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Sample records for central middle ages

  1. Central Obesity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue Yao; ZHENG Fen Ping; ZHOU Jia Qiang; DU Ying; PAN Qian Qian; ZHANG Sai Fei; YU Dan; LI Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Central obesity is considered to be a central component of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference (WC) has been widely used as a simple indicator of central obesity. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of WC cut-off values for predicting metabolic risk factors in middle-aged Chinese. Methods The study involved 923 subjects aged 40-65 years. The metabolic risk factors were defined according to the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. WC cut-off 85-90 cm and≥90 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in males, respectively, while WC 80-85 cm and≥85 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in females. Results First, WC values corresponding to body mass index (BMI) 24 kg/m2 and visceral fat area (VFA) 80 cm2 were 88.55 cm and 88.51 cm in males, and 81.46 cm and 82.51 cm in females respectively. Second, receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal WC cut-off of value was 88.75 cm in males, higher than that in females (81.75 cm). Third, the subjects with higher WC values were more likely to have accumulating metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic risk factors increased linearly and significantly in relation to WC levels. Conclusion WC cut-off values of central pre-/central obesity are optimal to predict multiple metabolic risk factors.

  2. 10Be dating reveals early-middle Holocene age of the Drygalski Moraines in central West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, Sandra L.; Briner, Jason P.; Kelley, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin on the Nuussuaq Peninsula in central West Greenland through the Holocene using lake sediment analysis and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of the prominent Drygalski Moraines. Erratics perched on bedrock outboard of the Drygalski Moraines constrain local deglaciation to ∼9.9 ± 0.6 ka (n = 2). Three Drygalski Moraine crests yield mean 10Be ages of 8.6 ± 0.4 ka (n = 2), 8.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 7.6 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) from outer to inner. Perched erratics between the inner two moraines average 7.8 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) and are consistent with the moraine ages. Sediments from a proglacial lake with a catchment area extending an estimated 2 km beneath (inland of) the present ice sheet terminus constrain an ice sheet minimum extent from 5.4 ka to 0.6 ka. The moraine chronology paired with the lake sediment stratigraphy reveals that the ice margin likely remained within ∼2 km of its present position from ∼9.9 to 5.4 ka. This unexpected early Holocene stability, preceded by rapid ice retreat and followed by minimum ice extent between ∼5.4 and 0.6 ka, contrasts with many records of early Holocene warmth and the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maximum. We suggest ice margin stability may instead be tied to adjacent ocean temperatures, which reached an optimum in the middle Holocene.

  3. Rb-Sr middle Devonian age of cordierite bearing migmatites from Lyonnais area (French Massif Central). Age Rb-Sr, Devonien moyen des migmatites a cordierite du Lyonnais (Massif central Francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthou, J.L. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Chenevoy, M.; Gay, M. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1994-10-01

    On the basis of Rb-Sr whole rock data, a middle Devonian age (384[+-]16 Ma) is ascribed to the cordierite bearing migmatites (gneiss d'Aubusson) in the Lyonnais area. In the barrovian domain, this anatexis is therefore synchronous throughout the northern part of the french ''Massif Central''. Rb and Sr concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and isotopic compositions by mass spectrometry. (A.B.). 28 refs., 2 figs. 1 tab.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of medieval sheep (Ovis aries) in central Italy reveals the predominance of haplogroup B already in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbianelli, F; Gargani, M; Pariset, L; Mariotti, M; Alhaique, F; De Minicis, E; Barelli, L; Ciammetti, E; Redi, F; Valentini, A

    2015-06-01

    We retrieved 34 medieval ovicaprine remains, from three archaeological sites of central Italy dating to about 1000 years old, and analyzed them using mitochondrial DNA. We compared the reconstructed haplogroups with modern sheep samples from Europe and the Middle East and sequences from the literature. In modern sheep, haplogroup HA is present in countries with access to the Mediterranean and close to the domestication center, whereas it is very rare or absent in the rest of Europe. The haplogroup HB was predominant in ancient samples (90%), whereas haplogroup HA was found at 10%. Ancient haplogroups match the present distribution in modern sheep in Italy, indicating that the current proportion of HA/HB was already established in the Middle Ages and is not the result of subsequent events such as selective breeding practices. PMID:25917303

  5. Original Research: Central and peripheral quadriceps fatigue in young and middle-aged untrained and endurance-trained men: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachasson, Damien; Decorte, Nicolas; Wuyam, Bernard; Millet, Guillaume Y; Verges, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare quadriceps function (i.e. strength, endurance, central, and peripheral fatigue) of young (Young-UnTr) and middle-aged (MidAge-UnTr) untrained men and young endurance-trained men (Young-Tr). Twenty-four male subjects (eight Young-UnTr (26 ± 4 yr), eight Young-Tr (29 ± 3 yr), and eight MidAge-UnTr (56 ± 4 yr) performed a maximal cycling test to assess their fitness level. On a separate visit, subjects performed sets of 10 intermittent (5-s on/5-s off) isometric contractions starting at 10% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), with 10% MVC increments from one set to another until exhaustion. Electrophysiological and mechanical (e.g. twitch) evoked responses elicited with magnetic femoral nerve stimulation in the relaxed muscle and during MVC (i.e. estimation of voluntary activation using the interpolated twitch technique) were measured at baseline and after each set to assess peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. Endurance (= total number of contractions) was also evaluated. Young-UnTr exhibited larger reductions in evoked quadriceps mechanical responses than MidAge-UnTr and Young-Tr after identical standardized muscle loading (e.g. after the 50% MVC set, reduction in single potentiated twitch was -36 ± 9%, -21±16%, and -2 ± 4%, respectively). At both 50% MVC set and exhaustion, MidAge-UnTr exhibited similar reduction in maximal voluntary activation and displayed similar endurance compared to Young-UnTr. Young-Tr exhibited greater endurance than Young-UnTr without significant changes in maximal voluntary activation throughout the test. This study provides robust comparative data regarding the influence of chronic exposure to endurance training and middle-aged on central and peripheral quadriceps fatigability and endurance. Endurance-trained subjects showed smaller level of peripheral fatigue and displayed no significant central fatigue, even at exhaustion and despite greater endurance performance. Our

  6. Chinese Middle-Aged Confusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2003-01-01

    THE middle-aged generation,those of the age 40 to 55, is special in China. Born in the 1950s and early 1960s, they grew up in the most difficult and chaotic periods of recent Chinese history, having experienced and suffered the Great Leap Forward at the end of the fifties and the “cultural revolution” ( 1966-1976).

  7. Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán R Millar

    Full Text Available Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC measured at two sites: (1 immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib and (2 between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway, which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation.This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes.WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared to WC midway (in men and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women. A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003, Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001, Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001, but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127, when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74.WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or

  8. Acute psychosis with a favorable outcome as a complication of central pontine/extrapontine myelinolysis in a middle aged man

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Rishab; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating condition affecting the pons characterized by an acute progressive quadriplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central pons with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as hyponatremia, chronic alcoholism, liver failure, severe burns, malignant neoplasms, hemorrhagic pancreatitis, hemodialysis, and sepsis....

  9. Paleosols and climate in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland during the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the 25th-15th Centuries BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkin, V. A.; Borisov, A. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    Paleosol studies of kurgans dating back to the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the Catacomb, Pokrovskaya, and Srubnaya cultural epochs; 4500-3500 BP) have been performed within the dry steppe zone in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland. The studied kurgans occupy the upper parts of local interfluves differing in the lithology of their upper horizons. The specificity of the Middle Holocene pedogenesis as related to the local lithologic and geomorphic conditions has been characterized. During the past 4500 years, local soils have been subjected to evolutionary changes related to climatic fluctuations. These changes manifested themselves at the subtype level with substitution of dark chestnut soils for chestnut soils. The climatic conditions during the Catacomb and Pokrovskaya cultural epochs (4.5-3.8 ka BP) were more arid than those at present. The maximum aridization of the climate took place at the end of the third and the first quarter of the second millennia BC. Detailed descriptions of the morphology of kurgan bodies and buried paleosols make it possible to hypothesize about the seasons of the kurgan construction and the technology of this work.

  10. [Comparative ophthalmology in the Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M; Norn, O

    2001-01-01

    Descriptions of animal eyes in the Middle Ages in the learned work Physiologus from the 4th century, based on Aristoteles, Plutarc, the Bible etc. are commented on. The modern biologist is horrified, the historian understands the ethical - religious aspects behind the edifying stories concerning the lion, gazelle, eagle, snake, lizard, swallow etc. Medical science and theology were not separated in the Middle Ages.

  11. The Middle-Aged Marathon Runner

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Anthony S.

    1982-01-01

    Middle-aged runners form an appreciable number of those engaged in marathon running. They tend to have above average intelligence, high socioeconomic status, and better levels of aerobic fitness than sedentary members of the same age group. “Too much too soon” is the commonest cause of injury. Training before a marathon should last 18 months to two years. Middle-aged runners tend to experience fewer injuries than other marathoners. However, relatively minor complaints will be disastrous to th...

  12. Law and Learning in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling...

  13. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhel, André Silva; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons. PMID:27556317

  14. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhel, André Silva; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2016-04-01

    The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons. PMID:27556317

  15. Middle-Age Fitness Helps Ward Off Stroke Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159287.html Middle-Age Fitness Helps Ward Off Stroke Later Study finds this ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Physical fitness in middle age may lower your risk of ...

  16. Studying and working in Bologna in the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Smurra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign students who attended the University of Bologna during the Middle Ages contributed to creating the reputation of the city and to deepening its capacity to attract students from cross over Europe. The city had, however, from remote times, experimented with welcoming practices (temporary or not and experienced significant events in the circulation of persons. It was not just in the Middle Ages that such introductions of people coming from other regions can be verified in the Bolognese territory. A great immigration was decreed by Rome in the 2nd century B.C. with the establishment of a Latin colony and the transfer of 3,000 families of tenant farmers from central-southern Italy. Even if the migratory processes in the history of Bologna were numerous, this contribution nevertheless directs its attention to the 12th -13th centuries, a period that, thanks to the presence of the Studium and to economic activities, forced the city to confront anew an elevated number of students. It should be specified that while in present-day terminology those whose mother tongue is not Italian are called foreigners, in the Middle Ages all those who did not belong to the Bolognese district were called forenses (foreigners. In particular certain events concerning foreigners will be analyzed on the basis of data obtained from fiscal sources at the end of the 13th century.

  17. Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Dyslipidemia in Middle-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hanachi, P; GL Khor; STBS Hassan; MS Lye; MA Delavar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death throughout the world. The aim of this study was to as­sess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia, as well as dietary factors contribut­ing to the development of dyslipidemia among middle-aged women.Methods: The research design of the present study was a population-based cross-sectional study; anthropometric meas­ures and blood chemistry were obtained. Physical activity was measured usin...

  18. Unexpected regeneration in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Brandon; Cheng, Lily I; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-02-01

    Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5-11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight. PMID:19226206

  19. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME AND HYPERTENSION IN MIDDLE-AGE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Malhotra, Atul; Forman, John; Winkelman, John; Li, Yanping; Gao, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Limited research suggests a relationship between Restless Legs Syndrome and hypertension. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between restless legs syndrome and hypertension among middle-aged women.

  20. Central bank independence and ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Farvaque, Etienne; Héricourt, Jérôme; Lagadec, Gaël

    2008-01-01

    We contrast the influence of demography and central bank independence on inflation. The recent demographic trends in developed countries are shown to weight more on inflation than central bank independence, while the contrary stands for the period from 1960 to 1979.

  1. Minding Your Metabolism: Can You Avoid Middle-Age Spread?

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    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Minding Your Metabolism Can You Avoid Middle-Age Spread? As you age, you may notice you have less muscle and energy and more fat. Carrying those extra ...

  2. Biostratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Brachiopods from Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Abril, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.; Villas, E.

    2011-01-01

    A recent taxonomic study on the rhynchonelliformean brachiopods from the Darriwilian dark shales of the Central-Iberian Zone, Central Spain (Reyes-Abril, 2009; Reyes-Abril et al., 2010) has considerably increased the number of orthides and strophomenides known across the whole Iberian Peninsula. The studied brachiopods were collected in 58 localities of 6 provinces from the regions of Castilla-La Mancha, Andalucía and Extremadura. Middle Ordovician brachiopods previously known in ...

  3. The Transnationalism of Nephrological Treatises during the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents the history of the dissemination of knowledge about renal issues during the Middle Ages based on the transfer of manuscripts from the centres of knowledge of the then known world to the periphery. Starting from the Greco-Roman world it follows the transfer of manuscripts and ideas via three main roads. Firstly, the North Road extends till the remote Ireland on the West and Russia to the East, secondly, the South Road reaching Arabia and Central Africa and thirdly, the East Road otherwise named the Silk Road. Emphasis is given to the role of monks (Greek Orthodox, Catholics, and Taoists) and the Arab intellectuals. The ways by which this transport materialized and the people involved (merchants, pilgrims, soldiers) is also discussed. Allowances are made for the merging of historical and mythological data, all of which represent the way society then was viewing the kidney, its role and its ailments. PMID:26913872

  4. DNA, the central molecule of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, Peter; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of aging could have enormous medical implications. Despite a century of research, however, there is no universally accepted theory regarding the molecular basis of aging. On the other hand, there is plentiful evidence suggesting that DNA constitutes the central molecule in this process. Here, we review the roles of chromatin structure, DNA damage, and shortening of telomeres in aging and propose a hypothesis for how their interplay leads to aging phenotypes.

  5. Middle Stone Age starch acquisition in the Niassa Rift, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Raja, Mussa

    2008-09-01

    The quest for direct lines of evidence for Paleolithic plant consumption during the African Middle Stone Age has led scientists to study residues and use-wear on flaked stone tools. Past work has established lithic function through multiple lines of evidence and the spatial breakdown of use-wear and microscopic traces on tool surfaces. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of starch assemblages and the botanical identification of grains from flake and core tools to learn about human ecology of carbohydrate use around the Niassa woodlands, in the Mozambican Rift. The processing of starchy plant parts is deduced from the occurrence of starch assemblages that presumably got attached to stone tool surfaces by actions associated with extractive or culinary activities. Specifically, we investigate starch grains from stone tools recently excavated in northern Mozambique at the site of Mikuyu; which presumably spans the middle to late Pleistocene and represents similar sites found along the Malawi/Niassa corridor that links East, Southern, and Central Africa. Starch was extracted and processed with a diverse tool kit consisting of scrapers, cores, points, flakes, and other kinds of tools. The microbotanical data suggests consumption of seeds, legumes, caryopses, piths, underground storage organs, nuts, and mesocarps from more than a dozen families. Our data suggest a great antiquity for starch use in Africa as well as an expanded diet and intensification.

  6. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in ...

  7. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2014-01-01

    . In this article we use the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeo-stratigraphic record from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (les Roches d'Abilly site, Central France), a Bayesian analysis of the ages obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon on ultrafiltered collagen and by luminescence on quartz...... and feldspar grains, to establish a timeline for material culture and sedimentary dynamic changes during the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition. Technology, refitting studies and taphonomy of lithic artifacts recovered in the geoarchaeological field units D1 and D2 permit to characterize 3 reduction...

  8. Longevity's Gift: A Second Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Lydia

    1995-01-01

    A study in 1987-92 assessed the effects of changes in life course on work and careers. Interviews with 150 individuals who remained active or continued to work beyond age 65 showed lifetimes differing greatly from the traditional model. The combination of longer lifetimes and postponement of old age has created a new stage in adult life, a second…

  9. Incident Diabetes in Relation to Weight Patterns During Middle Age

    OpenAIRE

    Waring, Molly E.; Charles B Eaton; Lasater, Thomas M.; Lapane, Kate L

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between weight patterns during middle age and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus using a subset (n = 1,476) of the Framingham Heart Study original cohort limited-access data set (1948–2003). Participants diagnosed with diabetes before age 50 years were excluded. A functional principal components analysis of body mass index from age 40 years to age 50 years was used to define weight patterns in terms of overall weight status (normal weight, overweight, or ob...

  10. [Healing of a mental patient in the late Middle Ages. Community therapy by Hildegard of Bingen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipperges, H

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of the case history of a woman afflicted with mental disease and its course of healing, as described in the works of St. Hildegard of Bingen. The therapy may be considered as an early attempt of "team work" in health care. For better understanding of this rather casuistic contribution to the medicine of the High Middle Ages some principles of mediaeval medicine are explained. The key figure of "melancolia" is thereby given a position of central importance for the understanding of psychic disturbances in the Middle Ages. PMID:3898621

  11. Increased bilateral interactions in middle-aged subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetkamp, Jolien; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Zijdewind, Inge

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of the age-related neural reorganization is that old versus young adults execute typical motor tasks by a more diffuse neural activation pattern including stronger ipsilateral activation during unilateral tasks. Whether such changes in neural activation are present already at middle age a

  12. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "s

  13. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas;

    2016-01-01

    performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified......Otitis media is a common disease in childhood. In adults, the disease is relatively rare, but more frequently associated with complications. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are age-related differences in pathogen exposure, anatomy of the Eustachian tube and immune system. The objective...... of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been...

  14. [Vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks in young and middle aged patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliavskiĭ, N N; Likhachev, S A; Varenik, T N; Demarin, V

    2008-01-01

    A complex clinical, neurological, laboratory, ultrasound and neuroimaging examination of 70 patients, aged 31-59 years, suffering from vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attack (TIA) was carried out in order to determine clinical and pathogenetic peculiarities of the disease in young and middle aged patients. The hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic lesion of the large cerebral arteries (LCA) as a cause of TIA was observed more rarely in the young and middle age groups than in elderly and aged people. Heart valves lesion was the main cause of cerebral cardioembolism in young and middle aged patients with TIA. A greater number of cases with other established causes of the disease (dissections, kinking of vertebral arteries, hemorheological microocclusion) were revealed. An undetermined pathogenesis of the disease mostly due to the inability to choose the main pathogenetic mechanism out of other potential mechanisms, e.g., the association of arterial hypertension with kinking, the hypoplasia or anomaly of the entrance of vertebral artery into the transverse channel, was observed in these groups more often than in elderly and aged people. The clinical picture of TIA in young and middle aged patients with hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic lesion of LCA had the highest similarity with that in elderly and aged ones. In case of cardioembolic pathogenesis, it was characterized by the markedly less severe signs of the disease and in case of the disease due to isolated arterial hypertension--by the lower rate of vascular white matter abnormalities on neuroimaging. A relatively higher rate of symptoms attributed to the manifestation of hypertensive crisis during the attack was observed in young and middle aged patients with TIA due to isolated arterial hypertension comparing with other pathogenetic variants of the disease. The clinical picture of TIA due to other established causes was depended on the main pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. PMID:19431240

  15. Expiratory muscle endurance in middle-aged healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Levi, M; Gea, J; Ferrer, A; Mendez, R; Ramírez-Sarmiento, A; Maldonado, D; Broquetas, J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate expiratory muscle endurance in middle-aged healthy subjects using incremental as well as constant expiratory loads, 14 healthy volunteers (51 +/- 16 years) were submitted to a specific endurance test, which was performed breathing against a threshold valve, and was divided into two parts. In part I, the load was progressively increased (50 g each 2 min) until task failure occurred. The mean mouth pressure generated against the highest load held for at least 60 sec was defined as the maximal expiratory sustainable pressure (Pth(max)). In part II, each subject breathed against a constant submaximal expiratory load (80% Pth(max)) until task failure occurred (expiratory endurance time or Tth(80)). Both parts of the test were repeated 24-48 h later. Progressive expiratory loading induced a linear increase in mouth expiratory pressure and the Pth(max) obtained was 141 +/- 43 cm H(2)O, representing 74 +/- 28% of the maximal expiratory pressure (PE(max)). Under constant loads, the Tth(80) was 17 +/- 9 min. At the end-point of both parts, the tension time index for expiratory muscles was dramatically increased (>0.25), and both EMG central frequency and PE(max) were decreased with no changes in maximal inspiratory pressure or inspiratory capacity. Extreme dyspnea was present in most of the subjects but no complications were observed. The endurance of expiratory muscles can be easily assessed in healthy subjects using this method, which has acceptable reproducibility and tolerance. PMID:11733852

  16. Factors influencing STI transmission in middle-aged heterosexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsell, Ellen; McLuskey, John

    2016-06-23

    Research has shown that individuals aged 45-64, or the 'middle-aged' population, are at an increasing risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). An exploration of the factors that may influence STIs in this age group was carried out to ascertain how to reduce the risk. A critical review identified 14 research papers that considered STIs in middle-aged people. The available evidence base highlighted an under-representation of women, the absence of a consistent definition of 'middle age', and a paucity of specific information on the sexual health needs of this group. Low condom use was found to be a possible contributor to increasing STI rates; men were shown to report particularly low use. Behaviours such as contact with sex workers and sexual encounters abroad were found to be additional risk factors in men, requiring further consideration. The breakdown and formation of relationships during middle age was also identified as a possible area to investigate, as were the behavioural traits of women and associated STI risk. Further research into these areas could facilitate the development of attitudes, knowledge, policy and practice that could help provide better support for individuals affected. PMID:27345071

  17. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Sarah M. Szymkowicz; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thick...

  18. Study on Body Form and Garment Size Series of the Middle Age and Aged People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 郁进明

    2003-01-01

    This paper was designed to analyze on the data,which was obtained from "National Physique Fitness Investigation Report (2000)".In order to get the typical body form and figure type of the middle age and aged people,it was focused on the body form data of this group (age 4060)[1].After calculation and analyzing,the distinguishing feature of body form and the distribution of figure type were deduced.Finally,the re-classification of body form for Chinese middle age and aged people was suggested.It as also suggested that a new garment size series especially for the middle age and aged should be built to fit for these people.This conclusion would be useful and significant to design and production for clothing company,especially that who take the aged people as their target consumer.

  19. Developmental Dyslexia and Dysgraphia Persistence in Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Christine M.

    1988-01-01

    The case study describes a middle-aged man whose developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia have persisted for the 30 years since he left school. The phonological dyslexic appears to operate on too large units with performance on paralinguistic rhyming tasks, and with higher order sound segmentation, analysis, and organization poor. (Author/DB)

  20. Glioblastoma Invoking "Killer" Rabbits of the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Tarik F; Kalnins, Aleksandrs

    2016-08-01

    We present the unusual appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging of a glioblastoma with an uncanny shape of a rabbit. By invoking fearsome "killer" rabbits depicted in the art and literature of the Middle Ages, this image is an eerie reminder of the current lethality of this disease. There is a pressing need for more effective treatments for glioblastoma. PMID:27157288

  1. Impact of Elderly Mother's Death on Middle Age Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Miriam S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined middle aged daughters' (n=107) responses to death of their mother. In first six months of bereavement, many daughters experienced themes of holding on and letting go. Depression, grief, somatic reactions, impact on sense of self, acceptance of death, and ways in which ties with mother endure were differentially associated with…

  2. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  3. High Middle Ages and medieval studies, in Italy and outside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gasparri

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay offers a brief historiographic assessment of the rather depressed situation of studies about Italy in the early Middle Age; it specifically highlights the paramount issue of ethnical identities, which are, at the moment, the focus of the European scholarly debate.

  4. Learning during middle age: A resistance to stress?

    OpenAIRE

    Hodes, Georgia E; Shors, Tracey J.

    2006-01-01

    Acute stressful experience enhances subsequent learning in males and impairs learning in females. These sex differences emerge soon after puberty in adulthood. Whether these opposite effects of stress on learning extend into older age is unknown. To examine this, young adult (2–3 months) and middle aged (17–18 months) Fischer 344 rats of both sexes were exposed to an acute stress or of brief tail shocks and trained 24 h later with classical eyeblink conditioning using a trace paradigm. Wherea...

