodplains.

  3. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  4. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  5. The ear in fetal MRI: what can we really see?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Nuno Canto [Neuroradiology Section C., Campos Costa, Fragosela, Viseu (Portugal); Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Teixeira, Joao [Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Raininko, Raili; Wikstrom, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to depict the components of the ear on brain-oriented fetal MRI studies. Retrospective evaluation of the ear in MRI studies was performed post-mortem in 16 fetuses ranging from 15 to 22 gestation weeks (GW), and in 122 examinations in vivo of fetuses ranging from 20 to 38 GW. The cochlea, vestibular apparatus, middle ear, and external auditory canal were separately graded according to the components that were delineated. The components of the inner and middle ear were fully delineated in 100% of the post-mortem examinations, but the external auditory canals were only seen in only 25%. In the in vivo group, the imaging detail was much lower. Cochlear turns could be identified in 75% of the fetuses, the vestibule and the lateral semicircular canals in 72% andossicles in 70%. Before 25 GW, the ability to identify these individual parts was 50%, 30%, and 33%, respectively, and above it was 89%, 93%, and 90%. In most cases, the external auditory canals could only be seen after 29 GW. In fetal MRI studies in vivo, it is possible to depict the components of the ear in the majority of the fetuses, in such a manner as to exclude major malformations. However, MRI might not provide enough detail to rule out pathology of the ear before 25 GW, this being a critical age for pregnancy management in many countries. (orig.)

  6. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model. PMID:15300453

  7. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to order. Mention “VEDA” to receive a 15% discount. Paid Advertisement Disclaimer Information on this website is ... treatment of autoimmune inner ear disease. Although drug companies are not directly studying treatments for inner ear ...

  8. A molecular and isotopic study of palaeoenvironmental conditions through the middle Cambrian in the Georgina Basin, central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Anais; Schmid, Susanne; Edwards, Dianne; Barnes, Stephen; He, Nannan; Grice, Kliti

    2016-08-01

    The Cambrian period marks an important point in Earth's history with profound changes in the ocean's biogeochemistry and the occurrence of the most significant evolutionary event in the history of life, the Cambrian explosion. The Cambrian explosion is described as a succession of complex cycles of extinctions and radiations. This study integrates biomarkers and their compound-specific stable carbon isotopes to investigate the palaeoenvironmental depositional conditions in middle Cambrian (Series 3) sedimentary rocks (Thorntonia Limestone, Inca Formation and Currant Bush Limestone) from two drillholes in the Undilla Sub-basin in the eastern Georgina Basin, central Australia. The occurrence of photic zone euxinia (PZE) was detected throughout these three formations by the identification of green sulfur bacteria Chlorobiaceae-derived biomarkers, including a series of 2,3,6-aryl isoprenoids and the intact biomarker isorenieratane. Pulses of enhanced PZE conditions were detected in two core intervals (90-110 mKB, Currant Bush Limestone and 170-200 mKB, Inca Formation) by an increase in the 2,3,6-aryl isoprenoids and C19 biphenyl concentrations. These enhanced PZE conditions were followed by blooms of phytoplankton, as demonstrated by the increase in algal-derived biomarker (i.e. pristane, phytane and the C19n-alkane) concentrations and compound-specific isotopes. These observations confirm that palaeoenvironmental conditions were similar to those reported for the Permian/Triassic and Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction events. The sterane distributions varied across the three formations reflecting possible changes in the phytoplanktonic communities through time. Although a rise in atmospheric oxygen during the Cambrian has been previously associated with the rapid evolution of metazoans, the ecological challenges related to widespread anoxia must have had a major influence on the evolution of life in Cambrian oceans.

  9. 10Be dating reveals early-middle Holocene age of the Drygalski Moraines in central West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, Sandra L.; Briner, Jason P.; Kelley, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin on the Nuussuaq Peninsula in central West Greenland through the Holocene using lake sediment analysis and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of the prominent Drygalski Moraines. Erratics perched on bedrock outboard of the Drygalski Moraines constrain local deglaciation to ∼9.9 ± 0.6 ka (n = 2). Three Drygalski Moraine crests yield mean 10Be ages of 8.6 ± 0.4 ka (n = 2), 8.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 7.6 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) from outer to inner. Perched erratics between the inner two moraines average 7.8 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) and are consistent with the moraine ages. Sediments from a proglacial lake with a catchment area extending an estimated 2 km beneath (inland of) the present ice sheet terminus constrain an ice sheet minimum extent from 5.4 ka to 0.6 ka. The moraine chronology paired with the lake sediment stratigraphy reveals that the ice margin likely remained within ∼2 km of its present position from ∼9.9 to 5.4 ka. This unexpected early Holocene stability, preceded by rapid ice retreat and followed by minimum ice extent between ∼5.4 and 0.6 ka, contrasts with many records of early Holocene warmth and the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maximum. We suggest ice margin stability may instead be tied to adjacent ocean temperatures, which reached an optimum in the middle Holocene.

  10. The Alleret Maar lacustrine sequence (French Massif Central): a 150 ka long early-middle Pleistocene continental paleoenvironmental record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, S.; Pastre, J.; Guillou, H.; Gauthier, A.; Scaillet, S.

    2008-12-01

    Lacustrine maar sequences of the French Massif Central are of great interest for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions of mid-latitudes Quaternary continental environments. In particular, the western Velay region yields exceptional sequences spanning the last 450 ka (Reille et al., J. Quat. Sci. 2000). However, older sequences remain largely unknown despite the presence of interbedded alkaline tephras allowing precise absolute radiochronological control of many lacustrine squences. The Alleret maar is a 1500 m wide phreatomagmatic crater that provides a long lacustrine sequence (41 m). The upper part of this sequence (AL2 core, 14.6 m) was studied between 2005 and 2006 (Pastre et al., C. R. Acad Sci, 2007). A 39Ar/40Ar date (557 ± 5ka) obtained from an interbedded tephra layer located at 7m as well as the associated pollen data attribute the beginning of this sequence to the MIS 15. Thanks to the AL3 core recovered in 2005 (40.6 m, CNRS Meudon) several new tephra layers were discovered in the bottom part of this lacustrine sequence. Three new 39Ar/40Ar ages (single crystal analyses) from trachytic tephra layers were obtained at the LSCE Argon Laboratory (France). These layers are located at -30.2, -36.2 and -39.2m. Ages obtained relative to the ACR-2 flux standard (1,201Ma, Kuiper et al., Science, 2008) range from 692 ± 6 ka (MSWD: 2.3, n=18) for the youngest (-30.2m) to 726 ± 9Ka Ka (MSWD: 2.2, n=12) for the lowest tephra located at -39.2m. These new dates indicate a relatively homogeneous deposition rate of 3.5cm/ka and that the last 10 meters cover the MIS 17-MIS18 period. According to these current radiochronological data the complete lacustrine sequence last more than 150ka. Ongoing sedimentary and pollen studies will allow to extend the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records of the French Massif Central towards the beginning of the early middle Pleistocene.

  11. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Gao, J.; Wang, T.; Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l.), located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo), a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research), an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory) and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific). High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88) were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5) concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5) derived from the ECOC analyzer). While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C) tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were recorded when the NOx/NOy ratio was low, implying

  12. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were

  13. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and Smell Voice, Speech, and Language Información en español Statistics Health Resources ...

  14. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste and Smell ... Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov—Government Made Easy NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National ...

  15. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance Taste ... Voice, Speech, and Language Información en español Statistics Health Resources Clinical Studies Research Extramural Research Intramural Research ...

  16. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  17. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location (Mo

  18. HRCT常规重建与后处理对CSOM及中耳胆脂瘤诊断价值%The Diagnostic Value of HRCT Image Reconstruction and Post-processing Technology in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李必强; 王小铭; 黄显龙; 李朝军; 杨超; 唐茁月; 唐永存

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高分辨率CT扫描常规轴位、冠状位重建图像及图像后处理技术对慢性化脓性中耳炎及中耳胆脂瘤的诊断价值。方法对经手术病理证实并行64排螺旋CT容积扫描慢性化脓性中耳炎及中耳胆脂瘤共105例(107耳)进行回顾性分析。在常规轴位及冠状位重建图像基础上,综合运用图像后处理技术,根据主要CT表现:1、鼓室、鼓窦腔软组织密度影;2、听骨链骨质破坏情况;3、鼓室、鼓窦壁骨质破坏情况;进行术前分型,并将手术阳性结果与CT表现进行比较分析。结果慢性化脓性中耳炎59耳,其中单纯型8耳,肉芽型36耳,硬化灶肉芽型15耳;中耳胆脂瘤48耳,术前CT分型准确率为89%。对主要CT征象,常规轴位+冠状位显示率为88%,结合图像后处理技术,显示率为95%。对于所有可CT显示的术中阳性发现,均可以用多平面重组进行显示;容积再现及多平面容积再现对锤骨、砧骨破坏能较好显示,对镫骨破坏显示受到一定限制;曲面重组对面神经骨管破坏显示较满意,对听骨链骨质破坏也有一定的价值。结论 HRCT能对CSOM及中耳胆脂瘤进行较准确的术前分类、分型,常规轴位、冠状位重建图像能较全面、准确地对解剖和病变进行显示,各种图像后处理技术特别是MPR能提高CSOM及中耳胆脂瘤细微病变显示率和诊断准确率,具有很高的临床应用价值。%Objective To investigate the high resolution CT(HRCT) conventional axial scanning, coronal reconstruction images and image post-processing technology in the diagnosis of chronic suppurative otitis media(CSOM ) and middle ear choles⁃teatoma. Methods 107 ears(105 patients) were included who had been diagnosed CSOM or middle ear cholesteatoma by surgi⁃cal pathology, and been checked by 64 slices spiral CT volume scanning before surgery. The retrospectively analysis was applied to

  19. ENDOSCOPIC TYPMPANOMASTOID EXPLORATION [FUNCTIONAL ENDOSCOPIC EAR SURGERY-FEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tympano mastoidectomy is usually performed using operating microscope. This study reports a case series of tympanomastoidectomy which was performed using an endoscope.Endoscopic Tympanomastoidectomy for atticoantral type of CSOM is an excellent technique for complete removal of cholesteatoma especially from inaccessible areas of middle ear cleft including facial recess, sinustympani Transmeatal removal of disease from mastoid antrum and even tip cells is possible with endoscopes. Preservation of as much of normal mucosa of the middle ear cleft is possible with thistechnique, which promotes early reaeration of the mastoid cavity leading to better hearing outcome.Soft wall reconstruction has distinctive advantage of short additional time for reconstruction procedures, restoration of self cleaning EAC, early post operative epithelisation of tympanic membrane and the EAC. Limitation of endoscopic technique: The endoscopic technique of tympanomastoidectomy with softwall reconstruction is not possible in cases with large mastoid cavity and in ears where a thin lateral rim of bony meatal wall (that can support soft wall is retained, because of extensive disease.Like Functional Endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS for nose, Endoscopes have changed the treatment concept of atticoantral disease, with complete removal of the disease and preservation of normal mucosa, that restores the normal physiology of middle ear cleft. Thishas led to the development of new concept of Functional Endoscopic Ear Surgery (FEES for atticoantral type of CSOM.

  20. Ear Candling: A Dangerous Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoosh Nahid

    2011-01-01

    Ear candling is claimed to create negative pressure for drawing cerumen from the ear and to benefit the ears in many ways. It is however not free of complications and is now banned. Here we would like to highlight potential complications to this.

  1. Ear Cubes for local controlled drug delivery to the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, M; Sircoglou, J; Gnansia, D; Tourrel, G; Willart, J-F; Danede, F; Lacante, E; Vincent, C; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2016-07-25

    A new type of advanced drug delivery systems is proposed: Miniaturized implants, which can be placed into tiny holes drilled into (or close to) the oval window. They consist of two parts: 1) A cylinder, which is inserted into the hole crossing the oval window. The cylinder (being longer than the depth of the hole) is partly located within the inner ear and surrounded by perilymph. This provides direct access to the target site, and at the same time assures implant fixation. 2) A cuboid, which is located in the middle ear, serving as a drug reservoir. One side of the cuboid is in direct contact with the oval window. Drug release into the cochlea occurs by diffusion through the cylindrical part of the Ear Cubes and by diffusion from the cuboid into and through the oval window. High precision molds were used to prepare two differently sized Ear Cubes by injection molding. The miniaturized implants were based on silicone and loaded with different amounts of dexamethasone (10 to 30 % w/w). The systems were thoroughly characterized before and upon exposure to artificial perilymph at 37°C. Importantly, drug release can effectively be controlled and sustained during long time periods (up to several years). Furthermore, the implants did not swell or erode to a noteworthy extent during the observation period. Drug diffusion through the polymeric matrix, together with limited dexamethasone solubility effects, seem to control the resulting drug release kinetics, which can roughly be estimated using mathematical equations derived from Fick's second law. Importantly, the proposed Ear Cubes are likely to provide much more reliable local long term drug delivery to the inner ear compared to liquid or semi-solid dosage forms administered into the middle ear, due to a more secured fixation. Furthermore, they require less invasive surgeries and can accommodate higher drug amounts compared to intracochlear implants. Thus, they offer the potential to open up new horizons for innovative

  2. Feature and significance of bacterial biofilm formation in middle-ear mucosa in the rat model of acute otitis media%细菌生物膜在急性中耳炎大鼠中耳腔的形成特点及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯朝阳; 杨名保; 龚桃根; 刘明

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过观察细菌生物膜在急性中耳炎大鼠中耳腔的形成特点,分析其与急性中耳炎的关系,并探讨该中耳炎模型用于细菌生物膜研究的可行性.方法 30只健康雄性SD大鼠,采用随机数字表法分为实验组(24只)和对照组(6只).麻醉后将50μl肺炎链球菌悬液[1×108菌落形成单位(colony forming unit,CFU)/ml]经听泡穿刺注入到实验组大鼠双侧中耳腔,等量生理盐水注入到对照组大鼠双侧中耳腔.分别于注射后1、3、5、7、10、14 d各取3只实验组大鼠和1只对照组大鼠的双侧听泡行中耳黏膜扫描电镜观察;另取1只实验组大鼠,显微镜下刮取收集双侧中耳腔表面附着的膜状物,行异硫氰酸荧光素标记的刀豆球蛋白(FITC-ConA)及碘化丙啶(propidium iodide,PI)免疫荧光二重染色,激光扫描共聚焦显微镜观察和革兰染色观察.结果 实验组大鼠在炎性反应早期(1 d、3 d)可见中耳腔大量细菌黏附,定植于局部区域形成微菌落,有吞噬细胞混杂其中,形成初级细菌生物膜;炎性反应中期(5 d、7 d)可见成熟细菌生物膜散在于黏膜表面,形成特征性的"蘑菇状"、"塔状"三维立体结构;炎性反应后期(10 d、14 d)部分细菌生物膜呈现衰退迹象.中耳腔膜状物经FITC-ConA、PI二重荧光染色原位标记及革兰染色观察证实由细菌及多糖基质组成.结论 细菌生物膜在中耳急性感染的早期即已开始形成,并可能成为日后炎性反应反复发作或迁延不愈的原因;本研究建立的大鼠急性中耳炎模型是研究中耳细菌生物膜较为理想的动物模型.%Objective To investigate the relationship between bacterial biofilm and acute otitis media by observing the feature of bacterial biofilm formation in middle-ear mucosa in the rat model of acute otitis media and to study thc possibility of application this rat model in bacterial biofilm research. Methods A total of 30 healthy, male SD rats were

  3. Ear Candling: A Dangerous Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoosh Nahid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear candling is an alternative medicine practice alleged to enhance general health by putting an end of a hollow candle in the ear canal and lighting up the other end of it. It also is advertised for cerumen and debris (bacteria and fungi removal. Ear candling is claimed to create negative pressure for drawing cerumen from the ear and to benefit the ears in many ways. It is however not free of complications and is now banned. Here we would like to highlight potential complications to this.

