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Sample records for central middle ear

  1. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections ... Look at the Ear The Eustachian Tube About Middle Ear Infections Causes Signs ... the common cold , ear infections are the most frequently diagnosed childhood illness in the United States. Most kids will ...

  2. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009, and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage.

  3. Inner ear disturbances related to middle ear inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Michihiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media). Their clinical concerns are then discussed with reference to experimental studies. In these diseases, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are required to manage not only middle ear but also inner ear conditions.

  4. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  5. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  6. Optical assessment of middle ear inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, David S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of an optical device to assess the inflammatory state of the middle ear mucosa through the ear canal, after ventilation tube insertion in otitis media with effusion in children. An optical phantom of the middle ear was developed in order to allow repeatable experiments. The phantom consists of eardrum and mucosa while all other structures are neglected. The optical properties of the phantom were determined based on literature review and experiments on...

  7. Osteomas of the middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sente Marko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Osteomas of the middle ear are small, single, usually unilateral, peduncular growths, off-white in color, with smooth or multilobular surface, asymptomatic or causing functional disorders (progressive hearing loss, pathological appearance of the eardrum, vertigo and otorrhea, of unclear or unknown etiology. Fleury described three types of osteomas: massive, diffuse atticoantral and localized type. The therapy is surgical. Small and asymptomatic ones are followed-up. Cremers suggests surgical intervention in cases of progressive growth and increased hearing loss. Case description Discharge and pain in the left ear started twelve years ago, accompanied by impaired hearing and tinnitus. Four months ago the symptoms aggravated and discharge and pain increased. Otomicroscopic findings revealed: perforation in the posterior attic and a prominent polypous, clustered bright red formation. Schüller X-ray showed total absence of pneumocyte cells, with distinct sclerotic changes. Retroauricular access showed a biventricular bony formation in the cavum and partly in the antrum. A cholesteatoma extended from the cavum into the antrum, above the osteatoma. The bony formation was separated transmeatally from the grip in the posterior attic using a chisel, partially removing the bone wall of the exterior aural tube, removing it completely through the mastoid antrum. The removed bony mass, sized 5 x 8 x 8 mm, included also the incus. DISCUSSION Osteoma was discovered accidentally. Regarding clinical features, it belonged to the second group, due to progressive hearing loss, recurrent episodes of otorrhea, pain, biventricular shape and association with cholesteatoma. It was removed using a combined method. It was not possible to establish when the osteoma exactly started generating. It is possible that the initial complaints twelve years ago were the first signs of illness, and chronic otitis may have occurred as a consequence of the tumor.

  8. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

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    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  9. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

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    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  10. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  11. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  12. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat.

  13. [Bone Conduction and Active Middle Ear Implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkenstein, S; Thomas, J P; Dazert, S

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss can be supplied with conventional hearing aids depending on severity and cause for hearing loss in a satisfying way. However, some patients either do not benefit enough from conventional hearing aids or cannot wear them due to inflammatory reactions and chronic infections of the external auditory canal or due to anatomical reasons. For these patients there are fully- and semi-implantable middle ear and bone conduction implants available. These devices either directly stimulate the skull (bone conduction devices), middle ear structures (active middle ear implants) or the cochlea itself (direct acoustic stimulation). Patients who failed surgical hearing rehabilitation or do not benefit from conventional hearing aids may achieve a significant better speech understanding and tremendous improvement in quality of life by implantable hearing devices with careful attention to the audiological and anatomical indication criteria.

  14. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  15. Passive and active middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutner, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants.

  16. Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanne, Elina; Kantola, Olli; Parviainen, Tapani

    2004-08-01

    Although carcinoid tumors are labeled as neuroendocrine tumors they can also originate in tissue lacking neuroendocrine cells, such as that in the middle ear. Symptoms of a carcinoid tumor in the middle ear are common ear symptoms such as fullness, pain and hearing loss. Carcinoid tumors have also been considered to be slow-growing. Both these aspects can easily lead to a relatively late diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the middle ear. The diagnosis is made histologically, and the tumor is primarily treated surgically. In the follow-up of patients, octreotide scanning has proved to be a sensitive method in cases of both recurrence and metastasis. Our patient was a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy female with left-sided acute otitis media and facial palsy in her left ear. She had also suffered from the same symptoms 4 years earlier. She was treated with an operation, and the histologic diagnosis was a carcinoid tumor. In the follow-up of the patient we used octreotide scanning.

  17. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    2002-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  18. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  19. The use of a SQUID magnetometer for middle ear research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, W.L.C.; Peters, M.J.; Brenkman, C.J.; Mol, H.; Grote, J.J.; Marel, van der L.C.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique is described for the measurement of vibrations in the temporal bones of an isolated middle ear. The precise recording of vibrations in the middle ear is of importance for the construction and improvement of a middle ear prosthesis.1 The method of measurement is based on a transformat

  20. [The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].

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    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name.

  1. Acoustics of the human middle-ear air space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E; Voss, Susan E

    2005-08-01

    The impedance of the middle-ear air space was measured on three human cadaver ears with complete mastoid air-cell systems. Below 500 Hz, the impedance is approximately compliance-like, and at higher frequencies (500-6000 Hz) the impedance magnitude has several (five to nine) extrema. Mechanisms for these extrema are identified and described through circuit models of the middle-ear air space. The measurements demonstrate that the middle-ear air space impedance can affect the middle-ear impedance at the tympanic membrane by as much as 10 dB at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. Thus, variations in the middle-ear air space impedance that result from variations in anatomy of the middle-ear air space can contribute to inter-ear variations in both impedance measurements and otoacoustic emissions, when measured at the tympanic membrane.

  2. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minovi, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids.

  3. The Role of Immittance Audiometry in Detecting Middle Ear Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, John T.

    1981-01-01

    Immittance audiometry is an objective technique which evaluates middle ear function by three procedures: static immittance, tympanometry, and the measurement of acoustic reflex threshold sensitivity. This article discusses the technique's ability to identify middle ear effusion, the single leading ear disease in children.

  4. Mouse middle ear ion homeostasis channels and intercellular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Morris

    Full Text Available HYPOTHESIS: The middle ear contains homeostatic mechanisms that control the movement of ions and fluids similar to those present in the inner ear, and are altered during inflammation. BACKGROUND: The normal middle ear cavity is fluid-free and air-filled to allow for effective sound transmission. Within the inner ear, the regulation of fluid and ion movement is essential for normal auditory and vestibular function. The same ion and fluid channels active in the inner ear may have similar roles with fluid regulation in the middle ear. METHODS: Middle and inner ears from BALB/c mice were processed for immunohistochemistry of 10 specific ion homeostasis factors to determine if similar transport and barrier mechanisms are present in the tympanic cavity. Examination also was made of BALB/c mice middle ears after transtympanic injection with heat-killed Haemophilus influenza to determine if these channels are impacted by inflammation. RESULTS: The most prominent ion channels in the middle ear included aquaporins 1, 4 and 5, claudin 3, ENaC and Na(+,K(+-ATPase. Moderate staining was found for GJB2, KCNJ10 and KCNQ1. The inflamed middle ear epithelium showed increased staining due to expected cellular hypertrophy. Localization of ion channels was preserved within the inflamed middle ear epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: The middle ear epithelium is a dynamic environment with intrinsic mechanisms for the control of ion and water transport to keep the middle ear clear of fluids. Compromise of these processes during middle ear disease may underlie the accumulation of effusions and suggests they may be a therapeutic target for effusion control.

  5. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  6. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry of the middle ear ossicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, G R; Huber, A; Goode, R L

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes measurements of the vibratory modes of the middle ear ossicles made with a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Previous studies of the middle ear ossicles with single-point laser Doppler measurements have raised questions regarding the vibrational modes of the ossicular chain. Single-point analysis methods do not have the ability to measure multiple points on the ossicles and, consequently, have limited ability to simultaneously record relative phase information at these points. Using a Polytec Model PSV-100, detailed measurements of the ossicular chain have been completed in the human temporal bone model. This model, when driven with a middle ear transducer, provides detailed three-dimensional data of the vibrational patterns of the middle ear ossicles. Implications for middle ear implantable devices are discussed.

  7. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  8. Hearing results of the total middle ear reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yuan-ping; XU An-ting; CHEN Ying

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the success of hearing results in total middle ear reconstruction with cartilage ossiculoplasty for the patients with old open- mastoidectomy cavities. Method: A retrospective review of 69 patients who underwent total middle ear reconstruction with cartilage ossiculoplasty was performed. Results: In this series, the successful hearing results were obtained in 61 % of the patients after operation, but 93% of the ears were dry. For patients with stapes, the successful rate was 65%; for patients without stapes,it was 58 %. The mean hearing gain was 10.7dB. Conclusion: Total middle ear reconstruction offers an effective treatment algorithia of hearing reconstruction for patients with old mastoidectomy cavities. 1. Stapes is important for hearing improvement; 2. Staged operation is good for hearing restoration; 3. For a large number of patients with a problematic cavitites, hearing restoration is possible by total middle ear reconstruction.

  9. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  10. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected.

  11. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  12. Impedance matching, optimum velocity, and ideal middle ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, W T; Rosowski, J J

    1991-05-01

    One way to assess an ear's performance as a receiver of acoustic power is to consider impedance matching at the tympanic membrane. Assumptions about some of the impedances involved have lead to the idea of an optimum velocity magnitude (per unit pressure), which has been used as a test of middle-ear performance. We show that this approach is not a realistic way to assess effectiveness of power absorption at the tympanic membrane. More generally, we suggest that, if the performance of the combined external-and-middle ear in collecting acoustic power and delivering it to the inner ear is considered, the external- and middle-ear power-transfer efficiencies, as well as impedance matching, are involved in relating performance to an ideal.

  13. Gain and maximum output of two electromagnetic middle ear implants: are real ear measurements helpful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Noten, J.F.P.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the output of two electronic middle ear implants: the Otologics MET device and the Vibrant Soundbridge device. Both devices were programmed in the linear amplification mode. Aided minus unaided sound pressure levels recorded in the ear canal (objective gain) were compared to unaided minu

  14. Major evolutionary transitions and innovations: the tympanic middle ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    One of the most amazing transitions and innovations during the evolution of mammals was the formation of a novel jaw joint and the incorporation of the original jaw joint into the middle ear to create the unique mammalian three bone/ossicle ear. In this review, we look at the key steps that led to this change and other unusual features of the middle ear and how developmental biology has been providing an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This starts with an overview of the tympanic (air-filled) middle ear, and how the ear drum (tympanic membrane) and the cavity itself form during development in amniotes. This is followed by an investigation of how the ear is connected to the pharynx and the relationship of the ear to the bony bulla in which it sits. Finally, the novel mammalian jaw joint and versatile dentary bone will be discussed with respect to evolution of the mammalian middle ear. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994124

  15. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    -chain T-cell receptor-associated protein kinase and linker of activated T-cells, were upregulated in the adult. This study concludes that the normal middle ear immune system changes with age. Genes related to the innate immune system are upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive...... of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been...... performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified...

  16. Fresh Clues about the Origin of Mammalian Middle Ear Revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jianlan

    2002-01-01

    @@ CAS paleontologists have identified a rod-like bone from two early Cretaceous mammals as ossified Meckel's cartilage (OMC). This clears some doubts on the controversial topic of the origin of definitive mannalian middle ear (DMME).

  17. Indications and candidacy for active middle ear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F; Todt, I; Wagner, J; Ernst, A

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional hearing aids report, such as acoustic feedback, occlusion, and irritation of the outer ear canal, are avoided. In addition, AMEI patients perform well in background noise. However, indications for AMEIs are selective and candidates should be carefully evaluated before surgery. Before considering an AMEI, patients should be provided with conventional hearing aids. Only when benefit is insufficient and audiological selection criteria are met is further candidacy evaluation indicated. Since Colletti described coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge directly onto the round window membrane in 2006, the indications for the Vibrant Soundbridge have expanded and the VSB is implanted in patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. Patients have often undergone middle ear surgery before. Especially mixed hearing loss cases with 30-60 dB HL sensorineural hearing impairment and 30-40 dB HL air-bone gaps may be helped by this new application.

  18. Prevalence of middle ear disorders in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempert, B.L.; Hopkinson, N.T.; Keith, R.W.; Motl, M.L.; Horine, J.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented from a study of the prevalence of middle and external ear disorders in coal miners who work underground. The study followed from an earlier NIOSH report (1976) that indicated a possibly large number of otoscopic abnormalities in this population of workers. Otoscopic examinations, pure tone air- and bone-conduction audiometry tests, and impedance tests were administered to 350 underground miners and 150 industrial workers not associated with mining. The study was conducted completely within a hospital otolaryngology/audiology clinic setting. Results of the investigation showed a highly similar prevalence of middle ear and ear canal abnormalities in the miner group and the control group (19 percent). Middle ear abnormalities observed in the miners were judged by the examining otolaryngologists to have preceded their experience in the mines and were not related solely to underground noise exposure or coal dust. Nearly half of the subjects who had an air-bone gap had no middle ear abnormality observable by otoscopic examination. There was substantial agreement between the finding of abnormal otoscopy and abnormal tympanometry. By itself, acoustic reflex was not useful in identifying middle ear disorders, since this reflex may be absent for other reasons, including presence of severe sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. Modification of closed tympanoplasty in middle ear cholesteatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-gang; LIU Xiang; CHEN Sui-jun; CHEN Bin; ZHENG Yi-qing

    2010-01-01

    Background Classic mastoidectomy and modified mastoidectomy are traditional surgical procedures for middle ear cholesteatoma with goals of eradicating diseases, creating dry ears and preventing severe complications. However, the drawback of these procedures is the lack of hearing improvement. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effects and safety of a modification of closed tympanoplasty for middle ear cholesteatoma.Methods Eighty-three patients were recruited in this study based on the following two criteria: each patient had middle ear cholesteatoma in one ear; the affected ears had a functional eustachian tube and had neither intracranial nor extracranial complications. All the patients received a modification of closed tympanoplasty which included ossicular reconstruction with total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) or partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) and membrane repair with conchal cartilage-perichondral complex.Results All the 83 cases had dry ears with membranes healed within 4-6 postoperative weeks. After 6 postoperative months, there were 3 cases with re-perforation at the tympanic membrane center and after 1.5 postoperative years, there were 5 cases with cholesteatoma recurrence (6.02%). Function tests after one postoperative year exhibited an improvement of pure tone audiometry (PTA) in 27 cases that was more than 30 dB, in 33 cases between 20-29 dB, 14 cases with improvement between 10-19 dB, and in 9 cases there was no improvement.Conclusions The modified closed tympanoplasty procedure for middle ear cholesteatoma in the present study has all the advantages of both close-cavity and open-cavity procedures. It has low recurrence rate and good hearing improvement.

  20. Tympanoplasty without use of gelfoam in the middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghiasi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  In usual technique of tympanoplasty almost all of otologic surgeons use gelfoam in the middle ear for support of graft against margin of tympanic membrane perforation. In this study we use technique that we did not use gelfoam in the middle ear. We compared results of graft taking rate in two techniques. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study during 2 years 181 patients with COM underwent tympanoplasty with underlay grafting. In 83 patients used gelfoam in the middle ear for tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy (CCTM, OCTM. In 98 patients we did not use gelfoam in the middle ear. Results: In 83 patients with use of gelfoam, graft taking rate in 59 (71.1% cases with tympanoplasty and CCTM was 54 (91% and in 24 (28.9% cases with OCTM was 20 (83%. In 98 patients without use of gelfoam, graft taking rate in 61 (62.2% cases with tympanoplasty and CCTM was 54 (89% and in 37 (37.8% cases with OCTM were 31 (84%. Conclusion: In this study, results of graft taking rate were similar in 2 groups. On the other hand, gelfoam entirely reabsorbed during 45 to 54 days in the middle ear and immune system react by a round cell response. This sponge encourages the formation of the fibrous tissue at a higher rate than naturally occurs in the ear. In our technique we had not these problems. Another advantage of this technique is rapid improvement of patient hearing after removing of the external ear canal rosebud. We think this technique could be used in tympanoplasty and tympanomastoidectoy routinely. ‍‍‍

  1. Vibrant soundbridge middle ear implant in otosclerosis: technique - indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Thibaud

    2007-01-01

    With our growing experience with the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant, the question emerged of its indication in mixed hearing loss due to advanced otosclerosis. We describe the VSB implantation technique in primary otosclerosis performed together with a stapedotomy piston procedure. Hearing results under headphone and free-field conditions show that the stapedotomy piston procedure closes the air-bone gap as expected and that the VSB provides comparable gain to that usually recorded for pure sensorineural hearing loss. The gains of the two procedures add up. These results open the field of mixed hearing loss to the VSB middle ear implant.

  2. Primary T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Shixi; Yang, Hui; Wang, Weiya

    2016-03-01

    T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a highly aggressive lymphoma characterized by precursor T-cell malignancy and lymphadenopathy or mediastinal involvement. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with a diagnosis of middle ear T-LBL, which manifested as a headache, hearing loss and peripheral facial paralysis. The child was given intensive chemotherapy and had a complete response. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of T-LBL originating in the middle ear. This case aims to help clinicians to be vigilant about the possibility of primary lesions at atypical sites in some special diseases.

  3. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus middle ear columella formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Kathryn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella and ossified columella. Middle and external ear defects are responsible for approximately 10% of congenital hearing defects. Thus, understanding the morphogenesis and the molecular mechanisms of the formation of the middle ear is important to understanding normal and abnormal development of this essential component of the hearing apparatus. Results The columella, which arises from proximal ectomesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, is induced and patterned in a dynamic multi-step process. From the footplate, which inserts into the inner ear oval window, the shaft spans the pneumatic middle ear cavity, and the extracolumella inserts into the tympanic membrane. Through marker gene and immunolabeling analysis, we have determined the onset of each stage in the columella's development, from condensation to ossification. Significantly, a single condensation with the putative shaft and extracolumella arms already distinguishable is observed shortly before initiation of five separate chondrogenic centers within these structures. Ossification begins later, with periosteum formation in the shaft and, unexpectedly, a separate periosteum in the footplate. Conclusions The data presented in this study document the spatiotemporal events leading to morphogenesis of the columella and middle ear structures and provide the first gene expression data for this region. These data identify candidate genes and facilitate future functional studies and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of columella formation.

  4. Middle ear adenoma. A tumor displaying mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, M; Kanavaros, P; Polivka, M; Nemeth, J; Monteil, J P; Frachet, B; Tran Ba Huy, P

    1989-10-01

    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a distinctive, rare entity that appears to be derived from the lining epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. We report four cases of MEA displaying the typical histologic growth pattern. Two distinct tumor cell immunophenotypes were identified in all cases; the first type exhibited positivity with anti-epithelial membrane antigen and anti-keratin antibodies, and the second type showed immunoreactivity with anti-keratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-neuron-specific enolase antibodies. Ultrastructural studies revealed bidirectional mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation, demonstrated by the presence of two distinct cell types containing apically located mucous granules and basally concentrated neuroendocrine granules, respectively. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation was supported by the immunohistochemical detection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the tumor cells in one case and neuron-specific enolase in three cases. These findings suggest that the potential for mixed mucinous/neuroendocrine differentiation described in other endodermally derived tumors also exists in middle ear mucosa. We also believe that the rare lesions diagnosed as primary carcinoid tumors of the middle ear might in fact be MEA with predominant or only neuroendocrine differentiation. The clinical course of our four cases and our review of the pertinent literature confirm the benign nature of MEA and indicate that these tumors should be treated by complete local excision without additional therapy.

  5. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N; Linn, Kathleen A; Dickinson, Ryan M; Carr, Anthony P

    2008-09-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  6. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear

    OpenAIRE

    YOSHIKAWA, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N.; Linn, Kathleen A.; Dickinson, Ryan M.; Carr, Anthony P.

    2008-01-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  7. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Moreira, Wanderval; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: fauassis@hotmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  8. The middle ear immune defense changes with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Winther, Ole; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a common disease in childhood. In adults, the disease is relatively rare, but more frequently associated with complications. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are age-related differences in pathogen exposure, anatomy of the Eustachian tube and immune system. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified, of which 51 genes were involved in the middle ear mucosal immune system. Genes related to the innate immune system, including alpha-defensin, calcium-binding proteins S100A9 and S100A8, were upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system, including CD3 molecules, zeta-chain T-cell receptor-associated protein kinase and linker of activated T-cells, were upregulated in the adult. This study concludes that the normal middle ear immune system changes with age. Genes related to the innate immune system are upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system are upregulated in adults.

  9. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell’s palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. Case presentation We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery...

  10. Usefulness of CT in preoperative examinations for middle ear surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Okitsu, Takuji; Sakurai, Tokio; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Kusakari, Jun

    1985-02-01

    The usefulness of CT in preoperative examinations for middle ear surgery was evaluated on the basis of whether or not it can provide a surgon with useful information not available from the other preoperative examinations, such as microscopic examination, pure tone audiometry, impedance audiometry, equilibrium tests, conventional X-ray films, etc. The findings of CT were compared with those obatained during operations and the following conclusions were reached: CT is especially useful for the three purposes indicated below. (1) to determine the patency of the attic air route to the mastoid antrum. (2) to make differential diagnoses of middle ear diseases in the presence of obstructive pathology of the external auditory meatus. (3) to make a rough estimate of the extent of cholesteatoma growth in the middle ear cleft, and to diagnose labyrinthine fistulae. CT proved less effective or useless for the following three purposes. (1) to secure detailed information on the status of the ossicular chain. (2) to determine the precise extent of the growth of cholesteatoma. (3) to evaluate the postoperative status of the ear. (author).

  11. Effect of the middle ear reflex on sound transmission to the inner ear of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, P K; Ostwald, J; Kreiter, A; Schnitzler, H U

    1997-03-01

    The effect of the acoustic middle ear reflex (MER) was quantified using electrodes chronically implanted in the middle ears of rats. Cochlear microphonics (CM) and middle ear muscle EMG were measured under light Ketamin anesthesia after stimulation with tone pulses of 5-20 kHz ranging between 75 and 120 dB SPL. With increasing intensity, the CM measured before the onset of the MER increased to a maximum amplitude and then decreased with higher SPLs. At 10 kHz this maximum was reached at 95 dB SPL, for other stimulus frequencies at higher SPLs. After a latency of 10-20 ms, CM to 10 kHz stimuli of 80-95 dB SPL were decreased by the attenuating action of the MER. The lowest threshold of the MER was also measured at 10 kHz (77 dB SPL in the mean). To stimuli greater than 100 dB SPL after a latency of 6-10 ms, the CM amplitude was increased. That this CM increase to intense stimuli is caused by the action of the MER was confirmed by control experiments such as cutting the tendons of the middle ear muscles. The CM decrease to stimuli below 100 dB SPL, as well as the increase to very intense stimuli, can be explained by sound attenuation caused by the MER, together with the nonlinear dependence of CM amplitude on stimulus level. The observed shift of the maxima of the CM input-output function by the MER to higher stimulus levels probably indicates an increase of the dynamic range of the ear.

  12. Poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections: any relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3-12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was determined by using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index of Greene and Vermillion. The scores of 0-1 were classified as low, and of 2-3 as high oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The low OHI-S was taken as the control group (30 patients). The high OHI-S was taken as the study group (29 patients). The effusion scores, the compliance values and the middle ear pressure values in the two groups were compared. The difference between the effusion score values of the control and study groups was found to be statistically meaningful (p = 0.338, and the χ(2) = 2.167). The compliance values of the control and study groups did not differ meaningfully statistically (p = 0.671). However, there was a statistically meaningful low middle ear pressure (p = 0.044, χ(2) = 4.069) in the control group. Since this finding is expected in the study group, instead of the control group, we did not make an issue of this result. We conclude from these clinical results that there is no statistically meaningful relation between the oral hygiene index and the middle ear.

  13. Rheologic studies on middle ear effusions and their mucus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, J E; Green, G G; Birchall, J P; Pearson, J P

    1989-04-01

    The properties of pooled thick and thin middle ear effusions, from children with otitis media with effusion, were studied by viscometry. Mucus glycoproteins were responsible for effusion viscosity. Their percentage by weight in thick and thin effusions was 25% and 8.2%, respectively. N-acetylcysteine and 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol caused a 39% viscosity drop in a 5-mg/mL glycoprotein solution, whereas S-carboxymethylcysteine had no effect. Treatment of thick effusions with 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol initially caused a viscosity decrease followed by a gradual increase. Higher reducing agent concentrations (0.5 mol/L) caused a more rapid decrease followed by a rapid increase, presumably by causing nonspecific aggregation of reduced protein molecules. These results suggest that the concentration of and the time that a mucolytic is in the middle ear would be of prime importance in achieving the desired decrease in viscosity.

  14. Asymptomatic mucormycosis of middle ear: An incidental finding during tympanoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Biniyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a fungal infection, commonly affecting the paranasal sinuses. An aggressive invasive form of infection is common in people with uncontrolled diabetes and in immunocompromised people. Mucormycosis affecting temporal bone is a rare entity, most of the reported cases are of invasive disease in diabetic people. We report a case of mucormycosis of middle ear cavity which was found incidentally in a healthy nondiabetic woman while performing revision tympanoplasty for chronic suppurative otitis media.

  15. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-08-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. Other animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author).

  16. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  17. Imaging Finding of Malignant Melanoma of Eustachian Tube with Extension to Middle Ear Cavity: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Km Hong Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Han Won [Daekyung Radiologic Clinics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of Eustachian tube with extension to the middle ear cavity and nasopharynx in a 51-year-old woman who presented with right ear fullness. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity and caused the widening and eroding of the bony eustachian tube. Magnetic resonance imaging showed well enhancing mass in eustachian tube extending nasopharynx to middle ear cavity. A biopsy of the middle ear cavity mass revealed a malignant amelanotic melanoma.

  18. Imaging Finding of Malignant Melanoma of Eustachian Tube with Extension to Middle Ear Cavity: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Chul; Jang, Han Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of Eustachian tube with extension to the middle ear cavity and nasopharynx in a 51-year-old woman who presented with right ear fullness. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity and causedthe widening and eroding of the bony eustachian tube. Magnetic resonance imaging showed well enhancing mass in eustachian tube extending nasopharynx to middle ear cavity. A biopsy of the middle ear cavity mass revealed a malignant amelanotic melanoma. PMID:23118582

  19. Influence of middle ear mucosal condition on post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chan Il; Hong, Hye Ran; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the association between the middle ear mucosal condition and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome was investigated in patients with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma. One hundred and forty-three patients with chronic otitis media were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Asan Medical Center between January, 2009 and December, 2011. In the course of tympanoplasty, the status of the middle ear mucosa was divided into normal or abnormal by one surgeon. Pure tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and post-tympanoplasty tympanogram was also conducted to estimate the condition of middle ear cavity. Of the 143 patients, there were 73 patients with normal middle ear mucosa and 70 patients with abnormal middle ear mucosa around Eustachian tube opening. The mean ABG of subjects with normal middle ear mucosa was 20.1 dB preoperatively, and 9.7 dB postoperatively (p ear mucosa group (p = 0.137). Postoperative ABGs for 500 and 1000 Hz (7.1, 7.7 dB) in normal middle ear mucosa patients were significantly lower than those (17.2, 19.4 dB) in abnormal middle ear mucosa patients (p ear mucosa status and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcomes. The better condition of middle ear ventilation, the better postoperative hearing thresholds revealed after tympanoplasty.

  20. Anatomic Considerations on the Middle Ear in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explain some aspects of middle ear anatomy in dog. The study was conducted on five dog skulls (different ages from common, large size dogs. The skulls were processed by maceration and submitted to a treatment of mechanical cleaning with perhydrol. The temporal bone was collected first; the external wall was opened carefully to study the tympanic cavity. The ossicles were collected separately and subsequently described. From research carried promontory appears as an elongated projection that separates the oval window and round window. Vestibular window is oval or slightly ovoid shape of a hole, located dorso-medially to the promontory, which communicates with the middle ear vestibule. Cochlearia window appears as a round or circular hole located caudo-lateral to the promontory . it is blocked by a membrane called the tympanum secondary, cavity separating the ramp of the snail. In the ventro-oral cavity openings ductus faringo tympanicum. The osicules sound represented by hammer, anvil and stirrup are articulated with each other and form a chain as a link between the eardrum and vestibular window. Bones are driven by two muscles: the tensor muscle and muscle stirrup eardrum is very thin. osicules ear are relatively large and resemble those of humans. Lenticular bone is the lenticular process of the long arm of anvile.

  1. Inflammatory responses to Hydroxyapatite implants in middle ear in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; JIANG Yi; WANG Xiao-yan; ZHENG Ke-fei

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study local inflammatory response after implantation of hydroxyapatite synthetic ossicular prosthesis. Methods Hydroxyapatite gantries were implanted in the bulla in 32 rats. Sham surgical procedures were performed in 10 rats as the control. Animals were sacrificed at 1 to 300 days after surgery. Bulla sections, stained with HE and Mallory's azan, were examined for numbers and percentages of various inflammatory cell types. Results Slightly more inflammatory reaction was seen in animals with the implant than in the controls, mostly during the early stage following the implantation procedure. Few inflammatory cells were observed at later times. There were satisfactory fibrosis in both implanted and control ears. Conclusion The results indicate that hydroxyapatite synthetic prosthesis is a biocompatible implantation material in the middle ear. Nonetheless, the presence of inflammatory reaction immediately following implantation implies that control of infection is important in the early times after the implantation procedure.

  2. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  3. Phonemic Awareness and Middle-Ear Disease among Bedouin Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of middle-ear infections on phonemic awareness on first-grade Bedouin Arab elementary school children in northern Israel. Divides 49 children who were screened according to their infant medical records into two groups: one with repeated middle-ear infection and one without. Indicates a nonsignificant effect of middle-ear…

  4. Middle ear and mastoid hemangioma treated by neurointerventional techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumbhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal bone hemangiomas are rare, difficult to diagnose and may cause devastating permanent sequelae. We report a case of 10-year-old female with middle ear and mastoid hemangioma who presented with facial palsy and conductive hearing loss. Due to presence of associated scalp swelling, hemangioma was suspected and confirmed by angiography. Treatment was performed by embolization leading to arrest of progression and partial reversal of hearing loss. On extensive review of literature, we conclude that this is the first case of temporal bone hemangioma to be diagnosed pre-operatively and to be treated with embolization techniques.

  5. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, I J

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness.

  6. A short-wave infrared otoscope for middle ear disease diagnostics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jessica A.; Valdez, Tulio; Bruns, Oliver; Bawendi, Moungi

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media, a range of inflammatory conditions of the middle ear, is the second most common illness diagnosed in children. However, the diagnosis can be challenging, particularly in pediatric patients. Otitis media is commonly over-diagnosed and over-treated and has been identified as one of the primary factors in increased antibiotic resistance. We describe the development of a short-wave infrared (SWIR) otoscope for objective middle ear effusion diagnosis. The SWIR otoscope can unambiguously detect the presence of middle ear fluid based on its strong light absorption in the SWIR. This absorption causes a stark, visual contrast between the presence and absence of fluid behind the tympanic membrane. Additionally, when there is no middle ear fluid, the deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows the SWIR otoscope to better visualize middle ear anatomy through the tympanic membrane than is possible with visible light. We demonstrate that in healthy, adult human ears, SWIR otoscopy can image a range of middle ear anatomy, including landmarks of the entire ossicular chain, the promontory, the round window niche, and the chorda tympani. We suggest that SWIR otoscopy can provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy in the diagnosis of middle ear effusions, otitis media, and other maladies of the middle ear.

  7. Decreasing incidence rate for surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma in Denmark 1977-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Faber, Christian Emil; Skytthe, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to estimate the annual incidence rate of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma (STMEC) in Denmark from 1977 to 2007, taking age, gender and secular trends into consideration.......The objective was to estimate the annual incidence rate of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma (STMEC) in Denmark from 1977 to 2007, taking age, gender and secular trends into consideration....

  8. Bone Signaling in Middle Ear Development: A Genome‐Wide Differential Expression Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Bertelsen, Tomas Martin; Friis, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Common middle ear diseases may affect bone behavior in the middle ear air cell system. To understand this pathologic pneumatization, the normal development of bone in the middle ear should be investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze gene expression of bone‐related signaling factors...... and gene sets in the developing middle ear. Microarray technology was used to identify bone‐related genes and gene sets, which were differentially expressed between the lining tissue of adult (quiescent) bulla and young (resorbing/forming) bulla. Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics...... and expression levels of selected genes were validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The candidate gene products were compared with previously published data on middle ear bone metabolism. No differentially expressed genes were found on the outer surface of bulla. On the inner lining a total...

  9. Real ear unaided gain and its relation with the equivalent volume of the external and middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old age is associated with changes in the characteristics of the middle ear transmission system and in external ear resonance, and these carry implications for the hearing aid (HA verification process for which targets and measures of the real ear insertion gain (REIG are used. Aim: To compare the real ear unaided gain (REUG and the equivalent volumes of the external ear (VeqEE and the middle ear (VeqME between elderly and adult patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 28 elderly patients (aged between 61 and 102 years, average hearing thresholds between 38.75 and 85 dB HL and 23 adult patients (aged 20-59, mean hearing thresholds between 31.25 and 116.25 dB HL with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and no history of middle ear abnormalities were analyzed. Immittance measurements (VeqEE, VeqME, and pressure of the peak of maximum compliance and the REUG (frequency and amplitude of the primary peak were recovered for a total of 40 ears. These data were compared between elderly and adults as well as between men and women, using Student's t test. Correlations (Pearson between immittance and REUG data were also verified. Results: No statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 were found for immittance and REUG data between elderly and adults, or between men and women. A negative and weak but significant correlation was observed between the REUG primary peak and VeqEE. Conclusion: Hearing aid verification can be performed with target and measures of the REIG in the elderly population.

  10. CT and magnetic resonance imaging features of middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Middle ear adenoma is a rare benign epithelial tumor. We report the CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case of middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation in a 36-year-old man. On high-resolution CT, the mass was found to fill the middle ear, in which the ossicles were embedded, but not destroyed, with outward bulging of the intact tympanic membrane. On MRI, the mass, which was intensely enhanced on 3-dimensional (3D) gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence, involved the middle ear, aditus ad antrum and a portion of mastoid antrum. Histological and immunohistochemical findings of the specimen obtained by surgical excisions were consistent with middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation. Middle ear adenoma of neuroendocrine differentiation should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intensely enhancing mass filling the middle ear/mastoid antrum without ossicular destructions. The extent of the mass can be excellently assessed with 3D Gd-enhanced SPGR sequence.

  11. Middle ear cavity morphology is consistent with an aquatic origin for testudines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Willis

    Full Text Available The position of testudines in vertebrate phylogeny is being re-evaluated. At present, testudine morphological and molecular data conflict when reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. Complicating matters, the ecological niche of stem testudines is ambiguous. To understand how turtles have evolved to hear in different environments, we examined middle ear morphology and scaling in most extant families, as well as some extinct species, using 3-dimensional reconstructions from micro magnetic resonance (MR and submillimeter computed tomography (CT scans. All families of testudines exhibited a similar shape of the bony structure of the middle ear cavity, with the tympanic disk located on the rostrolateral edge of the cavity. Sea Turtles have additional soft tissue that fills the middle ear cavity to varying degrees. When the middle ear cavity is modeled as an air-filled sphere of the same volume resonating in an underwater sound field, the calculated resonances for the volumes of the middle ear cavities largely fell within testudine hearing ranges. Although there were some differences in morphology, there were no statistically significant differences in the scaling of the volume of the bony middle ear cavity with head size among groups when categorized by phylogeny and ecology. Because the cavity is predicted to resonate underwater within the testudine hearing range, the data support the hypothesis of an aquatic origin for testudines, and function of the middle ear cavity in underwater sound detection.

  12. Middle ear osteoma: a rare cause of conductive hearing loss with normal tympanic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérillaud, B; Guilleré, L; Williams, M T; El Bakkouri, W; Ayache, D

    2011-01-01

    Osteomas of the temporal bone are benign osseous tumors usually located to the external auditory canal. Osteomas involving the middle ear are very rare. We report the case of a patient presenting with a progressive hearing loss caused by a middle ear osteoma involving the incus and contiguous to the tympanic segment of the facial nerve. This report highlights the value of CT scan in the work-up of conductive or mixed hearing loss with normal tympanic membrane. The management of middle ear osteoma is discussed.

  13. Oral Pseudoephedrine Decreases the Rate of Trans-mucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miriam S.; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Martin, Brian S; Cullen Doyle, Brendan M.; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if oral pretreatment with a vasoconstrictor decreases the blood to middle-ear exchange-rate of the perfusion-limited gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Study Design Randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Methods Ten adult subjects with and 10 without past middle-ear disease completed paired experimental sessions, identical but for oral pretreatment with either pseudoephedrine HCL or lactose placebo. At each session, subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes (acclimation period), 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes (experimental period) and 100% O2 for 10 minutes (recovery period). Throughout, heart-rate, blood-pressure and O2 saturation were monitored and bilateral middle-ear pressures were recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome was the slope of the middle-ear pressure-time function for the experimental period which estimates the volume N2O exchange-rate. Using repeated measures ANOVA, the effects of Group (disease history), Treatment (active vs. placebo) and Period (1 vs. 2) on the recorded vital signs, and of Group, Treatment and Ear (left/right) on the middle-ear pressure-time slope were evaluated for statistical significance. Results Statistically significant effects of Period on O2 saturation (Period 2>Period 1) and of Treatment on heart-rate (Active>Placebo) were documented. Only Treatment was statistically significant for the middle-ear pressure-time slope with a shallower slope characterizing the active treatment session. Conclusion The volume exchange-rate across the middle-ear mucosa of perfusion-limited gases can be modulated pharmacologically. Theoretically, similar drugs can be used to reduce the requisite Eustachian tube opening efficiency for adequate middle-ear pressure regulation. PMID:26152838

  14. Microtomography of the human middle and inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Beckmann, Felix; Zahnert, Thomas; Bonse, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and x-ray microtomography based on absorption contrast (performed at HASYLAB at DESY/Hamburg and BAM/Berlin) have been used for imaging of temporal bones and various internal components in situ at spatial resolution down to 7 micrometers with potential enhancement into the submicron range. Due to the volume imaging approach, several hidden structures (e.g., intra-ossicular channels) were revealed. Using several 3D-image processing techniques all data have been segmented into objects (e.g., bony ossicles, ligaments, fluids, air spaces) and subsequently transformed into vectorized data models. Because they are based on the original voxel resolution their content of vector primitives (e.g., polygons) is huge compared to recent models. Therefore they became polygon-reduced to fit into current computation limitations. So far individual data models of the entire hearing apparatus from tympanic membrane to cochlea out of intact specimen, including separate models of ossicles, ligaments and other components have been obtained, provided, in interchangeable data formats (e.g. vector-based: IGES, STL, VRML) and introduced into FEA for modeling of acousto-mechanic transfer characteristics of the middle ear. Their pseudo and real 3D- visualizations (rendering, autosteroscopic display, enlarged solid models) allow easy understanding of the anatomy and pathology of the human hearing organ and may support patient and student education in the field of otology and audiology.

  15. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  16. The malleable middle ear: an underappreciated player in the evolution of hearing in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The middle ear of tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) originated from nonauditory structures, and has been modified by adaptations arising from the lifestyle of the tetrapods. These accessory structures for the inner ear increased the sensitivity to airborne sound, the frequency range of hearing...

  17. Ear barotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air ... body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  18. Persistent middle ear effusion presumably biofilm-related in a paediatric patient with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Torretta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms play a role in upper respiratory tract diseases, including acute and chronic middle ear diseases, and are involved in chronic infections and resistance to antibiotic treatment. In particular, the nasopharynx and the surrounding tissues act as important reservoirs of resistant bacterial biofilms, which have been detected in biopsies taken from adenoid and/or middle ear mucosa of children with chronic middle ear effusion. Here we describe the management of a child with congenital immunodeficiency and a chronic middle ear effusion, resistant to traditional medical treatment and presumably due to nasopharyngeal colonization by bacterial biofilms, which has been successfully treated by means of medicated nasal douches delivering antibiotic and a biofilm-destroying compound.

  19. [Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Kolczyńska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal flora can be a reservoir of bacteria caused acute otitis media in children. The aim of the study was to identify microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with acute otitis media. The study comprised 128 children ages 1 year to 14 years with diagnosed of acute otitis media with purulent discharge. The nasopharyngeal and middle ear samples were collected at the same time. Agar, chocolate, blood and Chapman plates were inoculated for isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and examined at 24 hours. The susceptibility of bacteria was determined by disk diffusion technique containing concentration gradients for following antibiotics: penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. 196 organisms from nasopharynx and 325 organisms from middle ear were isolated. Most frequent cultured bacteria were: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis--75.6% in nasopharynx and 77.8% in middle ear. We observed statistically significant (p bacteria from nasopharynx and 81.8% of bacteria from middle ear. Most organisms were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--60.7% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 62.6% of bacteria from middle ear. Penicillin resistance was observed in 25.0% of bacteria from nasopharynx and 25.6% of bacteria from middle ear. The correlation in resistance of bacteria between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin (r = 0.4886) and between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and penicillin (r = 0.5027) was observed. Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media is similar. In that case susceptibility of bacteria from the nasopharynx can be useful for empirical treatment of acute otitis media in children.

  20. Middle and inner ear malformations in two cases of velocardiofacial syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tabith Junior,Alfredo; Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme; Silva,Fernando Leite de Carvalho e; Gudmon, Monica de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe audiometric characteristics and middle and inner ear malformations in two patients with velocardiofacial syndrome. Method: Audiometric evaluation, computerized tomography of the temporal bones and analysis of DNA for multiple markers of 22q11 region were performed in two patients with clinical signs of velocardiofacial syndrome. Results: Conductive hearing loss related to chronic otites media and middle and inner ear malformations were found, the latter with the use of ...

  1. Theoretic analysis of middle ear gas composition under conditions of nonphysiologic ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, E J; Silberberg, A

    1992-05-01

    As gas flows in and out of the nasopharynx, the pressure in that region fluctuates. It drops below or rises above atmospheric pressure, which is itself not constant but is subject to changes in altitude and weather. Such pressure changes in the nasopharynx produce a pumping of gas into and out of the middle ear. The net amount of middle ear gas transferred from or to the nasopharynx will, component for component, in steady state exactly equal the amount of middle ear gas transferred to or from the microcirculation by means of diffusional absorption by (or release from) the mucosa. In the case of a permanently patulous eustachian tube, a single parameter, characteristic of the rate of ventilation through the open eustachian tube, is found to determine the gas composition in the middle ear, whereas in the case of a middle ear ventilated by tympanostomy, two rate-of-ventilation parameters, one for gas flow through the ventilation tube and one for flow through a periodically open eustachian tube, determine the steady state gas composition. A high rate of ventilation favors absorption of oxygen and venting of carbon dioxide from the middle ear in both cases.

  2. Malformations of the middle and inner ear on CT imaging in 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Elke; Verhaert, Nicolas; Willaert, Annelore; Devriendt, Koenraad; Swillen, Ann; Hermans, Robert; Op de Beeck, Katya; Hens, Greet

    2016-11-01

    The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most frequent microdeletion syndrome in humans, presents with a large variety of abnormalities. A common abnormality is hearing impairment. The exact pathophysiological explanation of the observed hearing loss remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the middle and inner ear malformations as seen on computer tomographic imaging in patients with 22q11DS. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 11 22q11DS patients who had undergone a CT of the temporal bone in the past. Of the 22 examined ears, two showed an abnormal malleus and incus, 10 presented with a dense stapes superstructure, and three ears had an abnormal orientation of the stapes. With regard to the inner ear, 12 ears showed an incomplete partition type II with a normal vestibular aqueduct. In four ears the vestibule and lateral semicircular canal were composed of a single cavity, in 14 ears the vestibule was too wide, and three ears had a broadened lateral semicircular canal. These findings suggest that malformations of the stapes, cochlea, vestibule, and lateral semicircular canal are frequent in 22q11DS. To our knowledge, the current study involves the largest case series describing middle and inner ear malformations in 22q11DS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessment of middle ear function in patients with cleft palate treated under "Smile Train Project"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the middle ear function in patients of cleft palate treated under "Smile Train Project". Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (120 ears; 32 male and 28 female of cleft palate with or without cleft lip were evaluated in pediatrics and ENT OPD in preoperative period. A general medical check up was performed in pediatrics OPD to evaluate the associated craniofacial anomalies. Middle ear function was evaluated in ENT OPD. Otoscopy was done in all patients. Cases under five years of age were evaluated for middle ear function by tympanometry and cases with more than five years of age were evaluated by tympanometry for middle ear function and pure tone audiometry to establish the type of hearing loss. The results are presented as number of ears. Results: A total of 50% of the patients in the study group were in zero- to two-year age group. Otoscopy findings in 120 ears showed that 66.66% of the patients had dull tympanic membrane suggesting a diagnosis of otitis media with effusion. Tympanometry was done in 110 ears, of which, 72.72% of ears had type B tympanogram suggesting otitis media with effusion. Pure tone audiometry in more than five years age group showed that 81.25% ears had conductive hearing loss. Conclusion: This study suggests the need of preoperative ENT check up and audiological assessment in patients of cleft palate undergoing palatal surgery under "Smile Train Project". The association of otitis media with effusion in patients with cleft palate appears strong and a high degree of suspicion for the disease should be kept in them. The anatomical defect and possible causative pathophysiology also supports the inference. Otitis media with effusion causing hearing loss in these patients causes speech delay and unfavorable outcome despite aggressive speech therapy in postoperative period. A co-ordinate team approach of concerned specialists involved in managing these patients would definitely improve their outcome.

  4. Evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw: adaptations and novel structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthwal, Neal; Joshi, Leena; Tucker, Abigail S

    2013-01-01

    Having three ossicles in the middle ear is one of the defining features of mammals. All reptiles and birds have only one middle ear ossicle, the stapes or columella. How these two additional ossicles came to reside and function in the middle ear of mammals has been studied for the last 200 years and represents one of the classic example of how structures can change during evolution to function in new and novel ways. From fossil data, comparative anatomy and developmental biology it is now clear that the two new bones in the mammalian middle ear, the malleus and incus, are homologous to the quadrate and articular, which form the articulation for the upper and lower jaws in non-mammalian jawed vertebrates. The incorporation of the primary jaw joint into the mammalian middle ear was only possible due to the evolution of a new way to articulate the upper and lower jaws, with the formation of the dentary-squamosal joint, or TMJ in humans. The evolution of the three-ossicle ear in mammals is thus intricately connected with the evolution of a novel jaw joint, the two structures evolving together to create the distinctive mammalian skull.

  5. Study of the central auditive pathway by encephalic trunk evoked e auditory responses (ear) in children with language retard

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Manuel; Servicio de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú; Vera, Carlos; Servicio de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú

    2013-01-01

    Objetive: To determine the functional integrity of the brainstem auditory pathway by the auditive brainstem response (ABR) in language-retarded children without pathology in both the middle ear and central nervous system and no neonatal hearing loss risk factors. Design: Retrospective transversal study. Setting: Naval Medical Center and Air Force Central Hospital Otorhinolaryngology Services, Lima. Peru. Material and methods: Analysis of children’s ABR performed in the last ten years included...

  6. Clinical characteristics of patients with labyrinthine fistulae caused by middle ear cholesteatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Juan-mei; CHI Fang-lu; HAN Zhao; HUANG Yi-bo; LI Yi-ke

    2013-01-01

    Background Labyrinthine fistula (LF) is a very common clinical complication mainly caused by middle ear cholesteatoma.Whether the presence of different degree LF caused by middle ear cholesteatoma aggravates neurosensory hearing loss (NSHL) and what is the degree of the hearing loss caused by LF were still under controversial.This study aimed to investigate whether the LF degree is correlative with the age distribution,disease duration and hearing loss degree for cholesteatomatous patients.Methods The files of 143 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma were selected and reviewed in a retrospective study.Seventy-eight patients with LF were divided into three types according to the degree of destruction of labyrinth.Sixty-five patients without LF were randomly chosen for control.Then,we compared the clinical characteristics of patients with or without labyrinthine fistulae caused by middle ear cholesteatoma.Results According to the study,cholesteatomatous patients with LF were older and suffered longer disease duration than those without LF.Hearing loss is severe with high frequencies both in patients with and without LF.Moreover,inner ear impairment is correlative with the degree of destruction in labyrinth,and more severe destruction in labyrinth follow the more severe symptoms correlative with inner ear impairment.Conclusion Surgical intervention should be performed as eady as possible for these cholesteatomatous patients.

  7. What middle ear parameters tell about impedance matching and high frequency hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, S; Nummela, S; Reuter, T

    1995-05-01

    Acoustic energy enters the mammalian cochlea aided by an anatomical impedance matching performed by the middle ear. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the functional consequences of changes in scale of the middle ear when going from the smallest mammals to the largest. Our anatomical measurements in mammals of different sizes ranging from bats to elephants indicate that middle ear proportions are largely isometric. Thus the calculated transformer ratio is basically independent of animal size, a typical value lying between 30 and 80. Similarly, the calculated specific acoustic input impedance of the inner ear is independent of animal size, the average value being about 140 kPa s/m. We show that if the high frequency hearing limit of isometric ears is limited by ossicle inertia, it should be inversely proportional to the cubic root of the ossicular mass. This prediction is in reasonable agreement with published audiogram data. We then present a three-parameter model of the middle ear where some obvious deviations from perfect isometry are taken into account. The high frequency hearing limits of different species generally agree well with the predictions of this simple model. However, the hearing limits of small rodents clearly deviate from the model calculation. We interpret this observation as indicating that the hearing limit towards very high frequencies may be set by cochlear transduction mechanisms. Further we discuss the exceptional high frequency hearing of the cat and the amphibious hearing of seals.