  5. Buntsandstein-Muschelkalk magnetostratigraphy from Central Germany: detailed correlation with the Middle Triassic geomagnetic polarity timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurlies, M.

    2009-12-01

    There exist many magnetostratigraphic studies across the boundary of the Lower and Middle Triassic from both marine and non-marine section, providing a detailed magnetic record for the Anisian (Middle Triassic) that is age-constrained by conodont and ammonoid zonations from Tethyan sections. In the classic Germanic Triassic, the Anisian sedimentary succession, i.e. the Upper Buntsandstein to Lower Muschelkalk displays a change from mainly terrestrial red beds and marine to hypersaline evaporites and carbonates of the Upper Buntsandstein to marine limestones and marlstones of the overlying Lower Muschelkalk (so-called Muschelkalk transgression). In Central Germany, the about 100 m thick Lower Muschelkalk is dominated by micritic limestones and marlstones, and interbedded bioclastic and oolitic limestones. Overall, the Lower Muschelkalk sedimentary succession is indicated by a pronounced cyclicity, forming a robust high-resolution cyclostratigraphic framework. Furthermore, it is supported by several well-known marker beds, which can be traced over large parts of the intracratonic Central European Basin. In order to well extend the recently established magnetic polarity record of the Buntsandstein into the overlying Muschelkalk, about 150 paleomagnetic samples have been collected from two outcrops from Central Germany. The demagnetization revealed magnetite as main carrier of primary remanence in most of the samples, allowing the construction of a well-documented magnetic record. The Anisian ammonoids Beneckeia tenuis, Beneckeia buchi, and Balatonites ottonis and the conodont Nicoraella kockeli, which occur in the Upper Buntsandstein and Lower Muschelkalk, provide reliable biostratigraphic ties to the marine Middle Triassic.

  6. The middle ear immune defense changes with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Winther, Ole; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a common disease in childhood. In adults, the disease is relatively rare, but more frequently associated with complications. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are age-related differences in pathogen exposure, anatomy of the Eustachian tube and immune system. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified, of which 51 genes were involved in the middle ear mucosal immune system. Genes related to the innate immune system, including alpha-defensin, calcium-binding proteins S100A9 and S100A8, were upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system, including CD3 molecules, zeta-chain T-cell receptor-associated protein kinase and linker of activated T-cells, were upregulated in the adult. This study concludes that the normal middle ear immune system changes with age. Genes related to the innate immune system are upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system are upregulated in adults.

  7. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  8. Increased bilateral interactions in middle-aged subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien eHeetkamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the age-related neural reorganization is that old vs. young adults execute typical motor tasks by a more diffuse neural activation pattern including stronger ipsilateral activation during unilateral tasks. Whether such changes in neural activation are present already at middle age and affect bimanual interactions is unknown. We compared the amount of associated activity, i.e., muscle activity and force produced by the non-task hand and motor evoked potentials (MEPs produced by magnetic brain stimulation between young (mean 24 y, n = 10 and middle-aged (mean 50 y, n = 10 subjects during brief unilateral (7 levels of % maximal voluntary contractions, MVC and bilateral contractions (4 x 7 levels of % MVC combinations, and during a 120-s-long MVC of sustained unilateral index finger abduction. During the force production the excitability of the ipsilateral (iM1 or contralateral (cM1 primary motor cortex was assessed. The associated activity in the ‘resting’ hand was ~2-fold higher in middle-aged (28% of MVC vs. young adults (11% of MVC during brief unilateral MVCs. After controlling for background muscle activity, MEPs in iM1 were similar in the two groups during brief unilateral contractions. At low (bilateral forces only, MEPs evoked in cM1 were 30% higher in the middle-aged vs. young adults. At the start of the sustained contraction, the associated activity was higher in the middle-aged vs. young subjects and increased progressively in both groups (30% vs. 15% MVC at 120 s, respectively. MEPs were greater at the start of the sustained contraction in middle-aged subjects but increased further during the contraction only in young adults. Under these experimental conditions, the data provide evidence for the reorganization of neural control of unilateral force production as early as age 50. Future studies will determine if the altered neural control of such inter-manual interactions are of functional significance.

  9. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  10. Physical activity and sexual function in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 370 middle-aged women (40-65 years old, treated at public health care facilities in a Brazilian city. A questionnaire was used containing enquiries on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short form, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results The average age of the women studied was 49.8 years (± 8.1, 67% of whom exhibited sexual dysfunction (FSFI ≤ 26.55. Sedentary women had a higher prevalence (78.9% of sexual dysfunction when compared to active (57.6% and moderately active (66.7% females (p = 0.002. Physically active women obtained higher score in all FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain and total FSFI score (20.9, indicating better sexual function than their moderately active (18.8 and sedentary (15.6 counterparts (p <0.05. Conclusion Physical activity appears to influence sexual function positively in middle-aged women.

  11. [What did pigs look like in the Middle Ages?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H

    2006-01-01

    The conformation of medieval swine is less well documented by written reports or osteological states. This paper evaluates the conformation of medieval pigs from about 140 pictures of various sources (books of hours, misericords, illustration of bibles text or proverbs, sculptures etc.). The pictures demonstrate that medieval pigs mainly were long legged, slender, razor backed, bristly with long snouts and prick ears (Tab. 1) well adapted for herding in forests and waste land. In mediterranean countries in early and high Middle Ages as well as in some regions of France and England in the late Middle Ages compact animals with shorts snouts and lopears were depicted. Probably these typs resulted from other housing and feeding conditions (stall feeding with wastes from fields, gardens, kitchen etc.). Medieval pigs were one-coloured white, grey, black and sometimes red, pictures from saddle-back animals came from Italy or south Germany. PMID:16475550

  12. Asexuality Development among Middle Aged and Older Men

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-xiang; Hu, Kai; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Feng, Tan; Jin, Yan; Han, Yin-Fa; Wang, Yi-Xin; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. Subjects and Methods Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency≥1 time per month) were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED), moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asex...

  13. Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Cardona, A.

    2014-12-01

    The final closure of the Panama Isthmus and permanent separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters is thought to have modified their salinity, faunistic assemblages, and ultimately, ocean circulation patterns and global climate. The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) is thought to have been the result of Plio-Pleistocene closure of the Isthmus that allowed land animals to massively cross the Isthmus. Similarly, the separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters by a rising Isthmus is thougth to be a prime example of vicariance. The role of Isthmus closure on global changes, however, remains controversial due in part to the difficulty of establishing a precise chronology of seaway closure. While timing of glaciation is well established, new data on the chronology of Isthmus emergence suggests that the process of closure is more complex, long, and old than previously thought. We sampled fluvial and shallow marine strata in northwesternmost South America to recover zircon grains for provenance analyses in the immediate vicinity of the docking site. Because the ages of magmatic provinces in northwestern South America and the Panama Isthmus are mutually exclusive, detrital zircon analyses provides a tool to evaluate land connections. We found that an uniquely Panamanian, 40-45 Ma (early Lutetian) detrital zircon fingerprint is abundant in middle Miocene strata, but absent in underlying lower Miocene and Oligocene strata of the northern Andes. This fingerprint represents the beginning of fluvial detrital exchange between the Panama arc and South America, and therefore marks the time of docking and the end of deep-water, and probably shallow-water connections by middle Miocene times.

  14. Altered Allogeneic Immune Responses in Middle-Aged Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiminSun; HanhanLi; AlanN.Langnas

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that leukocyte composition, T cell phenotypes and immune function change in aged mice and humans. However, limited and conflicting results on the age-related immune changes in middle-aged mice were reported. Identification of the characteristics of allogeneic immune responses in aging mice may offer important information for transplantation immunology. The major age-related changes in the immune cell phenotypes and function of 12 months old mice include: 1) the significantly decreased CD4+ cell population in the peripheral blood, the major peripheral CD4+ cells is CD45RBlowCD62Llow memory phenotype; 2) the in vitro responses to alloantigens and Con A of splenocytes markedly reduced; 3) the in vivo secondary humoral immune responses to alloantigens significantly declined; 4) the age-related alteration in the thymus mainly occurred in CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) stage; and 5) increased CD80+ and MHC class II+ cell population in spleens. Thus, the major age-related immune changes in 12 months old mice occurred in CD4+ T cells in the periphery and DP stage in the thymus, which may subsequently lead to the decreased allogeneic immune responses and the different sensitivity to immunosuppressive drugs and treatments. Further studies on the characteristics of allogeneic immunity in aging individuals may help to determine the appropriated treatment for transplant aging individuals. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(6):440-446.

  15. Altered Allogeneic Immune Responses in Middle-Aged Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin Sun; Hanhan Li; Alan N. Langnas; Yong Zhao

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that leukocyte composition, T cell phenotypes and immune function change in aged mice and humans. However, limited and conflicting results on the age-related immune changes in middle-aged mice were reported. Identification of the characteristics of allogeneic immune responses in aging mice may offer important information for transplantation immunology. The major age-related changes in the immune cell phenotypes and function of 12 months old mice include: 1) the significantly decreased CD4+ cell population in the peripheral blood, the major peripheral CD4+ cells is CD45RBlowCD62Llow memory phenotype; 2) the in vitro responses to alloantigens and Con A of splenocytes markedly reduced; 3) the in vivo secondary humoral immune responses to alloantigens significantly declined; 4) the age-related alteration in the thymus mainly occurred in CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) stage; and 5) increased CD80+ and MHC class Ⅱ+ cell population in spleens. Thus, the major age-related immune changes in 12 months old mice occurred in CD4+ T cells in the periphery and DP stage in the thymus, which may subsequently lead to the decreased allogeneic immune responses and the different sensitivity to immunosuppressive drugs and treatments. Further studies on the characteristics of allogeneic immunity in aging individuals may help to determine the appropriated treatment for transplant aging individuals. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004; 1(6) :440-446.

  16. Age at menarche and its association with dysglycemia in Korean middle-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Tae-Hwa; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Joungwon; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Yuni; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Recent studies have demonstrated that earlier menarche is associated with increased risks of prediabetes and diabetes in white women; however, the associations have not been fully explored in Asian populations. We investigated the associations between age at menarche and prediabetes and/or diabetes in Korean middle-aged women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,039 premenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 44 to 56 years who visited the health promotion center ...

  17. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking.

  18. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking. PMID:24925380

  19. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  20. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... inactivity from age 50 to 60 to 70 on disability at age 75 when adjusting for functional ability at age 70. Physical inactivity is a risk factor for disability among old people. Thus, old people should be encouraged to take up and maintain physical training throughout the aging process.......) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...

  1. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D T; Wolfe-Simon, F; Pearson, A; Knoll, A H

    2009-10-01

    Molecular oxygen (O(2)) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580-550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O(2) production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O(2) budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(2+) rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms.

  2. Memory Deficits Are Associated with Impaired Ability to Modulate Neuronal Excitability in Middle-Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Normal aging disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and learning and memory. Aging deficits were exposed in a subset (30%) of middle-aged mice that performed below criterion on a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Basal neuronal excitability was comparable in middle-aged and young mice, but learning-related modulation of the…

  3. Foundations of Byzantine late middle ages architecture thoughtfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Only in the recent few years have a number of facsimile publications on architecture offered a possibility of studying the original texts from different time periods. Those, already rare studies on the theory of architecture in the western civilization, almost regularly completely omit the Byzantine achievements in the so-called entirety of thoughtfulness (enkyklios paideia, that was a main characteristic of Byzantine learning. This learning, based on the ancient Greek and Hellenistic foundations, in many ways concern architecture, especially the architectural theory. That is why writing a good account of the architectural theory of this, historically such an important country as Byzantium, in such a long historical period (since 312 till 1453, has been a difficult task (this contribution is just the initial part of the study. One should not be disregarded that the architectural theories are never completely independent of historical geographical or even personal prejudices of their authors. In this sense, a subject matter of this treatise is just one 1141 year long part of the architectural theory of the West (West - in civilizational terms, not a political West, the part that rests on Christian foundations that is the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Protestant ones, mainly. It is all treated in order, from ancient pagan Greece and Rome, ancient and Middle Ages Orthodox Byzantium, until Middle Ages and New Age Europe, altogether, Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Protestant Europe, and then those parts of the world in which the said civilizational circle managed to take root in: parts of Asia, North and South America, parts of Africa and Australia.

  4. Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eParbery-Clark

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Older adults frequently complain that while they can hear a person talking, they cannot understand what is being said; this difficulty is exacerbated by background noise. Peripheral hearing loss cannot fully account for this age-related decline in speech-in-noise ability, as declines in central processing also contribute to this problem. Given that musicians have enhanced speech-in-noise perception, we aimed to define the effects of musical experience on subcortical responses to speech and speech-in-noise perception in middle-aged adults. Results reveal that musicians have enhanced neural encoding of speech in quiet and noisy settings. Enhancements include faster neural response timing, higher neural response consistency, more robust encoding of speech harmonics and greater neural precision. Taken together, we suggest that musical experience provides perceptual benefits in an aging population by strengthening the underlying neural pathways necessary for accurate representation of important temporal and spectral features of sound.

  5. Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Older adults frequently complain that while they can hear a person talking, they cannot understand what is being said; this difficulty is exacerbated by background noise. Peripheral hearing loss cannot fully account for this age-related decline in speech-in-noise ability, as declines in central processing also contribute to this problem. Given that musicians have enhanced speech-in-noise perception, we aimed to define the effects of musical experience on subcortical responses to speech and speech-in-noise perception in middle-aged adults. Results reveal that musicians have enhanced neural encoding of speech in quiet and noisy settings. Enhancements include faster neural response timing, higher neural response consistency, more robust encoding of speech harmonics, and greater neural precision. Taken together, we suggest that musical experience provides perceptual benefits in an aging population by strengthening the underlying neural pathways necessary for the accurate representation of important temporal and spectral features of sound.

  6. Reconstruction of skull defects in the middle ages and renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missori, Paolo; Currà, Antonio; Paris, Harry S; Peschillo, Simone; Fattapposta, Francesco; Paolini, Sergio; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    In Egyptian, Greco-Roman, and Arabic medicine, the closure of a skull defect was not provided at the end of a therapeutic trepanation or in cases of bone removal. The literature from the Middle Ages and Renaissance disclosed some striking and forgotten practices. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1180 to c. 1250) cites the use of a piece of a cup made from wooden bowl (ciphum or mazer) or a gold sheet to cover the gap and protect the brain in these patients; this citation probably reflected a widely known folk practice. Pietro d'Argellata introduced the use of a fixed piece of dried gourd for brain protection to reconstruct a skull defect. In the late Renaissance, the negative folklore describing this outlandish practice likely led to the use of silver and lead sheets. Nevertheless, for centuries, large numbers of surgeons preferred to leave the dura mater uncovered after bone removal, and failed to apply any brain protection.

  7. Reconstruction of skull defects in the middle ages and renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missori, Paolo; Currà, Antonio; Paris, Harry S; Peschillo, Simone; Fattapposta, Francesco; Paolini, Sergio; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    In Egyptian, Greco-Roman, and Arabic medicine, the closure of a skull defect was not provided at the end of a therapeutic trepanation or in cases of bone removal. The literature from the Middle Ages and Renaissance disclosed some striking and forgotten practices. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1180 to c. 1250) cites the use of a piece of a cup made from wooden bowl (ciphum or mazer) or a gold sheet to cover the gap and protect the brain in these patients; this citation probably reflected a widely known folk practice. Pietro d'Argellata introduced the use of a fixed piece of dried gourd for brain protection to reconstruct a skull defect. In the late Renaissance, the negative folklore describing this outlandish practice likely led to the use of silver and lead sheets. Nevertheless, for centuries, large numbers of surgeons preferred to leave the dura mater uncovered after bone removal, and failed to apply any brain protection. PMID:25403799

  8. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED, moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR 17.69 versus (Vs. 7.19, diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36 and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72. The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%, "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%, "severe stress" (44.4%, "severe fatigue" (26.3% and "masturbation" (26.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  9. The Serbian family in the late Middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Mišić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marriage in Serbia in the middle ages was conducted only between persons belonging to the same social class. It was arranged and the woman would bring a dowry which would be controlled by the husband as long as the marriage lasted. Male children would inherit their father. Daughters played a significant role in connecting families through marriage. A man, unlike a woman would not bear any consequences in case of adultery. The consequence of this was a large number of extramarital children. In the Serbian state in the middle ages the family, or the “home” (kuća as it is named in sources, was the basic unit of society. The family could be nuclear or cooperative. Through the analysis of diplomatic data, as well as the first Turkish books – defters, one can see that one quarter of the population lived in nuclear families. More than half of the families which lived in cooperative arrangements were made up of small cooperatives numbering no more than two or three members. Almost all cooperative families were made up of father-son or brotherly cooperatives. The type of cooperative was largely influenced by the length of life or the capability of giving birth. The source material shows a small number of large cooperatives. Nuclear families and cooperative families are present in both the nobility and the small folk (dependents. There is no difference in the family structure with regard to social status. Nuclear families are omnipresent, and the characteristics of cooperative families are the same in nobility, serfs, sokalniks (a class a little above the serfs, who were most often servants, with certain privileges, priests, repairmen or fishermen. The difference is seen only within the Vlach population where in the cooperative there are more sons in law than in other populations. This is the result of an attempt of an agrarian population to move toward the status of herdsmen which was more favorable for them.

  10. Intrinsic brain connectivity related to age in young and middle aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hampson

    Full Text Available Age-related variations in resting state connectivity of the human brain were examined from young adulthood through middle age. A voxel-based network measure, degree, was used to assess age-related differences in tissue connectivity throughout the brain. Increases in connectivity with age were found in paralimbic cortical and subcortical regions. Decreases in connectivity were found in cortical regions, including visual areas and the default mode network. These findings differ from those of recent developmental studies examining earlier growth trajectories, and are consistent with known changes in cognitive function and emotional processing during mature aging. The results support and extend previous findings that relied on a priori definitions of regions of interest for their analyses. This approach of applying a voxel-based measure to examine the functional connectivity of individual tissue elements over time, without the need for a priori region of interest definitions, provides an important new tool in brain science.

  11. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Min Jeong Kim; Chul Won Lee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged wom...

  12. Wizards and scientists: the pharmacologic experience in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F; Mangrella, M; Loffreda, A; Lampa, E

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark ages, Greco-Roman science survived in the eastern Roman Empire and the most important advances in pharmacology and pharmacy were made in Byzantium. As the Arab empires spread in the 7th and 8th centuries, they incorporated earlier learning, and the most important contribution of Arabic medical writers was probably the introduction of formularies to aid in the preparation of medicines. In turn, the later spread of Arabic knowledge to the West introduced little-known plants and fostered an interest in collecting and cultivating them, and also introduced the palatable dose forms preferred by the Arabic doctors. In the West, however, the Christian Church taught a doctrine of unquestioning faith, and despite the centers of learning, e.g. at Salerno, most ordinary people depended on the healing power of faith, religious relics and traditional folk medicine. Hydrology was also well developed in the Middle Ages. The formularia that survive describe many indigenous plants, but with few illustrations. Their gathering and preparation is generally guided by magic ceremonies and ritual, and plants often took their properties from their habitat, e.g. the wayside plantain was thought good for tired or wounded feet. Concepts of therapeutic plants were also influenced by alchemy and were linked to related metals and planets. PMID:7847474

  13. Survey on central obesity among middle-aged and elderly people of Uygurs and Hans ethnicities in Xinjiang%新疆维吾尔族和汉族50岁以上人群中心性肥胖调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓辉; 张钿; 古丽扎尔·买买提明; 李莉; 郝晨光

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study central obesity among middle-aged and elderly residents of Xinjiang Uygur and Han ethnicities, living in rural and urban areas. Methods Multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling approaches were adopted to collect data from 6 areas in Soutbem, Eastern, Northern Xinjiang and Urumqi city community, from July of 2005 to June of 2007. Results 8284 people were investigated to have found that the crude prevalence rate and the adjusted standardized incidence were 50.11% and 55.40% respectively, on central obesity. The figures were higher than the national level, according to the 2000 census age composition of Xinjiang. The prevalence rate of central obesity was higher in males than in females (P<0.05) higher in residents of Uygur than in Han ethnicities(P<0.05). The prevalent rates of the central obesity hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia were higher than those of non-obese ones (P<0.05). Conclusion The standardized prevalence rates of central obesity in residents with Xinjiang Uygur and Hart ethnicities were higher than data from the national statistics. Differences were found in ethnicity, gender and age. The prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia in people having central obesity were higher than the non-obese ones.%目的 了解新疆维吾尔(维)族和汉族人群中心性肥胖现患状况、分布特点及几种慢性非传染性疾病(慢性病)在中心性肥胖和非中心性肥胖者之间患病率的比较.方法 2005年7月至2007年6月采用随机分层多级整群抽样方法,随机抽取南疆、东疆、北疆、乌鲁木齐市区50岁以上的汉族及维族中老年人进行调查.结果 共调查新疆维、汉两民族8284人,中心性肥胖的粗患病率为55.40%.按2000年全国人口年龄构成标化,维、汉两民族中心性肥胖的标化患病率为50.11%.其中男性中心性肥胖的患病率高于女性(P<0.05);维族中心性肥胖的患病率均高于汉族(P<0.05).中心性肥胖者高

  14. Stone age transitions. Neolithisation in central Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Knutsson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A summary of a series of individual research projects focused on the processes from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic in central Scandinavia. The projects were embeded in the "Coast to Coast project". The historicity in this process was emphasised.

  15. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  16. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  17. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1 psychological benefit, (2 physical benefit, and (3 social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  18. Seismic stratigraphy of middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU) in central Gulf of Mexico basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    A widespread high-amplitude reflector seen on seismic data throughout the Gulf of Mexico has been called the middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU). This reflector seems to be a major stratigraphic boundary in the Gulf of Mexico basin. It is believed to correspond to Vail's type 1 unconformity of middle Cenomanian age (97 Ma), which records an eustatic drop in sea level of approximately 200 m. This study area includes the entire Gulf of Mexico, except areas of thick, highly deformed salt where following the MCU with any degree of confidence becomes impossible. The MCU is easy to follow in multichannel seismic reflection profiles collected by the Institute for Geophysics of the University of Texas at Austin in the Gulf of Mexico. In central, deeper part of the gulf, reflectors above and below the MCU are parallel. In the southern and eastern rims of the gulf, along the Campeche and Florida escarpments, reflectors are truncated below the MCU and show onlap relationships above it. Therefore, the MCU may be interpreted as representing an unconformity along the southern and eastern rims of the Gulf of Mexico basin. The unconformity appears to die out and grade into a conformable section toward the center of the basin, and channeling is common along the Campeche and Florida escarpments. These channels can be projected back into canyons in the escarpments, which were probably initiated by subaerial exposure of the top of the escarpments during the middle Cretaceous lowstand. The downslope channels, being sourced by the canyons, were cut in deep water.

  19. As Old as You Feel: Age Identity in Middle and Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviewed 1,200 adults aged 40 and older to study age identity (labels reflecting self-perception in terms of age) and its relationship to well-being. Chronological age, poor health, and widow or divorce status are associated with older age identity. Having children is related to middle-aged identity. (KS)

  20. A middle age addicted man with caustic stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Nouri Broujerdi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term caustic generally refers to alkaline and the term corrosive generally refers to acidic agents' injury; however, in medical literature caustic is frequently a term applied to both substances. Ingested alkali typically damage the esophagus more than stomach or duodenum, whereas acids usually cause more severe gastric injury. Since esophagus has a slightly alkaline pH, its epithelium is more resistant to acids, so that only 6 to 20% of those who ingest these substances present lesions in this organ. Case : A middle-aged addicted man who drunk hydrochloric acid accidentally had extensive necrosis of the stomach with remarkable sparing of the esophagus on second look exploration. A total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophago-jejunostomy with feeding jejunostomy was performed. Conclusion : In caustic GI injury, patients who are operated on and found to have no evidence of extensive esophago-gastric necrosis, a biopsy of the posterior gastric wall should be performed to exclude occult injury. If histologically there is a question of viability, a second look operation should be performed within 36 hours.