  4. 中药茶饮结合耳穴治疗中学生痤疮120例疗效观察%Curative Observation on Herbal Tea Combined with Ear Acupoint in Treating 120 Middle School Students with Acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安维新; 张正华

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey curative effects of herbal tea and ear acupoint in the treatment for the students with acne. Methods: All 633 cases who were suffering from acne in health examination ofJiayuguan2014 College entrance examination, 230 patients were chosen and randomized into 120 cases of the treatment group and 110 cases of the control group, the treatment group were treated by herbal tea and ear acupoint and the control group orally took Viaminati capsules, 25mg each time, twice per day, and 0.025% tretinoin cream for external use, skin lesions ofthe acne were observed in six weeks. Results: Herbal tea and ear acupoint are effective in treating acne, and total ef-fective rate reached 95.8%. Conclusion: Spicy and sweet food and staying up late are the important inducing and ag-gravating factors of acne, herbal tea and ear acupoint are superior to western medicine in treating acne, and it's sim-ple and easily to accept by the students.%目的:观察中药茶饮和耳穴治疗中学生痤疮的临床疗效。方法:将嘉峪关市2014年高考体检痤疮学生633例,选择其中230例患者并随机分为治疗组120例和对照组110例,治疗组以中药茶饮结合耳穴治疗,对照组口服维胺酯胺囊25 mg/次,2次/d,并外用0.025%维A酸乳膏,6周后观察痤疮皮损情况。结果:中药茶饮结合耳穴治疗痤疮效果明显,总有效率达95.8%。结论:辛辣、甜腻饮食和熬夜是痤疮重要的诱发和加重因素,中药茶饮结合耳穴治疗学生痤疮优于西药对照组,而且方法简单,易为学生接受。

  5. Radiologic evaluation of the ear anatomy in pediatric cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Evangelos N; Filippou, Dimitrios K; Tsoumakas, Constantinos; Diomidous, Marianna; Cunningham, Michael J; Katostaras, Theophanis; Weber, Alfred L; Eavey, Roland D

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe computed tomography (CT) findings in middle ear cholesteatoma in pediatric patients. A cohort of 32 children with cholesteatoma (3-14 years old) entered the study. From them, 30 presented acquired cholesteatoma (AC), and 2 presented congenital cholesteatoma. All of the children were investigated using CT before surgery of the middle ear and mastoid. Computed tomography was performed with 1- or 2-mm axial and coronal sections of both temporal bones. Nineteen children with AC (63.3%) revealed a diffuse soft-tissue density isodense with muscle, whereas in 6 of them, the mass mimicked inflammation. The remaining revealed localized soft-tissue mass with partially lobulated contour. In AC, ossicular erosion was detected in 23 cases (76.7%), abnormal pneumatization in 19 cases (63.3%), and erosion-blunting of spur and enlargement of middle ear or mastoid in 8 cases (26.7%). The 2 congenital cholesteatomas revealed soft-tissue mass with polypoid densities, while a semicircular canal fistula was detected in one of them. High-resolution CT facilitates early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of pediatric cholesteatoma by assessing the anatomic abnormalities and the extent of disease, which are crucial in middle ear and mastoid surgery. PMID:19390457

  6. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations by the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that the BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. This range is significant, but is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP instrument and the PSAP instrument equipped with a heated inlet (400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two possibilities. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC

  7. Middle to Late Ordovician faunal studies from central Australia and Tasmania during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube

    A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin...

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of the mammalian inner ear

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, Robert; Homer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A simple nonlinear transmission-line model of the cochlea with longitudinal coupling is introduced that can reproduce Basilar membrane response and neural tuning in the chinchilla. It is found that the middle ear has little effect on cochlear resonances, and hence conclude that the theory of coherent reflections is not applicable to the model. The model also provides an explanation of the emergence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). It is argued that SOAEs arise from Hopf bifurcations of the transmission-line model and not from localized instabilities. The paper shows that emissions can become chaotic, intermittent and fragile to perturbations.

  9. 大鼠中耳上皮细胞形态学变化与杀菌-通透性增强蛋白的关系%Relation between the morphologic change of rat middle ear epithelium and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝威; 汪欣; 崔香艳; 杜宝东

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recovery of middle ear morphology is an important index of improvement of chronic secretory otitis media. Looking for effective medicine to neutralize lipopolysaccharide and relieving the virulence of lipopolysaccharide to middle ear mucosa have drawn more attention.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect that bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein(BPI) neutralizing lipopolysaccharide to inhibit morphologic changes of the middle ear epithelium due to lipopolysaccharide.DESIGN: A nonrandomized controlled experimental study.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: The setting is in Jilin University. Participants were 10 purebred Wistar rats in clean grade, weighing 200 -250 g, purchased from Center for Experimental Animals, Jilin University, and feeding condition was at 20 - 25℃, humidity of 60% - 70%.INTERVENTIONS: The middle ear epithelial cells were obtained from 10Wistar rats and distributed into 24-well tissue culture plate coated with poly-lysine. These epithelial cells were cultured for 7 days, and then divided into 3 groups: Untreated group was cultured without lipopolysaccharide and BPI in the culture medium; Lipopolysaccharide group was cultured with 1 μg/L lipopolysaccharide in the culture medium; BPI group was cultured with 1 μg/L lipopolysaccharide for 7 days, and then with added 1 mg/L BPI in the culture medium.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The morphologic changes of the middle ear epithelial cells were observed under light microscope after 4 weeks.RESULTS: Compared to untreated group, lipopolysaccharide group showed that many cells became greater and swollen, and the number of them was increasing, the phenomena of cell breakage were observed in few areas 1week later. At 2 weeks, cells became much greater and swollen, and the number of broken and dead cells was obviously increased. Moreover, an increase in secretory cells and a decrease in ciliated cells were observed. After 4 weeks, the broken and dead cells distinctly were increased. However, at 2weeks of

  10. Effect of tympanic membrane thickness in fascia myringoplasty on the middle ear transfer function-a finite element ear model%颞肌筋膜重建鼓膜厚度对中耳传声的影响--有限元模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; Zhao Fei; 李永新

    2015-01-01

    目的研究颞肌筋膜重建鼓膜厚度对中耳传声的影响。方法依据1名成年男性颞骨标本的Micro-CT扫描数据,利用Mimics软件、ANSYS软件建立正常成人中耳有限元模型后,再依据该模型建立从0.05~2.00 mm共9种厚度鼓膜的有限元模型,分别计算不同厚度鼓膜对鼓膜及镫骨底板振动的影响,从而反应不同厚度重建鼓膜对中耳传声的影响。结果当90 dB SPL刺激鼓膜时,所建模型于鼓膜脐部、镫骨底板中央处振幅在文献报道颞骨实验测量结果的范围之内。依据该正常结构中耳有限元模型,建立9种厚度颞肌筋膜重建鼓膜的有限元模型。计算结果显示:当重建鼓膜厚度>0.4 mm时,鼓膜脐部振幅逐渐减低,尤其是当鼓膜厚度>1.0 mm时,影响最明显;当鼓膜厚度为0.05 mm和0.1 mm时,镫骨底板振幅在0.6 kHz以下轻度增强,提高镫骨底板振幅约2 dB,但0.6~8.0 kHz均降低约2.5 dB;当鼓膜厚度为0.2、0.4与0.6 mm时,于约3.0 kHz以下镫骨底板振幅水平下降,幅度约<5.0 dB;当鼓膜厚度为0.6、0.8与1.0 mm时,于3.0 kHz以下镫骨底板振幅减小明显,于0.8 kHz以下约达-10 dB;而当鼓膜厚度为1.5 mm与2.0 mm时,镫骨底板振幅于1.0 kHz以下降低最明显,于0.8、1.0 kHz处分别达-16 dB和-22 dB。另外,于共振峰约3.2 kHz处,9种厚度重建鼓膜对镫骨底板影响最大约-5 dB。共振峰3.2~8.0 kHz之间,镫骨底板均有明显降低,约于5.0 kHz处最大达约-10 dB。结论颞肌筋膜重建后的鼓膜厚度影响鼓膜本身及镫骨底板的振动,当重建鼓膜厚度超过1.0 mm时对中耳传声影响显著增加。%OBJECTIVE To study the effect of the thickness of tympanic membrane rebuilt from fascia myringoplasty on the acoustic transfer function of the middle ear. METHODS A finite element model(FEM) was developed with Mimics and Ansys based on the data from Micro-CT scanning of a

  11. Reconstruction of External Auditory Meatus (Re-EAMs) and Tympanoplasty for、Patients with Congenital Deformation of the Middle and Outer Ears%先天性中外耳畸形外耳道再造与鼓室成形术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹艺辉; 杨仕明; 戴朴; 韩维举; 韩东一

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the hearing improvement after reconstruction of external auditory meatus (Re-EAMs) and tympanoplasty for patients with congenital deformation of the middle and outer ears, and provide reference for later treat⁃ment to these kinds of patients. Methods a retrospective analysis of 41 cases (41 ears) with preoperative and postoperative hearing findings undergone Re-EAMs and tympanoplasty patients with congenital deformation of the middle and outer ears in General Hospital of PLA during 2006.7-2012.12. Results The methods for operations were Ossicular chain loosening 41.5%(17/41),Porp implantation 46.3%(19/41), Torp implantation 7.3%(3/41) and inner ear fenestration 4.9%(2/41),with average air conduction hearing threshold pre-and post-operation for 0.5k、1k、2k、4k (58 dB/53dB),(64 dB/52dB),(73 dB/73dB)and (62 dB/46dB)respectively. Conclusion Hearing improvement is not obvious after ossicular chain loosening and Torp implan⁃tation, while significant for Porp implantation and inner ear fenestration, but can’t reach the normal hearing threshold level.%目的:探索先天性中外耳畸形患者耳道再造与鼓室成形术后听力改善情况,为此类患者方案选择提供参考。方法回顾性分析2006年6月~2012年12月我们进行外耳道再造与鼓室成形患者中有术前术后听力的41例(41耳)的情况。结果手术采用听骨链松解41.5%(17/41),Porp植入46.3%(19/41),Torp植入7.3%(3/41),内耳开窗4.9%(2/41)。术前术后0.5k、1k、2k、4k平均气导听阈值分别为(58 dB/53dB),(64 dB/52dB),(73 dB/73dB),(62 dB/46dB).结论听骨链松解与Torp植入术后听力改善不明显,Porp植入和内耳开窗术后听力有明显改善,但未能达到正常听阈水平。

  12. 用于定向播种的玉米种穗图像精选方法%Corn ears image selection method for directional seeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王侨; 陈兵旗; 杨曦; 刘长青

    2015-01-01

    Corn production occupies an extremely important strategic position in grain production and grain security. Seeds are the most basic means of production in crop production, and the quality of seeds directly affects the subsequent crop cultivation, harvest yield and quality of grain. Moreover, directional seeding of corn can effectively improve the yield of corn, and it is necessary to select seeds before planting. Certainly, to choose good corn ears for threshing can get better corn seeds, which can lighten the workload of subsequent seeds selection and also improve efficiency. So, this study designed the scheme of corn ears selection device based on machine vision, and developed the selection algorithm for corn ears on the dynamic assembly line, which could complete the detection of the corn ears. First, the binary image of the corn ear to be detected was gained according to Otsu method, and after tracking the whole corn ear’s contour, the length ratio between the long axis and short axis of the corn ear’s contour was calculated. Then, by using the formula, R plus G minus B times 2, the area with yellow characteristics was strengthened and was even extracted after histogram threshold segmentation, and so the plumpness of the corn ear was detected by calculating the ratio of the extracted area and the whole area of the corn ear. Further, based on the characteristics of X cumulative distribution diagram, the middle ear row was extracted by tracking the seams’ edge between ear rows. Also, based on the characteristics of ear row’s Y cumulative distribution diagram, every seed in the middle ear row was extracted by using the method of threshold segmentation, and then the length-width ratio of their end-face was calculated by tracking their contour. And the flatness of the seeds was acquired. For the corn ears’ video file acquired on the dynamic assembly line, only when the vertical coordinate of corn ear’s center is located in image’s central region, do

  13. Human presence in the central Netherlands during early MIS 6 (∼170-190 Ka): Evidence from early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts in ice-pushed Rhine-Meuse sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Busschers, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Part of the gravelly deposits of a combined Rhine-Meuse river of Middle Pleistocene age in the central Netherlands contains early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts. Although not in their original position, a significant part of these artefacts is hardly abraded, indicating limited fluvial transport. The

  14. Ichnofabrics and Their Environmental Interpretation from the Fluvial Deposits of the Middle Triassic Youfangzhuang Formation in Western Henan, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Yongan Qi; Da Li; Mingyue Dai; Yuguang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial deposits from the Middle Triassic Youfangzhuang Formation in Henan Province, China contain a low-diversity trace fossils. Vertical dwelling burrows of opportunists dominate in active channel, whereas horizontal deposit-feeding, grazing, and vertical dwelling burrows occur in overbank deposits. Seven recurrent ichnofabrics were distingushed. The Palaeophycus tubularis ichnofabric pre-serves below scour interface between two fluvial cycles. The Skolithos linearis ichnofabric forms in middle to high-energy, soft substrates in the middle and upper parts of active channel deposits under semi-arid climate. The Skolithos linearis-Planolites montanus ichnofabric occurs in the sediments just a little above the Skolithos linearis ichnofabric and is formed in middle-energy, soft substrates in the up-per part of active channel deposits. The Planolites montanus ichnofabric is mostly preserved in associa-tion with medium- to thick-bedded brown-red silty mudstones or siltstones in low-energy, perennial muddy bottom ponds in overbank settings. The Taenidium barretti ichnofabric is interpreted as peri-odically exposed ephemeral ponds or low-energy distal floodplain. The Skolithos isp. ichnofabric com-monly occurs in middle to high-energy firm ground of proximal foodplain or crevasse-splay deposits. The root trace ichnofabric occurs in the crevasse splay deposits. The presence of thin palaeosols and the abundance of calcretization in mudstones indicate a seasonal climate ranging from humid to semi-arid, with high temperature, rainfall, and well-defined dry and wet seasons.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of medieval sheep (Ovis aries) in central Italy reveals the predominance of haplogroup B already in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbianelli, F; Gargani, M; Pariset, L; Mariotti, M; Alhaique, F; De Minicis, E; Barelli, L; Ciammetti, E; Redi, F; Valentini, A

    2015-06-01

    We retrieved 34 medieval ovicaprine remains, from three archaeological sites of central Italy dating to about 1000 years old, and analyzed them using mitochondrial DNA. We compared the reconstructed haplogroups with modern sheep samples from Europe and the Middle East and sequences from the literature. In modern sheep, haplogroup HA is present in countries with access to the Mediterranean and close to the domestication center, whereas it is very rare or absent in the rest of Europe. The haplogroup HB was predominant in ancient samples (90%), whereas haplogroup HA was found at 10%. Ancient haplogroups match the present distribution in modern sheep in Italy, indicating that the current proportion of HA/HB was already established in the Middle Ages and is not the result of subsequent events such as selective breeding practices. PMID:25917303

  16. U-Pb La-ICP-ms geochronology and regional correlation of middle Jurassic intrusive rocks from the Garzon Massif, Upper Magdalena Valley and central cordillera, southern Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New U-Pb zircon geochronology from four granitic units sampled along a southeast-northwest transect between the Garzon massif and the Serrania de las Minas (central cordillera), records a middle Jurassic magmatic activity with two different spatio-temporal domains at ca. 189 ma and 180-173 ma. Reconnaissance data suggest that the four granitoids are characterized by mineralogical and geochemical characteristics akin to a continental magmatic arc setting. The new results suggest that the southern Colombian continental margin includes remnants of tectonomagmatic elements formed by the subduction of the Farallon plate under the South American continental margin. This middle Jurassic arc magmatism is part of the broader Andean scale arc province, and is significant for understanding the tectonic and paleogeographic scenario that characterized the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern Andes.

  17. External ear canal cholesteatoma after ventilation tube insertion and mastoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Dragoslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Etiopathogenetically, there are two types of chollesteatomas: congenital, and acquired. Numerous theories in the literature try to explain the nature of the disease, however, the question about cholesteatomas remain still unanswered. The aim of the study was to present a case of external ear canal cholesteatoma (EEC developed following microsurgery (ventilation tube insertion and mastoidectomy, as well as to point ant possible mechanisms if its development. Case report. A 16-yearold boy presented a 4-month sense of fullness in the ear and otalgia on the left side. A year before, mastoidectomy and posterior atticotomy were performed with ventilation tube placement due to acute purulent mastoiditis. Diagnosis was based on otoscopy examination, audiology and computed tomography (CT findings. CT showed an obliterative soft-tissue mass completely filled the external ear canal with associated erosion of subjacent the bone. There were squamous epithelial links between the canal cholesteatoma and lateral tympanic membrane surface. They originated from the margins of tympanic membrane incision made for a ventilation tube (VT insertion. The position of VT was good as well as the aeration of the middle ear cavity. The tympanic membrane was intact and of normal appearance without middle ear extension or mastoid involvement of cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma and ventilation tube were both removed. The patient recovered without complications and shortly audiology revealed hearing improving. Follow-up 2 years later, however, showed no signs of the disease. Conclusion. There could be more than one potential delicate mechanism of developing EEC in the ear with VT insertion and mastoidectomy. It is necessary to perform routine otologic surveillance in all patients with tubes. Affected ear CT scan is very helpful in showing the extent of cholesteatoma and bony defects, which could not be assessed by otoscopic examination alone.