  8. Laser interferometric vibration measurements of the middle ear in healthy humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, J. Rodriguez; Hemmert, Werner; Burkhardt, Claus; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Gummer, Anthony W.

    1996-01-01

    The use of spontaneous and evoked otacoustic emissions is now a standard clinical tool for diagnosis of the function of the inner ear. However, it is not possible to extract this information over the entire, functionally relevant frequency range because of imperfect coupling of: (1) stapedial to ear-drum vibrations through the ossicular chain of the middle ear and (2) ear-drum vibrations to air in the external auditory meatus. The problem could be circumvented if it were possible to measure the vibration of the stapes and ear drum. The ear drum can be visualized non-invasively, whereas the stapes is only accessible intra-operatively. Therefore, we designed a laser-interferometric system to non-invasively measure the vibration of the human ear drum. Vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter (Polytec OFV-302) coupled into the side arm of an operating microscope (Zeiss OPMI MDM). The wavelength was 633 nm and emitted power was less than 1 mW. Direct coupling through the optics of the operating microscope, instead of through glass fibers, enabled a larger signal-to- noise ratio (20 - 30 dB) due to collection of more reflected light. This coupling scheme avoids the problems associated with having to place a reflecting material on the ear drum. The developed vibration measurement system allows non-invasive, fast and reproducible characterization of the dynamics of the human ear drum and as such can be used for clinical diagnostics.

  9. Outer- and middle-ear contributions to presbycusis in the Brown Norway rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Michael Anne; Bateman, Kristin; Cannuscio, Joseph F; Saunders, James C

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of the outer and middle ears to the hearing loss associated with presbycusis in Brown Norway rats. Animals were formed into two groups; young adults (2-3 months old) and aged animals (approximately 34 months old). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were obtained with the outer ear intact or surgically removed. Tympanic membrane (TM) velocity transfer functions were measured from the umbo with the outer ear removed. The length of the auditory meatus, TM surface area, and TM thickness were quantified. The ABR thresholds were 17-26 dB less sensitive in the aged animals between 8.0 and 40.0 kHz when the outer ear was intact. A significant and reliable reduction in the aged rat velocity transfer function of 5-8 dB occurred between 10.0 and 32.0 kHz, while the low frequency velocity response was only a few decibels greater in the younger animals. The ABR threshold differences between young adult and aged ears were compensated by removing the outer/middle ear effects of aging to reveal a purely sensorineural component of presbycusis. The outer and middle ear effects were calculated directly when the ABR and TM velocity data were obtained with the outer ear removed. The outer ear intact condition was modeled in order to compare the ABR data obtained with the outer ear intact with the TM velocity data obtained with the outer removed. With either procedure, removal of the age-related contributions of the outer and middle ear to the ABR threshold resulted in similar age-related ABR threshold shifts between the two age groups. The pure sensorineural threshold shift component of the ABR response was restricted to frequencies between 5.0 and 20.0 kHz and reached a maximum of approximately 15 dB. These results support the conclusion that there is an outer- and middle-ear contribution to the threshold loss defining presbycusis.

  10. Presence of viral nucleic acids in the middle ear: acute otitis media pathogen or bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Ruohola, Aino; Hendley, J Owen

    2012-04-01

    Viruses play an important role in acute otitis media (AOM) pathogenesis, and live viruses may cause AOM in the absence of pathogenic bacteria. Detection of AOM pathogens generally relies on bacterial culture of middle ear fluid. When viral culture is used and live viruses are detected in the middle ear fluid of children with AOM, the viruses are generally accepted as AOM pathogens. Because viral culture is not sensitive and does not detect the comprehensive spectrum of respiratory viruses, polymerase chain reaction assays are commonly used to detect viral nucleic acids in the middle ear fluid. Although polymerase chain reaction assays have greatly increased the viral detection rate, new questions arise on the significance of viral nucleic acids detected in the middle ear because nucleic acids of multiple viruses are detected simultaneously, and nucleic acids of specific viruses are detected repeatedly and in a high proportion of asymptomatic children. This article first reviews the role of live viruses in AOM and presents the point-counterpoint arguments on whether viral nucleic acids in the middle ear represent an AOM pathogen or a bystander status. Although there is evidence to support both directions, helpful information for interpretation of the data and future research direction is outlined.

  11. Carcinoid Tumors in the Middle Ear: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Entong; GONG Weixi; DA Jiping

    2006-01-01

    Middle ear carcinoid tumor (MEC T) is rare. Only 46 cases of MECT have been reported in the literature since the first case of MECT was described in 1980. We present here a case of primary MECT initially diagnosed as inflammatory aural polyp. The case was a 43-year-old women complaining of right ear chronic otorrhea and hearing loss over a period of five years, with a blockage sensation in the right ear for two years. Audiometry showed conductive hearing loss in the right ear. Physical examination and CT scans showed a mass in the right external auditory canal and middle ear, surrounding the ossicular chain. Pathologic study of surgically removed specimen revealed features of carcinoid tumor with positive staining to chromogranin A and synaptophysin in tumor cells. Local radiation of 60 Gy was applied. The patient has been followed up for more than one year. Postoperative histopathological examination showed no evidence of MECT recurrence one year after surgery, but inflammatory changes in the middle ear. Relevant literatures were reviewed. Clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of MECT, and strategies in MECT diagnosis and management are discussed.

  12. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  13. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear. Its effectiveness, limits of diagnosis and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu (Iwaki Kyoritsu General Hospital, Fukushima (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was observed in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases.

  14. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  15. Effects of polylactic acid film on middle ear mucosa and cochlear function in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Nuray; Tutar, Hakan; Ekinci, Ozgur; Ugur, Mehmet Birol; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A; Gokdogan, Cagil; Goksu, Nebil

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to assess the effects of polylactic acid (PLA) on middle ear mucosa and cochlea, to be used as a film barrier for postoperative adhesion prevention in the middle ear. Twenty-one albino Guinea pigs were included in the study. A window was opened on both tympanic bulla and on one side PLA material was placed in the middle ear and on the other side only fenestration was performed and used as a control. All Guinea pigs underwent evaluation of tympanic membranes microscopically; functional hearing was analyzed by auditory brainstem responses preoperatively, in the first and the sixth month. All Guinea pigs were killed on the sixth month for histopathologic evaluation of their temporal bones. There was no statistical difference between both groups regarding hearing thresholds, interpeak wave latencies preoperatively and on first and the sixth months postoperatively. Histopathological evaluation revealed no specific changes. There was a mild local inflammation both in the PLA implanted and control ears. PLA film barrier most likely has no toxic effects on Guinea pig middle ear and does not show any ototoxic side effects.

  16. Middle ear impedance studies in elderly patients implications on age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ayodele Sogebi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Controversies arise with respect to functioning of the middle ear over time.OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in middle ear impedance that may be related to aging, and/or if there was an association of these changes with those of the inner ear in the elderly patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional, comparative study of elderly patients managed in ear, nose and throat clinics. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain clinical information. Pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and acoustic reflexes were performed. Comparative analyses were performed to detect intergroup differences between clinico-audiometric findings and middle ear measures, viz. tympanograms and acoustic reflexes.RESULTS: One hundred and three elderly patients participated in the study; 52.4% were male, averagely 70.0 ± 6.3 years old, age-related hearing loss in 59.2%, abnormal tympanograms in 39.3%, absent acoustic reflex in 37.9%. There was no association between age and gender in patients with abnormal tympanograms and absent acoustic reflex. Significantly more patients with different forms and grades of age-related hearing loss had abnormal tympanometry and absent acoustic reflex.CONCLUSION: Some abnormalities were observed in the impedance audiometric measures of elderly patients, which were significantly associated with parameters connected to age-related hearing loss.

  17. Antibodies mediate formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in the middle ear and facilitate secondary pneumococcal otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kirsty R; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Langereis, Jeroen D; Chew, Keng Yih; Job, Emma R; Armitage, Charles W; Hatcher, Brandon; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Reading, Patrick C; Hermans, Peter W; Wijburg, Odilia L; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) (a middle ear infection) is a common childhood illness that can leave some children with permanent hearing loss. OM can arise following infection with a variety of different pathogens, including a coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). We and others have demonstrated that coinfection with IAV facilitates the replication of pneumococci in the middle ear. Specifically, we used a mouse model of OM to show that IAV facilitates the outgrowth of S. pneumoniae in the middle ear by inducing middle ear inflammation. Here, we seek to understand how the host inflammatory response facilitates bacterial outgrowth in the middle ear. Using B cell-deficient infant mice, we show that antibodies play a crucial role in facilitating pneumococcal replication. We subsequently show that this is due to antibody-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the middle ear, which, instead of clearing the infection, allows the bacteria to replicate. We further demonstrate the importance of these NETs as a potential therapeutic target through the transtympanic administration of a DNase, which effectively reduces the bacterial load in the middle ear. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into how pneumococci are able to replicate in the middle ear cavity and induce disease.

  18. Assessment of middle ear effusion and audiological characteristics in young children with adenoid hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Dong-dong; WANG Wu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Otitis media with effusion is a highly concurrent disease in young children with adenoid hypertrophy.The aim of this study was to assess the middle ear effusion and audiological characteristics in children with adenoid hypertrophy and compare the various assessment methods.@@Methods Two hundred and seven candidates who were to undergo adenoidectomy were analyzed using otoscopy,tympanometry,air-conduction auditory steady-state responses (AC-ASSR),and computerized tomography (CT) before adenoidectomy.@@Results About 73.4% (304/414) of ears were confirmed to have middle ear effusion (MEE) by otoscopy; 75.4% (312/414) of ears revealed MEE by CT.CT scan correctly predicted all the myringotomy results,giving 100% accuracy on the diagnosis of MEE.Additionally,CT revealed two children with inner ear malformations.Type B tracing tympanogram provided a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 92.2%.Type C tympanogram with peak pressure <-200 daPa indicated effusion; type C tympanogram having acoustic stapedius reflex could exclude MEE.We excluded the AC-ASSR results of the 4 ears with malformation; 54.4% (223/410) of ears were confirmed of hearing loss.Furthermore,5.2%(16/310) of the ears with MEE suffered from severe to profound hearing loss.The average threshold level in the 0.25 kHz frequency of children was found to have poorer hearing thresholds than those in the 0.5,1,2,and 4 kHz (P <0.001) frequencies; 29.7% (92/310) of ears with MEE were regarded as normal hearing level.About 55.8% (173/310) of ears with MEE were classified as having slight-mild hearing loss.@@Conclusions The practitioners should pay much attention to the middle ear condition and be aware of a possible development of severe to profound hearing loss during the course of MEE in young children with adenoid hypertrophy.CT scan is good for the assessment of MEE before ventilation tube insertion.

  19. Femtosecond laser microstructuring of titanium surfaces for middle ear ossicular replacement prosthesis: results of preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S.; Ilgner, J. F. R.; Fadeeva, E.; Chichkov, B.; Prescher, A.; Bovi, M.; Westhofen, M.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize titanium surfaces by means of Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser to improve the attachment of human cartilage cells on titanium prosthesis in middle ear surgery. The application of microstructures on titanium samples was evaluated and the influence of these microstructures on human auricular chondrocytes was studied in-vitro. After establishing the ear chondrocyte cell culture, cells were seeded on titanium platelets with selected microstructure patterns. Whereas the phenotype of cells seeded on unstructured titanium was similar to cells grown on standard tissue culture surfaces, the morphology of chondrocytes grown on structured titanium samples was influenced by the pattern. For future titanium middle ear prosthesis structural optimizations will be developed to promote chondrocyte growth and adhesion while impeding fibrocyte proliferation to avoid scarring on implant interfaces.

  20. Fenestration operation in middle ear bone with pulsed infrared lasers:an in-vivo study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzeng Zhang; Xiaoyan Wang; Zhenlin Zhan; Qing Ye; Shusen Xie

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of fenestration operation in middle ear bone with pulsed infrared laser is evaluated.Healthy male New Zealand rabbits in vivo are used in the experiment.Middle ear mastoid bone of animal model is complctely exposed with conventional methods,and then a pulsed CO2 laser(10.6 μm)and an Er:YAG laser(2.94 μm)are used to perform the fenestration operation.Diamond drill is also used as a control group.The total operation time and light irradiation time are recorded and the opening efficiency is assessed.The morphological changes and thermal damage around the opening window on the middle ear bone are examined.It is shown that both laser systems are suitable for the fenestration operation in middle ear bone,and this no-touch technique has a lot of benefits compared with traditional methods.The bleeding during operation has an important effect on operation time and thermal injury and needs to be controlled efficiently in further study.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the middle ear arising from CSOM: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Davanageri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma occurring in a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is a rare complication. It runs an aggressive course. Hence early identification is significant to prevent disease progression and to improve the survival rate. Subjecting granulation tissue from middle ear for histopathologic examination is of importance to rule out associated malignant change.

  2. Clinical investigation of flat panel CT following middle ear reconstruction: a study of 107 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaoui, K. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht Karls University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Kromeier, J. [St. Josefs Hospital, RkK, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Neudert, M.; Beleites, T.; Zahnert, T. [University Hospital Dresden, Technical University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Laszig, R.; Offergeld, C. [University Hospital Freiburg, Albert Ludwigs University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    After middle ear reconstruction using partial or total ossicular replacement prostheses (PORP/TORP), an air-bone gap (ABG) may persist because of prosthesis displacement or malposition. So far, CT of the temporal bone has played the main role in the diagnosis of reasons for postoperative insufficient ABG improvement. Recent experimental and clinical studies have evaluated flat panel CT (fpCT) as an alternative imaging technique that provides images with high isovolumetric resolution, fewer metal-induced artefacts and lower irradiation doses. One hundred and seven consecutive patients with chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma underwent reconstruction by PORP (n = 52) or TORP (n = 55). All subjects underwent preoperative and postoperative audiometric testing and postoperative fpCT. Statistical evaluation of all 107 patients as well as the sole sub-assembly groups (PORP or TORP) showed a highly significant correlation between hearing improvement and fpCT-determined prosthesis position. FpCT enables detailed postoperative information on patients with middle ear reconstruction. FpCT is a new imaging technique that provides immediate feedback on surgical results after reconstructive middle ear surgery. Specific parameters evaluated by fpCT may serve as a predictive tool for estimated postoperative hearing improvement. Therefore this imaging technique is suitable for postoperative quality control in reconstructive middle ear surgery. (orig.)

  3. A surgical technique for implantation of the vibrant soundbridge middle ear implant in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, G. Ter; Mulder, J.J.S.; Venker-van Haagen, A.J.; Sluijs, F.J. van; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report a surgical implantation of the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Pilot study. ANIMALS: Dogs (n=3). METHODS: A lateral approach to the tympanic bulla was used to insert the floating mass transducer of the VSB into the tympanic bulla. Using micros

  4. Short term and long term subjective taste disorder after middle ear cleft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a prospective study that looks into the prevalence of chorda tympani nerve injury and related symptoms following varying degrees of trauma to the nerve during four common types of middle-ear operations; namely, Tympanomastoid operations, myringoplasty, Tympanoplasty and Exploratory tympanotomy. Materials and Methods: 178 patients who underwent middle ear cleft surgery were included in this prospective study. Childrens below 20 years and patients with other potential cause of taste disturbance were excluded. Patients were given a single questionnaire, so as to assess their post-operative taste disturbance. Patient name, Age, Sex, Type of middle ear surgery, side of surgery were recorded. Any change in sense of taste immediately (after 2-4 weeks or delayed (2-3 yearswere recorded. Results: The number of patients with Chorda tympani nerve-related symptoms varied widely between these four groups. Increased occurrence of the nerve related symptoms were observed in Tympanomastoid and Myringoplasty, and a prolonged recovery time were observed in the tympanomastoid group. Stretching of the nerve produced more symptomatic cases than thermal injury or drying. Conclusion: It is important to inform patients about the possibility of Chorda Tympani Nerve injury during middle-ear operations, and it should also be emphasized that symptoms related to Chorda Tympani Nerve injury can occur irrespective of the type of damage to the nerve.

  5. Influenza A virus alters pneumococcal nasal colonization and middle ear infection independently of phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Perez, Antonia C; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is both a widespread nasal colonizer and a leading cause of otitis media, one of the most common diseases of childhood. Pneumococcal phase variation influences both colonization and disease and thus has been linked to the bacteria's transition from colonizer to otopathogen. Further contributing to this transition, coinfection with influenza A virus has been strongly associated epidemiologically with the dissemination of pneumococci from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Using a mouse infection model, we demonstrated that coinfection with influenza virus and pneumococci enhanced both colonization and inflammatory responses within the nasopharynx and middle ear chamber. Coinfection studies were also performed using pneumococcal populations enriched for opaque or transparent phase variants. As shown previously, opaque variants were less able to colonize the nasopharynx. In vitro, this phase also demonstrated diminished biofilm viability and epithelial adherence. However, coinfection with influenza virus ameliorated this colonization defect in vivo. Further, viral coinfection ultimately induced a similar magnitude of middle ear infection by both phase variants. These data indicate that despite inherent differences in colonization, the influenza A virus exacerbation of experimental middle ear infection is independent of the pneumococcal phase. These findings provide new insights into the synergistic link between pneumococcus and influenza virus in the context of otitis media.

  6. Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase Enhances Middle Ear Mucosal Proliferation during Bacterial Otitis Media▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Masayuki; Ebmeyer, Jörg; Pak, Kwang; Austin, Darrell A.; Melhus, Åsa; Webster, Nicholas J. G.; Ryan, Allen F.

    2007-01-01

    Mucosal hyperplasia is a characteristic component of otitis media. The present study investigated the participation of signaling via the Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase in middle ear mucosal hyperplasia in animal models of bacterial otitis media. Otitis media was induced by the inoculation of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae into the middle ear cavity. Western blotting revealed that phosphorylation of JNK isoforms in the middle ear mucosa preceded but paralleled mucosal hyperplasia in this in vivo rat model. Nuclear JNK phosphorylation was observed in many cells of both the mucosal epithelium and stroma by immunohistochemistry. In an in vitro model of primary rat middle ear mucosal explants, bacterially induced mucosal growth was blocked by the Rac/Cdc42 inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin B, the mixed-lineage kinase inhibitor CEP11004, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Finally, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly inhibited mucosal hyperplasia during in vivo bacterial otitis media in guinea pigs. Inhibition of JNK in vivo resulted in a diminished proliferative response, as shown by a local decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expression by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that activation of JNK is a critical pathway for bacterially induced mucosal hyperplasia during otitis media, influencing tissue proliferation. PMID:17325051

  7. Evaluation of bacteriology of middle ear in early quiescent stage of chronic otitis media

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    Ramesh Bhandari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine whether any organism does exist in middle ear cavity during the early quiescent stage of chronic otitis media and to isolate their types. Materials and methods Forty-seven patients of age 13 years and above with diagnosis of chronic otitis media mucosal type in early quiescent stage were included. Swab was collected from middle ear cavity for culture and sensitivity in operation theatre prior to middle ear surgery and brought to microbiology laboratory within half an hour to inoculate in Blood agar, Chocolate agar and Mac Conkey agar. The isolates were identified with the use of standard bacteriological technique. Results Aerobic bacteria were isolated from 15 cases (31.9%. Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 12(80%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2(13.3% and E. coli in 1(6.7%. Conclusion Aerobic bacteria were isolated from middle ear cavity in quiescent stage of chronic otitis media in 15(32% cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-4, 22-26 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i4.8696

  8. Application of active middle ear implants in patients with severe mixed hearing loss.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, V.J.O.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term benefit of the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant in patients with severe mixed hearing loss and to compare it with other hearing devices. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis. SETTING: University-affiliated medical center. PATIENTS: Six patients with seve

  9. Fetal development of the elastic-fiber-mediated enthesis in the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Kawase, Tetsuaki

    2013-10-01

    In the human middle ear, the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint and the insertions of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles contain abundant elastic fibers; i.e., the elastic-fiber-mediated entheses. Hyaluronan also coexists with the elastic fibers. In the present study using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated the distribution of elastin not only in the incudostapedial joint but also in the other two joints of the middle ear in adults and fetuses. In adults, the expression of elastin did not extend out of the annular ligament composed of mature elastic fibers but clearly overlapped with it. Electron microscopic observations of the annular ligament demonstrated a few microfibrils along the elastic fibers. Thus, in contrast to the vocal cord, the middle ear entheses seemed not to contain elaunin and oxytalan fibers. In mid-term fetuses (at approximately 15-16 weeks of gestation) before opening of the external acoustic meatus, the incudostapedial joint showed abundant elastic fibers, but the incudomalleolar and stapediovestibular joints did not. At this stage, hyaluronan was not colocalized, but distributed diffusely in loose mesenchymal tissues surrounding the ear ossicles. Therefore, fetal development of elastin and elastic fibers in the middle ear entheses is unlikely to require acoustic oscillation. In late-stage fetuses (25-30 weeks), whose ear ossicles were almost the same size as those in adults, we observed bundling and branching of elastic fibers. However, hyaluronan expression was not as strong as in adults. Colocalization between elastic fibers and hyaluronan appeared to be a result of postnatal maturation of the entheses.

  10. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi. The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+ bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90% of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria.

  11. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D M; Cheeseman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (10(4)-10(5) colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria.

  12. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D. M.; Cheeseman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  13. CT and MR imaging after middle ear surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Bootz, F

    2001-11-01

    This article describes the current value of imaging in patients after stapes surgery and surgery after chronic otitis media including cholesteatoma. Possibilities and limits of computed tomography (CT) and MRI are described and most important investigation parameters are mentioned. After otosclerosis surgery, CT is the method of first choice in detection of reasons for vertigo and/or recurrent hearing loss in the later postoperative phase. CT may show the position and condition of prosthesis, scarring around the prosthesis and otospongiotic foci. Sometimes, it gives indirect hints for perilymphatic fistulas and incus necrosis. MRI is able to document inner ear complications. CT has a high negative predictive value in cases with a free cavity after mastoidectomy. Localized opacities or total occlusion are difficult to distinguish by CT alone. MRI provides important additional information in the differentiation of cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma, effusion, granulation and scar tissue.

  14. Middle ear adenoma is an amphicrine tumor: why call it adenoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, S; Massi, D; Franchi, A; Vannucchi, P; Santucci, M

    2001-01-01

    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a rare tumor postulated to take origin from the lining epithelium of the middle ear cavity. The authors report on a case of MEA arising in a 53-year old woman suffering from a sensation of fullness in her left ear, otalgia, and light left-sided hearing loss. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of cuboidal and polygonal cells displaying a trabecular, tubulo-glandular, and solid pattern of growth. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells diffusely stained with anti-vimentin antibodies and were focally positive for chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, lysozyme, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3. The majority of tumor cells showed weak and diffuse staining with both anti-PP and anti-ACTH antibodies and intense positivity with anti-glucagon and anti Leu-7 antibodies. Ultrastructural investigation revealed both mucinous-glandular and neuroendocrine differentiation. The authors suggest that the appropriate terminology would be adeno-carcinoid or amphicrine tumor of the middle ear rather than "adenoma," a term that does not reflect its dual nature.

  15. Middle Ear Pressure Regulation - Complementary Action of the Mastoid and Eustachian Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael; Dirckx, Joris J J; Jacobsen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS:: Middle ear pressure (MEP) is actively regulated by both the Eustachian tube and the mastoid air cell system. BACKGROUND:: MEP is a highly significant factor involved in many clinical conditions related to otitis media. Basic knowledge on its overall regulation remains insufficient...... of these distinct mechanisms were found. CONCLUSION:: The human mastoid as well as the Eustachian tube was capable of active counter-regulation of the MEP in short-term experimental pressure changes in healthy ears. Thus, these 2 systems seemed to function in a complementary way, where the mastoid was related...

  16. Connectivity analysis of suggestive brain areas involved in middle ear pressure regulation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SA, Sami; Gaihede, Michael

    2010-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS:: Middle ear pressure (MEP) is actively regulated by both the Eustachian tube and the mastoid air cell system. BACKGROUND:: MEP is a highly significant factor involved in many clinical conditions related to otitis media. Basic knowledge on its overall regulation remains insufficient...... of these distinct mechanisms were found. CONCLUSION:: The human mastoid as well as the Eustachian tube was capable of active counter-regulation of the MEP in short-term experimental pressure changes in healthy ears. Thus, these 2 systems seemed to function in a complementary way, where the mastoid was related...

  17. Design of Floating Mass Type Piezoelectric Actuator for Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Houguang; TA Na; MING Xiaofeng; RAO Zhushi

    2009-01-01

    To overcome some of the problems inherent in conventional hearing aids such as low gain at high frequencies due to acoustic feedback, discomfort in occlusion of the external ear canal and so on, implantable middle ear hearing devices (IMEHDs) have been developed over the past two decades. For such kinds of IMEHDS, this paper presents the design of a floating mass piezoelectric actuator using a PMN-30%PT stack as a new type of vibrator. The proposed piezoelectric actuator consists of only three components of a piezoelectric stack, a metal case and a clamp. For the purpose of aiding the design of this actuator, a coupling biomechanics model of human middle ear and the piezoelectric actuator was constructed. This model was built based on a complete set of computerized tomography section images of a healthy volunteer's left ear by reverse engineering technology. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the motion of the tympanic membrane and stapes footplate obtained by this model with published experimental measurements on human temporal bones. It is shown that the designed actuator can be implanted on the incus long process by a simple surgical operation, and the stapes footplate displacement by its excitation at 10.5 V root-mean-square(RMS) voltage was equivalent to that from acoustic stimulation at 100 dB sound pressure level(SPL), which is adequate stimulation to the nssicular chain. The corresponding power consumption is 0.04 mW per volt of excitation at 1 kHz, which is low enough for the transducer to be used in an implantable middle ear device.

  18. Conditioning the middle ear reflex at sensation levels below reflex threshold: air jet and electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel-Bacon, L; Fulton, R T; Laskowski, R P

    1980-01-01

    An ABAB functional analysis, conditioning and generalization, design was used in 3 experiments (2 were formal studies and 1 was empirical in nature) to investigate the conditionability of the middle ear reflex. The conditioned stimuli were subreflex threshold pure tones of various frequencies and intensities. The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was an auricular air jet to the contralateral ear in the first experiment and cutaneous electrical stimulation to the ipsolateral, probe ear in the last 2 experiments. Reflexes were monitored by an otoadmittance meter, storage oscilloscope, and strip chart recorder. In the first experiment (air jet UCS), no subjects met the conditioning criterion within the maximum presentation of 400 paired trials, despite pilot evidence which indicated conditioning was feasible. In the second experiment (electrical stimulation UCS), 2 subjects met conditioning criterion; however, only one subject reconditioned and demonstrated partial generalization to other conditioned stimuli. In the third experiment (electrical stimulation UCS), one of 3 subjects who had previously been unconditionable with the air jet UCS met conditioning and reconditioning criterion and demonstrated partial generalization. Results indicate that the middle ear reflex can be conditioned to be elicited by subreflex threshold pure tones, however, results are limited.

  19. Spatial Motion in Natural and Reconstructed Middle Ears and the Impact on Sound Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, Albrecht; Heckeler, Christoph; Lauxmann, Michael; Maier, Hannes; Saffarini, Mohammed

    2011-11-01

    During sound transmission the elements of the middle ear carry out frequency dependent motions in all three spatial directions. Particularly the stapes exhibits a piston and rocking motion and recent studies show that rocking also has an impact on hearing. Here the spatial motions of natural and reconstructed ears are considered on the basis of experiments and numerical simulations based on Multibody System (MBS) approach and Finite Element Method (FEM). In case of a passive reconstruction with a PORP the stapes carries out pronounced rocking motions as well as the piston driven by the natural incus in classical stapedotomy. In the active, electromagnetic middle ear implant Phonak Ingenia, a piston prosthesis is driven by the actuator. Due to anatomical restrictions, the axes of the actuator and the prosthesis are not in line and thus a rocking motion of the prosthesis occurs. Compared to passive reconstructions and the natural ear, this rocking is about in the same range of magnitude. In particular, the coupling between actuator and prosthesis is important for the hearing sensation. Thus, a standardized coupling configuration between the Phonak Ingenia actuator and the piston prosthesis with predefined coupling stiffness and damping offers optimal sound transfer.

  20. Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: relate of two cases and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Cabral, Francisco; Pereira, Larissa Vilela; Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira; Alves, Venâncio; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Adenomas with neuroendocrine differentiation are defined as neuroendocrine neoplasms, and they are rarely found in the head and neck. Objective: To describe two cases of a middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, with a literature review. Case Report: Patient 1 was a 41-year-old woman who presented with a 3-year history of left aural fullness associated with ipsilateral “hammer beating” tinnitus. Patient 2 was a 41-year-old male who presented with unilateral conductive hearing loss. Conclusion: Adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of the middle ear is a rare entity, but it should be considered in patients with tinnitus, aural fullness, and a retrotympanic mass and remembered as a diferential diagnosis of tympanic paraganglioma. PMID:25992031

  1. Effects of changes in dynamic characteristics of the middle ear on transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špirić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions are transmitted through the middle ear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic properties of the transmission system on the measurability of transient otoacoustic emissions. The authors analyzed the presence of transient otoacoustic emissions in 48 children with serous otitis media regarding the tympanogram, presence and type of effusion and pure tone average findings. The results obtained in this research show the predominant absence of transient otoacoustic emissions in patients with type B tympanogram (69.1% especially if the effusion is mucoid (77.5% with the hearing loss of 15 decibel hearing level. This research shows that disorders in dynamic characteristics of the middle ear in patients with serous otitis obstruct the transmission of acoustic energy and affect the measurability of transient otoacoustic emissions, especially if the effusion is mucoid and hearing loss of 15 decibel hearing level.

  2. Middle and inner ear malformations in two cases of velocardiofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabith Junior, Alfredo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe audiometric characteristics and middle and inner ear malformations in two patients with velocardiofacial syndrome. Method: Audiometric evaluation, computerized tomography of the temporal bones and analysis of DNA for multiple markers of 22q11 region were performed in two patients with clinical signs of velocardiofacial syndrome. Results: Conductive hearing loss related to chronic otites media and middle and inner ear malformations were found, the latter with the use of reformations based on multislice acquisitions on of the computerized tomography of the temporal bones. Conclusion: We consider it to be highly important to carry out a thorough evaluation and monitoring of the hearing evolution, as well as the occurrence of symptoms related to the vestibular function in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome. From the radiological point of view, attention should be given to the use of high quality techniques for the tomographic study of temporal bones.

  3. Study Of The Effect Of Nasal- Septal Deviation On The Middle Ear Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motesaddi Zarandi M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Eustachian tube connects middle ear space to the nasopharyngeal space. Upper airway obstruction, with any cause, can derange Eustachian tube function. Nasal septal deviation is one of the prevalent causes of upper airway obstruction which can affects the ventilation function of Eustachian tube."nMaterials and Methods: This study was conducted on the patients who underwent septoplasty due to severe septal deviation leading to unilateral nasal obstruction in Amiraalam hospital from summer of 1378 till the spring of 1379."nResults: There was 140 patients whose data were as: female patients 34 (24.3% male patients 106 (75.7%, mean age (22.7. Median age (20 years and mode of age (18 years of age. they were from 12 to 40 years of age."nConclusion: Comparison between preoperative and postoperative middle ear pressures shows no any significant statistical difference (p=0.798.

  4. Virus and bacteria enhance histamine production in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Patel, J A; Lett-Brown, M A; Uchida, T; Garofalo, R; Owen, M J; Howie, V M

    1994-06-01

    Histamine levels were measured in 677 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples from 248 children (aged 2 months to 7 years) with acute otitis media (AOM); of these, 116 (47%) had documented viral infection. Histamine content was higher in bacteria-positive than in bacteria-negative MEF samples (P = .007) and higher in samples from patients with viral infection than in those from patients with no viral infection (P = .002). Bacteria and viruses together had an additive effect on histamine content in MEF. Histamine concentration in the initial MEF sample tended to be higher in patients with persistent otitis than in those with good response to treatment (P = .14). Results suggest that viruses, bacteria, or both induce histamine production, which leads to increased inflammation in the middle ear. Antihistaminic drugs may be beneficial. Large, prospective, controlled trials of the effects of antihistamine as an adjunct therapy in bacterial and viral AOM are required before recommendations can be made.

  5. One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Robert C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because previous studies have indicated that otitis media may be a polymicrobial disease, we prospectively analyzed middle ear effusions of children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for four otopathogens. Methods Middle ear effusions from 207 children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement were collected and were classified by the surgeon as acute otitis media (AOM for purulent effusions and as otitis media with effusion (OME for non-purulent effusions. DNA was isolated from these samples and analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Results 119 (57% of 207 patients were PCR positive for at least one of these four organisms. 36 (30% of the positive samples indicated the presence of more than one bacterial species. Patient samples were further separated into 2 groups based on clinical presentation at the time of surgery. Samples were categorized as acute otitis media (AOM if pus was observed behind the tympanic membrane. If no pus was present, samples were categorized as otitis media with effusion (OME. Bacteria were identified in most of the children with AOM (87% and half the children with OME (51%, p Haemophilus influenzae was the predominant single organism and caused 58% of all AOM in this study. Alloiococcus otitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis were more frequently identified in middle ear effusions than Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in the middle ear effusions of some patients with otitis media. Overall, we found AOM is predominantly a single organism infection and most commonly from Haemophilus influenzae. In contrast, OME infections had a more equal distribution of single organisms, polymicrobial entities, and non-bacterial agents.

  6. Outcome of Vibrant Soundbridge Middle Ear Implant in Cantonese-Speaking Mixed Hearing Loss Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Tsang, Willis Sung Shan; Wong, Terence Ka Cheong; Tong, Michael Chi Fai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the aided benefits, speech recognition in quiet and in noise, change in hearing and subjective report of satisfaction on mixed hearing loss adults implanted with Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant. Methods Eight Cantonese speaking adult patients with mixed hearing loss were enrolled in a single-subject, repeated measures prospective study design. Audiometric testing, including air and bone conduction and word recognition under sound-field were conducted bef...

  7. Long-term patient satisfaction with different middle ear hearing implants in sensorineural hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rameh, Charbel; Meller, Renaud; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Deveze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Implantable hearing devices are a viable option for patients with moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss who cannot benefit from the conventional hearing aids. In this study, we focus on the patients_ satisfaction with 3 different middle ear implants, the Vibrant Sound Bridge (VSB), the semi implantable Otologics MET implant, and the fully implantable Carina implant. Materials and Methods: Between 1998 and 2008, we have implanted 112 patients with these devices. Hereby, w...

  8. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence associated with external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny R; Parnes, Lorne S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) in a 38-year-old man who presented with congenital hearing loss without vestibular symptoms. This case is unusual due to the association of SSCD with multiple congenital anomalies of the external, middle, and inner ears, but without any other craniofacial or systemic developmental anomalies. Findings of multiple malformations of temporal bone structures in this case lend support to the theory that SSCD may have an underlying developmental or congenital etiology.

  9. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone with cancer of the middle ear. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Katsunori; Sakai, Makoto [Chigasaki Central Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Shinkawa, Atsushi

    1999-12-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone may occur as a result of radiation therapy for head and neck carcinomas or brain tumors. A 64-year-old female received radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the middle ear 20 years ago, and then she developed osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone. The patient underwent extensive debridement with removal of sequestrations in the temporal bone and adjacent areas, and abscess drainage. Her postoperative course was satisfactory and there was no progression of the disease. (author)

  10. SuperSILAC Quantitative Proteome Profiling of Murine Middle Ear Epithelial Cell Remodeling with NTHi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Val

    Full Text Available Chronic Otitis Media with effusion (COME develops after sustained inflammation and is characterized by secretory middle ear epithelial metaplasia and effusion, most frequently mucoid. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, the most common acute Otitis Media (OM pathogen, is postulated to promote middle ear epithelial remodeling in the progression of OM from acute to chronic. The goals of this study were to examine histopathological and quantitative proteomic epithelial effects of NTHi challenge in a murine middle ear epithelial cell line.NTHi lysates were generated and used to stimulate murine epithelial cells (mMEEC cultured at air-liquid interface over 48 hours- 1 week. Conditional quantitative Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC of cell lysates was performed to interrogate the global protein production in the cells, using the SuperSILAC technique. Histology of the epithelium over time was done to measure bacterial dependent remodeling.Mass spectrometry analysis identified 2,565 proteins across samples, of which 74 exhibited differential enrichment or depletion in cell lysates (+/-2.0 fold-change; p value<0.05. The key molecular functions regulated by NTHi lysates exposure were related to cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion and inflammation. Finally, chronic exposure induced significant epithelial thickening of cells grown at air liquid interface.NTHi lysates drive pathways responsible of cell remodeling in murine middle ear epithelium which likely contributes to observed epithelial hyperplasia in vitro. Further elucidation of these mediators will be critical in understanding the progression of OM from acute to chronic at the molecular level.

  11. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross and useful. continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they travel through the ... ear's main job is to take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...

  12. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  13. High-resolution computed tomography of the middle ear and mastoid. Part III. Surgically altered anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, J.D.; Goodman, R.S.; Russell, K.B.; Ladenheim, S.F.; Wolfson, R.J.

    1983-08-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) provides an excellent method for examination of the surgically altered middle ear and mastoid. Closed-cavity and open-cavity types of mastoidectomy are illustrated. Recurrent cholesteatoma in the mastoid bowl is easily diagnosed. Different types of tympanoplasty are discussed and illustrated, as are tympanostomy tubes and various ossicular reconstructive procedures. Baseline high-resolution CT of the postoperative middle ear and mastoid is recommended at approximately 3 months following the surgical procedure.

  14. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media.

  15. Attenuated TLRs in middle ear mucosa contributes to susceptibility of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yu; Zhang, Zhi Gang; Chen, Sui Jun; Zheng, Yi Qing; Chen, Yu Bin; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Huaili; Feng, Lian Qiang; Huang, Xi

    2014-08-01

    The variability in the recovery of otitis media (OM) is not well understood. Recent data have shown a critical role for toll-like receptors (TLRs) in inflammatory responses to bacteria. It remains unclear whether TLRs-mediated mucosal immunity plays a role in the OM recovery. The etiology, pathological profile, expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9 and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in human middle-ear mucosae sampled from three subject groups: non-OM group, chronic otitis-media (COM) group, and chronic suppurative otitis-media (CSOM) group. Of the 72 ears, 86.11% CSOM patients were positive for bacteria. The cellular makeup of the middle ear mucosa differs among the three groups. Mucosae from the CSOM group presented chronic inflammation or suppurative inflammation in the rudimentary stroma, mainly with infiltration of monocytes and macrophages. The mRNA and protein levels of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 exhibited no difference between the non-OM and COM groups but were significantly lower in the CSOM group. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the TLR9 level among the three groups. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6 were up-regulated in the CSOM group. This study provides evidence that the variability in clinical otitis media recovery might be associated with the variability in the expression of mucosal TLRs. Reduced TLR levels in the middle-ear mucosa might cause weak host response to bacteria, persistent inflammation and susceptibility to CSOM.

  16. Ear Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You use all of them in hearing. Sound waves come in through your outer ear. They reach your middle ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, ...

  17. Indications and outcome of subtotal petrosectomy for active middle ear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Nicolas; Mojallal, Hamidreza; Schwab, Burkard

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the outcome and possible complications of subtotal petrosectomy (SP) for Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) device surgery in a tertiary referral center. A secondary objective was the evaluation of hearing results in a subgroup of subjects who received the VSB device. Between 2009 and early 2011, 22 adult subjects with chronic otitis media (COM) underwent a SP, blind sac closure of the external auditory canal and abdominal fat obliteration to facilitate the application of an active middle ear implant (AMEI) in a staged procedure. Indications consisted of mixed hearing loss after previous tympanomastoplasty and failure of hearing rehabilitation with a hearing aid or bone conduction device in COM. Pre- and postoperative pure-tone audiograms were analyzed in respect to deterioration of inner ear function, unaided and aided (hearing aid, bone-anchored hearing aid and VSB) speech audiograms were compared to verify improvements in communications skills and functional gains. Incidence and type of complications were reviewed. No significant change was observed regarding mean bone conduction thresholds after the first stage procedure. Some minor wound healing problems were noted. Speech perception using the VSB (n = 16) showed a mean aided speech discrimination at 65-dB SPL of 75 % [standard deviation (SD) 28.7], at 80-dB SPL of 90 % (SD 25.1). Our results suggest that for selected patients with open mastoid cavities and chronic middle ear disease, SP with abdominal fat obliteration is an effective and safe technique to facilitate safe AMEI placement.

  18. Histological Changes of the Middle Ear Ossicles Harvested During Cholesteatoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Školoudík

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the cholesteatoma surgery ossicles can be replaced to reconstruct middle ear function. It is important that these ossicles are free of squamous epithelium, to prevent residual disease. This study focuses on the histological findings of the malleus and incus harvested during cholesteatoma surgery. Materials and Methods: Eighty middle ears ossicles were examined in vivo and histologically to consider the relationship of cholesteatoma to ossicles, grade of bone destruction and invasion of cholesteatoma to deeper layers of bone. Results: Serious ossicular destruction was observed more frequently in incus compared to malleus (p = 0.0065. Difference of ossicles destruction between children and adults was not significant (p = 0.3032. Deep invasion of cholesteatoma into the vascular spaces or inner core of the bone was not observed. Conclusions: Autograft ossicles from cholesteatomatous ears should not necessarily be rejected for reconstruction of the ossicular chain. Regarding the histological finding, the authors suggest mechanical cleaning of the ossicle surface to eliminate residual disease.

  19. Cochlear implantation in chronic otitis media and previous middle ear surgery: 20 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, V; Pasanisi, E; Bacciu, A; Bacciu, S; Zini, C

    2014-08-01

    Cochlear implantation in the setting of chronic otitis media or previous middle ear surgery poses several problems for the surgeon: possible spread of infection to the cochlea and the subarachnoid spaces with consequent meningitis, risk of electrode array extrusion and possible recurrence of the original disease. Several surgical strategies have been proposed to overcome these problems. In the present study, clinical and functional results of cochlear implantation in 26 patients with chronic otitis media (8 cases) or previous middle ear surgery (18 cases) in the ear most suitable for implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 8 patients with chronic otitis media, in 7 cases a subtotal petrosectomy associated with external auditory canal closure and mastoid and Eustachian tube obliteration was performed, while in the remaining patient cochlear implantation was done 6 months after a myringoplasty. The only complication observed was a reperforation of the tympanic membrane in this latter patient. Among the 18 patients with previous middle ear surgery, 2 had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy and were implanted utilising the previous surgical approach. In the remaining 16 patients who had a radical cavity, an open technique was maintained in 3 cases; a cavity revision associated to external auditory canal closure, Eustachian tube and mastoid obliteration was performed in 12 patients, while in one case a middle cranial fossa approach was utilised. Two of the 3 patients in whom an open technique was maintained have experienced electrode array extrusion. The only complication observed in the remaining patients was the breakdown of the external auditory canal closure in one case. No problems were noted in patients who had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy as well as in the subject implanted via the middle cranial fossa approach. All patients achieved and maintained good hearing performance over time. Subtotal petrosectomy associated

  20. Three-dimensional CT of the ossicles of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Yamashita, Koichi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of the ossicular chain in the middle ear by high speed helical CT. One dissected human temporal bone, five normal ears, and twelve diseased ears (trauma, ossicular anomaly, cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media) were scanned in 1.0 mm slices and reconstructed at a thickness of 0.2-0.5 mm. All 3-D CT specimens can be observed in any plane and from any direction. Ossicular 3-D CT temporal bone images were reconstructed as if the malleus, incus and stapes were being observed under a microscope. No defect in the ossicles or their joints was seen in the images. The entire structure of the stapes could not be represented by conventional two-dimensional CT, but the 3-D CT in our study showed the head, crus and foot plate of the stapes in detail. Ossicular 3-D CT images of normal ears yielded the same findings as those recorded in the temporal bone. Preoperative diagnostic findings of ossicles in diseased ears were very useful. 3-D CT was diagnostic and its accuracy was confirmed by surgical observations, especially in ossicular anomalies. 3-D CT was also an important method of postoperative evaluation of ossicular reconstruction, i.e. TORP and PORP. It could represent the anatomical relation between prosthesis and the oval window. Postoperative hearing improvement can be compared with 3-D CT findings. High-speed helical CT can scan an object more quickly and clearly than conventional CT, and its biological damage in humans is less than that of other methods. 3-D CT allows obviously clearer reconstruction by helical CT than the other methods. (author).

  1. [The active middle ear implant for the rehabilitation of sensorineural, mixed and conductive hearing losses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinzl, G M; Wolf-Magele, A; Schnabl, J; Koci, V

    2011-09-01

    Active middle ear implants, such as the Vibrant Soundbridge, are used as an important part in the rehabilitation of sensorineural, conductive hearing, or mixed hearing loss. The attachment of the Vibrant Soundbridge at the round window and the usage of the Vibroplasty couplers strongly expanded the application of the Vibrant Soundbridge.The Vibrant Soundbridge is developed for patients who have an intolerance to hearing aids and a moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The VSB also provides an optimal solution for patients with failed middle ear reconstructions or patients with atresia. To capture the improvement with the VSB Implant with different hearing losses a literature analysis was conducted. The functional gain was analyzed for 107 patients with conductive hearing loss and for 214 patients with sensorineural hearing loss out of 14 studies.Patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss resulted in a functional gain from 30 to 58 dB with the VSB. Patients with a pure sensorineural hearing loss showed a functional gain of 23-30 dB. The VSB bone conduction threshold shift was analyzed for all studies conducted in the years between 2000 and 2009. In 11 of the 16 studies there was no significant (p=0.05) change found. In 5 studies, the pre- to post-surgical bone conduction threshold shift was less than 10 dB. None of these studies measured a threshold shift of more than 10 dB.The flexible attachment at either the long process of the incus with sensorineural hearing loss, with an conductive hearing loss at the round window or the use of Vibroplasty couplers at the oval window, head of the stapes or round window makes the VSB an extremely versatile instrument. If patients can't wear conventional hearing aids, had failed middle ear reconstructions or atresia the VSB presents, due to the significant hearing improvement in any type of hearing loss, an ideal solution.

  2. The clinical efficacy of 1 mm-slice CT of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Noiri, Teruhisa [Kawanishi Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Doi, Katsumi; Koizuka, Izumi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Mishiro, Yasuo; Okumura, Shin-ichi; Kubo, Takeshi

    2000-02-01

    The efficacy of the preoperative 1 mm-slice CT for evaluating the condition of the ossicular chain and the facial canal was assessed. CT findings were compared with the operative findings of middle ears in 120 cases of chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma that underwent tympanoplasty. The reliability of 1 mm-slice CT in detecting any defect of the ossicular chain was much superior to those of 2 mm-slice CT previously reported, and the difference between them is essential for preoperative information. On the other hand, thinner slice than 1 mm may be unnecessary, especially in routine use. (author)

  3. [The Vibrant Soundbridge as an active implant in middle ear surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleites, T; Bornitz, M; Neudert, M; Zahnert, T

    2014-07-01

    Implantable hearing aids are not only gaining importance for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss, but also for treatment of mixed hearing loss. The most frequently used active middle ear implant is the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) system (Fa. MED-EL, Innsbruck, Österrreich). Following widening of the spectrum of indications for the VBS, various new coupling systems have been established. Based on the literature, available petrosal bone investigations and finite element model (FEM) calculations, this article summarizes the current knowledge concerning mechanical excitation by the VSB. Important concomitant aspects related to coupling, transmission and measurement are also discussed.

  4. The paratympanic organ: a barometer and altimeter in the middle ear of birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, Christopher S; Giannessi, Francesco

    2011-09-15

    A century has passed since the discovery of the paratympanic organ (PTO), a mechanoreceptive sense organ in the middle ear of birds and other tetrapods. This luminal organ contains a sensory epithelium with typical mechanosensory hair cells and may function as a barometer and altimeter. The organ is arguably the most neglected sense organ in living tetrapods. The PTO is believed to be homologous to a lateral line sense organ, the spiracular sense organ of nonteleostean fishes. Our review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the PTO and draws attention to the astounding lack of information about the unique and largely unexplored sensory modality of barometric perception.

  5. Simulations and Measurements of Human Middle Ear Vibrations Using Multi-Body Systems and Laser-Doppler Vibrometry with the Floating Mass Transducer

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Strenger; Stefan Lehner; Frank Böhnke; Theodor Bretan

    2013-01-01

    The transfer characteristic of the human middle ear with an applied middle ear implant (floating mass transducer) is examined computationally with a Multi-body System approach and compared with experimental results. For this purpose, the geometry of the middle ear was reconstructed from μ-computer tomography slice data and prepared for a Multi-body System simulation. The transfer function of the floating mass transducer, which is the ratio of the input voltage and the generated force, is deri...

  6. [Histological evaluation of the condition of the trepanation cavity coating after radical surgery on the middle ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I A; Bykova, V P; Patiakina, O K; Portenko, E G

    1998-01-01

    Tissue samples obtained intraoperatively from different parts of the middle ear in the course of the radical operation (35 cases) or reconstructive operations in patients with the history of surgical intervention on the ear (67 cases) were examined histologically. Fibrous-atrophic changes in the trepanation cavity coating correlated with the duration of the disease and the time since the radical operation. Pathomorphological and topographic profile of the changes in the operated ear coating copies relevant picture of otitis media purulenta chronica. The tympanomastoid cavity coating was characterized by increasing fibrous-atrophic changes reflecting regeneratory-plastic insufficiency of the epithelium and persistent tympanofibrosis in conditions of open trepanation cavity with disturbed anatomic relations in the middle ear.