  1. Myths of the state in the West European Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first centuries of the barbarian kingdoms the most striking feature is the gens, the tribe, as the principle of unity, even if the ethnic homogeneity often was missing. The myth of the Germanic State of the early Middle Ages was in the first place a myth of the common origin of the gens.These histories of tribal origins have some times been influenced by powerful Ancient literary patterns, especially the Trojan myth of Virgil. But the concern of presenting the origin of the gens in mythical form is no doubt Germanic. And it seems probable that the tribal origins are more ancient than the genealogies of royal families with alleged divine ancestors. The kingship among the Germanic tribes was secondary in relation to the tribe. The king was rex Francorum; the king of a certain country or geographic territory is a later conception. The power comes from below; the king is an exponent of the tribe. All the Germanic words for "king" are derivations from terms for "kin, people, tribe." The limitation of the power of the king is also indicated by institutions like the right to resistence, the possibility to depose the king, the participation by all free men in the judicial and criminal procedure through self-help and blood feud.

  2. Age estimation using maxillary central incisors: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the field of forensic dentistry, secondary changes in teeth with advancing age have been used as reliable predictors of age in various studies. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and morphological parameters of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects between 20-70 years of age were included in the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were taken in relation to maxillary central incisors using paralleling technique. The following measurements were recorded: lengths of tooth, pulp, root and width of root and pulp at three different points. Regression formulas were used to calculate the dental age. Results: The mean estimated age showed no statistically significant difference from the actual mean age (P > 0.05. Also, maximum difference was seen for root length variable (-1.035 ± 1.86 years.

  3. Kinematic ages of central stars of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, W J; Costa, R D D

    2011-01-01

    The age distribution of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) is estimated using two methods based on their kinematic properties. First, the expected rotation velocities of the nebulae at their Galactocentric distances are compared with the predicted values for the rotation curve, and the differences are attributed to the different ages of the evolved stars. Adopting the relation between the ages and the velocity dispersions determined by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey, the age distribution can be derived. Second, the U, V, W, velocity components of the stars are determined, and the corresponding age-velocity dispersion relations are used to infer the age distribution. These methods have been applied to two samples of PN in the Galaxy. The results are similar for both samples, and show that the age distribution of the PN central stars concentrates in ages lower than 5 Gyr, peaking at about 1 to 3 Gyr.

  4. Social Perception of Middle-Aged Persons Varying in Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gerald R.; Huston, Ted L.

    1975-01-01

    This study indicates that more socially desirable characteristics are attributed to physically attractive than unattractive middle-aged persons. It is suggested that this difference in social desirability is greater for female than male stimuli and that elderly persons stereotype middle-aged persons more favorably than young adults do. (JMB)

  5. Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Madsen, Mia; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate contribution of social class in early and adult life to differences in health and physical function in middle-aged men. We use data from the Metropolit project which includes men born in 1953 in Copenhagen and a study of middle-aged Danish twins (MADT). In...

  6. Age-related changes in behavior in C57BL/6J mice from young adulthood to middle age

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is considered to be associated with progressive changes in the brain and its associated sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. A large number of studies comparing young and aged animals have reported differences in various behaviors between age-cohorts, indicating behavioral dysfunctions related to aging. However, relatively little is known about behavioral changes from young adulthood to middle age, and the effect of age on behavior during the early stages of life remains ...

  7. Notes on Classes, Domination and Social Conflicts in the High Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Jorge da Motta Bastos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Except for a History that is mobilized, nowadays, much more by the supposedly continuities than the changes, the periods of major transitions continue to demand interpretative effort from specialists. It is long the list of those who have been dedicated to the transitional problem between the Antiquity and the Middle Ages, focused on a period of poor and unequally distributed sources, trying to shed light and establish various interpretative means for this phenomenon. Albeit having overcome some of the catastrophic perspectives hindering the pioneer analyses within this context, the current approaches have also eliminated the recognition of both the contradictory manifestations and the social struggles acting as central and fundamental engines of the social transformations within the discussed context. When supported by an adequate theoretical background, documents from the period lead us to a process resulting from contradictions and a scenario of actions and reactions that eventually materialized the conflicts and moved History forward. The transition from the Antiquity to the Middle Ages was encompassed by diverse social antagonist manifestations, which allows us to consider that the arena of disputes were, therefore, that of the society itself

  8. A middle-aged man with increasing body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, J K Y; Lam, K S L; Chow, W S; Tan, K C B

    2014-08-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred for evaluation of gradual increase in body fat over bilateral arms, chest and abdomen for 6 months. He was a non-smoker and he drank at least four bottles of beer daily since the age of 18. There was no significant past medical history or any family history of obesity or endocrine diseases. Physical examination showed localized large bulk of fat over the neck, both arms and mammary regions, abdomen, and back (Figs  and ). The lower limbs and buttock were relatively spared. There was telangiectasia over the face and chest wall, but no palmar erythema nor finger clubbing. The liver span was normal, and the spleen tip was palpated 2 cm below the costal margin. Examination of the cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological system was normal. [Figure: see text] [Figure: see text] Blood tests showed thrombocytopenia (platelet 140 × 10(9)  L(-1) [normal: 170-380 × 10(9)  L(-1) ]) and liver function derangement (bilirubin 27 μmol L(-1) , ALP 298 U L(-1) , ALT 127 U L(-1) , AST 165 U L(-1) , GGT 1353 U L(-1) , albumin 33 g L(-1) and globulin 42 g L(-1) ). His clotting profile and renal functions were normal. His hepatitis B surface antigen was positive, but his HBV DNA was <60 copies per mL. Fasting glucose was 5.0 mmol L(-1) . HbA1c was 5.6%. His lipid profile was satisfactory with total cholesterol of 2.9 mmol L(-1) , triglycerides 1.0 mmol L(-1) , HDL-C 1.37 mmol L(-1) and LDL-C 1.1 mmol L(-1) . Ultrasound of the abdomen showed normal-sized liver with coarsened liver parenchymal echogenicity. The spleen was enlarged to 14 cm. This middle-aged man suffered from multiple symmetric lipomatosis and alcoholic liver disease. Dual-energy X-ray showed 1746 gm (40.1%), 1498 gm (32.8%) and 8322 gm (26.8%) fat over the left arm, right arm and trunk, respectively. The legs were unaffected with 1703 gm (19.4%) and 1627 gm (17.7%) fat over the left and right sides

  9. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  10. Martial art training enhances the glutathione antioxidant system in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Elokda, Ahmed S; Handrakis, John P; Principal, Suze; Rondo, Eleni; Bovell, Juan; Coughlin, William P; Mastroianni, Charles N; Wong, Michael J; Zimmerman, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity of physically active middle-aged martial artists to age-matched sedentary controls. Nine sedentary subjects (mean age 52.9 yr) and 9 martial artists (mean age 51.8 yr) who practice Soo Bahk Do, a Korean martial art and were age- and sex-matched performed a graded exercise test (GXT) using a modified Bruce protocol. Ages ranged from 41 to 58 years. A GXT has been shown to be an effective technique for inducing oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is the body's most highly concentrated antioxidant, is the central component of the antioxidant system, and plays an essential role in protecting tissues against oxidative stress. Free radical oxidation leads to the transformation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Venous blood samples for GSH and GSSG were collected before and immediately after the GXT. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed on the resting baseline values and immediate post-GXT values of GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG to compare groups. The blood GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG levels were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the 2 groups at rest and after the GXT. The Soo Bahk Do practitioners had higher resting levels of GSH and lower levels of GSSG and responded more effectively to acute oxidative stress than the age-matched sedentary controls. Soo Bahk Do appears to enhance the antioxidant defense system and may be an effective intervention for improving overall health by protecting against the adverse effects of oxidative stress that is associated with the free radical theory of aging. Health professionals should be aware of alternative methods of training, conditioning, and exercise that can improve the general adaptation response to oxidative stress.

  11. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  12. Radiocarbon ages of upper quaternary deposit in central Nepal and their geomorphological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author visited Nepal from October, 1980, to February, 1981, investigated the geomorphology and upper Quaternary geology in Central Nepal, and collected a number of samples for radiocarbon dating. After returning to his university, he dated ten samples by himself. In Nepal, radiocarbon age has been scarcely reported as yet, besides in Kathmandu valley. Therefore, the author's ten data of the age are very important for the late Quaternary chronological study of Nepal Himalayas. In this paper, the author describes sampling localities and horizons, dating results and their geomorphological significance. These ten samples included Pokhara valley, Marsyandi Kohla, Modi Khola, Madi Khola and Muktinath samples. Some conclusion was derived as for the geomorphological development in central Nepal: The last Himalayan glacial age had already ended before 9,000 yr BP (years before A.D. 1950); In the Midland region, from 4,300 to 600 yr BP, some large-scale mudflows broke out nearly contemporaneously in the upper valleys, and they flowed down torrentially and catastrophically to deposit in the middle course of rivers. But the cause of vast quantity of material suddenly brought down from the Great Himalayas has been still left unexplained. The conclusion like this also was able to be applied to the middle Marsyandi Khola and the Pokhara valley. The wide-spread schema that the river was aggraded in the glacial age and degraded in the interglacial age may not be applicable to the rivers in the Midland region of Nepal Himalayas. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Brain Infarction and Hemorrhage in Young and Middle-aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Joseph R.; Filley, Christopher M.; Earnest, Michael P.; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    1984-01-01

    Of 131 young (17 to 44 years) and middle-aged (45 to 55 years) adults who had brain infarction or hemorrhage, the most common etiologic factors were rheumatic heart disease, migraine and oral contraceptive use among the younger group. In contrast, atherosclerotic, hypertensive and diabetes-associated cerebrovascular were the most common causes in the middle-aged group. Patients who have a stroke before age 45 should have prompt, complete laboratory and radiologic testing to define a possible ...

  14. Human presence in the central Netherlands during early MIS 6 (∼170-190 Ka): Evidence from early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts in ice-pushed Rhine-Meuse sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Busschers, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Part of the gravelly deposits of a combined Rhine-Meuse river of Middle Pleistocene age in the central Netherlands contains early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts. Although not in their original position, a significant part of these artefacts is hardly abraded, indicating limited fluvial transport. The

  15. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  16. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  17. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years...... unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established......., small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time was...

  18. Youth as Design Partners: Age-Appropriate Websites for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Anthony S.; Smith, Kathelene McCarty; Sun, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of using best practices identified in previous studies in designing age-appropriate websites for middle and high school youth. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, 31 middle and 22 high school youth took part in six focus groups across four states. Participants were introduced to a website specifically designed for…

  19. Isotopic dietary reconstruction of humans from Middle Bronze Age Lerna, Argolid, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantaphyllou, S.; Richards, M. P.; Zerner, C.; Voutsaki, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of 39 human bone and 8 animal samples from Middle Bronze Age (or Middle Helladic, MH, ca. 2100-1700 BC) Lerna, Greece. The isotopic data indicate that the humans had a C-3 terrestrial diet while certain individuals appe

  20. Latest Permian to Middle Triassic cyclo-magnetostratigraphy from the Central European Basin, Germany: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurlies, Michael

    2007-09-01

    In Central Germany, the about 1 km thick mainly clastic Germanic Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) consists of about 60 sedimentary cycles, which are considered to reflect variability in precipitation within the epicontinental Central European Basin, most probably due to solar-induced short eccentricity cycles. They provide a high-resolution cyclostratigraphic framework that constitutes the base for creating a composite geomagnetic polarity record, in which this paper presents a Middle Buntsandstein to lowermost Muschelkalk magnetostratigraphy obtained from 6 outcrops and 2 wells where a total of 471 samples was collected. Combined with recently established records, a well-documented magnetostratigraphy for the upper Zechstein to lowermost Muschelkalk (latest Permian to Middle Triassic) of Central Germany has been constructed, encompassing an overall stratigraphic thickness of about 1.3 km and 22 magnetozones derived from about 2050 paleomagnetic samples. Along with available biostratigraphy, this multi-disciplinary study facilitates detailed links to the marine realm, in order to directly refer biostratigraphically calibrated Triassic stage boundaries as well as radioisotopic ages to the Buntsandstein cyclostratigraphy and, conversely, to contribute to calibrating the geologic timescale.

  1. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  2. Eosinophilic Meningitis in a Middle Aged Man After Consumption of Camel Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ummer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a middle aged male who presented with headache and vomiting and later diagnosed to have eosinophilic meningitis as a complication after consumption of camel meat.

  3. Diet or Exercise: What's Best for the Middle-Aged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160988.html Diet or Exercise: What's Best for the Middle-Aged ... heart health, is it better to exercise or diet? New research says dieting, exercising or a combination ...

  4. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early ... more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage lung cancer than those who are slightly older, a new ...

  5. Why Stroke in Middle Age Is More Deadly for Blacks Than Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159167.html Why Stroke in Middle Age Is More Deadly for Blacks ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A higher stroke rate -- not differences in care after a stroke -- ...

  6. A survey of European astronomical tables in the late middle ages

    CERN Document Server

    Chabás, José

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey of the numerous astronomical tables compiled in the late Middle Ages, which represent a major intellectual enterprise. Such tables were often the best way available at the time for transmitting precise information to the reader.

  7. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Bruunsgaard, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals....

  8. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    OpenAIRE

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to...

  9. The Disappearing Middle Ages: Medieval History in National Socialist Volksschulen Textbooks 1933 - 1945

    OpenAIRE

    De Caprio, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    My research points out, on the one hand: the “disappering” of the Middle Ages from the Volksschulen textbooks of the National Socialist Germany; on the other hand, the failure of the Nazi Regime policies to reform the German school and education system. Firstly, in the Volksschulen textbooks the German pre-history and not the Medieval history was described as the “golden Age” of the Aryan-Germanic populations. Thereby, the Middle Ages disappeared from many Volksschulen textbooks. Seco...

  10. Oestradiol and IGF1 reduce cell loss after global ischemia in middle-aged female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Traub, Michael L.; De Butte-Smith, Maxine; Zukin, R. Suzanne; Etgen, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the ability of oestradiol and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) to afford neuroprotection against ischemia-induced neuronal death in young female and male rodents is well established, the impact of IGF1 in middle-aged animals is largely unknown. This study assessed the efficacy of oestradiol and IGF1 in reducing neuronal death after transient global ischemia in middle-aged female rats following an 8-week hormone withdrawal. Rats were ovariohysterectomized (OVX) and implanted 8 weeks...

  11. A Study of Classification of Figures and Sizes for Middle-and Old-Aged Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴刚; 李元虹

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of human figurcs, variable laws and the basic sizes of each part of human body have been fouad by means of anthropometric measurements of the middle-and old-aged men and data analyses. Also,proposals of how to classify dimensions and sizes of the medium hunan figures among the middle-and old-aged men have been put forward.

  12. The Hordaland Womens's Cohort. A longitudinal study on urinary incontinence in middle-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanlu, David

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent problem among middle-aged women, and many epidemiological studies have investigated this problem. Most of these studies are cross-sectional and only few longitudinal studies have been conducted. Thus, the knowledge about incidence, remission and natural history of UI is scarce. The aim of that present dissertation was to answer major epidemiological questions about incidence, progress and remission of UI in middle-aged women.The Hordalan...

  13. Clinical Usefulness of Shoulder Stability Exercises for Middle-aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seok-Hwa; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of shoulder stability exercises and the effect of stability exercise on the shoulder pain of middle-aged women. [Subjects] Twenty-two middle-aged female subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a shoulder stability exercise group (Experimental group, n=11) and a control group (n=11). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group performed a shoulder stability exercise, which was designed to correct abnormal location of the scapula, f...

  14. Factors Predicting Glycemic Control in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Ju Chiu, PhD; Linda A. Wray, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have prospectively assessed the explanatory effects of demographics, clinical conditions, treatment modality, and general lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control in large heterogeneous samples of middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. We hierarchically examined these factors, focused especially on the effects of modifiable factors (ie, general lifestyle behaviors), and compared predictive patterns between middle-aged and older adults. Methods We used natio...

  15. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  16. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Xu, Meihong; Fan, Rui; Ma, Xiaotao; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qihe; Ren, Jinwei; Mao, Ruixue; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). Results: After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p < 0.05). HbA1c reduced significantly by 0.6% in the intervention group. No significant differences in the change of blood lipids were observed between groups. However, TG, TC, and HDL-c made improvements compared with the baseline in the experimental group. Both groups had a reduction in weight and BMI within groups, especially in intensive nutrition education group. However, there was

  17. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total glycerin (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c. Results: After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p < 0.05. HbA1c reduced significantly by 0.6% in the intervention group. No significant differences in the change of blood lipids were observed between groups. However, TG, TC, and HDL-c made improvements compared with the baseline in the experimental group. Both groups had a reduction in weight and BMI within groups, especially in intensive nutrition education group. However

  18. A Feature Analysis of Risk Factors for Stroke in the Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Byeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain health during middle age and achieve successful aging, it is important to elucidate and prevent risk factors of middle-age stroke. This study investigated high risk groups of stroke in middle age population of Korea and provides basic material for establishment of stroke prevention policy by analyzing sudden perception of speech/language problems and clusters of multiple risk factors. This study analyzed 2,751 persons (1,191 males and 1,560 females aged 40–59 who participated in the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Outcome was defined as prevalence of stroke. Set as explanatory variables were age, gender, final education, income, marital status, at-risk drinking, smoking, occupation, subjective health status, moderate physical activity, hypertension, and sudden perception of speech and language problems. A prediction model was developed by the use of a C4.5 algorithm of data-mining approach. Sudden perception of speech and language problems, hypertension, and marital status were significantly associated with stroke in Korean middle aged people. The most preferentially involved predictor was sudden perception of speech and language problems. In order to prevent middle-age stroke, it is required to systematically manage and develop tailored programs for high-risk groups based on this prediction model.

  19. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age

    OpenAIRE

    Rochat, Mascha K; Laubender, Ruediger P; Kuster, Daniela; Braendli, Otto; Moeller, Alexander; Mansmann, Ulrich; Mutius, Erika von; Wildhaber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data c...

  20. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    OpenAIRE

    Rochat M.K.; Laubender R.P.; Kuster D.; Braendli O.; Moeller A.; Mansmann U; von Mutius E.; Wildhaber J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data collect...

  1. Sildenafil use and relevant risk factors among middle-aged or elderly male clients of female commercial sex workers in the central areas of Guangxi, China%广西中部地区中老年嫖客使用助性药西地那非的相关危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆华湘; 唐振柱; 沈智勇; 吴兴华; 朱秋映; 陈欢欢; 罗柳红; 陈礼

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解广西中部地区中老年嫖客使用西地那非助性药情况及其相关危险因素,评估使用此类助性药对中老年嫖客感染HIV的影响.方法 在调查地区低档暗娼场所对≥50岁嫖客进行问卷调查,获取社会人口学、行为学及西地那非助性药使用史等信息,采集血样本检测HIV和梅毒抗体,使用PASW Statistics 18.0软件进行统计分析.结果 共获得有效问卷2 056份,23.1%使用过西地那非助性药.<60岁者使用助性药风险低于≥60岁者(OR=0.586,95%CI:0.459~ 0.749);最近30 d内商业性行为的次数≤1次(OR=0.184,95% CI:0.090 ~ 0.378)、2次(OR=0.187,95%CI:0.089~0.378)和3次(OR=0.181,95%CI:0.085~0.384)的嫖客,使用助性药的风险低于≥5次者;未婚(OR=0.608,95% CI:0.396 ~ 0.933)、已婚/同居(OR=0.533,95%CI:0.391~0.727)、有临时性伴(OR=0.558,95%CI:0.393~0.792)是中老年嫖客使用助性药的保护因素,商业性行为时从不使用安全套(OR=1.642,95%CI:1.125~ 2.397)、偶尔使用安全套(OR=1.840,95%CI:1.278~2.648)则是嫖客使用助性药的危险因素.检出HIV抗体阳性的嫖客47人,阳性率为2.29%,<60岁嫖客使用助性药感染HIV的风险高于≥60岁者(OR=12.933,95%CI:4.479~ 37.347).结论 ≥60岁、离婚/丧偶/分居和最近30 d内发生商业性行为的次数为≥5次、商业性行为时从不使用安全套和偶尔使用安全套是中老年嫖客使用西地那非助性药的危险因素,西地那非助性药可能是中老年嫖客经商业性途径感染HIV的重要影响因素.%Objective To understand the illegal sidenafil use among middle-aged and elderly male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in central region of Guangxi as well as on related risk factors.Initial evaluation regarding the effect of illegal sidenafil use on HIV infection among the middle-aged and elderly men was also conducted.Methods A survey was conducted among the over 50-year-olds male

  2. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj;

    2014-01-01

    Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow-water palaeoenvironm......Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow......-water palaeoenvironment along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone are of low diversity and represent ca 9% of the entire shelly fauna. Five brachiopod taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; all are endemic to the Amadeus Basin at species level. Two new species...

  3. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  4. Leptin and aging: Review and questions with particular emphasis on its role in the central regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaskó, Márta; Soós, Szilvia; Székely, Miklós; Pétervári, Erika

    2014-11-01

    Leptin is produced mainly in the white adipose tissue and emerged as one of the key catabolic regulators of food intake and energy expenditure. During the course of aging characteristic alterations in body weight and body composition in humans and mammals, i.e. middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia and cachexia, suggest age-related regulatory changes in energy balance in the background. Aging has been associated with increased fat mass, central and peripheral leptin resistance as indicated by its failure to reduce food intake, to increase metabolic rate and thereby to induce weight loss. Leptin resistance is a common feature of aging and obesity (even in the young). The question arises whether aging or fat accumulation plays the primary role in the development of this resistance. The review focuses mainly on mechanisms and development of central leptin resistance. Age-related decline primarily affects the hypermetabolic component of central catabolic leptin actions, while the anorexigenic component is even growing stronger in the late phase of aging. Obesity enhances resistance to leptin at any age, particularly in old rats, calorie-restriction, on the other hand, increases responsiveness to leptin, especially in the oldest age-group. Thus, without obesity, leptin sensitivity appears not to decrease but to increase by old age. Interactions with other substances (e.g. insulin, cholecystokinin, endogenous cannabinoids) and life-style factors (e.g. exercise) in these age-related changes need to be investigated. PMID:25218974

  5. The influence of sea level and cyclones on Holocene reef flat development: Middle Island, central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. J.; Smithers, S. G.; Lewis, S. E.; Clark, T. R.; Zhao, J. X.

    2016-09-01

    The geomorphology and chronostratigraphy of the reef flat (including microatoll ages and elevations) were investigated to better understand the long-term development of the reef at Middle Island, inshore central Great Barrier Reef. Eleven cores across the fringing reef captured reef initiation, framework accretion and matrix sediments, allowing a comprehensive appreciation of reef development. Precise uranium-thorium ages obtained from coral skeletons revealed that the reef initiated ~7873 ± 17 years before present (yBP), and most of the reef was emplaced in the following 1000 yr. Average rates of vertical reef accretion ranged between 3.5 and 7.6 mm yr-1. Reef framework was dominated by branching corals ( Acropora and Montipora). An age hiatus of ~5000 yr between 6439 ± 19 and 1617 ± 10 yBP was observed in the core data and attributed to stripping of the reef structure by intense cyclones during the mid- to late-Holocene. Large shingle ridges deposited onshore and basset edges preserved on the reef flat document the influence of cyclones at Middle Island and represent potential sinks for much of the stripped material. Stripping of the upper reef structure around the outer margin of the reef flat by cyclones created accommodation space for a thin (reef growth after 1617 ± 10 yBP that grew over the eroded mid-Holocene reef structure. Although limited fetch and open-water exposure might suggest the reef flat at Middle Island is quite protected, our results show that high-energy waves presumably generated by cyclones have significantly influenced both Holocene reef growth and contemporary reef flat geomorphology.