  18. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru’s Central Coast during the Middle Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650–1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region’s demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500–700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800–1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000–1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  19. Association of smoking or tobacco use with ear diseases among men: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Kiran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related behaviour specially smoking and tobacco in any form are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Tobacco leads to various health problems including ear, nose and throat diseases. Objective To determine the influence of smoking or tobacco use on ear diseases we performed a retrospective study among men. Method Of 11454 subjects of different age-groups there were 4143 men aged 20-60 years who were evaluated for demographic variables, smoking/tobacco use and middle and internal ear diseases. Descriptive statistics and age adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Among the 4143 men, 1739 (42.0% were smokers or used tobacco. In smokers/tobacco users compared to non-users the age adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for chronic suppurative otitis media were 1.13 (CI 0.96-1.34, acute otitis media 1.16 (CI 0.82-1.64, suppurative otitis media 1.21 (CI 0.79-1.84, otosclerosis 0.97 (CI 0.52-1.33 (p > 0.05 and for overall middle ear diseases was 1.15 (CI 0.99-1.33, p = 0.05. For internal ear diseases the age adjusted odds ratios were for sensorineural hearing loss 1.12 (CI 0.92-1.58, 0.12 (CI 0.42-0.93 for vertigo and tinnitus and overall internal ear diseases were 0.97 (CI 0.77-1.22, p = 0.81. Among men 40-60 years there was a significantly greater risk for both middle ear (OR 1.73, CI 1.29-2.30 and internal ear diseases (OR 1.94, CI 1.24-3.04 (p Conclusion Smoking/tobacco use is significantly associated with greater prevalence of middle and internal ear diseases among middle-aged men in India.

  20. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  1. Manufacturing and in vivo inner ear visualization of MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles encapsulating gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnunen Paavo KJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of inner ear diseases remains a problem because of limited passage through the blood-inner ear barriers and lack of control with the delivery of treatment agents by intravenous or oral administration. As a minimally-invasive approach, intratympanic delivery of multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs carrying genes or drugs to the inner ear is a future therapy for treating inner ear diseases, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and Meniere's disease. In an attempt to track the dynamics and distribution of nanoparticles in vivo, here we describe manufacturing MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles by encapsulating gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA (abbreviated as LPS+Gd-DOTA and their distribution in the inner ear after either intratympanic or intracochlear administration. Results Measurements of relaxivities (r1 and r2 showed that LPS+Gd-DOTA had efficient visible signal characteristics for MRI. In vivo studies demonstrated that LPS+Gd-DOTA with 130 nm size were efficiently taken up by the inner ear at 3 h after transtympanic injection and disappeared after 24 h. With intracochlear injection, LPS+Gd-DOTA were visualized to distribute throughout the inner ear, including the cochlea and vestibule with fast dynamics depending on the status of the perilymph circulation. Conclusion Novel LPS+Gd-DOTA were visible by MRI in the inner ear in vivo demonstrating transport from the middle ear to the inner ear and with dynamics that correlated to the status of the perilymph circulation.

  2. Investigation of the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, J; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The...

  3. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  4. Acute psychosis with a favorable outcome as a complication of central pontine/extrapontine myelinolysis in a middle aged man

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Rishab; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating condition affecting the pons characterized by an acute progressive quadriplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central pons with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as hyponatremia, chronic alcoholism, liver failure, severe burns, malignant neoplasms, hemorrhagic pancreatitis, hemodialysis, and sepsis....

  5. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - With emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-01-01

    More than seventy-five vertebrate track-sites have been found in Central Europe in 243-246.5 m.y. old Triassic coastal intertidal to sabkha carbonates. In the western part of the very flat Triassic intracontinental Germanic Basin, the carbonate strata contain at least 22 laterally extensive track horizons (called megatracksites). In contrast, in the eastern part of the basin only six megatracksites extended to near the centre of the Basin during marine low stands. Marine ingression and the development of extensive coastal marine environments began during the Aegean (Anisian) stage. This incursion began in the region of the eastern Carpathian and Silesian gates and spread westward due to the development of a tectonically controlled intracratonic basin. The tectonic origin of this basin made it susceptible to tsunamis and submarine earthquakes, which constituted very dangerous hazards for coastal terrestrial and even marine reptiles. The shallow sea that spread across the Germanic Basin produced extensive tidal flats that at times formed extensive inter-peninsular bridges between the Rhenish and Bohemian Massifs. The presence of these inter-peninsular bridges explains the observed distribution and movement of reptiles along coastal Europe and the northern Tethys Seaway during the Middle Triassic epoch. Two small reptiles, probably Macrocnemus and Hescherleria, left millions of tracks and trackways known as Rhynchosauroides and Procolophonichnium in the Middle Triassic coastal intertidal zone. The great abundance of their tracks indicates that their trackmakers Macrocnemus and Hescherleria were permanent inhabitants of this environment. In sharp contrast, tracks of other large terrestrial reptiles are quite rare along the coastal margins of the Germanic Basin, for example the recently discovered archaeosaur tracks and trackways referable to Isochirotherium, which most probably were made by the carnivore Ticinosuchus. Smaller medium-sized predatory thecodont reptiles

  6. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding. PMID:11766315

  7. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  8. Loss of peripheral right-ear advantage in age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    In young adults with normal hearing, the right ear is more sensitive than the left to simple sounds (peripheral right-ear advantage) and to processing complex sounds such as speech (central right-ear advantage). In the present investigation, the effects of hearing loss and aging on this auditory asymmetry were examined at both peripheral and central levels. Audiograms and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes were used to assess cochlear function. The contralateral suppression of TEOAEs was measured to assess the medial olivocochlear efferent system. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT; binaural speech) was conducted to assess higher central auditory function. A group of aged subjects with normal hearing (flat audiograms) were compared to a group of aged subjects with sloping audiograms (presbycusis). At the cochlear (peripheral) level, the normal hearing group showed significantly higher otoacoustic emission amplitudes for the right ear compared to the left ear, which is consistent with the right-ear dominance normally seen in young adults. However, this finding was reversed in the presbycusic group that showed higher left-ear emission amplitudes. At the brainstem level, the amplitudes of TEOAE contralateral suppression were small and no significant difference was found between the right and left ears in both groups. On the contrary, HINT results showed a continuous dominance of the right ear (left hemisphere) in both groups, which was consistent with previous reports showing that the right hemisphere is more affected by age than the left hemisphere.

  9. Rb-Sr middle Devonian age of cordierite bearing migmatites from Lyonnais area (French Massif Central). Age Rb-Sr, Devonien moyen des migmatites a cordierite du Lyonnais (Massif central Francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthou, J.L. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Chenevoy, M.; Gay, M. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1994-10-01

    On the basis of Rb-Sr whole rock data, a middle Devonian age (384[+-]16 Ma) is ascribed to the cordierite bearing migmatites (gneiss d'Aubusson) in the Lyonnais area. In the barrovian domain, this anatexis is therefore synchronous throughout the northern part of the french ''Massif Central''. Rb and Sr concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and isotopic compositions by mass spectrometry. (A.B.). 28 refs., 2 figs. 1 tab.

  10. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ichnosedimentologic evidence of periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition includes lower ichnodiversity, shallower bioturbation and burrowing depth (<4 cm ), rare domichnia, tiny Chondrites occupying shallower or shallowest tiering, widely distributed nodules of limonite pseudomorphs after pyrite, occurrence of trace fossils being closely associated with the storm event layers, and stratigraphic successions with orbital cyclostratigraphic architecture. It is suggested that lower atmospheric oxygen level during the Early Paleozoic, the Ordovician radiation, dramatic transgression and warmer temperatures would result in the periodic anoxia in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition. This episode began at the later Early Ordovician and lasted about 3.4 Ma on the basis of orbital cyclostratigraphy.

  11. Fusion of the ear bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by: Birth (congenital) defect Infection Injury Symptoms Fusion of the bones leads to hearing loss, because the bones are not moving and vibrating in reaction to sound waves. Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy References Torres AI, ...

  12. The relationship between preoperative tympanograms and intraoperative ear examination results in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopke, Steffen; Irune, Ekpemi; Olze, Heidi; Bast, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The tympanogram is an objective audiological method in adults and children which is often used in the evaluation of middle ear pathology. This should be alongside a thorough patient history and clinical examination prior to the decision to carry out a paracentesis or tympanostomy tube insertion. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the preoperative tympanogram and intraoperative ear examination results or middle ear findings. The retrospective study included 654 ears in 333 patients who underwent paracentesis with or without tympanostomy tube insertion between January and December 2011. The study cohort consisted of 206 male and 127 female patients with an average age of 3.7 ± 2.5 years. The results of the preoperative tympanogram were compared to those of the intraoperative ear findings. In 18.4 % of ears with a flat tympanogram, an air-filled middle ear was found intraoperatively (p < 0.01). Thus, tympanometry results cannot serve as the only indication for surgical intervention. A decision to treat should always be based on the merits of the symptomatology of the patient in conjunction with tympanometry findings.

  13. Acoustic input impedance of the avian inner ear measured in ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Aerts, Peter; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2016-09-01

    In both mammals and birds, the mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures is affected by the mechanical impedance of the inner ear. In this study, the aim was to quantify the acoustic impedance of the avian inner ear in the ostrich, which allows us to determine the effect on columellar vibrations and middle ear power flow in future studies. To determine the inner ear impedance, vibrations of the columella were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the frequency range of 0.3-4 kHz, we used electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle and a laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the vibration response. At low frequencies, harmonic displacements were imposed on the columella using piezo stimulation and the resulting force response was measured with a force sensor. From these measurement data, the acoustic impedance of the inner ear could be determined. A simple RLC model in series of the impedance measurements resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20·10(12) Pa/m³, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652·10(6) Pa s(2)/m³, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57·10(9) Pa s/m. We found that values of the inner ear impedance in the ostrich are one to two orders in magnitude smaller than what is found in mammal ears. PMID:27473506

  14. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, Ahmad A; Canguven, Onder; Raidh, Talib A

    2015-01-01

    Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ± 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%), 83 (5%) patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture. PMID:26229311

  15. POSSIBLE LATE MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ORGANIC CARBON ISOTOPE EXCURSION: EVIDENCE FROM ORDOVICIAN OILS AND HYDROCARBON SOURCE ROCKS, MID-CONTINENT AND EAST-CENTRAL UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Jacobson, Stephen R.; Witzke, Brian J.; Risatti, J. Bruno; Anders, Donald E.; Watney, W. Lynn; Newell, K. David; Vuletich, April K.

    1987-01-01

    Oils generated by Middle Ordovician rocks are found throughout the Mid-Continent and east-central regions of the United States. Gas chromatographic characteristics of these oils include a relatively high abundance of n-alkanes with carbon numbers less than 20, a strong predominance of odd-numbered n-alkanes between C//1//0 and C//2//0, and relatively small amounts of branched and cyclic alkanes. The wide ranges in delta **1**3C for oils and rock extracts reflect a major, positive excursion(s) in organic matter delta **1**3C in late Middle Ordovician rocks. This excursion has at least regional significance in that it can be documented in sections 480 mi apart in south-central Kansas and eastern Iowa. The distance may be as much as 930 mi. The parallel shifts in organic and carbonate delta **1**3C in core samples from 1 E. M. Greene well, Washington County, Iowa, imply changes in the isotope composition of the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir. These and other aspects of the subject are discussed.

  16. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ΁ standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ΁ 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%, 83 (5% patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture.

  17. Ear Reconstruction in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, John

    2015-12-01

    The use of a porous high-density polyethylene ear implant, rather than a costal cartilage framework, allows ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. The fact that the growth of the normal ear matures early allows for good symmetry. If the implant is covered completely with a large, well-vascularized superficial parietal fascia flap and appropriately color-matched skin, an ear with excellent projection and definition can be obtained with minimal complications and long-term viability. Ear reconstruction in young children is preferred by the author because the necessary fascial flap coverage is thinner, easier to harvest than in older patients, and can be done in a single outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort or psychological trauma. PMID:26667634

  18. TYMPANOPLASTY: BLOOD-SOAKED GELFOAM VERSES ANTIBIOTIC-SOAKED GELFOAM AS EAR CANAL PACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Khandelwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The objective of our study is to compare the result of blood-soaked gelfoam with antibiotic-soaked gelfoam on graft stickiness in tympanoplasty. STUDY DESIGN A prospective randomized case control study was performed to compare the outcome of our patient who underwent surgery by using blood-soaked gelfoam and gelfoam soaked in antibiotic ear drops. METHOD Patients having central perforation were divided into two groups using random tables. After complete investigations, they underwent tympanoplasty. Temporalis fascia graft was used and placed by underlay technique. Middle ear was not packed with gelfoam. After placing the graft, gelfoam was placed around the freshened perforation margins to hold the graft. These gelfoam pieces were either antibiotic soaked or fresh blood soaked. RESULT A total of 55 patients were enrolled in the study. Graft stickiness at 4 week was 93.10% for blood-soaked group, whereas it was 84.81% for antibiotic-soaked group. Total success rate at 6 months was 94.5%. CONCLUSION Blood-soaked gelfoam packing of external meatus around the perforation margins gives good results in tympanoplasty.

  19. Standardized surgical approaches to ear surgery in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Dalian Ding; Kelei Gao; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe several approaches of ear surgeries for experimental studies in rats. Methods:Anesthetized rats were prepared for demonstration of various ear surgery approaches designed to optimize experimental outcomes in studies with specific goals and exposure requirements. The surgical approaches included the posterior tympanum, superior tympanum, inferior tympanum and occipital approaches. Results: The middle ear cavity and inner ear were successfully exposed from different angles via the mentioned surgical approaches. For example, electrode placement for recording of cochlear bioelectric responses was easily achieved through the posterior tympanum or inferior tympanum approach. Alternatively, drug delivery or gene transfection via round window membrane was most easily accomplished using the posterior tympanum approach. Cochlear perfusion of protective or ototoxic drugs was best performed using the inferior tympanum approach. Ossicular chain interruption to induce a prolonged conductive hearing loss was readily achieved using a superior tympanum approach. Lastly, surgical destruction of the endolymphatic sac to induce experimental endolymphatic hydrops was readily performed via an occipital surgical approach. Conclusion: These standardized surgical approaches can be applied in scientific studies of the ear with different purposes covering electro-physiology, conductive hearing loss, intra-cochlear drug perfusion and experimental studies relevant to Meniere's disease.

  20. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape.

  1. Stone tools associated with middle pleistocene fauna in the Toca da Esperanca, central region, Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excavations (1) organized on a 12 m2 surface have exhumed quaternary deposits under a 50 cm carbonate crust (layer I). These deposits were composed of angular broken stones compacted into breccia (layer II), yellowish sand (layer III) and reddish clayey sand (leyer IV), containing fossilized bones. These bones belong to extinct quaternary species, in particular Equidae. The uranium-thorium method was used to date several bone samples found in situ which gave these faunas an age of about 300,000 years. Several quartzite stone tools as well as fragments of quartzite and quartz pebbles were discovered among the fossil bones. In particular, the fragment of a pebble, broken by violent percussion and a chopper were found. The raw materials, quartzite and quartz, naturally absent from the cave could only have been brought there by prehistoric man. The Toca da Esperanca is, therefore, the most ancient site known on the American continent which contains evidence of early man. It provides evidence of human presence from the Middle Pleistocene period, about 300,000 years ago, well before the Calico sites in California (about 200,000 years) and the Santa Raimundo Nonato sites (about 30,000 years). In the light of these new discoveries, it is possible to surmise that Homo Erectus came from Asia very early during the Middle Pleistocene, passing the Behring Strait, during one of the big recessions in ocean levels which took place in the cold quaternary periods. (author)

  2. Original Research: Central and peripheral quadriceps fatigue in young and middle-aged untrained and endurance-trained men: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachasson, Damien; Decorte, Nicolas; Wuyam, Bernard; Millet, Guillaume Y; Verges, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare quadriceps function (i.e. strength, endurance, central, and peripheral fatigue) of young (Young-UnTr) and middle-aged (MidAge-UnTr) untrained men and young endurance-trained men (Young-Tr). Twenty-four male subjects (eight Young-UnTr (26 ± 4 yr), eight Young-Tr (29 ± 3 yr), and eight MidAge-UnTr (56 ± 4 yr) performed a maximal cycling test to assess their fitness level. On a separate visit, subjects performed sets of 10 intermittent (5-s on/5-s off) isometric contractions starting at 10% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), with 10% MVC increments from one set to another until exhaustion. Electrophysiological and mechanical (e.g. twitch) evoked responses elicited with magnetic femoral nerve stimulation in the relaxed muscle and during MVC (i.e. estimation of voluntary activation using the interpolated twitch technique) were measured at baseline and after each set to assess peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. Endurance (= total number of contractions) was also evaluated. Young-UnTr exhibited larger reductions in evoked quadriceps mechanical responses than MidAge-UnTr and Young-Tr after identical standardized muscle loading (e.g. after the 50% MVC set, reduction in single potentiated twitch was -36 ± 9%, -21±16%, and -2 ± 4%, respectively). At both 50% MVC set and exhaustion, MidAge-UnTr exhibited similar reduction in maximal voluntary activation and displayed similar endurance compared to Young-UnTr. Young-Tr exhibited greater endurance than Young-UnTr without significant changes in maximal voluntary activation throughout the test. This study provides robust comparative data regarding the influence of chronic exposure to endurance training and middle-aged on central and peripheral quadriceps fatigability and endurance. Endurance-trained subjects showed smaller level of peripheral fatigue and displayed no significant central fatigue, even at exhaustion and despite greater endurance performance. Our

  3. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate central asian middle eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafélis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  4. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate Central Asian Middle Eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafelis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  5. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  6. The aquatic tympanic ear: convergent adaptations for underwater hearing in three tetrapods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    pressure, low particle motion medium, and the consequence is that an efficient underwater ear is sensitive to sound pressure. It is often stated that underwater hearing can work efficiently without a middle ear apparatus by bone conduction, since sound is transmitted from water to inner ear tissue...... with little loss. However, the sensitivity of such an ear is limited by the very low particle motion in water. We report on underwater hearing in tetrapods ranging from totally aquatic (the clawed frog Xenopus laevis) and mostly aquatic (the red-eared slider Trachemys scripta) to mostly terrestrial (the...... is modified (cartilaginous or partly cartilaginous). In all three species, the lowest threshold to underwater sound is at this peak frequency and is around 80 dB re 1 µPa. The sensitivity to sound pressure is slightly lower in water than in air, making underwater hearing much more efficient in terms of sound...