  7. Diagnostic Performance of Endoscopic and Microscopic Procedures for Identifying Different Middle Ear Structures and Remaining Disease in Patients with Chronic Otitis Media: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Farahani

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of endoscopic and microscopic procedures for detecting diseases of the middle ear in patients with chronic otitis media (COM has rarely been investigated. This study was conducted to compare the performance of these procedures for identifying middle ear structures and their associated diseases in COM patients.In this prospective cohort study, 58 patients with chronic COM, who were candidates for tympanoplasty with or without a mastoidectomy, were enrolled. Before the surgical intervention, the middle ear was examined via an operating microscope and then through an endoscope to identify the middle ear structures as well as diseases associated with the middle ear.The patients were 15 years of age or older. The anatomical parts of the middle ear - the epitympanic, posterior mesotympanic, and hypotympanic structures - were more visible through an endoscope than through a microscope. In addition, the various segments of the mesotympanum, oval window, round window, and Eustachian tube were more visible via endoscopy. The post-operative endoscopic reevaluation of the middle ear revealed that a cholesteatoma had remained in four of 13 patients after surgery.According to the results of this study, in cases in which there is poor visibility with the operating microscope or the surgeon suspects remaining disease within the middle ear, endoscopy could be utilized to improve the evaluation of more hidden middle ear pits and structures, particularly if there is a potentially recrudescent pathology.

  8. Dosimetric analysis of the use of CBCT in diagnostic radiology: sinus and middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, D; Saldarriaga Vargas, C; Rogge, F; Lichtherte, S; Struelens, L

    2015-01-01

    The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in diagnostic radiology departments is increasing. Several discussions arise whether with the CBCT application, some multi-slice CT (MSCT) examinations can be replaced by it. High hopes are set regarding the dosimetric aspects of CBCT: are patient doses in between those of conventional X-rays and MSCT? In this study, effective dose and organ doses were evaluated for two non-dental CBCT examinations: sinus and middle ear. A comparison with the dose obtained with a MSCT protocol was performed. Moreover, the sinus examination was also compared with the dose obtained by projection radiography (RX). Effective doses were estimated from thermoluminescent detector dose measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom and were compared against Monte Carlo simulations. Results show that the effective dose for the sinus examination is more than three times higher with MSCT than with CBCT and about five times lower with RX compared with CBCT, whereas for the middle ear examination, the effective dose obtained with MSCT is almost six times higher than that of CBCT. Finally, a sensitivity study on the size and position of the CBCT field of view showed the influence of these two factors on the dose received by the patient.

  9. FGF23 deficiency leads to mixed hearing loss and middle ear malformation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Lysaght

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 is a circulating hormone important in phosphate homeostasis. Abnormal serum levels of FGF23 result in systemic pathologies in humans and mice, including renal phosphate wasting diseases and hyperphosphatemia. We sought to uncover the role FGF23 plays in the auditory system due to shared molecular mechanisms and genetic pathways between ear and kidney development, the critical roles multiple FGFs play in auditory development and the known hearing phenotype in mice deficient in klotho (KL, a critical co-factor for FGF23 signaling. Using functional assessments of hearing, we demonstrate that Fgf[Formula: see text] mice are profoundly deaf. Fgf[Formula: see text] mice have moderate hearing loss above 20 kHz, consistent with mixed conductive and sensorineural pathology of both middle and inner ear origin. Histology and high-voltage X-ray computed tomography of Fgf[Formula: see text] mice demonstrate dysplastic bulla and ossicles; Fgf[Formula: see text] mice have near-normal morphology. The cochleae of mutant mice appear nearly normal on gross and microscopic inspection. In wild type mice, FGF23 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the cochlea. Measurements from Fgf[Formula: see text] mice do not match the auditory phenotype of Kl-/- mice, suggesting that loss of FGF23 activity impacts the auditory system via mechanisms at least partially independent of KL. Given the extensive middle ear malformations and the overlap of initiation of FGF23 activity and Eustachian tube development, this work suggests a possible role for FGF23 in otitis media.

  10. Wideband energy reflectance measurements: effects of negative middle ear pressure and application of a pressure compensation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Mark D; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2013-07-01

    The wideband energy reflectance (ER) technique has become popular as a tool for evaluating middle ear function. Negative middle ear pressure (MEP) is a prevalent form of middle ear dysfunction, which may impact application of ER measurements in differential diagnosis. A negative MEP may be countervailed by application of an equivalent negative ear canal pressure. The present study examined ER in the same ears under normal and experimentally induced negative MEP conditions. Thirty-five subjects produced at least one negative MEP each (-40 to -225 daPa). Negative MEP significantly altered ER in a frequency-specific manner that varied with MEP magnitude. ER increased for low- to mid-frequencies with the largest change (~0.20 to 0.40) occurring between 1 and 1.5 kHz. ER decreased for frequencies above 3 kHz with the largest change (~-0.10 to -0.25) observed between 4.5 and 5.5 kHz. Magnitude of changes increased as MEP became more negative, as did the frequencies at which maximum changes occurred, and the frequency at which enhancement transitioned to reduction. Ear canal pressure compensation restored ER to near baseline values. This suggests that the compensation procedure adequately mitigates the effects of negative MEP on ER. Theoretical issues and clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of concordance between the microorganisms detected in the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Thijs M A; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Zon, Alice; Bogaert, Debby; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M

    2013-05-01

    Studies of microorganisms involved in otitis media in children often use a nasopharyngeal sample as a proxy for the middle ear fluid to test for bacteria and viruses. The question is whether such studies provide an accurate estimate of the prevalence of microorganisms involved in otitis media. We performed a systematic review of the literature reporting on the concordance between test results of nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid samples for the most prevalent microorganisms in children with otitis media. Our findings show that the concordances vary from 68% to 97% per microorganism. For the most prevalent microbes, positive predictive values are around 50%. Most negative predictive values are moderate to high, with a range from 68% up to 97%. These results indicate that test results from nasopharyngeal samples do not always provide an accurate proxy for those of the middle ear fluid. It is important to interpret and use results of such studies carefully.

  12. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  13. Middle and inner ear malformations in two siblings exposed to valproic acid during pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtte, Evelyne; Casselman, Jan; Janssens, Sandra; De Kegel, Alexandra; Maes, Leen; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a known teratogenic drug. Exposure to VPA during the pregnancy can lead to a distinct facial appearance, a cluster of major and minor anomalies and developmental delay. In this case report, two siblings with fetal valproate syndrome and a mild conductive hearing loss were investigated. Radiologic evaluation showed middle and inner ear malformations in both children. Audiologic, vestibular and motor examination was performed. This is the first case report to describe middle and inner ear malformations in children exposed to VPA.

  14. Amphiphilic γ-PGA nanoparticles administered on rat middle ear mucosa produce adjuvant-like immunostimulation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Johan; Broos, Sissela; Akagi, Takami;

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Amphiphilic biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) composed of poly(γ-glutamic acid) conjugated with L-phenylalanine ethylester (γ-PGA-Phe NPs) applied on the rat middle ear mucosa produce an inflammatory type 1 response. The observation is of relevance for the use of γ-PGA-Phe NPs...... as a concomitant antigen delivery system and adjuvant measure in the context of vaccinations. OBJECTIVES: To examine effects of topical mucosal administration of γ-PGA-Phe NPs as a potentially combined antigen delivery system and adjuvant. METHODS: γ-PGA-Phe NPs were administered on rat middle ear mucosa in a sham...

  15. 中耳胆脂瘤研究进展%Research progress of cholesteatoma of the middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董洁; 刘勇智

    2016-01-01

    中耳胆脂瘤是耳鼻咽喉科较为常见的一种慢性中耳疾病,长期外耳道流脓、鼓膜穿孔、听力下降为其主要特点,它对周围组织具有侵袭性,易引起中耳传音结构的破坏和骨质吸收,进而引起面瘫、迷路炎、耳后骨膜下脓肿及各种颅内外并发症。中耳胆脂瘤的病因及发病机制复杂,治疗方法的疗效争议较多。本文主要将近年来关于中耳胆脂瘤的病因、发病机制及治疗进展进行综述。%Otitis media is the most common middle ear disease,caused by a bacterial or viral infection. It can be divided into 4 types in the clinical: secretory otitis media, suppurative otitis media, middle ear cholesteatoma, and special type of otitis media. Middle ear cholesteatoma is a common chronic middle ear disease in otorhinolaryngology, long-term discharging ear canal and tympanic membrane perforation, hearing loss as its main characteristics. It is invasive to the surrounding tissue, which can cause middle ear acoustic structure destruction and bone absorption easily. It can also cause paralysis, labyrinthine inlfammation, retroauri cular subperiosteal abscess, a variety of extracranial and intracranial complications. The etiology and pathogenesis of cholesteatoma is very complex,and the curative effect for the treatment is controversial. In this paper, the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of cholesteatoma in recent years will be reviewed.

  16. Orpheus 0 G or ear In microgravity to establish symptoms concomitant of inner and middle ear and osteoporosis in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatis, Alfred; Talbi, Louisa; Vervoort, Jozef; Fromenteau, Joel; De Voigt, Martin; Van Deun, Jozef

    2005-08-01

    The goal of the proposed work is to collect data on the responses of the vestibular system to long-term conditions of weightlessness and to evaluate the benefits of a program of Electronic Ear(1) designed to act preventively to lessen symptoms due to weightlessness and to readapt the vestibular system after return to normal gravity.Data in the form of listening tests and brain maps tests(2) and observations(3) will be collected during pre- and post-flight simulation.We have to identify if the preservation process of astronauts against weightlessness effects is located in the ear. The long- term objective of the study is to create a blueprint of an Electronic Ear to be used on board should the outcome be positive.

  17. Diagnosis of ossicular chain in the middle ear by high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Takeo (Hanamaki-Kosei Hospital, Iwate (Japan)); Aoyagi, Masaru; Koike, Yoshio; Sugai, Yukio

    1992-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the usefulness and limitation of high-resolution CT for evaluating the condition of ossicular chain in the middle ear. Preoperative CT findings of the ossicular chain were compared with the operative findings of ossicles in 26 patients with chronic otitis media or congenital ossicular anomaly who underwent tympanoplasty. Total defect of head of the malleus, body of the incus and long process of the incus were completely detected by high-resolution CT. But the reliability in detecting the defect of handle of the malleus and superstructure of the stapes were 33.3% and 60%, respectively. Defect of the I-S joint (1 case) and partial defect of stapes crus (2 cases) could not be diagnosed correctly in the preoperative estimation. Although these findings demonstrate the limitations of high-resolution CT in the diagnosis of ossicular chain, it will be diminished by the advanced space resolution of CT in the future. (author).

  18. A new developmental mechanism for the separation of the mammalian middle ear ossicles from the jaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Daniel J.; Anthwal, Neal; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Maier, Jennifer A.; Sadier, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    Multiple mammalian lineages independently evolved a definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) through breakdown of Meckel's cartilage (MC). However, the cellular and molecular drivers of this evolutionary transition remain unknown for most mammal groups. Here, we identify such drivers in the living marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica, whose MC transformation during development anatomically mirrors the evolutionary transformation observed in fossils. Specifically, we link increases in cellular apoptosis and TGF-BR2 signalling to MC breakdown in opossums. We demonstrate that a simple change in TGF-β signalling is sufficient to inhibit MC breakdown during opossum development, indicating that changes in TGF-β signalling might be key during mammalian evolution. Furthermore, the apoptosis that we observe during opossum MC breakdown does not seemingly occur in mouse, consistent with homoplastic DMME evolution in the marsupial and placental lineages. PMID:28179517

  19. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh C Ngo

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention.A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM and otitis media with effusion (OME from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases.This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the complex combination of

  20. Active middle ear implantation for patients with sensorineural hearing loss and external otitis: long-term outcome in patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartenkot, J.W.; Hashemi, J.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study long-term subjective benefit of patients with sensorineural hearing loss and chronic external otitis who use active middle ear implants. DESIGN: Single-subject repeated measures in a preintervention and postintervention design with multiple postintervention measurements (question

  1. Intraoperative auditory steady state response measurements during Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implantation in patients with mixed hearing loss: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, V.J.O.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Noten, J.F.P.; Luijten, B.M.A.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize intraoperatively the coupling of the floating mass transducer (FMT) of the Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implant to the round or oval cochlear window in patients with mixed hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Intraoperative measurement of objective hearing thresholds using auditory s

  2. Active Middle Ear Implantation: Long-term Medical and Technical Follow-up, Implant Survival, and Complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartenkot, J.W.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Snik, A.F.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term medical and technical results, implant survival, and complications of the semi-implantable vibrant soundbridge (VSB), otologics middle ear transducer (MET), and the otologics fully implantable ossicular stimulator (FIMOS). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study

  3. Antibodies mediate formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in the middle ear and facilitate secondary pneumococcal otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Short, K.R.; Kockritz-Blickwede, M. von; Langereis, J.D.; Chew, K.Y.; Job, E.R.; Armitage, C.W.; Hatcher, B.; Fujihashi, K.; Reading, P.C.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Wijburg, O.L.; Diavatopoulos, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) (a middle ear infection) is a common childhood illness that can leave some children with permanent hearing loss. OM can arise following infection with a variety of different pathogens, including a coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococc

  4. Antibodies mediate formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in the middle ear and facilitate secondary pneumococcal otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Short (Kirsty); M. von Köckritz-Blickwede (Maren); J.D. Langereis (Jeroen); K.Y. Chew (Keng Yih); E.R. Job (Emma); S. Armitage (Shane); P. Hatcher (Pascale); K. Fujihashi (Kohtaro); C.L. Reading (Chris ); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); O.L. Wijburg (Odilia); D.A. Diavatopoulos (Dimitri)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractOtitis media (OM) (a middle ear infection) is a common childhood illness that can leave some children with permanent hearing loss.OMcan arise following infection with a variety of different pathogens, including a coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (the

  5. Differential Gene Expression in the Otic Capsule and the Middle Ear-An Annotation of Bone-Related Signaling Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle C.; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    and stria vascularis) and the lining tissues from the middle ear of the rat. Data was analyzed with statistical bioinformatics tools. Gene expression levels of selected genes were validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 413 genes were identified when young inner bulla...

  6. Visualisation of passive middle ear implants by cone beam and multi-detector computed tomography: a comparative in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Koesling, S. [University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle Saale (Germany); Mlynski, R. [Head and Neck Surgery ' ' Otto Koerner' ' , Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Rostock (Germany); Plontke, S.K. [University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Halle Saale (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Modern passive middle ear titanium prostheses are filigree structures, resulting in poorer depiction on CT compared to prostheses used in the past. We compared the visibility of newer prostheses on cone beam CT (CBCT) to multi-detector CT (MDCT) with standard and lower dose in vitro, and analysed image noise and metal artefacts. Six different titanium middle ear prostheses (three partial and one total ossicular replacement prostheses, two stapes prostheses) were implanted twice in formalin-fixed head specimens - first correctly and then with displacement. Imaging was performed using standard CBCT and MDCT as well as MDCT with lower dose (36 single imaging investigations). Images were analysed with knowledge of the used types of middle ear prostheses, but blinded with respect to the positioning in the specific case. On all images the type of prostheses and their positions could be clearly recognized. Their identifiability including their details was rated as statistically significantly higher for all CBCT investigations than for MDCT. MDCT with lower dose showed the worst results. No statistical differences were found in image noise and metal artefacts. If available, CBCT should be preferred over MDCT in diagnostic evaluation of passive middle ear prostheses. (orig.)

  7. Middle ear influence on otoacoustic emissions. I : Noninvasive investigation of the human transmission apparatus and comparison with model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avan, P; Buki, B; Maat, B; Dordain, M; Wit, HP

    2000-01-01

    Evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) are generated within the cochlea in response to external sounds, and they can be acoustically detected in the external auditory meatus after backward propagation through the middle ear. In addition to being used to probe the cochlear mechanisms, they are expected

  8. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  9. Effect of low-intensity focused ultrasound on the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kanako; Hirano, Takashi; Noda, Kenji; Kodama, Satoru; Ichimiya, Issei; Suzuki, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesized that low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) increases vessel permeability and antibacterial drug activity in the mouse middle ear. We determined appropriate settings by applying LIFU to mouse ears with the external auditory canal filled with normal saline and performed histologic and immunohistologic examination. Acute otitis media was induced in mice with nontypable Haemophilus influenzae, and they were given ampicillin (50, 10, or 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days with or without LIFU (1.0 W/cm(2), 20% duty cycle, 30 s). In the LIFU(+) groups receiving the 2- and 10-mg/kg doses, viable bacteria counts, number of inflammatory cells and IL-1β and TNF-α levels in middle ear effusion were significantly lower than in the LIFU(-) groups on the same doses. Severity of AOM also tended to be reduced more in the LIFU(+) groups than in the LIFU(-) groups. LIFU application with antibiotics may be effective for middle ear infection.

  10. Middle ear risk index as a prognostic factor in pediatric ossicular reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Almazrou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the hearing results in children following ossicular reconstruction and to determine if the middle ear risk index (MERI is a useful tool for predicting the outcome of surgery. Design: A retrospective case series. Setting: A tertiary academic center. Patients: Forty-four children underwent ossicular reconstruction using autologous or alloplastic prostheses from January 1995 to January 2005. Materials and Methods: Patients′ audiograms were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively for pure-tone average (PTA and air-bone gap (ABG. Each ear was scored using the MERI and a total index was calculated. Results: 23 boys and 21 girls were included in the study. The mean preoperative ABG was 38 dB, and the mean postoperative ABG was 25.3 dB. The mean MERI was 3.40 for excellent results (0-10 dB postoperative ABG, 4.42 for good results (11-20 dB postoperative ABG, 4.45 for fair results (21-30 dB postoperative ABG, and 4.06 for poor results (ABG > 30 dB. The complications included perforation of tympanic membrane (13.6%, worsening of the conductive hearing loss (6.8%, retraction pockets (9.1%, recurrent or residual cholesteatoma (6.8%, high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (4.45%, and prosthesis extrusion (2.3%. The mean follow-up period was 14 months. Conclusion: Children have poorer hearing outcome following ossicular reconstruction in comparison to the published adults′ results. The MERI was not a reliable tool for predicting the hearing results of ossicular reconstruction in children.

  11. [Novel possibilities for the rehabilitation of patients presenting with congenital external and middle ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileshina, N A; Osipenkov, S S; Bakhshinian, V V; Tavartkiladze, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the advantages of cochlear Baha BIA 400 abutments in the intraoperative and early postoperative periods. A total of 10 implantations of the systems with the use of hydroxyapatite bone cement were performed in 9 patients of different age. Stability of the implants and intensity of skin reactions were evaluated. The data obtained indicate that the use of cochlear Baha BIA 400 abutments significantly simplifies and shortens the surgical stage of rehabilitation producing a good cosmetic result. The use of the Osstell instrument made it possible to estimate stability of the implants intraoperatively and evaluate the effectiveness of osteointegration during the follow-up period. Analysis of the results of the study provided a basis on which to improve the quality and shorten duration of the rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with congenital external and middle ear malformations. Moreover, the data obtained can be used to develop practical recommendations for the further work in this area.

  12. Hearing loss and potential hazards of metallic middle-ear implants in NMR-magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenbrink, K.B.

    1987-08-01

    Concurrent with the expanding clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, patients with metallic middle-ear implants will certainly be exposed to this strong magnetic field in the future. To determine potential hazards, associated with movements of steel- or Platinium stapes-prostheses, several tests were performed in a 0.5 tesla NMR unit and the induced forces were calculated. Although the commonly used paramagnetic steel-wire or platinium-alloys will not dislodge in vivo, ferromagnetic prostheses may present a hazardous risk. Prior to exposure to the magnetic field, information about the implanted material should therefore be obtained. A side-effect of the induced current flow is the attenuation of the sound-vibrations of the stapes prosthesis. This, 5-10 dB impairment of transmission develops only at a certain position of the patient's head, when the prosthesis vibrates perpendicularly to the magnetic field's Z-axis. Patients with a metallic prosthesis should be informed about this purely physical, harmless phenomenon prior to entering the NMR-cylinder.

  13. Femtosecond laser microstructuring of titanium surfaces for middle ear ossicular replacement prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgner, Justus; Biedron, Slavomir; Fadeeva, Elena; Chichkov, Boris; Westhofen, Martin

    2009-02-01

    Introduction: While a variety of materials has been evaluated for replacement of human middle ear ossicles following inflammation, titanium and its alloys have shown excellent sound transmission properties and biocompatibility. However, cartilage thickness at the tympanic membrane interface deteriorates over time, while fibrous tissue formation may dislodge the titanium prosthesis. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of microstructures on titanium surfaces in contact with adjacent biological tissue. Materials and Methods: Titanium samples of 5mm diameter and 0,25mm thickness were structured by means of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser operating at 970nm. The structures applied were lines of parabolic shape (cross-sectional) of 5µm (parallel), 5µm (cross-hatch) and 10µm width (parallel). The inter-groove distance between two maxima was exactly twice the line width. Results: Lines smaller than 5µm were not feasible due to the natural irregularity of the basic material with pits and level changes of up to 2µm. The process showed little debris and constant microstructure shape over the whole structured area (2x2mm). The resulting debris was examined for toxic by-products on human fibrobcytes and chondrocytes. Discussion: The results show that microstructures can be applied on titanium surfaces for human implantation with reproducible and constant shapes. Further studies will focus on cell culture which has suggested a relative selectivity for chondrocyte compared to fibrocyte growth in earlier studies with selected microstructures.

  14. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Giovanni; Tribi, Lorenzo; Reverzani, Aronne; Formigoni, Patrizia; Polizzi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration was not optimal. The decision made was to position Vibrant Soundbridge, a middle ear implant, with an original surgical application due to hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity. Intubation procedure was complicated due to child craniofacial deformities. Postoperative hearing rehabilitation involved a multidisciplinary team, showing improved social skills and language development. PMID:26491591

  15. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bianchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome, suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration was not optimal. The decision made was to position Vibrant Soundbridge, a middle ear implant, with an original surgical application due to hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity. Intubation procedure was complicated due to child craniofacial deformities. Postoperative hearing rehabilitation involved a multidisciplinary team, showing improved social skills and language development.

  16. Morphological variation in the ear region of pleistocene elephantimorpha (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G

    2011-04-01

    A large sample of isolated elephantimorph petrosal bones was recovered from Pleistocene deposits in Friesenhahn Cave, Bexar County, Texas. Morphology of the middle and inner ear of the elephantimorphs is described and variation within the sample is identified. Observed variations occur in the stapedial ratio, morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii, and connection of the crista interfenestralis to the tympanohyal on the posterior portion of the petrosal to form a foramen for passage of the stapedius muscle. The morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii supports an ontogenetic explanation for some variation, and a sequence of ossification surrounding the aquaeductus Fallopii, from the anterior end of the canal to the posterior, is hypothesized. The stapedial ratio varies to a high degree across the sample, and such variation should be considered when the ratio is used in phylogenetic analyses. Within the inner ear, the absence of the secondary lamina suggests evolution of low-frequency hearing in extinct proboscideans, which is known for extant elephants. The morphology of the petrosals from Friesenhahn Cave is compared to published descriptions of the ear regions of other extinct proboscideans, and the distribution and evolution of morphologic characters are discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bianchin; Lorenzo Tribi; Aronne Reverzani; Patrizia Formigoni; Valeria Polizzi

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration ...

  18. Dexmedetomidine infusion during middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia to provide oligaemic surgical field: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgery requires bloodless surgical field for better operating conditions, deep level of anaesthesia and rapid emergence. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists could provide desired surgical field, sedation and analgesia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine infusion as anaesthetic adjuvant during middle ear surgery using operating microscope. Methods: Sixty four adult patients aged 18-58 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grades I and II, of both gender were randomised into two comparable equal groups of 32 patients each for middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia with standard anaesthetic technique. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients of Group I were given dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h and patients of Group II were given placebo infusion of normal saline. Isoflurane concentration was titrated to achieve a systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline value. All patients were assessed intra-operatively for bleeding at surgical field, haemodynamic changes, awakening time and post-operative recovery. Results: Statistically significant reduction was observed in the required percentage of isoflurane (0.8 ± 0.6% to maintain the systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline values in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion when compared to those receiving placebo infusion (1.6 ± 0.7%. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion had statistically significant lesser bleeding at surgical field (P < 0.05. The mean awakening time and recovery from anaesthesia did not show any significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion can be safely used to provide oligaemic surgical field for better visualization using operating microscope for middle ear surgery.

  19. Betahistine as an add-on: The magic bullet for postoperative nausea, vomiting and dizziness after middle ear surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Mukhopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients undergoing middle ear surgery experience variable degrees of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV despite prophylaxis and treatment with ondansetron or other 5HT 3 receptor antagonists. Furthermore vertigo or dizziness are not well controlled perioperatively. Role of betahistine was tested as an add-on to ondansetron in control of PONV and vertigo in middle ear surgery cases. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study, enrolling one hundred patients undergoing middle ear surgery under local anesthesia into two groups consisting of fifty (n = 50 patients each. Group A patients were given betahistine 16 mg plus ondansetron 8 mg and placebo plus ondansetron 8 mg were given to group B or placebo group, orally 3 hours before starting operation. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness was noted during the intraoperative and postoperative 24 hours period. Chi-square test, unpaired ′t′ test, and Fisher′s exact tests were performed for statistical analysis using SPSS version 16 and Open Epi version 2.3.1 softwares. Results: Complete response was obtained in 90% patients in the betahistine group as compared to 66% in the placebo group. Vomiting in the intraoperative and postoperative period was noted in 4% and 8% cases, respectively, in the betahistine group as compared to 18% and 26%, respectively, in the placebo group. Overall, vertigo was 10% versus 32% in betahistine group and placebo group, respectively. Conclusion: Betahistine as an add-on to ondansetron can significantly attenuate PONV and perioperative vertigo, following middle ear surgeries.

  20. Mammalian development does not recapitulate suspected key transformations in the evolutionary detachment of the mammalian middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E; Wroe, Stephen W; Selwood, Lynne; Hinds, Lyn A; Leigh, Chris; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Weisbecker, Vera

    2016-01-13

    The ectotympanic, malleus and incus of the developing mammalian middle ear (ME) are initially attached to the dentary via Meckel's cartilage, betraying their origins from the primary jaw joint of land vertebrates. This recapitulation has prompted mostly unquantified suggestions that several suspected--but similarly unquantified--key evolutionary transformations leading to the mammalian ME are recapitulated in development, through negative allometry and posterior/medial displacement of ME bones relative to the jaw joint. Here we show, using µCT reconstructions, that neither allometric nor topological change is quantifiable in the pre-detachment ME development of six marsupials and two monotremes. Also, differential ME positioning in the two monotreme species is not recapitulated. This challenges the developmental prerequisites of widely cited evolutionary scenarios of definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) evolution, highlighting the requirement for further fossil evidence to test these hypotheses. Possible association between rear molar eruption, full ME ossification and ME detachment in marsupials suggests functional divergence between dentary and ME as a trigger for developmental, and possibly also evolutionary, ME detachment. The stable positioning of the dentary and ME supports suggestions that a 'partial mammalian middle ear' as found in many mammaliaforms--probably with a cartilaginous Meckel's cartilage--represents the only developmentally plausible evolutionary DMME precursor.

  1. The value of single-shot turbo spin-echo diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the detection of middle ear cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert; Bernaerts, Anja; Maes, Joachim; Deckers, Filip; Pouillon, Marc [A.Z. Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Offeciers, Erwin [A.Z. Sint-Augustinus Hospital, University Department of ENT, Antwerp (Belgium); Michiels, Johan [Siemens Medical Solutions, Anderlecht (Belgium); Casselman, Jan W. [A.Z. Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); A.Z. Sint-Jan AV, Department of Radiology, Bruges (Belgium)

    2007-10-15

    Single-shot (SS) turbo spin-echo (TSE) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique recently reported for the evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma. We prospectively evaluated a SS TSE DW sequence in detecting congenital or acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and evaluated the size of middle ear cholesteatoma detectable with this sequence. The aim of this study was not to differentiate between inflammatory tissue and cholesteatoma using SS TSE DW imaging. A group of 21 patients strongly suspected clinically and/or otoscopically of having a middle ear cholesteatoma without any history of prior surgery were evaluated with late post-gadolinium MRI including this SS TSE DW sequence. A total of 21 middle ear cholesteatomas (5 congenital and 16 acquired) were found at surgery with a size varying between 2 and 19 mm. Hyperintense signal on SS TSE DW imaging compatible with cholesteatoma was found in 19 patients. One patient showed no hyperintensity due to autoevacuation of the cholesteatoma sac into the external auditory canal. Another patient showed no hyperintensity because of motion artifacts. This study shows the high sensitivity of this SS TSE DW sequence in detecting small middle ear cholesteatomas, with a size limit as small as 2 mm. (orig.)

  2. Electromyographic monitoring of facial nerve under different levels of neuromuscular blockade during middle ear microsurgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yi-rong; XU Jing; CHEN Lian-hua; CHI Fang-lu

    2009-01-01

    Background The evoked electromyography (EMG) is frequently used to identify facial nerve in order to prevent its damage during surgeries. Partial neuromuscular blockade (NMB) has been suggested to favor EMG activity and insure patients' safety. The aim of this study was to determine an adequate level of NMB correspondent to sensible facial nerve identification by evaluating the relationship between facial EMG responses and peripheral NMB levels during the middle ear surgeries.Methods Facial nerve evoked EMG and NMB monitoring were performed simultaneously in 40 patients who underwent tympanoplasty. Facial electromyographic responses were recorded by insertion of needle electrodes into the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles after electrical stimulation on facial nerve. The NMB was observed objectively with the hypothenar muscle's twitching after electrical stimulation of ulnar nerve, and the intensity of blockade was adjusted at levels of 0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, and 100% respectively with increased intravenous infusion of Rocuronium (muscle relaxant).Results All of the patients had detectable EMG responses at the levels of NMB ≤50%. Four out of forty patients had no EMG response at the levels of NMB ≥75%. A significant linear positive correlation was present between stimulation thresholds and NMB levels while a linear negative correlation was present between EMG amplitudes and NMB levels.Conclusions The facial nerve monitoring via facial electromyographic responses can be obtained when an intraoperative partial neuromuscular blockade is induced to provide an adequate immobilization of the patient. The 50% NMB should be considered as the choice of anesthetic management for facial nerve monitoring in otologic microsurgery based on the relationship of correlation.

  3. [Audiological evaluation of the middle ear implant--speech discrimination under noise circumstances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, T; Gyo, K; Yanagihara, N

    1990-04-01

    Speech discrimination scores under noise circumstances were studied by use of the middle ear implant (MEI) and the conventional hearing aid (HA, HA-33, RION, Co, Ltd). The studies were performed in 10 patients implanted with the MEI and in 12 adult volunteers with normal hearing as a control. The tests were carried out using Japanese monosyllabic lists from 57S-speech discrimination test list as a test sound and multi-talker noise as a noise source. A speaker was placed in front of a subject in one meter apart. Sound characteristics of HA were adjusted as far as possible to those of the MEI by use of a sound equalizer. The intensity of speech sound pressure was adjusted at 65dB SPL, while that of the noise was changed to 65, 70 and 75dB SPL in the position of patients. Audiological evaluation of the MEI, the HA and control obtained by percentages of correct answers to 50 words in speech discrimination test with and without noise (65, 70, 75dB SPL). When the test was performed without noise, speech discrimination scores by the MEI and the HA were either 96.8 +/- 3.6% and 94.8 +/- 4.1%. However, under noise circumstances (65dB SPL) that by both devices were either 81.6 +/- 9.1% and 66.8 +/- 10.6% (P less than 0.001). When the intensity of the noise increased to 70 and 75dB SPL, speech discrimination scores by both devices deprecated together with consistent difference (P less than 0.01). Moreover speech discrimination scores by the MEI were almost same as control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Ontogeny of the Middle-Ear Air-Sinus System in Alligator mississippiensis (Archosauria: Crocodylia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Dufeau

    function of braincase volume, but instead support the hypothesis that these changes may be a function of the acoustic properties of the middle ear.

  5. Ontogeny of the Middle-Ear Air-Sinus System in Alligator mississippiensis (Archosauria: Crocodylia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufeau, David L; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    volume, but instead support the hypothesis that these changes may be a function of the acoustic properties of the middle ear.

  6. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaihede, Michael [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Liao Donghua [Centre of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Centre of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2007-02-07

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between membrane tension and change of the surface area relative to the undeformed surface area. A middle ear model determined the tension-strain relationship in vivo based on data from experimental pressure-volume deformations of the human tympanic membrane system. The areal modulus was determined in both a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m{sup -1}, respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m{sup -1}, respectively), though not significantly (2p = 0.10 and 0.11, respectively). Based on the model the areal modulus was established describing the summated elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system. Future model improvements include exact determination of the tympanic membrane area accounting for its shape via 3D finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus.

  7. Dissection of the Auditory Bulla in Postnatal Mice: Isolation of the Middle Ear Bones and Histological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ayako; Kuroda, Yukiko; Kanzaki, Sho; Matsuo, Koichi

    2017-01-04

    In most mammals, auditory ossicles in the middle ear, including the malleus, incus and stapes, are the smallest bones. In mice, a bony structure called the auditory bulla houses the ossicles, whereas the auditory capsule encloses the inner ear, namely the cochlea and semicircular canals. Murine ossicles are essential for hearing and thus of great interest to researchers in the field of otolaryngology, but their metabolism, development, and evolution are highly relevant to other fields. Altered bone metabolism can affect hearing function in adult mice, and various gene-deficient mice show changes in morphogenesis of auditory ossicles in utero. Although murine auditory ossicles are tiny, their manipulation is feasible if one understands their anatomical orientation and 3D structure. Here, we describe how to dissect the auditory bulla and capsule of postnatal mice and then isolate individual ossicles by removing part of the bulla. We also discuss how to embed the bulla and capsule in different orientations to generate paraffin or frozen sections suitable for preparation of longitudinal, horizontal, or frontal sections of the malleus. Finally, we enumerate anatomical differences between mouse and human auditory ossicles. These methods would be useful in analyzing pathological, developmental and evolutionary aspects of auditory ossicles and the middle ear in mice.

  8. Otitis media with effusion: Accuracy of tympanometry in detecting fluid in the middle ears of children at myringotomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khurshid; Khan, Saeed; Rehman, Habib ur; Javaid, Mohammad; Shahabi, Isteraj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: (1) The diagnostic accuracy of tympanometry in detecting fluid in the middle ear space in children with otitis media with effusion by comparing its findings with those of myringotomies. (2) Identify the age group most commonly affected by OME. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT& Head and Neck Surgery, Postgraduate Medical Institute Hayatabad Medical complex, Peshawar from July 1, 2012 to April 30, 2015. Patients with suspicion of OME underwent tympanometry and later myringotomies. Using Jerger’s classification, Type B tympanogram with normal canal volume was considered as conclusive evidence of fluid in the middle ear space. Its findings were compared with those of the respective myringotomies. From the data collected, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were calculated. Results: A total 117 ears of 63 patients were operated. The age range was 3 to 12 years. The commonest age group (58.7%) affected by OME was 6-8 years. Type B tympanogram with flat curve and normal canal volume was obtained in 71.4% of the ears. Comparison with myringotomy findings showed TP 85, TN 13, FP 5 and FN 14. The diagnostic value of tympanometry was; Sensitivity 85.85%, Specificity 72.22%, PPV 94.44%, NPV 48.14% and Accuracy of 83.76%. P value calculated using chi square test showed that there was significant difference between tympanometry and myringotomy findings in OME (p < 0.05). Conclusions: OME is common in age group 6-8 years. Tympanogram Type B with normal canal volume is fairly sensitive in diagnosing this condition. However for occurrence of false positive results, final decision regarding management should be made on clinical findings and other supportive audiological tests. PMID:27182263

  9. Efficacy of nasopharyngeal culture in identification of pathogens in middle ear fluid in chronic otitis media with effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic otitis media with effusion (OME is the leading cause of hearing loss during childhood. In bacterial etiology of OME, the most frequent pathogens responsible are Haemophilus influenzae followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis . This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of nasopharyngeal (NP specimens in the identification of pathogens in the middle ear fluid (MEF in patients with OME. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional, case-control study, 95 MEFs and 53 NP secretion specimens were obtained from 53 children. As a control group, 102 NP specimens were taken from children having an operation other than an otological disease. Conventional culture methods and multiplex-PCR method have been used to determine the etiology of OME; NP carriage between cases and control groups were compared using conventional culture methods. Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher′s Exact tests were used in statistical analysis. Results : Bacteria were isolated by culture in 37.9% of MEF specimens, 14.7% of which belonged to the group H. influenzae , S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis. PCR was positive in 30.5% specimens targeting the same pathogens. There was a two-fold increase in carriage rate of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in patients than controls for each pathogen. Conclusion: PCR is a more reliable method to detect middle ear pathogens in MEF in comparison with the conventional culture methods. The NP colonization wasn′t found to be an indicator of the pathogen in MEF although middle ear pathogens colonize more in nasopharynx of diseased children.

  10. Highly biocompatible behaviour and slow degradation of a LDH (layered double hydroxide)-coating on implants in the middle ear of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Franziska; Kieke, Marc; Waltz, Florian; Schweinefuß, Maria E; Badar, Muhammad; Müller, Peter Paul; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Lenarz, Thomas; Behrens, Peter; Prenzler, Nils Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation can irreversibly damage components of the ossicular chain which may lead to sound conduction deafness. The replacement of impaired ossicles with prostheses does not reduce the risk of bacterial infections which may lead to loss of function of the implant and consequently to additional damage of the connected structures such as inner ear, meninges and brain. Therefore, implants that could do both, reconstruct the sound conduction and in addition provide antibacterial protection are of high interest for ear surgery. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are promising novel biomaterials that have previously been used as an antibiotic-releasing implant coating to curb bacterial infections in the middle ear. However, animal studies of LDHs are scarce and there exist only few additional data on the biocompatibility and hardly any on the biodegradation of these compounds. In this study, middle ear prostheses were coated with an LDH compound, using suspensions of nanoparticles of an LDH containing Mg and Al as well as carbonate ions. These coatings were characterized and implanted into the middle ear of healthy rabbits for 10 days. Analysis of the explanted prostheses showed only little signs of degradation. A stable health constitution was observed throughout the whole experiment in every animal. The results show that LDH-based implant coatings are biocompatible and dissolve only slowly in the middle ear. They, therefore, appear as promising materials for the construction of controlled drug delivery vehicles.

  11. Ribotyping of strains of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, K; Sørensen, C H; Colding, H;

    1998-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhaomella) catarrhalis is frequently present in the nasopharyngeal microflora of small children, especially during episodes of acute otitis media . By means of ribotyping (restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNA combined with rRNA probing), we studied the genetic....... The distribution of these types was found to be almost identical to the distribution among 16 M. catarrhalis strains cultured from middle ear exudates of 16 children with acute otitis media. Ribotype HAPA was found in two-thirds of all the cultures investigated, and 44% of the children harboured more than one...

  12. A Fully-Implantable Cochlear Implant SoC with Piezoelectric Middle-Ear Sensor and Arbitrary Waveform Neural Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Marcus; Jin, Rui; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Stankovic, Konstantina M; Chandrakasan, Anantha P

    2015-01-01

    A system-on-chip for an invisible, fully-implantable cochlear implant is presented. Implantable acoustic sensing is achieved by interfacing the SoC to a piezoelectric sensor that detects the sound-induced motion of the middle ear. Measurements from human cadaveric ears demonstrate that the sensor can detect sounds between 40 and 90 dB SPL over the speech bandwidth. A highly-reconfigurable digital sound processor enables system power scalability by reconfiguring the number of channels, and provides programmable features to enable a patient-specific fit. A mixed-signal arbitrary waveform neural stimulator enables energy-optimal stimulation pulses to be delivered to the auditory nerve. The energy-optimal waveform is validated with in-vivo measurements from four human subjects which show a 15% to 35% energy saving over the conventional rectangular waveform. Prototyped in a 0.18 μm high-voltage CMOS technology, the SoC in 8-channel mode consumes 572 μW of power including stimulation. The SoC integrates implantable acoustic sensing, sound processing, and neural stimulation on one chip to minimize the implant size, and proof-of-concept is demonstrated with measurements from a human cadaver ear.

  13. Pili play an important role in enhancing the bacterial clearance from the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media with Moraxella catarrhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Toshiaki; Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Mitsui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Nishizono, Akira; Suzuki, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative aerobic diplococcus that is currently the third most frequent cause of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) in children. In this study, we developed an experimental murine AOM model by inoculating M. catarrhalis in the middle ear bulla and studied the local response to this inoculation, and modulation of its course by the pili of M. catarrhalis. The pili-positive and pili-negative M. catarrhalis showed differences in bacterial clearance and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the middle ear. Pili-negative M. catarrhalis induced a more delayed and prolonged immune response in the middle ear than that of pili-positive M. catarrhalis. TLR2, -4, -5 and -9 mRNA expression was upregulated in neutrophils that infiltrated the middle ear cavity during AOM caused by both pili-positive and pili-negative bacteria. TLR5 mRNA expression and TLR5 protein in the neutrophils were induced more robustly by pili-positive M. catarrhalis. This immune response is likely to be related to neutrophil function such as toll-like 5-dependent phagocytosis. Our results show that mice may provide a useful AOM model for studying the role of M. catarrhalis. Furthermore, we show that pili play an important role in enhancing M. catarrhalis clearance from the middle ear that is probably mediated through neutrophil-dependent TLR5 signaling.

  14. Simulations and Measurements of Human Middle Ear Vibrations Using Multi-Body Systems and Laser-Doppler Vibrometry with the Floating Mass Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Strenger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer characteristic of the human middle ear with an applied middle ear implant (floating mass transducer is examined computationally with a Multi-body System approach and compared with experimental results. For this purpose, the geometry of the middle ear was reconstructed from μ-computer tomography slice data and prepared for a Multi-body System simulation. The transfer function of the floating mass transducer, which is the ratio of the input voltage and the generated force, is derived based on a physical context. The numerical results obtained with the Multi-body System approach are compared with experimental results by Laser Doppler measurements of the stapes footplate velocities of five different specimens. Although slightly differing anatomical structures were used for the calculation and the measurement, a high correspondence with respect to the course of stapes footplate displacement along the frequency was found. Notably, a notch at frequencies just below 1 kHz occurred. Additionally, phase courses of stapes footplate displacements were determined computationally if possible and compared with experimental results. The examinations were undertaken to quantify stapes footplate displacements in the clinical practice of middle ear implants and, also, to develop fitting strategies on a physical basis for hearing impaired patients aided with middle ear implants.

  15. [Investigation of viral nucleic acids in middle-ear effusion specimens from children with acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Sitteh, Muhammed H; Sener, Kenan; Yapar, Mehmet; Kiliç, Abdullah; Güney, Cakir; Kubar, Ayhan

    2008-07-01

    Acute otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the major causes of antibiotic use, indication for operation and hearing loss in children. In two third of the cases the etiologic agents are bacteria. Nonetheless, increasing numbers of reports have implicated viruses as etiologic agents that may have some effect on prognosis of OME. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of nucleic acids of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) type A and B, influenza type A virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and enteroviruses in the middle ear effusion specimens from children with otitis media by TaqMan real-time PCR. As a result, 18 of 30 (60%) OME samples were found positive in terms of viral nucleic acids by real-time PCR. RSV-A was detected in nine samples (30%), CMV in 3 (10%) samples and HSV-1 in 1 (3.3%) sample. In five of the samples two viruses were detected in the same sample (three were positive for adenovirus and RSV-A, and two were positive for CMV and RSV-A). Our data have supported the importance of viruses as etiologic agents of OME. Additionally, it was thought that TaqMan real-time PCR may be used as a reliable and rapid method for the detection of viruses in the middle ear effusion samples.

  16. Passive flooding of paranasal sinuses and middle ears as a method of equalisation in extreme breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino; Musimu, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Breath-hold diving is both a recreational activity, performed by thousands of enthusiasts in Europe, and a high-performance competitive sport. Several 'disciplines' exist, of which the 'no-limits' category is the most spectacular: using a specially designed heavy 'sled,' divers descend to extreme depths on a cable, and then reascend using an inflatable balloon, on a single breath. The current world record for un-assisted descent stands at more than 200 m of depth. Equalising air pressure in the paranasal sinuses and middle-ear cavities is a necessity during descent to avoid barotraumas. However, this requires active insufflations of precious air, which is thus unavailable in the pulmonary system. The authors describe a diver who, by training, is capable of allowing passive flooding of the sinuses and middle ear with (sea) water during descent, by suppressing protective (parasympathetic) reflexes during this process. Using this technique, he performed a series of extreme-depth breath-hold dives in June 2005, descending to 209 m of sea water on one breath of air.

  17. Chronic otorrhea caused by myospherulosis in the middle ear after tympanoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honings, J.; Dammeijer, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Myospherulosis is a foreign body reaction induced by the application of oil-based ointments. Myospherulosis in the ear is extremely rare. Only 4 cases have been described, all of which occurred after (repeated) mastoid surgery. METHODS: We present a case of persistent otorrhea and conduc

  18. Sing It, Hear It, Play It! Ear Training for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenink, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to increase student skills in ear training. Offers suggestions used with fifth through eighth grade band students, such as sing with your bands or teach the band solfege syllables. Includes a list of songs, research resources, and tonal patterns. (CMK)

  19. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  20. Central Venous Access via Middle Approach Using the Seldinger Guidewire

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    Miguel Muñoz Cepero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, venous access via middle approach with the technique described by English has been frequently used, leading to lower risk of pneumothorax and arterial puncture. In addition, it is easy to perform. Objective: to characterize the performance of central venous access via the middle approach to the internal jugular vein using the Seldinger guidewire in patients with hematologic diseases and/or anticoagulant therapy. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2009 in the Surgical Unit of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos. Central venous access via middle approach using the technique described by English was performed in 47 patients suffering from hematologic diseases. Variables analysed were: number of attempts, indications and complications. Results: 43 central venous catheterizations were successful (91.48 %, 35 of them were achieved in the first attempt. The use of cytostatics was indicated in more than half of the cases (55.31 %. Complications were observed in 5 patients; arterial puncture was the most common (6.38 %. Conclusions: central venous access via the middle approach using the Seldinger guidewire is a suitable option for patients with hematologic diseases. It minimizes complications in patients treated with anticoagulants. In general, it is easily accessible and has a high success rate.

  1. Middle and inner ear malformations in mutation-proven branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melissa T; Blaser, Susan; Papsin, Blake; Meschino, Wendy; Reardon, Willie; Klatt, Regan; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Milunsky, Jeff; Chitayat, David

    2012-08-01

    Hearing impairment is common in individuals with branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome. The majority of described individuals have conductive hearing impairment due to malformed ossicles and/or external canal stenosis or atresia, although a sensorineural component to the hearing impairment in BOF syndrome is increasingly being reported. Sophisticated computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone has revealed middle and inner ear malformations in three previous reports. We present middle and inner ear abnormalities in three additional individuals with mutation-proven BOF syndrome. We suggest that temporal bone CT imaging be included in the medical workup of a child with BOF syndrome, in order to guide management.

  2. Giant Cell Tumor of the Temporal Bone with Direct Invasion into the Middle Ear and Skull Base: A Case Report

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    Takashi Iizuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumor (GCT is classified as a benign bone tumor, and it is frequently identified at the epiphysis of long bones and relatively rare in the temporal bone. For orthopedists expert at recognizing bone and soft tissue tumors, the diagnosis of GCT is relatively easy; however, since head and neck surgeons experience few cases of GCT, it may be difficult to diagnose when it occurs in the temporal bone. A 32-year-old man complained of left hearing loss, aural fullness, and tinnitus. Examination of the ear revealed a bulging tumor. Audiologic examination demonstrated conductive hearing loss of the left ear. Computer tomograph of the temporal bone showed a soft-tissue-density specification indicating bone destruction at the left temporal bone. The tumor invaded the skull base. Imaging examinations using magnetic resonance imaging revealed a nonhomogenous isosignal intensity area on T1 at the left temporal bone. After intravenous gadolinium, the mass showed unequal enhancement. This patient subsequently underwent surgery to remove the lesion using transmastoid and middle fossa approach. Pathological examinations from specimens of the tumor revealed characteristic of GCT. No clinical or radiological evidence of tumor recurrence was detected for 4 years.

  3. Increasing rate of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare;

    2014-01-01

    ear ventilation tube insertion performed in Denmark in the period were identified. A possible change in incidence rate over time was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 502,569 uni- or bilateral...... in incidence rate was found in 1-year-olds with an annual increase of 4.5% (95% confidence interval 4.4-4.6%). Age-specific incidence rates remained at maximum around the age of 14 months throughout the period. The cumulative incidence proportion for the 2010 birth cohort by the time they reach the age of 5...