  6. Frequency of Dental Caries in Four Historical Populations from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Grimoud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of dental carie studies over the course of historical period underline mainly the prevalence evolution, the role of carbohydrates consumption and the impact of access to dietary resources. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare population samples from two archaeological periods the Chacolithic and Middle Age taking into account the geographical and socio economical situation. The study concerned four archaelogical sites in south west France and population samples an inlander for the Chalcolithic Age, an inlander, an costal and urban for the Middle Age. The materials studied included a total of 127 maxillaries, 103 mandibles and 3316 teeth. Data recorded allowed us to display that the Chalcolithic population sample had the lowest carie percentage and the rural inlander population samples of Middle Age the highest; in all cases molars were teeth most often affected. These ones differences could be explained according to time period, carious lesions were usually less recorded in the Chalcolithic Age than the Middle because of a lesser cultivation of cereals like in les Treilles Chacolithic population sample. In the Middle Age population samples, the rural inland sample Marsan showed the highest frequency of caries and ate more cereal than the coastal Vilarnau and the poor urban St Michel population samples, the first one ate fish and Mediterranean vegetal and fruits and the second one met difficulties to food access, in both cases the consumption of carbohydrates was lesser than Marsan population sample who lived in a geographical land convice to cereals cultivation.

  7. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M E C; Westendorp, R G J; Goldeck, D;

    2016-01-01

    with age and health status. The cohort consisted of 178 middle-aged to old participants of the Leiden Longevity Study (range 42-82years). We tested associations between functional capacity measures (physical tests: grip strength, 4-meter walk, chair stand test; cognitive tests: Stroop test, digit symbol...... disease, as was epidermal p16INK4a positivity. All associations with cardiovascular or metabolic disease attenuated when adjusting for age. In conclusion, in middle-aged to old persons, the molecular measures tested here were more weakly associated with age and health status than functional capacity...... substitution test and 15-picture learning test) with age and with cardiovascular or metabolic disease as a measure of the health status. These associations with age and health status were also tested for molecular measures (C reactive protein (CRP), numbers of senescent p16INK4a positive cells in the epidermis...

  8. Changes in soleus H-reflex during walking in middle-aged, healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. METHODS: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus......-reflex amplitude during walking was affected by aging, and changes during the swing phase could be seen in the middle-aged subjects. Subdividing the 2 age groups into groups of facilitated or suppressed swing-phase H-reflex revealed that the H-reflex amplitude modulation pattern in the group with facilitated swing...

  9. Health and nutrition of middle-aged people%中年人保健与营养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志昂

    2015-01-01

    介绍了人体的健康标准及中年人的代谢和生理功能变化特点,分析了中年人的营养需要、合理膳食方法及需要达到的健康目标等,以强化中年人的营养保健意识.%To strengthen middle-aged people's nutrition health care consciousness, the paper introduces the body's health standard and middle-aged people's metabolism and physiological function change characteristics, analyzes mid-dle-aged people's nutritional needs, reasonable diet method and the health goal.

  10. Oral health as a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbah, Wael; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sheiham, Aubrey;

    2012-01-01

    to examine the association between oral health and premature death among middle-aged men and to test whether it was explained by socioeconomic position and behaviours. METHODS: Data were from the Vietnam Experience Study, a prospective cohort study of Vietnam War-era (1965-1971), American male army personnel....... The authors examined risk of cause-specific and all-cause mortality in relation to poor oral health in middle age, adjusting for age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, IQ, behavioural factors and systemic conditions. RESULTS: Men with poor oral health experienced a higher risk of cause-specific and all...

  11. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Galbavy

    Full Text Available Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC, and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days, or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3; whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however

  12. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbavy, William; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino; Liu, Lixin; Rebecchi, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC), and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month) naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days), or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3); whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical) were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however, did not

  13. Increased reaction times and reduced response preparation already starts at middle age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkorte, Ria; Kamphuis, Janine; Zijdewind, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Generalized slowing characterizes aging and there is some evidence to suggest that this slowing already starts at midlife. This study aims to assess reaction time changes while performing a concurrent low-force and high-force motor task in young and middle-aged subjects. The high-force motor task is

  14. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  15. Proactive and retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G,J.; Looze, M.P. de

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30years) and middle-aged adults (50-65years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six com

  16. [Reliability and validity of marital love scale in middle- aged and elderly couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

    2012-08-01

    A marital love scale was created to study the marital quality of middle-aged and elderly couples, and the scale's reliability and validity were examined. In this study, 888 middle-aged and elderly married participants completed the marital love scale questionnaire as well as answering questions regarding marriage satisfaction and husband-wife communication. In all age groups, men scored higher than women on the marital love scale. The marital love score gradually increased from the middle-aged to the senior period, and like the marriage satisfaction score, the marital love score showed a U-shaped curve in the whole married life. The results also showed that the scale was highly correlated with marriage satisfaction and spousal self-disclosure. Thus, the validity and internal consistency of the marital love scale were confirmed.

  17. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  18. [Structure of the articular cartilage in the middle aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop'eva, T N; Mul'diiarov, P Ia; Bel'skaia, O B; Pastel', V B

    1983-10-01

    In persons 17-83 years of age having no articular disorders 39 samples of the patellar articular cartilage, the articulated surface and the femoral head have been studied histochemically, histometrically and electron microscopically. Age involution of the articular cartilage is revealed after 40 years of age as a progressive decrease in chondrocytes density in the superficial and (to a less degree) in the intermediate zones. This is accompanied with a decreasing number of 3- and 4-cellular lacunae and with an increasing number of unicellular and hollow lacunae. In some chondrocytes certain distrophic and necrotic changes are revealed. In the articular matrix the zone with the minimal content of glycosaminoglycans becomes thicker and keratansulfate content in the territorial matrix of the cartilage deep zone grows large.

  19. Isotopic Ages of the Carbonatitic Volcanic Rocks in the Kunyang Rift Zone in Central Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongbei; WANG Guilan; NIE Jianfeng; ZHAO Chongshun; XU Chengyan; QIU Jiaxiang; Wang Hao

    2003-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kunyang rift, which is located on the western margin of the Yangtze platform and the southern section of the Kangdian axis, is a rare massive Precambrian iron-copper polymetallic mineralization zone in China. The Mesoproterozoic Wulu (Wuding(Lufeng) basin in the middle of the rift is an elliptic basin controlled by a ring fracture system. Moreover, volcanic activities in the basin display zonation of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner ring with carbonatitic volcanic rocks and sub-volcanic dykes discovered in the outer and middle rings. The Sm-Nd isochron ages have been determined for the outer-ring carbonatitic lavas (1685 Ma) and basaltic porphyrite of the radiating dyke swarm (1645 Ma) and the Rb-Sr isochron ages for the out-ring carbonatitic lavas (893 Ma) and the middle-ring dykes (1048 Ma). In combination of the U-Pb concordant ages of zircon (1743 Ma) in trachy-andesite of the corresponding period and stratum (1569 Ma) of the Etouchang Formation, as well as the Rb-Sr isochron age (1024 Ma) and K-Ar age (1186 Ma) of the dykes in the middle ring, the age of carbonatites in the basin is preliminarily determined. It is ensured that all of these carbonatites were formed in the Mesoproterozoic period, whereby two stages could be identified as follows: in the first stage, carbonatitic volcanic groups, such as lavas, pyroclastic rocks and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, were formed in the outer ring; in the second stage, carbonatitic breccias and dykes appeared in the middle ring. The metamorphic age of the carbonatitic lavas in the outer ring was determined to be concurrent with the end of the first stage of the Neoproterozoic period, corresponding to the Jinning movement in central Yunnan.

  20. Paleotectonic Setting of Dongyan Group of Middle and Upper Proterozoic in Central Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Da; Wu Ganguo; Ye Yujiang; Zhang Xiangxin; Peng Runmin; Wu Jianshe; Wang Qunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The central Fujian Province, situated on the juncture of paleo-uplift of Wuyishan, Yongmei Late Paleozoic depression and the eastern volcanic rift-faulting zone, is mainly composed of the outcropped metamorphic basements in the Middle-Late and Early Proterozoic, which constitute two upper and lower giant thick formations of Precambrian volcanic-sedimentary cycles, respectively. The formation of Dongyan Group is an important Middle-Upper Proterozoic component, and the Dongyan Group is directly related to massive sulfide deposit in this area. In recent years, plenty of lead, zinc, copper, silver and gold deposits have been found and explored. The Precambrian paleorift setting of the central Fujian Province served as a favorite metallogenic background for the formation of large- and superlarge-scale volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) lead and zinc polymetal deposits. The Dongyan Group consists chiefly of a set of ancient volcanic sedimentary formations that are composed mainly of greenschist. Its major lithologic types comprise greenschist, marble, quartzite and granofels class including various components. The metamorphic rocks of Dongyan Group are the main composition of Middle and Upper Proterozoic volcanic-sedimentary cycle. The original rock of Dongyan Group, a stable rock association, is volcanic sedimentation and normal marine sedimentation. But the original volcanic rocks, basic and acid, are bimodal. The volcanic rocks were formed in the extensional continental rift setting.

  1. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped.

  2. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped. PMID:27134373

  3. Comparison between invasive and non-invasive blood pressure in young, middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Li, Qiao; Qiu, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (IBP and NIBP) measurements in young, middle and old age using the data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database. In total, 23,679 blood pressure measurements were extracted from 742 patients, divided into three groups of young, middle and old age. IBP-NIBP differences in systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were 0.1 ± 16.5 mmHg/11.0 ± 12.2 mmHg in young age, -2.9 ± 19.8 mmHg/6.9 ± 17.5 mmHg in middle age and -3.2 ± 29.3 mmHg/8.5 ± 19.8 mmHg in old age. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of invasive systolic blood pressure (ISBP)-non-invasive systolic blood pressure (NISBP) differences increased from young to middle then to old age, and the SD of invasive diastolic blood pressure (IDBP)-non-invasive diastolic blood pressure (NIDBP) differences also increased with age. In young, middle and old age, the correlation coefficients were 0.86, 0.79 and 0.53, respectively, between ISBP and NISBP, and 0.78, 0.78 and 0.41 between IDBP and NIDBP. In conclusion, IBP showed good correlation with NIBP in each age category. The agreement between IBP and NIBP measurements was influenced by age category.

  4. African Homo erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Heinzelin, J. de (Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels (Belgium)); Schick, K.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Hart, W.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)); WoldeGabriel, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walter, R.C. (Institute of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Suwa, G. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Asfaw, B. (Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    1994-06-24

    Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.

  5. Polypharmacy and falls in the middle age and elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ziere; J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAim: Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. We studied the association between multiple drug use (polypharmacy) and falls in the elderly. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study. The participants were 6928 individuals aged ≥55 y

  6. Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

    1982-01-01

    Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)

  7. Support Networks of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Berit; Depner, Charlene

    Research on social supports of the aged indicates that creation and maintenance of supportive interpersonal bonds among the elderly result in an enhancement of their quality of life. The nature of social support networks at different points in the life course was investigated to determine the relative size of social networks and the way men and…

  8. A previously unrecognized group of Middle Jurassic triconodontan mammals from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas; Averianov, Alexander O.

    2007-01-01

    Ferganodon narynensis gen. et sp. nov. is represented by a lower molariform tooth from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Balabansai Svita in Kyrgyzstan. The new genus is allied with Klamelia zhaopengi Chow and Rich 1984 from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in Xinjiang, northwest China to the new family Klameliidae based on parallelogram-shaped lower molariforms, imbricating rather than interlocking of cusps e- d- f, by a peculiar distolabial cingulid cusp, and by vertical folding of the enamel on the labial crown side. The new family Klameliidae fam. nov. is most similar to Gobiconodontidae by the structure of the molariform teeth and represents a previously unrecognized radiation of eutriconodontan mammals possibly endemic to Central Asia.

  9. Distracted Driving in Elderly and Middle-Aged Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey R Thompson; Johnson, Amy M.; Emerson, Jamie L.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Boer, Erwin R.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean = 72.5 years, SD = 5.0 y...

  10. Flavonol Intake and Cognitive Decline in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Martin; Ravine, Erin; Harper, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive decline occurs with age and may be slowed by dietary measures, including increased intake of dietary phytochemicals. However, evidence from large and long-term studies of flavonol intake is limited. Dietary intakes of flavonols were assessed from a large biracial study of 10,041 subjects, aged 45-64, by analysis of a food frequency questionnaire administered at visit 1 of triennial visits. Cognitive function was assessed at visits 2 and 4 with the following three cognitive performance tests: the delayed word recall test, the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale digit symbol subtest, and the word fluency test of the Multilingual Aphasia Examination. The change in each score over 6 years was calculated, and a combined standardized change score was calculated. Generalized linear models controlled for age, ethnicity, gender, education level, energy intake, current smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, and vitamin C intake. Total flavonols across quintiles of intake were positively associated with preserved combined cognitive function (Pcognitive function was consistent for the three major individual flavonols in the diet, myricetin, kaempferol, and quercetin (each Pcognitive function over time. PMID:26325006

  11. Eating attitudes and weight concern among Chinese middle-age women: A comparison between different age and BMI groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few studies have been conducted to explore eating behavior and weight concern among middle-aged women. Methods: Participants were a sample of 236 Chinese women aged 30-52. Outcome measures were various symptoms related to eating disorders, the weight concern and psychological characteristics subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 questionnaire (EDI-2. Independent variables were age, education level and BMI. ANOVA-Test and Linear Regression were performed. Results: A group of women (N = 132, 78% with normal weight (19 < BMI < 24 showed dissatisfaction with their weight and wanted to reduce it. Overweight and obese women scored significantly higher on the subscale Body Dissatisfaction on the EDI-2 than women with lower BMI. In comparison to the older group (50-59, the younger group (30-39 and middle-aged group (40-49 expressed the desire to lose weight with a lower BMI. Conclusions: In comparison to age, the BMI had a stronger impact on the psychological and behavioral traits related to the eating disorders among a group of middle-aged Chinese women.

  12. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  13. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  14. The Practice of Holy Fasting in the Late Middle Ages: A Psychiatric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espi Forcen, Fernando; Espi Forcen, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    During the Late Middle Ages, the practice of fasting among religious women in an attempt to follow a pious and ascetic life was common. In this paper, three cases of medieval religious women are described with a particular attention to the figure of St. Catherine of Siena, her life, popularity, and iconography. In the Middle Ages, holy fasting was characterized by a refusal to eat that could involve binging and purging, lack of menstruation, an interest in cooking for others, and in some cases death due to inanition. In the Medieval narratives of fasting holy women, we can see patterns that are compatible with symptoms of anorexia nervosa. From a psychiatric perspective, it is possible to elucidate and understand the practice of fasting among religious people in the Late Middle Ages. PMID:26133274

  15. Atypical presentation of a middle age male with severe hypertriglyceridaemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albahrani Ali I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG is uncommon but most prevalent in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and excess ethanol intake. Case presentation We describe a case of a middle age male (53 y presenting to the emergency room with acute atypical central chest pain and severe HTG in the absence of evidence of overt ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Admission ECG and EET (exercise tolerance test were negative for reversible ischaemic changes. His admission glucose was 12.2 mmol/l, triglycerides (TG were 103 mmol/l, total cholesterol 37 mmol/l. Cardiac Troponin T could not be measured on three occasions but CK MB mass was normal at 3 μg/l. The patient was started on Bezafibrate 400 mg OD, Simvastatin 20 mg nocte, Omacor (Omega-3 fish oil 1 gm bd and Metformin 500 mg tds. Four weeks after admission, lipid and liver profiles showed remarkable improvement, TG 2.9 mmol/l, Tchol 6.3 mmol/l and HDLc 1.5 mmol/l, ALAT and GGT were normal. Conclusion A case report of severe hypertriglyceridaemia with atypical presentation demonstrate the role of combined lipid modifying agents in lowering triglycerides and cholesterol as well as improving liver enzymes.

  16. Correlation of liver enzymes with diabetes and pre-diabetes in middle-aged rural population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun-hui; Liu, Qian; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhe-long; Hu, Shu-hong; Zhou, Xin-rong; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Mu-xun; Tao, Jing; Yu, Xue-feng

    2016-02-01

    The survey aimed to explore the association of liver transaminases with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetes (pre-DM) in the middle-aged rural population in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 800 middle-aged subjects who lived in rural area of central China. The 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Participants were asked to complete physical examination and standard questionnaire. The serum liver transaminases (ALT and GGT), HbA1C and serum lipids were measured. In middle-aged rural population, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose combined with impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT) and DM was 4.0%, 11.8%, 2.6% and 10.0%, respectively. Some measurements were higher in males than in females, such as waist hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and liver enzymes (ALT and GGT). Further, we found that elevated serum GGT and ALT levels were significantly positively correlated with the prevalence of DM, independent of central obesity, serum lipid and insulin resistance (IR) in both genders. However, the correlation of GGT and ALT with pre-DM was determined by genders and characteristics of liver enzymes. Higher serum GGT was indicative of IGT in both genders. The association of serum ALT with pre-DM was significant only in female IGT group. In conclusion, our present survey shows both serum GGT and ALT are positively associated with DM, independent of the cardiovascular risk factors in both genders. PMID:26838740

  17. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor;

    2014-01-01

    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine...... benthic biodiversity in this clastic-dominated shallow-water palaeoenvironment situated along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The faunas from the Stairway Sandstone are generally of low diversity and dominated by bivalves but include several animal groups, with trilobites representing 25......% of the entire shelly fauna. Thirteen trilobite taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; the fauna displays a high degree of endemism. One new species, Basilicus (Parabasilicus) brumbyensis sp. nov. is described....

  18. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Spatial Memory and Neurochemistry in Middle-Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Karyn M.; Stearns, Nancy A.; Pan, Jing-Yu; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of environmental enrichment on spatial memory, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity, and synaptophysin levels in middle-aged male and female mice. Prior to testing, a subset of 18-month-old male and female C57BL/6 mice was housed with two to three toys and a running wheel in the home cage for up to 29 d. Adult mice (7 mo) of both sexes and the remaining middle-aged mice were group (social) housed, but not exposed to enrichin...

  19. The history of bronchial asthma from the ancient times till the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserháti, E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the knowledge on asthma through the history of mankind. The text begins with ancient China and it is finished with the medicine of Middle Age. During this time, a lot of theories came and this appeared about the etiology and therapy of the disease. The paper is giving a short description of the changing medical views during this very long period including China, Egypt Greco-roman period, Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, the physicians of India, the pre-Columbian medicine in the America and the Arabic world, and partly the European medicine of the Middle Ages. PMID:16438118

  20. Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling Predisposes Middle-Aged Mice to Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Sung, Miranda M. Y.; Kao, Cindy K. C.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Koves, Timothy R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Jacobs, Rene L.; Vance, Dennis E.; Light, Peter E.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Febbraio, Maria; Dyck, Jason R. B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Although advanced age is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, a clear understanding of the changes that occur during middle age that contribute to the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance is currently lacking. Therefore, we sought to investigate how middle age impacts skeletal m

  1. Reduced slow-wave rebound during daytime recovery sleep in middle-aged subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Lafortune

    Full Text Available Cortical synchronization during NREM sleep, characterized by electroencephalographic slow waves (SW 75 µV, is strongly related to the number of hours of wakefulness prior to sleep and to the quality of the waking experience. Whether a similar increase in wakefulness length leads to a comparable enhancement in NREM sleep cortical synchronization in young and older subjects is still a matter of debate in the literature. Here we evaluated the impact of 25-hours of wakefulness on SW during a daytime recovery sleep episode in 29 young (27 y ± 5, and 34 middle-aged (51 y ± 5 subjects. We also assessed whether age-related changes in NREM sleep cortical synchronization predicts the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery sleep. Compared to baseline sleep, sleep efficiency was lower during daytime recovery sleep in both age-groups but the effect was more prominent in the middle-aged than in the young subjects. In both age groups, SW density, amplitude, and slope increased whereas SW positive and negative phase duration decreased during daytime recovery sleep compared to baseline sleep, particularly in anterior brain areas. Importantly, compared to young subjects, middle-aged participants showed lower SW density rebound and SW positive phase duration enhancement after sleep deprivation during daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, middle-aged subjects showed lower SW amplitude and slope enhancements after sleep deprivation than young subjects in frontal and prefrontal derivations only. None of the SW characteristics at baseline were associated with daytime recovery sleep efficiency. Our results support the notion that anterior brain areas elicit and may necessitate more intense recovery and that aging reduces enhancement of cortical synchronization after sleep loss, particularly in these areas. Age-related changes in the quality of wake experience may underlie age-related reduction in markers of cortical synchronization enhancement after

  2. Cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with systemic inflammation in middle age: the Vietnam experience study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Anna C; Batty, G David; van Zanten, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen;

    2011-01-01

    , and place of service were extracted from enlistment files. Smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, basic socio-demographics, and whether participants suffered from a physician diagnosed chronic disease were determined by telephone interview in middle-age in 1985. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cholesterol...... erythrocyte sedimentation rate in middle age, ß=-.09. Thus, it would appear that not only does systemic inflammation influence cognition, but also that poor cognitive ability earlier in life is associated with inflammation in middle-age....

  3. Effect of submaximal repetitive exercise on knee coactivation in young and middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Joanne N; Plashkes, Tova E; Franklin, Regan A; Hickey, Heather K; Maly, Monica R

    2014-04-01

    Coactivation of the knee extensors and flexors increases knee joint contact forces, which may lead to degradation of the articular surfaces. This study investigated the effect of neuromuscular fatigue induced by submaximal, repetitive, dynamic contractions on coactivation of knee musculature in young and middle-aged women. Data from 10 young women (24.6±1.8 years) and 8 middle-aged women (55.4±4.2 years) were analyzed. Measures included peak knee extension and flexion torques and the average amplitude of surface electromyography of rectus femoris and biceps femoris. Coactivation ratios were calculated from these activations. To induce fatigue, participants completed up to ten sets of 50 concentric knee extension and flexion contractions at 60°/s. A two-factor analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of age and fatigue. The young group showed higher peak torque compared with the middle-aged group (Pknee extension compared with young women (P=.066). This coactivation likely contributed to extension torque decrements in middle-aged women.

  4. Factors Predicting Glycemic Control in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ju Chiu, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFew studies have prospectively assessed the explanatory effects of demographics, clinical conditions, treatment modality, and general lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control in large heterogeneous samples of middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. We hierarchically examined these factors, focused especially on the effects of modifiable factors (ie, general lifestyle behaviors, and compared predictive patterns between middle-aged and older adults.MethodsWe used nationally representative data from the 1998 and 2000 Health and Retirement Study (HRS and the HRS 2003 Diabetes Study. We analyzed data from 379 middle-aged adults (aged 51-64 y and 430 older adults (aged ≥65 y who self-reported having type 2 diabetes at baseline.ResultsAmong middle-aged adults, demographic factors and clinical conditions were the strongest predictors of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels. However, among older adults, treatment modality (diet only, oral medication, or insulin only or in combination with other regimens significantly affected HbA1c levels. Lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, drinking, and body weight control, independent of the effects of demographics, clinical conditions, and treatment modality, significantly affected HbA1c levels. An increase of 1 healthy behavior was associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels of more than 1 percentage point.ConclusionOur findings provide support for current diabetes guidelines that recommend a lifestyle regimen across the entire span of diabetes care and highlight the need to help both sociodemographically and clinically disadvantaged middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes as well as older adults who exhibit poor adherence to medication recommendations to achieve better glycemic control.