  7. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  8. What Is an Ear Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > For Kids > What ...

  9. Keloid above the ear (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keloids are overgrowths of scar tissue that follow skin injuries. Keloids may appear after such minor trauma as ear piercing. Dark skinned individuals tend to form keloids more readily than lighter skinned individuals.

  10. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  11. Volumetric comparison of auditory brain nuclei in ear-tufted Araucanas with those in other chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, H D; Rehkämper, G

    1998-01-01

    Domestic chickens of the breed Araucana have ear-tufts, which affect the structure of the ear canal. Volumes of auditory brainstem nuclei were measured in three chicken breeds in order to evaluate whether the characteristics described for ear-tufted individuals of the Araucana chicken breed (alterations in the outer and middle ear anatomy) are associated with changes in the size of the relevant auditory nuclei. Allometric comparison reveals no size reductions of the angular, laminar and superior olivary nuclei in Araucanas, compared to Japanese Bantams and Brown Leghorns, but a slight increase in the size of the magnocellular nucleus. PMID:9672109

  12. Detrital zircon provenance from three turbidite depocenters of the Middle-Upper Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex, central China: Record of collisional tectonics, erosional exhumation, and sediment production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    To test the idea that the voluminous upper Middle to Upper Triassic turbidite strata in the Songpan-Ganzi complex of central China archive a detrital record of Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane unroofing, we report 2080 single detrital U-Pb zircon ages by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis from 29 eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex sandstone samples. Low (block and Yidun arc complex, likely recording nascent uplift of the Longmenshan deformation belt due to impingement of the Yidun arc complex upon the western margin of the South China block. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  13. Learning strategies in ear training

    OpenAIRE

    Blix, Hilde Synnøve

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss learning strategies in ear training, and the aim is to explore how focusing on the ways the students learn can provide valuable information about learning and teaching ear training. The article will review present knowledge about learning strategies across fields of research. Literature regarding studies of strategies in music acquisition, and strategy use in expert performance will be described. It is argued that studies of learning strategies requir...

  14. Paleosols and climate in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland during the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the 25th-15th Centuries BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkin, V. A.; Borisov, A. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    Paleosol studies of kurgans dating back to the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the Catacomb, Pokrovskaya, and Srubnaya cultural epochs; 4500-3500 BP) have been performed within the dry steppe zone in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland. The studied kurgans occupy the upper parts of local interfluves differing in the lithology of their upper horizons. The specificity of the Middle Holocene pedogenesis as related to the local lithologic and geomorphic conditions has been characterized. During the past 4500 years, local soils have been subjected to evolutionary changes related to climatic fluctuations. These changes manifested themselves at the subtype level with substitution of dark chestnut soils for chestnut soils. The climatic conditions during the Catacomb and Pokrovskaya cultural epochs (4.5-3.8 ka BP) were more arid than those at present. The maximum aridization of the climate took place at the end of the third and the first quarter of the second millennia BC. Detailed descriptions of the morphology of kurgan bodies and buried paleosols make it possible to hypothesize about the seasons of the kurgan construction and the technology of this work.

  15. Inner Ear Barotrauma After Underwater Pool Competency Training Without the Use of Compressed Air Case and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Sean; Boujie, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Inner ear barotrauma can occur when the gas-filled chambers of the ear have difficulty equalizing pressure with the outside environment after changes in ambient pressure. This can transpire even with small pressure changes. Hypobaric or hyperbaric environments can place significant stress on the structures of the middle and inner ear. If methods to equalize pressure between the middle ear and other connected gas-filled spaces (i.e., Valsalva maneuver) are unsuccessful, middle ear overpressurization can occur. This force can be transmitted to the fluid-filled inner ear, making it susceptible to injury. Damage specifically to the structures of the vestibulocochlear system can lead to symptoms of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus. This article discusses the case of a 23-year-old male Marine who presented with symptoms of nausea and gait instability after performing underwater pool competency exercises to a maximum depth of 13 feet, without breathing compressed air. Diagnosis and management of inner ear barotrauma are reviewed, as is differentiation from inner ear decompression sickness. PMID:27450603

  16. A Survey on Human Ear Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Suvarnsing Bhable; Sangramsing Kayte,

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient ear recognition technique which derives benefits from the local features of the ear and attempt to handle the problems due to pose, poor contrast, change in illumination and lack of registration. Recognizing humans by their ear have recently received significant attention in the field of research. Ear is the rich in characteristics. This paper provides a detailed survey of research done in ear detection and recognition. This survey paper is very us...

  17. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mokhtarinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone conduction (BC threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP. Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05. Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced.

  18. Depositional environments of overbank sedimentation in the lignite-bearing Grey Clays Member: New evidence from Middle Miocene deposits of central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Marek

    2016-04-01

    A detailed sedimentological study of Polish lignite-bearing successions has not previously been undertaken. This contribution focuses on the lignite lithotypes and lake and crevasse splay lithofacies that together constitute the Grey Clays Member. This lithostratigraphic unit strictly refers to the Middle Miocene overbank fluvial environments in central Poland. It mostly consists of the First Mid-Polish Lignite Seam (MPLS-1) in the Tomisławice lignite opencast mine. This lignite seam, containing four lithotypes, is interbedded by sandy and silty-clayey lithofacies. The lithotype associations are characteristic of the low-lying mires representing: fen or open water ( 2 m) lakes in the mire area. This is additional evidence of the relatively long-lasting and slow sedimentation of these very fine-grained clastics from suspension in standing lake water. Conversely, the sandy lithofacies associations, representing crevasse splays, were deposited suddenly during overbank flooding. Crevasse splay deposits are typical of initial stages of avulsion and are moderately diverse both texturally and structurally. Exceptions here are slurry flow deposits that contain rip-up clasts of paleosol aggregates. These crevasse splay deposits provide the first evidence of the fluvial environments of the Mid-Miocene mires (backswamp) in central Poland, and they split the currently exploited lignite seam, MPLS-1, in the study area. Thus, identification and description of lithofacies and lithotypes, and determination of their spatial distribution can contribute to a better understanding of the mire development, of which the examined lignite seam arose.

  19. The cormorant ear – an adaptation to underwater hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Depending on species, diving birds may spend 2-20 minutes under water during a single foraging dive when they may reach depths ranging from one to several hundred meters. Surprisingly little is known about avian underwater hearing despite the fact that several hundred species dive for food. We do...... not know how sensitive their underwater hearing is or even if they respond to underwater sound. Consequently, we do not know if anthropogenic sound affects their hearing during dives. To help filling this gap we measured the audiograms of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and studied the ear...... rather poor in-air hearing compared to similar-sized birds. Their underwater hearing sensitivity, however, is higher than what would have been expected for purely air-adapted ears. A possible reason for the poor in-air sensitivity is the special ear anatomy with the central eardrum shaped as a rigid...

  20. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Bryne and Lulu Formations, Middle Jurassic, northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andsbjerg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Bryne and Lulu Formations of the Søgne Basin (northern part of the Danish Central Graben consist of fluvially-dominated coastal plain deposits, overlain by interfingering shoreface and back-barrier deposits. Laterally continuous, mainly fining-upwards fluvial channel sandstones that locally show evidence for tidal influence dominate the alluvial/coastal plain deposits of the lower Bryne Formation. The sandstones are separated by units of fine-grained floodplain sediments that show a fining-upwards - coarsening-upwards pattern and locally grade into lacustrine mudstones. A regional unconformity that separates the lower Bryne Formation from the mainly estuarine upper Bryne Formation is defined by the strongly erosional base of a succession of stacked channel sandstones, interpreted as the fill of a system of incised valleys. Most of the stacked channel sandstones show abundant mud laminae and flasers, and rare herringbone structures, suggesting that they were deposited in a tidal environment, probably an estuary. Several tens of metres of the lower Bryne Formation may have been removed by erosion at this unconformity. The estuarine channel sandstone succession is capped by coal beds that attain a thickness of several metres in the western part of the Søgne Basin, but are thin and poorly developed in the central part of the basin. Above the coal beds, the Lulu Formation is dominated by various types of tidally influenced paralic deposits in the western part of the basin and by coarsening-upwards shoreface and beach deposits in central parts. Westwards-thickening wedges of paralic deposits interfinger with eastwards-thickening wedges of shallow marine deposits. The Middle Jurassic succession is subdivided into nine sequences. In the lower Bryne Formation, sequence boundaries are situated at the base of laterally continuous fluvial channel sandstones whereas maximum flooding surfaces are placed in laterally extensive floodplain

  1. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  2. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  3. Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán R Millar

    Full Text Available Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC measured at two sites: (1 immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib and (2 between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway, which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation.This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes.WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared to WC midway (in men and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women. A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003, Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001, Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001, but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127, when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74.WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or

  4. New paleomagnetic results from Middle and Late Proterozoic intrusive rocks of the central and southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan, S.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Paleomagnetic results from Proterozoic intrusive rocks from the central and southern Rocky Mountains yield data that provide definition to the North American APW path. Results from the ca. 1420 Ma Laramie anorthosite (LA) and Sherman Granite (SG) yield dual polarity magnetizations; a combined pole (7[degree]S, 215[degree]E, A[sub 95] = 4[degree]) is essentially identical to 1400 Ma poles from elsewhere in North America. Group A dikes from the Tobacco Root (TR) Mtns, MT, along the southern margin of the Belt Basin, have a dual-polarity remanence with a pole at 10[degree]N, 222[degree]E (A[sub 95] = 11[degree]) that plots slightly north of the LA/SG and other poles of ca. 1450 Ma. Comparison of Belt Supergroup poles, assuming coherence of the Belt terrane and interior Laurentia, with 1400 Ma poles and those of the well-defined western arm of the Logan Loop of the N. American APW path, would seem to indicate that the age of most Belt poles are in the range of 1300--1400 Ma, although this age assignment conflicts with available geochronologic data. Results from 1100 Ma diabase sheets from central AZ yield two distinct, normal and reverse polarity magnetizations: ADn and ADr. ADn gives a pole at 23[degree]N, 181[degree]E (A[sub 95] = 8[degree]) that overlaps poles of ca. 1100 Ma from the midcontinent rift (MR). Pole ADr is located at 38[degree]N, 248[degree]E (A[sub 95] = 39[degree]); the large uncertainty of this pole precludes its use in defining the APW path. All dikes are of WNW trend and several from the TR Mtns and the Christmas Lake dike from the Beartooth uplift give hornblende [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages of 760--770 Ma. The data are interpreted to provide evidence for Late Proterozoic mafic magmatism along the W and SW margin of the Wyoming Province, possibly related to crustal extension accompanying deposition of the Windermere Group in the northern part of the Cordillera and volcanism and sedimentation in SE Idaho and NE Washington.

  5. Has the probability of water deficit changed in Central Europe since the middle of the 20th century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibig, J.

    2010-09-01

    Daily precipitation totals and daily mean temperature from Central Europe, from the period 1951-2006 have been analyzed. The drought was described using de Martonne, Ped and SPI indices. Aridity index defined by de Martonne Mi (1926) is computed as: Mi= 12Ri/(Ti+10), where Ri is the monthly precipitation amount and Ti is the monthly mean air temperature. The Ped index is defined as Pi=(Ti-Tm)/σT -(Ri-Rm)/σR , where Tm and Rm are mean monthly (seasonal) temperature and precipitation, respectively, and σT and σR are standard deviations of monthly (seasonal) temperature and precipitation, respectively. According to McKee et al. (1993), the SPI is defined on each of the time scales as the difference between precipitation on the time series (Ri) and the mean value (Rm), divided by the standard deviation (σR). This definition assumes that the data fit the normal distribution, but because it is rarely true for precipitation data the data were usually transformed to standard normal distribution. Different distributions have been used to precipitation time series on monthly and seasonal scale. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. The relations between temporal series of different indices were analyzed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Also the trends were analyzed on the basis of both minimum square fit of polynomials and Mann-Kendall test. Spatial distribution of trends was analyzed.

  6. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Yiming

    2001-01-01

    [1]Fortey, R. A., Droser, M. L., Trilobites at the base of the Middle Ordovician, western United States, Journal of Paleontology. 1996. 70(1): 73-99.[2]Droser. M. L., Sheehan, P. M., Palaeoecology of the Ordovician radiation: Resolution of large scale patterns with individual clade histories, palaeogeography and environments, Geobios, 1997, 20:221-229.[3]Li, X., Droser, M. L., Lower and Middle Ordovician shell beds from the Basin and Range Province of the western United States (California, Nevada, and Utah), Palaios, 1999, 14: 215-233.[4]Miller. J. F., Loch, J. D., Stitt, J. H. et al., Origins of the great Ordovician biodiversification: the record at Lawson Cove, Ibex area, Utah, USA, Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, 1999, 43( 1/2): 459-462.[5]Tolmacheva, T. Y., Holmer, L. E., Dronov, A. et al., Early Ordovician (Hunneberg-Volkhov) facial and faunal changes in the east Baltic, Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, 1999, 43(1/2): 467-470.[6]Sprinkle, J., Guensgurg, T. E., Rozhnov, S. V., Correlation anomaly shown by Ordovician shelly and trace fossils in Baltic Russia: redating the Ordovician radiation, Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, 1999, 43(1/2): 471-474.[7]Carrera, M. G.. Sanchez, T M., Benedetto, J. L., Paleoenvironmental controls on biofacies in the early Ordovician limestones of the Argentine Precordillera, Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, 1999, 43(1/2): 475-477.[8]Sepkoski. J. J. Jr., A factor analytic description of the Phanerozoic marine fossil record, Paleobiology, 1981, 7: 36-53.[9]Sepkoski, J. J. Jr., The Ordovician radiations: Diversification and extinction shown by global genus-level taxonomic data,in Ordovician Odyssey: Short Papers of the Seventh International Symposium on the Ordovician System (eds. Cooper, J. D.. Droser, M. L., Finney, S. C.), Fullerton, CA, Pacific Section, Society of Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), 1995, 78:393-396.[10]Hintze. L. F.. Lower Ordovician detailed

  7. Braid-Delta Deposits from a Broad Shallow-Marine Setting:the Middle Member of the Kalpingtag Formation in the Central Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yiming; ZHANG Jinliang

    2008-01-01

    During the early Silurian, a transgressive and vast shallow sea with flat sea-floor covered the central Tarim Basin (the Tazhong area). The depositional environment of the middle member of the Kalpingtag Formation is controversial. In order to provide a basis for the prediction of reservoir sand, the sedimentary facies are recognized according to abundant core observations and de-scriptions combined with well-log analysis, isograms, seismic interpretations and regional sedimentary background. The middle member of the Kalpingtag Formation, which shows a retrograding sequence, is interpreted as braid-delta deposits influenced by mi-nor tidal reworking. The sources of clasts are from the southern uplift. The subaqueous braid-delta deposits in the study area have some characteristics quite different from the common deltas that generally deposit in marginal seas. Four facies grouped to a delta front association are recognized, ranging from distributary-channel (Facies A), front bar (Facies B), sand sheet (Facies C) and inter-distributary bay (Facies D). The distributary channels construct the sandbody framework of the delta front. Front bar deposits, which are fine-grained with low depositionai dips, display a near-continuous sand strip around the entire periphery of the delta. Sand sheet deposits are mainly found in front of Facies B, gradationally contacting with the prodelta. The interdistributary bay is essentially the uppermost unit capping the channel sequence and generally made up of laminated and massive mudstones. The delta front deposits display extensive sheet-like bodies contrasting with the characteristic wedge shapes of common subaqueous delta bodies. The bi-modal cross-stratification and mud drapes in the fine-to medium-grained sandstone in the distal area are inferred to reflect high-energy tidal processes.