  4. Treatment of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Dogs with the Vibrant Soundbridge Middle Ear Implant : Short-Term Results in 3 Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Haar, G.; Mulder, J. J.; Venker-van Haagen, A. J.; van Sluijs, F. J.; Snik, A. F.; Smoorenburg, G. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), or presbycusis, is the most common form of acquired hearing loss in dogs. Middle ear implants have been used successfully in people with ARHL who cannot benefit from conventional hearing aids. Hypothesis Audibility improves in dogs with ARHL after implanta

  5. Treatment of age-related hearing loss in dogs with the vibrant soundbridge middle ear implant: short-term results in 3 dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, G. Ter; Mulder, J.J.S.; Venker-van Haagen, A.J.; Sluijs, F.J. van; Snik, A.F.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), or presbycusis, is the most common form of acquired hearing loss in dogs. Middle ear implants have been used successfully in people with ARHL who cannot benefit from conventional hearing aids. HYPOTHESIS: Audibility improves in dogs with ARHL after implan

  6. Iodine potassium iodide improves the contrast-to-noise ratio of micro-computed tomography images of the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, S A; Ghomashchi, S; Umoh, J; Holdsworth, D W; Agrawal, S K; Ladak, H M

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution imaging of middle-ear geometry is necessary for finite-element modeling. Although micro-computed tomography (microCT) is widely used because of its ability to image bony structures of the middle ear, it is difficult to visualize soft tissues - including the tympanic membrane and the suspensory ligaments/tendons - because of lack of contrast. The objective of this research is to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of iodine potassium iodide (IKI) solution as a contrast agent. Six human temporal bones were used in this experiment, which were obtained in right-left pairs, from three cadaveric heads. All bones were fixed using formaldehyde. Three bones (one from each pair) were stained in IKI solution for 2 days, whereas the other three were not stained. Samples were scanned using a microCT system at a resolution of 20 μm. Eight soft tissues in the middle ear were segmented: anterior mallear ligament, incudomallear joint, lateral mallear ligament, posterior incudal ligament, stapedial annular ligament, stapedius muscle, tympanic membrane and tensor tympani muscle. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of each soft tissue were calculated for each temporal bone. Combined CNRs of the soft tissues in unstained samples were 6.1 ± 3.0, whereas they were 8.1 ± 2.7 in stained samples. Results from Welch's t-test indicate significant difference between the two groups at a 95% confidence interval. Results for paired t-tests for each of the individual soft tissues also indicated significant improvement of contrast in all tissues after staining. Relatively large soft tissues in the middle ear such as the tympanic membrane and the tensor tympani muscle were impacted by staining more than smaller tissues such as the stapedial annular ligament. The increase in contrast with IKI solution confirms its potential application in automatic segmentation of the middle-ear soft tissues.

  7. Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose and Throat: An Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central Nepal

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    Parajuli, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A foreign body (FB is an object or substance foreign to the location where it is found. FBs in the ear, nose, and throat are a common problem frequently encountered in both children and adults. Objective To analyze FBs in terms of type, site, age, and gender distribution and method of removal. Methods A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in the central part of Nepal. The study period was from June 2013 to May 2014. The information was obtained from hospital record books. Results A total of 134 patients had FBs in the ear, nose, or throat; 94 were males and 40 were females. Of the 134 patients, 70 (52.23% had FB in the ear, 28 (20.89% in the nose, and 36 (26.86% in the throat. The FB was animate (living in 28 (40% patients with FB in the ear and 1 (3.5% patient with FB in the nose, but the FB was inanimate (nonliving in any patient with FB in the throat, in 42 (60% patients with FB in the ear FB, and in 27 (96.4% patients with FB of the nose. The FB was removed with or without local anaesthesia (LA in 98 (73.13% patients, and only 36 patients (26.86% required general anaesthesia (GA. The most common age group affected was <10 years. Conclusion FBs in the ear and nose were found more frequently in children, and the throat was the most common site of FB in adults and elderly people. Most of the FBs can be easily removed in emergency room or outpatient department.

  8. Can use of a cold light source in endoscopic middle ear surgery cause sensorineural hearing loss?

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    Suat Terzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate possible sensorineural hearing loss created by the use of a cold light source in patients undergoing endoscopic tympanoplasty surgery. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 203 patients, who underwent endoscopic Type 1 tympanoplasty surgery in our ear, nose, and throat clinic between 2012 and 2015, were checked retrospectively. Ninety-one patients were male and 112 were female, and their mean age was 34.4 ± 11.2 years. Results of audiometric measurements performed during the preoperative period and repeated 1 and 3 months postsurgery were compared to each other. Results: The mean duration of the operations was determined to be 52.4 ± 9.1 min. In addition, average preoperative bone-conduction was 11.4 ± 7.4 dB nHL. However, it was 9.57 ± 7.1 dB nHL and 9.51 ± 7.4 dB nHL, respectively, in the 1st and 3rd postoperative months. Levels of postoperative average bone-conduction at the 1st and 3rd month, as well as the thresholds of bone-conduction at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, were significantly lower than the preoperative results (P 0.05. Conclusion: Based on our findings, the increased heat generated by the use of a cold light source during an endoscopic tympanoplasty surgery is unlikely to cause the development of sensorineural hearing loss.

  9. Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae is not altered when ascending from the nasopharynx to the middle ears in children with otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langereis, Jeroen D; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Stol, Kim; Venekamp, Roderick P; Schilder, Anne G M; Hermans, Peter W M

    2013-12-01

    We have previously found that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) collected from the middle ear of children with otitis media (OM) exhibit increased levels of complement resistance compared to NTHi collected from the nasopharynx. However, it is unknown whether bacteria develop complement resistance in the middle ear, or whether resistance is present when residing in the nasopharynx. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the levels of complement resistance of isolates collected from the middle ear were similar to those of isolates from the nasopharynx with an identical MLST type. We included 62 children with recurrent acute OM, chronic OM with effusion or acute tympanostomy tube otorrhea. NTHi was simultaneously isolated from the nasopharynx and middle ear fluid. MLST, resistance to complement-mediated killing, IgG binding, IgM binding and phosphorylcholine expression was determined. In 41 children, NTHi isolated from the middle ear and nasopharynx showed to have an identical MLST type. Isolates collected from the middle ear showed a highly similar level of complement resistance and IgM binding with isolates collected from the nasopharynx, whereas this was not the case for IgG binding and phosphorylcholine incorporation into lipooligosaccharide. Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding of NTHi isolates with an identical MLST type collected from the middle ear and nasopharynx of children with OM was highly similar.

  10. Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT diseases in Central Kenya

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    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diseases of ear, nose and throat (ENT often have serious consequences including hearing impairment, and emotional strain that lower the quality of life of patients. In Kenya, upper respiratory infections are among the most common infections encountered in outpatient facilities. Some of these infections are becoming difficult to control because some of the causing microorganisms have acquired antibiotic resistance and hence the need to develop new drugs with higher efficacy. Ethnobotanical studies have now been found to be instrumental in improving chances of discovering plants with antimicrobial activity in new drug development. In Kenya the majority of local people are turning to herbal remedies for primary health care needs. In most cases the sources of these remedies are undocumented and the knowledge about them passed orally form generation to generation, hence under threat of disappearing with current rates of modernisation. This study explored the traditional remedies used in managing various ENT diseases in seven districts of the Central Province of Kenya. The most common ENT conditions managed using traditional therapies include: common cold, cough, tonsillitis, otitis-media, chest pains and asthma. The results indicate that 67 species belonging to 36 plant families were utilized in this region. These plants were of varying habits; herbs (37.3%, shrubs (34.4%, trees (25.4% as well as some grasses and sedges (3%. The traditional preparations were found to be made mainly from leaves (49%, roots (20.5% and barks (12.5%. For each of the ENT conditions multiple species are utilized mainly as individual preparations but occasionally as polyherbal concoctions. In the case of common cold for example, 30 different species are used. Plants reported in this survey are important candidates for antimicrobial tests against ENT disease causing micro-organisms, especially those with antibiotic resistance.

  11. A molecular epidemiologic study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients undergoing middle ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, H K; Jeon, Y H; Song, J S; Hwang, S J; Cheong, H J

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections after middle ear surgery has recently increased at our hospital. Most of these infections were thought to be hospital-acquired when medical personnel in contact with an MRSA-infected patient may have inadvertently transmitted the pathogen to other patients. To prevent further transmission it is essential that such sources of MRSA infection and transmission routes be selected out and eradicated. Therefore, it is necessary to determine whether the strains of MRSA isolated from infected patients are identical to those obtained from medical personnel in order to prove a reciprocal transmission of organisms between medical personnel and patients. Surveillance bacterial cultures from the anterior nares and hands of medical personnel working in the Department of Otolaryngology, Korea University Guro Hospital, were performed at two different time points: 6 December 1994 and 17 June 1996. Ribotyping with Southern blot technique was used to compare 12 MRSA strains from medical carriers with 60 strains identified from the otorrhea of MRSA-infected patients undergoing middle ear surgery. As results, six different MRSA strains were identified (types I, II, III, IV, V and VI) from ribotyping with EcoR1. One distinct subtype, type I strain, was the most frequently identified strain in both medical carriers and patients. Results also showed that 6 MRSA isolates from 10 medical carriers and 20 from 30 patients contained type I ribotype at first culture. Two medical carriers' isolates and 13 isolates from 30 patients shared the same type I strain at the second surveillance culture. In all, 41 out of 72 MRSA strains (56.9%) shared an identical ribotype pattern. Postoperative MRSA infection rates after treatment of medical carriers and the application of rigorous preventive procedures decreased from 11.9 to 5.7% after first culture and 9.0 to 7.7% following second cultures. These findings confirm that MRSA

  12. Cartilage graft or fascia in tympanoplasty in patients with low middle ear risk index (anatomical and audological results).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callioglu, Elif Ersoy; Ceylan, B Tijen; Kuran, Gokhan; Demirci, Sule; Tulaci, Kamil Gokce; Caylan, Refik

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anatomic and audiological results of cartilage graft with temporal fascia graft in type 1 tympanoplasty patients with low middle ear risk index (MERI). In this retrospective study, 63 patients that underwent type 1 tympanoplasty with chondroperichondrial island graft between July 2009 and November 2010 were compared with 45 patients in whom temporal muscle fascia was used. Patients in both groups had low MERI values varying between 1 and 3. Five and nine patients underwent masteidectomy in cartilage and fascia group, respectively. Mean duration of follow-up was 11.9 ± 3.7 (5-17) months. Mean value was calculated at pre-operative and post-operative hearing threshold 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz, and air bone gap (ABG) gain was compared in both cartilage and fascia groups. when pre-operative and post-operative ABG gain were compared, significant decrease was seen in ABG levels (p fascia group. In both groups, age, sex, and the addition of mastoidectomy procedure had no significant effect on ABG gain and success. Cartilage is a graft material that may be preferred without concern about the effects on hearing results, especially, in patients with low MERI values. The addition of mastoidectomy had no impact on the outcome of operation and audiological results. However, further studies with larger case series may be carried out to further clarify the issue.

  13. Electrophysiological aspects of the middle ear muscle reflex in the rat: latency, rise time and effect on sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, H; Kingma, H; Kluge, C; Marres, E H

    1990-10-01

    The latency, the rise time and the influence of the acoustic reflex on sound transmission were investigated in the adult rat during ketamin anesthesia. This was done by recordings of the cochlear microphonics (CM) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the reflex responses of the tensor tympani muscle. The acoustic reflex was elicited by contralateral acoustic stimuli of which the intensity and frequency was varied. Ipsilaterally, the effect on sound transmission was determined by estimating the change in amplitude of the CM's of ipsilateral administered subliminal stimuli. It was shown that both the tensor tympani muscle and the stapedius muscle contribute in the reflex. The latency as well as the rise time of the reflex determined by CM recordings showed to be short (minimal values: 12 and 7 ms respectively). The mean latency of the tensor tympani muscle reflex, measured by EMG, was about 7 ms. The attenuation of 0.25-8 kHz tone bursts upto 115 dB SPL is limited to a mean maximum of 15 dB SPL. The maximal attenuation was shown to occur at 1 kHz. Frequencies above 2 kHz appeared to be the best elicitor of the middle ear muscle reflex.

  14. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (pmedia in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  15. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration of antimicrobial agents against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluids of intractable acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Shin; Hotomi, Muneki; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2013-06-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) makes the clinical course of acute otitis media (AOM) intractable by forming a biofilm that may hamper the clearance of the bacteria from middle ear cavity. In this study, we evaluated the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of antimicrobial agents against biofilm-forming NTHi strains. Twelve NTHi strains isolated from middle ear fluids of Japanese children with intractable AOM before antimicrobial treatment were evaluated for MBEC of fluoroquinolones in comparison with those of β-lactams and macrolides. AMPC and CDTR required much higher concentration, i.e., high MBECs, to suppress the biofilm formation of NTHi. In contrast, fluoroquinolones followed by macrolides showed lower MBECs. MBEC would be a good parameter to infer the efficacies of antimicrobials against NTHi in biofilm.

  16. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

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    Park Raekil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM. Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  17. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva; Wulke, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90%) and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations) or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and externa...

  18. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (10(7) CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear.

  19. Perfusion and diffusion limitations in middle ear gas exchange: the exchange of CO2 as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcusohn, Yael; Ar, Amos; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2010-06-14

    A long standing debate on perfusion/diffusion limitations in the context of middle ear (ME) gas exchange was revisited using data obtained from previous iso-pressure gas-exchange measurements in different mammals. We tried to determine whether the exchange of CO(2) in the ME is limited by perfusion or by diffusion by comparing the mass specific cardiac output (msQ) and the mass specific initial CO(2) flow rate into air-washed MEs (msV(i) CO(2)) of rabbits and rats. Based on previously published allometry at rest, the msQ was 0.154 mL/(min g) in rabbits (mean body weight: 2800 g) and 0.259 mL/(min g) in rats (mean body weight: 179.1 g); msV(i) CO(2) (Delta t=0) was 0.109+/-0.047 microL/(h g) in rabbits (n=16) and 0.170+/-0.094 microL/(h g) in rats (n=9). Similar ratios were found when an allometric comparison was made between the ratio of msV(i) CO(2) (Delta t=0) (approximately 0.64), and the ratio of msQs (approximately 0.59) in rabbits and rats. If the active mucosal surface areas of MEs of rabbits and rats are directly proportional to their masses as are the masses of their hearts and if their msQs are proportional to the rates of blood flows in the ME mucosa, these results support the assumption that the exchange of CO(2) in the ME of mammals is mainly perfusion (and not diffusion) dependent.

  20. Conscious sedation for middle ear surgeries: A comparison between fentanyl-propofol and fentanyl-midazolam infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu S Thota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Middle ear surgeries can be performed under local anesthesia and sedation and can be well tolerated by the patient with minimal discomfort. This study was undertaken to compare two techniques of conscious sedation, intravenous midazolam, and propofol infusion for tympanoplasty. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for right or left tympanoplasty. American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II in age group 18-75 years were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into one of the two groups to receive either propofol (group I or midazolam (group II. Results: The mean duration of anesthesia was 116.00 ± 33.94 min in group I, while 97.50 ± 30.76 min in group II (P = 0.07. The modified Ramsay sedation scale was not statistically significant in both the groups. In group I, 70% of the patients and 95% of the patients in group II had amnesia during the surgery (P = 0.091. The mean visual analog scale (VAS score for surgeons and patients was not statistically significant in both the groups. In group I there was a positive correlation between the total dose of fentanyl and VAS score for surgeons (P = 0.02. There was also a positive correlation between the total dose of propofol and VAS score for surgeons (P = 0.034 and patients (P = 0.039 in group I. Conclusion: Though propofol had shown a faster recovery and less nausea vomiting, we need a larger sample size to conclude, which of the technique is better. Both the techniques are safe, simple and versatile and provide excellent sedation with rapid trouble free recovery.

  1. Primary investigations on the potential of a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for middle ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian

    2016-02-01

    Flashlamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are successfully used clinically for both precise soft and hard tissue ablation. Since several years a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system (Pantec Engineering AG) is available, with mean laser power up to 40 W and pulse repetition rate up to 1 kHz. The aim of the study was to investigate the suitability of the laser system specifically for stapedotomy. Firstly an experimental setup was realized with a beam focusing unit and a computer controlled translation stage to move the samples (slices of porcine bone) with a defined velocity while irradiation with various laser parameters. A microphone was positioned in a defined distance to the ablation point and the resulting acoustic signal of the ablation process was recorded. For comparison, measurements were also performed with a flash lamp pumped Er:YAG laser system. After irradiation the resulting ablation quality and efficacy were determined using light microscopy. Using a high speed camera and "Töpler-Schlierentechnik" the cavitation bubble in water after perforation of a bone slice was investigated. The results show efficient bone ablation using the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system. Also a decrease of the sound level and of the cavitation bubble volume was observed with decreasing pulse duration. Higher repetition rates lead to a slightly increase of thermal side effects but have no influence on the ablation efficiency. In conclusion, these first experiments demonstrate the high potential of the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for use in middle ear surgery.

  2. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  3. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  4. 放疗后中耳胆固醇肉芽肿的治疗%Cholesterin Granuloma of the Middle Ear in Post-irradiated Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海弟; 许耀东; 张志钢; 陈穗俊; 郑亿庆

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究放疗后中耳胆固醇肉芽肿行乳突根治及鼓室成型术手术的效果.[方法]对在我科确诊为鼻咽癌放疗后中耳胆固醇肉芽肿的9例患者9耳进行手术治疗研究,放疗与手术间隔时间为6~14年(平均9年),术前接受的放射剂量为68~75 Gy.所有患耳采取的手术治疗方法包括开放乳突根治或完壁乳突根治术,同时行鼓室成型,其中3例行开放乳突根治+鼓室成型;6例行完壁乳突根治+鼓室成型.[结果]所有患者术后均随访2年以上,7耳鼓膜完整(占77.8%),2耳在术后3个月出现鼓膜再穿孔,但耳流脓、耳闷塞感明显较术前减少.平均纯音听阈PTA和A-B Gap分别由术前的90.5 dB和45.8 dB改善至术后6个月的62.3dB和25.5 dB.[结论]大多数鼻咽癌放疗后中耳胆固醇肉芽肿患者可采取手术改善症状,放疗引起的慢性中耳炎不是鼓室成型的禁忌证.%[Objective] To evaluate the surgical outcome of mastoidectomy plus tympanoplasty for cholesterin granuloma of the middle ear in post-irradiated patients. [Methods] Nine ears diagnosed cholesterin granuloma in the middle ear in post-irradiated NPC patients were included in this study. The time from radiotherapy termination to surgery ranged from 6 to 14 years (median 9 years). All the patients with NPC received radiotherapy of 68 to 75 Gy before surgery. All patients underwent radical tympanoplasty plus mastoidectomy with canal wall down or up. Three ears underwent canal wall down mastoidectomy plus tympanoplasty and six ears underwent canal wall up mastoidectomy plus tympanoplasty. [Results] All the patients were followed up for 2 years at least. There were 7 ears (77.8%) had intact tympanic membrane and 2 ears developed reperforation of eardrum 3 months after surgery, but otorrhea decreased significantly. All these patients reported improved quality of daily life after the surgery. The pure tone average (PTA) of pre-operation was 90.5 dB and air-bone gap

  5. Neutrophil extracellular traps and bacterial biofilms in middle ear effusion of children with recurrent acute otitis media--a potential treatment target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B Thornton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteria persist within biofilms on the middle ear mucosa of children with recurrent and chronic otitis media however the mechanisms by which these develop remain to be elucidated. Biopsies can be difficult to obtain from children and their small size limits analysis. METHODS: In this study we aimed to investigate biofilm presence in middle ear effusion (MEE from children with recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM and to determine if these may represent infectious reservoirs similarly to those on the mucosa. We examined this through culture, viability staining and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH to determine bacterial species present. Most MEEs had live bacteria present using viability staining (32/36 and all effusions had bacteria present using the universal FISH probe (26/26. Of these, 70% contained 2 or more otopathogenic species. Extensive DNA stranding was also present. This DNA was largely host derived, representing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs within which live bacteria in biofilm formations were present. When treated with the recombinant human deoxyribonuclease 1, Dornase alfa, these strands were observed to fragment. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial biofilms, composed of multiple live otopathogenic species can be demonstrated in the MEEs of children with rAOM and that these contain extensive DNA stranding from NETs. The NETs contribute to the viscosity of the effusion, potentially contributing to its failure to clear as well as biofilm development. Our data indicates that Dornase alfa can fragment these strands and may play a role in future chronic OM treatment.

  6. Swimmer's ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse when you pull on the outer ear Hearing loss Itching of the ear or ear canal ... reduce itching and inflammation Pain medicine, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ...

  7. Ear wax

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, George GG

    2008-01-01

    Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment, or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears.Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes.

  8. A Study of Relationship between the Acoustic Sensitivity of Vestibular System and the Ability to Trigger Sound-Evoked Muscle Reflex of the Middle Ear in Adults with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Emami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The vestibular system is sound sensitive and the sensitivity is related to the saccule. The vestibular afferents are projected to the middle ear muscles (such as the stapedius. The goal of this research was studying the relationship between the vestibular hearing and the sound-evoked muscle reflex of the middle ear to 500 HZ. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross sectional-comparison done in audiology department of Sheikholreis C‍‍linic (Hamadan, Iran. The study groups consisted of thirty healthy people and thirty patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Inclusion criteria of the present study were to have normal hearing on pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, and speech discrimination scores. Based on ipsilateral acoustic reflex test at 500HZ, they were divided to normal and abnormal groups. Then they were evaluated by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and finally classified in three groups (N Normal ear , (CVUA Contra lateral vertiginous ear with unaffected saccular sensitivity to sound,(IVA Ipsilateral vertiginous ear with affected saccular sensitivity to sound. Results: Thirty affected ears (IVA with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by ab-normal cVEMPs, revealed abnormal findings of acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Whereas, both un-affected (CVUA and normal ears (N had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs (p13,n23 and acoustic reflex at500HZ among the three groups were sig-nificant. The correlation between acoustic reflex at 500HZ and p13 latencies was significant. The n23 latencies showed significant correlation with acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Conclusion: The vestibular sensitivity to sound retains the ability to trigger sound-evoked re-flex of the middle ear at 500 HZ. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:99-104

  9. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor;

    2014-01-01

    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine be...

  10. Effect on cochlea function of guinea pig after controlled release recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 transplanted into the middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-sheng; SUN Jian-jun; JIANG Wei; LIU Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Background The recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) has been used to induce osteogenesis in animals' middle ear and this technique is possible to be used to reconstruct the defects of ossicles. The side effects of the rhBMP-2 in middle ear should be observed before using in clinic. Thus we prepared the controlled release rhBMP-2 and implanted it into the acoustic bulla of guinea pigs. The effect on the cochlea was observed. Methods We prepared the acellular cancellous bone, accompanied with rhBMP-2. The material accompanied with rhBMP-2 was implanted into one acoustic bulla of the animal and the opposite side of the acoustic bulla was implanted with acellular cancellous bone without rhBMP-2. Totally 20 guinea pigs were undergone this procedure. After the operation, the auditory brainstem response (ABR) of the animals was tested according to the time sequence. Three months after the operation, the animals were sacrificed. The osteogenesis induced by rhBMP-2, the acoustic bulla and cochlea affected by rhBMP-2 were observed. The structures of hair cells were observed after silver nitrate staining. Results The animals were recovered soon after surgery. The hearing thresholds of the animals were declined slightly just after the surgery and come back completely after 3 months. Also, the bulla and cochlea were normal in shape. The osteogenesis occurred in the pore of the acellular cancellous bone with rhBMP-2. There was not any abnormal hyperplasia of bone in the bulla and cochlea. The articulation between the stapes and oval window was not merged. The shapes of the hair cells were normal and there was no obvious deletion of the hair cells compared with control group. Conclusions The controlled release rhBMP-2 transplanted into the middle ear could induce osteogenesis in the bulla of the animals. It did not affect the shape of the bulla and the hearing threshold of the animal, and did not induce the abnormal hyperplasia of bone in the bulla and might

  11. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  12. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  13. Ear trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.

  14. Wavelet Frequency-division Based Signal Processing Design for a Piezoelectric Middle Ear Implant%基于小波分频的压电式人工中耳信号处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵小峰; 刘后广; 田佳彬; 饶柱石

    2011-01-01

    基于一新型压电式人工中耳,提出利用小波分频方法对其信号进行处理,使该植入装置能模拟正常中耳的传递特性.首先,基于Bark频谱理论,利用小波分频技术将输入信号分为17个频带;再参考中耳传递特性,对每个频带的信号赋以相应的增益系数;最终,通过实验验证该方法的可行性.结果表明,该法可使压电叠堆的输出能较好地反应正常中耳的传递特性.%To make an actuator of a new middle ear implant vibrate simulating middle ear transfer property,wavelet frequency division based signal processing method is proposed. Firstly, the wavelet transform separates the input signals into seventeen frequency bands based on Bark frequency scale. Then, each frequency band is multiplied with the wavelet coefficients by the gain corresponding to the transfer property of the human middle ear system. At last, the validity of this method is confirmed by an experiment. The results show this algorithm can make the output of the piezoelectric stack have a good performance of simulating the normal human middle ear transfer property.

  15. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90% and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and external auditory canal, EAC, middle ear and inner ear, not infrequently in combination. Formal classification is advisable in order to be able to predict the prognosis and compare treatment schedules. Various classifications have been proposed: pinna and EAC malformations according to Weerda [1], middle ear malformations according to Kösling [2], and inner ear malformations according to Jackler [3], [4], to Marangos [5] and to Sennaroglu [6]. Additionally, we describe Altmann’s classification of atresia auris congenita [7] and the Siegert-Mayer-Weerda score [8] for EAC and middle ear malformations, systems of great practicability that are in widespread clinical use. The diagnostic steps include clinical examination, audiological testing, genetic analysis and, especially, CT and MRI. These imaging methods are most usefully employed in combination. Precise description of the malformations by means of CT and MRI is indispensable for the planning and successful outcome of operative ear reconstruction and rehabilitation procedures, including cochlear implantation.

  16. Ear Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... the Ears, Nose, and Throat Additional Content Medical News Ear Tumors ... NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click ...

  17. High-resolution computerized tomography appearances of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear%先天性外中耳畸形的高分辨率CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广保; 聂玉霞; 谭子琨

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of clinical application of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) in the diagnose of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear.Methods The imaging data of 40 congenital malformations of the external and middle ear patients with HRCT were collected and analyzed retrospectively.All the temporal bones were scanned with HRCT.All images were targeted using high-bone-detail algorithms.Results 13 cases of external ear abnormalities were found,including 1 case of accessory auricle,1 case of accessory with stenosis of external acoustic meatus,3 cases of stenosis of external acoustic meatus,5 cases of externai auditory canal bony atresia and 3 cases of external auditoer canal atresia film,8 cases of middle ear abnormalities,17 cases of external and middle ear malformation,2 cases of external,middle and inner ear malformation.Conclusion External ear malformation and middle ear malformation are usually unilateral,while enlargement of vestibular aqueduct is bilateral.Congenital atresia of external acoustic meatus is the most common type in the external ear malformation.HRCT can provide clear images of temporal bone and auditory ossicles,which help us diagnose the malformations of external ear,middle ear and osseous labyrinth.%目的 探讨不同类型的先天性外中耳畸形的高分辨率CT(HRCT)的诊断价值.方法 收集诊断为先天性外中耳畸形患者40例的影像学资料进行回顾性研究,所有患者均行HRCT扫描,骨算法成像.结果 在本研究的40例先天性外中耳畸形患者中,单纯外耳畸形13例,其中副耳1例,副耳合并外耳道狭窄1例,外耳道狭窄3例,外耳道骨性闭锁5例,外耳道膜性闭锁3例,单纯中耳畸形8例,外耳并中耳畸形17例,外耳、中耳及内耳混合畸形2例.结论 外耳畸形及中耳畸形单侧发病常见,外耳、中耳畸形常同时发生.外耳畸形中先天性外耳道闭锁常见,中耳畸形以听骨链异常常见.HRCT对

  18. Diving injuries to the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J C

    1977-01-01

    Most of the previous literature concerning otologic problems in compressed gas environments has emphasized middle ear barotrauma. With recent increases in commercial, military, and sport diving to deeper depths, inner ear disturbances during these exposures have been noted more frequently. Studies of inner ear physiology and pathology during diving indicate that the causes and treatment of these problems differ depending upon the phase and type of diving. Humans exposed to simulated depths of up to 305 meters without barotrauma or decompression sickness develop transient, conductive hearing losses with no audiometric evidence of cochlear dysfunction. Transient vertigo and nystagmus during diving have been noted with caloric stimulation, resulting from the unequal entry of cold water into the external auditory canals, and with asymmetric middle ear pressure equilibration during ascent and descent (alternobaric vertigo). Equilibrium disturbances noted with nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, hypercarbia, or hypoxia appear primarily related to the effects of these conditions upon the central nervous system and not to specific vestibular end-organ dysfunction. Compression of humans in helium-oxygen at depths greater than 152.4 meters results in transient symptoms of tremor, dizziness, and nausea plus decrements in postural equilibrium and psychomotor performance, the high pressure nervous syndrome. Vestibular function studies during these conditions indicate that these problems are due to central dysfunction and not to vestibular end-organ dysfunction. Persistent inner ear injuries have been noted during several phases of diving: 1) Such injuries during compression (inner ear barotrauma) have been related to round window ruptures occurring with straining, or a Valsalva's maneuver during inadequate middle ear pressure equilibration. Divers who develop cochlear and/or vestibular symptoms during shallow diving in which decompression sickness is unlikely or during

  19. Ear problems in swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  20. Elephant ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Elephant ear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002867.htm Elephant ear To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, ...

  1. A new fossil cichlid from the Middle Miocene in the East African Rift Valley (Tugen Hills, Central Kenya: First record of a putative Ectodini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Altner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of fossil cichlids is difficult, because the currently used diagnostic morphological characters for living cichlids are mostly soft tissue based and such characters are hardly preserved in fossils. During our recent fieldwork in the Central Kenya Rift (E-Africa, we discovered several exceptionally well-preserved fossil cichlids, which can be assigned to different lineages among the African Pseudocrenilabrinae. Here we present one of those new specimens. Its most conspicuous character is a lateral line divided into three segments. This specimen was found in the lacustrine sediments of the Middle Miocene site Waril, Tugen Hills, Kenya. The site represents the deposits of an ancient freshwater lake ca. 9-10 million years ago. Previous work on fossil leaves from the same site allow for the reconstruction of open vegetation surrounding the lake and pronounced dry seasons. Among the main further characteristics of the new fossil cichlid is a lachrimal with six lateral line canals, big cycloid scales and a low number of dorsal fin spines (XIII. The latter two characters are traceable in several members of tribes within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. However, a lachrimal with six lateral line canals is exclusively found in certain tribes of the EAR (East African Radiation within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. Moreover, the unique lateral line pattern is solely present in two genera of the EAR tribe Ectodini. However, the fossil shows cycloid scales, while modern Ectodini have ctenoid scales. Taken all evidence together, this fossil may perhaps represent an ancient lineage related to the Ectodini. Up to date, there is no definite fossil record of the members of the EAR. Our fossil may represent the first reliable calibration point for this group, which would be consistent with the previously reconstructed diversification time of the H-lineage (EAR tribes, except Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini, Trematocarini and Lamprologini and the Lamprologini ca

  2. Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Cardona, A.

    2014-12-01

    The final closure of the Panama Isthmus and permanent separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters is thought to have modified their salinity, faunistic assemblages, and ultimately, ocean circulation patterns and global climate. The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) is thought to have been the result of Plio-Pleistocene closure of the Isthmus that allowed land animals to massively cross the Isthmus. Similarly, the separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters by a rising Isthmus is thougth to be a prime example of vicariance. The role of Isthmus closure on global changes, however, remains controversial due in part to the difficulty of establishing a precise chronology of seaway closure. While timing of glaciation is well established, new data on the chronology of Isthmus emergence suggests that the process of closure is more complex, long, and old than previously thought. We sampled fluvial and shallow marine strata in northwesternmost South America to recover zircon grains for provenance analyses in the immediate vicinity of the docking site. Because the ages of magmatic provinces in northwestern South America and the Panama Isthmus are mutually exclusive, detrital zircon analyses provides a tool to evaluate land connections. We found that an uniquely Panamanian, 40-45 Ma (early Lutetian) detrital zircon fingerprint is abundant in middle Miocene strata, but absent in underlying lower Miocene and Oligocene strata of the northern Andes. This fingerprint represents the beginning of fluvial detrital exchange between the Panama arc and South America, and therefore marks the time of docking and the end of deep-water, and probably shallow-water connections by middle Miocene times.

  3. 探讨中耳乳突根治手术的临床疗效%The Clinical Efficacy of Radical Operation of Middle Ear and Mastoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增贤

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分析中耳乳突根治手术的临床治疗效果。方法2010~2012年我院共接收了180例慢性中耳炎患者,根据这些患者的临床手术治疗来进行疗效探讨分析。结果临床中完璧式乳突根治以及鼓室成形治疗的患者干耳率达到了94.7%,开放式乳突根治和鼓室成形患者有92.5%的干耳率。结论临床中需要结合慢性中耳炎患者的病情以及病变范围来进行手术方式的选择,后鼓室入路探查和清理可以有效的治疗病变范围较广的患者,对于手术炎症的预防起到了比较积极的帮助。%Objective To study the curative effect of radical operation for middle ear and mastoid. Methods From 2010 to 2012, our hospital received a total of 180 cases of chronic otitis media patients, according to the clinical operation treatment for these patients to explore the curative effects. Results Clinical superlative radical mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty in patients treated with dry ear rate reached to 94.7%, open radical mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty in patients with dry ear rate was 92.5%. Conclusion We need to choose the mode of operation in patients with chronic otitis media with the severity and scope of clinical lesions in conclusion, posterior tympanum approach for the exploration and cleaning range can be effective treatment of lesions in patients with wide operation, for the prevention of inlfammation plays a positive help.

  4. Central Venous Access via Middle Approach Using the Seldinger Guidewire

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Muñoz Cepero; Asiris García Almeida; Lisandra Muñoz López

    2013-01-01

    Fundamento: En los últimos tiempos se está realizando con mayor frecuencia el acceso venoso por vía media con la técnica descrita por English, lo que supone menor riesgo de neumotórax y de punción arterial, además de su fácil realización. Objetivo: caracterizar el empleo del acceso venoso central por vía yugular media con uso de Seldinger en pacientes con enfermedades hematológicas y/o tratamiento con anticoagulantes. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, realizado desde enero a diciembre del 2009, e...

  5. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  6. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj;

    2014-01-01

    Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow-water palaeoenvironm...

  7. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  8. Detection of respiratory pathogens in pediatric acute otitis media by PCR and comparison of findings in the middle ear and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana; Mayanskiy, Nikolay; Shipulina, Olga; Kulichenko, Tatiana; Alyabieva, Natalia; Katosova, Lyubovj; Lazareva, Anna; Skachkova, Tatyana; Elkina, Maria; Matosova, Svetlana; Shipulin, German

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) in order to detect bacteria (7 species) and viruses (17 species) in middle ear fluid (MEF) and nasopharynx (Nph) of children with acute otitis media (AOM; n=179). Bacterial and viral nucleic acids were detected in MEF of 78.8% and 14.5% patients, respectively. The prevalence was as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 70.4%; Haemophilus influenzae, 17.9%; Staphylococcus aureus, 16.8%; Streptococcus pyogenes, 12.3%; Moraxella catarrhalis, 9.5%; rhinovirus, 9.5%; and adenovirus, 3.4%. The overall rate of PCR-positive specimens for bacterial pathogens was 2.6 times higher, compared to culture results. The rate of PCR-positive results and the distribution of pathogens in the Nph were similar to those in the MEF. Nph PCR results had variable positive predictive values and high negative predictive values in predicting MEF findings. Our results indicate that Nph PCR could be a practical tool for examining respiratory pathogens in children with acute infections.

  9. Pneumococcal neuraminidase A (NanA) promotes biofilm formation and synergizes with influenza A virus in nasal colonization and middle ear infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; Basu Roy, Ankita; Oliver, Melissa B; Reimche, Jennifer L; Wozniak, Jessie E; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2017-01-17

    Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large because of its high prevalence of nasal colonization in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S. pneumoniae, in part via the synergistic contributions of the viral neuraminidase. The specific role of its pneumococcal counterpart NanA in this interaction, however, is less well-understood. We demonstrate in a mouse model that NanA-deficient pneumococci are impaired in both nasal colonization and middle ear infection. Coinfection with neuraminidase-expressing influenza virus potentiates both but not to wild-type levels, suggesting an intrinsic role of NanA. Using in vitro models, we show that while NanA contributes to both epithelial adherence and biofilm viability, its effect on the latter is actually independent of its sialidase activity. These data indicate that NanA contributes both enzymatically and non-enzymatically to pneumococcal pathogenesis and, as such, suggest that it is not a redundant bystander during coinfection with influenza A virus. Rather, that its expression is required for the full synergism between these two pathogens.

  10. CT中耳仿真内窥镜成像对中耳结构空间解剖关系的显示价值%Computed tomography virtual endoscopy imaging for spacial anatomy of the middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智云; 刘春玲; 周旭辉; 严超贵; 谢红波; 彭谦

    2009-01-01

    CT仿真内窥镜耗时不长,可以临床常规使用.%BACKGROUND: The middle ear is a little aerated cavity with a complex anatomy and a deep location. Computed tomagraphy virtual endoscopy (CTVE) can be used to reconstruct the stereoscopic images of internal surface of hollow organs using spiral CT volumetric data, providing findings similar to fiberendoscope.OBJECTIVE: To vedfy the ability to show the normal middle ear and the clinical application of virtual endoscopy based on 64-detector CT data.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A confirmatory controlled observation was performed at Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between October 2005 and March 2006.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 33 patients (66 ears) with suspected middle ear disease who underwent spiral CT examination were included in this study. Among included ears, 35 were normal, and 31 were impaired, including 24 ears presenting with chronic suppurative otitis media (10 simple otitis media, 5 granulomatous otitis media, and 9 middle ear cholesteatoma), 2 ears with post-operative recurred suppurative otitis media, 2 ears with carcinoma of middle ear, and 2 ears with temporal bone fracture, and lear with foreign body granuloma.METHODS: CT images of the temporal bone were obtained using 0.5 mm thick axis slices with a soft reconstruction kemel at 0.3 mm intervals. Virtual endoscopic images of middle ear on CT were generated from volumetric data using the Navigator software. CTVE images were observed from multiple directions using the Fly Through software, and compared with the axial and coronal images and surgery findings.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following structures were observed: auditory ossicle and joints, superior, middle, and inferior tympanum, sinus tympani, external acoustic meatus, tympanum, facial recess, tegmental wall, anterior and superior ligaments of malleus, posterior ligament of incus, and retrotympanum.RESULTS: A series of images were acquired as the virtual

  11. 基于CT图像构建听骨链三维有限元模型%The establishment of finite element model of the middle ear based on CT images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史长征; 吕长生; 李恒国

    2011-01-01

    Aim :To investigate the mechanical characteristics of the ossicular chain in the middle ear.Methods: The finite element model of the middle ear was established based on CT images of one normal hearing person. For the mechanical analysis, the principal strain, principal stress and displacement changes of ossicular chain of the middle ear at different frequencies were observed. Results: The principal strain, principal stress and the displacement changes in the low and intermediate frequency states were larger than those in the high-frequency state, especially in 200 Hz and 1000 Hz to 2 000 Hz stage,the change were most obvious. The principal stress and principal strain changed simultaneously, the ossicular chain was almost no displacement when the stimulus frequency greater than 2 000 Hz. Conclusion:The finite element model of the middle ear is a non-invasive way to study ossicular sound transmission mechanism, which is conducive to clinical assessment in the middle ear preoperative and postoperative stages.%目的:初步探讨中耳听骨链传声机制的力学特点.方法:采用1例听力正常者CT图像,建立中耳的三维有限元模型,进行中耳力学分析,观察不同频率下中耳主应变、主应力和位移的变化.结果:低频和中频中耳主应变、主应力变化较大,而在高频阶段变化并不明显,其中200 Hz和在1 000~2 000 Hz阶段变化最为明显,中耳主应力与主应变变化趋势相一致.当刺激音高于2 000 Hz时,中耳听骨链没有位移产生.结论:通过中耳有限元模型可以无创性地研究听骨链传声机制,有利于术前及术后对听骨链进行临床评估.

  12. 中耳畸形10例临床特点及治疗%Clinical characteristics and treatment of 10 patients with malformation of middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张建; 俞杰; 沈志森

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析中耳畸形的临床和听力学特征,手术探查明确中耳畸形具体形式,观察重建听骨链改善听力的效果。方法10例中耳畸形患者均行鼓室探查术。8例同时行听骨链重建(2例放弃),其中5例采用植入部分人工听骨( PORP)的鼓室成形术,2例采用植入全人工听骨( TORP)的鼓室成形术,1例采用镫骨足板开窗+人工镫骨植入术,1例行鼓岬开窗+人工听骨植入。结果术中发现砧骨畸形最多见,共9例,表现为砧骨长脚发育不全、豆状突缺失;其次是镫骨结构畸形并固定1例,镫骨仅存底板但可正常活动2例,镫骨畸形伴面神经畸形2例,另有1例前庭窗及面神经不能辨认。听力重建后患者听力满意,言语频率气导平均提高27.79 dB。结论中耳畸形的明确诊断依靠鼓室探查术,一定条件下植入PORP的手术效果最为理想。(中国眼耳鼻喉科杂志,2015,15:25-27)%Objective To analyze the diagnosis and treatment of malformation of middle ear .Methods Ten patients were involved in the study .Exploratory tympanotomy was undergone in all patients and 8 patients of which accepted the reconstruction of ossicular chain .Partial replacement prosthesis ( PORP) was used in 5 patients, total replacement prosthesis(TORP) was used in 2 patients, fenestration of stapes footplate with stapes prosthesis in 1 patient and fenestration of promontory of tympanum with prosthesis in 1 patient.Results Exploratory tympanotomy showed a variety of abnormalities of the middle ear which were difficult to identify preoperatively , despite of the modern imaging techniques.Hearing thresholds were obtained without severe complication occurrence . Conclusions Exploratory tympanotomy is essential to identify congenital conductive hearing loss and PORP implantation provides the optimal way for reconstruction of ossicular chain .

  13. Monitored anaesthesia care – Comparison of nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine versus nalbuphine/propofol for middle ear surgeries: A double-blind randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Nallam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgeries (MESs are usually performed under sedation with local anaesthesia and can be well tolerated by the patient with minimal discomfort. In the present study, we compare the effect of nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine combination with nalbuphine/propofol on sedation and analgesia in monitored anaesthesia care. Methods: One hundred adult patients undergoing MESs under monitored anaesthesia care (MAC were randomly allocated into two groups. All patients in both groups received injection nalbuphine 50 μg/kg intravenously (IV. Group D received a bolus dose of injection dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg IV over 10 min followed by an infusion started at 0.4 μg/kg/h IV. Group P received a bolus dose of injection propofol 0.75 mg/kg followed by an infusion started at 0.025 mg/kg/min IV. Sedation was titrated to Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS of 3. Patient's mean arterial pressure, heart rate, saturation peripheral pulse and need for intraoperative rescue sedation/analgesia were recorded and compared. The data analysis was carried out with Z test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean RSS was significantly more in Group D (4.24 ± 1.54 as compared to Group P (2.58 ± 0.95. Overall VAS score was also significantly less in Group D (3.5 ± 1.7 than in Group P (5.4 ± 1.8. In total, 16 patients (32% in Group D had hypotension whereas 7 patients (14% only in Group P had hypotension. Conclusion: Nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine combination is superior to nalbuphine/propofol in producing sedation and decreasing VAS in patients undergoing MESs under MAC. Better surgeon and patient satisfaction were observed with nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine. Haemodynamics need to be closely monitored.

  14. Central projections of the sensory innervation of the rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; Broman, J.; Edvinsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    the central projections of sensory nerves that innervate cranial vessels, of which the middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the largest artery supplying the dura mater. In this study, cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (WGA-HRP) was applied on the adventitia...... in laminae III-V. These results indicate that sensory information from the MMA is transmitted through both trigeminal and cervical spinal nerve branches to a region in the central nervous system extending rostrally from the C3 dorsal horn to the interpolar part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Our data...

  15. 慢性中耳乳突炎性疾病不同手术方式的疗效分析%Curative Effects of Different Surgical Procedures for Chronic Middle Ear and Mastoid Inflammatory Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依恒·曲库尔汗; 王远强; 木拉提·阿地力; 冯娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effects of microscopic surgery for inflammatory lesions in the middle ear and mastoid by using different surgical procedures . Methods There were 110 cases of inflammatory lesions in the middle ear and mastoid from January 2009 to October 2013, including middle ear cholesteatoma and chronic suppurative otitis media .According to the scope of the lesions , either canal wall up mastoidectomy with or without tympanoplasty or open mastoidotympanectomy was carried out . Postoperative ear recovery , complications , recurrence , and hearing improvement were observed . Results The canal wall up mastoidectomy was performed in 51 cases, 46 of which received tympanoplasty simultaneously and 6 of which underwent a secondary artificial prosthesis implantation .Two patients with middle ear cholesteatoma experienced recurrence 1 year after surgery , and were given a secondary open operation .Postoperatively, hearing improvement was achieved >25 dB in 27 cases, >15 dB in 16 cases, and hearing loss was seen in 1 case.There were 59 cases of open mastoidectomy , including 31 cases of small tympanic cavity plasty .After open surgery, dry ear was not achieved in 1 case, which was cured after 2 months of dressing changes .The dry ear was achieved in all the remaining cases, with hearing improvement >15 dB in 3 cases and hearing loss in 3 cases. Conclusion According to different lesions in the middle ear and mastoid , different operative methods can be used to obtain satisfactory clinical curative effects .%目的:探讨慢性中耳乳突炎性疾病的不同显微手术方式的疗效。方法2009年1月~2013年10对110例慢性中耳乳突炎性病变,包括中耳胆脂瘤和慢性化脓性中耳炎,根据病变范围显微镜下分别施行完壁式乳突根治或同时鼓室成形术和开放式乳突根治术,观察术后干耳恢复情况、并发症、复发以及术后听力改善程度等。结果完壁式乳突根治术51例,其中46

  16. 螺旋CT多平面重建在先天性小耳畸形外耳道及中耳成形术中的应用%Application of spiral CT and multi-plane reconstruction in ear canal and middle ear reconstruction in congenital microtia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿南; 吴玮; 费军; 韩浩伦; 李保卫; 孙喆结; 薄少军; 孟令照; 丁瑞英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨螺旋CT多平面重建(multi-plane reconstruction,MPR)在对先天性小耳畸形进行外耳道及中耳成形术时的应用价值.方法 回顾分析32耳先天性小耳畸形外耳道闭锁患者(均为Schuknecht分型之C型)的资料.采用螺旋CT行HRCT(High resolution CT,高分辨率CT)容积扫描,获取标准横断位及冠状位图像,并利用扫描原始数据作斜横断位、斜矢状位重建,使重建平面同时包含筛区和听小骨,通过横断位及冠状位CT图像确定面神经走行和听小骨形态,通过MPR确定外耳道成形的角度和深度.术中参照上述检查结果进行手术操作.将上述32耳与另外41耳(也为Schuknecht分型之C型)未行MPR者就以下两点进行比较:(1)寻找中耳的成功率;(2)两组病例中术式相同者(均为Ⅰ期外耳道及中耳成形加耳廓重建)的手术时间.结果 (1)行MPR检查的32耳中,29耳顺利找到中耳(90.6%),由于乳突气化不良、面神经畸形等因素,未能寻找到中耳者3耳(9.4%);而在未行MPR者41耳中,28耳顺利找到中耳(68.3%),未能找到中耳者13耳(31.7%).经卡方检验两组差异具有显著性.(2)采用MPR者平均手术时间为(342.75±41.70) min (n=28),未采用MPR者平均手术时间为(398.48±61.02) min (n=23),经t检验二者差异具有显著性.结论 应用螺旋CT多平面重建技术,可以在一次采取数据后,在任意平面重建真实影像,为外耳道和中耳成术形提供正确的角度和深度参考数据,对提高手术成功率,缩短手术时间具有重要价值.%Objective To investigate the value of spiral CT and multi-plane reconstruction (MPR) in guiding ear canal and middle ear reconstruction for patients with congenital microtia. Methods Patients with Schuknecht type C congenital microtia (32 ears) were examined with spiral CT, using continues volume scanning. Axial and coronal images were acquired to determine the route of facial nerve. Images of inclined axial and

  17. Paleotectonic Setting of Dongyan Group of Middle and Upper Proterozoic in Central Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Da; Wu Ganguo; Ye Yujiang; Zhang Xiangxin; Peng Runmin; Wu Jianshe; Wang Qunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The central Fujian Province, situated on the juncture of paleo-uplift of Wuyishan, Yongmei Late Paleozoic depression and the eastern volcanic rift-faulting zone, is mainly composed of the outcropped metamorphic basements in the Middle-Late and Early Proterozoic, which constitute two upper and lower giant thick formations of Precambrian volcanic-sedimentary cycles, respectively. The formation of Dongyan Group is an important Middle-Upper Proterozoic component, and the Dongyan Group is directly related to massive sulfide deposit in this area. In recent years, plenty of lead, zinc, copper, silver and gold deposits have been found and explored. The Precambrian paleorift setting of the central Fujian Province served as a favorite metallogenic background for the formation of large- and superlarge-scale volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) lead and zinc polymetal deposits. The Dongyan Group consists chiefly of a set of ancient volcanic sedimentary formations that are composed mainly of greenschist. Its major lithologic types comprise greenschist, marble, quartzite and granofels class including various components. The metamorphic rocks of Dongyan Group are the main composition of Middle and Upper Proterozoic volcanic-sedimentary cycle. The original rock of Dongyan Group, a stable rock association, is volcanic sedimentation and normal marine sedimentation. But the original volcanic rocks, basic and acid, are bimodal. The volcanic rocks were formed in the extensional continental rift setting.