  5. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span. PMID:23895269

  6. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.

  7. Beginning of the metal age in the central Balkans according to the results of the archeometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The gradual development of the primary copper metallurgy in Balkans starts with production of small jewelry pieces and ends with the serial production of massive tools and weapons. It is confirmed that this metallurgy depended on the contemporary mining, i.e. the available sources of the raw materials. It is also corroborated by the discovery of two Early Eneolithic copper mines: Rudna Glava in Eastern Serbia and Ai-Bunar in Bulgaria /first half and the middle of the 5th millennium BC/. These mines are also the evidence for the local exploitation of the carbonate copper minerals - malachite and azurite. The technology employed is close to the former flint mining in the Late Neolithic; massive pebbles obtained from the neighboring alluvial deposits were used as mining hammers. Identical technology was employed in the mines dating from the later periods /Rudnik, Central Serbia, Jarmovac, Priboj na Limu/. The Vinča culture of the central Balkan followed all metallurgical phases of introduction of metal and use of the carbonate ores /Gradac I - III phase/. This long process of including the metal in wider use lasted generally from the middle of the 5th millennium BC to the end of the 4th millennium BC, i.e. to the appearance of the Bronze Age.

  8. Direction of single obstacle circumvention in middle-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Amy L; Van Ruymbeke, Nicole; Bryden, Pamela J; Cinelli, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    When required to walk around a stationary object, adults use the location of the goal to set up their locomotor axis and obstacles presented along the locomotor axis will repel the individual towards the side that affords more space [1]. Research has yet to examine whether children can identify the locomotor axis and choose their paths accordingly. Therefore, the current study examined the factors that influence the direction in which children choose to deviate around a single obstacle and whether the presence or absence of a goal influences path selection and trajectory. Ten children (age: 7.1 years±0.8) walked along a 9 m path and avoided a single obstacle that was located in one of three locations (midline, 15 cm to the right or 15 cm to the left). On half the trials, an end-goal was visible from the start of the path while the other half of the trials had no visible goal. The results demonstrate that: (1) children are able to perceive and move towards more open space but are more variable when the end-goal is not visible; (2) children are capable of maintaining an elliptical-shaped protective envelope when avoiding a single obstacle regardless of whether or not the locomotor axis is established; and (3) although children are capable of choosing paths that afford the most space, the manner in which they arrive at their goal is not driven by factors similar to adults. PMID:24679592

  9. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBensalem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  10. Reversal of glial and neurovascular markers of unhealthy brain aging by exercise in middle-aged female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin S Latimer

    Full Text Available Healthy brain aging and cognitive function are promoted by exercise. The benefits of exercise are attributed to several mechanisms, many which highlight its neuroprotective role via actions that enhance neurogenesis, neuronal morphology and/or neurotrophin release. However, the brain is also composed of glial and vascular elements, and comparatively less is known regarding the effects of exercise on these components in the aging brain. Here, we show that aerobic exercise at mid-age decreased markers of unhealthy brain aging including astrocyte hypertrophy, a hallmark of brain aging. Middle-aged female mice were assigned to a sedentary group or provided a running wheel for six weeks. Exercise decreased hippocampal astrocyte and myelin markers of aging but increased VEGF, a marker of angiogenesis. Brain vascular casts revealed exercise-induced structural modifications associated with improved endothelial function in the periphery. Our results suggest that age-related astrocyte hypertrophy/reactivity and myelin dysregulation are aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and accompanying reductions in vascular function. However, these effects appear reversible with exercise initiated at mid-age. As this period of the lifespan coincides with the appearance of multiple markers of brain aging, including initial signs of cognitive decline, it may represent a window of opportunity for intervention as the brain appears to still possess significant vascular plasticity. These results may also have particular implications for aging females who are more susceptible than males to certain risk factors which contribute to vascular aging.

  11. THE PALEODEMOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF OYLUM HOYUK POPULATION (THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE, KİLİS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşen Açıkkol Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    In this study skeleton remaining of 72 individuals excavated from Middle Bronze Age layers of Oylum Höyük (mound) situated in Kilis province, were studied. Sex and age of skeletons, unearthed between 2007-2012, were determined and life tables of the population were formed. Mortality of infants and children of Oylum population was very high. Death rates were determined as 36.6 % for 0-5 years of age group, 57.75 % for 0-15 years of age group. 34.62 % of infants and children from 0-5 years of a...

  12. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qun Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014 identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001, but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031. Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005. There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  13. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  14. A mobile phone enabled health promotion program for middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Karunanithi, M; Duncan, M; Ireland, D; Noakes, M; Hooker, C

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases among middle aged males outweigh their female counterparts in developed countries. To prevent this, delivery of health promotion programs targeting lifestyle modifications of physical activity and nutrition in middle-aged males has been essential, but often difficult. ManUp health promotion program was a recent initiative that uses current advances in information and communication technology (ICT) to reach the middle-aged males. One of the key components of the ICT approach was the development of smartphone application to enable middle-aged men to uptake the program with their own mobile phone. The smart phone application was aimed at providing varied level of challenges towards physical activity and healthy eating behavior, with interactive and motivational feedback SMS messages. The ManUp program was recently implemented and trialed in a randomized control trial in Gladstone and Rockhampton, Queens. This paper describes the components of the smart phone application integrated within the ManUp health promotion program. PMID:24109902

  15. Illustrating the phaenomena celestial cartography in antiquity and the Middle Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Dekker, Elly

    2013-01-01

    In this volume all extant celestial maps and globes made before 1500 are described and analysed. It also discusses the astronomical sources involved in making these artefacts in antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Islamic world and the European Renaissance before 1500.

  16. Learning the Faith in England in the Later Middle Ages: Contributions of the Franciscan Friars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    In popular understanding, the late Middle Ages has been viewed as a time of relative religious ignorance for both laity and clergy. Recent scholarship is indicating a more knowledgeable and vigorous faith experience in this time period. This article examines the major educational ministry renewal of the church in England following the Fourth…

  17. Development of international fair in Western Europe during the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to some aspects of development of international fair in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. Fairs in Champagne, Bruges, Frankfurt am Main, Geneva, Zurzah, Lyon had an international significance because they were situated at the intersection point of trade ways which connected different parts of Europe.

  18. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  19. Green tea polyphenols supplementation improves bone microstructure in orchidectomized middle-Aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study shows that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized middle-aged female rats. To investigate whether GTP prevents bone loss in male rats, 40 rats with and without oriectomy (ORX) were assigned to 4 groups in a 2 (sham vs. ORX)× 2 (no GTP and 0.5% G...

  20. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. Recent findings A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related

  1. Marital Interaction in Middle and Old Age: A Predictor of Marital Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Marina; Kliegel, Matthias; Shapiro, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Many studies point out the importance of marital satisfaction for well-being. However, although being married is still the norm in middle and old age, research on the determinants of marital satisfaction has neglected long-term marriages. While research on short-term marriages mainly focuses on partner fit (e.g., in personality traits and…

  2. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of tramadol between young and middle-aged dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itami, Takaharu; Saito, Yasuo; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Umar, Mohammed A; Inoue, Hiroki; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of tramadol between young and middle-aged dogs. Tramadol (4 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (IV) to young and middle-aged dogs (2 and 8-10 years, respectively). Plasma concentrations of tramadol were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and its pharmacokinetics best fit a two-compartment model. The volume of distribution (Vd), elimination half-life (t1/2,β) and total body clearance (CLtot) of the young group were 4.77 ± 1.07 l/kg, 1.91 ± 0.26 hr and 29.9 ± 7.3 ml/min/kg, respectively, while those of the middle-aged group were 4.73 ± 1.43 l/kg, 2.39 ± 0.97 hr and 23.7 ± 5.4 ml/min/kg, respectively. Intergroup differences in the t1/2,β and CLtot were significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, tramadol excretion was significantly prolonged in middle-aged dogs.

  3. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early detection, researchers say To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will not ...

  4. Changes in waist circumference and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2010-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent...

  5. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass...

  6. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  7. Diet and cognitive decline at middle age : The role of antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Milder, Ivon E J; Van Gelder, Boukje M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, lutein, flavonoids and lignans) and cognitive decline at middle age, analyses were performed on data from the population based Doetinchem Cohort Study. Habitual diet and cognitive function were asses

  8. Effects of the Kampo Formula Tokishakuyakusan on Headaches and Concomitant Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Masakazu Terauchi; Shiro Hiramitsu; Mihoko Akiyoshi; Yoko Owa; Kiyoko Kato; Satoshi Obayashi; Eisuke Matsushima; Toshiro Kubota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the correlates of headaches in middle-aged women and investigate the effects of Tokishakuyakusan (TJ-23), a formula of traditional Japanese herbal therapy Kampo, on headache and concomitant depression. Methods. We examined cross-sectionally the baseline records of 345 women aged 40–59 years who visited our menopause clinic. Among them, 37 women with headaches were treated with either hormone therapy (HT) or TJ-23; the data of these women were retrospectively analyzed t...

  9. Neurogenesis response of middle-aged hippocampus to acute seizure activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Shetty

    Full Text Available Acute Seizure (AS activity in young adult age conspicuously modifies hippocampal neurogenesis. This is epitomized by both increased addition of new neurons to the granule cell layer (GCL by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs in the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ, and greatly enhanced numbers of newly born neurons located abnormally in the dentate hilus (DH. Interestingly, AS activity in old age does not induce such changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effect of AS activity on neurogenesis in the middle-aged hippocampus is yet to be elucidated. We examined hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged F344 rats after a continuous AS activity for >4 hrs, induced through graded intraperitoneal injections of the kainic acid. We labeled newly born cells via daily intraperitoneal injections of the 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU for 12 days, commencing from the day of induction of AS activity. AS activity enhanced the addition of newly born BrdU+ cells by 5.6 fold and newly born neurons (expressing both BrdU and doublecortin [DCX] by 2.2 fold to the SGZ-GCL. Measurement of the total number of DCX+ newly born neurons also revealed a similar trend. Furthermore, AS activity increased DCX+ newly born neurons located ectopically in the DH (2.7 fold increase and 17% of total newly born neurons. This rate of ectopic migration is however considerably less than what was observed earlier for the young adult hippocampus after similar AS activity. Thus, the plasticity of hippocampal neurogenesis to AS activity in middle age is closer to its response observed in the young adult age. However, the extent of abnormal migration of newly born neurons into the DH is less than that of the young adult hippocampus after similar AS activity. These results also point out a highly divergent response of neurogenesis to AS activity between middle age and old age.

  10. Smoking and drinking as risk indicators for tooth loss in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Avlund, Kirsten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate tobacco and alcohol consumption as risk indicators for missing teeth in late middle-aged Danes. METHOD: In all, 1,517 Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) participants received a clinical oral examination that included number of teeth. Information on smoking......, drinking, and various covariates was obtained using self-administered, structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression (dependent variable: 6+ vs.

  11. Human insulin/IGF-1 and familial longevity at middle age

    OpenAIRE

    Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Frölich, Marijke; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Beekman, Marian; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Simon P Mooijaart; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Group, on behalf of the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS)

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show...

  12. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  13. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures. PMID:25765291

  14. CENTRAL KAZAKHSTAN IN THE PERIOD OF THE EARLY IRON AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Z. BEISENOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the studies of culture of Central Kazakhstan of early Iron Age have considerably expanded the range of studied sources including both previously known materials and data from the latest researches. The funeral rites and subject complexes of the Saks epoch were studied based on nearly 200 burials. Not less than 50 settlements have been discovered, on some of which archaeological excavations have been already carried out, stone statues were also revealed for the first time. New data have been obtained as a result of paleoanthropological researches. These categories of cultural sites are considered within the frame of Tasmola culture (VIII-V centuries B.C.. Monuments of the Hun-Sarmatian period are less studied. In general, new materials show the ethno-cultural similarity of the region to the synchronous cultural formations of the eastern area of the steppe Eurasia. In the IV century B.C. on the eastern territory of Central Kazakhstan there was a change of cultures. Funeral ceremonies and monuments of Korgantas period (IV-II centuries B.C. demonstrate the relationships with eastern regions of Central Asia. At present time 30 graves of that period are investigated. Anthropological data show that small groups of Korgantas period were not a result of direct migration; they were descendants of mixed population. 

  15. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp W Stockhammer

    Full Text Available The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2, which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2 around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz A1 and Bronze (Bz A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  16. Habitual physical activity and vascular aging in a young to middle-age population at low cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo; Mhamdi, Leila;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regular endurance exercise has been shown to reduce the age-related increase in arterial stiffness that is thought to contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and habitual physical activity on carotid artery wall thickness...... and stiffness in a population of young to middle-age subjects at low cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The study population consisted of 432 healthy subjects (166 men; mean+/-SD age, 43+/-8 years; range, 30 to 60 years) free of carotid atherosclerosis and with low coronary heart disease risk, as determined...... was measured on ultrasound images, along with systodiastolic changes in luminal diameter, and indices of carotid stiffness were calculated. RESULTS: Intima-media thickness and carotid stiffness increased with age in both men and women (r=0.24 to 0.52, P

  17. Mitochondrial bioenergetics in young, adult, middle-age and senescent brown Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and may play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence and age-related neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. However, mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters have not been systematically evaluated under identi...

  18. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  19. ARCHAEOMETALLURGICAL STUDIES OF SPEAR HEADS AND ARROW HEADS OF THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE SITES OF AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanova, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative spectroscopy analysis of spear heads and arrow heads of Middle Bronze Age sites of Azerbaijan (second part of the III to the middle of the II millennium BC) has been made to determine the type of the alloy taking into account the accepted limits of natural impurity in metals ( - 0.5% and more). The analyses have shown that copper is the basic materials in all of them. Metallurgical classification the results of sixteen analysis spear heads have shown three of them made of arsenic...

  20. Origin of the cannula for tracheotomy during the middle ages and Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missori, Paolo; Brunetto, Giacoma M; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to trace the historical origin of the inserted cannula during tracheotomy. Tracheotomy is mentioned in most ancient medical texts, but the origin of cannula insertion into the windpipe is unclear. We reviewed the incunabula and Renaissance texts reporting the utilization of surgical cannulas and tracheotomy. The incunabula disclosed extended use of surgical cannulas during the middle ages and Renaissance. Although tracheotomy was advocated in acutely suffocating patients for a disease of the throat termed squinantia or angina, the first report of the procedure was found only at the end of the middle ages and a second during the middle Renaissance. The introduction of cannula use in tracheotomy was supported by a semantic misinterpretation by Antonio Musa Brasavola. The historical origin for tracheotomy in the middle ages and Renaissance is conflicting. Antonio Brasavola wrongly interpreted Avicenna's oral cannula introduced into the windpipe for angina. This misinterpretation allowed Giulio Casserio to draw the first curved cannula introduced for used during tracheotomy.

  1. Middle ear impedance studies in elderly patients implications on age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ayodele Sogebi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Controversies arise with respect to functioning of the middle ear over time.OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in middle ear impedance that may be related to aging, and/or if there was an association of these changes with those of the inner ear in the elderly patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional, comparative study of elderly patients managed in ear, nose and throat clinics. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain clinical information. Pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and acoustic reflexes were performed. Comparative analyses were performed to detect intergroup differences between clinico-audiometric findings and middle ear measures, viz. tympanograms and acoustic reflexes.RESULTS: One hundred and three elderly patients participated in the study; 52.4% were male, averagely 70.0 ± 6.3 years old, age-related hearing loss in 59.2%, abnormal tympanograms in 39.3%, absent acoustic reflex in 37.9%. There was no association between age and gender in patients with abnormal tympanograms and absent acoustic reflex. Significantly more patients with different forms and grades of age-related hearing loss had abnormal tympanometry and absent acoustic reflex.CONCLUSION: Some abnormalities were observed in the impedance audiometric measures of elderly patients, which were significantly associated with parameters connected to age-related hearing loss.

  2. Physical Activity and Vascular Dilation Function in Healthy Middle-aged Individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qi; LIU Donghong; WANG Yuling; SUN Bing; LIN Fengqiao; GAN Hanjing; WU Guifu; WANG Lichun; MA Hong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Vascular dilation dysfunction has been linked with risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between physical activity and vascular dilation function in healthy middle-aged adults to help explaining the effect of physical activity on preventing cardiovascular disease. Method: We recruited 91 healthy middle-aged adults to complete a serf-report 7-day physical activity recall questionnaire and an exam of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation(FMD) and Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) detected by ultrasound. The relationship between physical activity level (PAL) and FMD and NMD were explored. Result: Physical activity showed a significant and positive relationship with the brachial artery FMD, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors (r=0.363, P 0.05) and there was no significant difference among three groups. There was no positive relation between PAL and FMD in premenopausal females but in men and postmenopausal females. Although individuals of high PAL have the best FMD, the moderate PAL can also retard FMD decrease with ageing. Conclusion: Maintaining high physical activity level can enhance endothelial-dependent vascular dilation, and moderate or high physical activity level can prevent endothelial-dependent vaseular dilation declining with aging, which may contribute to decrease risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults.

  3. Sildenafil enhances neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in ischemic brain of middle-aged mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Adult neural stem cells give rise to neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Aging reduces neural stem cells. Using an inducible nestin-CreER(T2/R26R-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP mouse, we investigated the effect of Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5 inhibitor, on nestin lineage neural stem cells and their progeny in the ischemic brain of the middle-aged mouse. We showed that focal cerebral ischemia induced nestin lineage neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and nestin expressing NeuN positive neurons and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC positive mature oligodendrocytes in the ischemic striatum and corpus callosum in the aged mouse. Treatment of the ischemic middle-aged mouse with Sildenafil increased nestin expressing neural stem cells, mature neurons, and oligodendrocytes by 33, 75, and 30%, respectively, in the ischemic brain. These data indicate that Sildenafil amplifies nestin expressing neural stem cells and their neuronal and oligodendrocyte progeny in the ischemic brain of the middle-aged mouse.

  4. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  5. Cardiac autonomic changes in middle-aged women: identification based on principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizani, Gabriela A; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo R; Silva, Lilian P; Nadal, Jurandir

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the principal component analysis (PCA) technique on power spectral density function (PSD) of consecutive normal RR intervals (iRR) aiming at assessing its ability to discriminate healthy women according to age groups: young group (20-25 year-old) and middle-aged group (40-60 year-old). Thirty healthy and non-smoking female volunteers were investigated (13 young [mean ± SD (median): 22·8 ± 0·9 years (23·0)] and 17 Middle-aged [51·7 ± 5·3 years (50·0)]). The iRR sequence was collected during ten minutes, breathing spontaneously, in supine position and in the morning, using a heart rate monitor. After selecting an iRR segment (5 min) with the smallest variance, an auto regressive model was used to estimate the PSD. Five principal component coefficients, extracted from PSD signals, were retained for analysis according to the Mahalanobis distance classifier. A threshold established by logistic regression allowed the separation of the groups with 100% specificity, 83·2% sensitivity and 93·3% total accuracy. The PCA appropriately classified two groups of women in relation to age (young and Middle-aged) based on PSD analysis of consecutive normal RR intervals. PMID:25532598

  6. Social relations and filial maturity in middle-aged adults: contextual conditions and psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig-Chiello, P; Sturzenegger, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the contextual and psychological preconditions of parent help and helpfulness in a sample of 260 middle-aged persons belonging to two age groups, 40-45 years and 50-55 years. In a first step we want to focus on the description of the contextual situation of the persons of this "hinge generation": What are their available social networks; what are their commitments towards children and parents in terms of perceived obligation and investment; how is their perceived balance of giving and receiving; how do they anticipate and experience dependency of their parents? In a second step we will highlight the readiness of middle-aged women and men to help their parents as well as the effectively reported help. Here we are interested in the psychological determinants of such attitude and behaviour. Structural equation models are performed to estimate the predictory power of personality variables, control beliefs and reported stress (family and job) on filial helpfulness and help. Results suggest that differential aspects such as gender and age group explain a large amount of variance of the variables intergenerational commitment and satisfaction with social networks and have--along with personality variables--a strong impact on filial help and helpfulness of middle-aged adults. PMID:11310223

  7. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.......1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20...... turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women....

  8. α-Synuclein aggregation in the olfactory bulb of middle-aged common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reona; Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Junko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Inoue, Takashi; Okano, Hirotaka James; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    The synaptic protein α-synuclein has been identified as a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior to the formation of Lewy bodies, mislocalization and aggregation of the α-synuclein in brain tissue is frequently observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. Aberrant accumulation and localization of α-synuclein are also observed in the aging human brain, for which reason aging is regarded as a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. To investigate changes in α-synuclein properties in the aging brain, we compared α-synuclein immunoreactivity in brain tissue of young (2-years-old) and middle-aged (6-years-old) common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Our analyses revealed marked changes in α-synuclein immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulb of common marmosets of these age cohorts. Perikaryal α-synuclein aggregations were formed in the olfactory bulb in middle-aged animals. We also observed signals of α-synuclein accumulation in hippocampus in this cohort; however, unlike in the olfactory bulb, hippocampal α-synuclein signals were localized in the synaptic terminals. We did not observe either of these features in younger marmosets, which suggest that aging may play a role in these phenomena. Our results using common marmoset brain corresponded with the observation that the α-synuclein aggregations were first occurred from olfactory bulb in human normal aged and PD brain. Therefore, common marmoset is expected as useful model for α-synuclein pathology. PMID:26643383

  9. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.

  10. Validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodskou, Pernille M; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Obel, Erik B;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy.......To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy....

  11. Time trends in heavy drinking among middle-aged and older adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Christina; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated an increasing proportion of heavy drinking among middle-aged and older Danes. Trends in consumption are often extremely sensitive to influence from various components of the time trends but only few have explored the age, period and cohort-related influences...... that the proportion of heavy drinking women increases in younger birth cohorts. This trend is not observed for men as their drinking pattern mainly increase slightly by calendar year. CONCLUSIONS: Our Danish observations for older aged individuals correspond to the social and cultural changes in the 1960s and 1970s...