  8. Benthic faunal assemblages from the Holocene middle shelf of the South Evoikos Gulf, central Greece, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimina Louvari, Markella; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George

    2013-04-01

    intermediate percentages of organic matter in which at least some sand fraction is present. A strict interpretation based on the known modern distribution of A. beccarii would confine the species to upper shoreface environments (Hayward et al. 2004). The relatively high frequency values of B. marginata indicate a correlation with organic matter enrichment, with seasonal low oxygen content. This hypothesis is testified also by the increase of the opportunistic species V. bradyana. The temporal presence of V. bradyana assemblage indicates a strong influence of Asopos River run-off, with interplay of increasing food availability and low oxygen concentration Three main ostracod assemblages were distinguished from the bottom to the top of the sediment core: At the lower part of the core ostracod assemblage consists mainly of Costa edwardsii, Cytheridea neapolitana, Callistocythere spp., Pterygocythereis jonesii and Leptocythere spp. At the middle part, Costa edwardsii is the dominant species with relative abundances up to 80% of the total ostracod fauna. At the upper part Costa edwardsii is the most abundant species (20-40% of the total fauna) accompanied mainly by Loxoconcha spp., Xestoleberis spp. and Cyprideis torosa. Ostracod abundance and diversity decrease towards the upper unit of the studied core. These data, and AMS radiocarbon ages determined for foraminifera and ostracods, provide evidence of a change from oceanic influence to estuarine influence. This event is also contemporaneous with the period which is generally characterized by increased evaporation rate (initially at the tropic seas), retreat of glaciers and increased rainfalls (Fairbanks, 1989). Fairbanks, R.G., 1989. A 17,000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637-642. Hayward, B.W., Sabaa, A.T., Grenfell, H.R., 2004. Benthic foraminifera and the Late Quaternary (last 150 ka) palaeoceanographic and

  9. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in the middle of central east China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in spring 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–276.9 μg/m3 and 17.2–235.7 μg/m3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of 176 samples from MT were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.5% and 73.8% of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  10. In-the-Ear Hearing-Instrument Antenna for ISM-Band Body-Centric Ear-to-Ear Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatman, William H.; Larsen, Lauge K; Kvist, Søren Helstrup;

    2012-01-01

    A compact 2.45 GHz slot-loop antenna is implemented for the use in the outer shell of an in-the-ear (ITE) hearing instrument (HI). The antenna is optimized for high ear-to-ear path gain (jS21j). The antenna simulation results are presented for two identical antennas, one placed in the center...

  11. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices. PMID:27276992

  12. Biomechanical and neurophysiological studies on audition in eared and earless harlequin frogs (Atelopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E D; Hetherington, T E; Volman, S F

    1998-08-01

    Tissue displacement of various body surfaces and the auditory midbrain sensitivities to sound were measured in Atelopus species with or without a tympanic middle ear ("eared" and "earless", respectively). Tissue displacement (vibration) of body regions was measured by laser Doppler vibrometer. The body wall directly overlying the lung is most dramatically displaced by sound pressure in all species tested. The otic (lateral head) region showed low displacement in earless species, but significant displacement to high-frequency sound in eared species. Peak tissue displacement of the body wall occurred within the frequency range of each species' advertisement vocalization. Peak tissue displacement of the otic region of the eared species also occurred within these frequencies. Multi-unit neurophysiological recordings of the auditory midbrain (torus semicircularis) also were obtained. Auditory sensitivity curves showed three distinct regions of sensitivity at low, middle, and high frequencies, the latter located within the frequency range of each species' advertisement vocalization. The correlation between auditory midbrain sensitivity and tissue displacement of the body wall region at advertisement vocalization frequencies, suggests that the body wall/lungs serve as the route of sound transfer to the inner ear in earless species and possibly in the eared species as well. PMID:9693994

  13. DESING OF CYLINDIRICAL EAR OF POLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar KARAGÖZ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Plough is an agricultural tool which is used for preparing land to male it ready for sowing. The funotion of lough is to break the compact land into small pieces and to allow a suitable condition for living of culture plants. The ear is the most important part of active plough surface. The geometrical form of ear determines the form of active surface together with the front iron tip. Ploughs are divided into two categories which are European and American types. There are important differencies betucen the European and American tyges with respect to ?, ß and ? angles. Gorjatschkin described the ear form of European ploughs under four main groups which are: 1. Cylindirical ear type, 2. Culture-form ear type, 3. Semi-curled ear type, 4. Curled ear type. In this work, the designing of cylindirical ear was studied.

  14. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Thalmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.

  15. Mechanics of the frog ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2011-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the f

  16. Does cold water truly promote diver's ear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, M; Ikeda, M

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-seven Japanese military divers from two districts, Mutsu (Northern Japan) and Yokosuka (Central Japan), were examined for the incidence of diver's ear (exostosis of the external auditory canal). The average temperature of sea water of the two districts is different because of their latitude, but the two groups had no significant difference in diving career. The incidence of exostosis in the Mutsu (cold area) group showed a significant increase as the diving career progressed. This tendency was not seen in the Yokosuka (warm area) group. The severity of exostosis increased in divers in both districts. The incidence of exostosis in Mutsu was significantly higher than in Yokosuka. The Mutsu group also showed a higher ratio of exostosis grade 2 than the Yokosuka group. These results may support the hypothesis that cold water facilitates formation of external auditory canal exostosis. PMID:9566088

  17. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A Text ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  19. Ear biometrics in 2D and 3D localization and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Surya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art techniques and recent research progress on Ear Biometrics. Among the various physiological traits, the reasons for the ear to gain much attention in recent years are many folds. It has been found to be a reliable biometrics for human verification and identification. Ears are remarkably consistent and unlike face, it does not change shape with different expressions or age, and remain fixed in the middle of the side of the head against a predictable background. The book contains figures, tables and plots to illustrate the techniques in an easy and lucid manner. The book also provides an extensive literature on the subject, where readers have the benefit of receiving all the relevant material at one place in a very comprehensive manner. This book caters students, academics, researchers, practitioners who are interested in the field of Ear Biometrics and its applications in face recognition and security.

  20. Water used to visualize and remove hidden foreign bodies from the external ear canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, T J; Saarento, R

    1992-02-01

    Small foreign bodies lodged anteriorly in the tympanic sulcus are usually not visible, due to the curve of the external ear canal. Such objects can be seen with the aid of an otomicroscope and micromirror or with an endoscope, and removed by irrigation. If irrigation fails, epithelial migration on the tympanic membrane may remove lodged foreign bodies, although this may take months. Our new method, which uses water to locate small objects lodged in the tympanic sulcus, includes irrigation of the ear, adjustment of the water level to the middle curve of the external ear canal, and use of the water surface as a concave lens, making the tympanic sulcus visible. With otomicroscopy a curved ear probe can then be used to remove lodged foreign bodies from behind the curve.

  1. Relationship between fracturing and porogenesis in a carbonate reservoir: Example from the Middle Turonian Bireno Member in Jebel M'rhila, Central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Ali, Hajer; Belghithi, Hanen; Ouali, Jamel Abdennaceur; Touir, Jamel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the Middle Turonian carbonate Bireno Member in Jebel M'rhila area (Central Tunisia). This member mainly consists of dolostones. The sampling of the dolomitic rocks was carried out on both sides of the several fractures affecting the Bireno Member. We also measured the directions and dips of the fractures. The Studied dolomites basically consist of subhedral to euhedral dolospar. The porosity associated to the dolomites show a gradual variation both laterally and vertically. In fact, porosity increases respectively, laterally while going toward the fractures and vertically from the bottom to the top of the dolomitic member. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses of dolomite, carried out respectively by X-Ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption, show that the studied dolomites broadly range from a sub-stoechiometric dolomite (48% CaCO3) far from the fractures to a dolomitic calcite (84% CaCO3) near the fractures. In the same way, the MgCO3 contents vary from 35% to 11%. Such high contents in Ca against low contents in Mg could probably related to the dilution of the dolomitizing marine waters by meteoric waters which would have been introduced within the platform during the Middle Turonian sea-level fall and the subsequent subaerial exposure of the Bireno platform. The Sr and Na contents (respectively, 4 ppm and 15 ppm in average) are rather low and they gradually decrease while approaching the fractures. Such a gradual decrease in Sr and Na concentrations may be the result of salinity lowering caused by the meteoric waters that would have circulated through the existing fractures networks. The previous analyses were supplemented by the SEM examination of the dolomite and the measurement of porosity and permeability. The SEM allowed us to identify the dolomite petrographic phases and the associated diagenetic products (solution, cementing, dedolomitization.), whereas the porosity and permeability evaluation highlights the

  2. A simple ear splint for microtia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Venkata Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or as a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with impaired hearing and or total loss of hearing. Such patients typically require treatment for surgical ear reconstruction and for hearing impairment. Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty.This case report describes a simple effective way of fabrication of ear splint prosthesis.

  3. A Survey on Human Ear Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient ear recognition technique which derives benefits from the local features of the ear and attempt to handle the problems due to pose, poor contrast, change in illumination and lack of registration. Recognizing humans by their ear have recently received significant attention in the field of research. Ear is the rich in characteristics. This paper provides a detailed survey of research done in ear detection and recognition. This survey paper is very useful in the current state-of- art for those who are working in this area and also for those who might exploit this new approach.

  4. Single-Stage Ear Reconstruction and Hearing Restoration Using Polyethylene Implant and Implantable Hearing Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, John Martin

    2015-12-01

    The use of porous polyethylene in reconstructive surgery of the auricle is becoming increasingly accepted. This is a single-stage procedure providing pleasing cosmetic rehabilitation. Further advantages are the possibility of early implantation and the lack of complications caused by harvesting costal cartilage. Additional hearing restoration using middle ear implants allows functional rehabilitation at an early stage. PMID:26667635

  5. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  6. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Nine Middle Triassic paleogeographical maps comprising the uppermost Upper Bunter, Lower to Middle Muschelkalk and Upper Muschelkalk to Lower Keuper time frame (Diedrich 2008b) show the marine ingression and regression cycle of the Middle Triassic Germanic Basin (Diedrich 2010c). For bathymetrical and palaeoenvironmental interpretations especially reptiles and their footprints are used. This Germanic Basin as analogon for the Arabian Gulf (Knaust 1997), north of the Tethys, was under marine and finally terrestrial influenced sediments in a time frame (after Kozur and Bachmann 2008) between 247.2 My (Myophoria Fm, Aegean, Lower Anisian) to 237.9 My (Grabfeld Fm, Longobardian, Lower Ladinian). In a duration of 9.3 My the Germanic Basin was filled up mainly with marine carbonates and at the end by siliciclastics influenced by the northern Tethys through the Silesian, Carpathian and later the Burgundian Gates which connected the Germanic Basin to the Northern Tethys. With the marine ingression from the East via the Silesian Gate (Poland) a ten to hundred kilometers extended intertidal flat to sabkha facies belt surrounded first only the central and then the Western Germanic Basin (Winterswijk, Netherlands). Those intertidal zones were used mainly by two different small reptiles as their primary habitat. Hereby they left Millions of the small tom medium sized footprints of the ichnogenera Rhynchosauroides and Procolophonichnium (Diedrich 2005, 2008a). Larger terrestrial and beach and sabkha adapted reptiles were Tanystrophaeus antiquus and unknown archosaurs, which are recorded only by their footprints. At the beginning of the ingression at the uppermost Bunter a shallow marine invertebrate fauna and coastal reptiles appeared in the Germanic Basin which must have originated mainly from the Northern Tethys. Especially all marine reptiles immigrated from the Tethys which is proven not only by assamblaged Tethyan cephalopod Ceratite species (cf. Diedrich 2008a). The

  7. Inner Time and Inner Ear

    CERN Document Server

    Rvachov, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a mathematical necessity. It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

  8. Our experience of unsafe ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendran Navaneethan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the commonest presentation and intraoperative findings and significant post operative challenges in patients who underwent modified radical mastoidectomy in Melmaruvathur adhiparasakthi Institute of medical sciences and research. Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Fifty six patients who underwent modified radical mastoidectomy for unsafe ear disease were included in this study. The study period was from 2009 to 2012.The commonest presentation was evaluated with the history taken from the patient′s records. The intraoperative evaluation of primary pathology and its anatomic extension and ossicular status were identified. Common problems we faced postoperatively were documented. Results: Of the 56 patients,thirty eight(68% were male and eighteen(32% were female. The age ranged from nine years -fifty years of age. The commonest presentation in this study was foul smelling scanty discharge (75% and the primary pathology was isolated cholesteatoma (54%. The involvement of mesotympanum, attic, aditus & antrum with primary disease was more than the isolated involvement of attic,aditus and antrum. Stapes erosion was more common than incus erosion in our study. We faced a very rare postoperative complication of delayed facial palsy in one patient who had no facial nerve dehiscence. Conclusion: Good attention given to patients with infrequent, minimal ear discharge helps to identify unsafe ear. In unsafe ear, otologists should be well prepared to face the stapes erosion during surgery. Even though rare, otologists should be aware of delayed facial palsy and be cautious about the past history of herpes simplex and varizella infection and consider antiviral prophylaxis before surgery.

  9. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik F Viergever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program.MethodsParticipants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana and Jordan. We assessed participants’ knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. Results178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93% and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%. Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider’s role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the Role of the Health Provider, Basic Definitions and Concepts and Health Consequences of Trafficking. DiscussionTraining health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners’ knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for

  10. Variscan granitoids related to shear zones and faults: examples from the Central Sudetes (Bohemian Massif) and the Middle Odra Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberc-Dziedzic, T.; Kryza, R.; Pin, C.

    2015-07-01

    The granitoid intrusions of the Central Sudetes (CS) and of the Middle Odra Fault Zone (MOFZ), NE part of the Bohemian Massif, are both spatially and temporally related to large-scale shear zones and faults (including possible terrane boundaries) that provided effective channels for melt migration. Summarizing common features of the CS and MOFZ granitoids, we have delineated a set of characteristics of the fault-related and shear zone-related granitoids: (1) they are mainly generated by partial melting of crustal sources, with variable contribution (or no contribution) of mantle materials; (2) the sheet-like, steeply inclined, narrow and rather small granitoid intrusions are emplaced within shear zones at mid-crustal level (c. 20 km depth), whereas the larger, flat-lying plutons intrude into the upper crust, outside or above these shear zones; (3) the magmatic foliation and lineation in granitoids of the deeper, sheet-like intrusions are concordant with those in the surrounding metamorphic rocks, suggesting that the solidification of granitoids was coeval with the deformation in the shear zones; instead, the magmatic foliation in the shallower and larger dome-like plutons reflects magma flow; (4) ductile, transcurrent movements along the shear zones postdate medium-pressure regional metamorphism and are accompanied by an increase in the local thermal gradient, as documented by the crystallization of cordierite, andalusite and sillimanite; (5) the increase in the thermal gradient precedes the emplacement of granitoids and their concomitant thermal influence on the country rocks. The granitoids related to the final stages of tectonothermal activity of the shear zones are good-time markers of their evolutionary path.

  11. Middle-Late Holocene earthquake history of the Gyrtoni Fault, Central Greece: Insight from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsodoulos, Ioannis M.; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Caputo, Riccardo; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Pavlides, Spyros; Gallousi, Christina; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Ioannides, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    The south-dipping Gyrtoni Fault defines the northeastern boundary of the Middle-Late Quaternary Tyrnavos Basin, Central Greece. The recognition and recent tectonic activity of the fault were previously based on mapping, remote sensing analyses and electrical resistivity tomography studies. To understand the Holocene seismotectonic behavior of the Gyrtoni Fault we excavated two paleoseismological trenches. To estimate the timing of past earthquakes using luminescence dating, we obtained twenty five fluvial-colluvial sediment and pottery samples from both the upthrown and the downthrown fault blocks. We applied the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating to coarse grain quartz using the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol. Our investigations of luminescence characteristics using various tests confirmed the suitability of the material for OSL dating. We found that the estimated OSL ages were internally consistent and agreed well with the available stratigraphical data, archaeological evidence and radiocarbon dates. The performed paleoseismological analysis emphasized the occurrence of three surface faulting events in a time span between 1.42 ± 0.06 ka and 5.59 ± 0.13 ka. Also, we recognized an earlier faulting event (fourth) has been also recognized to be older than 5.59 ± 0.13 ka. The mean throw per event value of 0.50-0.60 m could correspond to a ca. Mw 6.5 earthquake. An average fault slip rate of 0.41 ± 0.01 mm/a and an average recurrence time of 1.39 ± 0.14 ka were also estimated. Our results suggest that the elapsed time from the most recent event (minimum age 1.42 ± 0.06 ka) is comparable with the mean return period.

  12. Attempt to increase the transparency of fourth hurdle implementation in Central-Eastern European middle income countries: publication of the critical appraisal methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inotai András

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In middle income countries the number of trained health technology assessment specialists is limited and the public budget for health technology assessment is considerably lower compared to developed countries. These countries therefore must develop their own solutions to improve the quality and efficiency of health technology assessment implementation in reimbursement decisions. Our study aimed to develop a scientifically rigorous and detailed appraisal checklist for economic evaluations of pharmaceuticals in the single health technology assessment process. Methods The research design entailed a review of economic evaluations, submitted for reimbursement of pharmaceuticals, by two independent academic reviewers to identify the most common methodological problems. Fifty economic evaluations submitted in 2007-2008, randomly selected by the Health Technology Assessment Office served as data sources. The new checklist was developed by an iterative working process: first by assessing ten economic evaluations, then improving the checklist by generating new question items, then employing the improved checklist to assess the next ten economic evaluations. After appraising 25 documents, the reviewers reconciled their opinions and improved the checklist with the researchers of the Health Technology Assessment Office during an expert panel discussion. The reviewers scrutinized the second 25 economic evaluations, after which the expert panel finalized the checklist with consensus. Results The final checklist consists of 91 yes or no questions in 11 main topics concerning comparator selection, efficacy, effectiveness, costs, sensitivity analysis, methodological approach, transparency, and interpretation of results. The new checklist is based on current Hungarian evaluation practice. As the published checklist will be part of the official single health technology assessment process of pharmaceuticals, submitters will be able to assure the

  13. Biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Fluviatile Untere Serie (Early and Middle Miocene) in the central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin: implications for palaeoenvironment and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, J.; Böhme, M.; Maurer, H.; Heissig, K.; Abdul Aziz, H.