  18. Comparison of the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard endotracheal tube and a cylindrical endotracheal tube after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunkyung; Park, Yongmin; Jeon, Younghoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Positional change affects the cuff pressure of an endotracheal tube (ETT) in treacheally intubated patients. We compared the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard ETT and a cylindrical ETT after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery. Methods: Fifty-two patients aged 18–70 years underwent a tympanomastoidectomy under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive endotracheal intubation with cylindrical (group C, n = 26) or TaperGuard ETTs (group T, n = 26). After endotracheal intubation, the ETT cuff pressure was set at 22 cmH2O in the neutral position of head. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure was measured again and readjusted to 22 cmH2O. In addition, the change of distance from the carina to the tip of the ETT was measured before and after the positional change. The incidence of cough, sore throat, and hoarseness was assessed at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no difference in demographic data between groups. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure significantly increased in group T (11.9 ± 2.3 cmH2O) compared with group C (6.0 ± 1.9 cmH2O) (P 30 cmH2O was higher in group T (96.2%) than in group C (30.8%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the degree of displacement of an ETT was greater in group T (11.0 ± 1.7 mm) than in group C (7.2 ± 2.6 mm) (P < 0.001). The overall incidences of postoperative sore throat, hoarseness, and cough at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery were comparable between two groups. Conclusion: The cuff pressure was higher in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT after positional change of head from neutral to lateral rotation. In addition, after a positional change, the extent of displacement of ETT was greater in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT. PMID:28272230

  19. Comparison of Serotype Prevalence of Pneumococci Isolated from Middle Ear, Lower Respiratory Tract and Invasive Disease Prior to Vaccination in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Kristinsson, Karl G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Information on pneumococcal serotype distribution before vaccination is a prerequisite for evaluation of vaccine effect. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes isolated from middle ear (ME), lower respiratory tract (LRT) and from invasive disease (IPD) in Iceland prior to implementation of ten-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV-10) into the infant vaccination program (April 2011). Methods and findings All isolates cultured 2007–2011 from ME, LRT and IPD identified as pneumococci were serotyped and tested for susceptibility at the Clinical Microbiology Department, Landspitali University Hospital that serves approximately 85% of the Icelandic population. Pneumococcal isolates were 1711 and 1616 (94.4%) were available for serotyping and included. Isolates belonging to PHiD-CV10 serotypes (VTs) were 1052 (65.1%). Isolates from ME were 879 (54.4%), with 639 (72.7%) from 0–1 year old patients and 651 of VTs (74%). Isolates from LRT were 564 (34.9%), with 292 (51.8%) from ≥65 years old patients, and 300 (53.2%) of VTs. IPD isolates were 173 (10.7%), although more evenly distributed according to age than isolates from the other sites most were from adults and the youngest age group,101 (58.4%) isolates were of VTs. The most common serotype was 19F, 583 (36.1%). Its prevalence was highest in ME, 400 (45.5%), 172 (30.5%) in LRT and 11 isolates (6.4%), in IPD. Penicillin non-susceptible isolates were 651 (40.3%), mainly belonging to VTs, 611 (93.9%), including 535 (82.2%) of 19F. Conclusions Multiresistant isolates of serotype 19F were highly prevalent, especially from ME of young children but also from LRT of adults. Serotype 14 was the most common serotype in IPD. The rate of VTs was high and almost all PNSP were of VTs. There was great difference in vaccine coverage between sampling sites, also reflecting difference in vaccine coverage by age groups. PMID:28125588

  20. Central Obesity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue Yao; ZHENG Fen Ping; ZHOU Jia Qiang; DU Ying; PAN Qian Qian; ZHANG Sai Fei; YU Dan; LI Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Central obesity is considered to be a central component of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference (WC) has been widely used as a simple indicator of central obesity. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of WC cut-off values for predicting metabolic risk factors in middle-aged Chinese. Methods The study involved 923 subjects aged 40-65 years. The metabolic risk factors were defined according to the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. WC cut-off 85-90 cm and≥90 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in males, respectively, while WC 80-85 cm and≥85 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in females. Results First, WC values corresponding to body mass index (BMI) 24 kg/m2 and visceral fat area (VFA) 80 cm2 were 88.55 cm and 88.51 cm in males, and 81.46 cm and 82.51 cm in females respectively. Second, receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal WC cut-off of value was 88.75 cm in males, higher than that in females (81.75 cm). Third, the subjects with higher WC values were more likely to have accumulating metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic risk factors increased linearly and significantly in relation to WC levels. Conclusion WC cut-off values of central pre-/central obesity are optimal to predict multiple metabolic risk factors.

  1. A previously unrecognized group of Middle Jurassic triconodontan mammals from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas; Averianov, Alexander O.

    2007-01-01

    Ferganodon narynensis gen. et sp. nov. is represented by a lower molariform tooth from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Balabansai Svita in Kyrgyzstan. The new genus is allied with Klamelia zhaopengi Chow and Rich 1984 from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in Xinjiang, northwest China to the new family Klameliidae based on parallelogram-shaped lower molariforms, imbricating rather than interlocking of cusps e- d- f, by a peculiar distolabial cingulid cusp, and by vertical folding of the enamel on the labial crown side. The new family Klameliidae fam. nov. is most similar to Gobiconodontidae by the structure of the molariform teeth and represents a previously unrecognized radiation of eutriconodontan mammals possibly endemic to Central Asia.

  2. High detection rates of nucleic acids of a wide range of respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and the middle ear of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertsema, Selma P; Chidlow, Glenys R; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Corscadden, Karli J; Mowe, Eva N; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Harnett, Gerald B; Richmond, Peter C

    2011-11-01

    Both bacteria and viruses play a role in the development of acute otitis media, however, the importance of specific viruses is unclear. In this study molecular methods were used to determine the presence of nucleic acids of human rhinoviruses (HRV; types A, B, and C), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV; types A and B), bocavirus (HBoV), adenovirus, enterovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43), influenza viruses (types A, B, and C), parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, 3, 4A, and 4B), human metapneumovirus, and polyomaviruses (KI and WU) in the nasopharynx of children between 6 and 36 months of age either with (n = 180) or without (n = 66) a history of recurrent acute otitis media and in 238 middle ear effusion samples collected from 143 children with recurrent acute otitis media. The co-detection of these viruses with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was analyzed. HRV (58.3% vs. 42.4%), HBoV (52.2% vs. 19.7%), polyomaviruses (36.1% vs. 15.2%), parainfluenza viruses (29.4% vs. 9.1%), adenovirus (25.0% vs. 6.1%), and RSV (27.8% vs. 9.1%) were detected significantly more often in the nasopharynx of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media compared to healthy children. HRV was predominant in the middle ear and detected in middle ear effusion of 46% of children. Since respiratory viruses were detected frequently in the nasopharynx of both children with and without a history of recurrent acute otitis media, the etiological role of specific viruses in recurrent acute otitis media remains uncertain, however, anti-viral therapies may be beneficial in future treatment and prevention strategies for acute otitis media.

  3. Selection for phase variation of LOS biosynthetic genes frequently occurs in progression of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae infection from the nasopharynx to the middle ear of human patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Fox

    Full Text Available Surface structures in Haemophilus influenzae are subject to rapid ON/OFF switching of expression, a process termed phase variation. We analyse tetranucleotide repeats controlling phase variation in lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS genes of H. influenzae in paired isolates from both the nasopharynx and middle ears of paediatric patients with chronic or recurrent otitis media. A change in expression of at least one of the seven phase variable LOS biosynthesis genes was seen in 12 of the 21 strain pairs. Several strains showed switching of expression in multiple LOS genes, consistent with a key role for phase variable LOS biosynthetic genes in human infection.

  4. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingxi Liu; Sheng Li; Xiuzhen Sun

    2009-01-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones,middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus,and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  5. Development and Integration of the Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Tucker, Abigail S

    2015-01-01

    The perception of our environment via sensory organs plays a crucial role in survival and evolution. Hearing, one of our most developed senses, depends on the proper function of the auditory system and plays a key role in social communication, integration, and learning ability. The ear is a composite structure, comprised of the external, middle, and inner ear. During development, the ear is formed from the integration of a number of tissues of different embryonic origin, which initiate in distinct areas of the embryo at different time points. Functional connections between the components of the hearing apparatus have to be established and maintained during development and adulthood to allow proper sound submission from the outer to the middle and inner ear. This highly organized and intimate connectivity depends on intricate spatiotemporal signaling between the various tissues that give rise to the structures of the ear. Any alterations in this chain of events can lead to the loss of integration, which can subsequently lead to conductive hearing loss, in case of outer and middle ear defects or sensorineural hearing loss, if inner ear structures are defective. This chapter aims to review the current knowledge concerning the development of the three ear compartments as well as mechanisms and signaling pathways that have been implicated in the coordination and integration process of the ear.

  6. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 10. Injuries of the Eye, Ear, Nose, Abdomen, Central Nervous System and Genitalia. Burns and Environmental Injuries. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, covers injuries of the eyes, ears, nose, abdomen, central nervous system (CNS), and genitalia; burns; and environmental injuries. Objectives stated for the two chapters are for the student to be able to describe procedures…

  7. The visible ear simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Mads Solvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing virtual simulators for middle ear surgery are based on 3-dimensional (3D) models from computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging data in which image quality is limited by the lack of detail (maximum, approximately 50 voxels/mm3), natural color, and texture of the source...... material.Virtual training often requires the purchase of a program, a customized computer, and expensive peripherals dedicated exclusively to this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Visible Ear freeware library of digital images from a fresh-frozen human temporal bone was segmented, and real-time volume...... is published for download (approximately 120 MB) as freeware at http://www.alexandra.dk/ves/index.htm.With increasing personal computer performance, future versions may include enhanced resolution (up to 8,000 voxels/mm3) and realistic interaction with deformable soft tissue components such as skin, tympanic...

  8. Acheulean technological behaviour in the Middle Pleistocene landscape of Mieso (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Mora, Rafael; Arroyo, Adrian; Benito-Calvo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    The Mieso valley is a new paleoanthropological sequence located in East-Central Ethiopia. It contains Middle and Upper Pleistocene deposits with fossil and lithic assemblages in stratified deposits. This paper introduces the Middle Pleistocene archaeological sequence, attributed to the late Acheulean. Low density clusters of artefacts suggest short-term use of the landscape by Acheulean hominins. In Mieso 31, one of the excavated assemblages, refit sets indicate fragmentation of the reduction sequences and enable study of the initial stages of biface manufacture. Mieso 7, also a stratified site, is primarily characterized by a small concentration of standardized cleavers, and portrays another dimension of Acheulean technology, that related to final stages of use and discard of large cutting tools. Available radiometric dates place the Mieso Acheulean around 212 ka (thousands of years) ago, which would make this sequence among the latest evidence of the Acheulean in East Africa, in a time span when the Middle Stone Age is already documented in the region.

  9. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  10. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, ... heard a soft sound or a loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is ...

  11. TNF-R2 expression in acquired middle ear cholesteatoma Expressão do TNF-R2 no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Faller Vitale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acquired middle ear cholesteatoma is a disease which promotes bone erosion resulting in potentially serious complications. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is present in cholesteatoma and it is related to bone erosion, as shown by different authors. To understand the aggressiveness characteristics of cholesteatoma is necessary, however, to better address the presence and distribution of their receptors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of type 2 TNF-α receptor (TNF-R2 in fragments of cholesteatoma and correlate it to the degree of inflammation present. MATERIAL AND METHODS: observational cross-sectional study, which analyzed 33 fragments of cholesteatomas through histological analysis and immunohistochemistry (using as primary antibody to TNF-R2 LabVision® brand. The evaluation was performed by means of a qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement with the observed intensity. For statistical analysis we used the Fisher exact test and Spearman´s correlation coefficient (considered statistically significant when p O colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média promove erosão óssea, ocasionando complicações potencialmente graves. O fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α está presente no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média e relaciona-se com a erosão óssea, como demonstraram diferentes autores. Para que se compreenda as características de agressividade do colesteatoma, é necessário que se estude a presença e a distribuição seus receptores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a expressão do receptor tipo dois do TNF-α (TNF-R2 em fragmentos de colesteatoma e relacioná-lo com o grau de inflamação. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional do tipo transversal. Foram analisados 33 fragmentos de colesteatomas, submetidos à análise histológica e imunoistoquímica (utilizando o TNF-R2 da marca Labvision®. A avaliação foi realizada de forma qualitativa e semiquantitativa, de acordo com a intensidade observada. Para a análise estat

  12. Clinical Congenital Middle Ear Malformation and Its Relationship with Hearing Loss%先天性中耳畸形的临床分型及其与耳聋的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨先天性中耳畸形的临床分型及其与耳聋的相关性。方法将我院入院治疗的42例(62耳)先天性中耳畸形患者纳入本研究,对本组患者均进行详细的手术检查,分析患者中耳畸形状态。结果经过记性检查,可能有听骨链畸形表现,还有面神经骨管暴露与面神经异常的表现。本组听力学检查结果显示本组患者主要为锤砧骨畸形(31例),11例未蜗窗畸形与前庭窗畸形,11例患者畸形程度相对复杂,伴随走形异常与面神经结构异常。结论先天性中耳畸形根据其组织的来源,可以分为不同的类型,在临床研究中需要分析高频与听阈问题,结合CT检查结果与骨导变化结果进行分析,这能够为合理手术提供合理的临床依据,提升治疗的安全性。%Objective To investigate the correlation between the clinical classification of congenital malformation of the middle ear and hearing loss.Methods In our hospital, 42 cases of hospitalized patients (62 ears) were included in the study of patients with congenital malformation of the middle ear, for this group of patients were examined with the operation, analysis of patients with middle ear malformation state.Results after a check, there may be the ossicular chain deformity, and facial nerve canal and facial nerve exposed to abnormal performance. Results Showed that the group of audiological examination were mainly for the hammer incus deformity (31 cases), 11 cases without cochlear window deformity and vestibular window deformity, 11 cases of patients with deformity complicated with abnormal shape, facial nerve and abnormal structure.Conclusion Congenital middle ear malformation according to the source of its organization, can be divided into different types, in clinical research needs analysis of high frequency and threshold problem, combined with the results of CT and bone changes were analyzed, which can provide the basis for

  13. Effect of tympanostomy tube insertion on middle ear function in children with secretory otitis media%鼓室置管对儿童分泌性中耳炎中耳功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛承刚; 万俐佳; 周小淳; 吴燕; 鲁海涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨鼓室置管治疗儿童分泌性中耳炎对中耳功能的影响.方法 选取47例(58耳)临床诊断为分泌性中耳炎的患儿,分别在鼓室置管术前及术后1个月、6个月进行纯音测听、声导抗、畸变产物耳声发射(distortion product otoacoustic emission,DPOAE)检查和耳镜检查,以评估鼓室置管手术前后中耳功能的变化及术后的并发症.结果 鼓室置管术后1个月、6个月分别行耳镜和声导抗检查,均较术前听力明显提高.术后6个月与术后1个月检查结果比较,听力改变差异无统计学意义.与鼓室置管术前比较,DPOAE引出率及部分频率幅值提高,差异具有统计学意义.鼓室置管术后的并发症主要是中耳感染、分泌性中耳炎复发、鼓膜穿孔和鼓膜内陷.结论 鼓室置管治疗儿童分泌性中耳炎,应用检测纯音测听、声导抗、DPOAE和耳镜检查,了解鼓室置管术后的并发症情况,综合评价对中耳功能的影响,具有临床指导意义.%Objective To investigate the effect of tympanostomy tube insertion on the middle ear function in children with secretory otitis media ( SOM). Methods Pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance , distortion product otoacoustic emission ( DPOAE) examination and otoscopy were carried out in 47 children (58 ears) with SOM before tube insertion, one month and 6 months after tube insertion respectively to evaluate the changes of middle ear function and surgical complications. Results One month and 6 months after tube insertion, hearing of children with catheter patency was significantly improved. In addition, the detection rate and amplitude of DPOAE were significantly increased. The difference of hearing 1 month and 6 months after tube insertion was statistically insignificant. Surgical and postoperative complications included middle ear infection, recurrent SOM, tympanic perforation and tympanic membrane retraction. Conclusion Pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance

  14. Optimal design of a floating mass type piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing devices%人工中耳悬浮式压电振子的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田佳彬; 饶柱石; 塔娜; 许立富

    2015-01-01

    To optimize the implant performance of a floating mass type piezoelectric actuator for implantable hearing devices,a displacement amplifier was designed to improve the output characteristics of the actuator.A finite element model of human ear consisting of the external ear canal,middle ear and simplified cochlea was constructed via micro-computer tomography imaging and the technique of reverse engineering.The validity of the model was verified by comparing the model-derived results with experimental data from reference.Then an ear-actuator coupled mechanical model was developed,and the multi-field coupling was considered to study the implant performance of the actuator before and after the displacement amplifier was added.The results showed that the adoption of displacement amplifier can increase the equivalent sound pressure level of the actuator in the middle and high frequency ranges,and the power consumption can effectively be reduced at the same time.%为了优化人工中耳悬浮式压电振子的植入效果,设计了一种位移放大结构用于改善振子的输出特性。首先采用微 CT 扫描和逆向成型技术建立了包括外耳道、中耳和简化耳蜗的人耳有限元模型,通过与文献的实验数据比对验证模型的有效性。然后建立人耳与悬浮振子的耦合力学模型,通过有限元的耦合场分析研究加入位移放大结构前后的人工中耳植入效果。研究结果表明,采用位移放大结构后,振子于中高频段的等效声压级得到明显提升,可以有效降低压电振子的功耗。

  15. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  16. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  17. Expression and the Significance of MCP-1 and FN in Middle Ear Cholesteatoma Epithelium%M CP -1和 FN 在中耳胆脂瘤上皮中的表达和意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 杨一兵; 丛林海; 汤勇; 张帆

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨单核细胞趋化因子(monocyte chemotactic factor ,MCP -1)和纤维连接蛋白(fibronectin , FN)在继发性中耳胆脂瘤上皮中的表达及其对胆脂瘤上皮侵袭能力的影响。方法应用免疫组织化学MaxVi-sionTM法检测MCP-1和FN在30例中耳胆脂瘤上皮、20例胆脂瘤患者耳后正常皮肤、16例非胆脂瘤患者耳后正常皮肤中的表达,应用计算机图像分析系统对其阳性表达灰度值情况及分析,比较三组之间 MCP -1和 FN表达的差异。结果 MCP-1阳性细胞表达主要分布于胆脂瘤上皮全层,其中棘层呈高表达,MCP-1在中耳胆脂瘤上皮中阳性表达率为70%,灰度值为147.2±20.1,强于胆脂瘤患者耳后正常皮肤中的阳性表达(35%,200.8±18.4)和非胆脂瘤患者耳后正常皮肤中的阳性表达(37.5%,193.3±15.5)( P<0.05)。FN阳性细胞主要分布于胆脂瘤上皮全层,基底层、棘层和基质呈高表达,FN在中耳胆脂瘤上皮中阳性表达率为76.7%,灰度值为139.2±18.5,强于胆脂瘤患者耳后正常皮肤中的阳性表达(30%,195.0±12.9)和非胆脂瘤患者耳后正常皮肤中的阳性表达(31.3%,191.6±13.5)(P<0.05)。在30例中耳胆脂瘤上皮组织中,MCP-1和FN的灰度值与胆脂瘤的侵袭能力负相关(rmcp-1=-0.682,rfn =-0.531,P<0.01),MCP-1和FN蛋白的表达不存在线性相关。结论 MCP-1和FN均在成人中耳胆脂瘤中高表达,且与中耳胆脂瘤的侵袭能力呈负相关。%Objective To study the expression of monocyte chemotactic factor -1(MCP-1) and fibronectin (FN ) in secondary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium ,and to investigate the ability of cholesteatoma of e-rosion .Methods MaxVisionTM immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of MCP -1 and FN in the secondary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma tissues from 30 patients

  18. Middle Pleistocene molluscan fauna from the Valle Giumentina (Abruzzo, Central Italy): Palaeoenvironmental, biostratigraphical and biogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Villa, Valentina; Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sébastien; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Aureli, Daniele; Nicoud, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions through the Middle Pleistocene sequence in the Valle Giumentina, located in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy, are discussed. The sampled sequence is 16 m thick and includes nine levels with Lower Palaeolithic industries. The lithostratigraphy shows fluvio-glacial sediments with interbedded colluvial deposits and volcanic tephras. Fine sediments are composed of calcareous sands and silts, most of them yielding well-preserved mollusc shells. Forty-five samples, at 10 cm resolution, yielded 45 taxa, which could be assigned to four biozones. The oldest (biozone VGM1) indicate an open environment, which becomes a closed forest landscape developing under temperate conditions (VGM2). After a decline of thermophilous species (VGM3), mollusc assemblages indicate a dry open environment typical of a glacial period (VGM4). All prehistoric occupation horizons occur during stable environmental episodes but under both temperate and cold climatic conditions. The molluscan succession is allocated to the Middle Pleistocene on the basis of the occurrence of Jaminia malatestae, a well-known Italian species, now extinct, as well as the similarity of the molluscan record to that of Case Picconetto, a well-dated site nearby. This attribution is supported by three tephra layers dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 556 ± 6, 531 ± 5 and 456 ± 2 ka. The sequence is correlated with marine isotopic stages 14, 13 and 12. Four species of land snail (Azeca goodalli, Ruthenica filograna, Pagodulina pagodula, Nesovitrea hammonis) occur beyond their modern range and are therefore of biogeographical interest. These snails are western and central European in origin and their presence within the Valle Giumentina deposits highlight a north-south gradient of colonization during Pleistocene interglacial periods.

  19. Cochlear aqueduct flow resistance is not constant during evoked inner ear pressure change in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Feijen, RA; Albers, FWJ

    2003-01-01

    Inner ear fluid pressure was measured during 6.25 mHz square wave middle ear pressure manipulation, with a perforated tympanic membrane. After a negative-going middle ear pressure change the calculated flow resistance of the inner ear pressure release routes (mainly the cochlear aqueduct) was approx

  20. Early and Middle Holocene evidence for plant use and cultivation in the Middle Cauca River Basin, Cordillera Central (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Francisco J.; Loaiza, Nicolás

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the latest results of research done in the Colombian Andean region known as Middle Cauca River Basin, an important location for the study of the origins of plant use and the dispersal of domesticates throughout the Americas due to its geographical position in northwest South America. We discuss human-environment interactions during Pleistocene/Holocene transition to middle Holocene (ca 10,000-4000 BP), specifically human-plant interaction and environmental factors that led to the adoption of horticultural practices. Three lines of evidence are analyzed: archaeological stratigraphy, lithic technology, and microbotanical remains. Our results suggest that early Holocene environmental stability allowed Middle Cauca settlers to use the diverse local resources for several millennia, altering the local vegetation, and leading to the development of horticultural practices that included the use of both local and foreign plants. These results inform the ongoing debate about the antiquity and nature of plant domestication and dispersals in the Americas.

  1. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy, attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  2. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  3. Herpetofauna of the cedar glades and associated habitats of the Inner Central Basin of middle Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, M.L.; Graham, Reynolds R.; Glorioso, B.M.; Spiess, J.; Miller, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The cedar glades and barrens of the Inner Central Basin (ICB) of middle Tennessee support a unique and diverse flora and fauna and represent some of the state's most valued natural areas. We conducted herpetofaunal inventories of the cedar glades, associated barrens, cedar-hardwood forest, and adjacent aquatic habitats of the Stones River drainage of Middle Tennessee, focusing our sampling effort primarily at seven state- or federally owned properties in Rutherford and Wilson counties. These properties included Stones River National Battlefield (SRNB), Flat Rock State Natural Area (FRSNA), Vesta Cedar Glade State Natural Area (VSNA), Fall Creek Recreation Area (FCRA) on J. Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area, Cedars of Lebanon State Forest (CLSF), Cedars of Lebanon State Forest Natural Area (CLSNA), and Cedars of Lebanon State Park (CLSP). We used a variety of inventory techniques in terrestrial, aquatic, and subterranean habitats to survey these properties periodically from 1989 to 2010. We documented 49 species (22 amphibian and 27 reptile) accounting for 75.4% of the 65 herpetofaunal species thought to occur in the ICB, including records for Cemophora coccinea, Aneides aeneus, Gyrinophilus palleucus, Ambystoma barbouri, and Pseudotriton montanus. We found differences in alpha and beta diversity between sites, with the CLSF complex containing a high of 41 herpetofaunal species and FRSNA containing a low of 23 species. Beta diversity comparisons indicated similarity in amphibian species composition between FRSNA and CLSF and between SRNB and CLSF (9 shared species), and in reptile species composition between VSNA and the CLSF complex (16 shared species). We compare the results of our inventory with two previous studies conducted in the area and discuss the relative abundance, conservation, and threats to the herpetofaunal community of these habitats.

  4. Monitoring inner ear pressure changes in normal guinea pigs induced by the Meniett (R) 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2000-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during a series of complex escalating middle ear pressure changes induced by the Meniett(R)20 (Pascal Medical, Sweden), a possible therapeutic pressure generator to be used by patients with Meniere's disease. Middle ear pressure changes were t

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing Combined with Specific PCR Assays To Determine the Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene Profiles of Middle Ear Fluid Collected from Children with Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramna, Lenka; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Rautiainen, Markus; Aittoniemi, Janne; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki; Cinek, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriome of acute otitis media with a novel modification of next-generation sequencing techniques. Outpatient children with acute otitis media were enrolled in the study, and middle ear fluids were collected during 90 episodes from 79 subjects aged 5 to 42 months (median age, 19 months). The bacteriome profiles of middle ear fluid samples were determined by a nested-PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene (V4 region), followed by mass sequencing. The profiling results were compared to the results of specific PCR assays targeting selected prevalent pathogens. Bacteriome profiling using nested amplification of low-volume samples was aided by a bioinformatic subtraction of signal contaminants from the recombinant polymerase, achieving a sensitivity slightly lower than that of specific PCR detection. Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in 28 (31%) samples, Haemophilus influenzae in 24 (27%), Moraxella catarrhalis in 18 (20%), Staphylococcus spp. in 21 (23%), Turicella otitidis in 5 (5.6%), Alloiococcus otitidis in 3 (3.3%), and other bacteria in 14 (16%) using bacteriome profiling. S. pneumoniae was the dominant pathogen in 14 (16%) samples, H. influenzae in 15 (17%), M. catarrhalis in 5 (5.6%), T. otitidis in 2, and Staphylococcus auricularis in 2. Weaker signals of Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella dispar, and Veillonella montpellierensis were noted in several samples. Fourteen samples (16%) were not explainable by bacterial pathogens; novel causative agents were not detected. In conclusion, unbiased bacteriome profiling helped in depicting the true mutual quantitative ratios of ear bacteria, but at present, its complicated protocol impedes its routine clinical use. IMPORTANCE Although S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis have been long established as the most important pathogens in acute otitis media using culture and specific PCR assays, the knowledge of their mutual quantitative relations

  6. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  7. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  8. Multi-frequency tympanometry as a diagnostic test of middle ear function in infants%0-12月龄婴幼儿不同频率声导抗测试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婧; 赵正言; 付勇; 吴磊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report tympanometry results at 226, 678 and 1000 Hz in infants aged from 0 month to 12 months, and to evaluate the value of multiple frequency tympanometry in diagnosing middle ear function in infants. Methods A sample of 200 infants with normal hearing were divided into four groups by age:i.e. Groups 1 (0– 28 days), 2 (1–3 months, ± 3 days), 3 (4–6 months, ± 7 days) and 4 (7–12 months, ±7 days) (n=50 in each group). Tympanograms from different age groups including their frequency characteristics were obtained using a GSI TympStar 2 Middle-Ear analyzer. Results 1) At 226 Hz, tympanom-etry equivalent ear canal volume (Ecv) increased with age, while tympanometric peak pressure (TPP) and peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Ymt) decreased. 2) TPP and Ymt at 678 and 1000 Hz increased with age, although the lowest TPP and Ymt was seen in infants in Group 2. Within each age group, TPP and Ymt at 1000 Hz were greater than those at 678 Hz. Probe tone frequency and age showed a remarkable im-pact on TPP and Ymt. 4) The middle ear resonance frequency was 284 ± 48 Hz for Group1, 293 ± 51 Hz for Group 2, 450±152 Hz for Group 3 and 650±205 Hz for Group 4. Conclusion In evaluating middle ear func-tion in infants younger than 6 months, the 1000 Hz probe tone should be used, while the 678 Hz tone can be a supplementary option in cases when 1000 Hz tympanograms indicate an occlusion effect. For infants between 7 and 12 months, the 226 Hz tone should be used for tympanogram, while the 1000 Hz tone should be used for impedance tests. Probe tones of different frequencies and different reference values should be used for different ages for accurate evaluation of middle ear functions.%目的:分析0~12月龄听力正常婴幼儿226Hz、678Hz和1000Hz探测音声导抗测试的结果,探讨不同频率探测音声导抗鼓室图在评价该年龄段婴幼儿中耳功能中的作用。方法200例0~12月听力正常婴幼儿分成4组,每组50

  9. Chronic discharging ear in a child: are we missing something?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Chronic discharging ear, mostly due to middle or external ear infection, is one of the leading causes for seeking healthcare among the paediatric population in a developing country. However, a long-standing forgotten middle ear foreign body forms a rare cause for such presentation demanding a high index of suspicion from the clinicians. Most of them are iatrogenic or accidental, and are removed by conventional permeatal approach; need for tympanotomy is rarely documented in the recent literature. We report the first case where a large stone was introduced into the middle ear through a pre-existing tympanic membrane perforation by the child himself, and only the second documentation of removal of a middle ear foreign body by tympanotomy in a child.

  10. 中耳细菌感染诱导的急性期HSP-70相关反应的免疫组织化学研究%Immunocytochemical research of HSP-70 correlative response in acute stage induced by bacterial infected middle ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永清; 邹静; 毕爱芳; 尚耀东

    2001-01-01

    探讨中耳细菌感染急性期时,哺乳动物中、内耳热休克反应的部位,以及中耳细菌感染诱生的热休克蛋白是否可能引发内耳自身免疫损伤。运用中耳注射肺炎克雷伯杆菌制成豚鼠中耳急性感染动物模型,分别于接种后第1、3、5、7天处死动物取材。应用免疫组化技术,研究了中耳粘膜和耳蜗表达热休克蛋白70(HSP-70)的部位。结果表明:正常状态下,中耳粘膜表层的上皮细胞和内耳膜迷路血管纹、螺旋韧带、Corti氏器均有弱的阳性反应,感染应激后,上述同样部位均有强的阳性显色。不同取材时段显示的阳性位置无差异。说明在中耳急性细菌感染期,中耳粘膜和内耳组织均表达了同源HSP-70蛋白分子,这些同源HSP-70为引发内耳自身免疫损伤提供了物质基础。%To illustrate the location of HSP-70 (heat\\|shock protein\\|70)correlative response in acute stage between middle and inner ear when mammalian middle ear infected by bacteria, and investigate the possibility to cause autoimmune inner ear injure by HSP-70 that induced by otitis media. An animal model of acute otitis media was established by inoculating Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p) into middle ear of guinea pigs. Animals were sacrificed 1,3,5 and 7days after inoculation.Investigation of the locations of HSP-70 in middle ear mucosa and cochlea structures were detected by immunocytochemical technique .The results showed that light stain of HSP-70 existed in the superficial epithelium cells of normal mucosa and cochlea structures such as stria vascularis, spiral ligament and Corti′s organ.Heavy stain appeared in the same sites in the infected ears . No different positive sites was observed in all animals.Our findings suggested that HSP-70 were expressed in middle ear mucosa and inner ear structures during acute middle ear infective stage.The HSP-70 provide a material base for causing autoimmune inner ear injure

  11. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  12. MIDDLE JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE CENTRAL PONTIDES (TURKEY): REMARKS ON PALEOGEOGRAPHY AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    BORA ROJAY; DEMIR ALTINER

    1998-01-01

    The deposition of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates in the Pontides was controlled mainly by the evolution of an Atlantic-type continental margin in the Tethys. The study of several stratigraphic sections from allochthonous slices and blocks of the North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange provided insight into the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Central Pontide Belt. The Callovian-Aptian successions span the Globuligerina gr. oxfordiana, Clypeina jurassica (equi...

  13. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon,Central Nevada,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; M.Monarrez; Nicole; Bonuso

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction.This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors.This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance,ecological patterns,and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada.Twelve bulk samples were collected.Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation.Beginning in the Late Anisian,we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam,epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy,quiet,inner shelf depositional environment.Through time,epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness.During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment.Finally,we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment.In sum,we observe the dominance of modern taxa(i.e.,bivalves)with Paleozoic ecologies(i.e.,epifaunal),followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies(i.e.,infaunal,thick shells)and then a return to Paleozoic taxa(i.e.,brachiopods)and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  14. 听骨链CT扫描并三维重建的临床应用%On the clinical application of spiral CT three-dimensional reconstructin of middle ear ossicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙捷; 刘志连; 张华; 巩若箴; 王海波

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨CT仿真内镜(CTVE)显示中耳正常结构的显示方法,评价中耳病变特别是听骨链连接状态的价值及意义,确立显示听骨链及其他中耳结构的位点和方法。方法:选择40例无耳科疾病的志愿者(正常组)和30例疑有中耳疾病的患者(病例组),分别采用德国西门子(Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16)螺旋CT机Inner Ear扫描程序对患者进行轴位扫描,重建原始图像,用Fly-through软件经选择的A、B、C点入路进行CTVE成像研究。重点显示听骨链连接状态,并对慢性中耳炎的显示结果与手术中探查图像进行对照。结果:正常组CTVE中锤骨、砧骨、鼓岬、面神经管水平段、外半规管隆凸显示率均为100%;而镫骨头、两足弓的显示率在3个显示层面则分别为57.5%、70.0%,97.5%;圆窗、卵圆窗为90.0%、93.0%、97.5%.在中耳炎、外伤、颞骨畸形等情况下可显示听小骨损伤、移位、中断、缺失和畸形。结论:CTVE在显示3个听小骨之间的链接关系(如中断等方面)有一定优势。通过选择恰当的入路,CTVE在显示听小骨及其链接关系以及病理状态方面有相当优势。通过比较CTVE在3个不同显示层面观察镫骨的能力,明确CTVE是断层影像的有利补充。%Objective:To investigate the CT virtual endoscopy(CTVE) shows the display method of the normal structure of the middle ear, and evaluation of middle ear disease, particularly in the value and significance of the connection status of the ossicular chain, established display ossicular chain and middle ear structure methods. Method: Volume scanning with a spiral CT unit was performed in forty normal cases and thirty patients with suspected lesions of middle ear. Respectively, with Germany s Siemens (Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16) spiral CT the Inner Ear scanner patients with axial scanning, reconstruction of the original image, the software selected Fly-through A, B, C the point approach

  15. Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Lorkiewicz

    Full Text Available For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB. The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0. The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

  16. Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, Wiesław; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Strapagiel, Dominik; Haduch, Elżbieta; Szczepanek, Anita; Grygiel, Ryszard; Witas, Henryk W

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG) from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0). The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

  17. Otosclerosis associated with type B-1 inner ear malformation

    OpenAIRE

    De Stefano, A.; DISPENZA, F.; Aggarwal, N.; Russo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Malformations of bony inner ear are rare anomalies occurring in approximately 20% of patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss is usually associated with abnormalities of the external and middle ear. Recent reports of patients with lateral semicircular canal malformations indicate inner ear malformations to be associated with sensorineural or conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss should include otosclerosis, isolated ossi...

  18. Application of Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB)in patients with congenital deformation of middle and outer ears%振动声桥在先天性中外耳畸形患者的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹艺辉; 李佳楠; 陈爱婷; 戴朴; 韩东一; 刘会占; 杨仕明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report application of the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) in patients with congenital deformation of the middle and outer ears and investigate its indications for this patient population. Method Four patients with congenital deformation of middle and outer ears underwent VSB implantation. All were male (aged 3-18 years, average 13.5 years) and operated on the left side., Malformation was bilateral in 3 patients and unilateral in 1 patient. Surgical techniques were modified to accommodate each patient' s unique conditions. The middle ear space was approached via the facial recess in 3 patients and through a post-facial nerve route in 1 patient. The VSB implant was connected to either the stapes (2 cases) or the round window (2 cases). Pure tone and speech audiometry results and daily communication before and after VSB activation were compared. Results The operations were successful in all patients, with no complications. The patient communication level improved significantly after VSB activation. Average air conduction pure tone threshold or conditioned reflex audiometry improved by 35dB in the 0.25-4 kHz range from 69 dB HL before VSB activation to 34 dB HL after. In quiet, the sentence recognition rate at 65 dB SPL went up to 86% from 0% without VSB for patients with bilateral deformation and remained at 100% for the patient with unilateral deformity. However, for the latter patient, the rate improved to 20% from 0% without VSB in noise (-8 dB SNR). Conclusion VSB is a good solution for improving hearing in patients with congenital deformation of middle and outer ears. Operation can be completed and good results can be achieved even in patients with unique conditions.%目的 报道振动声桥在先天性中外耳畸形患者(尤其有特殊情况者)的应用,探索其在该类患者的适应症.方法 对4例先天性中外耳畸形患者行振动声桥植入术,均为男性,年龄3-18岁(平均13.5岁),3例双耳畸形,1例单耳畸形,均为左侧植

  19. Epitympanoplasty with Cartilage Obliteration in the Canal Wall Up Technique to the Middle Ear Cholesteatoma%保留外耳道后壁上鼓室切开软骨重建术治疗中耳胆脂瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹珩; 刘阳; 孙建军; 林勇生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report the curative effect of the epitympanoplasty with cartilage obliteration in the treatment of middle ear cholesteatoma .Methods This study retrospectively analysed 123 cases ,with middle ear cholesteatoma treated in our department from November 2009 to July 2012 .The operation included mastoidectomy with posterior canal wall preserved ,lateral wall of attic resected ,facial recess opened to the epitympanum ,epitym-panum obliterated with cartilage and mastoid cavity blocked with bone dust .All cases were followed up on complica-tions and hearing improvement .Results All cases were followed up 6~38 months .In 123 cases ,there were 2 ca-ses had cholesteatoma recurrence in the middle ear cavity ,6 cases had infection of post auricular incision after opera-tion ,3 cases had residual marginal tympanic membrane perforation ,2 cases had ossicular replacement prosthesis ex-clusion ,and 6 cases had canal wall skin swelling or defect .The rest cases acquired full -recovery after 2 or 3 wound dressing changes .Out of 123 cases ,83 cases had the whole hearing document ,the average AB gap at 0 .5 ,1 ,2 kHz reduced from 32 .2 ± 11 .2 dB pre-operation to 20 .7 ± 12 .4 dB post -operation .The AB gap of pre - and post -operation had significant difference (P<0 .001) .Conclusion The mastoidectomy with posterior canal wall preserved greatly shortened the healing time .The resection of lateral wall of epitympanum can exposed operating field more completely and remove lesions thoroughly .The cartilage obliteration in the attic can prevent the retraction pocket formation effectively .This technique provides alternative in treating middle ear cholesteatoma .%目的探讨在保持外耳道后壁完整的情况下,切除上鼓室外侧壁并软骨封闭治疗中耳胆脂瘤的疗效。方法2009年11月~2012年7月对123例(123耳)中耳胆脂瘤患者行保留外耳道后壁的乳突切开、上鼓室盾板切除及面神经隐窝向上鼓室开放,清除病

  20. Promoting Energy-Balance Behaviors among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents: Overview and Baseline Findings of the Central Texas CATCH Middle School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E.; Kelder, Steven H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Delk, Joanne E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The Central Texas Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) Middle School Project is a 3.5-year school-based project aimed at promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and obesity prevention among public middle school students in Texas. This article describes the CATCH intervention model and presents baseline findings from spring 2009.…

  1. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  2. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receive light-weight earrings. Does Insurance Pay for Cosmetic Ear Surgery? Insurance usually does not cover surgery solely for ... republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. Ears Cosmetic Surgery, Facelift, Rhinoplasty, Blepharoplasty ... Get Involved Professional Development Practice ...

  3. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing and balance. That's because the ear not ... Hearing Loss or Balance Problems Ear injuries can affect kids differently. ... sounds or music notes hearing only certain or muffled sounds ringing ...

  4. 不同方法修复先天性外中耳畸形新建耳道的皮肤缺损的临床研究%Clinical study of different methods to repair the skin defect of the new ear canal of the congenital external middle ear malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简洁君; 何超; 田磊; 李妮

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of repairing the skin defect of the new ear canal of the new ear canal with the acellular dermal matrix and the free thin layer of the skin.Methods 40 cases of January 2015 2013 to January 2009 in our hospital were congenital ear canal stenosis or deformity were included. All the patients underwent skeletal reconstruction of external auditory canal treatment. According to the random number table method is divided into two groups with 20 cases in each: in view of the new ear canal skin lesions, the observation group be dissimilar de cellular dermis matrix membrane repair treatment, control group was treated with autologous free thin skin graft treatment, comparative analysis the therapeutic effect of two groups.Results Patients were followed up for 6 months, patients in the two groups there were no graft rejection appeared and shedding phenomenon, the success rate of the two groups of patients transplanted reached 100%; were observed compared with control group, the group of complete epithelization time was significantly shortened (P<0.05); observation group transplantation 3 months and 6 months of Vancouver Scar score were lower than those in the control group decreased signiifcantly (P<0.05). The two groups had no serious abnormal reaction; observation group cosmetic satisfaction reached 95%, compared to the control group 85.00% increased significantly (P<0.05). ConclusionXenogenic deproteinization acellular dermal matrix membrane repair for congenital external and middle ear malformation new ear canal skin defect, as a dermal substitute, can effectively promote the skin defect of healing, reduce scar hyperplasia after the wound healing, good aesthetic effect, is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨异种脱细胞真皮基质修复膜与自体游离薄层皮片在先天性外中耳畸形新建耳道的皮肤缺损中的修复作用。方法:纳入2013年1月-2015年1月收治的先天性耳道狭窄或畸形患者40

  5. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  6. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae.

  7. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2014-01-01

    Transformation in technological patterns associated with the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition between 50 and 40 ka in Western Europe and their relationship with the Neanderthal and Anatomically Modern Human populations and behaviors are issues that continue to stimulate heated debate...

  8. The Middle Miocene Climate Transition in the Central Mediterranean. Geologica Ultraiectina (326)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Miocene Climate Transition (~15-13.7 Ma) is one of the major steps in Cenozoic climate evolution. The rapid expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ~13.9 – 13.7 Ma caused important climate changes on a global scale. The aim of this PhD research has been to study the effects of the Mi

  9. A Model for the representation of Speech Signals in Normal and Impaired Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    A model of human auditory periphery, ranging from the outer ear to the auditory nerve, was developed. The model consists of the following components: outer ear transfer function, middle ear transfer function, basilar membrane velocity, inner hair cell receptor potential, inner hair cell probabili...

  10. Evaluation of embryological sequences of ear anomalies and its radiological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Amarnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To correlate the sequence of embryological development of ear with radiological imaging. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 23 patients of age group 11 months to 27 years with malformed external ear/microtia and hearing loss. The children with postoperative changes, acute hearing loss (such as infection, trauma were excluded from the study. We used high-resolution computed tomography, with axial and coronal sections to examine the temporal bones of patients. Results: Of the 23 cases, 12 cases had external ear anomaly and 11 cases had cochlear anomaly. In patients with the external ear anomaly, seven cases had associated middle ear malformations, one patient had associated middle and inner ear anomaly, one had anomalous course of facial nerve, and three cases had isolated external ear anomalies. In patients with inner ear anomalies, one patient had complete labyrinthine aplasia, one had cochlear dysplasia with incomplete cochlear turns, four had common cavity malformations, one had cystic featureless cochlea with dilated and cystic vestibule, two patients had small cochlea with the middle and apical turns coalescing to form a cystic apex, one patient had small rudimentary cochlea, and the other one had dilated vestibule and enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac with cochlear dysmorphism. Conclusion: Most of the children with malformed pinna had external auditory canal atresia with associated middle ear anomalies. Though the inner ear development is independent of external and middle ear development, we insist on the fact that insult during the 1 st month of embryogenesis can result in associated abnormalities involving external, middle, and inner ear. Developmental arrest at various stages of inner ear development results in various types of cochlear anomalies with associated vestibular, semicircular canal abnormalities, and rarely associated with middle and external ear anomalies. Hence, clear knowledge about embryology will help to

  11. MIDDLE JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE CENTRAL PONTIDES (TURKEY: REMARKS ON PALEOGEOGRAPHY AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORA ROJAY

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates in the Pontides was controlled mainly by the evolution of an Atlantic-type continental margin in the Tethys. The study of several stratigraphic sections from allochthonous slices and blocks of the North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange provided insight into the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Central Pontide Belt. The Callovian-Aptian successions span the Globuligerina gr. oxfordiana, Clypeina jurassica (equivalent of the Tubiphytes morronensis zone, Protopeneroplis ultragranulata (with the Haplophragmoides joukowskyi subzone, Montsalevia salevensis, Hedbergella delrioensis - Hedbergella planispira - Leupoldina - Globigerinelloides and Globigerinelloides algerianus biozones. Two major stratigraphic gaps corresponding to the pre-Callovian and Hauterivian-Early Aptian ages are recognised within the successions. Lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic studies indicate strong similarities in the evolution of the successions in the Amasya region (Central Pontides and Biga-Bursa-Bilecik (BBB Platform (North-western Anatolia. 

  12. High Intensity Pressure Noise Transmission in Human Ear: A Three Dimensional Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Takumi; Gan, Rong; Leckness, Kegan

    2015-03-01

    High intensity pressure noise generated by explosions and jet engines causes auditory damage and hearing loss of the military service personals, which are the most common disabilities in the veterans. Authors have investigated the high intensity pressure noise transmission from the ear canal to middle ear cavity. A fluid-structure interaction with a viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane (TM) as well as the ossicular chain has been considered in the study. For the high intensity pressure simulation the geometry of the ear was based on a 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear reported by Gan et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 2004). The model consists of the ear canal, TM, ossicular chain, and the middle ear cavity. The numerical approach includes two steps: 1) FE based finite-volume method simulation to compute pressure distributions in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity using CFX; and 2) FE modeling of TM and middle ear ossicles in response to high intensity sound using multi-physics analysis in ANSYS. The simulations provide the displacement of the TM/ossicular chain and the pressure fields in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity. These results are compared with human temporal bone experimental data obtained in our group. This work was supported by DOD W81XWH-14-1-0228.

  13. Otosclerosis associated with type B-1 inner ear malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, A; Dispenza, F; Aggarwal, N; Russo, A

    2010-06-01

    Malformations of bony inner ear are rare anomalies occurring in approximately 20% of patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss is usually associated with abnormalities of the external and middle ear. Recent reports of patients with lateral semicircular canal malformations indicate inner ear malformations to be associated with sensorineural or conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss should include otosclerosis, isolated ossicular deformities, inner ear anomalies or a combination of these. In this report, a case is described with right vestibule-lateral semicircular canal dysplasia presenting at our centre with bilateral otosclerosis.