  12. N-Acetylmannosamine improves sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice: relevance to autonomic nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Ito, Koichi; Hayakawa, Koji; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a variety of physiological changes originating peripherally and centrally, including within the autonomic nervous system. Sleep-wake disturbances constitute reliable hallmarks of aging in several animal species and humans. Recent studies have been interested in N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) a potential therapeutic agent for improving quality of life, as well as preventing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, ManNAc (5.0 mg/ml) was administered in the drinking water of middle-aged male C57BL/6J mice (55 weeks old) for 7 days. Mice were housed under a 12:12 h light:dark cycle at 23-24 °C. We evaluated bio-behavioral activity using electrocardiogram, body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by an implanted telemetry transmitter. To estimate sleep-wake profile, surface electroencephalogram and electromyogram leads connected to a telemetry transmitter were also implanted in mice. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. ManNAc-treated mice spent more time in a wakeful state and less time in slow wave sleep during the dark phase. Parasympathetic nervous activity was increased following ManNAc treatment, then the sympatho-vagal balance was shifted predominance of parasympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, improvement in sleep-wake pattern was associated with increased parasympathetic nervous activity. These results suggest that ManNAc treatment can improve bio-behavioral activity and sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice. This may have implications for improving sleep patterns in elderly humans. PMID:25443216

  13. Age, Stratigraphy, and Correlations of the Late Neogene Purisima Formation, Central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Barron, John A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Clark, Joseph C.; Perry, Frank A.; Brabb, Earl E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The Purisima Formation is an important upper Miocene and Pliocene stratigraphic unit in central California, cropping out from the coast at Point Reyes north of San Francisco to more extensive exposures in the Santa Cruz Mountains to the south. The fine-grained rocks in the lower parts of the Purisima Formation record a latest Miocene transgressive event, whereas the middle and upper parts of the formation consist of increasingly clastic-rich siltstones and sandstones resulting from uplift of adjacent coastal regions and the Sierra Nevada during Pliocene transgressive and regressive sea-level events. Exposures of the Purisima occur in three different, fault-bounded, structural blocks - the Santa Cruz, Pigeon Point, and Point Reyes tectonic blocks - that complicate correlations and regional age assignments. We summarize and compare published and new biostratigraphic and geochronologic data for various exposures of the Purisima Formation on the basis of mollusks, diatoms, radiometric dating, magnetostratigraphy, tephrochronology, and strontium isotope dating. On the basis of these data, we conclude that the Purisima Formation ranges in age from the latest Miocene (about 7 Ma) to the late Pliocene (about 2.6 Ma). The Purisima Formation of Santa Cruz County, exposed in the sea cliffs from Santa Cruz to Rio del Mar, is here designated a supplementary reference section because it is the most complete and well studied Purisima section in central California.

  14. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  15. Structural features of the Middle Tirso Valley (Central Sardinia - Italy from geoelectrical and gravity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Tirso Valley is located in Central Sardinia and lies between two structural highs, the Marghine-Goceano chain and the Barbagia Paleozoic horst. The geological structures of the area, potentially interesting for its geothermal resources, are rather complex and dominated by two regional faults – the Marghine fault and the Nuoro fault – which affect the Palaeozoic basement and the Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits. Combined modelling of gravity and geoelectrical data defines the shape and extent of this Tertiary basin. The Bouguer anomaly is mainly characterized by a three-dimensional gravity low which has been named «Bolotana-Sedilo gravity low», corresponding to a structure generated by collapses attributable to transcurrent and extensional tectonic events. The down faulted zone is filled with a Tertiary low density volcano-sedimentary sequence extending southwards and overlain by Pliocene-Quaternary basalts. Another regional structure named «Tirso Fault» is proposed

  16. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  17. Age, marital satisfaction, and optimism as predictors of positive sentiment override in middle-aged and older married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, T Nathan; Berg, Cynthia A; Smith, Timothy W; Beveridge, Ryan; Henry, Nancy J M; Pearce, Gale

    2007-12-01

    This study examined whether positive sentiment override (greater positive appraisal of spouse's affiliative behavior than is warranted by observed behavior) occurred more frequently in older compared with middle-aged married couples and whether age differences were mediated by older adults' greater marital satisfaction when controlling for optimism. Participants included 270 middle-aged (40-50 years old) and older (60-70 years old) couples who discussed a marital disagreement and completed an errand task. Couples provided appraisals of their spouse's affiliation, and the authors coded affiliative interactions using the structural analysis of social behavior. Hierarchical multivariate linear modeling indicated that older husbands and wives viewed their spouse's behavior as more positive during disagreement interactions than did independent observers; in the errand task, only older wives demonstrated positive sentiment override. Age differences in positive sentiment override were mediated by marital satisfaction, even when controlling for optimism. The results are consistent with theories of emotion regulation, such as socioemotional selectivity theory, that suggest that older adults are biased toward the positive aspects of close relationships.

  18. Middle Triassic volcanic rocks in the Northern Qiangtang (Central Tibet): Geochronology, petrogenesis, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Shi, Ren-Deng; Yi, Guo-Ding; Zou, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Although voluminous magmatism occurred during the Triassic in the Qiangtang terrane, the petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks and the associated tectonic scenarios remain mysterious. This study focuses on new identified primitive volcanic rocks from the Yanshiping area, Northern Qiangtang subterrane. The whole-rock major-trace elemental, Sr-Nd isotopic data, and zircon U-Pb age of volcanic rocks are reported in this paper in order to understand their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The studied volcanic rocks can be grouped into two types, i.e., Nb-enriched basalts and basaltic andesites (NEBs) in the low sequence and arc basalts in the upper sequence. Zircon U-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS techniques yields the concordant age with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of ca. 242-241 Ma for the NEBs and ca. 240 Ma for the arc basalts. The distinct geochemical and isotopic characteristics of whole-rock and varying Th-U-REE components of zircon grains from the volcanic rocks suggest that the NEBs were derived from partial melting of relatively enriched mantle wedge that have been metasomatised by slab-related melts and that the arc basalts originated from partial melting of mixing of mantle wedge and depleted asthenospheric mantle in response to the slab breakoff. Our new geochemical and geochronological results, in combination with regional studies, imply that the Middle Triassic magmatism was generated in the tectonic setting of northward subduction of the Paleo-Tethys or Bangong-Nujiang Ocean. Subduction-related processes that include melting of the slab and the slab breakoff during the Permian-Middle Triassic made an important contribution to crustal growth in the Qiangtang terrane, whereas vertical crustal growth associated with collision-related setting during the Late Triassic is nonsignificant.

  19. Early and Middle Holocene evidence for plant use and cultivation in the Middle Cauca River Basin, Cordillera Central (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Francisco J.; Loaiza, Nicolás

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the latest results of research done in the Colombian Andean region known as Middle Cauca River Basin, an important location for the study of the origins of plant use and the dispersal of domesticates throughout the Americas due to its geographical position in northwest South America. We discuss human-environment interactions during Pleistocene/Holocene transition to middle Holocene (ca 10,000-4000 BP), specifically human-plant interaction and environmental factors that led to the adoption of horticultural practices. Three lines of evidence are analyzed: archaeological stratigraphy, lithic technology, and microbotanical remains. Our results suggest that early Holocene environmental stability allowed Middle Cauca settlers to use the diverse local resources for several millennia, altering the local vegetation, and leading to the development of horticultural practices that included the use of both local and foreign plants. These results inform the ongoing debate about the antiquity and nature of plant domestication and dispersals in the Americas.

  20. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naritsara Saenghong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.

  1. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  2. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  3. Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Goldman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Goldman1, Uwe Wollina21Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, GermanyAbstract: Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels.Keywords: facial rejuvenation, middle-aged females, botulinum toxin, fillers, chemical peels

  4. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  5. Social conflicts and historical totality in high middle ages (5th-10th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Jorge Bastos da Motta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the great transitions enjoys, in these days, a considerable degree of low status in the field of History. Maybe it's not hard to see the reasons of such absurd contradiction - at least if we consider that the essence of the subject in question lies in the study of the changes and transformations! Postmodernism, denial of the knowability or even the existence of the real, micro-history, fascination for the immobility, the continuities and the resistance to change, a more or less dense ‘description’, prevalent, are hegemonic tendencies in the historiographical field that help us to understand the feeling, almost widespread nowadays, that the attempted framing of the transition processes is an extemporaneous task, a surpassed demand! I propose, in this paper, in the context of Iberian's High Middle Ages, the analysis of the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages in its fundamental structuring elements.

  6. Cognitive Decline and Oral Health in Middle-aged Adults in the ARIC Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naorungroj, S.; Slade, G.D.; Beck, J D; Mosley, T H; Gottesman, R. F.; A. Alonso; Heiss, G

    2013-01-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). C...

  7. Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota is regarded as one of the major factors involved in the control of body weight. The antiobesity effects of ginseng and its main constituents have been demonstrated, but the effects on gut microbiota are still unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of ginseng on gut microbiota, 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk and assessment of body composition parameters, metabolic biomarkers, and gut microbiota composition was performed usin...

  8. Effect of acupressure on sleep quality of middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Wei Zheng; Yao Chen; Feng Chen; Ping Zhang; Li-Fang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of acupressure on blood pressure and sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension. Methods: A total of 75 elderly hypertensive patients with sleep disorders were randomly divided into either an experimental group (n = 38) or a control group (n = 37). All subjects received conventional treatment and health guidance. The experimental group also received acupressure treatment. The score of PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and blood p...

  9. Informal care and labour force participation among middle-aged women in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Marín, David; García-Gómez, Pilar; López-Nicolás, Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Informal care is today the form of support most commonly used by those who need other people in order to carry out certain activities that are considered basic (eating, dressing, taking a shower, etc.), in Spain and in most other countries in the region. The possible labour opportunity costs incurred by these informal carers, the vast majority of whom are middle-aged women, have not as yet been properly quantified in Spain. It is, however, crucially important to know these quantit...

  10. Osteoporosis-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Middle-aged and Elderly Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭绩; 赵志广; 梁渊; 卢祖洵

    2004-01-01

    OSTEOPOROSIS (OP) is an important problemseriously affecting the health of middle-aged andelderly women. One third of women are likely tosuffer from OP. Because OP can cause irreversiblepathologic changes, bone structure is difficult torecover. Fracture and its complications, such as bed-sore, lung infection and urinary tract infection, arethe main causes of morbidity in these women.1Therefore, much attention should be paid to earlyprevention and treatment of OP. This study wasdesigned to understand the kno...

  11. Transverse myelitis due to trypanosomiasis in a middle aged Tanzanian man

    OpenAIRE

    Kibiki, G S; Murphy, D K

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a middle aged Tanzanian man who developed a spinal cord syndrome over 6 weeks, along with a mild encephalopathy. Investigations ruled out the usual major causes of such a syndrome in our setting in northern Tanzania. Examination of his cerebrospinal fluid revealed trypanosomes, and he made a slow but dramatic improvement after a full course of suramine and melarsoprol. We postulate that he had a transverse myelitis due to African trypanosomiasis, a rare and barely recogn...

  12. Leisure activities and cognitive function in middle age: evidence from the Whitehall II study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Richards, Marcus; Marmot, Mickael

    2003-01-01

    International audience To test the hypothesis of a positive association, independent of social position, between participation in leisure activities and cognitive function in middle age. The nature of this relation is explored by first classifying leisure activities as entailing high or low cognitive effort, and then classifying them as entailing individual or social activities. London based office staff (Whitehall II study) in 20 civil service departments at baseline. Data are from the fi...

  13. Non-pharmacological intervention study of hypercholesterolemia among middle-aged people

    OpenAIRE

    Okayama, Akira; Chiba, Nagako; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2004-01-01

    Middle-aged people with a serum total cholesterol of more than 220 mg/dl at the latest health examination (n=197) at a chemical company were invited to join a health education program for 6 months. Participants meeting inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=96) and a control group (n=92). Periodical interviews and blood tests were performed every 2 months for both groups. The intervention group was educated by health professionals in the factories through programs dev...

  14. Ketorolac alters blood flow during normothermia but not during hyperthermia in middle-aged human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Holowatz, Lacy A.; Jennings, John D.; Lang, James A.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2009-01-01

    In young healthy humans full expression of reflex cutaneous vasodilation is dependent on cyclooxygenase (COX)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent mechanisms. Chronic low-dose aspirin therapy attenuates reflex cutaneous vasodilation potentially through both platelet and vascular COX-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized the contribution of COX-dependent vasodilators to reflex cutaneous vasodilation during localized acute COX inhibition would be attenuated in healthy middle-aged humans d...

  15. Economic activity of middle-aged women in Serbia as relevant gender equality issue

    OpenAIRE

    Šobot Ankica

    2014-01-01

    Economic characteristics of the female population are important dimensions of contemporary gender regime. Thus, this paper focuses on disadvantageous characteristics of economic activity pointing to the range and the intensity of economic dependence of women as one of the obstacles to the improvement of their social position and reducing of gender gap. Statistical data show economic inactivity and unemployment of middle-aged women in Serbia. Also, regarding...

  16. Observation on lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in Chinese middle-aged men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingLeng; Xu-YuanHuang; Xian-ShengZhang; Yi-RanHuang

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To observe the incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms(LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in Chinese middle-aged men in Shanghai. Methods: In annual medical physical examination,681 Chinese men over 50 years old were evaluated. Each men completed an International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), Quality of Life Assessment (QoL) and International Index for Erectile Funtion (I]EF-5).

  17. Clinical Implications of Daytime Sleepiness for the Academic Performance of Middle School Age Adolescents with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Marshall, Stephen; Evans, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative impact of total time slept per night and daytime sleepiness on the academic functioning of 100 middle school age youth (Mage = 11.9) with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The primary goal of the study was to determine if total time slept per night and/or daytime sleepiness, as measured by youth self-report on the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), predicted academic functioning above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariat...

  18. Longitudinal Examination of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model in Middle-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-01-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body a...

  19. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy, attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  20. Survey for late-onset hypogonadism among old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Sun; Guo-Qing Liang; Xiang-Feng Chen; Ping Ping; Wen-Liang Yao; Shi-Jun Zhang; Bo Wang; Ying-Hao Sun; Zheng Li

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities,using symptom score evaluation systems and measurements of sex hormone levels.One thousand cases of males aged 40-70 years were investigated.The aging male symptoms (AMS) scale and androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM) questionnaire were used at the beginning of the investigation,followed by measurement of the sex hormone-related factors (total testosterone (TT),free testosterone (fT),sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bioavailability of testosterone (Bio-T)).There were 977 valid questionnaires.The LOH-positive rates shown by AMS and ADAM were 59.88% and 84.65%,respectively; values increased with the age of the patients.There were 946 results related to sex hormone measurements,which showed the following results:TT was not related to aging (P>0.05); levels of SHBG increased with age; and fT and Bio-T decreased with age.There was a significant difference in fT between LOH-positive and LOH-negative patients,as shown by the ADAM.In summary,TT levels were not related to aging,even though SHBG did increase while fT and Bio-T decreased with aging.Clinically,the diagnosis of LOH cannot be based on serum TT level.

  1. Upper Limb Strength and Muscle Volume in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Katherine R; Vidt, Meghan E; Gold, Garry E; Murray, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, as well as their relationship, for healthy middle- aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for 6 functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 middle-aged adults (46–60 y, 5M, 5F). Compared with young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (P = .0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (P = .012). We observed a consistent ordering of moment-generating capacity among functional groups across subjects. Although total muscle volume spanned a 2.3-fold range, muscle volume was distributed among functional groups in a consistent manner across subjects. On average, 72% of the variation in joint moment could be explained by the corresponding functional group muscle volume. These data are useful for improved modeling of upper limb musculoskeletal performance in middle-aged subjects, and may improve computational predictions of function for this group. PMID:26155870

  2. ["Historia animalium" compared to "Gynaecia" in the literature of the Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasen, A L

    1980-12-01

    In her essay the author pictures the dominating role of Aristotle's doctrines as compared with the more progressive scientific achievements of the Alexandrian school of medicine during the Middle Ages. One of the consequences of this dominance was an almost total neglect of the special health problems of women who were-in contrast with men and according to the Aristotelian tradition of the Middle Ages-considered to be defective human beings: a nearly uneradicable opinion far into later centuries. In addition it was not only in accordance with Christian doctrines but with religious and social conceptions and habits of the Arabic tradition as well. The progressive efforts of some reasonable medieval physicians to improve the deplorable position of women were incapable to break through the bulwark of cooperating misjudgments and prejudices. It took a lot of time-from Hippocrates to Galen and the Arabs-and many errors were made till the teachings of Soranos of Ephesos, the first great gynaecologist, began to gain ground since the late Middle Ages, when his treatment of women's diseases and obstetrical instructions slowly prevailed the speculative perceptions of Aristotle and his epigones.

  3. Latest Permian to Middle Triassic cyclo-magnetostratigraphy from the Central European Basin, Germany: Implications for the geomagnetic polarity timescale

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Szurlies

    2007-01-01

    In Central Germany, the about 1 km thick mainly clastic Germanic Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) consists of about 60 sedimentary cycles, which are considered to reflect variability in precipitation within the epicontinental Central European Basin, most probably due to solar-induced short eccentricity cycles. They provide a high-resolution cyclostratigraphic framework that constitutes the base for creating a composite geomagnetic polarity record, in which this paper presents a Middle Buntsands...

  4. An effective strategy to reduce blood pressure after forest walking in middle-aged and aged people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Akatsuka, Shin; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Eriko; Uno, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Sachiko

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] Forest walking may be effective for human health, but little information is available about effects of energy expenditure on blood pressure responses after forest walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity energy expenditure and changes in blood pressure in individuals after forest walking. [Subjects] The subjects were 54 middle-aged and elderly people. [Methods] All subjects walked in the forest for approximately 90 min. Blood pressure, salivary amylase, and the Profile of Mood States were evaluated before and after forest walking, and activity energy expenditure was monitored throughout forest walking. Subjects were divided into two groups according to mean arterial pressure changes: a responder group (>5% decreases) and a nonresponder group (<5%). [Results] Forest walking significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure and improved the Profile of Mood States in both groups. Activity energy expenditure was related to changes in mean arterial pressure in the responder group, while this relation was not observed in the nonresponder group. Differential activity energy expenditure did not strongly affect improvement of the Profile of Mood States. [Conclusion] Greater walking-related greater activity energy expenditure might be required to accentuate physiological beneficial effects on in middle-aged and aged people. Furthermore, the forest environment per se can attenuate psychological stress. PMID:26834337

  5. Symbolic metal bit and saddlebag fastenings in a Middle Bronze Age donkey burial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bar-Oz

    Full Text Available Here we report the unprecedented discovery of the skeleton of a ritually interred donkey with a metal horse bit in association with its teeth and saddlebag fastenings on its back. This discovery in the Middle Bronze Age III sacred precinct (1700/1650-1550 BCE at Tel Haror, Israel, presents a unique combination of evidence for the early employment of equid harnessing equipment, both for chariot bridling (horse bit and pack animals (saddlebags. The ritually deposited donkey with its unique accoutrements advances our understanding of the broad social and religious significance of equids in the Levantine Bronze Age, previously known mainly from textual and iconographical sources.

  6. EFFECT OF METOPROLOL ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS OF YOUNG TO MIDDLE AGE

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Smakotina; O. A. Trubnikova; O. L. Barbarash

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effect of metoprolol tartrate on blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function in young to middle aged patients with essential hypertension (HT).Material and methods. 40 men (age of 49,0±1,9 y.o.) with HT of I-II stage not taking antihypertensive medication regularly were enrolled into the study. All patients were given metoprolol tartrate (start dose 50-100 mg/d). Variables of 24-h BP monitoring and clinic BP, left ventricular mass index (measured by echocardiography) and c...

  7. Exercise therapy versus arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for degenerative meniscal tear in middle aged patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kise, Nina Jullum; Risberg, May Arna; Stensrud, Silje;

    2016-01-01

    clinics in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 140 adults, mean age 49.5 years (range 35.7-59.9), with degenerative medial meniscal tear verified by magnetic resonance imaging. 96% had no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. INTERVENTIONS: 12 week supervised exercise therapy alone or arthroscopic partial....... Our results should encourage clinicians and middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tear and no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to consider supervised exercise therapy as a treatment option.Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01002794)....

  8. Symbolic Metal Bit and Saddlebag Fastenings in a Middle Bronze Age Donkey Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Oz, Guy; Nahshoni, Pirhiya; Motro, Hadas; Oren, Eliezer D.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the unprecedented discovery of the skeleton of a ritually interred donkey with a metal horse bit in association with its teeth and saddlebag fastenings on its back. This discovery in the Middle Bronze Age III sacred precinct (1700/1650-1550 BCE) at Tel Haror, Israel, presents a unique combination of evidence for the early employment of equid harnessing equipment, both for chariot bridling (horse bit) and pack animals (saddlebags). The ritually deposited donkey with its unique accoutrements advances our understanding of the broad social and religious significance of equids in the Levantine Bronze Age, previously known mainly from textual and iconographical sources. PMID:23484046

  9. Active infection with Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population of middle aged to elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Peschke, F;

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate prevalence and determinants of current Helicobacter pylori infection in an asymptomatic population of middle-aged to elderly people. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 337 participants of a general education programme of the University of Ulm aged 50...... of school education of the father, sharing a bed with parents or siblings during childhood, and the area in which participants had grown up were independent determinants of current infection status in a multivariable analysis. We conclude that the prevalence of current H. pylori infection in healthy elderly...

  10. HYPERTENSION-RELATED ALTERATIONS IN WHITE MATTER MICROSTRUCTURE DETECTABLE IN MIDDLE AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Linda K.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Eyler, Lisa T.; Franz, Carol; Hagler, Donald J.; Lyons, Michael J.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Rinker, Daniel A; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies examining associations between hypertension and brain white matter microstructure have focused on older adults or on cohorts with a large age range. Since hypertension effects on the brain may vary with age it is important to focus on middle age, when hypertension becomes more prevalent. We used linear mixed effect models to examine differences in white matter diffusion metrics as a function of hypertension in a well-characterized cohort of middle-aged men (N=316, mean 61.8 years; range 56.7–65.6). Diffusion metrics were examined in nine tracts reported to be sensitive to hypertension in older adults. Relative to normotensive individuals, individuals with longstanding hypertension (> 5.6 years) showed reduced fractional anisotropy or increased diffusivity in most tracts. Effects were stronger among carriers than non-carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for two tracts connecting frontal regions with other brain areas. Significant differences were observed even after adjustment for potentially-related lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. Shorter duration of hypertension or better blood pressure control among hypertensive individuals did not lessen the adverse effects. These findings suggest that microstructural white matter alterations appear early in the course of hypertension and may persist despite adequate treatment. Although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings, the results suggest that prevention—rather than management—of hypertension may be vital to preserving brain health in aging. PMID:26056337

  11. Joint dysfunction and functional decline in middle age myostatin null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen; Miller, Andrew D; Pencina, Karol; Wong, Siu; Lee, Amanda; Yee, Michael; Toraldo, Gianluca; Jasuja, Ravi; Bhasin, Shalender

    2016-02-01

    Since its discovery as a potent inhibitor for muscle development, myostatin has been actively pursued as a drug target for age- and disease-related muscle loss. However, potential adverse effects of long-term myostatin deficiency have not been thoroughly investigated. We report herein that male myostatin null mice (mstn(-/-)), in spite of their greater muscle mass compared to wild-type (wt) mice, displayed more significant functional decline from young (3-6months) to middle age (12-15months) than age-matched wt mice, measured as gripping strength and treadmill endurance. Mstn(-/-) mice displayed markedly restricted ankle mobility and degenerative changes of the ankle joints, including disorganization of bone, tendon and peri-articular connective tissue, as well as synovial thickening with inflammatory cell infiltration. Messenger RNA expression of several pro-osteogenic genes was higher in the Achilles tendon-bone insertion in mstn(-/-) mice than wt mice, even at the neonatal age. At middle age, higher plasma concentrations of growth factors characteristic of excessive bone remodeling were found in mstn(-/-) mice than wt controls. These data collectively indicate that myostatin may play an important role in maintaining ankle and wrist joint health, possibly through negative regulation of the pro-osteogenic WNT/BMP pathway. PMID:26549246

  12. Herpetofauna of the cedar glades and associated habitats of the Inner Central Basin of middle Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, M.L.; Graham, Reynolds R.; Glorioso, B.M.; Spiess, J.; Miller, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The cedar glades and barrens of the Inner Central Basin (ICB) of middle Tennessee support a unique and diverse flora and fauna and represent some of the state's most valued natural areas. We conducted herpetofaunal inventories of the cedar glades, associated barrens, cedar-hardwood forest, and adjacent aquatic habitats of the Stones River drainage of Middle Tennessee, focusing our sampling effort primarily at seven state- or federally owned properties in Rutherford and Wilson counties. These properties included Stones River National Battlefield (SRNB), Flat Rock State Natural Area (FRSNA), Vesta Cedar Glade State Natural Area (VSNA), Fall Creek Recreation Area (FCRA) on J. Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area, Cedars of Lebanon State Forest (CLSF), Cedars of Lebanon State Forest Natural Area (CLSNA), and Cedars of Lebanon State Park (CLSP). We used a variety of inventory techniques in terrestrial, aquatic, and subterranean habitats to survey these properties periodically from 1989 to 2010. We documented 49 species (22 amphibian and 27 reptile) accounting for 75.4% of the 65 herpetofaunal species thought to occur in the ICB, including records for Cemophora coccinea, Aneides aeneus, Gyrinophilus palleucus, Ambystoma barbouri, and Pseudotriton montanus. We found differences in alpha and beta diversity between sites, with the CLSF complex containing a high of 41 herpetofaunal species and FRSNA containing a low of 23 species. Beta diversity comparisons indicated similarity in amphibian species composition between FRSNA and CLSF and between SRNB and CLSF (9 shared species), and in reptile species composition between VSNA and the CLSF complex (16 shared species). We compare the results of our inventory with two previous studies conducted in the area and discuss the relative abundance, conservation, and threats to the herpetofaunal community of these habitats.