    2009-10-01

    The Early to Middle Miocene Fluviatile Untere Serie lithostratigraphic unit of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (UFM) in the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) crops out in a 40 m long section at Untereichen-Altenstadt (central part of the NAFB). This section yields a unique superposition of two vertebrate assemblages belonging to different biostratigraphic units: early part OSM C + D (Karpatian) and OSM E (Early Badenian). Detailed taxonomic analyses reveal different diversity patterns in the two assemblages. Nine small mammal and six ectothermic vertebrate taxa occur in the older level UA 540 m, while 20 small mammal and 23 ectothermic vertebrate taxa are recorded for the younger level UA 565 m. From the latter locality comes a small-sized representative of the biostratigraphically significant Megacricetodon lappi lineage. This evolutionary level has not been documented previously for the eastern part of the NAFB. Bioclimatic analysis combined with lithofacies and architectural element analysis indicates that significant changes in the fluvial sedimentation style, surface-water runoff and tectonics occurred between the Early Karpatian and Early Badenian. A meandering fluvial system (marly unit) is erosively overlain by sandy braided river deposits (sandy unit). Overbank deposits of the marly unit revealed that the older vertebrate fossil assemblage (UA 540 m) is deposited in an animal burrow that was presumably produced by owls. Both reptilian and mammalian taxa are indicative of a relatively open environment and dry, probably semi-arid climate. Conversely, vertebrates from the sandy unit (UA 565 m), which are accumulated in channel fill deposits, suggest closed as well as open habitats with a subtropical humid climate and mean annual rainfall of about 1,000 mm. According to the sequence stratigraphic analysis the marly unit is interpreted as a highstand-system-tract of the TB 2.2 global 3rd order sequence. The new results add support to the hypothesis that the

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes isolated from the middle ear of Mexican children diagnosed with acute otitis media Serotipificación de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de líquido de oído medio en niños mexicanos con diagnóstico de otitis media aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demóstenes Gómez-Barreto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the etiology and the serotypes of S. pneumoniae (Sp in Mexican children with acute otitis media (AOM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study includessamples frompatientsdiagnosed with AOM at the Federico Gomez Children's Hospital of Mexico (2002-2003,with positive culture for Sp bacteriologically confirmed in middle ear fluid obtained by tympanocentesis. All Sp were serotyped. A total of 138 samples from 135 children with AOM were included. RESULTS: Sp was isolated in 72 samples from 70 children. Sixty (85.7% were previously healthy and 10 (14.3% were immunocompromised. The most common serotypes were 6B and 19F (16.67%, and 6 A, 14 and 23F (15.27%. CONCLUSION: The distribution of serotypes among the children with AOM in the study is similar to that reported in developing cities, and 63.9% of the isolated serotypes are found to be included in the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV, 68.1% in the 10-Valent PCV and 83.3% in 13-Valent PCV.OBJETIVO: Conocer la etiología y serotipos de S. pneumoniae (Sp en niños mexicanos, con otitis media aguda (OMA. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron las muestras de pacientes con OMA del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (2002-2003, con cultivo positivo para Sp, (bacteriológicamente confirmados en el líquido del oído medio obtenido por timpanocentesis. Todos los Sp. fueron serotipificados. Se incluyeron 138 muestras de 135 niños con OMA. RESULTADOS: Sp. se aisló en 72 muestras de 70 niños: 60 (85.7% eran previamente sanos y 10 (14.3% eran inmunocomprometidos. Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron 6B y 19F (16.67%, y 6 A, 14 y 23F (15.27%. CONCLUSIONES: La distribución de los serotipos en niños con otitis media aguda fue similar a la reportada en ciudades en desarrollo y se observó que 63.9% de los serotipos aislados están incluidos en la vacuna conjugada 7-valente, 68.1% en la 10-valente y 83.3% en la 13-valente.

  15. Inner ear of the coelacanth fish Latimeria has tetrapod affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B

    Auditory reception in elasmobranchs, teleosts and amphibians may be mediated by various inner-ear sensory epithelia 1–3, including the basilar papilla, which seems to be the precursor of the cochlea in mammals. The origin of the basilar papilla remains a major unsolved problem for understanding the evolution of hearing in terrestrial vertebrates4–6. Study of living species indicates that the basilar papilla is a unique feature of tetrapods 6,7, but palaeonto-logical data indicate that this epithelium as well as a middle ear, is already present in crossopterygian fish 8–10. However, no basilar papilla has been found in the only living crossopterygian species, the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae 11. I have re-examined the inner ear of adult and embryonic Latimeria and find a membranous specialization which resembles in structure, position and innerva-tion pattern the basilar papilla of tetrapods, in particular amniotes. No epithelium comparable to the basilar papilla was found in lungfish. I suggest that the basilar papillae of Latimeria and tetrapods are homologous and evolved only once in their common ancestor.

  16. Causes of 279 Cases with Sensation of Ear Fullness%279例耳闷胀感的病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 周永; 谭颂华; 唐安洲; 黄东红

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes inducing the sensation of ear fullness.Methods 362 ears with sensation of ear fullness were collected.The clinic features,audiogram,tympanogram and Eustachian tube function in these ears were analysed.Results 203 ears with type A,111 ears with type B,33 ears with type C and 15 ears with perforated tympanum membrane were found in 362 ears as tympanograms were done.Among audiograms of 362 ears,conductive deafness,sensorineural deafness,mixed deafness and normal ears were 83、81、105 and 93 ears respectively.Eustachian tube test revealed 208 abnormal ears out of 362 ears,and 67 abnormal ears were found in 203 ears with type A tympanogram.Conclusion The causes inducing sensation of ear fullness covered the outer,middle and inner ear,and face nerve.In these cases with sensation of ear fullness,the diseases resulted in sensation of ear fullness mainly were secretory otitis media,sensorineural deafness induced by vary causes and abnormal eustachian tube function.%目的 探讨产生耳闷胀感的部位和原因。方法 收集耳闷胀感为主诉的279例362耳,对患耳的临床表现、鼓室导抗图、纯音测听和咽鼓管功能进行分析。结果 362耳中鼓室导抗图A型203耳、B型111耳、C型33耳以及鼓膜穿孔15耳。纯音测听表现为传导性聋、感音神经性聋、混合性聋以及正常者分别是83耳、81耳、105耳和93耳。在362耳中,咽鼓管功能异常208耳,在A型鼓室导抗图203耳中,咽鼓管功能异常67耳。结论 产生耳闷胀感的病变部位包括外、中、内耳和面神经的病变,其中以分泌性中耳炎、各种原因引起的感音神经性聋和“咽鼓管狭窄症”为多。

  17. Attenuation of ear muffs in Canadian mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, M.U.

    1979-12-01

    The main characteristics of eleven commercially available ear muffs were investigated in the laboratory and analyzed by a psychophysical and a physical method. Nine ear muffs were tested in mines. The three best muffs had bands passing behind the head. The ear muff with a support strap, which improves comfort and maintains a good fit during wear, showed the best attenuation. Causes of poor attenuation are listed. None of the ear muffs tested had all the characteristics desirable in an ideal unit. Because of unsatisfactory attenuation in working conditions, it should be a mandatory requirement that workers wear both ear muffs and ear plugs if the noise level is higher than 105 dBA.

  18. Ear Recognition Based on Forstner and SIFT

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Chi; Zhu Yongyong; Tian Ying

    2013-01-01

    Extraction and expression of features are critical to improving the recognition rate of ear image recognition. This paper proposes a new ear recognition method based on SIFT(Scale-invariant feature transform) and Forstner corner detection technology. Firstly, Forstner corner points and SIFT keypoints are detected respectively. Then taking Forstner corner into the SIFT algorithm to calculate their descriptor as the image feature vectors. Finally ear recognition based on these feature is carrie...

  19. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-01-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, i...

  20. Novel in vivo imaging analysis of an inner ear drug delivery system in mice: comparison of inner ear drug concentrations over time after transtympanic and systemic injections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanzaki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Systemic steroid injections are used to treat idiopathic sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL and some inner ear disorders. Recent studies show that transtympanic (TT steroid injections are effective for treating ISSHL. As in vivo monitoring of drug delivery dynamics for inner ear is lacking, its time course and dispersion of drugs is unknown. Here, we used a new in vivo imaging system to monitor drug delivery in live mice and to compare drug concentrations over time after TT and systemic injections. METHODS: Luciferin delivered into the inner ears of GFAP-Luc transgenic mice reacted with luciferase in GFAP-expressing cells in the cochlear spiral ganglion, resulting in photon bioluminescence. We used the Xenogen IVIS® imaging system to measure how long photons continued to be emitted in the inner ear after TT or systemic injections of luciferin, and then compared the associated drug dynamics. RESULTS: The response to TT and IP injections differed significantly. Photons were detected five minutes after TT injection, peaking at ~20 minutes. By contrast, photons were first detected 30 minutes after i.p. injection. TT and i.p. drug delivery time differed considerably. With TT injections, photons were detected earlier than with IP injections. Photon bioluminescence also disappeared sooner. Delivery time varied with TT injections. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the drug might enter the Eustachian tube from the middle ear. We conclude that inner-ear drug concentration can be maintained longer if the two injection routes are combined. As the size of luciferin differs from that of therapeutics like dexamethasone, combining drugs with luciferin may advance our understanding of in vivo drug delivery dynamics in the inner ear.

  1. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  2. An eye for an ear

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Yoong Wah Alex

    2012-01-01

    "An Eye for an Ear" Exhibition catalogue of award winning photography from the Photography Open Salon Arles 2012 exhibition ‘An Eye For An Ear‘. ‘An Eye For An Ear’ explores photographic observations, concepts, emotions, experiences and beliefs relating to the silences and the sounds of our society and the visible and invisible that surrounds us. Changes in how we view the world as a result of the development of new communication technologies, things that we see but that others may not hear o...

  3. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  4. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  5. The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

    2010-12-01

    Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter

  6. Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor β1 and Transforming Growth Factorβ2 in Middle Ear Effusions in Secretory Otitis Media%TGF -β1、TGF -β2在分泌性中耳炎患者中耳积液中的表达和临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 袁琨; 肖伯奎; 胡姚; 蔡菁; 张晨星

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of transforming growth factor β1( TGF - β1)and transforming growth factor β2(TGF - β2)in the pathogenesis of secretory otitis media(SOM). Methods The expression levels of TGF - β1 and TGF - β2 in middle ear effusions(MEEs)and blood plasma were measured in 56 patients(61 ears)with SOM as well as 32 normal volunteers using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Results The positive rates of TGF - β1 and TGF - β2 in MEEs and plasma in SOM patients as well as normal plasma were all 100% . The con-centration of TGF - β1 in MEEs in patients with acute SOM was significantly lower than that in patients with chronic SOM(P ﹤ 0. 05). The concentration of TGF - β2 in MEEs in patients with acute SOM was significantly higher than that in patients with chronic SOM(P ﹤ 0. 05). There was no significant difference in the concentration of TGF - β1 in plasma between patients with acute SOM and normal volunteers(P ﹥ 0. 05). There was significant difference in the concentration of TGF - β2 in plasma between patients with acute SOM and normal volunteers(P ﹤ 0. 05). There was significant difference in the concentration of TGF - β1 in plasma between patients with chronic SOM and normal vol-unteers(P ﹤ 0. 05). There was no significant difference in the concentration of TGF - β2 in plasma between patients with acute SOM and normal volunteers(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion TGF - β1 and TGF - β2 both participate in patho-genesis of SOM. TGF - β1 may play a role in the chronic course of SOM and TGF - β2 may be an important role in the early stage of SOM.%目的:探讨转化生长因子-β1(transforming growth factor β1,TGF -β1)和转化生长因子-β2(transforming growth factor β2,TGF -β2)在分泌性中耳炎(secretory otitis media,SOM)发病过程中的作用。方法采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附试验法( enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA)检测56例(61只耳) SOM 患者中

  7. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  8. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  9. Ear Recognition Based on Forstner and SIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and expression of features are critical to improving the recognition rate of ear image recognition. This paper proposes a new ear recognition method based on SIFT(Scale-invariant feature transform and Forstner corner detection technology. Firstly, Forstner corner points and SIFT keypoints are detected respectively. Then taking Forstner corner into the SIFT algorithm to calculate their descriptor as the image feature vectors. Finally ear recognition based on these feature is carried out with Euclidean distance as similarity measurement. A bi-directional matching algorithm is utilized for improving recognition rate. Experiments on USTB database show that the recognition rate reaches more 94%. The Experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method in term of recognition accuracy in comparison with previous methods. It is robust to rigid changes of ear image and provides a new approach to the research for ear recognition.

  10. A Model for the representation of Speech Signals in Normal and Impaired Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    hearing was modelled as a combination of outer- and inner hair cell loss. The percentage of dead inner hair cells was calculated based on a new computational method relating auditory nerve fibre thresholds to behavioural thresholds. Finally, a model of the entire auditory nerve fibre population......A model of human auditory periphery, ranging from the outer ear to the auditory nerve, was developed. The model consists of the following components: outer ear transfer function, middle ear transfer function, basilar membrane velocity, inner hair cell receptor potential, inner hair cell probability...... of neurotransmitter release and auditory nerve fibre refractoriness. The model builds on previously published models, however, parameters for basilar membrane velocity and inner hair cell probability of neurotransmitter release were successfully fitted to model data from psychophysical and physiological data...

  11. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  12. Listening to Their Voices: Middle Schoolers' Perspectives of Life in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Mary Anne; McCray, Erica D.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines middle schoolers' perspectives on their lives in middle school. Fifteen middle school students from three middle schools in the Southeast region of the United States participated in a basic qualitative study using focus groups at their schools where they were asked the central question, "If you could change one thing at your…

  13. Age-related hearing loss: ear and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D

    2009-07-01

    Loss of sensory function in the aged has serious consequences for economic productivity, quality of life, and healthcare costs in the billions each year. Understanding the neural and molecular bases will pave the way for biomedical interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse these conditions. This chapter summarizes new information regarding age changes in the auditory system involving both the ear (peripheral) and brain (central). A goal is to provide findings that have implications for understanding some common biological underpinnings that affect sensory systems, providing a basis for eventual interventions to improve overall sensory functioning, including the chemical senses.

  14. Core collapse supernova remnants with ears

    CERN Document Server

    Grichener, Aldana

    2016-01-01

    We study the morphologies of core collapse supernova remnants (CCSNRs) and find that about third of CCSNRs have two opposite `ears' protruding from their main shell, and that the typical energy that is required to inflate these ears is about 10 percents of the explosion kinetic energy. We argue that these properties are most compatible with the expectation from the explosion jet feedback mechanism (JFM). Based on previous studies of ears in CCSNRs and the similarity of some ears to those found in planetary nebulae, we assume that the ears are inflated by jets that are launched during the explosion, or a short time after it. In the JFM explosion process the last jets' launching episode takes place just after the core has been ejected. These jets expand freely, interact with the exploding gas at some distance from the center, and form the ears. Under simple geometrical assumptions we find that the extra kinetic energy of the ears is in the range of 1 to 10 percents of the explosion energy. As not all of the kin...

  15. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.

  16. Assessment of genetic diversity in Chinese eared pheasant using fluorescent-AFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi;

    2010-01-01

    The eared pheasant consists of four species: white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), Tibetan eared pheasant (Crossoptilon harmani), blue eared pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum), and brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum). These species are found only in China, and are also on th...

  17. Attempt to increase the transparency of fourth hurdle implementation in Central-Eastern European middle income countries: publication of the critical appraisal methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Inotai András; Pékli Márta; Jóna Gabriella; Nagy Orsolya; Remák Edit; Kaló Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In middle income countries the number of trained health technology assessment specialists is limited and the public budget for health technology assessment is considerably lower compared to developed countries. These countries therefore must develop their own solutions to improve the quality and efficiency of health technology assessment implementation in reimbursement decisions. Our study aimed to develop a scientifically rigorous and detailed appraisal checklist for econ...