  14. Prótese implantável do ouvido médio: ganho funcional em perda auditiva mista Middle ear implants: functional gain in mixed hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Emilio Zernotti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atresia óssea e otite média crônica são os principais grupos de beneficiários com implantes do ouvido médio. Cirurgia de atresia é tecnicamente complexo, tem muitas complicações e resultados funcionais pobres. Os aparelhos auditivos osseointegrados são uma alternativa. Eles fornecem um ganho funcional muito bom, mas tem muitos problemas de pele e osseointegração. Na otite média crônica, ossiculoplastias resolveram parcialmente o problema de audição. Infelizmente, em alguns casos de otites média e cavidades abertas, equipamentos com aparelhos auditivos convencionais são difíceis e muitas vezes insatisfatórios. OBJETIVO: Determinar a utilidade de um implante do ouvido médio. Desenho de estudo longitudinal. MÉTODOS: Vibrant-Soundbrigde foi implantado em oito pacientes com perda auditiva mista grave. Quatro apresentavam otite média crônica e quatro apresentavam atresia unilateral. A colocação do estimulador (FMT ou Floating Mass Transducer foi em cinco pacientes na janela redonda, dois no estribo e um na janela oval. RESULTADOS: Ganho funcional foi de 35 dB, 40 dB, 48,7 dB e 50 dB para as frequências de 500, 1000, 2000 e 4000 Hz, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Vibrant-Soundbrigde é uma excelente opção no restabelecimento da audição em perda auditiva mista grave e profunda. Ele fornece um excelente ganho funcional em doenças de difícil tratamento com equipamentos convencionais.Osseous atresia and chronic otitis media are diseases benefit with middle ear implants. Surgery for atresia is technically complicated, has significant number of complications and functional results are often poor. The osseointegrated hearing aids are an alternative. They provide a very good functional gain, but have many problems with the skin and osseointegration. In chronic otitis media, the ossiculoplasty solved partially the hearing problem. Unfortunately in some cases of otitis media and in open cavities fitted with conventional hearing

  15. Secreção na orelha média em lactentes - ocorrência, recorrência e aspectos relacionados Secretion of middle ear in infants - occurrence, recurrence and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de O. Saes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a ocorrência e recorrência de secreção na orelha média e os possíveis fatores associados, em 190 recém-nascidos e lactentes observados nos 2 primeiros anos de vida, participantes de um programa de prevenção, detecção e intervenção interdisciplinar desenvolvido na Clínica de Educação para Saúde da Universidade do Sagrado Coração. MÉTODOS: Os recém-nascidos e lactentes foram submetidos mensalmente a anamnese, otoscopia, avaliação audiológica comportamental por meio de instrumentos sonoros e tons puros (audiometria pediátrica e timpanometria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados revelaram que 68,4% dos lactentes apresentaram um ou mais episódios de secreção na orelha média nos 2 primeiros anos, com maior recorrência para o sexo masculino. A idade de maior ocorrência foi entre 4 e 12 meses. Quanto mais cedo ocorreu o primeiro episódio, maior foi a probabilidade de recorrência. Os meses do ano de maior incidência foram de maio a agosto. Das variáveis estudadas, constatou-se que o período de aleitamento materno exclusivo atuou como um fator protetor. Quanto aos fatores de risco, verificou-se que a presença tabagismo passivo, refluxo gastroesofágico, alergia respiratória esteve relacionada à recorrência de efusão. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados revelaram a importância do acompanhamento auditivo periódico para lactentes nos 2 primeiros anos de vida, considerando ser o período crítico para o processo de maturação do sistema auditivo, no qual privações sensoriais auditivas podem ser responsáveis por seqüelas para o desenvolvimento de fala e linguagem.OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at evaluating the occurrence and recurrence of middle ear secretion and possible associated factors in the first two years of life of 190 newborns and infants, participants in the interdisciplinary prevention, detection, and intervention program at the Clínica de Educação para Saúde of

  16. Genetic differentiation of Puccinia triticina populations in the Middle East and genetic similarity with populations in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Ordoñez, M E; Manisterski, J; Anikster, Y

    2011-07-01

    Leaf rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common and widespread disease in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina are present in the Middle East region and to compare the population from the Middle East with the previously characterized population from Central Asia to determine whether genetically similar groups of isolates are found in the two regions. In total, 118 isolates of P. triticina collected from common wheat and durum wheat in Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Kenya were tested for virulence on 20 lines of wheat with single genes for leaf rust resistance and for molecular genotypes with 23 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. After removal of isolates with identical virulence and SSR genotype in each country, 103 isolates were retained for further analysis. Clustering of SSR genotypes based on two-dimensional principal coordinates and virulence to wheat differential lines grouped the isolates into four Middle East (ME) groups. The two largest ME groups had virulence phenotypes typical of isolates collected from common wheat and two smaller ME groups had virulence typical of isolates collected from durum wheat. All pairs of ME groups were significantly differentiated for SSR genotype based on R(ST) and F(ST) statistics, and for virulence phenotype based on Φ(PT). All ME groups had observed values of heterozygosity greater than expected and significant fixation indices that indicated the clonal reproduction of urediniospores in the overall population. Linkage disequilibria for SSR genotypes was high across the entire population. The overall values of R(ST) and F(ST) were lower when isolates were grouped by country of origin that indicated the likely migration of isolates within the region. Although the two ME groups with virulence typical of isolates from common wheat were not differentiated for SSR genotype from groups of isolates from Central Asia based on

  17. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  18. A RARE FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR: REMOVED BY CANALOPLASTY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Getting an object impact in the ear canal is a relatively common problem in children, the majority of items are lodged in the external auditory canal which is the small channel that ends at the ear drum. The children often place these items in their ears out of curiosity. Common objects found in ear include beads, toys, food material, insects and seeds etc. usually foreign body ear are removed by syringing or with Hartmann’s forceps, we are here presenting a case of foreign body in the middle ear removed by canaloplasty through post - aural approach.

  19. Supervivencia adulta y dinámica poblacional del lauchón orejudo Phyllotis darwini en Chile central Adult survival and population dynamics in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Crespin

    2006-09-01

    with a short generation time, adult survival should not be of such importance. Nonetheless, Yoccoz et al. (1998, Research Population Ecology 40: 107-121 hypothetized that, in small rodents, adult survival should be the demographic parameter driving the population growth rate if one considered a time scale of one month (instead of one year. As far as we know, this hypothesis has not yet been tested with empirical data. To test this hypothesis, we used five years of capture-mark-recapture data to estimate maturation and survival of a rodent, the leaf-eared mice, Phyllotis darwini, in a population of central Chile. This analysis revealed that the probabilities of survival decreased with the average rainfall by year and that the probabilities of maturation decreased with the abundance of the population. Using the probabilities of survival and maturation, we built up a seasonal matrix model and use perturbation analysis (elasticity to be able to actually measure the relative importance of each demographic parameter to the population growth rate. Environmental seasonality was incorporated in the model by using a rainfall season, of five months long, and a dry season. Adult survival was indeed the demographic parameter with the highest elasticity. Such a result plainly supported thus the hypothesis of Yoccoz et al. (1998

  20. Efficacy in patients with outer and middle ear deformities of using bone-anchored hearing aids%双侧先天性外中耳畸形患者骨锚式助听器效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊悦; 陈晓巍; 杨华; 张志勇; 祝小莉; 曹克利; 高志强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and satisfaction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) in patients with outer and middle ear deformities.Methods Seven patients with bilateral microtia and aural atresia,and three patients with unilateral microtia and bilateral middle ear malformation were fitted with soft-band BAHA for a few months,followed by receiving unilateral BAHA implantation.Mean pure-tone thresholds and speech audiometry tests results were compared among patients without hearing aid,with softband BAHA, and with implanted BAHA. Scores from the BAHA users' questionnaires and Glasgow children's benefit inventory (GCBI) were used to measure patient satisfaction and subjective health benefit.Results The mean pure-tone thresholds of the patients were ( 64.8 ± 5.9 ) dBHL for those without hearing aid,(30.2 ± 3.7) dBHL for those with soft-band BAHA,and (20.3 ± 3.9 ) dBHL for those with implanted BAHA.The average decline in pure-tone threshold was (36.2 ± 8.0)dBHL for those with soft-band BAHA,and an additional decline of (12.2 ± 3.4)dBHL was achieved with implanted BAHA.The average gains in speech discrimination scores (SDS) were ( 3.00 ± 1.07 ) % for those without hearing aids and ( 89.39 ± 5.83) % for those with implanted BAHA in sound field of 45dBHL.SDS were(57.55 ± 10.30) % for those without hearing aids and (91.19 ± 4.16)% for those with implanted BAHA in sound field of 65 dBHL.The average gains in SDS were ( 88.21 ± 6.86) % and ( 38.04 ± 7.56) % tested with 45dBHL and 65dBHL respectively.Sound reception thresholds (SRT) without hearing aids were (63.1 ± 5.9 )dBHL and (24.7 ± 3.5 )dBHL for those with implanted BAHA.The average gains in SRT was(39.6 ± 6.2)dBHL.The BAHA application questionnaire demonstrated excellent patient satisfaction.The general benefit score was 35.59 ± 14.35.Conclusion BAHA remains one of the most reliable methods of auditory rehabilitation and improves quality of life for patients with ear deformities

  1. Sectional anatomical analysis of auricular and middle ear malformation in patients with microtia%先天性小耳外中耳畸形断面影像解剖学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩娟; 卢九星; 邢宁; 林琳; 蒋海越; 庄洪兴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the sectional anatomical features of auricular and middle ear malformation in patients with microtia so as to improve the clinical classification and the instruction of surgery. Methods From Jun. to Dec. 2009,36 cases with microtia were selected in the center of auricular reconstruction in Plastic Surgery Hospital, including 22 cases of unilateral microtia and 14 cases of bilateral microtia. 22 patients with unilateral microtia were studied with the contralateral healthy ears as controls. Spiral CT was performed for high-resolution scan of the temporal bone. The coronal, sagittal and 3D reconstruction images were created with Mimic software. Several distances and degrees were measured. Results The patients were classified by Max classification. The anteroposterior diameter and the vertical diameter of tympanic cavity were (7. 75 ± 1. 92) mm and ( 14. 66 ± 4. 75 ) mm for type Ⅰ ; (6.17±2.56) mm and(14. 35 ±5. 12) mm for type Ⅱ ; (6. 31 ±3. 40) mm and (9.97 ±4.36) mm for type Ⅲ ( P = 0.001). The mastoid pneumatization degree for type Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ were 13.33% , 13.64% ,30.77% in sclerotic type, 13. 33% , 18. 18 % , 7. 69% in diploetic type, 0, 9. 09% , 38. 46% in composite type,73. 33% ,59. 09% ,23. 08% in pneumatic type(x2 = 24. 11 ,P = 0. 002 ). The cover of fenestra vestibuli by facial nerve was 21. 43% ,47.62%, 54.55% (x2 =23.44, P = 0. 002 ) for type Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ. There was a statistical difference between the microtia group and the control group. Conclusions According to the Max classification, the middle ear malformation changed along the auricular malformation. The anatomical variations was complicated in type Ⅱ microtia, which should be sub-classified.%目的 通过对先天性小耳患者外、中耳的畸形断面影像解剖学特征的系统研究,比较其与正常解剖之间的差异,总结重要解剖结构的变异规律及相互关系,以利于临床分型及手术治疗.方法 选取2009年6月至12月中

  2. 腭裂修复术对咽鼓管功能与中耳的影响%Study on the eustachian tube and on the problems of middle ears of the children with cleft palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖仁发; G.Schmidt; 等

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of the dysfunction of eustachian tube and otitis media witheffusion in young children with cleft palate. Methods: 121 cleft palate cases, including 242 ears are di-vided, according to the time of surgical closure of soft cleft palate, into two groups: early operated groupand delay operated group. All children underwent rourine otoscopic, otomicroscopic examination of theears and they were also performed tympanotomy before and 1 year after veloplasty. Results: A significant-ly (P < 0,01 ) greater prevalence of otitis media with effusion was found among delay operated CP chil-dren than early operated CP children before veloplasty, and more mucotympanon and otitis media suppu-rativa were also found in delay operated CP children. No statistical significance was found 1 year after op-eration. Conclusion: Dysfunction of Eustachian tube and otitis media are commonly present among theCP children, tympanotomy and pressure equalization tube should be performed as early as possible so asto avoid complications of the middle ears, early veloplasty should be adopted for a better rehabilitation.%目的:探讨不同年龄组腭裂患儿施行腭裂修复术对咽鼓管功能障碍与中耳疾病的影响。方法:121例242耳腭裂患儿,分为早期腭帆修复组(手术时平均年龄为3.2个月)与延迟腭帆修复组(手术时平均年龄为15个月),在腭裂修复术前、术后一年进行耳镜、耳显微镜检查,鼓膜穿刺术和(或)鼓膜切开术。结果:2组腭裂患儿手术修复术前90%以上的中耳有病理性渗出,但延迟手术组腭裂患儿的中耳渗出向粘稠化、感染化转变,2组患儿中耳渗出情况在腭裂修复术后一年明显好转。结论:腭裂可导致中耳炎,应尽早作耳科相关检查,对病理性渗出的中耳,应置放鼓室平衡管,以消除负压和引流。早期实施的腭帆修复术,对咽鼓管及中耳功能的恢复有明显的改善。

  3. Bivalves and gastropods from the middle Campanian Anacacho limestone, South Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Anacacho Limestone was deposited during the Campanian and represents two depositional intervals, one of early Campanian and one of middle Campanian age. These two intervals correspond to periods of major eustatic sea level rise. This study focuses on the molluscan paleontology of the middle Campanian interval in the eastern part of the Anacacho exposure belt in Medina County, Texas. Molluscan assemblages in this area are indicative of inner to mid-shelf environments. No significant reef components are present. These eastern Anacacho deposits are interpreted to represent more offshore, deeper water environments than those to the southwest, where reef and lagoonal deposits have been reported. Analysis of the macrofossil components from these eastern localities has expanded the number of invertebrate species known from the Anacacho Limestone by nearly three-fold. This increase in diversity, based on a small amount of new work, suggests that many more taxa are yet to be identified, particularly in the western part of the exposure belt in Uvalde and Kinney Counties. This paper documents the bivalve and gastropod fauna, discussing and illustrating 24 bivalve taxa and 11 gastropod species. Two new bivalve species are named, Panopea anacachoensis new species and Spondylus siccus new species, and two potentially new gastropod species are identified but not named herein due to inadequate material. This paper expands the distribution of many eastern Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast taxa westward into Texas and shows strong ties between the Anacacho fauna and that of the Campanian Tar Heel and Bladen Formations of the Black Creek Group in North Carolina. The taxonomic ties between these two areas probably reflect the thorough documentation of the North Carolina fauna, which is the best documented Campanian bivalve fauna in the Gulf or Atlantic Coast regions.

  4. Middle Miocene chitons (Polyplacophora from the Slovak part of the Vienna Basin and the Danube Basin (Central Paratethys

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    Ruman Andrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe species-rich chiton assemblages from the Middle Miocene of the Slovak part of the Vienna Basin and the Danube Basin (Central Paratethys. They were found at five localities, including Devínska Nová Ves brickyard, Devínska Nová Ves-Útočnica, Rohožník clay pit, Kúty-45 borehole and Dubová. Thirteen species belong to eight genera from the families Leptochitonidae, Hanleyidae, Callochitonidae, Chitonidae, Tonicellidae and Acanthochitonidae. They occur predominantly in redeposited, moderately-sorted rhodolith-rich or well-sorted bioclastic layers of the Late Badenian age, and belong to lineages that presently inhabit warm-temperate and tropical regions.

  5. A Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician bivalve-dominated molluscan fauna from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian G. Jakobsen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A bivalve-dominated molluscan fauna is described from the Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia. The fauna comprises 16 species of bivalves and rostroconchs plus six gastropod species which are treated under open nomenclature. Two new bivalves, Sthenodonta paenesymmetrica sp. nov. and Modiolopsis pojetai sp. nov., are described. The relatively low-diverse molluscan fauna constitutes around 62% of the total benthic macrofauna. Approximately 75% of the molluscs comprise bivalves, especially nuculoids, which were biogeographically restricted to low latitudes during the Ordovician. The molluscan assemblage displays a very high degree of endemism at species level, though the bivalve Sthenodonta eastii also occurs in the Georgina Basin farther to the northeast. This indicates a possible marine connective seaway between the Georgina and Amadeus basins during the Darriwilian. Nuculites, Cyrtodonta, and Modiolopsis are cosmopolitan and previously reported from North China, Avalonia, and Southern Gondwana.

  6. Determinants of farmers' adoption of improved soil conservation technology in a middle mountain watershed of Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Krishna R; Sitaula, Bishal K; Nyborg, Ingrid L P; Paudel, Giridhari S

    2008-08-01

    This study explores different socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology (ISCT) on Bari land (Rainfed outward sloping terraces) in the Middle Mountain region of Central Nepal. Structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households. The logistic regression model predicted seven factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the study area including years of schooling of the household head, caste of the respondent, land holding size of the Bari land, cash crop vegetable farming, family member occupation in off farm sector, membership of the Conservation and Development Groups, and use of credit. The study showed that technology dissemination through multi-sectoral type community based local groups is a good option to enhance the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the Middle Mountain farming systems in Nepal. Planners and policy makers should formulate appropriate policies and programs considering the farmers' interest, capacity, and limitation in promoting improved soil conservation technology for greater acceptance and adoption by the farmers.

  7. The influence of sea level and cyclones on Holocene reef flat development: Middle Island, central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. J.; Smithers, S. G.; Lewis, S. E.; Clark, T. R.; Zhao, J. X.

    2016-09-01

    The geomorphology and chronostratigraphy of the reef flat (including microatoll ages and elevations) were investigated to better understand the long-term development of the reef at Middle Island, inshore central Great Barrier Reef. Eleven cores across the fringing reef captured reef initiation, framework accretion and matrix sediments, allowing a comprehensive appreciation of reef development. Precise uranium-thorium ages obtained from coral skeletons revealed that the reef initiated ~7873 ± 17 years before present (yBP), and most of the reef was emplaced in the following 1000 yr. Average rates of vertical reef accretion ranged between 3.5 and 7.6 mm yr-1. Reef framework was dominated by branching corals ( Acropora and Montipora). An age hiatus of ~5000 yr between 6439 ± 19 and 1617 ± 10 yBP was observed in the core data and attributed to stripping of the reef structure by intense cyclones during the mid- to late-Holocene. Large shingle ridges deposited onshore and basset edges preserved on the reef flat document the influence of cyclones at Middle Island and represent potential sinks for much of the stripped material. Stripping of the upper reef structure around the outer margin of the reef flat by cyclones created accommodation space for a thin (energy waves presumably generated by cyclones have significantly influenced both Holocene reef growth and contemporary reef flat geomorphology.

  8. Determinants of Farmers' Adoption of Improved Soil Conservation Technology in a Middle Mountain Watershed of Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Krishna R.; Sitaula, Bishal K.; Nyborg, Ingrid L. P.; Paudel, Giridhari S.

    2008-08-01

    This study explores different socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology (ISCT) on Bari land (Rainfed outward sloping terraces) in the Middle Mountain region of Central Nepal. Structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households. The logistic regression model predicted seven factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the study area including years of schooling of the household head, caste of the respondent, land holding size of the Bari land, cash crop vegetable farming, family member occupation in off farm sector, membership of the Conservation and Development Groups, and use of credit. The study showed that technology dissemination through multi-sectoral type community based local groups is a good option to enhance the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the Middle Mountain farming systems in Nepal. Planners and policy makers should formulate appropriate policies and programs considering the farmers’ interest, capacity, and limitation in promoting improved soil conservation technology for greater acceptance and adoption by the farmers.

  9. Alterations in the Contra lateral Ear in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM, a persistent and durable inflammation and infection of the middle ear, is a common disorder. Alterations in the contralateral ear in sufferers have been observed in recent years. Because only a few studies have been reported in this area, we performed this study in order to assess alterations in the contralateral ear of patients with COM.   Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive methods were used in 100 patients with COM who were selected for surgical treatment and admitted to hospital. An information form was completed for all patients including demographic data, medical history of otoscopy and paraclinical examinations such as pure tone audiometry (PTA, tympanometry, Schuller radiography, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All data were processed using SPSS (version 18 software and descriptive statistical tests.   Results: According to otoscopy, PTA, tympanometry and graphical analysis, 60% of patients experienced disorders of the contralateral ear. Otoscopy analysis showed 54% of patients had a disorder of the contralateral ear, with the most common disorder being perforation of the ear drum. PTA showed a 48% incidence of contralateral ear problems (85% conductive hearing impairment; 12.5% sensorineural hearing impairment; 1.2% mixed. A total of 73.2% of patients with conductive hearing loss had a problem across all frequencies, while half of the patients with sensorineural hearing impairment had problems at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. According to tympanometry, 38% of patients had problem in the contralateral ear. HRCT and Schuller graphical analyses indicated 31.5% and 36% occurrence of contralateral ear disorders, respectively.   Conclusion:  More than 50% of patients with COM in one ear have a chance of also presenting with the disease in the other ear. Outcomes of this study and previous studies have shown that COM should not be perceived as a disease limited

  10. How the Ear Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the brain. Any source of sound sends vibrations or sound waves into the air. These funnel through the ear opening, down the external ear canal, and strike your eardrum, causing it to vibrate. The vibrations are passed to the three small bones of ...

  11. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the brain. Any source of sound sends vibrations or sound waves into the air. These funnel through the ear opening, down the ear, canal, and strike your eardrum, causing it to vibrate. The vibrations are passed to the small bones of the ...

  12. Rapid middle Miocene collapse of the Mesozoic orogenic plateau in north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    The modern Sierra Nevada and Great Basin were likely the site of a high-elevation orogenic plateau well into Cenozoic time, supported by crust thickened during Mesozoic shortening. Although crustal thickening at this scale can lead to extension, the relationship between Mesozoic shortening and subsequent formation of the Basin and Range is difficult to unravel because it is unclear which of the many documented or interpreted extensional episodes was the most significant for net widening and crustal thinning. To address this problem, we integrate geologic and geochronologic data that bear on the timing and magnitude of Cenozoic extension along an ???200km east-west transect south of Winnemucca, Battle Mountain, and Elko, Nevada. Pre-Cenozoic rocks in this region record east-west Palaeozoic and Mesozoic compression that continued into the Cretaceous. Little to no tectonism and no deposition followed until intense magmatism began in the Eocene. Eocene and Oligocene ash-flow tuffs flowed as much as 200km down palaeovalleys cut as deeply as 1.5km into underlying Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks in a low-relief landscape. Eocene sedimentation was otherwise limited to shallow lacustrine basins in the Elko area; extensive, thick clastic deposits are absent. Minor surface extension related to magmatism locally accompanied intense Eocene magmatism, but external drainage and little or no surface deformation apparently persisted regionally until about 16-17Ma. Major upper crustal extension began across the region ca. 16-17Ma, as determined by cross-cutting relationships, low-temperature thermochronology, and widespread deposition of clastic basin fill. Middle Miocene extension was partitioned into high-strain (50-100%) domains separated by largely unextended crustal blocks, and ended by 10-12Ma. Bimodal volcanic rocks that erupted during middle Miocene extension are present across most of the study area, but are volumetrically minor outside the northern Nevada rift. The modern

  13. Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing acute otitis media isolated from children with spontaneous middle-ear drainage over a 12-year period (1999-2010 in a region of northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alonso

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5% in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%, the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n=214 Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n=227, 27.8%, 3 (n=92, 11.2% and 19F (n=74, 9%. Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999-2001 to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008-2010. Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008-2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326 in 1999-2004 to 14.6% (72/492 in 2005-2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and

  14. Potential ZnS fossilization of gastropods (Middle Jurassic claystones from Central Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Patrycja; Sawlowicz, Zbigniew

    2008-09-01

    The rich fossil fauna in the Middle Jurassic claystones that crop out in the Krakow-Czestochowa Upland is extensively replaced by sulfide minerals, mainly pyrite. Sphalerite (ZnS) is rare and restricted to the internal casts of gastropods, often together with framboidal and euhedral pyrite and calcite. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer study was undertaken to explain this curious association. The results show that although direct infilling of the carbonate shell, similar to processes occurring during pyritization, is probable, it does not explain all textures observed. We propose that the carbonate shells were initially infilled by calcite and iron sulfides and sphalerite subsequently replaced the calcite casts. Preferential occurrence of ZnS in gastropods could result from accumulation of higher concentration of zinc during the organisms' life. After death, this Zn was introduced into the carbonate making gastropods more prone to ZnS replacement. Formation of ZnS casts was probably a late diagenetic event as zinc content of the surrounding sediment does not appear to influence sphalerite formation.

  15. Networking for Overcoming on Viral Hepatitis in Middle East and Central Asia: Asian Hepatitis Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease is an important health challenge in the world, where hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are the main causes of liver insufficiency. HBV infection is a serious global health problem, with two billion people infected worldwide, and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB affects more than 400 million people globally, of whom 75% are Asians (1. Hepatitis B infection is the 10th leading cause of death worldwide, and results in 500,000 to 1.2 million deaths per year caused by chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. HCC accounts for 320,000 deaths per year (2. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%, intermediate (2-7% to low (<2% prevalence (3.In the Middle East, HBV prevalence has altered from high to intermediate or low prevalence, but HBV infection is a problem of public health, and a major cause of mortality and morbidity particularly in developing countries. Most countries in the Middle East region are still in intermediate to high endemicity for HBV infection. Insufficient coverage of HBV vaccination, blood-contaminated equipment sharing between injection drug users, unsafe blood transfusion, and inadequate health precautions are major risk factors of HBV infection in this region. Screening of HBV infection during pregnancy, and follow-up of infants with HBV infected mothers will reduce rates of perinatal HBV infection in these countries. Implementing local strategies for hepatitis B screening will reduce the infection rate (4, 5. The socioeconomic and sanitary changes, expanded program on immunization of infants and all high risk populations have changed the epidemiologic profile of HBV infection in Iran.Universal vaccination significantly decreased the carrier rate among young children. More studies on the impact of vaccine types, environment, ethnicity and other contributing factors that can impede

  16. The cormorant ear – an adaptation to underwater hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    not know how sensitive their underwater hearing is or even if they respond to underwater sound. Consequently, we do not know if anthropogenic sound affects their hearing during dives. To help filling this gap we measured the audiograms of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and studied the ear...... rather poor in-air hearing compared to similar-sized birds. Their underwater hearing sensitivity, however, is higher than what would have been expected for purely air-adapted ears. A possible reason for the poor in-air sensitivity is the special ear anatomy with the central eardrum shaped as a rigid...... piston, which is reminiscent of the turtle ear....

  17. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk [Koryo general Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  18. Stratigraphic and technological evidence from the middle palaeolithic-Châtelperronian-Aurignacian record at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d’Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Almeida, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a geoarchaeological study of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic (Châtelperronian, Aurignacian and Solutrean) occupations preserved at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter in Central France. The lithostratigraphic sequence is composed of near-surface sedimentary facies with vertical and lat...

  19. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  20. Pilgrimstad revisited - a multi-proxy reconstruction of Early/Middle Weichselian climate and environment at a key site in central Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, B.; Alexanderson, H.; Ampel, L.; Bennike, O.; Engels, S.; Johnsen, T.; Lundqvist, J.; Martins, M.; Reimer, P.

    2011-01-01

    The site Pilgrimstad in central Sweden has often been cited as a key locality for discussions of ice-free/ice-covered intervals during the Early and Middle Weichselian. Multi-proxy investigations of a recently excavated section at Pilgrimstad now provide a revised picture of the climatic and environ

  1. Ear infection and hearing loss amongst headphone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, R; Saim, L; Thomas, A; Said, R; Liyab, B

    2002-07-01

    The use of headphone has been thought to cause infection in the ear canal and contribute to hearing loss. In this study, we examined 136 Customer Service Representative from Celcom (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. who use headphone throughout their working hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ear canal infection and other related diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Their hearing thresholds were also determined using the Amplaid 309 Clinical Audiometer. We found no incidence of infection of the external ear canal amongst the subjects. There were 4 cases of chronic middle ear infection and 4 cases of impacted wax. Hearing impairment was found in 25 subjects (21.2%). However, there was no significant association between hearing loss and the exposure to sound from headphone usage because the high frequencies were not predominantly affected. There was also no association between hearing loss and duration of service.

  2. Sedimentary environment and paleosols of middle Miocene fluvial and lacustrine sediments in central Japan: Implications for paleoclimate interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Nozomi; Yoshida, Kohki

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary facies analysis and description of paleosols were carried out for the middle Miocene Tokiguchi Porcelain Clay Formation (PCF) in central Japan in order to interpret the soil-forming environments during a long hiatus in the Japanese Islands. The sedimentary facies suggests that deposition occurred mainly in a lacustrine environment, with minor channel-fill and debris-flow deposits associated with alluvial fan environments. The coarse-grained sediments, which are inferred to have been deposited in channel-bar and debris-flow deposits, are present only in the marginal area of the sedimentary basin. Mature paleosols are identified in the Tokiguchi PCF, characterized by illuviated clay, identifiable soil horizons including Bt horizons and many in situ plant fossils, and are then similar to Ultisols. Most tree trunk fossils, however, were preserved by burial beneath debris-flow deposits. Most of paleosols formed on lacustrine deposits and were covered by lacustrine clay and silt deposits, without intervening coarse-grained deposits, such as flood-flow deposits. This change of sedimentary facies indicates a dramatic change of hydrologic environment, from stagnant water to entirely desiccated conditions, promoting weathering and soil formation. The relationship between sedimentary facies and Pedotypes, consequently, implies the repetition of specific events, i.e., submergence and emergence of lake bottom, most likely due to formation and drainage of a dammed lake. These isolated events and development of mature paleosols might suggest specific characteristics of middle Miocene weathering conditions, such as seasonally heavy rainfall and/or warm climatic conditions in the Japanese Islands.

  3. Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... By Mayo Clinic Staff Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the shape, position ... age 5 — through adulthood. In some cases, the surgery is done as early as age 3. If ...

  4. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stirrup. These are the smallest bones in your body. Together they are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which ... organizations Related Topics ...

  5. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness ...

  6. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... of fullness in the ear. Otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  7. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  8. Environmental changes and human settlement in the central Marches (Italy during the early-middle Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Calderoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Early Holocene, the central Marches (Italy underwent a widespread development of forest cover and soils which drastically reduced slope degradation and related aggradation processes in riverbeds. In such conditions, streams deeply incised the previous alluvial sediments. In the Apennine sectors, linear erosion was locally prevented by the growth of travertine dams in correspondence with river channel knickpoints and waterfalls. Fluvial deposition prevailed in the peri-Adriatic hilly belt, where river valleys still extended from the present coastline to the uprising Adriatic Sea, as testified by a 50-m-deep cored log, drilled near the Potenza River mouth. Several archaeological sites, ranging from the Mesolithic to the Aeneolithic, testify the recurrent presence of small-scale human groups on the alluvial plains of the lower valley sectors. Sandy-clayey sediments, emplaced by flooding episodes, repeatedly buried these settlements which were commonly located on the riversides. Small Aeneolithic communities were also present in the mountain sectors, around travertine-dammed swampy-lacustrine basins. On top of the sequences, Bronze Age sites were locally found. Widespread deforestation started in the early Iron Age (about 3000 yr BP, when alluvial plains and terraces were permanently occupied by large-scale human settlements. Geo-archaeological evidence of systematic deforestation at 2950 ± 50 14C yr BP, consisting of numerous round-shaped 1.5-3 m wide hollows, filled with soil sediments and upturned blocks of alluvial gravels, were found on top of a fluvial terrace in the Esino River basin. From the Iron Age to recent historical times, notwithstanding the progressive increase of debris supply to the drainage systems due to the spreading agricultural-pastoral activities, erosion dominated almost everywhere in the Marches rivers, likely induced by climatic factors.À l’Holocène inférieur, comme ailleurs dans le monde, les Marches

  9. Application of autologous cartilage and Tos modified combined approach tympanoplasty in middle ear surgery%自体软骨和Tos改良联合进路鼓室成形术在中耳手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志钢; 陈穗俊; 郑亿庆; 杨海弟; 陈斌; 郭焕萍; 陈洽鑫

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical application of autologous cartilage and Tos modified combined approach tympanoplaty in middle ear surgery. Methods Twenty-three patients with chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma received tympanoplasty with Tos modified combined approach. The lateral walls of epitympanum and posterior tympanum were removed and reconstructed with tragal cartilages. Type Ⅲ ossicular reconstruction was performed either with partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) or total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP), depending on the stapes situation. All the patients were followed up for 3-5 years. Results Four to six weeks after surgery, all the 23 patients experienced dry ear and wellhealed tympanic membranes with normal appearance. Depression of lateral walls of epitympanum and posterior tympanum after cartilage reconstruction was not seen in any case. One year after surgery, pure tone audiometry one showed that speech frequency (500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 Hz), air conduction hearing threshold increased by at least 30 dB in 8 patients (34.78%), by 20-29 dB in 9 (39.13%), 10-19 dB in 4 (17.39%) and no improvement in 2 (8.69%). According to the first 3 years of follow-up, patients were with stable audition, and no cholesteatoma relapsed during follow-up of 5 years. Conclusions The tympanoplasty with Tos modified combined approach can be a good solution for surgical treatment of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma since it can not only remove the lesions completely, but also keep the posterior wall of external tympanic meatus intact, with a satisfying postoperative hearing level obtained. The cartilage reconstruction of the lateral walls of epitympanum and posterior tympanum removed during surgery is effective to prevent depression of new tympanic membrane and formation of secondary cholesteatoma.%目的 探讨自体软骨和Tos改良联合进路鼓室成形术在中耳手术中的临床应用.方法 对23例胆脂瘤型中耳炎用Tos

  10. Impact of Placement of In-the-Ear Antenna on Ear-to-Ear Path Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    An in-the-ear antenna is rotated in the concha. For the different placements the ear-to-ear path gain is simulated and measured. The simulations and measurements show that the ear-to-ear path gain varies with more than 15 dB even though it is the same antenna that occupies the same volume, which...... has only been rotated. This illustrates the importance of the correct placement of the antenna. The variation of the ear-to-ear path gain is compared with the far-field efficiency in order to explain part of the variation. The best and worst placements’ radiation patterns are analyzed....

  11. Eustatic and tectonic control of deposition of the lower and middle Pennsylvanian strata of the Central Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Stratigraphic analysis of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian rocks of part of the Central Appalachian Basin reveals two orders of cycles and one overall trend in the vertical sequence of coal-bearing rocks. The smallest order cycle, the coal-clastic cycle, begins at the top of a major-resource coal bed and is composed of a vertical sequence of shale, siltstone, sandstone, seat rock, and overlying coal, which, in turn, is overlain by the next coal-clastic sequence. The average duration of the coal-clastic cycle has been calculated to be about 0.4 m.y. The major marine-transgression cycle is composed of five to seven coal-clastic cycles and is distinguished by the occurrence of widespread, relatively thick (generally thicker than 5 m) marine strata at its base. The duration of this cycle has been calculated to be about 2.5 m.y. The Breathitt coarsening-upward trend describes the general upward coarsening of the Middle Pennsylvanian part of the Breathitt Group. The Breathitt Group includes eight major marine-transgression cycles, and was deposited during a period of approximately 20 m.y. The average duration of coal-clastic cycles is of the same order of magnitude (105 year) as the Milankovitch orbital-eccentricity cycles, and matches the 0.4 m.y. second-order eccentricity cycle (Long Earth-Eccentricity cycle). These orbital periodicities are thought to modulate glacial stages and glacio-eustatic levels. The calculated periodicities of the coal-clastic cycles can be used as evidence for glacio-eustatic control of the coal-bearing rocks of the Appalachian Basin. The 2.5-m.y. periodicity of the major marine-transgression cycle does not match any known orbital or tectonic cycle; the cause of this cycle is unknown, but it might represent episodic thrusting in the orogen, propagation of intraplate stresses, or an unidentified orbital cycle. The Breathitt coarsening-upward trend is interpreted to represent the increasing intensity and proximity of the Alleghenian Orogeny

  12. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  13. The Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera, its resurgent intrusion, and enduring landscape stability in east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Dissected caldera structures expose thick intracaldera tuff and, uncommonly, cogenetic shallow plutons, while remnants of correlative outflow tuffs deposited on the pre-eruption ground surface record elements of ancient landscapes. The Middle Fork caldera encompasses a 10 km × 20 km area of rhyolite welded tuff and granite porphyry in east-central Alaska, ∼100 km west of the Yukon border. Intracaldera tuff is at least 850 m thick. The K-feldspar megacrystic granite porphyry is exposed over much of a 7 km × 12 km area having 650 m of relief within the western part of the caldera fill. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe with reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) analyses of zircon from intracaldera tuff, granite porphyry, and outflow tuff yield U-Pb ages of 70.0 ± 1.2, 69.7 ± 1.2, and 71.1 ± 0.5 Ma (95% confidence), respectively. An aeromagnetic survey indicates that the tuff is reversely magnetized, and, therefore, that the caldera-forming eruption occurred in the C31r geomagnetic polarity chron. The tuff and porphyry have arc geochemical signatures and a limited range in SiO2 of 69 to 72 wt%. Although their phenocrysts differ in size and abundance, similar quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite mineralogy, whole-rock geochemistry, and analytically indistinguishable ages indicate that the tuff and porphyry were comagmatic. Resorption of phenocrysts in tuff and porphyry suggests that these magmas formed by thermal rejuvenation of near-solidus or solidified crystal mush. A rare magmatic enclave (54% SiO2, arc geochemical signature) in the porphyry may be similar to parental magma and provides evidence of mafic magma and thermal input.

  14. A molecular and isotopic study of palaeoenvironmental conditions through the middle Cambrian in the Georgina Basin, central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Anais; Schmid, Susanne; Edwards, Dianne; Barnes, Stephen; He, Nannan; Grice, Kliti

    2016-08-01

    The Cambrian period marks an important point in Earth's history with profound changes in the ocean's biogeochemistry and the occurrence of the most significant evolutionary event in the history of life, the Cambrian explosion. The Cambrian explosion is described as a succession of complex cycles of extinctions and radiations. This study integrates biomarkers and their compound-specific stable carbon isotopes to investigate the palaeoenvironmental depositional conditions in middle Cambrian (Series 3) sedimentary rocks (Thorntonia Limestone, Inca Formation and Currant Bush Limestone) from two drillholes in the Undilla Sub-basin in the eastern Georgina Basin, central Australia. The occurrence of photic zone euxinia (PZE) was detected throughout these three formations by the identification of green sulfur bacteria Chlorobiaceae-derived biomarkers, including a series of 2,3,6-aryl isoprenoids and the intact biomarker isorenieratane. Pulses of enhanced PZE conditions were detected in two core intervals (90-110 mKB, Currant Bush Limestone and 170-200 mKB, Inca Formation) by an increase in the 2,3,6-aryl isoprenoids and C19 biphenyl concentrations. These enhanced PZE conditions were followed by blooms of phytoplankton, as demonstrated by the increase in algal-derived biomarker (i.e. pristane, phytane and the C19n-alkane) concentrations and compound-specific isotopes. These observations confirm that palaeoenvironmental conditions were similar to those reported for the Permian/Triassic and Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction events. The sterane distributions varied across the three formations reflecting possible changes in the phytoplanktonic communities through time. Although a rise in atmospheric oxygen during the Cambrian has been previously associated with the rapid evolution of metazoans, the ecological challenges related to widespread anoxia must have had a major influence on the evolution of life in Cambrian oceans.

  15. 10Be dating reveals early-middle Holocene age of the Drygalski Moraines in central West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, Sandra L.; Briner, Jason P.; Kelley, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin on the Nuussuaq Peninsula in central West Greenland through the Holocene using lake sediment analysis and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of the prominent Drygalski Moraines. Erratics perched on bedrock outboard of the Drygalski Moraines constrain local deglaciation to ∼9.9 ± 0.6 ka (n = 2). Three Drygalski Moraine crests yield mean 10Be ages of 8.6 ± 0.4 ka (n = 2), 8.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 7.6 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) from outer to inner. Perched erratics between the inner two moraines average 7.8 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) and are consistent with the moraine ages. Sediments from a proglacial lake with a catchment area extending an estimated 2 km beneath (inland of) the present ice sheet terminus constrain an ice sheet minimum extent from 5.4 ka to 0.6 ka. The moraine chronology paired with the lake sediment stratigraphy reveals that the ice margin likely remained within ∼2 km of its present position from ∼9.9 to 5.4 ka. This unexpected early Holocene stability, preceded by rapid ice retreat and followed by minimum ice extent between ∼5.4 and 0.6 ka, contrasts with many records of early Holocene warmth and the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maximum. We suggest ice margin stability may instead be tied to adjacent ocean temperatures, which reached an optimum in the middle Holocene.

  16. High-Resolution ∂18O record of middle-late Holocene hydrologic variability from the central Peruvian Andes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbell, D. T.; Abbott, M.; Bird, B. W.; Stansell, N.

    2009-12-01

    Laguna Yuraicocha in the western cordillera of the central Peruvian Andes (12.53°S; 75.50°W; 4460 masl) is dammed by late glacial moraines and is underlain and surrounded by Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone interbedded with siliciclastic rocks. A 6.9 meter-long sediment core from the distal end of the lake is dominated by authigenic calcite (marl) with a mean concentration of 82 weight percent that has accumulated at a rate of ~ 1 mm yr-1 for the past 6200 years. The age model for the core is based on a combination of 210Pb and AMS 14C ages from charcoal; modern lake water is ~1‰ evaporatively enriched from mean regional precipitation. Marl samples were taken with an average sampling interval of 8 years; samples were treated to remove organic matter, sieved to concentrate the Andes. Subcentennial variance in 18O with an ~2‰ amplitude is persistent throughout the record. Time series analysis reveals strength in the 5-12 year window, which may record the influence of ENSO on the hydrologic balance of the region through its effect on the strength of the South American summer monsoon. Spectral strength is also present in the 40-200 year periodicity and this spectral component appears to weaken in the last millennium. The progressive increase in hydrologic balance during the middle-late Holocene is consistent with glacial geologic evidence for the onset of neoglaciation in the Peruvian Andes, including the dramatic reformation of the Quelccaya Ice Cap ~5100 years ago. This appears to confirm the notion that Andean glaciers, especially those in the southern and western cordillera of Peru and Bolivia, are especially sensitive to changes in regional moisture balance.

  17. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Gao, J.; Wang, T.; Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l.), located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo), a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research), an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory) and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific). High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88) were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5) concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5) derived from the ECOC analyzer). While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C) tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were recorded when the NOx/NOy ratio was low, implying

  18. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were

  19. A new Middle Miocene selachian assemblage (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Central Paratethys (Nyirád, Hungary): implications for temporal turnover and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Márton; Kocsis, László

    2016-12-01

    A new Middle Miocene (Langhian - early Serravallian) assemblage with shark and ray teeth from Nyirád (Hungary, Transdanubia, Veszprém County) consists of nine families, with 15 different species. The assemblage shares many common genera with other Middle Miocene assemblages in the Paratethys (Notorynchus, Carcharias, Otodus, Cosmopolitodus, Hemipristis, Galeocerdo, Carcharhinus, and Aetobatus), and reflects a subtropical climate and a close connection with the Mediterranean Sea. However, a detailed faunal compilation of Miocene selachians reveals that several taxa that were still present in the Mediterranean or lived in the Paratethys during the Lower Miocene disappeared or became very rare by the Middle Miocene in the Central Paratethys (e.g., Isistius, Centrophorus, Mitsukurina, Carcharoides, Parotodus, Alopias). The taxa that went locally extinct in the Paratethys are mainly represented by deep-water or pelagic forms. Their disappearance is most probably related to the gradual separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean. The common presence of some large, rather pelagic sharks (e.g., Otodus, Cosmopolitodus) in the Central Paratethys during the Middle Miocene is explained here by the widespread occurrence of their potential prey represented by marine mammals (e.g., whales and dolphins).

  20. A new Middle Miocene selachian assemblage (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Central Paratethys (Nyirád, Hungary: implications for temporal turnover and biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Márton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Middle Miocene (Langhian - early Serravallian assemblage with shark and ray teeth from Nyirád (Hungary, Transdanubia, Veszprém County consists of nine families, with 15 different species. The assemblage shares many common genera with other Middle Miocene assemblages in the Paratethys (Notorynchus, Carcharias, Otodus, Cosmopolitodus, Hemipristis, Galeocerdo, Carcharhinus, and Aetobatus, and reflects a subtropical climate and a close connection with the Mediterranean Sea. However, a detailed faunal compilation of Miocene selachians reveals that several taxa that were still present in the Mediterranean or lived in the Paratethys during the Lower Miocene disappeared or became very rare by the Middle Miocene in the Central Paratethys (e.g., Isistius, Centrophorus, Mitsukurina, Carcharoides, Parotodus, Alopias. The taxa that went locally extinct in the Paratethys are mainly represented by deep-water or pelagic forms. Their disappearance is most probably related to the gradual separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean. The common presence of some large, rather pelagic sharks (e.g., Otodus, Cosmopolitodus in the Central Paratethys during the Middle Miocene is explained here by the widespread occurrence of their potential prey represented by marine mammals (e.g., whales and dolphins.

  1. HRCT常规重建与后处理对CSOM及中耳胆脂瘤诊断价值%The Diagnostic Value of HRCT Image Reconstruction and Post-processing Technology in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李必强; 王小铭; 黄显龙; 李朝军; 杨超; 唐茁月; 唐永存

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高分辨率CT扫描常规轴位、冠状位重建图像及图像后处理技术对慢性化脓性中耳炎及中耳胆脂瘤的诊断价值。方法对经手术病理证实并行64排螺旋CT容积扫描慢性化脓性中耳炎及中耳胆脂瘤共105例(107耳)进行回顾性分析。在常规轴位及冠状位重建图像基础上,综合运用图像后处理技术,根据主要CT表现:1、鼓室、鼓窦腔软组织密度影;2、听骨链骨质破坏情况;3、鼓室、鼓窦壁骨质破坏情况;进行术前分型,并将手术阳性结果与CT表现进行比较分析。结果慢性化脓性中耳炎59耳,其中单纯型8耳,肉芽型36耳,硬化灶肉芽型15耳;中耳胆脂瘤48耳,术前CT分型准确率为89%。对主要CT征象,常规轴位+冠状位显示率为88%,结合图像后处理技术,显示率为95%。对于所有可CT显示的术中阳性发现,均可以用多平面重组进行显示;容积再现及多平面容积再现对锤骨、砧骨破坏能较好显示,对镫骨破坏显示受到一定限制;曲面重组对面神经骨管破坏显示较满意,对听骨链骨质破坏也有一定的价值。结论 HRCT能对CSOM及中耳胆脂瘤进行较准确的术前分类、分型,常规轴位、冠状位重建图像能较全面、准确地对解剖和病变进行显示,各种图像后处理技术特别是MPR能提高CSOM及中耳胆脂瘤细微病变显示率和诊断准确率,具有很高的临床应用价值。%Objective To investigate the high resolution CT(HRCT) conventional axial scanning, coronal reconstruction images and image post-processing technology in the diagnosis of chronic suppurative otitis media(CSOM ) and middle ear choles⁃teatoma. Methods 107 ears(105 patients) were included who had been diagnosed CSOM or middle ear cholesteatoma by surgi⁃cal pathology, and been checked by 64 slices spiral CT volume scanning before surgery. The retrospectively analysis was applied to

  2. The ear in fetal MRI: what can we really see?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Nuno Canto [Neuroradiology Section C., Campos Costa, Fragosela, Viseu (Portugal); Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Teixeira, Joao [Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Raininko, Raili; Wikstrom, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to depict the components of the ear on brain-oriented fetal MRI studies. Retrospective evaluation of the ear in MRI studies was performed post-mortem in 16 fetuses ranging from 15 to 22 gestation weeks (GW), and in 122 examinations in vivo of fetuses ranging from 20 to 38 GW. The cochlea, vestibular apparatus, middle ear, and external auditory canal were separately graded according to the components that were delineated. The components of the inner and middle ear were fully delineated in 100% of the post-mortem examinations, but the external auditory canals were only seen in only 25%. In the in vivo group, the imaging detail was much lower. Cochlear turns could be identified in 75% of the fetuses, the vestibule and the lateral semicircular canals in 72% andossicles in 70%. Before 25 GW, the ability to identify these individual parts was 50%, 30%, and 33%, respectively, and above it was 89%, 93%, and 90%. In most cases, the external auditory canals could only be seen after 29 GW. In fetal MRI studies in vivo, it is possible to depict the components of the ear in the majority of the fetuses, in such a manner as to exclude major malformations. However, MRI might not provide enough detail to rule out pathology of the ear before 25 GW, this being a critical age for pregnancy management in many countries. (orig.)

  3. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  4. The Influence of Nursing Intervention on Operation Effect of Middle Ear and Mastoid Operation for Secretory Otitis Media Patients%护理干预对分泌性中耳炎患者中耳乳突手术疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林曼舒

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of nursing intervention on operation effect of middle ear and mastoid operation for secretory otitis media patients.Method:The clinical data of 150 cases with secretory otitis media treated with middle ear and mastoid operation from December 2011 to December 2013 in author’s hospital were selected,were randomly divided into two groups,each group had 75 cases.The control group was given operation related routine nursing, the observation group was given perioperative period nursing intervention on the basis of routine nursing.Result:The total effective rate of observation group was 94.7%,significantly higher than that in the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The implementation of perioperative period nursing intervention on middle ear and mastoid operation of secretory otitis media patients,can significantly improve the operation effect,reduce complications,is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨护理干预对分泌性中耳炎患者中耳乳突手术疗效的影响。方法:选取2011年12月-2013年12月在笔者所在医院实施中耳乳突手术的150例分泌性中耳炎患者,随机分为两组,各75例。对照组实施手术相关的常规护理,观察组在常规护理基础上,实施围手术期护理干预。结果:观察组总有效率为94.7%,明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对分泌性中耳炎中耳乳突手术患者,实施围手术期护理干预,可以明显提高手术疗效,减少并发症,值得临床推广应用。

  5. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  6. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location (Mo

  7. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  8. Feature and significance of bacterial biofilm formation in middle-ear mucosa in the rat model of acute otitis media%细菌生物膜在急性中耳炎大鼠中耳腔的形成特点及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯朝阳; 杨名保; 龚桃根; 刘明

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过观察细菌生物膜在急性中耳炎大鼠中耳腔的形成特点,分析其与急性中耳炎的关系,并探讨该中耳炎模型用于细菌生物膜研究的可行性.方法 30只健康雄性SD大鼠,采用随机数字表法分为实验组(24只)和对照组(6只).麻醉后将50μl肺炎链球菌悬液[1×108菌落形成单位(colony forming unit,CFU)/ml]经听泡穿刺注入到实验组大鼠双侧中耳腔,等量生理盐水注入到对照组大鼠双侧中耳腔.分别于注射后1、3、5、7、10、14 d各取3只实验组大鼠和1只对照组大鼠的双侧听泡行中耳黏膜扫描电镜观察;另取1只实验组大鼠,显微镜下刮取收集双侧中耳腔表面附着的膜状物,行异硫氰酸荧光素标记的刀豆球蛋白(FITC-ConA)及碘化丙啶(propidium iodide,PI)免疫荧光二重染色,激光扫描共聚焦显微镜观察和革兰染色观察.结果 实验组大鼠在炎性反应早期(1 d、3 d)可见中耳腔大量细菌黏附,定植于局部区域形成微菌落,有吞噬细胞混杂其中,形成初级细菌生物膜;炎性反应中期(5 d、7 d)可见成熟细菌生物膜散在于黏膜表面,形成特征性的"蘑菇状"、"塔状"三维立体结构;炎性反应后期(10 d、14 d)部分细菌生物膜呈现衰退迹象.中耳腔膜状物经FITC-ConA、PI二重荧光染色原位标记及革兰染色观察证实由细菌及多糖基质组成.结论 细菌生物膜在中耳急性感染的早期即已开始形成,并可能成为日后炎性反应反复发作或迁延不愈的原因;本研究建立的大鼠急性中耳炎模型是研究中耳细菌生物膜较为理想的动物模型.%Objective To investigate the relationship between bacterial biofilm and acute otitis media by observing the feature of bacterial biofilm formation in middle-ear mucosa in the rat model of acute otitis media and to study thc possibility of application this rat model in bacterial biofilm research. Methods A total of 30 healthy, male SD rats were

  9. A 3-D analysis of the protympanum in human temporal bones with chronic ear disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauna, Henrique F; Monsanto, Rafael C; Schachern, Patricia; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-03-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction is believed to be an important factor to cholesteatoma development and recurrence of disease after surgical treatment. Although many studies have described prognostic factors, evaluation methods, or surgical techniques for Eustachian tube dysfunction, they relied on the soft tissues of its structure; little is known about its bony structure-the protympanum-which connects the Eustachian tube to the tympanic cavity, and can also be affected by several inflammatory conditions, both from the middle ear or from the nasopharynx. We studied temporal bones from patients with cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media (with and without retraction pockets), purulent otitis media, and non-diseased ears, looking for differences between the volume of the protympanum, the diameter of the Eustachian tube isthmus, and the distance between the anterior tympanic annulus and the promontory. Light microscopy and 3-D reconstruction software were used for the measurements. We observed a decrease of volume in the lumen of the four middle ear diseased ears compared to the control group. We observed a significant decrease in the volume of the protympanic space in the cholesteatoma group compared to the chronic otitis media group. We also observed a decrease in the bony space (protympanum space) in cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, and purulent otitis media compared to the control group. We found a correlation in middle ear diseases and a decrease in the middle ear space. Our findings may suggest that a smaller bony volume in the protympanic area may trigger middle ear dysventilation problems.