  13. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed. PMID:27086476

  14. Color vision deficiency in a middle-aged population: the Shahroud Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Hashemi, Hassan; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Mehravaran, Shiva; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of color vision defects in the middle-age population of Shahroud, Iran. We selected 6,311 people from the 40- to 64-year-old population through random cluster sampling. Color vision testing was performed with the Farnsworth D-15. Cases with similar and symmetric results in both eyes were classified as hereditary, and those with asymmetric results were considered acquired. Cases that did not conform to standard patterns were classified as unknown category. Of 5,190 respondents (response rate 82.2 %), 5,102 participants underwent the color vision test. Of these, 14.7 % (95 % confidence interval 13.7-15.6) had some type of color vision deficiency. Of the 2,157 male participants, 6.2 % were hereditary and 10.2 % were acquired and of the 2,945 female participants, 3.1 % were hereditary and 10 % were acquired. Hereditary color deficiencies were mostly of the deutan form (63.8 %), and acquired deficiencies were mostly tritan (66.1 %). The prevalence of hereditary and acquired color vision deficiency, as well as different types of red-green and blue-yellow color vision defects significantly increased with age (p color vision defects among the middle-aged population of Shahroud was significantly different from that seen in the younger population. This could be due to changes associated with age, gender, medical and ocular conditions, and differences in race and environment. Thus, results of previous examinations and the overall health status should be considered before making any judgment about the status of color vision in middle-aged people.

  15. Validity of a screening tool for detecting subtle cognitive impairment in the middle-aged and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce KM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn M Bruce,1 Stephen R Robinson,2 Julian A Smith,1 Gregory W Yelland2,3 1Department of Surgery (MMC, Monash University, Clayton, 2School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, 3Central Clinical School, Monash University, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: The present study tested 121 middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling individuals on the computer-based Subtle Cognitive Impairment Test (SCIT and compared their performance with that on several neuropsychological tests. The SCIT had excellent internal consistency, as demonstrated by a high split-half reliability measure (0.88–0.93. Performance on the SCIT was unaffected by the confounding factors of sex, education level, and mood state. Many participants demonstrated impaired performance on one or more of the neuropsychological tests (Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Task, Grooved Pegboard [GP], Complex Figures. Performance on SCIT subtests correlated significantly with performance on many of the neuropsychological subtests, and the best and worst performing quartiles on the SCIT subtest discriminated between good and poor performers on other subtests, collectively indicating concurrent validity of the SCIT. Principal components analysis indicated that SCIT performance does not cluster with performance on most of the other cognitive tests, and instead is associated with decision-making efficacy, and processing speed and efficiency. Thus, the SCIT is responsive to the processes that underpin multiple cognitive domains, rather than being specific for a single domain. Since the SCIT is quick and easy to administer, and is well tolerated by the elderly, it may have utility as a screening tool for detecting cognitive impairment in middle-aged and elderly populations. Keywords: aging, mild cognitive impairment, neuropsychological test, Subtle Cognitive Impairment Test, validation, reliability

  16. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  17. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douris Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  18. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  19. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and

  20. Characteristics of middle-aged and older patients with temporomandibular disorders and burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mika; Iida, Takashi; Komiyama, Osamu; Masuda, Manabu; Uchida, Takashi; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Okubo, Masakazu; Shimosaka, Michiharu; Narita, Noriyuki; Niwa, Hideo; Kubo, Hideyuki; De Laat, Antoon; Kawara, Misao; Makiyama, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain intensities and psychosocial characteristics in middle-aged and older patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Subjects were selected according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (n = 705) and International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for BMS (n = 175). Patients were then divided into two age groups: 45-64 years (middle-aged, Group A) and 65-84 years (older, Group B). Pain intensity and depression and somatization scores were evaluated in both groups. In BMS patients, present and worst pain intensities were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A {4.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.0-5.2] vs. 3.5 [95% CI = 3.1-3.9] and 5.9 [95% CI = 5.2-6.4] vs. 5.0 [95% CI = 4.5-5.6], respectively; P < 0.05}, with no difference observed in TMD patients. The depression and somatization scores were significantly higher in Group A than in Group B among BMS patients [0.57 (95% CI = 0.45-0.69) vs. 0.46 (95% CI = 0.34-0.59) and 0.537 (95% CI = 0.45-0.63) vs. 0.45 (95% CI = 0.34-0.55); P < 0.05], with no difference observed in TMD patients. The results of the present study indicate that pain intensities and psychosocial characteristics in BMS appear to differ between middle-aged and older patients. PMID:26666859

  1. Changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis in middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis function in the middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Methods: The levels of D-Dimer and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were detected in 92 middle-aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF group) and 60 patients with sinus rhythm (control group) by immune turbidimetry and enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Univariate analysis was used to determine the differences between two groups, and covariance analysis was used to determine the factors which might affect coagulation and fibrinolysis indexes. Results: 1)The plasma levels of D-Dimer [(0.16±0.10) mg·L-1] and t-PA [(42.58± 30.28) μg·L-1] and PAI-1 [(86.03 ± 21.43) μg·L-1] in AF group were significantly higher than those in the control group [(0.10 ± 0.08) mg·L-1, (26.02±13.84) μg·L-1, (64.94±24.35) μg·L-1] (P<0.05 or P <0.001). The ratio of PAI-1/t-PA in AF group was higher than that in control group slightly. 2) After adjustment of the factors which included sex, age and plasma creatinine, uric acid, blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol, the levels of D-Dimer (P=0.047), t-PA (P=0.264) and PAI-1 (P=0.001) in AF group were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion: The middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation lose their balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the state of hypercoagulated and hypofibrinolysis. (authors)

  2. The evolution of the hospital from antiquity to the end of the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cilliers

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the hospital is traced from its onset in ancient Mesopotamia towards the end of the 2nd millennium to the end of the Middle Ages. Reference is made to institutionalised health care facilities in India as early as the 5th century BC, and with the spread of Buddhism to the east, to nursing facilities, the nature and function of which are not known to us, in Sri Lanka, China and South East Asia. Special attention is paid to the situation in the Graeco-Roman era: one would expect to find the origin of the hospital in the modem sense of the word in Greece, the birthplace of rational medicine in the 4th century BC, but the Hippocratic doctors paid house-calls, and the temples of Asclepius were visited for incubation sleep and magico-religious treatment. In Roman times the military and slave hospitals which existed since the 1st century AD, were built for a specialized group and not for the public, and were therefore also not precursors of the modem hospital. It is to the Christians that one must turn for the origin of the modem hospital. Hospices, initially built to shelter pilgrims and messengers between various bishops, were under Christian control developed into hospitals in the modem sense of the word. In Rome itself, the first hospital was built in the 4th century AD by a wealthy penitent widow, Fabiola. In the early Middle Ages (6th to 10th century, under the influence of the Benedictine Order, an infirmary became an established part of every monastery. During the late Middle Ages (beyond the 10th century monastic infirmaries continued to expand, but public hospitals were also opened, financed by city authorities, the church and private sources. Specialized institutions, like leper houses, also originated at this time. During the Golden Age of Islam the Muslim world was clearly more advanced than its Christian counterpart with magnificent hospitals in various countries.

  3. Microalbuminuria in Obese Young and Middle Aged Population: A Potential Marker of Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Purvi; Garg, Kunal; Singh, Vikram; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Sharma, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established cardiovascular risk indicator in diabetes, hypertension and the general population. There is lack of information on MAU in healthy obese Indian adults and an ongoing debate whether obese adults deserve targeted identification and clinical intervention for MAU and prediabetes. We aimed to screen the healthy obese, young (group I) and middle aged (group II) adults for prevalence of MAU and prediabetes and study its association with Framingham risk score. The study included 50 healthy obese young (20-30 years) and middle aged adults (31-50 years), attending the outpatient clinic of Dept. of Medicine for a duration of 2 months (July-August). The patients were screened for fasting blood sugar, lipid profile and MAU. Of the total patients 28 % had MAU, 32.14 % of which had prediabetes and 33.33 % had diabetes whereas 10 % were normoglycemic. The group I patients had 50 % cases of MAU and group II had 25 % patients with MAU. Group II 63.63 % pre-diabetics. The values of MAU obtained were correlated with age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, FBS, waist to hip ratio using Pearson's Coefficient (p < 0.05). The 10 year CVD risk calculated using FRS in subjects with MAU was higher as compared to those without MAU. Thus we conclude that Indian, young and middle aged obese adults to be at a risk of prediabetes, MAU and CV risk warranting their routine screening for better clinical outcomes. PMID:27382209

  4. A new age model for the early-middle Miocene in the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbacher, Bettina; Krijgsman, Wout; Pippèrr, Martina; Sant, Karin; Kirscher, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of high-resolution age models for sedimentary successions is crucial for numerous research questions in the geosciences and related disciplines. Such models provide an absolute chronology that permits precise dating of depositional episodes and related processes such as mountain uplift or climate change. Recently, our work in the Miocene sediments of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) has revealed a significantly younger age (16.6 Myr) for sediments that were thought to have been deposited 18 Myr ago. This implies that a fundamentally revised new age model is needed for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB (20 to 15-Myr). Our new data also indicate that previously published reconstructions of early-middle Miocene palaeogeography, sedimentation dynamics, mountain uplift and climate change in the NAFB all require a critical review and revision. Further, the time-span addressed is of special interest, since it encompasses the onset of a global warming phase. However, it appears that a fundamentally revised new age model for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB can only be achieved based on a 500 m deep drilling in the NAFB for which we currently seek collaboration partners to develop a grant application to the International Continental Deep Drilling Program (ICDP). Reference: Reichenbacher, B., W. Krijgsman, Y. Lataster, M. Pippèrr, C. G. C. Van Baak, L. Chang, D. Kälin, J. Jost, G. Doppler, D. Jung, J. Prieto, H. Abdul Aziz, M. Böhme, J. Garnish, U. Kirscher, and V. Bachtadse. 2013. A new magnetostratigraphic framework for the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian/Ottnangian, Karpatian) in the North Alpine Foreland Basin. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 106:309-334.

  5. The evolution of the hospital from antiquity to the end of the middle ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, L; Retief, F P

    2002-11-01

    The evolution of the hospital is traced from its onset in ancient Mesopotamia towards the end of the 2nd millennium to the end of the Middle Ages. Reference is made to institutionalised health care facilities in India as early as the 5th century BC, and with the spread of Buddhism to the east, to nursing facilities, the nature and function of which are not known to us, in Sri Lanka, China and South East Asia. Special attention is paid to the situation in the Graeco-Roman era: one would expect to find the origin of the hospital in the modern sense of the word in Greece, the birthplace of rational medicine in the 4th century BC, but the Hippocratic doctors paid house-calls, and the temples of Asclepius were visited for incubation sleep and magico-religious treatment. In Roman times the military and slave hospitals which existed since the 1st century AD, were built for a specialized group and not for the public, and were therefore also not precursors of the modern hospital. It is to the Christians that one must turn for the origin of the modern hospital. Hospices, initially built to shelter pilgrims and messengers between various bishops, were under Christian control developed into hospitals in the modern sense of the word. In Rome itself, the first hospital was built in the 4th century AD by a wealthy penitent widow, Fabiola. In the early Middle Ages (6th to 10th century), under the influence of the Benedictine Order, an infirmary became an established part of every monastery. During the late Middle Ages (beyond the 10th century) monastic infirmaries continued to expand, but public hospitals were also opened, financed by city authorities, the church and private sources. Specialized institutions, like leper houses, also originated at this time. During the Golden Age of Islam the Muslim world was clearly more advanced than its Christian counterpart with magnificent hospitals in various countries.

  6. A Hard Day’s Knights: Movie Time Travel, the Middle Ages, and a New Millenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the cinematic treatment of the Middle Ages through an analysis of two recent mass-audience American films, Black Knight and Timeline, both of which feature time travel as a leading plot element. Providing context for this discussion is a brief analysis of other similar films, as well as remarks regarding Twain's Connecticut Yankee, Ruskin's The Stones of Venice, and The Idylls of the King by Tennyson. As in these other works, the films in question use certain popular stereotypes of the Middle Ages—endemic violence, rigid class distinctions, religious fanaticism, spiritual cohesion, etc.—as lens through which to view the contemporary world. In addition to their roles as comic or action entertainment vehicles, Black Knight indirectly addresses American individualism and a cutthroat modern corporate culture, whereas Timeline touches upon millennial anxiety, '90's ethnic cleansing, and the American misadventure in Iraq.

  7. Age of the Xalnene Ash, Central Mexico and Archeological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, P. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Waters, M. R.; Cabrales, J. A.; Castillo, P. O.; Campa, M. P.; Knight, K. B.

    2005-12-01

    Human footprints ~40 ka old have been reported from the Toloquilla quarry near Valsequillo Reservoir, ca. 15 km south of the city of Puebla in central Mexico (http://www.mexicanfootprints.co.uk/default.htm). If correct, this would be important evidence for early peopling of the Americas. The indentations interpreted as footprints and other ichnofossils occur on the surface of an indurated basaltic lapilli tuff within a several meter thick sequence of thinly bedded (1-10 cm) tuffs of similar character, lacking paleosols, erosional features or interlayered sediments, informally known as the Xalnene ash. A sample was collected at 18°55.402` N latitude and 098°09.375` W longitude from the surface on which the purported footprints occur. Lapilli were separated and analyzed by incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar methods, yielding 9 indistinguishable plateau ages averaging 1.30 ±0.03 Ma (2σ) for single lapilli (N=6) and multiple lapilli (N=3) subsamples. Though some minor discordance (presumably due to 39Ar recoil) is manifest in 5 of the age spectra, all plateaux comprise >60% of the 39Ar released and 4 or more consecutive steps. Paleomagnetic data from azimuthally unoriented bulk samples of 11.25 cm3 reveal a reverse polarity (I = -32.1°) thermoremanent component carried by titanomagnetite and a normal polarity component carried by goethite. Measurements on individual matrix-free lapilli lack the goethite component, which is presumed to be associated with the clay-rich cement. Consistency of the reverse component implies deposition of the lapilli at supra-Curie temperatures, with no postdepositional reworking. Reverse polarity is consistent with deposition during chron C1r.2r (1.77 to 1.07 Ma) as indicated by the 40Ar/39Ar data. If the features observed on the tuff are indeed footprints, their 1.3 Ma antiquity would be truly remarkable, predating by far any other evidence for human presence in the Americas and in fact predating the evolutionary emergence of Homo sapiens

  8. Higher muscle content of perilipin 5 and endothelial lipase protein in trained than untrained middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Prats, C; Ploug, T;

    2016-01-01

    A high VO(2)max in middle-age is related to high metabolic flexibility and lowered risk of metabolic diseases. However, the influence of a high VO(2)max induced by years of regular training in middle-age on protein expression related to muscle metabolism is not well studied. This study measures key...... capacity, but also in higher endothelial lipase and perilipin 5 expression and a borderline higher glycogen synthase protein expression, which may contribute to a higher metabolic flexibility....... proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidation, glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of trained and untrained middle-aged men. 16 middle-aged men, matched for lean body mass, were recruited into an endurance trained (TR, n=8) or an untrained (CON, n=8) group based on their VO(2)max. A muscle...

  9. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mean...... age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque...... or coronary artery calcification ≥1, was classified as focal (1 site affected), intermediate (2-3 sites), or generalized (4-6 sites) after exploration of each vascular site (right/left carotids, aorta, right/left iliofemorals, and coronary arteries). Subclinical atherosclerosis was present in 63...

  10. POWER-TYPE STRENGTH TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Surakka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength declines with increasing age, and the power-type strength characteristics decline even more drastically than the maximal muscle strength. Therefore, it is important to design training programmes specifically for sedentary middle-aged people to effectively improve the power-type strength in leg and trunk muscles. To be suitable for the target group, the exercise programmes should be feasible, motivating and easy to practice. The aim of this study was to design and investigate the effects and feasibility of a power-type strength training programme in 226 middle-aged men and women, with 26 persons as non-training controls. The subjects trained three times a week during 22 weeks, in 12 groups with exercise classes of 10-20 subjects, and using no or very little external equipment. All training sessions were controlled and supervised by an professional instructor. Vertical squat jump, standing long jump, 20 metre running time, maximal anaerobic cycling power, maximal oxygen uptake, and angular trunk muscle flexion and extension velocities were measured before and after the training period to evaluate the training effects. Questionnaires concerning employment, physical activity, smoking, musculoskeletal symptoms and exercise motives were also filled in before and after the training period. The greatest improvements were achieved in vertical squat jump (18% and in angular trunk flexion (14% and extension (16% velocities. An external loading totalling 2.2 kg (attached in ankles increased the height in vertical squat jump by 23% and maximal anaerobic cycling power by 12%, these improvements were significant compared with subjects in no load training group (p = 0.03 in vertical squat jump and p = 0.05 in maximal anaerobic cycling power. Exercise induced injuries occurred in 19% of men and 6% of women. Low back symptoms decreased in exercisers by 12% and knee symptoms (increased by 4% during the intervention. Of all subjects, 24% dropped out

  11. THE PALEODEMOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF OYLUM HOYUK POPULATION (THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE, KİLİS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşen Açıkkol Yıldırım

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study skeleton remaining of 72 individuals excavated from Middle Bronze Age layers of Oylum Höyük (mound situated in Kilis province, were studied. Sex and age of skeletons, unearthed between 2007-2012, were determined and life tables of the population were formed. Mortality of infants and children of Oylum population was very high. Death rates were determined as 36.6 % for 0-5 years of age group, 57.75 % for 0-15 years of age group. 34.62 % of infants and children from 0-5 years of age group died before they completed their 1st year. Lifespan of males were longer than females (25 for females, 33 years for males. Average age of adults was 29. Mortality for females was highest in young adult period (18-30 ages however it becomes more prominent at adulthood period (30-45 years in males. Oylum Höyük population has one of the shortest lifespan among ancient Anatolian populations with its very high subadult death ratios. Paleopathological data states that, individuals were exposed to serious stress during growth period and reproductive period is the most dangerous period for females.

  12. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. PMID:25773456

  13. Obesity, Age, and Oxidative Stress in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Yang, Gong; Cai, Quiyin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Deng, Xinqing; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Murff, Harvey; Milne, Ginger; Zheng, Wei; Dai, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that urinary F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) are more accurate markers of oxidative stress than other available biomarkers. Most previous studies used unmetabolized F2-IsoPs as a biomarker. Few previous studies measured 15-F2t-IsoP-M, a metabolite of one of the most common F2-IsoPs, 15-F2t-IsoP. Unlike 15-F2t-IsoP, 15-F2t-IsoP-M is not subject to autoxidation and renal production. To our knowledge, no study has compared the associations of age and body mass index (BMI) wit...

  14. Interactions of hearing loss and diabetes mellitus in the middle age CBA/CaJ mouse model of presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Olga N; Frisina, Susan T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we characterized the more severe nature of hearing loss in aged Type 2 diabetic human subjects [Frisina, S.T., Mapes, F., Kim, S., Frisina, D.R., Frisina, R.D., 2006. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics. Hear. Res. 211, 103-113]. The current study prospectively assessed hearing abilities in middle age CBA/CaJ mice with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (STZ injection) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (high fat diet), for a period of 6 months. Blood glucose, body weight and auditory tests (Auditory Brainstem Response-ABR, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions-DPOAE) were evaluated at baseline and every 2 months. Tone and broad-band noise-burst responses in the inferior colliculus were obtained at 6 months. Body weights of controls did not change over 6 months (approximately 32 g), but there was a significant (approximately 5 g) decline in the T1DM, while T2DM exhibited approximately 10 g weight gain. Blood glucose levels significantly increased: 3-fold for T1DM, 1.3-fold for T2DM; with no significant changes in controls. ABR threshold elevations were found for both types of diabetes, but were most pronounced in the T2DM, starting as early as 2 months after induction of diabetes. A decline of mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed in both diabetic groups at high frequencies, and for the T2DM at low frequencies. In contrast to ABR thresholds, tone and noise thresholds in the inferior colliculus were lower for both diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes in middle-aged CBA/CaJ mice promotes amplification of age-related peripheral hearing loss which makes it a suitable model for studying the interaction of age-related hearing loss and diabetes. On the other hand, initial results of effects from very high blood glucose level (T1DM) on the auditory midbrain showed disruption of central inhibition, increased response synchrony or enhanced excitation in the inferior colliculus.

  15. Amyloid burden, neuronal function, and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Koscik, Rebecca; Jonaitis, Erin; Cleary, Caitlin A.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Bendlin, Barbara B.; LaRue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Howard A Rowley; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Gallagher, Catherine L; Asthana, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The relative influence of amyloid burden, neuronal structure and function, and prior cognitive performance on prospective memory decline among asymptomatic late middle-aged individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently unknown. We investigated this using longitudinal cognitive data from 122 middle-aged adults (21 “Decliners” and 101 “Stables”) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention who underwent multimodality neuroimaging (11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)...

  16. THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SELF-EFFICACY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG MIDDLE-AGED WOMEN: KOUVOLAN SEUDUN MUISTI RY PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Kewoh-Vainio, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU University of Applied Sciences Master’s Degree in Health Promotion KEWOH-VAINIO, VIVIAN The Associations Between Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Among Middle-aged Women: Kouvolan Seudun Muisti ry. Master’s Thesis 46 pages +9 Appendices Supervisor Marja-Leena, Kauronen Principal Lecturer Commissioned by Kouvolan Seudun Muisti ry Project April 2013 Keywords: Self-efficacy, physical activity, middle-aged, wo...

  17. Sarcopenic obesity and physical performance in middle aged women: a cross-sectional study in Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Mayle A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Vafaei, Afshin; Câmara, Saionara M. A. da; Oliveira, Tamyres S.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia and obesity have been independently associated with physical function decline, however little information is currently available on the relationship between sarcopenic obesity and physical performance, mainly in middle aged women. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and to explore the relationship between sarcopenic obesity and physical performance in middle-aged women from Northeast Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study of women (40...

  18. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    OpenAIRE

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged w...

  19. Meal-induced changes in splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake in middle-aged healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Søndergaard, SB; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    therefore to measure the splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake before and after a standardized meal in a group of middle-aged normal volunteers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake were determined at baseline and after a 3600-kJ mixed meal in 8 healthy women (50-70 years) and 10...... in middle-aged healthy humans. Our data may be relevant for the evaluation of corresponding data from patients with suspected chronic intestinal ischaemia....