  18. Injuries of the external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, J; Renner, G J

    1990-10-01

    Ear injuries occur in people of all ages but predominate in active people such as wrestlers, boxers, and bike riders. The types and extent of injury are a function of the force causing the injury. Shearing forces of moderate intensity cause hematoma formation, whereas greater force causes lacerations or even amputation. Sharp objects cause lacerations determined by the force, direction, and point of impact. The high ratio of surface area to mass makes the auricle vulnerable to extremes of temperature. People participating in high-risk activities should wear protective headgear. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal contours while preventing infection. Hematoma results in disfigurement by organization or chondritis. Evacuation and pressure dressings using sterile technique correct the condition. Second-degree burns are treated by regular cleansing and application of topical antimicrobials. Deeper burns require debridement, biologic dressings, or burying the cartilage subcutaneously for later reconstruction. Simple lacerations are closed under aseptic technique using either skin-to-skin sutures only or sutures of the skin combined with intercartilage sutures. Extensive and complex lacerations require meticulous care to match all fragments and prevent infection or loss of tissue. Bare cartilage must be covered with vascularized tissue. The treatment of total amputation is controversial. Some advocate reattachment as a composite graft using intravenous low molecular weight dextrans and heparin as adjuvants. Mladick dermabrades the amputated pinna, reattaches it with sutures, and then slips it into a pocket of elevated postauricular skin for 2 weeks. Others urge microvascular reanastomosis of the small nutrient vessels. Brent and Byrd separate the cartilage from its overlying skin and envelope it first with vascularized temporoparietal fascia and then a split-thickness skin graft. Chondritis is the most feared complication of injury or surgery of the pinna. It

  19. Density, diet and productivity of Long-eared Owls Asio otus in the Italian Alps: The importance of Microtus voles

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio, Fabrizio; Marchesi, Luigi; Pedrini, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Capsule: Relatively large populations, feeding predominantly upon voles, were present at higher elevations. Aims: To determine the density, productivity and diet composition of Long-eared Owls breeding at higher elevations. Methods: Population census and breeding biology were investigated, and dietary analysis performed for 32 Long-eared Owl territories that were occupied over a six-year period (2000-05), in a 155 km2 study area located in the Noce Valley of the central-eastern Italian Alps. ...

  20. A RARE PRESENTATION OF FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR WITH TRAUMATIC DISLOCATION OF THE INCUS IN A FEMALE CHILD: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhana Krishnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the middle ear are a rare occurrence. This is a case report of a 5 year old female , with plastic button in the left ear , with history of attempted removal using a metal hook , leading to subtotal perforation of the tympanic membrane and traumatic dislocation of the incus. On surgery a yellow colored plastic button , measuring about 1x 1 cm size was removed from middle ear by retroauricular approach . Myringostapediopexy using autologous incus and temporalis fascia under general anesthesia was done. P atient improved clinically post operatively. Foreign bodies in the ear should be removed with caution. Blind removal by instrumentation can lead to complications like tympanic membrane perforation and ossicular disruption. Early surgical intervention with tympanoplasty under anesthesia with tympanoplasty at the same sitting can prevent further complications and correct the hearing loss

  1. Three dimensional and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear. Normal ears and anomaly scanned with 3D-CISS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI system used in this study was a new scanning sequence, 3D-CISS (Three dimensional-constructive interference in steady state) with 1.5 Tesla. Ten normal ears and one ear with Mondini type anomaly were scanned and reconstructed. In imagings of normal inner ears, the cochlea has three spiral layers; basal, middle and apical turns. Each turn was separated into three parts; the scala vestibuli, osseous spiral lamina and scala tympani. Three semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule were also reconstructed in one frame. In the inner ear of Mondini anomaly, 3D MRI showed cochlear aplasia, hypoplasia of semicircular ducts and widely dilated vestibule. The imaging was identical with findings of ''common cavity''. The anomaly was easily recognized in 3D MRI more than in 2D imagings. The detailed and cubic imagings of the Mondini anomaly in 3D MRI could not be observed with conventional 2D MRI. 3D MRI is not invasive method and can scan a target very quickly. (author)

  2. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  3. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.

  4. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  5. Female Climacteric Syndrome Treated by Ear Embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤

    2003-01-01

    @@ Female climacteric syndrome is a common disease occurring before and after menopause. The author has treated the disease with ear embedding therapy, and achieved satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a report of the clinical observation.

  6. Neonatal Ear Molding: Timing and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstadt, Erin Elizabeth; Johns, Dana Nicole; Kwok, Alvin Chi-Ming; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of auricular deformities is believed to be ∼11.5 per 10,000 births, excluding children with microtia. Although not life-threatening, auricular deformities can cause undue distress for patients and their families. Although surgical procedures have traditionally been used to reconstruct congenital auricular deformities, ear molding has been gaining acceptance as an efficacious, noninvasive alternative for the treatment of newborns with ear deformations. We present the successful correction of bilateral Stahl's ear deformity in a newborn through a straightforward, nonsurgical method implemented on the first day of life. The aim of this report is to make pediatric practitioners aware of an effective and simple molding technique appropriate for correction of congenital auricular anomalies. In addition, it stresses the importance of very early initiation of ear cartilage molding for achieving the desired outcome.

  7. Ear Infections in Autistic and Normal Children. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Homatidis, Soula

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness for 51 autistic children (ages 2-18) indicated that autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers and lower functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than higher functioning autistic peers. (Author)

  8. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  9. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  10. Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction.

  11. An Ear-Worn Vital Signs Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S.; Sodini, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a wearable vital signs monitor at the ear. The monitor measures the electrocardiogram (ECG), ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to obtain pre-ejection period (PEP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and pulse transit time (PTT). The ear is demonstrated as a natural anchoring point for the integrated sensing of physiological signals. All three signals measured can be used to obtain heart rate (HR). Combining the ECG and BCG allows for the estimati...

  12. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  13. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade...

  14. Retrospective study of ear findings of dogs submitted to cranial tomography in FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu; Estudo retrospectivo dos achados otologicos de caes submetidos a tomografia craniana na FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an important imaging modality in the diagnosis of ear alterations, especially those affecting the middle ear. In this retrospective study, in which the cranial CT scans of 151 dogs were evaluated, the most common finding was the mineralization of the external auditory cartilage, followed by secretions in external and middle ear and tissue in these two regions. The average age of affected animals ranged from 6-9 years. Mixed breed dogs were the most affected animals, followed by cockers, boxers, poodles, labrador retrievers, german shepherds and pit bulls. (author)

  15. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  16. Optical techniques as validation tools for finite element modeling of biomechanical structures, demonstrated in bird ear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter; De Greef, Daniël; Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the potential of stroboscopic digital holography and laser vibrometry as tools to gather vibration data and validate modelling results in complex biomechanical systems, in this case the avian middle ear. Whereas the middle ear of all mammal species contains three ossicles, birds only feature one ossicle, the columella. Despite this far simpler design, the hearing range of most birds is comparable to mammals, and is adapted to operate under very diverse atmospheric circumstances. This makes the investigation of the avian middle ear potentially very meaningful, since it could provide knowledge that can improve the design of prosthetic ossicle replacements in humans such as a TORP (Total Ossicle Replacement Prosthesis). In order to better understand the mechanics of the bird's hearing, we developed a finite element model that simulates the transmission of an incident acoustic wave on the eardrum via the middle ear structures to the fluid of the inner ear. The model is based on geometry extracted from stained μCT data and is validated using results from stroboscopic digital holography measurements on the eardrum and LDV measurements on the columella footplate. This technique uses very short high-power laser pulses that are synchronized to the membrane's vibration phase to measure the dynamic response of the bird's eardrum to an incident acoustic stimulus. Vibration magnitude as well as phase relative to the sound wave can be deduced from the results, the latter being of great importance in the elastic characterization of the tympanic membrane. In this work, the setup and results from the optical measurements, as well as the properties and optimization of the finite element model are presented. Observed phase variations across the eardrum's surface on the holography results strongly suggest the presence of internal energy losses in the membrane due to damping. Therefore, a viscoelastic characterisation of the model based on a complex

  17. Petrogenesis of Early-Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks in northern Liaoning and central Jilin provinces, northeast China: Implications for the extent of spatial-temporal overprinting of the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Hong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Cao, Hua-Hua; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Mesozoic tectonic evolution of NE China was controlled mainly by the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes. However, the extent of the spatial and temporal overprinting of these two regimes is poorly understood. Here, we report new zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses of Jurassic intrusive rocks in northern Liaoning and central Jilin provinces, northeast China, to discuss their petrogenesis and outline the extent of spatial and temporal overprinting of these two tectonic regimes. Dating results indicate that Jurassic magmatism occurred in two stages during the Early (ca. 175 Ma) and Middle Jurassic (170-163 Ma). These rocks represent two-stage typical bimodal igneous rock associations composed mainly of olivine gabbro, gabbro, and gneissic granitoids. The Early and Middle Jurassic gabbros have low rare earth element (REE) abundances, positive Eu anomalies, depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs), and positive εHf(t) values (+ 4.0 to + 10.3, except for one value of - 17.8), suggesting that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of depleted lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted-slab-derived fluids. The Early Jurassic monzogranite exhibit high REE abundances (195-201 ppm), weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.63-0.64), and negative εHf(t) values (- 11.9 to - 8.2), suggesting a primary magma that was derived from partial melting of lower continental crust of the NCC. The Middle Jurassic granodiorites are enriched in light REEs (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and are depleted in heavy REEs (HREEs) and HFSEs, as well as high Sr/Y (29-132) and (La/Yb)N (15-44) ratios. In addition, the Middle Jurassic granitoids near or within the NCC exhibit negative εHf(t) values (- 18.9 to + 0.2), whereas those within the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB) have generally positive εHf(t) values (- 0.6 to + 6.4), suggesting their origin from partial melting of thickened ancient NCC and newly accreted

  18. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Model for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The deterministic ear-to-ear on-body channel is modeled by the use of a number of elliptically shaped paths. The semi-major axes of the elliptica lly shaped paths are adjusted such that they trace the outline of the head. The path gain converges when the number of paths is increased, su ch that t...

  19. Ground-water use, locations of production wells, and areas irrigated using ground water in 1998, middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, ground water was being pumped from about 420 production wells in the middle Humboldt River Basin for a variety of uses. Principal uses were for agriculture, industry, mining, municipal, and power plant purposes. This report presents a compilation of the number and types of production wells, areas irrigated by ground water, and ground-water use in 14 hydrographic areas of the middle Humboldt River Basin in 1998. Annual pumping records for production wells usually are reported to the Nevada Division of Water Resources. However, operators of irrigation wells are not consistently required to report annual pumpage. Daily power-consumption and pump-discharge rates measured at 20 wells during the 1998 irrigation season and total power use at each well were used to estimate the amount of water, in feet of depth, applied to 20 alfalfa fields. These fields include about 10 percent of the total area, 36,700 acres, irrigated with ground water in the middle Humboldt River Basin. In 1998 an average of 2.0 feet of water was applied to 14 fields irrigated using center-pivot sprinkler systems, and an average of 2.6 feet of water was applied to 6 fields irrigated using wheel-line sprinkler systems. A similar approach was used to estimate the amount of water pumped at three wells using pumps powered by diesel engines. The two fields served by these three wells received 3.9 feet of water by flood irrigation during the 1998 irrigation season. The amount of water applied to the fields irrigated by center-pivot and wheel-line irrigation systems during the 1998 irrigation season was less than what would have been applied during a typical irrigation season because late winter and spring precipitation exceeded long-term monthly averages by as much as four times. As a result, the health of crops was affected by over-saturated soils, and most irrigation wells were only used sporadically in the first part of the irrigation season. Power consumption at 19 of the 20 wells in the 1994

  20. SHRIMP U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic analyses of Middle Ordovician meta-cumulate gabbro in central Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Metabasites consisting of metamorphic ultra-mafic rocks, cumulate gabbro, gabbro (diabase), basalt, and plagiogranite are exposed at the Taoxinghu area in central Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating for the cumulate gabbro yields a weighted mean age of 467±4 Ma, which is the oldest and most reliable magmatic age in this area. Zircon 176Hf/177Hf ratios range from 0.282615 to 0.282657, with εHf(t) values of 5.02±0.28, indicating that the cumulate gabbro was mainly derived from the depleted mantle. In addition, geochemical data of metabasites suggest that they have similar characteristics to those in the mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The Taoxinghu metabasites may represent the fragment of Early Paleozoic ophiolite in the "Central Uplift" of the Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau.

  1. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

  2. Pedo-sedimentary dynamics of the Sangiran dome hominid bearing layers (Early to Middle Pleistocene, central Java, Indonesia) : a palaeopedological approach for reconstructing 'Pithecanthropus' (Javanese Homo erectus) palaeoenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Brasseur, B.; Sémah, F.; Sémah, Anne-Marie; Djubiantono, T.

    2015-01-01

    Fossil soils and pedosediments displayed in Quaternary fossil-bearing formations are an important proxy to describe the evolution of climates and environments. Through a study of the palaeosols in the Sangiran dome, a rich hominid-bearing site of central Java (Indonesia), we characterized their record of terrestrialization through regional volcano-tectonic activity and describe palaeoenvironments colonized by hominids. The thick sedimentary formations of the Sangiran dome are known to reflect...

  3. Middle and Late Holocene hunter-gatherers in East Central Europe: changing paradigms of the ‘non-Neolithic’ way of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Nowak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to traditional views, the main reason for ‘demesolithisation’ in East Central Europe was the spread of the Neolithic oecumene, particularly from c. 4000 BC. Simultaneously, the disintegrated Late Mesolithic world gradually underwent typological unification, and finally reached the stage that is sometimes described as pre-Neolithic. However, we definitely have to bear in mind that as a matter of fact we deal only with the ‘history’ of archaeological artefacts that are treated as typical attributes of hunter-gatherers. The analyses of chronological, technological, settlement, economic, and social data referring to foragers of East Central Europe demonstrate that the quantitative decrease and changes of their archaeological attributes in the fifth, fourth, and third millennia were not connected with a profound reorientation of their spatial and ideological existence. It was rather a continuation of previous patterns, even though territories settled by farming societies were steadily growing in size. The final disappearance of Central European hunter-gatherers – but only in a strictly typological dimension – took place in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age.

  4. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average......, corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  5. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  6. Middle Miocene near trench volcanism in northern Colombia: A record of slab tearing due to the simultaneous subduction of the Caribbean Plate under South and Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M.; Cardona, A.; Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; De La Parra, F.; Espitia, D.; López-Martínez, M.

    2013-08-01

    Field, geochemical, geochronological, biostratigraphical and sedimentary provenance results of basaltic and associated sediments northern Colombia reveal the existence of Middle Miocene (13-14 Ma) mafic volcanism within a continental margin setting usually considered as amagmatic. This basaltic volcanism is characterized by relatively high Al2O3 and Na2O values (>15%), a High-K calc-alkaline affinity, large ion lithophile enrichment and associated Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies which resemble High Al basalts formed by low degree of asthenospheric melting at shallow depths mixed with some additional slab input. The presence of pre-Cretaceous detrital zircons, tourmaline and rutile as well as biostratigraphic results suggest that the host sedimentary rocks were deposited in a platform setting within the South American margin. New results of P-wave residuals from northern Colombia reinforce the view of a Caribbean slab subducting under the South American margin. The absence of a mantle wedge, the upper plate setting, and proximity of this magmatism to the trench, together with geodynamic constraints suggest that the subducted Caribbean oceanic plate was fractured and a slab tear was formed within the oceanic plate. Oceanic plate fracturing is related to the splitting of the subducting Caribbean Plate due to simultaneous subduction under the Panama-Choco block and northwestern South America, and the fast overthrusting of the later onto the Caribbean oceanic plate.

  7. up to one’s ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    up to one’s ears可以解释成"很忙"的意思。如:Half the people in my office are home sick,so I’m up to my ears!我办公室里有一半的人有病请假,所以我简直忙得不得了。I’d like to help you paint the kitchen tonight,but I’m up to my ears in paper work I had to bring home from the office.我很愿意今晚帮你把厨房上油漆。可

  8. A Man With Two Burned Ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范图雨

    2001-01-01

    Mr Smith was in troublethose days. He drove a car forMr Black, a rich business-man. He worked hard and theshopkeeper liked him. But hecouldn't work when he dranktoo much. And once he al-most fell into the river whenhe drove along the bridge. MrBlack became angry and wasgoing to send him away. Hehad a big family and wasafraid of that and promisedhe would stop drinking atonce. The man told him towait to be dealt with. OneMonday morning, Mr Smithcame into the office, with twobadly burned ears. “Whathappened to your ears?”asked Mr Black.

  9. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

  10. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  11. « The Male Dancer in the Middle East and Central Asia ». Dance Research Journal, 38/1&2, summer & winter 2006, pp. 137-162. [Les danseurs au Moyen Orient et en Asie Centrale

    OpenAIRE

    Fāṭemī, Sāsān

    2008-01-01

    Un article très intéressant sur la danse orientale et son rapport avec la sexualité. Après une introduction sur la différence entre le comportement homosexuel et l’identité homosexuelle, l’A. contredit le jugement ethnocentrique des observateurs occidentaux qui identifiaient les danseurs orientaux à des homosexuels, jugeant leur gestuelle comme efféminée. L’activité sexuelle des garçons danseurs aux Moyen Orient et en Asie Centrale étant très souvent leur source de revenue, ils ne la choisiss...

  12. The inner ear produces a natriuretic hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1996-01-01

    Cytoplasmic granules have been demonstrated in epithelial cells from the endolymphatic sac, an extraosseus part of the inner ear located in the posterior cranial fossa. Intravenously infused extracts from endolymphatic sacs in anesthetized rats elicited a potent natriuresis and diuresis without e...