  10. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations by the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that the BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. This range is significant, but is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP instrument and the PSAP instrument equipped with a heated inlet (400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two possibilities. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC

  11. Palynology, geochemistry and Re-Os age of the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary, central Appalachian basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, N.; Tripathy, G. R.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.; Blake, B. M.; Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The central Appalachian basin (CAB) in the eastern United States contains complicated sedimentary sequences often with thin and discontinuous strata. As an economically important coal-producing region, the basin's architectural framework and depositional history are important to understand. Typically, eustatic marine incursions, marked with black shale deposits, are used for basin-wide correlation. The Betsie Shale Member of the Kanawha Formation represents one of these relatively thick and laterally extensive marine zones. This study examines the palynoflora of the Matewan coalbed, which conformably underlies the Betsie, in the context of a new Re-Os date for the Betsie Shale Member and additional geochemical measures. At its base, the Matewan contains abundant lycopsid tree spores, indicative of a submerged, flooded paleomire. Upsection, biodiversity increases to include small fern and calamite spores as well as cordaite pollen. Combined with an observed increase of inertinite, the diversification of palynoflora suggests surficial peat exposure and drying out of the paleomire. A S-rich (28 wt. %) shaley parting separates these lower and upper benches of the Matewan and may represent an initial marine pulse prior to the glacioeustatic incursion that ultimately flooded the Matewan and deposited the overlying Betsie Shale. The Betsie is organic-rich (3.05 - 4.89 wt. % TOC) with Re and Os content ranging from 320 - 1,200 ppb and 1.5 - 5.3 ppb, respectively. The highly enriched Re values result in notably high parent:daughter ratios (187Re/188Os = 3,644 - 5,737). The Re-Os isotopic data yield a Model 1 age of 323 ± 7.8 Ma (n = 7; MSWD = 0.63) with evidence that the true age lies closer to the younger end of the uncertainty. This age is consistent with previous paleontologic-based interpretations but represents the first directly measured radiometric date for the Betsie. An absolute age for the Betsie is a critical result, as the member is correlated with units in

  12. 大鼠中耳上皮细胞形态学变化与杀菌-通透性增强蛋白的关系%Relation between the morphologic change of rat middle ear epithelium and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝威; 汪欣; 崔香艳; 杜宝东

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recovery of middle ear morphology is an important index of improvement of chronic secretory otitis media. Looking for effective medicine to neutralize lipopolysaccharide and relieving the virulence of lipopolysaccharide to middle ear mucosa have drawn more attention.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect that bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein(BPI) neutralizing lipopolysaccharide to inhibit morphologic changes of the middle ear epithelium due to lipopolysaccharide.DESIGN: A nonrandomized controlled experimental study.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: The setting is in Jilin University. Participants were 10 purebred Wistar rats in clean grade, weighing 200 -250 g, purchased from Center for Experimental Animals, Jilin University, and feeding condition was at 20 - 25℃, humidity of 60% - 70%.INTERVENTIONS: The middle ear epithelial cells were obtained from 10Wistar rats and distributed into 24-well tissue culture plate coated with poly-lysine. These epithelial cells were cultured for 7 days, and then divided into 3 groups: Untreated group was cultured without lipopolysaccharide and BPI in the culture medium; Lipopolysaccharide group was cultured with 1 μg/L lipopolysaccharide in the culture medium; BPI group was cultured with 1 μg/L lipopolysaccharide for 7 days, and then with added 1 mg/L BPI in the culture medium.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The morphologic changes of the middle ear epithelial cells were observed under light microscope after 4 weeks.RESULTS: Compared to untreated group, lipopolysaccharide group showed that many cells became greater and swollen, and the number of them was increasing, the phenomena of cell breakage were observed in few areas 1week later. At 2 weeks, cells became much greater and swollen, and the number of broken and dead cells was obviously increased. Moreover, an increase in secretory cells and a decrease in ciliated cells were observed. After 4 weeks, the broken and dead cells distinctly were increased. However, at 2weeks of

  13. Effect of tympanic membrane thickness in fascia myringoplasty on the middle ear transfer function-a finite element ear model%颞肌筋膜重建鼓膜厚度对中耳传声的影响--有限元模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; Zhao Fei; 李永新

    2015-01-01

    目的研究颞肌筋膜重建鼓膜厚度对中耳传声的影响。方法依据1名成年男性颞骨标本的Micro-CT扫描数据,利用Mimics软件、ANSYS软件建立正常成人中耳有限元模型后,再依据该模型建立从0.05~2.00 mm共9种厚度鼓膜的有限元模型,分别计算不同厚度鼓膜对鼓膜及镫骨底板振动的影响,从而反应不同厚度重建鼓膜对中耳传声的影响。结果当90 dB SPL刺激鼓膜时,所建模型于鼓膜脐部、镫骨底板中央处振幅在文献报道颞骨实验测量结果的范围之内。依据该正常结构中耳有限元模型,建立9种厚度颞肌筋膜重建鼓膜的有限元模型。计算结果显示:当重建鼓膜厚度>0.4 mm时,鼓膜脐部振幅逐渐减低,尤其是当鼓膜厚度>1.0 mm时,影响最明显;当鼓膜厚度为0.05 mm和0.1 mm时,镫骨底板振幅在0.6 kHz以下轻度增强,提高镫骨底板振幅约2 dB,但0.6~8.0 kHz均降低约2.5 dB;当鼓膜厚度为0.2、0.4与0.6 mm时,于约3.0 kHz以下镫骨底板振幅水平下降,幅度约<5.0 dB;当鼓膜厚度为0.6、0.8与1.0 mm时,于3.0 kHz以下镫骨底板振幅减小明显,于0.8 kHz以下约达-10 dB;而当鼓膜厚度为1.5 mm与2.0 mm时,镫骨底板振幅于1.0 kHz以下降低最明显,于0.8、1.0 kHz处分别达-16 dB和-22 dB。另外,于共振峰约3.2 kHz处,9种厚度重建鼓膜对镫骨底板影响最大约-5 dB。共振峰3.2~8.0 kHz之间,镫骨底板均有明显降低,约于5.0 kHz处最大达约-10 dB。结论颞肌筋膜重建后的鼓膜厚度影响鼓膜本身及镫骨底板的振动,当重建鼓膜厚度超过1.0 mm时对中耳传声影响显著增加。%OBJECTIVE To study the effect of the thickness of tympanic membrane rebuilt from fascia myringoplasty on the acoustic transfer function of the middle ear. METHODS A finite element model(FEM) was developed with Mimics and Ansys based on the data from Micro-CT scanning of a

  14. nEar 05

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S&C Labs

    2005-01-01

    Ego Systems简称ESI或Ego-Sys,这问韩国公司一向以制造低价格、高性能的专业音频产品闻名于专业音频制作领域。其产品涵盖了专业录音卡、监听音箱和USB声卡等。在大家的印象中,可能还记得MAYA录音卡、nEar 08监听音箱,以及MAYA EX系列USB声卡。其中,nEar08监听音箱曾在本刊2001年第18期报道过,那是它首次在国内媒体上亮相。经过四年多的市场检验,

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of the mammalian inner ear

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, Robert; Homer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A simple nonlinear transmission-line model of the cochlea with longitudinal coupling is introduced that can reproduce Basilar membrane response and neural tuning in the chinchilla. It is found that the middle ear has little effect on cochlear resonances, and hence conclude that the theory of coherent reflections is not applicable to the model. The model also provides an explanation of the emergence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). It is argued that SOAEs arise from Hopf bifurcations of the transmission-line model and not from localized instabilities. The paper shows that emissions can become chaotic, intermittent and fragile to perturbations.

  16. Human presence in the central Netherlands during early MIS 6 (∼170-190 Ka): Evidence from early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts in ice-pushed Rhine-Meuse sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Busschers, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Part of the gravelly deposits of a combined Rhine-Meuse river of Middle Pleistocene age in the central Netherlands contains early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts. Although not in their original position, a significant part of these artefacts is hardly abraded, indicating limited fluvial transport. The

  17. Reconstruction of External Auditory Meatus (Re-EAMs) and Tympanoplasty for、Patients with Congenital Deformation of the Middle and Outer Ears%先天性中外耳畸形外耳道再造与鼓室成形术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹艺辉; 杨仕明; 戴朴; 韩维举; 韩东一

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the hearing improvement after reconstruction of external auditory meatus (Re-EAMs) and tympanoplasty for patients with congenital deformation of the middle and outer ears, and provide reference for later treat⁃ment to these kinds of patients. Methods a retrospective analysis of 41 cases (41 ears) with preoperative and postoperative hearing findings undergone Re-EAMs and tympanoplasty patients with congenital deformation of the middle and outer ears in General Hospital of PLA during 2006.7-2012.12. Results The methods for operations were Ossicular chain loosening 41.5%(17/41),Porp implantation 46.3%(19/41), Torp implantation 7.3%(3/41) and inner ear fenestration 4.9%(2/41),with average air conduction hearing threshold pre-and post-operation for 0.5k、1k、2k、4k (58 dB/53dB),(64 dB/52dB),(73 dB/73dB)and (62 dB/46dB)respectively. Conclusion Hearing improvement is not obvious after ossicular chain loosening and Torp implan⁃tation, while significant for Porp implantation and inner ear fenestration, but can’t reach the normal hearing threshold level.%目的:探索先天性中外耳畸形患者耳道再造与鼓室成形术后听力改善情况,为此类患者方案选择提供参考。方法回顾性分析2006年6月~2012年12月我们进行外耳道再造与鼓室成形患者中有术前术后听力的41例(41耳)的情况。结果手术采用听骨链松解41.5%(17/41),Porp植入46.3%(19/41),Torp植入7.3%(3/41),内耳开窗4.9%(2/41)。术前术后0.5k、1k、2k、4k平均气导听阈值分别为(58 dB/53dB),(64 dB/52dB),(73 dB/73dB),(62 dB/46dB).结论听骨链松解与Torp植入术后听力改善不明显,Porp植入和内耳开窗术后听力有明显改善,但未能达到正常听阈水平。

  18. Response of middle-taiga permafrost landscapes of Central Siberia to global warming in the late 20th and early 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedkov, Alexey A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, regional features of a climatogenic response of the middle-taiga permafrost landscapes of Central Siberia, as well as corresponding transformations of the exodynamic processes, are considered. Lithological-geomorphologic and landscape- geocryological data are analyzed with large amounts of actual data and results of monitoring surveys. Specific features of an ecotone localization of middle-taiga permafrost landscapes and their typical physiognomic characteristics are described. A comprehensive investigation of representative key sites makes it possible to discover the response of different types of permafrost landscapes to regional climate warming. A rapid increase in the active layer depth, slower creep, transformations of the moving kurums, intensive solifluction, and a local replacement of solifluction by landslides-earthflows are revealed within ecotone landscapes of the cryolithozone.

  19. Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported.

  20. 用于定向播种的玉米种穗图像精选方法%Corn ears image selection method for directional seeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王侨; 陈兵旗; 杨曦; 刘长青

    2015-01-01

    Corn production occupies an extremely important strategic position in grain production and grain security. Seeds are the most basic means of production in crop production, and the quality of seeds directly affects the subsequent crop cultivation, harvest yield and quality of grain. Moreover, directional seeding of corn can effectively improve the yield of corn, and it is necessary to select seeds before planting. Certainly, to choose good corn ears for threshing can get better corn seeds, which can lighten the workload of subsequent seeds selection and also improve efficiency. So, this study designed the scheme of corn ears selection device based on machine vision, and developed the selection algorithm for corn ears on the dynamic assembly line, which could complete the detection of the corn ears. First, the binary image of the corn ear to be detected was gained according to Otsu method, and after tracking the whole corn ear’s contour, the length ratio between the long axis and short axis of the corn ear’s contour was calculated. Then, by using the formula, R plus G minus B times 2, the area with yellow characteristics was strengthened and was even extracted after histogram threshold segmentation, and so the plumpness of the corn ear was detected by calculating the ratio of the extracted area and the whole area of the corn ear. Further, based on the characteristics of X cumulative distribution diagram, the middle ear row was extracted by tracking the seams’ edge between ear rows. Also, based on the characteristics of ear row’s Y cumulative distribution diagram, every seed in the middle ear row was extracted by using the method of threshold segmentation, and then the length-width ratio of their end-face was calculated by tracking their contour. And the flatness of the seeds was acquired. For the corn ears’ video file acquired on the dynamic assembly line, only when the vertical coordinate of corn ear’s center is located in image’s central region, do

  1. Ovine ear model for fully endoscopic stapedectomy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, A; Benítez, S; Reyes, P; Vaca, M; Polo, R; Pérez, C; Alonso, A; Cobeta, I

    2015-09-01

    Endoscopic surgery of the middle ear is progressively gaining the interest of otologists, as technological advances have overcome some of its main drawbacks. The long learning curve required to master this technique, urges the search for models to practice it. After the validation of sheep's ear as a proper training model for microscopic stapedectomy, our objective is to demonstrate its adequacy for practicing stapes surgery but performed through a fully endoscopic approach. Endoscopic stapedectomy was performed by two surgeons in 40 sheep ears (20 specimens each). To analyze the effects of the learning curve on surgical success, complication rates and surgical time reduction, the sample was divided in two groups: group 1 being the first ten procedures of each surgeon, and group 2 the second set of stapedectomies. The impact of the operated side and the resection of the chordal spine were also studied. No statistically significant differences were found considering the operated side. A statistically significant improvement in some of the surgical steps was demonstrated comparing both groups and also after the resection of the chordal spine. Mean surgical time declined from 38 to 31.5 min (p sheep ear is an optimal model for endoscopic middle ear surgery, as it allows for the acquisition of the skills required to master this technique.

  2. Ear Recognition Based on Gabor Features and KFDA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the s...

  3. Association of smoking or tobacco use with ear diseases among men: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Kiran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related behaviour specially smoking and tobacco in any form are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Tobacco leads to various health problems including ear, nose and throat diseases. Objective To determine the influence of smoking or tobacco use on ear diseases we performed a retrospective study among men. Method Of 11454 subjects of different age-groups there were 4143 men aged 20-60 years who were evaluated for demographic variables, smoking/tobacco use and middle and internal ear diseases. Descriptive statistics and age adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Among the 4143 men, 1739 (42.0% were smokers or used tobacco. In smokers/tobacco users compared to non-users the age adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for chronic suppurative otitis media were 1.13 (CI 0.96-1.34, acute otitis media 1.16 (CI 0.82-1.64, suppurative otitis media 1.21 (CI 0.79-1.84, otosclerosis 0.97 (CI 0.52-1.33 (p > 0.05 and for overall middle ear diseases was 1.15 (CI 0.99-1.33, p = 0.05. For internal ear diseases the age adjusted odds ratios were for sensorineural hearing loss 1.12 (CI 0.92-1.58, 0.12 (CI 0.42-0.93 for vertigo and tinnitus and overall internal ear diseases were 0.97 (CI 0.77-1.22, p = 0.81. Among men 40-60 years there was a significantly greater risk for both middle ear (OR 1.73, CI 1.29-2.30 and internal ear diseases (OR 1.94, CI 1.24-3.04 (p Conclusion Smoking/tobacco use is significantly associated with greater prevalence of middle and internal ear diseases among middle-aged men in India.

  4. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  5. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  6. Manufacturing and in vivo inner ear visualization of MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles encapsulating gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnunen Paavo KJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of inner ear diseases remains a problem because of limited passage through the blood-inner ear barriers and lack of control with the delivery of treatment agents by intravenous or oral administration. As a minimally-invasive approach, intratympanic delivery of multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs carrying genes or drugs to the inner ear is a future therapy for treating inner ear diseases, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and Meniere's disease. In an attempt to track the dynamics and distribution of nanoparticles in vivo, here we describe manufacturing MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles by encapsulating gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA (abbreviated as LPS+Gd-DOTA and their distribution in the inner ear after either intratympanic or intracochlear administration. Results Measurements of relaxivities (r1 and r2 showed that LPS+Gd-DOTA had efficient visible signal characteristics for MRI. In vivo studies demonstrated that LPS+Gd-DOTA with 130 nm size were efficiently taken up by the inner ear at 3 h after transtympanic injection and disappeared after 24 h. With intracochlear injection, LPS+Gd-DOTA were visualized to distribute throughout the inner ear, including the cochlea and vestibule with fast dynamics depending on the status of the perilymph circulation. Conclusion Novel LPS+Gd-DOTA were visible by MRI in the inner ear in vivo demonstrating transport from the middle ear to the inner ear and with dynamics that correlated to the status of the perilymph circulation.

  7. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  8. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ichnosedimentologic evidence of periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition includes lower ichnodiversity, shallower bioturbation and burrowing depth (<4 cm ), rare domichnia, tiny Chondrites occupying shallower or shallowest tiering, widely distributed nodules of limonite pseudomorphs after pyrite, occurrence of trace fossils being closely associated with the storm event layers, and stratigraphic successions with orbital cyclostratigraphic architecture. It is suggested that lower atmospheric oxygen level during the Early Paleozoic, the Ordovician radiation, dramatic transgression and warmer temperatures would result in the periodic anoxia in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition. This episode began at the later Early Ordovician and lasted about 3.4 Ma on the basis of orbital cyclostratigraphy.

  9. Rb-Sr middle Devonian age of cordierite bearing migmatites from Lyonnais area (French Massif Central). Age Rb-Sr, Devonien moyen des migmatites a cordierite du Lyonnais (Massif central Francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthou, J.L. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Chenevoy, M.; Gay, M. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1994-10-01

    On the basis of Rb-Sr whole rock data, a middle Devonian age (384[+-]16 Ma) is ascribed to the cordierite bearing migmatites (gneiss d'Aubusson) in the Lyonnais area. In the barrovian domain, this anatexis is therefore synchronous throughout the northern part of the french ''Massif Central''. Rb and Sr concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and isotopic compositions by mass spectrometry. (A.B.). 28 refs., 2 figs. 1 tab.

  10. Middle Jurassic Topawa group, Baboquivari Mountains, south-central Arizona: Volcanic and sedimentary record of deep basins within the Jurassic magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, G.B.; Wright, J.E.; Riggs, N.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; May, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Among supracrustal sequences of the Jurassic magmatic arc of the southwestern Cordillera, the Middle Jurassic Topawa Group, Baboquivari Mountains, south-central Arizona, is remarkable for its lithologic diversity and substantial stratigraphic thickness, ???8 km. The Topawa Group comprises four units (in order of decreasing age): (1) Ali Molina Formation-largely pyroclastic rhyolite with interlayered eolian and fluvial arenite, and overlying conglomerate and sandstone; (2) Pitoikam Formation-conglomerate, sedimentary breccia, and sandstone overlain by interbedded silt- stone and sandstone; (3) Mulberry Wash Formation-rhyolite lava flows, flow breccias, and mass-flow breccias, with intercalated intraformational conglomerate, sedimentary breccia, and sandstone, plus sparse within-plate alkali basalt and comendite in the upper part; and (4) Tinaja Spring Porphyry-intrusive rhyolite. The Mulberry Wash alkali basalt and comendite are genetically unrelated to the dominant calcalkaline rhyolite. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon from volcanic and intrusive rocks indicate the Topawa Group, despite its considerable thickness, represents only several million years of Middle Jurassic time, between approximately 170 and 165 Ma. Sedimentary rocks of the Topawa Group record mixing of detritus from a minimum of three sources: a dominant local source of porphyritic silicic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, identical or similar to those of the Topawa Group itself; Meso- proterozoic or Cambrian conglomerates in central or southeast Arizona, which contributed well-rounded, highly durable, polycyclic quartzite pebbles; and eolian sand fields, related to Middle Jurassic ergs that lay to the north of the magmatic arc and are now preserved on the Colorado Plateau. As the Topawa Group evidently represents only a relatively short interval of time, it does not record long-term evolution of the Jurassic magmatic arc, but rather represents a Middle Jurassic "stratigraphic snapshot" of the arc

  11. Tectonic control on sediment sources in the Jaca basin (Middle and Upper Eocene of the South-Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roigé, Marta; Gómez-Gras, David; Remacha, Eduard; Daza, Raquel; Boya, Salvador

    2016-03-01

    The Eocene clastic systems of the Jaca foreland Basin (southern Pyrenees) allow us to identify changes in sediment composition through time. We provide new data on sediment composition and sources of the northern Jaca basin, whose stratigraphic evolution from Middle Lutetian deep-marine to Priabonian alluvial systems record a main reorganization in the active Pyrenean prowedge. Petrological analysis shows that the Banastón and the Lower Jaca turbidite systems (Middle-Upper Lutetian) were fed from an eastern source, which dominated during the sedimentation of the Hecho Group turbidites. In contrast, the upper part of the Jaca turbidite systems (Lutetian-Bartonian transition) records an increase in the number of subvolcanic rock and hybrid-sandstone fragments (intrabasinal and extrabasinal grains) being the first system clearly fed from the north. This change is interpreted as associated with an uplifting of the Eaux-Chaudes/Lakora thrust sheet in the northern Axial Zone. The Middle Bartonian Sabiñánigo sandstone derives from eastern and northeastern source areas. In contrast, the overlying Late Bartonian-Early Priabonian Atarés delta records sediment input from the east. The Santa Orosia alluvial system records a new distinct compositional change, with a very high content of hybrid-sandstone clasts from the Hecho Group, again from a northern provenance. Such cannibalized clasts were sourced from newly emerged areas of the hinterland, associated with the basement-involved Gavarnie thrust activity in the Axial Zone.

  12. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  13. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ΁ standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ΁ 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%, 83 (5% patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture.

  14. Devínska Kobyla – a window into the Middle Miocene shallow-water marine environments of the Central Paratethys (Vienna Basin, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Hyžný

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene strata exposed at Devínska Kobyla Hill (Malé Karpaty Mts document the temporal and spatial changes in shallow-water environments of the northern Vienna Basin during the Late Badenian and Early Sarmatian. Middle Miocene deposits of the Studienka and Holíč formations border this hill essentially along its full perimeter. The present overview of 16 localities based on published observations and new sampling shows that the Middle Miocene deposits contain species-rich micro- and macrofaunal assemblages as well as nannoflora. This contribution includes lists of all marine faunal (except tetrapods and microfloral taxa known to date. The localities can be divided into three groups on the basis of their lithology and the abundance of molluscs and foraminifers in fossil assemblages: Devín area, Dúbravka area and Devínska Nová Ves area. On the basis of foraminifers the localities in the Dúbravka area (Dúbravská hlavica, Pektenová lavica, Starý lom, partly Fuchsov lom can be assigned to the Early Sarmatian (based on benthic taxa, whereas the localities in the Devín (Šibeničný vrch, Štítová, Terasy, Lomnická, Lingulová lavica, Glosusová lavica and Devínska Nová Ves (Sandberg 1–2, Malý Sandberg, Waitov lom, Glavica, Štokeravská vápenka-Bonanza areas are predominantly of the Late Badenian age (based on benthic and planktonic taxa. However, molluscs imply that the deposits from the Dúbravka area are of Late Badenian age. The differences in the estimates of stratigraphic age between on molluscs and foraminifers can be explained with the persistence of typically Badenian mollusc taxa in the marginal parts of the Central Paratethys Sea during the Middle Miocene. For every studied locality palaeoenvironmental conditions based mostly on molluscs and foraminifers are inferred.

  15. Shirleya grahamae gen. et sp. nov. (Lythraceae), Lagerstroemia-like fruits from the middle Miocene Yakima Canyon flora, central Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L

    2005-02-01

    Shirleya grahamae Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. (Lythraceae) is established for silicified fruits from the middle Miocene Yakima Canyon of central Washington State, USA. The capsules are 10 mm long × 11.5-12.5 mm wide, enclosed in a persistent floral tube and contain 5-7 locules. They are loculicidally dehiscent, fracturing into fragments and leaving the central axis free. Placentation is axile. Five to seven mature seeds are tightly packed per locule, often with several smaller seeds. Seeds are winged, anatropous, and narrowly attached subapically to the central axis, curving basally and radially within the fruit. They are up to ∼4.6 mm long × 1.9 mm wide, with a small, triangular embryo cavity and a prominent distal wing. The inflated wing is filled with a bilobed parenchymatous pad of tissue with a central cavity. Shirleya grahamae is assigned to the Lythraceae, and is most similar to Lagerstroemia, based on the synapomorphies of distally winged seeds and revolute cotyledons. Shirleya differs from Lagerstroemia in seed arrangement, and pericarp and wing anatomy. This study provides the first anatomical information about a Miocene Lagerstroemia-like fruit and documents further diversity of the Lythraceae in the Neogene of northwestern North America.

  16. Beijing Tibet Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The year marks the 20th anniversary of the Central Government decision to run Tibet middle schools in the hinterland. At present, there are such schools or Tibetan classes in 26 provinces and municipalities directly under the Central Government. They work to train technical personnel and teachers for Tibet. Launched in 1987, the Beijing Tibet Middle School has since trained more than 2,800 middle and high school students for Tibet. Many of them returned to Tibet for construction.

  17. Loss of peripheral right-ear advantage in age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    In young adults with normal hearing, the right ear is more sensitive than the left to simple sounds (peripheral right-ear advantage) and to processing complex sounds such as speech (central right-ear advantage). In the present investigation, the effects of hearing loss and aging on this auditory asymmetry were examined at both peripheral and central levels. Audiograms and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes were used to assess cochlear function. The contralateral suppression of TEOAEs was measured to assess the medial olivocochlear efferent system. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT; binaural speech) was conducted to assess higher central auditory function. A group of aged subjects with normal hearing (flat audiograms) were compared to a group of aged subjects with sloping audiograms (presbycusis). At the cochlear (peripheral) level, the normal hearing group showed significantly higher otoacoustic emission amplitudes for the right ear compared to the left ear, which is consistent with the right-ear dominance normally seen in young adults. However, this finding was reversed in the presbycusic group that showed higher left-ear emission amplitudes. At the brainstem level, the amplitudes of TEOAE contralateral suppression were small and no significant difference was found between the right and left ears in both groups. On the contrary, HINT results showed a continuous dominance of the right ear (left hemisphere) in both groups, which was consistent with previous reports showing that the right hemisphere is more affected by age than the left hemisphere.

  18. The relationship between preoperative tympanograms and intraoperative ear examination results in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopke, Steffen; Irune, Ekpemi; Olze, Heidi; Bast, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The tympanogram is an objective audiological method in adults and children which is often used in the evaluation of middle ear pathology. This should be alongside a thorough patient history and clinical examination prior to the decision to carry out a paracentesis or tympanostomy tube insertion. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the preoperative tympanogram and intraoperative ear examination results or middle ear findings. The retrospective study included 654 ears in 333 patients who underwent paracentesis with or without tympanostomy tube insertion between January and December 2011. The study cohort consisted of 206 male and 127 female patients with an average age of 3.7 ± 2.5 years. The results of the preoperative tympanogram were compared to those of the intraoperative ear findings. In 18.4 % of ears with a flat tympanogram, an air-filled middle ear was found intraoperatively (p < 0.01). Thus, tympanometry results cannot serve as the only indication for surgical intervention. A decision to treat should always be based on the merits of the symptomatology of the patient in conjunction with tympanometry findings.

  19. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate central asian middle eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafélis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  20. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate Central Asian Middle Eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafelis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  1. TYMPANOPLASTY: BLOOD-SOAKED GELFOAM VERSES ANTIBIOTIC-SOAKED GELFOAM AS EAR CANAL PACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Khandelwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The objective of our study is to compare the result of blood-soaked gelfoam with antibiotic-soaked gelfoam on graft stickiness in tympanoplasty. STUDY DESIGN A prospective randomized case control study was performed to compare the outcome of our patient who underwent surgery by using blood-soaked gelfoam and gelfoam soaked in antibiotic ear drops. METHOD Patients having central perforation were divided into two groups using random tables. After complete investigations, they underwent tympanoplasty. Temporalis fascia graft was used and placed by underlay technique. Middle ear was not packed with gelfoam. After placing the graft, gelfoam was placed around the freshened perforation margins to hold the graft. These gelfoam pieces were either antibiotic soaked or fresh blood soaked. RESULT A total of 55 patients were enrolled in the study. Graft stickiness at 4 week was 93.10% for blood-soaked group, whereas it was 84.81% for antibiotic-soaked group. Total success rate at 6 months was 94.5%. CONCLUSION Blood-soaked gelfoam packing of external meatus around the perforation margins gives good results in tympanoplasty.

  2. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  3. Standardized surgical approaches to ear surgery in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Dalian Ding; Kelei Gao; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe several approaches of ear surgeries for experimental studies in rats. Methods:Anesthetized rats were prepared for demonstration of various ear surgery approaches designed to optimize experimental outcomes in studies with specific goals and exposure requirements. The surgical approaches included the posterior tympanum, superior tympanum, inferior tympanum and occipital approaches. Results: The middle ear cavity and inner ear were successfully exposed from different angles via the mentioned surgical approaches. For example, electrode placement for recording of cochlear bioelectric responses was easily achieved through the posterior tympanum or inferior tympanum approach. Alternatively, drug delivery or gene transfection via round window membrane was most easily accomplished using the posterior tympanum approach. Cochlear perfusion of protective or ototoxic drugs was best performed using the inferior tympanum approach. Ossicular chain interruption to induce a prolonged conductive hearing loss was readily achieved using a superior tympanum approach. Lastly, surgical destruction of the endolymphatic sac to induce experimental endolymphatic hydrops was readily performed via an occipital surgical approach. Conclusion: These standardized surgical approaches can be applied in scientific studies of the ear with different purposes covering electro-physiology, conductive hearing loss, intra-cochlear drug perfusion and experimental studies relevant to Meniere's disease.

  4. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape.

  5. A STUDY OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS OF THE EXTERNAL EAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Saikia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Congenital external ear malformations like Microtia, Anotia, Preauricular skin tags, etc. cause severe psychological problems in children. If accompanied with atresia of the external auditory canal and the middle ear; hearing loss, developmental delays are also associated with such malformations. AIM The aim of the present study is to evaluate the commonly occurring congenital external ear defects in this part of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken in patients attending the Plastic Surgery OPD at Assam Medical College Hospital and Smile Train Centre at Srishti Hospitals and Research Centre at Dibrugarh, Assam, from July 2013 to July 2016. We did an analysis of 25 patients with visibly noticeable external ear deformities and recorded the findings as per proforma and took photographs. RESULTS Among the 25 cases, 9 (36% were males and 16 (64% were females. The most common congenital anomaly that we found was microtia 7 (28%. Of these, 1 (4% was isolated microtia and 6 (24% were associated with hemifacial microsomia. The second common finding was preauricular skin tags 5 (20%. 3 of the microtia cases also presented with external auditory canal atresia and hearing loss. CONCLUSION Congenital anomalies of the external ear can seriously change a child’s personality. Proper diagnosis and treatment of such cases will definitely reduce the possible psychological, physical and financial problems of the patient and family as most of them are surgically correctable.

  6. Middle to Late Ordovician faunal studies from central Australia and Tasmania during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube

    , but the preservation and low number of specimens prevent formal definition of additional new taxa. Although highly endemic at species level, the investigated brachiopod, trilobite and mollusc faunas display a high degree of overall similarity at generic level with Middle Ordovician faunas from North China. Other...... from the Stairway Sandstone, whereas nine brachiopod and five mollusc taxa have been documented from the Cashions Creek Limestone. The new trilobite species Basilicus (Parabasilicus) brumbyensis sp. nov. is described along with the new brachiopod species Amadeuphyla joanae gen. et sp. nov....... and Paralenorthis luritjaorum sp. nov. As well as the new bivalve species Modiolopsis pojetai sp. nov. and Sthenodonta paenesymmetrica sp. nov. All new species derive from the Stairway Sandstone. Several other trilobites, brachiopods and bivalves, described in open nomenclature, probably represent new species...

  7. The Middle Jurassic basinal deposits of the Surmeh Formation in the Central Zagros Mountains, southwest Iran: Facies, sequence stratigraphy, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Jalilian, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The lower part of the Lower to Upper Jurassic Surmeh Formation consists of a succession of shallow marine carbonates (Toarcian-Aalenian) overlain by a deep marine basinal succession (Aalenian-Bajocian) that grades upward to Middle to Upper Jurassic platform carbonates. The termination of shallow marine carbonate deposition of the lower part of the Surmeh Formation and the establishment of deep marine sedimentation indicate a change in the style of sedimentation in the Neotethys passive margin of southwest Iran during the Middle Jurassic. To evaluate the reasons for this change and to assess the basin configuration during the Middle Jurassic, this study focuses on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the basinal deposits (pelagic and calciturbidite facies) of the Surmeh Formation, referred here as 'lower shaley unit' in the Central Zagros region. The upper Aalenian-Bajocian 'lower shaley unit' overlies, with an abrupt contact, the Toarcian-lower Aalenian platform carbonates. It consists of pelagic (calcareous shale and limestone) and calciturbidite facies grading to upper Bajocian-Bathonian platform carbonates. Calciturbidite deposits in the 'lower shaley unit' consist of various graded grainstone to lime mudstone facies containing mixed deep marine fauna and platform-derived material. These facies include quartz-bearing lithoclast/intraclast grainstone to lime mudstone, bioclast/ooid/peloid intraclast grainstone, ooid grainstone to packstone, and lime wackestone to mudstone. The calciturbidite layers are erosive-based and commonly exhibit graded bedding, incomplete Bouma turbidite sequence, flute casts, and load casts. They consist chiefly of platform-derived materials including ooids, intraclasts/lithoclasts, peloids, echinoderms, brachiopods, bivalves, and open-ocean biota, such as planktonic bivalves, crinoids, coccoliths, foraminifers, and sponge spicules. The 'lower shaley unit' constitutes the late transgressive and the main part of the highstand

  8. Investigation of the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, J; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The investi......The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head...

  9. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  10. Magnetic parameter variations in the Chaona loess/paleosol sequences in the central Chinese Loess Plateau, and their significance for the middle Pleistocene climate transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yougui; Fang, Xiaomin; King, John W.; Li, Jijun; Naoto, Ishikawa; An, Zhisheng

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution rock magnetic investigation was performed on the Chaona Quaternary loess/paleosol sequences in the Central Chinese Loess Plateau. Based on a newly developed independent unturned time scale and magnetic records, we reconstructed the history of the East Asia monsoons during the last 3 Ma and explored the middle Pleistocene climate transition (MPT). Rock magnetic results show that the loess layers are characterized by relatively high coercivity and remanent coercivity, lower magnetic susceptibility (MS), and that the paleosol layers are characterized by relatively high MS, saturation magnetization and remanent saturation magnetization. Spectrum analyses indicate that there are various periods in addition to orbital periodicities. According to the onset and stable appearance of 100 kyr period, we consider that the MPT recorded in this section began at ~ 1.26 Ma and was completed by ~ 0.53 Ma, which differs from previous investigations based on orbitally tuned time scales. The forcing mechanism for the MPT was more complicated than just the orbital forcing. We conclude that the rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in the shift of periodicities during the middle Pleistocene.

  11. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses.

  12. Subharmonic distortion in ear canal pressure and intracochlear pressure and motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stanley; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2012-08-01

    When driven at sound pressure levels greater than ~110 dB stimulus pressure level, the mammalian middle ear is known to produce subharmonic distortion. In this study, we simultaneously measured subharmonics in the ear canal pressure, intracochlear pressure, and basilar membrane or round window membrane velocity, in gerbil. Our primary objective was to quantify the relationship between the subharmonics measured in the ear canal and their intracochlear counterparts. We had two primary findings: (1) The subharmonics emerged suddenly, with a substantial amplitude in the ear canal and the cochlea; (2) at the stimulus level for which subharmonics emerged, the pressure in scala vestibuli/pressure in the ear canal amplitude relationship was similar for the subharmonic and fundamental components. These findings are important for experiments and clinical conditions in which high sound pressure level stimuli are used and could lead to confounding subharmonic stimulation.

  13. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  14. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  15. The 12.1 ka Middle Toluca Pumice: A dacitic Plinian subplinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Cervantes, K. E.; Macías, J. L.; Mora, J. C.

    2005-10-01

    The Nevado de Toluca volcano erupted explosively approximately 12.1 ka ago, producing a Plinian-subplinian eruption that deposited the Middle Toluca Pumice (MTP). The MTP consists of white and gray juvenile pumice, gray dense juvenile lapilli, and red altered lithic lapilli. The pumice is dacitic (63.54-65.06 wt.% SiO 2) with phenocrysts of plagioclase > orthopyroxene > hornblende ± ilmenite and titanomagnetite, and biotite xenocrysts set in a groundmass of rhyolitic glass (70-71 wt.% SiO 2). The MTP has a dispersal axis to the ESE covering an area of 92 km 2, with a minimum volume of 1.8 km 3 (DRE). Stratigraphic relations, grain size, componentry, and vesicularity analyses suggest that the eruption occurred in five major phases: (1) an opening magmatic phase that generated a 20-km-high Plinian column dispersed to the SE; (2) a hydromagmatic explosion followed with the establishment of a subplinian eruptive column (18-19 km high) dispersed tephra to the SE and gradually waned; (3) hydromagmatic explosions emplaced dilute pyroclastic density currents followed by the formation of an eruptive column of unknown height; (4) immediately after, a new magmatic explosion established another eruptive column; and (5) the collapse of the latter column generated two pumiceous pyroclastic density currents that were fully dilute proximally, but transformed into two granular-fluid pyroclastic currents that traveled 19 km from the source.

  16. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Bryne and Lulu Formations, Middle Jurassic, northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andsbjerg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Bryne and Lulu Formations of the Søgne Basin (northern part of the Danish Central Graben consist of fluvially-dominated coastal plain deposits, overlain by interfingering shoreface and back-barrier deposits. Laterally continuous, mainly fining-upwards fluvial channel sandstones that locally show evidence for tidal influence dominate the alluvial/coastal plain deposits of the lower Bryne Formation. The sandstones are separated by units of fine-grained floodplain sediments that show a fining-upwards - coarsening-upwards pattern and locally grade into lacustrine mudstones. A regional unconformity that separates the lower Bryne Formation from the mainly estuarine upper Bryne Formation is defined by the strongly erosional base of a succession of stacked channel sandstones, interpreted as the fill of a system of incised valleys. Most of the stacked channel sandstones show abundant mud laminae and flasers, and rare herringbone structures, suggesting that they were deposited in a tidal environment, probably an estuary. Several tens of metres of the lower Bryne Formation may have been removed by erosion at this unconformity. The estuarine channel sandstone succession is capped by coal beds that attain a thickness of several metres in the western part of the Søgne Basin, but are thin and poorly developed in the central part of the basin. Above the coal beds, the Lulu Formation is dominated by various types of tidally influenced paralic deposits in the western part of the basin and by coarsening-upwards shoreface and beach deposits in central parts. Westwards-thickening wedges of paralic deposits interfinger with eastwards-thickening wedges of shallow marine deposits. The Middle Jurassic succession is subdivided into nine sequences. In the lower Bryne Formation, sequence boundaries are situated at the base of laterally continuous fluvial channel sandstones whereas maximum flooding surfaces are placed in laterally extensive floodplain

  17. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mokhtarinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone conduction (BC threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP. Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05. Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced.

  18. Middle to late Holocene fluctuations of the Vindue glacier, an outlet glacier of the Greenland Ice Sheet, central East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, L.; Hammer, S. K.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Hall, B. L.; Howley, J. A.; Wilcox, P.; Medford, A.

    2014-12-01

    The margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet are currently responding to present-day climate changes. Determining how the ice sheet margins have responded to past climate changes provides a means to understand how they may respond in the future. Here we present a multi-proxy record used to reconstruct the Holocene fluctuations of the Vindue glacier, an ice sheet outlet glacier in eastern Greenland. Lake sediment cores from Qiviut lake (informal name), located ~0.75 km from the present-day Vindue glacier margin contain a sharp transition from medium sand/coarse silt to laminated gyttja just prior to 6,340±130 cal yr BP. We interpret this transition to indicate a time when the Vindue glacier retreated sufficiently to cease glacial sedimentation into the lake basin. Above this contact the core contains laminated gyttja with prominent, ~0.5 cm thick, silt layers. 10Be ages of boulders on bedrock located between Qiviut lake and the present-day ice margin date to 6.81 ± 0.67 ka (n = 3), indicating the time of deglaciation. These ages also agree well with the radiocarbon age of the silt-gyttja transition in Qiviut lake cores. 10Be ages on boulders on bedrock located more proximal to the ice margin (~0.5 km) yield ages of 2.67 ± 0.18 ka (n = 2). These ages indicate either the continued recession of the ice margin during the late Holocene or an advance at this time. Boulders on the historical moraines show that ice retreated from the moraine by AD 1620 ± 20 yrs (n = 2). These results are in contrast with some areas of the western margin of the ice sheet where 10Be ages indicate that the ice sheet was behind its Historical limit from the middle Holocene (~6-7 ka) to Historical time. This may indicate that the eastern margin may have responded to late Holocene cooling more sensitively or that the advance associated with the Historical moraines overran any evidence of late Holocene fluctuations along the western margin of the ice sheet.

  19. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Yiming

    2001-01-01

    [1]Fortey, R. A., Droser, M. L., Trilobites at the base of the Middle Ordovician, western United States, Journal of Paleontology. 1996. 70(1): 73-99.[2]Droser. M. L., Sheehan, P. M., Palaeoecology of the Ordovician radiation: Resolution of large scale patterns with individual clade histories, palaeogeography and environments, Geobios, 1997, 20:221-229.[3]Li, X., Droser, M. L., Lower and Middle Ordovician shell beds from the Basin and Range Province of the western United States (California, Nevada, and Utah), Palaios, 1999, 14: 215-233.[4]Miller. J. F., Loch, J. D., Stitt, J. H. et al., Origins of the great Ordovician biodiversification: the record at Lawson Cove, Ibex area, Utah, USA, Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, 1999, 43( 1/2): 459-462.[5]Tolmacheva, T. Y., Holmer, L. E., Dronov, A. et al., Early Ordovician (Hunneberg-Volkhov) facial and faunal changes in the east Baltic, Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, 1999, 43(1/2): 467-470.[6]Sprinkle, J., Guensgurg, T. E., Rozhnov, S. V., Correlation anomaly shown by Ordovician shelly and trace fossils in Baltic Russia: redating the Ordovician radiation, Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, 1999, 43(1/2): 471-474.[7]Carrera, M. G.. Sanchez, T M., Benedetto, J. L., Paleoenvironmental controls on biofacies in the early Ordovician limestones of the Argentine Precordillera, Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica, 1999, 43(1/2): 475-477.[8]Sepkoski. J. J. Jr., A factor analytic description of the Phanerozoic marine fossil record, Paleobiology, 1981, 7: 36-53.[9]Sepkoski, J. J. Jr., The Ordovician radiations: Diversification and extinction shown by global genus-level taxonomic data,in Ordovician Odyssey: Short Papers of the Seventh International Symposium on the Ordovician System (eds. Cooper, J. D.. Droser, M. L., Finney, S. C.), Fullerton, CA, Pacific Section, Society of Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), 1995, 78:393-396.[10]Hintze. L. F.. Lower Ordovician detailed

  20. Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.; Moro, M.; Fubelli, G.; Saroli, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Galadini, F.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the Middle Aterno Valley fault system (MAVF), a poorly investigated seismic gap in the central Apennines, adjacent to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake epicentral area. Geological and paleoseismological analyses revealed that the MAVF evolved through hanging wall splay nucleation, its main segment moving at 0.23-0.34 mm/year since the Middle Pleistocene; the penultimate activation event occurred between 5388-5310 B.C. and 1934-1744 B.C., the last event after 2036-1768 B.C. and just before 1st-2nd century AD. These data define hard linkage (sensu Walsh and Watterson, 1991; Peacock et al., 2000; Walsh et al., 2003, and references therein) with the contiguous Subequana Valley fault segment, able to rupture in large magnitude earthquakes (up to 6.8), that did not rupture since about two millennia. By the joint analysis of geological observations and seismological data acquired during to the 2009 seismic sequence, we derive a picture of the complex structural framework of the area comprised between the MAVF, the Paganica fault (the 2009 earthquake causative fault) and the Gran Sasso Range. This sector is affected by a dense array of few-km long, closely and regularly spaced Quaternary normal fault strands, that are considered as branches of the MAVF northern segment. Our analysis reveals that these structures are downdip confined by a decollement represented by to the presently inactive thrust sheet above the Gran Sasso front limiting their seismogenic potential. Our study highlights the advantage of combining Quaternary geological field analysis with high resolution seismological data to fully unravel the structural setting of regions where subsequent tectonic phases took place and where structural interference plays a key role in influencing the seismotectonic context; this has also inevitably implications for accurately assessing seismic hazard of such structurally complex regions.

  1. The Topography and Differentiation of Facial Nerve in Middle Ear Surgery%中耳炎手术中面神经定位和辨认的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东; 郭龙梅; 徐平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the topography and differentiation of the facial nerves in the middle car surgery. Methods From January 2008 to December 2010, radical mastoidectomy or tympanoplasty was administered in 185 patients with chronic otitis media and choicstcatoma otitis media, and analyzed the exploration of the surgery. Results 58 cases of exposed facial nerves were identified and the topography of the tympanic segments in facial nerve was located as the cochlcariform, odontoid, and proccssus brcvis incudis. 33 cochlcariform process disappeared, 25 odontoid process damaged, and 19 proccssus brcvis damaged or displatcd. 12 cochlcariform process and 14 digastric ridge damaged; chorda tympani nerve also could locate the facial nerves and 33 variations were noted. The relationship between facial nerves and granulation tissues indicated that there were 78 cases of the granulation tissue covering the surface of the nerve, 47 cases of the granulation tissue enclosing the nerve and 24 cases of the granulation tissue came from the facial nerve itself. Conclusion We can reduce and prevent the occurrence of facial nerve injuries by being familiar with the practices and variations of facial nerves within the normal temporal bones, and become skilled in basic operations%目的 探讨中耳炎手术中面神经的定位和辨认.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月~2010年12月185例行开放式乳突根治术或加鼓室成形术的慢性化脓性中耳炎及胆脂瘤中耳炎患者的手术资料,对术中面神经探查定位及辨认方法进行分析总结.结果 ①185例中,面神经探查发现58例面神经裸露;②面神经鼓室段定位标志为匙突、齿突、砧骨短突,185例中33例匙突消失,25例齿突遭到破坏,19例砧骨短突破坏或移位;乳突段定位标志为水平半规管、二腹肌脊,185例中12例水平半规管遭破坏,14例二腹肌脊被破坏;33例鼓索神经变异;③面神经与肉芽组织的关系为肉

  2. Benthic faunal assemblages from the Holocene middle shelf of the South Evoikos Gulf, central Greece, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimina Louvari, Markella; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George

    2013-04-01

    intermediate percentages of organic matter in which at least some sand fraction is present. A strict interpretation based on the known modern distribution of A. beccarii would confine the species to upper shoreface environments (Hayward et al. 2004). The relatively high frequency values of B. marginata indicate a correlation with organic matter enrichment, with seasonal low oxygen content. This hypothesis is testified also by the increase of the opportunistic species V. bradyana. The temporal presence of V. bradyana assemblage indicates a strong influence of Asopos River run-off, with interplay of increasing food availability and low oxygen concentration Three main ostracod assemblages were distinguished from the bottom to the top of the sediment core: At the lower part of the core ostracod assemblage consists mainly of Costa edwardsii, Cytheridea neapolitana, Callistocythere spp., Pterygocythereis jonesii and Leptocythere spp. At the middle part, Costa edwardsii is the dominant species with relative abundances up to 80% of the total ostracod fauna. At the upper part Costa edwardsii is the most abundant species (20-40% of the total fauna) accompanied mainly by Loxoconcha spp., Xestoleberis spp. and Cyprideis torosa. Ostracod abundance and diversity decrease towards the upper unit of the studied core. These data, and AMS radiocarbon ages determined for foraminifera and ostracods, provide evidence of a change from oceanic influence to estuarine influence. This event is also contemporaneous with the period which is generally characterized by increased evaporation rate (initially at the tropic seas), retreat of glaciers and increased rainfalls (Fairbanks, 1989). Fairbanks, R.G., 1989. A 17,000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637-642. Hayward, B.W., Sabaa, A.T., Grenfell, H.R., 2004. Benthic foraminifera and the Late Quaternary (last 150 ka) palaeoceanographic and

  3. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  4. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Nine Middle Triassic paleogeographical maps comprising the uppermost Upper Bunter, Lower to Middle Muschelkalk and Upper Muschelkalk to Lower Keuper time frame (Diedrich 2008b) show the marine ingression and regression cycle of the Middle Triassic Germanic Basin (Diedrich 2010c). For bathymetrical and palaeoenvironmental interpretations especially reptiles and their footprints are used. This Germanic Basin as analogon for the Arabian Gulf (Knaust 1997), north of the Tethys, was under marine and finally terrestrial influenced sediments in a time frame (after Kozur and Bachmann 2008) between 247.2 My (Myophoria Fm, Aegean, Lower Anisian) to 237.9 My (Grabfeld Fm, Longobardian, Lower Ladinian). In a duration of 9.3 My the Germanic Basin was filled up mainly with marine carbonates and at the end by siliciclastics influenced by the northern Tethys through the Silesian, Carpathian and later the Burgundian Gates which connected the Germanic Basin to the Northern Tethys. With the marine ingression from the East via the Silesian Gate (Poland) a ten to hundred kilometers extended intertidal flat to sabkha facies belt surrounded first only the central and then the Western Germanic Basin (Winterswijk, Netherlands). Those intertidal zones were used mainly by two different small reptiles as their primary habitat. Hereby they left Millions of the small tom medium sized footprints of the ichnogenera Rhynchosauroides and Procolophonichnium (Diedrich 2005, 2008a). Larger terrestrial and beach and sabkha adapted reptiles were Tanystrophaeus antiquus and unknown archosaurs, which are recorded only by their footprints. At the beginning of the ingression at the uppermost Bunter a shallow marine invertebrate fauna and coastal reptiles appeared in the Germanic Basin which must have originated mainly from the Northern Tethys. Especially all marine reptiles immigrated from the Tethys which is proven not only by assamblaged Tethyan cephalopod Ceratite species (cf. Diedrich 2008a). The

  5. Deep electrical resistivity tomography along the tectonically active Middle Aterno Valley (2009 L'Aquila earthquake area, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; Villani, Fabio; Ricci, Tullio; Delcher, Eric; Finizola, Anthony; Sapia, Vincenzo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Brothelande, Elodie; Gusset, Rachel; Mezon, Cécile; Orefice, Simone; Peltier, Aline; Poret, Matthieu; Torres, Liliana; Suski, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Three 2-D Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) transects, up to 6.36 km long, were obtained across the Paganica-San Demetrio Basin, bounded by the 2009 L'Aquila Mw 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake causative fault (central Italy). The investigations allowed defining for the first time the shallow subsurface basin structure. The resistivity images, and their geological interpretation, show a dissected Mesozoic-Tertiary substratum buried under continental infill of mainly Quaternary age due to the long-term activity of the Paganica-San Demetrio normal faults system (PSDFS), ruling the most recent deformational phase. Our results indicate that the basin bottom deepens up to 600 m moving to the south, with the continental infill largely exceeding the known thickness of the Quaternary sequence. The causes of this increasing thickness can be: (1) the onset of the continental deposition in the southern sector took place before the Quaternary, (2) there was an early stage of the basin development driven by different fault systems that produced a depocentre in the southern sector not related to the present-day basin shape, or (3) the fault system slip rate in the southern sector was faster than in the northern sector. We were able to gain sights into the long-term PSDFS behaviour and evolution, by comparing throw rates at different timescales and discriminating the splays that lead deformation. Some fault splays exhibit large cumulative throws (>300 m) in coincidence with large displacement of the continental deposits sequence (>100 m), thus testifying a general persistence in time of their activity as leading splays of the fault system. We evaluate the long-term (3-2.5 Myr) cumulative and Quaternary throw rates of most of the leading splays to be 0.08-0.17 mm yr-1, indicating a substantial stability of the faults activity. Among them, an individual leading fault splay extends from Paganica to San Demetrio ne' Vestini as a result of a post-Early Pleistocene linkage of

  6. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in the middle of central east China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in spring 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–276.9 μg/m3 and 17.2–235.7 μg/m3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of 176 samples from MT were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.5% and 73.8% of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  7. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices.

  8. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Thalmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.

  9. Mechanics of the frog ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2011-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the f

  10. Ear Recognition Based on Gabor Features and KFDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Rock magnetic and other geophysical signatures of relative sea level change in the Middle Cambrian Wheeler Formation, Drum Mountains, West-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgedahl, S. L.; Jarrard, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Wheeler Formation of West-Central Utah is a succession of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic rocks deposited during the Middle Cambrian along a passive continental margin of Laurentia (western margin, in today's coordinates). The depositional setting was a gentle ramp, bounded by a normal fault on the south. The present study focuses on the Wheeler Formation in the Drum Mountains, Utah, which is thought to have recorded Middle Cambrian sea level changes and which is known to yield exceptionally-preserved fossils with soft parts, similar to the famed Burgess shale. An integrated approach has been used here to investigate the following: (1) high-resolution changes in water depth (sea level changes?) with stratigraphic position; (2) where exceptionally preserved fossils are most likely to occur; and (3) mineralogical indicators of sea level change, such as magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties. Rocks consist of limestones, argillaceous limestones, and finely-bedded mudstones (shales). Methods used here are: measurements of magnetic susceptibility, natural remanent magnetization, and viscous remanent magnetization; hysteresis loops; spectral gamma ray; coulometry to determine calcite content; X-ray diffraction; and field mapping. In these rocks, mineralogical analyses indicate primarily a 2-component system of calcite and terrigenous minerals, mainly illite. Magnetic susceptibility, gamma ray, and coulometry results strongly indicate that magnetic susceptibility stems primarily from the paramagnetic clay component, namely, illite. Thus, both magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray increase linearly with decreasing calcite content throughout the section studied. Deep-water shales yield very high values of gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility; by contrast, carbonates with low gamma ray and low magnetic susceptibilities were deposited in relatively shallow water. These results lead to the following conclusions: (1) changes in relative water depth have

  13. Relationship between fracturing and porogenesis in a carbonate reservoir: Example from the Middle Turonian Bireno Member in Jebel M'rhila, Central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Ali, Hajer; Belghithi, Hanen; Ouali, Jamel Abdennaceur; Touir, Jamel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the Middle Turonian carbonate Bireno Member in Jebel M'rhila area (Central Tunisia). This member mainly consists of dolostones. The sampling of the dolomitic rocks was carried out on both sides of the several fractures affecting the Bireno Member. We also measured the directions and dips of the fractures. The Studied dolomites basically consist of subhedral to euhedral dolospar. The porosity associated to the dolomites show a gradual variation both laterally and vertically. In fact, porosity increases respectively, laterally while going toward the fractures and vertically from the bottom to the top of the dolomitic member. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses of dolomite, carried out respectively by X-Ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption, show that the studied dolomites broadly range from a sub-stoechiometric dolomite (48% CaCO3) far from the fractures to a dolomitic calcite (84% CaCO3) near the fractures. In the same way, the MgCO3 contents vary from 35% to 11%. Such high contents in Ca against low contents in Mg could probably related to the dilution of the dolomitizing marine waters by meteoric waters which would have been introduced within the platform during the Middle Turonian sea-level fall and the subsequent subaerial exposure of the Bireno platform. The Sr and Na contents (respectively, 4 ppm and 15 ppm in average) are rather low and they gradually decrease while approaching the fractures. Such a gradual decrease in Sr and Na concentrations may be the result of salinity lowering caused by the meteoric waters that would have circulated through the existing fractures networks. The previous analyses were supplemented by the SEM examination of the dolomite and the measurement of porosity and permeability. The SEM allowed us to identify the dolomite petrographic phases and the associated diagenetic products (solution, cementing, dedolomitization.), whereas the porosity and permeability evaluation highlights the

  14. Water used to visualize and remove hidden foreign bodies from the external ear canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, T J; Saarento, R

    1992-02-01

    Small foreign bodies lodged anteriorly in the tympanic sulcus are usually not visible, due to the curve of the external ear canal. Such objects can be seen with the aid of an otomicroscope and micromirror or with an endoscope, and removed by irrigation. If irrigation fails, epithelial migration on the tympanic membrane may remove lodged foreign bodies, although this may take months. Our new method, which uses water to locate small objects lodged in the tympanic sulcus, includes irrigation of the ear, adjustment of the water level to the middle curve of the external ear canal, and use of the water surface as a concave lens, making the tympanic sulcus visible. With otomicroscopy a curved ear probe can then be used to remove lodged foreign bodies from behind the curve.

  15. Ear biometrics in 2D and 3D localization and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Surya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art techniques and recent research progress on Ear Biometrics. Among the various physiological traits, the reasons for the ear to gain much attention in recent years are many folds. It has been found to be a reliable biometrics for human verification and identification. Ears are remarkably consistent and unlike face, it does not change shape with different expressions or age, and remain fixed in the middle of the side of the head against a predictable background. The book contains figures, tables and plots to illustrate the techniques in an easy and lucid manner. The book also provides an extensive literature on the subject, where readers have the benefit of receiving all the relevant material at one place in a very comprehensive manner. This book caters students, academics, researchers, practitioners who are interested in the field of Ear Biometrics and its applications in face recognition and security.

  16. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  17. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A en ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  18. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? A A A en español ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  19. Tympanosclerosis of the middle ear: radiologic-surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Seong, Jin Yong; Song, Soon Young; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Choong Ki; Tae, Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    Tympanosclerosis is a common problem causing conductive hearing loss accompanied by chronic otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of tympanosclerosis, and correlate them with the surgical findings. The CT scans of 17 patients with surgically-proven tympanosclerosis and those of a control group of 34 patients with nontympanosclerotic chronic otitis media were reviewed. According to their location, they were assigned to one of three groups; tympanic membrane, epitympanum, or ossicles. Tympanosclerosis usually appears on CT as ossicular thickening, narrowing of the epitympanum, calcification of the tympanic membrane and/or tympanic cavity. CT is very helpful in evaluating ossicular involvement and determining the appropriate surgical treatment of tympanosclerosis. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs.

  20. The Effects of Middle Ear Pressure on Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-30

    flow. Hear. Yes. 11: 385-394, 1983. *52. Bennett, C.L., Davis, P.T. and Miller, J.M.: Demonstration of presbycusis across repeated measures in non-human...Bennett, C.L., Davis, R.T. and Miller, J.M.: Demonstration of presbycusis across repeated measures in non-human primate species. Behav. Neuroscience 97

  1. Effects of Acoustic Impulses on the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    using Audiometric Research Tool (ART) software, which presents stimuli via a National Instruments (NI) dynamic signal analyzer module. Threshold is...measurements are obtained bilaterally using the Interacoustics Titan system. The manufacturer’s software is opened automatically by the MATLAB shell script

  2. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  3. A New Acoustic Portal into the Odontocete Ear and Vibrational Analysis of the Tympanoperiotic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    to test models that allowed simulations of the functional morphology, and consider possible functional implications. Materials and Methods Ethics ...principles of the mammalian middle ear. Advances in Anatomy Embryology and Cell Biology 55: 1–70. 24. McCormick JG, Wever EG, Ridgway SH, Palin J (1980

  4. A simple ear splint for microtia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, C J Venkata; Balaji, S M; Jain, Ashish R

    2015-01-01

    Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or as a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with impaired hearing and or total loss of hearing. Such patients typically require treatment for surgical ear reconstruction and for hearing impairment. Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty.This case report describes a simple effective way of fabrication of ear splint prosthesis.

  5. A simple ear splint for microtia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Venkata Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or as a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with impaired hearing and or total loss of hearing. Such patients typically require treatment for surgical ear reconstruction and for hearing impairment. Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty.This case report describes a simple effective way of fabrication of ear splint prosthesis.

  6. A Survey on Human Ear Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient ear recognition technique which derives benefits from the local features of the ear and attempt to handle the problems due to pose, poor contrast, change in illumination and lack of registration. Recognizing humans by their ear have recently received significant attention in the field of research. Ear is the rich in characteristics. This paper provides a detailed survey of research done in ear detection and recognition. This survey paper is very useful in the current state-of- art for those who are working in this area and also for those who might exploit this new approach.

  7. Multi-drug resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from the Middle East and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is common in developing countries, with an estimated 120 million infections and 700 000 annual deaths, worldwide. Fluoroquinolones have been the treatment of choice for infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi. However, alarming reports of fluoroquinolone-resistance and failure of typhoid fever treatment have recently been published. To determine the proportion of S. Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC from six countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, 968 S. Typhi isolates collected between 2002 and 2007 from Egypt, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Qatar, Jordan and Iraq were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to five antibiotics using the disc-diffusion method. MDR was defined as resistance to amicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The E-test was employed to determine the MIC of ciprofloxacin only. Nalidixic acid resistance was evaluated as a marker for RSC. Interpretations were made according to CLSI guidelines. MDR strains were considerably more prevalent in Iraq (83% and Pakistan (52% compared with the other countries studied (13–52%. Nearly all isolates were susceptible (99.7% to ceftriaxone. RSC was detected in a total of 218 isolates (22%, mostly from Iraq (54/59, 92%, Uzbekistan (98/123, 80%, Qatar (23/43, 54% and Pakistan (31/65, 47%. Many of these (21% were also MDR. Use of nalidixic acid resistance as an indicator for RSC was 99% sensitive and 98% specific. This study reinforces the need for routine antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of enteric fever isolates and close review of current therapeutic policies in the region.

  8. Middle-Late Holocene earthquake history of the Gyrtoni Fault, Central Greece: Insight from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsodoulos, Ioannis M.; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Caputo, Riccardo; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Pavlides, Spyros; Gallousi, Christina; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Ioannides, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    The south-dipping Gyrtoni Fault defines the northeastern boundary of the Middle-Late Quaternary Tyrnavos Basin, Central Greece. The recognition and recent tectonic activity of the fault were previously based on mapping, remote sensing analyses and electrical resistivity tomography studies. To understand the Holocene seismotectonic behavior of the Gyrtoni Fault we excavated two paleoseismological trenches. To estimate the timing of past earthquakes using luminescence dating, we obtained twenty five fluvial-colluvial sediment and pottery samples from both the upthrown and the downthrown fault blocks. We applied the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating to coarse grain quartz using the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol. Our investigations of luminescence characteristics using various tests confirmed the suitability of the material for OSL dating. We found that the estimated OSL ages were internally consistent and agreed well with the available stratigraphical data, archaeological evidence and radiocarbon dates. The performed paleoseismological analysis emphasized the occurrence of three surface faulting events in a time span between 1.42 ± 0.06 ka and 5.59 ± 0.13 ka. Also, we recognized an earlier faulting event (fourth) has been also recognized to be older than 5.59 ± 0.13 ka. The mean throw per event value of 0.50-0.60 m could correspond to a ca. Mw 6.5 earthquake. An average fault slip rate of 0.41 ± 0.01 mm/a and an average recurrence time of 1.39 ± 0.14 ka were also estimated. Our results suggest that the elapsed time from the most recent event (minimum age 1.42 ± 0.06 ka) is comparable with the mean return period.

  9. Reconstruction of Late Glacial and Holocene landscape-climatic changes in the central Selenga Middle Mountains based on the isotopic composition of organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubtsov, V. A.; Ryzhov, Yu. V.

    2017-02-01

    The results of investigation into the composition of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of organic matter in the soils developed within soil-sedimentary sequences in the central part of the Selenga Middle Mountains in the Late Glacial and Holocene are presented. In the past 15000 years, the organic matter of the investigated soils has only been formed from the biomass of C3 plants (without the participation of C4 plants). This is confirmed by the of δ13C values from-27.00 to-23.35‰. A combined analysis of the parameters of the organic matter (Corg, Ntotal, C/N, δ13C, and δ15N) of soils formed in different periods makes it possible to assume that the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen reflects changes in the climate humidity during the Late Glacial and Holocene periods. The specified intervals of soil formation correspond to the climate humidification and stabilization of the surface owing to the development of dense vegetation. Aridization periods were characterized by the accumulation of sediments that buried soil horizons. The most pronounced stages of climate aridization occurred at the transition from the Late Glacial to the Holocene, from the Boreal to the Atlantic, and from the Atlantic to the Subboreal periods. The optimum soil-forming conditions existed in the periods of 11700-11000, 8800-6900, and 4700-1000 years ago, which is confirmed by the published data on the landscape-climatic changes in the adjacent areas in the past 15000 years.

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes isolated from the middle ear of Mexican children diagnosed with acute otitis media Serotipificación de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de líquido de oído medio en niños mexicanos con diagnóstico de otitis media aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demóstenes Gómez-Barreto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the etiology and the serotypes of S. pneumoniae (Sp in Mexican children with acute otitis media (AOM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study includessamples frompatientsdiagnosed with AOM at the Federico Gomez Children's Hospital of Mexico (2002-2003,with positive culture for Sp bacteriologically confirmed in middle ear fluid obtained by tympanocentesis. All Sp were serotyped. A total of 138 samples from 135 children with AOM were included. RESULTS: Sp was isolated in 72 samples from 70 children. Sixty (85.7% were previously healthy and 10 (14.3% were immunocompromised. The most common serotypes were 6B and 19F (16.67%, and 6 A, 14 and 23F (15.27%. CONCLUSION: The distribution of serotypes among the children with AOM in the study is similar to that reported in developing cities, and 63.9% of the isolated serotypes are found to be included in the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV, 68.1% in the 10-Valent PCV and 83.3% in 13-Valent PCV.OBJETIVO: Conocer la etiología y serotipos de S. pneumoniae (Sp en niños mexicanos, con otitis media aguda (OMA. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron las muestras de pacientes con OMA del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (2002-2003, con cultivo positivo para Sp, (bacteriológicamente confirmados en el líquido del oído medio obtenido por timpanocentesis. Todos los Sp. fueron serotipificados. Se incluyeron 138 muestras de 135 niños con OMA. RESULTADOS: Sp. se aisló en 72 muestras de 70 niños: 60 (85.7% eran previamente sanos y 10 (14.3% eran inmunocomprometidos. Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron 6B y 19F (16.67%, y 6 A, 14 y 23F (15.27%. CONCLUSIONES: La distribución de los serotipos en niños con otitis media aguda fue similar a la reportada en ciudades en desarrollo y se observó que 63.9% de los serotipos aislados están incluidos en la vacuna conjugada 7-valente, 68.1% en la 10-valente y 83.3% en la 13-valente.

  11. Inner Time and Inner Ear

    CERN Document Server

    Rvachov, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a mathematical necessity. It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

  12. Inner ear of the coelacanth fish Latimeria has tetrapod affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B

    Auditory reception in elasmobranchs, teleosts and amphibians may be mediated by various inner-ear sensory epithelia 1–3, including the basilar papilla, which seems to be the precursor of the cochlea in mammals. The origin of the basilar papilla remains a major unsolved problem for understanding the evolution of hearing in terrestrial vertebrates4–6. Study of living species indicates that the basilar papilla is a unique feature of tetrapods 6,7, but palaeonto-logical data indicate that this epithelium as well as a middle ear, is already present in crossopterygian fish 8–10. However, no basilar papilla has been found in the only living crossopterygian species, the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae 11. I have re-examined the inner ear of adult and embryonic Latimeria and find a membranous specialization which resembles in structure, position and innerva-tion pattern the basilar papilla of tetrapods, in particular amniotes. No epithelium comparable to the basilar papilla was found in lungfish. I suggest that the basilar papillae of Latimeria and tetrapods are homologous and evolved only once in their common ancestor.

  13. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  14. Causes of 279 Cases with Sensation of Ear Fullness%279例耳闷胀感的病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 周永; 谭颂华; 唐安洲; 黄东红

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes inducing the sensation of ear fullness.Methods 362 ears with sensation of ear fullness were collected.The clinic features,audiogram,tympanogram and Eustachian tube function in these ears were analysed.Results 203 ears with type A,111 ears with type B,33 ears with type C and 15 ears with perforated tympanum membrane were found in 362 ears as tympanograms were done.Among audiograms of 362 ears,conductive deafness,sensorineural deafness,mixed deafness and normal ears were 83、81、105 and 93 ears respectively.Eustachian tube test revealed 208 abnormal ears out of 362 ears,and 67 abnormal ears were found in 203 ears with type A tympanogram.Conclusion The causes inducing sensation of ear fullness covered the outer,middle and inner ear,and face nerve.In these cases with sensation of ear fullness,the diseases resulted in sensation of ear fullness mainly were secretory otitis media,sensorineural deafness induced by vary causes and abnormal eustachian tube function.%目的 探讨产生耳闷胀感的部位和原因。方法 收集耳闷胀感为主诉的279例362耳,对患耳的临床表现、鼓室导抗图、纯音测听和咽鼓管功能进行分析。结果 362耳中鼓室导抗图A型203耳、B型111耳、C型33耳以及鼓膜穿孔15耳。纯音测听表现为传导性聋、感音神经性聋、混合性聋以及正常者分别是83耳、81耳、105耳和93耳。在362耳中,咽鼓管功能异常208耳,在A型鼓室导抗图203耳中,咽鼓管功能异常67耳。结论 产生耳闷胀感的病变部位包括外、中、内耳和面神经的病变,其中以分泌性中耳炎、各种原因引起的感音神经性聋和“咽鼓管狭窄症”为多。

  15. CT and MR imaging of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear and internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, Jan W. E-mail: jan.casselman@pi.be; Offeciers, Erwin F.; Foer, Bert de; Govaerts, Paul; Kuhweide, Rudy; Somers, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    The embryology of the inner ear must be known as many of the inner ear malformations present as a result of the arrest during the various stages of embryology. These malformations are described in this 'embryologic' perspective and specific names for certain malformations are no longer used. Both CT and MR can be used to look at inner ear malformations but often both techniques are complementary. However, CT is preferred when associated middle- or external ear malformations must be excluded. Magnetic resonance is preferred when subtle changes in the membranous labyrinth or abnormalities of the nerves in the internal auditory canal must be visualised. The CT and MR technique must however be adapted as more and more subtle congenital malformations can only be seen when the right technique is used. The heavily T2-weighted gradient-echo or fast spin-echo MR techniques are mandatory if malformations of the inner ear must be excluded. The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques used to study these patients and to give an overview of the most frequent and important congenital malformations which can be found in the inner ear and internal auditory canal/cerebellopontine angle.

  16. CT and MR imaging of congential abnormalities of the inner ear and internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselman, J W; Offeciers, E F; De Foer, B; Govaerts, P; Kuhweide, R; Somers, T

    2001-11-01

    The embryology of the inner ear must be known as many of the inner ear malformations present as a result of the arrest during the various stages of embryology. These malformations are described in this "embryologic" perspective and specific names for certain malformations are no longer used. Both CT and MR can be used to look at inner ear malformations but often both techniques are complementary. However, CT is preferred when associated middle- or external ear malformations must be excluded. Magnetic resonance is preferred when subtle changes in the membranous labyrinth or abnormalities of the nerves in the internal auditory canal must be visualised. The CT and MR technique must however be adapted as more and more subtle congenital malformations can only be seen when the right technique is used. The heavily T2-weighted gradient-echo or fast spin-echo MR techniques are mandatory if malformations of the inner ear must be excluded. The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques used to study these patients and to give an overview of the most frequent and important congenital malformations which can be found in the inner ear and internal auditory canal/cerebellopontine angle.

  17. Novel in vivo imaging analysis of an inner ear drug delivery system in mice: comparison of inner ear drug concentrations over time after transtympanic and systemic injections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanzaki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Systemic steroid injections are used to treat idiopathic sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL and some inner ear disorders. Recent studies show that transtympanic (TT steroid injections are effective for treating ISSHL. As in vivo monitoring of drug delivery dynamics for inner ear is lacking, its time course and dispersion of drugs is unknown. Here, we used a new in vivo imaging system to monitor drug delivery in live mice and to compare drug concentrations over time after TT and systemic injections. METHODS: Luciferin delivered into the inner ears of GFAP-Luc transgenic mice reacted with luciferase in GFAP-expressing cells in the cochlear spiral ganglion, resulting in photon bioluminescence. We used the Xenogen IVIS® imaging system to measure how long photons continued to be emitted in the inner ear after TT or systemic injections of luciferin, and then compared the associated drug dynamics. RESULTS: The response to TT and IP injections differed significantly. Photons were detected five minutes after TT injection, peaking at ~20 minutes. By contrast, photons were first detected 30 minutes after i.p. injection. TT and i.p. drug delivery time differed considerably. With TT injections, photons were detected earlier than with IP injections. Photon bioluminescence also disappeared sooner. Delivery time varied with TT injections. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the drug might enter the Eustachian tube from the middle ear. We conclude that inner-ear drug concentration can be maintained longer if the two injection routes are combined. As the size of luciferin differs from that of therapeutics like dexamethasone, combining drugs with luciferin may advance our understanding of in vivo drug delivery dynamics in the inner ear.

  18. Evolution of a sensory novelty: tympanic ears and the associated neural processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2008-01-01

    Tympanic hearing is a true evolutionary novelty that appears to have developed independently in at least five major tetrapod groups-the anurans, turtles, lepidosaurs, archosaurs and mammals. The emergence of a tympanic ear would have increased the frequency range and sensitivity of hearing...... sensitivity and directionality at low frequencies. Therefore, tetrapod auditory processing may originally have been organized into low- and high-frequency streams, where only the high-frequency processing was mediated by tympanic input. The closure of the middle ear cavity in mammals and some birds...

  19. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  20. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  1. Human acoustics: From vocal chords to inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Michael Drew

    2005-11-01

    Part I covers the vocal chords, more accurately known as the vocal folds (VF). Modeling efforts are split into two areas: the VF tissue and the airflow. There are multiple existing models of the VF, with varying ranges of complexity for both the tissue and the airflow. In our model, the tissue is based on a recent two-mass model of Bogaert's [5], while the airflow is quasi-one-dimensional and is derived from the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our model is more accurate than Bernoulli's law (quasi-steady approximation), yet less complex than the full Navier-Stokes system. The model is shown to reproduce important transient behaviour intrinsic in vocal fold motion, such as pressure peaks before and after vocal fold closure. Part II concerns the inner ear, or cochlea. Again the modeling effort is split into two areas: the cochlear tissue and the cochlear fluid. We model the cochlear fluid with the well known two-dimensional box model of the cochlea, derived from the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The cochlear tissue structure is where the complexity takes place. We start with Neely and Kim's [25] linear active model for the cochlear structure and modify their active gain parameter into a nonlinear nonlocal functional. The nonlinearity forces us to work in the time domain, which is prone to dispersive instabilities if one uses a frequency domain middle ear model. The middle ear's role as a transient absorber is discussed and its time domain formulation is shown to reduce the dispersive instability. We perform simulations on the full system and show that the model recovers many important nonlinear phenomena, such as suppression and difference tones. A spectrogram based on the cochlear response is created and compared with the spectrogram of the input waveform. In both Part I and Part II, the emphasis is on time dependent modeling and numerical implementation.

  2. Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor β1 and Transforming Growth Factorβ2 in Middle Ear Effusions in Secretory Otitis Media%TGF -β1、TGF -β2在分泌性中耳炎患者中耳积液中的表达和临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 袁琨; 肖伯奎; 胡姚; 蔡菁; 张晨星

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of transforming growth factor β1( TGF - β1)and transforming growth factor β2(TGF - β2)in the pathogenesis of secretory otitis media(SOM). Methods The expression levels of TGF - β1 and TGF - β2 in middle ear effusions(MEEs)and blood plasma were measured in 56 patients(61 ears)with SOM as well as 32 normal volunteers using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Results The positive rates of TGF - β1 and TGF - β2 in MEEs and plasma in SOM patients as well as normal plasma were all 100% . The con-centration of TGF - β1 in MEEs in patients with acute SOM was significantly lower than that in patients with chronic SOM(P ﹤ 0. 05). The concentration of TGF - β2 in MEEs in patients with acute SOM was significantly higher than that in patients with chronic SOM(P ﹤ 0. 05). There was no significant difference in the concentration of TGF - β1 in plasma between patients with acute SOM and normal volunteers(P ﹥ 0. 05). There was significant difference in the concentration of TGF - β2 in plasma between patients with acute SOM and normal volunteers(P ﹤ 0. 05). There was significant difference in the concentration of TGF - β1 in plasma between patients with chronic SOM and normal vol-unteers(P ﹤ 0. 05). There was no significant difference in the concentration of TGF - β2 in plasma between patients with acute SOM and normal volunteers(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion TGF - β1 and TGF - β2 both participate in patho-genesis of SOM. TGF - β1 may play a role in the chronic course of SOM and TGF - β2 may be an important role in the early stage of SOM.%目的:探讨转化生长因子-β1(transforming growth factor β1,TGF -β1)和转化生长因子-β2(transforming growth factor β2,TGF -β2)在分泌性中耳炎(secretory otitis media,SOM)发病过程中的作用。方法采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附试验法( enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA)检测56例(61只耳) SOM 患者中

  3. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    life. Ear-EEG may therefore be an enabling technology for objective audiometry out of the clinic, allowing regularly fitting of the hearing aids to be made by the users in their everyday life environment. In this study we investigate the application of ear-EEG in objective audiometry....

  4. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  5. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  6. Sedimentary facies and sequential architecture of tide-influenced alluvial deposits : an example from the middle Eocene Capella formation, South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuevas Gozalo, M.C

    1989-01-01

    The sediments investigated consist of a thick sequence of clastic deposits of middle Eocene age, the Capella Formation. At the time of deposition the sedimentary basin was tectonically active. Tectonic influence in the sedimentary sequence is recognized from angular unconformities, synsedimentary fa

  7. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  8. Surgical advances for congenital ear malformation%先天性小耳畸形手术治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩浩伦

    2012-01-01

    Congenital ear malformation is caused by developmental abnormalities of the first and second branchial arch. Congenital ear malformation is performance ear hypoplasia and smaller than normal size, often accompanied by external auditory canal atresia and middle ear deformities. Surgery is the main treatment for congenital microtia. This article mainly reviewed the progress on auricle reconstruction, auditory rehabilitation and other surgical treatment.%先天性小耳畸形是由第一鳃弓和第二鳃弓发育异常引起的,为耳郭发育不全且较正常者为小,常伴有外耳道闭锁、中耳畸形.手术治疗是小耳畸形治疗的最主要手段,本文就小耳畸形耳郭成形术、听力重建以及相关手术进展做一综述.

  9. Age-related hearing loss: ear and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D

    2009-07-01

    Loss of sensory function in the aged has serious consequences for economic productivity, quality of life, and healthcare costs in the billions each year. Understanding the neural and molecular bases will pave the way for biomedical interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse these conditions. This chapter summarizes new information regarding age changes in the auditory system involving both the ear (peripheral) and brain (central). A goal is to provide findings that have implications for understanding some common biological underpinnings that affect sensory systems, providing a basis for eventual interventions to improve overall sensory functioning, including the chemical senses.

  10. Some Remarks on Imaging of the Inner Ear: Options and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesemann, A; Hofmann, E

    2015-10-01

    The temporal bone has a highly complex anatomical structure, in which the sensory organs of the cochlea and the vestibular system are contained within a small space together with the sound-conducting system of the middle ear. Detailed imaging is thus required in this anatomical area. There are a great many clinical aims for which the highest-possible spatial resolution is required. These include the localization of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, the detection of malformations of the middle and inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve, an aberrant course of the facial nerve and anomalies of the arterial and venous structures, the confirmation of dehiscence of the semicircular canals and finally, the verification of endolymphatic hydrops in cases of Ménière's disease. However, the term 'high resolution' is very time dependent. Two milestones in this respect have been (in 1991) the 3D visualization of the inner ear by means of maximum-intensity projection (MIP) of a T2-weighted constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence of a 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner (Tanioka et al., Radiology 178:141-144, 1991) and (in 1997) imaging of the vestibulocochlear nerve for the diagnosis of hypoplasia inside the internal auditory canal using the same sequence (Casselman et al., Radiology 202:773-781, 1997).The objective of this article is to highlight the options for, and the challenges of, contemporary imaging with regard to some clinical issues relating to the inner ear.

  11. Core collapse supernova remnants with ears

    CERN Document Server

    Grichener, Aldana

    2016-01-01

    We study the morphologies of core collapse supernova remnants (CCSNRs) and find that about third of CCSNRs have two opposite `ears' protruding from their main shell, and that the typical energy that is required to inflate these ears is about 10 percents of the explosion kinetic energy. We argue that these properties are most compatible with the expectation from the explosion jet feedback mechanism (JFM). Based on previous studies of ears in CCSNRs and the similarity of some ears to those found in planetary nebulae, we assume that the ears are inflated by jets that are launched during the explosion, or a short time after it. In the JFM explosion process the last jets' launching episode takes place just after the core has been ejected. These jets expand freely, interact with the exploding gas at some distance from the center, and form the ears. Under simple geometrical assumptions we find that the extra kinetic energy of the ears is in the range of 1 to 10 percents of the explosion energy. As not all of the kin...

  12. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve...... the processing of low-frequency directional signals, while higher frequency signals appear to be progressively uncoupled. In both lizards and crocodilians, the increased directionality of the coupled ears leads to an effectively larger head and larger physiological range of ITDs. This increased physiological...

  13. [Ear keloid and clinical research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.

  14. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.

  15. A RARE PRESENTATION OF FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR WITH TRAUMATIC DISLOCATION OF THE INCUS IN A FEMALE CHILD: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhana Krishnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the middle ear are a rare occurrence. This is a case report of a 5 year old female , with plastic button in the left ear , with history of attempted removal using a metal hook , leading to subtotal perforation of the tympanic membrane and traumatic dislocation of the incus. On surgery a yellow colored plastic button , measuring about 1x 1 cm size was removed from middle ear by retroauricular approach . Myringostapediopexy using autologous incus and temporalis fascia under general anesthesia was done. P atient improved clinically post operatively. Foreign bodies in the ear should be removed with caution. Blind removal by instrumentation can lead to complications like tympanic membrane perforation and ossicular disruption. Early surgical intervention with tympanoplasty under anesthesia with tympanoplasty at the same sitting can prevent further complications and correct the hearing loss

  16. Injuries of the external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, J; Renner, G J

    1990-10-01

    Ear injuries occur in people of all ages but predominate in active people such as wrestlers, boxers, and bike riders. The types and extent of injury are a function of the force causing the injury. Shearing forces of moderate intensity cause hematoma formation, whereas greater force causes lacerations or even amputation. Sharp objects cause lacerations determined by the force, direction, and point of impact. The high ratio of surface area to mass makes the auricle vulnerable to extremes of temperature. People participating in high-risk activities should wear protective headgear. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal contours while preventing infection. Hematoma results in disfigurement by organization or chondritis. Evacuation and pressure dressings using sterile technique correct the condition. Second-degree burns are treated by regular cleansing and application of topical antimicrobials. Deeper burns require debridement, biologic dressings, or burying the cartilage subcutaneously for later reconstruction. Simple lacerations are closed under aseptic technique using either skin-to-skin sutures only or sutures of the skin combined with intercartilage sutures. Extensive and complex lacerations require meticulous care to match all fragments and prevent infection or loss of tissue. Bare cartilage must be covered with vascularized tissue. The treatment of total amputation is controversial. Some advocate reattachment as a composite graft using intravenous low molecular weight dextrans and heparin as adjuvants. Mladick dermabrades the amputated pinna, reattaches it with sutures, and then slips it into a pocket of elevated postauricular skin for 2 weeks. Others urge microvascular reanastomosis of the small nutrient vessels. Brent and Byrd separate the cartilage from its overlying skin and envelope it first with vascularized temporoparietal fascia and then a split-thickness skin graft. Chondritis is the most feared complication of injury or surgery of the pinna. It

  17. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  18. Three dimensional and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear. Normal ears and anomaly scanned with 3D-CISS sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Hideo [Dokkyo Univ., Saitama (Japan). Koshigaya Hospital; Uechi, Yoko; Honjyo, Shiro; Yamashita, Koichi; Tonami, Hisao

    1997-12-01

    The MRI system used in this study was a new scanning sequence, 3D-CISS (Three dimensional-constructive interference in steady state) with 1.5 Tesla. Ten normal ears and one ear with Mondini type anomaly were scanned and reconstructed. In imagings of normal inner ears, the cochlea has three spiral layers; basal, middle and apical turns. Each turn was separated into three parts; the scala vestibuli, osseous spiral lamina and scala tympani. Three semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule were also reconstructed in one frame. In the inner ear of Mondini anomaly, 3D MRI showed cochlear aplasia, hypoplasia of semicircular ducts and widely dilated vestibule. The imaging was identical with findings of ``common cavity``. The anomaly was easily recognized in 3D MRI more than in 2D imagings. The detailed and cubic imagings of the Mondini anomaly in 3D MRI could not be observed with conventional 2D MRI. 3D MRI is not invasive method and can scan a target very quickly. (author)

  19. Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction.

  20. Inner ear malformations: a practical diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montoya-Filardi, A; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-12-29

    Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss is a major cause of disability; although inner ear malformations account for only 20-40% of all cases, recognition and characterization will be vital for the proper management of these patients. In this article relevant anatomy and development of inner ear are surveyed. The role of neuroimaging in pediatric sensorineural hearing loss and cochlear preimplantation study are assessed. The need for a universal system of classification of inner ear malformations with therapeutic and prognostic implications is highlighted. And finally, the radiological findings of each type of malformation are concisely described and depicted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a crucial role in the characterization of inner ear malformations and allow the assessment of the anatomical structures that enable the selection of appropriate treatment and surgical approach.

  1. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  2. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.

  3. Female Climacteric Syndrome Treated by Ear Embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤

    2003-01-01

    @@ Female climacteric syndrome is a common disease occurring before and after menopause. The author has treated the disease with ear embedding therapy, and achieved satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a report of the clinical observation.

  4. Ear Infection Treatment: Do Alternative Therapies Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in books and magazines. They include chiropractic adjustments, homeopathy, herbal eardrops and others. Perhaps you're seeking ... infection treatments have been studied with mixed results. Homeopathy. A controversial treatment for ear infection, homeopathy involves ...

  5. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  6. Neonatal Ear Molding: Timing and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstadt, Erin Elizabeth; Johns, Dana Nicole; Kwok, Alvin Chi-Ming; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of auricular deformities is believed to be ∼11.5 per 10,000 births, excluding children with microtia. Although not life-threatening, auricular deformities can cause undue distress for patients and their families. Although surgical procedures have traditionally been used to reconstruct congenital auricular deformities, ear molding has been gaining acceptance as an efficacious, noninvasive alternative for the treatment of newborns with ear deformations. We present the successful correction of bilateral Stahl's ear deformity in a newborn through a straightforward, nonsurgical method implemented on the first day of life. The aim of this report is to make pediatric practitioners aware of an effective and simple molding technique appropriate for correction of congenital auricular anomalies. In addition, it stresses the importance of very early initiation of ear cartilage molding for achieving the desired outcome.

  7. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average...

  8. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  10. Hearing impairment and ear pathology in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Bridges, A; Guragain, R; Friedman, D; Prasad, R; Weir, N

    1993-05-01

    A stratified random cluster sample of 15,845 subjects was performed in two regions of Nepal to determine the prevalence and main causes of hearing impairment (the most common disability) and the prevalence of ear disease. Subjects reporting current ear pain, or ear discharge, or hearing impairment on direct questioning by a Nepali health worker (primary screening failed), had otoscopy and audiometry (using the Liverpool Field Audiometer) performed, and a questionnaire administered relating to past history. In every fifth house subjects who passed the primary screening (1,716 subjects) were examined to assess the false negative rate of screening. An estimated 16.6 per cent of the study population have hearing impairment (either ear worse than 30 dB hearing threshold level (HTL) 1.0-4.0 kHz, or 50 dB HTL 0.5 kHz), and 7.4 per cent ear drum pathology, equivalent to respectively 2.71 and 1.48 million people extrapolated to the whole of Nepal. Most hearing impairment in the school age group (55.2 per cent) is associated with otitis media or its sequelae. Probably at least 14 per cent of sensorineural deafness is preventable (7 per cent infectious disease, 3.9 per cent trauma, 0.8 per cent noise exposure, 1 per cent cretinism, and 1 per cent abnormal pregnancy or labour). Most individuals reporting current ear pathology (61 per cent) had never attended a health post, and of those receiving ear drop treatment, 84 per cent still had serious pathology. Of subjects who reported ear drop treatment at any time, 31 per cent still had serious pathology. The use of traditional remedies was prevalent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  12. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  13. Retrospective study of ear findings of dogs submitted to cranial tomography in FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu; Estudo retrospectivo dos achados otologicos de caes submetidos a tomografia craniana na FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an important imaging modality in the diagnosis of ear alterations, especially those affecting the middle ear. In this retrospective study, in which the cranial CT scans of 151 dogs were evaluated, the most common finding was the mineralization of the external auditory cartilage, followed by secretions in external and middle ear and tissue in these two regions. The average age of affected animals ranged from 6-9 years. Mixed breed dogs were the most affected animals, followed by cockers, boxers, poodles, labrador retrievers, german shepherds and pit bulls. (author)

  14. Petrogenesis of Early-Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks in northern Liaoning and central Jilin provinces, northeast China: Implications for the extent of spatial-temporal overprinting of the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Hong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Cao, Hua-Hua; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Mesozoic tectonic evolution of NE China was controlled mainly by the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes. However, the extent of the spatial and temporal overprinting of these two regimes is poorly understood. Here, we report new zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses of Jurassic intrusive rocks in northern Liaoning and central Jilin provinces, northeast China, to discuss their petrogenesis and outline the extent of spatial and temporal overprinting of these two tectonic regimes. Dating results indicate that Jurassic magmatism occurred in two stages during the Early (ca. 175 Ma) and Middle Jurassic (170-163 Ma). These rocks represent two-stage typical bimodal igneous rock associations composed mainly of olivine gabbro, gabbro, and gneissic granitoids. The Early and Middle Jurassic gabbros have low rare earth element (REE) abundances, positive Eu anomalies, depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs), and positive εHf(t) values (+ 4.0 to + 10.3, except for one value of - 17.8), suggesting that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of depleted lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted-slab-derived fluids. The Early Jurassic monzogranite exhibit high REE abundances (195-201 ppm), weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.63-0.64), and negative εHf(t) values (- 11.9 to - 8.2), suggesting a primary magma that was derived from partial melting of lower continental crust of the NCC. The Middle Jurassic granodiorites are enriched in light REEs (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and are depleted in heavy REEs (HREEs) and HFSEs, as well as high Sr/Y (29-132) and (La/Yb)N (15-44) ratios. In addition, the Middle Jurassic granitoids near or within the NCC exhibit negative εHf(t) values (- 18.9 to + 0.2), whereas those within the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB) have generally positive εHf(t) values (- 0.6 to + 6.4), suggesting their origin from partial melting of thickened ancient NCC and newly accreted

  15. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade...

  16. Optical techniques as validation tools for finite element modeling of biomechanical structures, demonstrated in bird ear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter; De Greef, Daniël; Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the potential of stroboscopic digital holography and laser vibrometry as tools to gather vibration data and validate modelling results in complex biomechanical systems, in this case the avian middle ear. Whereas the middle ear of all mammal species contains three ossicles, birds only feature one ossicle, the columella. Despite this far simpler design, the hearing range of most birds is comparable to mammals, and is adapted to operate under very diverse atmospheric circumstances. This makes the investigation of the avian middle ear potentially very meaningful, since it could provide knowledge that can improve the design of prosthetic ossicle replacements in humans such as a TORP (Total Ossicle Replacement Prosthesis). In order to better understand the mechanics of the bird's hearing, we developed a finite element model that simulates the transmission of an incident acoustic wave on the eardrum via the middle ear structures to the fluid of the inner ear. The model is based on geometry extracted from stained μCT data and is validated using results from stroboscopic digital holography measurements on the eardrum and LDV measurements on the columella footplate. This technique uses very short high-power laser pulses that are synchronized to the membrane's vibration phase to measure the dynamic response of the bird's eardrum to an incident acoustic stimulus. Vibration magnitude as well as phase relative to the sound wave can be deduced from the results, the latter being of great importance in the elastic characterization of the tympanic membrane. In this work, the setup and results from the optical measurements, as well as the properties and optimization of the finite element model are presented. Observed phase variations across the eardrum's surface on the holography results strongly suggest the presence of internal energy losses in the membrane due to damping. Therefore, a viscoelastic characterisation of the model based on a complex

  17. Ground-water use, locations of production wells, and areas irrigated using ground water in 1998, middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, ground water was being pumped from about 420 production wells in the middle Humboldt River Basin for a variety of uses. Principal uses were for agriculture, industry, mining, municipal, and power plant purposes. This report presents a compilation of the number and types of production wells, areas irrigated by ground water, and ground-water use in 14 hydrographic areas of the middle Humboldt River Basin in 1998. Annual pumping records for production wells usually are reported to the Nevada Division of Water Resources. However, operators of irrigation wells are not consistently required to report annual pumpage. Daily power-consumption and pump-discharge rates measured at 20 wells during the 1998 irrigation season and total power use at each well were used to estimate the amount of water, in feet of depth, applied to 20 alfalfa fields. These fields include about 10 percent of the total area, 36,700 acres, irrigated with ground water in the middle Humboldt River Basin. In 1998 an average of 2.0 feet of water was applied to 14 fields irrigated using center-pivot sprinkler systems, and an average of 2.6 feet of water was applied to 6 fields irrigated using wheel-line sprinkler systems. A similar approach was used to estimate the amount of water pumped at three wells using pumps powered by diesel engines. The two fields served by these three wells received 3.9 feet of water by flood irrigation during the 1998 irrigation season. The amount of water applied to the fields irrigated by center-pivot and wheel-line irrigation systems during the 1998 irrigation season was less than what would have been applied during a typical irrigation season because late winter and spring precipitation exceeded long-term monthly averages by as much as four times. As a result, the health of crops was affected by over-saturated soils, and most irrigation wells were only used sporadically in the first part of the irrigation season. Power consumption at 19 of the 20 wells in the 1994

  18. SHRIMP U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic analyses of Middle Ordovician meta-cumulate gabbro in central Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Metabasites consisting of metamorphic ultra-mafic rocks, cumulate gabbro, gabbro (diabase), basalt, and plagiogranite are exposed at the Taoxinghu area in central Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating for the cumulate gabbro yields a weighted mean age of 467±4 Ma, which is the oldest and most reliable magmatic age in this area. Zircon 176Hf/177Hf ratios range from 0.282615 to 0.282657, with εHf(t) values of 5.02±0.28, indicating that the cumulate gabbro was mainly derived from the depleted mantle. In addition, geochemical data of metabasites suggest that they have similar characteristics to those in the mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The Taoxinghu metabasites may represent the fragment of Early Paleozoic ophiolite in the "Central Uplift" of the Qiangtang, northern Tibetan Plateau.

  19. The assessment and management of inner ear barotrauma in divers and recommendations for returning to diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Smart, David R

    2014-12-01

    Inner ear barotrauma (IEBt) constitutes a spectrum of pressure-related pathology in the inner ear, with antecedent middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) common. IEBt includes perilymph fistula, intralabyrinthine membrane tear, inner ear haemorrhage and other rarer pathologies. Following a literature search, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of IEBt in divers and best-practice recommendations for returning to diving were reviewed. Sixty-nine papers/texts were identified and 54 accessed. Twenty-five case series (majority surgical) provided guidance on diagnostic pathways; nine solely reported divers. IEBt in divers may be difficult to distinguish from inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS), and requires dive-risk stratification and careful interrogation regarding diving-related ear events, clinical assessment, pure tone audiometry, a fistula test and electronystagmography (ENG). Once diagnosed, conservative management is the recommended first line therapy for IEBt. Recompression does not appear to cause harm if the diagnosis (IEBt vs IEDCS) is doubtful (limited case data). Exploratory surgery is indicated for severe or persisting vestibular symptoms or hearing loss, deterioration of symptoms, or lack of improvement over 10 days indicating significant pathology. Steroids are used, but without high-level evidence. It may be possible for divers to return to subaquatic activity after stakeholder risk acceptance and informed consent, provided: (1) sensorineural hearing loss is stable and not severe; (2) there is no vestibular involvement (via ENG); (3) high-resolution computed tomography has excluded anatomical predilection to IEBt and (4) education on equalising techniques is provided. There is a need for a prospective data registry and controlled trials to better evaluate diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  20. Middle and Late Holocene hunter-gatherers in East Central Europe: changing paradigms of the ‘non-Neolithic’ way of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Nowak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to traditional views, the main reason for ‘demesolithisation’ in East Central Europe was the spread of the Neolithic oecumene, particularly from c. 4000 BC. Simultaneously, the disintegrated Late Mesolithic world gradually underwent typological unification, and finally reached the stage that is sometimes described as pre-Neolithic. However, we definitely have to bear in mind that as a matter of fact we deal only with the ‘history’ of archaeological artefacts that are treated as typical attributes of hunter-gatherers. The analyses of chronological, technological, settlement, economic, and social data referring to foragers of East Central Europe demonstrate that the quantitative decrease and changes of their archaeological attributes in the fifth, fourth, and third millennia were not connected with a profound reorientation of their spatial and ideological existence. It was rather a continuation of previous patterns, even though territories settled by farming societies were steadily growing in size. The final disappearance of Central European hunter-gatherers – but only in a strictly typological dimension – took place in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age.