  13. Headaches from ear, nose and throat diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reck, R.

    1984-08-01

    Headaches are a frequent symptom in ENT-patients. The complex sensory innervation of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses is demonstrated. Heterotopic or referred pain must be differentiated from homotopic pain that is experienced at the point of injury. The nervous pathways of heterotopic otalgia are shown. The quality of pain of the most common rhinological and otological diseases is reported.

  14. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  15. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesopha

  16. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  17. Cholesterol granuloma presenting as a mass obstructing the external ear canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psifidis Dimosthenis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol granuloma (CG may involve the middle ear, the mastoid bone and the petrous apex. However, CG presenting as a mass obstructing the external ear canal (EEC is relatively rare and it can be a diagnostic challenge. Case Presentation We report a case of a CG occupying the mastoid antrum and presenting as a mass into the EEC. Temporal bone computerized tomography showed a soft tissue mass which eroded the posterior-superior bony wall of the EEC. On magnetic resonance imaging, the mass revealed a high signal on both T1 and T2-weighted images. The CG was removed by a mastoidectomy procedure and the histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis of CG. A type III tympanoplasty was performed. Conclusions The postoperative course was uneventful.

  18. Evidence for metasomatic mantle carbonatitic magma extrusion in Mesoproterozoic ore-hosting dolomite rocks in the middle Kunyang rift, central Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Kunyang rift lying on the western margin of the Yangtze platform is a rare Precambrian Fe-Cu mineralization zone. Wuding- Lufeng basin that is an important part of the zone is located on the west edge in the middle of the rift. The most important ore-hosting rocks are Mesoproterozoic dolomite rocks in the basin controlled by a ring fracture system, which is a fundamental structure of the basin. Plenty of silicate minerals and acicular apatite, feldspar phenocrysts and small vesicular, flown line and flown plane structures, melt inclusion and high temperature fluid inclusion found in most ore-hosting dolomites suggest that this kind of rocks could not be sedimentary dolomite, marble or hydrothermal carbonate rocks. The Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta values of the rocks are identical with those of associated mantle-derived rocks, and vary widely. For the monomineral dolomite, δ18OSMOW‰=+5.99 to +18.4 and δ13CPDB‰=-3.01to+0.94, which fall within the range for all carbonatitic volcanic rocks of the world. As for the accessory minerals, the values of δ18OSMOW‰ of magnetite (=+3.47 to +5.99%0) are close to that of the mantle (<5.7%), and the δ34S‰ values of sulfides (-5.09 to+5.78, averaging+1.50) are close to that of meteorite. For all the ore-bearing dolomite rocks, εNd = +0.19 to +2.27, and the calculated Isr = 0.699143, while for the associated mantle-derived rocks, εNd = +3.18 to +3.72. All the data suggest that the mineral assemblage is not only igneous but also of metasomatic mantle origin. And the presence of acicular apatite indicates that the rocks were formed by magma rapidly cooling. And the phenocryst texture and vesicular, flown and ropy and pyroclastic structures suggest that the igneous rocks were extrusive. Therefore, the ore-bearing dolomite rocks are carbonatitic volcanic rocks. This conclusion implies that most iron and copper ore deposits hosted in the dolomite rocks should be of the carbonatitc type.

  19. 40Ar-39Ar laser dating of ductile shear zones from central Corsica (France): Evidence of Alpine (middle to late Eocene) syn-burial shearing in Variscan granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Grande, Antonietta; Prosser, Giacomo; Cavazza, William; DeCelles, Peter G.

    2016-10-01

    The island of Corsica (France) plays a central role in any reconstruction of Western Mediterranean geodynamics and paleogeography but several key aspects of its geological evolution are still uncertain. The most debated topics include the interpretation of the Corsican orogen as the result of an east- or west-directed subduction, and the actual involvement of the Variscan basement of Corsica in the Alpine orogenic cycle. This study integrates 40Ar-39Ar laserprobe, mesostructural, microtextural, and microchemical analyses and places relevant constraints on the style, P-T conditions, and timing of Alpine-age, pervasive ductile shear zones which affected the Variscan basement complex of central Corsica, a few kilometers to the west of the present-day front of the Alpine nappes. Shear zones strike ~ NNE-SSW, dip at a high angle, and are characterized by a dominant sinistral strike-slip component. Two of the three investigated shear zones contain two texturally and chemically resolvable generations of white mica, recording a prograde (burial) evolution: (1) deformed celadonite-poor relicts are finely overgrown by (2) a celadonite-rich white mica aligned along the main foliation. White mica from a third sample of another shear zone, characterized by a significantly lower porphyroclast/matrix ratio, exhibits a nearly uniform high-celadonite content, compositionally matching the texturally younger phengite from the nearby shear zones. Mineral-textural analysis, electron microprobe data, and pseudosection modeling constrain P-T conditions attained during shearing at ~ 300 °C and minimum pressures of ~ 0.6 GPa. In-situ 40Ar-39Ar analyses of coexisting low- and high-celadonite white micas from both shear zones yielded a relatively wide range of ages, ~ 45-36 Ma. Laser step-heating experiments gave sigmoidal-shaped age profiles, with step ages in line with in-situ spot dates. By contrast, the apparently chemically homogenous high-celadonite white mica yielded concordant in

  20. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  1. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  2. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  3. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  4. Does the morphology of the ear of the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) show "Subterranean" characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleštilová, Lucie; Hrouzková, Ema; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the growing interest in rodents with subterranean activity in general and the spalacids (Spalacidae) in particular, little is known about the biology of most members of this clade, such as the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis). Here, we analyzed the ear morphology of R. sinensis with respect to hearing specialization for subterranean or aboveground modes of communication. It is well-known that ecology and style of life of a particular species can be reflected in morphology of its ear, its hearing and vocalization, so we expect that such information could provide us insight into its style of life and its sensory environment. The ratio between the eardrum and stapedial footplate areas, which influences the efficiency of middle ear sound transmission, suggests low hearing sensitivity, as is typical for subterranean species. The cochlea had 3.25 coils and resembled species with good low frequency hearing typical for subterranean mammals. The length of the basilar membrane was 18.9 ± 0.8 mm and its width slowly increased towards the cochlear apex from 60 to 85 μm. The mean density of outer hair cells was 344 ± 22 and of inner hair cells 114 ± 7.3 per 1 mm length of the organ of Corti, and increased apically. These values (except for relatively low hair cell density) usually characterize ears specialized for low frequency hearing. There was no evidence for an acoustic fovea. Apart of low hair cell density which is common in aboveground animals, this species has also relatively large auricles, suggesting the importance of sound localization during surface activity. The ear of the Chinese bamboo rat thus contains features typical for both aboveground and subterranean mammals and suggests that this spalacid has fossorial habits combined with regular aboveground activity. PMID:26880690

  5. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2012-01-15

    Snakes lack both an outer ear and a tympanic middle ear, which in most tetrapods provide impedance matching between the air and inner ear fluids and hence improve pressure hearing in air. Snakes would therefore be expected to have very poor pressure hearing and generally be insensitive to airborne sound, whereas the connection of the middle ear bone to the jaw bones in snakes should confer acute sensitivity to substrate vibrations. Some studies have nevertheless claimed that snakes are quite sensitive to both vibration and sound pressure. Here we test the two hypotheses that: (1) snakes are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons, and possibly all snakes, lost effective pressure hearing with the complete reduction of a functional outer and middle ear, but have an acute vibration sensitivity that may be used for communication and detection of predators and prey.

  6. Toxic inner ear lesion following otitis media with effusion: a comparative CT-study regarding the morphology of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Stelzer, Tim; Wiegand, Susanne; Güldner, Christian; Teymoortash, Afshin; Günzel, Thomas; Hagen, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory airways can lead to a delayed viral otitis media (VOM) caused by a diffusion of viruses/virus particles through the round window membrane and resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. The treatment of choice is immediate paracentesis, evacuation of all fluids from the middle ear cavity, and haemorrheological infusions. However, in some cases, persistent symptoms may be an indication for a surgical approach using mastoidectomy. In high-resolution computed tomography, an extended small-sized pneumatisation of the mastoid cells with complete shading was found in these non-responsive cases. Therefore, a direct means of inner ear affliction through weak parts of the labyrinthine bone may be hypothesised. Patients suffering from a toxic inner ear lesion (TIEL) following a common cold, treated over a 10-year period in a Tertiary Care Centre (N = 52, 57 ears), were identified and the morphological characteristics of the temporal bones of affected patients were examined by means of high-resolution computed tomography (hrCT). The findings were compared with a matched control group of 64 normal ears (CONT). Measurements included the grade of pneumatisation, distances within the temporal bones and Hounsfield units (HU) at defined anatomical structures. In the TIEL group, we found a small-sized pneumatisation in 79.4 % and a medium-sized pneumatisation in 10.9 %, thus differing from the CONT group and the literature data. Thickness of the bone wall of the lateral semicircular canal (LSC) and distances within the aditus ad antrum were significantly reduced in the TIEL group. HU's were markedly lower in the TIEL group at the precochlea, the LSC, and dorsolateral to the promentia of the LSC. There was a correlation between the HU's at the prominentia of the LSC and the hearing loss (p = 0.002). Persisting interosseous globuli, as described in 1897 by Paul Manasse, form an osseochondral network within the otic capsule and may be responsible

  7. F1 (CBA×C57) mice show superior hearing in old age relative to their parental strains: hybrid vigor or a new animal model for "golden ears"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Singh, Ameet; Bak, Matthew; Bozorg, Sara; Seth, Rahul; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2011-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the most common communication problem and third most prevalent chronic medical disorder of the aged. The CBA and C57BL/6 mouse strains are useful for studying features of presbycusis. The CBA loses its hearing slowly, like most humans. Because the C57 develops a rapid, high frequency hearing loss by middle age, it has an "old" ear but a relatively young brain, a model that helps separate peripheral (cochlear) from central (brain) etiologies. This field of sensory neuroscience lacks a good mouse model for the 5-10% of aged humans with normal cochlear sensitivity, but who have trouble perceiving speech in background noise. We hypothesized that F1 (CBA×C57) hybrids would have better hearing than either parental strain. Measurements of peripheral auditory sensitivity supported this hypothesis, however, a rapid decline in the auditory efferent feedback system, did not. Therefore, F1s might be an optimal model for studying cases where the peripheral hearing is quite good in old age; thereby allowing isolation of central auditory changes due to brain neurodegeneration.

  8. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okupny, Daniel; Rzepecki, Seweryn; Borówka, Ryszard Krzysztof; Forysiak, Jacek; Twardy, Juliusz; Fortuniak, Anna; Tomkowiak, Julita

    2016-06-01

    The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene). In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni). The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni) in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  9. Inner ear pressure changes following square wave intracranial or ear canal pressure manipulation in the same guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F

    2002-01-01

    Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as

  10. Inner-Ear Morphology of the New Zealand Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) Suggests High-Frequency Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Corfield, Jeremy R.; Kubke, M. Fabiana; Parsons, Stuart; Köppl, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The sensory systems of the New Zealand kiwi appear to be uniquely adapted to occupy a nocturnal ground-dwelling niche. In addition to well-developed tactile and olfactory systems, the auditory system shows specializations of the ear, which are maintained along the central nervous system. Here, we provide a detailed description of the auditory nerve, hair cells, and stereovillar bundle orientation of the hair cells in the North Island brown kiwi. The auditory nerve of the kiwi contained about ...

  11. Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphs the energy profile of Middle East: production, imports, exports, stock change and consumption of crude oil and LNG, oil products, natural gas, coal and lignite, electricity, global primary consumption and energy balance. (J.S.)

  12. A study of middle ear reconstruction, the degree of functional restoration and causes of graft failure following chronic ear disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Prasad

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Patients with normal Eustachian tube function, large and medium size mastoids, small and medium size perforations of the tympanic membrane would have a good rate of graft uptake with tympano-ossiculoplasties thereby returning to normal hearing postoperatively.

  13. An Ear-Worn Vital Signs Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a wearable vital signs monitor at the ear. The monitor measures the electrocardiogram (ECG), ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to obtain pre-ejection period (PEP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and pulse transit time (PTT). The ear is demonstrated as a natural anchoring point for the integrated sensing of physiological signals. All three signals measured can be used to obtain heart rate (HR). Combining the ECG and BCG allows for the estimation of the PEP, while combining the BCG and PPG allows for the measurement of PTT. Additionally, the J-wave amplitude of the BCG is correlated with the SV and, when combined with HR, yields CO. Results from a clinical human study on 13 subjects demonstrate this proof-of-concept device. PMID:26208264

  14. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoglu, Adem; Baglam, Tekin; Tokuc, Gulnur; Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  15. Ear and hearing problems in Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Elmqvist Stenberg, Annika

    2001-01-01

    Turner Syndrome is a common chromosomal disorder and affects approximately one in every 2000 newborn girl. The syndrome is defined as a total (45,X) or partial loss of the second sex chromosome in combination with the typical characteristic features, which are short stature (less than 150 cm), absent estrogen production due to ovarian dysgenesis, with failure to enter puberty spontaneously and infertility. Among other associated anomalies ear and hearing problems are common,...

  16. Pharmacokinetics and inner ear transport of cisplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Hellberg, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Background Cisplatin is a commonly used platinum anti-cancer drug. Regrettably cisplatin has dose-limiting ototoxic side effects, e.g. the drug can induce an irreversible hearing loss. The ototoxic mechanisms of cisplatin have not been elucidated in the human ear and no clinically useful oto-protectors are yet available. Cisplatin is a necessary part of many treatment regimes. Its beneficial therapeutic effects might be reduced if cisplatin was excluded from the treatmen...

  17. Activation of cell death pathways in the inner ear of the aging CBA/J mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Su-Hua; CHEN, FU-QUAN; Schacht, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that oxidative stress increases in the inner ear of aging CBA/J mice and might contribute to the loss of function of the sensory system. We now investigate the activation of cell death pathways in the cochlea of these animals. Middle-aged (12 months) and old (18-26 months) mice with hearing deficits displayed outer hair cell nuclei with apoptotic and, to a lesser extent, necrotic features. Both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways were activated by trans...

  18. Magnetic properties of the remagnetized Middle-Ordovician limestones of the Ponón Trehué Formation (San Rafael Block, central-western Argentina): Insights into the Permian widespread Sanrafaelic overprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.

    2016-10-01

    The widespread Sanrafaelic remagnetization reset most of the early Cambrian to mid-Ordovician carbonate platform of the Argentine Precordillera and the calcareous units of the San Rafael Block. We conducted a detailed rock-magnetic study on the Middle-Ordovician limestones of the Ponón Trehué Formation at both limbs of a tight anticline exposed in the San Rafael Block (Mendoza province, central-western Argentina) that are carriers of a syntectonic magnetization of Permian age. We found that the magnetic overprint in the Ponón Trehué Formation is carried by both pyrrhotite and magnetite, with goethite and subordinate haematite likely related to weathering. Hysteresis parameters, frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility, Cisowski and modified Lowrie-Fuller tests suggest the presence of ultrafine particles of chemical origin. Demagnetization of natural remanent magnetization and of three-axis isothermal remanence confirm pyrrhotite and magnetite as important contributors to the remanence. Both minerals carry the same magnetic syntectonic component suggesting a coeval or nearly coeval remanence acquisition and therefore mineral formation. This and the results of the magnetic fabric analyses indicate an authigenic origin of the magnetic minerals during folding associated with the Sanrafaelic tectonic phase (ca. 280 Ma). Although the chemically active (oxidizing?) fluids expelled from the orogen as it developed in the early Permian is a viable explanation for the Sanrafaelic remagnetization, the role of the nearly coeval magmatism in Precordillera and the San Rafael Block remains to be properly evaluated.

  19. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  20. Immunohistochemical techniques for the human inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ivan A; Ishiyama, Gail; Hosokawa, Seiji; Hosokawa, Kumiko; Acuna, Dora; Linthicum, Fred H; Ishiyama, Akira

    2016-10-01

    In this review, we provide a description of the recent methods used for immunohistochemical staining of the human inner ear using formalin-fixed frozen, paraffin and celloidin-embedded sections. We also show the application of these immunohistochemical methods in auditory and vestibular endorgans microdissected from the human temporal bone. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the different types of embedding media. IHC in frozen and paraffin-embedded sections yields a robust immunoreactive signal. Both frozen and paraffin sections would be the best alternative in the case where celloidin-embedding technique is not available. IHC in whole endorgans yields excellent results and can be used when desiring to detect regional variations of protein expression in the sensory epithelia. One advantage of microdissection is that the tissue is processed immediately and IHC can be made within 1 week of temporal bone collection. A second advantage of microdissection is the excellent preservation of both morphology and antigenicity. Using celloidin-embedded inner ear sections, we were able to detect several antigens by IHC and immunofluorescence using antigen retrieval methods. These techniques, previously applied only in animal models, allow for the study of numerous important proteins expressed in the human temporal bone potentially opening up a new field for future human inner ear research. PMID:27480257