  20. Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaires for young to middle-aged adults with hip and groin disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, K; Tijssen, M; Habets, B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To recommend Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaires to measure hip and groin disability in young-aged to middle-aged adults. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in June 2014. The methodological quality of the studies included was determined using the COnsensus...... information or poor quality rating on methodological aspects made it impossible to fully evaluate the remaining PROs at present. CONCLUSIONS: HAGOS, HOS, IHOT-12 and IHOT-33 can be recommended for assessment of young-aged to middle-aged adults with pain related to the hip joint, undergoing non......-surgical treatment or hip arthroscopy. At present, HAGOS is the only PRO also aimed for young-aged to middle-aged adults presenting with groin pain and is recommended for use in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42014009995....

  1. Decreased response inhibition in middle-aged male patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakura Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to examine whether patients with type 2 diabetes have cognitive deficits associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Methods Twenty-seven middle-aged patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 27 healthy controls underwent physical measurements and neuropsychological tasks. Response inhibition, reward prediction, and executive function were assessed by the Go/NoGo task, the reversal and extinction tasks, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. To examine the interactions of being overweight with diabetes on cognitive performance, performance data were analysed by two-way ANCOVA with diabetes and overweight as factors and age as a covariate. Results Patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly decreased response inhibition in the Go/NoGo task (discriminability index: P = 0.001. There was an interaction of being overweight with diabetes on reaction time in the Go trials of the Go/NoGo task (P = 0.009. Being overweight was related to retained responses to the presentiment of reward in the extinction task (P = 0.029. The four groups showed normal cognitive performance in the WCST. Conclusions Our results showed that middle-aged, newly diagnosed and medication-free patients with type 2 diabetes have a particular neuropsychological deficit in inhibitory control of impulsive response, which is an independent effect of diabetes apart from being overweight.

  2. Diet and cognitive decline at middle age: the role of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Milder, Ivon E J; van Gelder, Boukje M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2015-05-14

    To assess the relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, lutein, flavonoids and lignans) and cognitive decline at middle age, analyses were performed on data from the population based Doetinchem Cohort Study. Habitual diet and cognitive function were assessed twice with a 5-year interval in 2613 persons aged 43-70 year at baseline (1995-2002). Diet was assessed with a validated 178-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery, consisting of the 15 Words Learning Test, the Stroop Test, the Word Fluency test, and the Letter Digit Substitution Test. Scores on global cognitive function, memory, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were calculated. In regression analyses, quintiles of antioxidant intake were associated with change in cognitive domain scores. Results showed that higher lignan intake was linearly associated with less decline in global cognitive function (P= 0.01), memory (Pdeclines in the highest v. the lowest quintile. In the lowest quintile of vitamin E intake, decline in memory was twice as fast as in all higher quintiles (Pcognitive decline in the highest lutein intake group was greater than in the lowest intake group (Pdecline in cognitive flexibility (P for trend = 0.04). Intakes of other antioxidants were not associated with cognitive decline. We conclude that within the range of a habitual dietary intake, higher intake of lignans is associated with less cognitive decline at middle age. PMID:25851267

  3. Constraint on radiocarbon age correction in Lake Biwa environment from the middle to late Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using data from previous studies and newly collected data, we compared the measured radiocarbon ages of molluscan shells, common reed (Phragmites australis) and pine needles (Pinus thunbergii) collected in 1966, 1970, 1990 and 2008 at Lake Biwa in Japan, and of archaeological samples, to examine radiocarbon reservoir effects at Lake Biwa. We also tested for differences in the radiocarbon reservoir effect between species and locations in the lake. The effects of nuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s are clear, the offset between atmospheric 14C and the Lake Biwa freshwater 14C is larger for this period because the atmospheric 14C is so high. The semiclosed Lake Biwa system is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, resulting in the 14C content of the water following the changes in atmospheric 14C caused by nuclear testing. The shells collected after 1990 had radiocarbon ages that were 330–450 14C years older than those of the coeval atmosphere. The apparent differences in radiocarbon age (about 300 14C years) between shell fossils and wood samples excavated from the same layer of the submerged Awazu shell midden at Lake Biwa suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir effect also existed in the middle Holocene (the Middle Jomon period, about 5000 years ago). Because the present-day average residence time of Lake Biwa water is 3–6 years, its direct influence on the radiocarbon reservoir effect is small, which suggests that old carbon has been supplied into Lake Biwa.

  4. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Landsvig Berentzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study were analyzed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993-97 and 1999-02. Information on diabetes was obtained from The Danish National Diabetes Register. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox' proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999-02 until December 31 2006. During 5.4 years of follow-up, 1,027 and 876 new cases of diabetes occurred among men and women, respectively. WC was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes also with adjustment for covariates and BMI. DWC was positively associated with diabetes in women, but not in men (HR per 5 cm change = 1.09 (1.04:1.15 in women, and 1.00 (0.94, 1.07 in men with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI. Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with diseases or diabetes occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study confirmed that WC is positively associated with the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, it surprisingly showed that changes in WC were not associated with the subsequent risk of diabetes in men, and only weakly positively associated with the risk of diabetes in women. Accordingly, these findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be a weak or insufficient or target for prevention of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

  5. Fluvial landscapes - human societies interactions during the last 2000 years: the Middle Loire River and its embanking since the Middle Ages (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanet, Cyril; Carcaud, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    This research deals with the study of fluvial landscapes, heavily and precociously transformed by societies (fluvial anthroposystems). It aims to characterize i), fluvial responses to climate, environmental and anthropogenic changes ii), history of hydraulical constructions relative to rivers iii), history of fluvial origin risks and their management - (Program: AGES Ancient Geomorphological EvolutionS of the Loire River hydrosystem). The Middle Loire River valley in the Val d'Orléans was strongly and precociously occupied, particularly during historical periods. Hydrosedimentary flows are there irregular. The river dykes were built during the Middle Ages (dykes named turcies) and the Modern Period, but ages and localizations of the oldest dykes were not precisely known. A systemic and multi-scaled approach aimed to characterize i), palaeo-hydrographical, -hydrological and -hydraulical evolutions of the Loire River, fluvial risks (palaeo-hazards and -vulnerabilities) and their management. It is based on an integrated approach, in and out archaeological sites: morpho-stratigraphy, sedimentology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomatics, geochronology, archaeology. Spatio-temporal variability of fluvial hazards is characterized. A model of the Loire River fluvial activity is developed: multicentennial scale variability, with higher fluvial activity episodes during the Gallo-Roman period, IX-XIth centuries and LIA. Fluvial patterns changes are indentified. Settlement dynamics and hydraulical constructions of the valley are specified. We establish the ages and localizations of the oldest discovered dikes of the Middle Loire River: after the Late Antiquity and before the end of the Early Middle Ages (2 dated dykes), between Bou and Orléans cities. During historical periods, we suggest 2 main thresholds concerning socio-environmental interactions: the first one during the Early Middle Ages (turcies: small scattered dykes), the second during the Modern Period (levees: high

  6. UV emission from young and middle-aged pulsars: Connecting X-rays with the optical

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, O

    2006-01-01

    We present the UV spectroscopy and timing of three nearby pulsars (Vela, B0656+14 and Geminga) recently observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We also review the optical and X-ray properties of these pulsars and establish their connection with the UV properties. We show that the multiwavelengths properties of neutron stars (NSs) vary significantly within the sample of middle-aged pulsars. Even larger differences are found between the thermal components of Ge-minga and B0656+14 as compared to those of radio-quiet isolated NSs. These differences could be attributed to different properties of the NS surface layers.

  7. Designing the Middle Ages: Knowledge emphasis and designs for learning in the history classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Insulander

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary teaching and learning implies that pupils encounter curricular content in the form of multimodal representations such as film, museum visits, PowerPoint presentations, roleplay and digital games. Spoken language is no longer the only mode for knowledge representation and meaning-making. This means a new demand for teaching (and assessment, since the school tradition is heavily based on verbal language and assessments of verbal representations. In this article, we will present an analysis of the use of resources and different media in classroom work about the Middle Ages, and discuss the need for the development of assessment tools.

  8. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era. PMID:26507317

  9. PIXE analysis of Middle Age objects using 68 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, A. E-mail: denker@hmi.de; Blaich, M.C

    2002-04-01

    PIXE with high-energy protons is particularly suited for the analysis of thick objects, especially for heavy elements behind layers that may be several mm thick. A typical application, namely the analysis of brooches from the early Middle Ages, is presented. These objects were covered with a plastic varnish of several mm thickness to prevent further corrosion. Now an analysis of the elements in the brooches was requested. The protective layer could not be removed for any standard analysis without destroying the objects. Therefore high-energy PIXE was used. The measurements and the results are presented.

  10. Elevated Resting Heart Rate is Associated with Dyslipidemia in Middle-aged and Elderly Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji Chao; NING Guang; HUANG Xiao Lin; DENG Xin Ru; LV Xiao Fei; LU Jie Li; CHEN Yu Hong; BI Yu Fang; WANG Wei Qing; XU Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between resting heart rate and blood lipid level. Methods A total of 9 415 subjects aged≥40 years were included in the present study. Their resting heart rate was monitored and their serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured to define dyslipidemia according to the 2007 Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. Results The subjects were divided into group A with their resting heart rate Conclusion Elevated resting heart rate is associated with high TG and TC in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects.

  11. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  12. Oral health related quality of life in Indonesian middle-aged and elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindawati S. Kusdhany

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess oral health-related quality of life in Indonesian middle-aged and elderly women. Middle–aged women between 45-59 years old were included in this study, because this stage of life is important to prepare them  entering the old age. Prevention could be done earlier in order to achieve optimum quality of life for the elderly. The purpose of writing this paper is to inform the policy maker to develop a framework in oral health prevention.Method: Cross-sectional study was done at East Bekasi district, West Java on 236 women 45-82 years of age. Measurement of health related quality of life was performed using the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL questionnaire. This questionnaire has already been translated to Indonesian language and has already been validated.Result: About 86.4% of subjects had a good oral health-related quality of life. Number of missing teeth and oral health-related quality of life have a weak correlation (correlation coeffi cient= -0.133, P= 0.041.Conclusion: Oral health-related quality of life did not depend on the number of missing teeth. These fi ndings may have implication for promoting education to middle-aged and elderly women in Indonesia about the importance of oral health.This policy frame work will be recommended to be implemented in hospitals, clinics, community care and institutional care. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:62-5Keywords: chewimg difficulties, number of missing teeth, tooth ache

  13. The Alleret Maar lacustrine sequence (French Massif Central): a 150 ka long early-middle Pleistocene continental paleoenvironmental record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, S.; Pastre, J.; Guillou, H.; Gauthier, A.; Scaillet, S.

    2008-12-01

    Lacustrine maar sequences of the French Massif Central are of great interest for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions of mid-latitudes Quaternary continental environments. In particular, the western Velay region yields exceptional sequences spanning the last 450 ka (Reille et al., J. Quat. Sci. 2000). However, older sequences remain largely unknown despite the presence of interbedded alkaline tephras allowing precise absolute radiochronological control of many lacustrine squences. The Alleret maar is a 1500 m wide phreatomagmatic crater that provides a long lacustrine sequence (41 m). The upper part of this sequence (AL2 core, 14.6 m) was studied between 2005 and 2006 (Pastre et al., C. R. Acad Sci, 2007). A 39Ar/40Ar date (557 ± 5ka) obtained from an interbedded tephra layer located at 7m as well as the associated pollen data attribute the beginning of this sequence to the MIS 15. Thanks to the AL3 core recovered in 2005 (40.6 m, CNRS Meudon) several new tephra layers were discovered in the bottom part of this lacustrine sequence. Three new 39Ar/40Ar ages (single crystal analyses) from trachytic tephra layers were obtained at the LSCE Argon Laboratory (France). These layers are located at -30.2, -36.2 and -39.2m. Ages obtained relative to the ACR-2 flux standard (1,201Ma, Kuiper et al., Science, 2008) range from 692 ± 6 ka (MSWD: 2.3, n=18) for the youngest (-30.2m) to 726 ± 9Ka Ka (MSWD: 2.2, n=12) for the lowest tephra located at -39.2m. These new dates indicate a relatively homogeneous deposition rate of 3.5cm/ka and that the last 10 meters cover the MIS 17-MIS18 period. According to these current radiochronological data the complete lacustrine sequence last more than 150ka. Ongoing sedimentary and pollen studies will allow to extend the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records of the French Massif Central towards the beginning of the early middle Pleistocene.

  14. Influencing factors analysis of spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis among middle aged and old aged pople in Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Kun-zheng; DANG Xiao-qian; BAI Chuan-yi; WANG Chun-sheng; SHI ZHi-bin; MA Shu-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the prevalence rate of knee joint osteoarthritis and its pathogenetic features among the middle-aged and old aged people in the urban and rural area of Xi'an. Methods: From May to October 2005, 1 538 Han nationality above 40 years in Xi'an were investigated according to stratified and cluster random sampling. The same questionnaire was delivered to subjects who had been given normotopia and lateral position radiographic examination in both knees. Excluded from etiological arthritis, some subjects with clinical symptoms and a radiographic grade (beyond Kellgren & Lawrence grade Ⅱ ) were finally diagnosed as spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis. All analyses were performed with SPSS 13.0 and t test, U test. Single factor analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze dates. Results: The total prevalence of spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis was 12. 1% with 2.5% and 2.1% for right and left knees, respectively. The prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis in women was 2.5 times of that in men (17.2% vs 6.8%, P=0.000). the osteophyte prevalence in women was 2.3 times of that in men (26.5% vs 11.4%, P=0.000). The prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis and osteophyte increased with the growth of age. So did the symptomatic knee, except for the age group of 56-60 years and 66-70 years. The prevalence of symptomatic knee joint for urban area was significantly higher than that for rural area (56. 3% vs 45.3%, P=0.003). In women, the prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis increased significantly with the increasing of body mass index, which had not been observed in men. Female and obesity are the risk factors for osteoarthritis, but bean and its products and meat could prevent the osteoarthritis. Conclusion: Old age, female and obesity serve as risk factors for knee joint osteoarthritis.

  15. Gait velocity is an indicator of cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artin Jabourian

    Full Text Available Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18-65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = -0.817, p<0.0001; the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496. In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = -0.867; p<0.001. In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613. These findings indicate that i a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii gait velocity (GV could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation

  16. Anthropometrical data of middle-aged Japanese women for industrial design applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, K; Okada, A; Kouchi, M; Horino, S; Kikuchi, Y

    1994-06-01

    Despite the growing importance of human interface design, and despite the growing number of working women, no considerations have been given to women's working spaces and tools. Their designs are based on men's anthropometrical data, and this does not assure safety and amenity of women's working environments. Moreover, few data on women's body measurements are available. The Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life is carrying out an ergonomic anthropometrical study on a large number of Japanese people to create a database for industrial use. The fee for the use of these data is, however, making it very difficult to profit from their acquisition. Therefore, we conducted an anthropometrical study for industrial design use on middle-aged female subjects, who are in the most difficult age group to access. This report should be useful in designing working spaces and tools for women as laborers as well as users.

  17. Human insulin/IGF-1 and familial longevity at middle age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Frölich, Marijke; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Beekman, Marian; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P. Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Group, on behalf of the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS)

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show that compared to their partners, the offspring of familial nonagenarians displayed similar non-fasted serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP3 and insulin but lower non-fasted serum levels of glucose, indicating that familial longevity is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity. PMID:20157552

  18. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen;

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity...... and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity....... might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design...

  19. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...... and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups; hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0 to 29.9 g/d) 39 to 50, 50 to 59, and >/=60 years of age were 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.86), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97) compared...

  20. [Investigation of stomatologic status of middle-aged and elderly people in Western Georgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morchadze, L A; Margvelashvili, V V; Lobzhanidze, T A

    2009-12-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. People aged 65 and over now comprise a greater share of the world's population than ever before, and this proportion will increase during the 21st century. Increased lifetime in old age is combined with a concern about its quality. Oral health care of the elderly is one of the important aspects affecting the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to describe stomatologic status among middle-aged and elderly people in western Georgia. 355 subjects aged 55-90 years old were surveyed. According to oral health survey data, a high prevalence and intensity of dental caries and periodontal disease were apparent. Prosthetic status and treatment need were recorded in standard condition using oral health assessment forms. It is concluded that a high percentage of elderly were dentate but the average number of teeth was low and their status was poor, with very high need for therapeutic and prosthetic treatment.

  1. Short communication: dairy consumption among middle-aged and elderly adults in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Magali; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Schmid, Alexandra; Stoffers, Helena; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Walther, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Different studies have shown that people are aware of the benefits of dairy products, but a sizeable part of the world's population still does not consume the recommended amount of dairy produce. The aims of the present research were to determine which dairy products are consumed by the middle-aged and elderly (50-81yr old) living in Switzerland and to explore why some of this population segment are actually reducing their consumption of dairy products. On average, older Swiss adults consumed 2.6 portions of dairy products per day, which is slightly less than the recommended 3 to 4 portions a day. Additionally, about one-quarter of the respondents indicated that they have reduced their milk or dairy consumption. The main reasons given for this decision were to reduce fat or cholesterol. A reported difficulty in digesting some dairy products may be a further reason for limiting dairy intake, particularly cheese. It follows that a need for the propagation of appropriate nutritional information about dairy products to the middle-aged and elderly exists.

  2. Diverse effects of a low dose supplement of lipidated curcumin in healthy middle aged people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiSilvestro Robert A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin extracts of turmeric are proposed to produce health benefits. To date, human intervention studies have focused mainly on people with existing health problems given high doses of poorly absorbed curcumin. The purpose of the current study was to check whether in healthy people, a low dose of a lipidated curcumin extract could alter wellness-related measures. Methods The present study was conducted in healthy middle aged people (40–60 years old with a low dose of curcumin (80 mg/day in a lipidated form expected to have good absorption. Subjects were given either curcumin (N = 19 or placebo (N = 19 for 4 wk. Blood and saliva samples were taken before and after the 4 weeks and analyzed for a variety of blood and saliva measures relevant to health promotion. Results Curcumin, but not placebo, produced the following statistically significant changes: lowering of plasma triglyceride values, lowering of salivary amylase levels, raising of salivary radical scavenging capacities, raising of plasma catalase activities, lowering of plasma beta amyloid protein concentrations, lowering of plasma sICAM readings, increased plasma myeloperoxidase without increased c-reactive protein levels, increased plasma nitric oxide, and decreased plasma alanine amino transferase activities. Conclusion Collectively, these results demonstrate that a low dose of a curcumin-lipid preparation can produce a variety of potentially health promoting effects in healthy middle aged people.

  3. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1 decrease in pulse rate, (2 decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3 increase in positive feelings, and (4 decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  4. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  5. Employment status and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, J T; Matthews, K A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the psychological effects of paid employment and nonemployment, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in 541 middle-aged women. METHODS. Women were seen for an extensive baseline evaluation and were reevaluated in an identical manner 3 years later. They were divided into four "synthetic" cohorts, based upon employment status at these two assessments. RESULTS. At baseline, nonemployed women reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than employed women, with nonemployed women with less education, low support from family and friends, or low marital satisfaction the most symptomatic. Symptoms decreased in women who were nonemployed initially but employed at the later exam; in all other groups, symptoms increased. Unlike the cross-sectional findings, however, the longitudinal findings showed that women who were nonemployed at baseline and had low levels of education, social support, or marital satisfaction did not benefit more from subsequent employment than did their counterparts who had high levels of these factors. CONCLUSIONS. New paid work may have a positive effect on mood for middle-aged women. However, given the contradictions between our cross-sectional and longitudinal results, caution should be exercised in drawing conclusions from cross-sectional studies that likely confound employment status, symptoms, and moderating variables. PMID:8296940

  6. Time dependent diffusive shock acceleration and its application to middle aged supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xiaping

    2016-01-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds (MCs) can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Based on the MC association, two scenarios have been proposed to explain the observed gamma-ray emission. In one, energetic cosmic ray (CR) particles escape from the SNR and then illuminate nearby MCs, producing gamma-ray emission, while the other involves direct interaction between the SNR and MC. In the direct interaction scenario, re-acceleration of pre-existing CRs in the ambient medium is investigated while particles injected from the thermal pool are neglected in view of the slow shock speeds in middle aged SNRs. However, standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) theory produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for re-acceleration of...

  7. BERDE (BERZA’A A CITY OF CIVILISATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özmenli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The city has been the most important symbol of merciless struggle against nature in mankind history since people started to live together. Cities, as places, have been one of the most important indicators of civilizations where humans have fulfilled their needs and relationships. In the Middle Ages many new cities either newly established or developed with their own structures. A new city was founded onto the core city or around it. These cities including fairs, bazaars, places for the craftsmen became the centers of important economic activities. The city of Berde had already been a miniature and mirror of Sassanians and subsequently became a miniature and mirror of Ottoman governments. Berde was one of the important centers in terms of strategic and economic position particularly silk production. Berde has never lost its importance until Russian invasion and then Mongolian invasion. The investigation of this city which was displayed in the Middle Ages historical sources in a position of east-west route was conducted by means of literature review. The geographical position, political and cultural activities, economic status of this city were investigated and its contributions to the history of civilization were examined.

  8. Women, medicine and life in the Middle Ages (500-1500 AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, S

    1994-01-01

    The status of women in the Middle Ages was ambiguous, because although they had great responsibility and expertise in practical affairs they were viewed as chattel and inferior to men. They were skilled in cookery, often of highly spiced dishes using a variety of ingredients and flavorings, and they were taught the use of medicinal herbs. They were often skilled in simple first aid, though they were not allowed to practise outside the home. An important exception of this was Hildegarde von Bingen, whose Physica brought her great renown. In it she became the first woman to discuss plants in relation to their medicinal properties. For most people in the Middle Ages, treatment revolved around herbs and diet, together with faith and holy relics and the use of (forbidden) pagan incantation and ritual. Astrology was often a necessary adjunct to treatment. In Salerno, however, medicine had been practised from classical times, and medical training could last for 7 years or more. One of the greatest medieval medical texts is the Tacuinum Sanitatis, which describes in detail the 6 essentials for the preservation of man's health. Several vegetables and herbs are mentioned in connection with the kidneys, the picking and preparation of which are imbued with magic. PMID:7847475

  9. Early Middle Formative Occupation in the Central Maya Lowlands: Recent Evidence from Cahal Pech, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Awe

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available After more than half a century of intensive archaeological research the early Middle Formative (or Middle Preclassic period (1000-600 B.C. continues to be one of the most enigmatic eras in the study of Lowland Maya prehistory. While several factors contribte to this situation, the primary cause for this obscurity lies in the fact that few sites have produced either contextual or stratigraphic evidence of occupation during this phase (Rice 1976; Andrews 1988. Concsequently, any new site with evidence of Middle Formative occupation can contribute substantially to our limited knowledge of this pioneering stage of the lowland Maya. This paper introduces one such site, Cahal Pech, where recent investigations have uncovered a stratigraphic sequence that tentatively spans the early Middle Formative to the Late Classic period. It provides a preliminary description, of the site's early Middle Formative configuration and briefly discusses its possible regional affiliation.

  10. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon,Central Nevada,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; M.Monarrez; Nicole; Bonuso

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction.This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors.This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance,ecological patterns,and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada.Twelve bulk samples were collected.Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation.Beginning in the Late Anisian,we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam,epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy,quiet,inner shelf depositional environment.Through time,epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness.During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment.Finally,we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment.In sum,we observe the dominance of modern taxa(i.e.,bivalves)with Paleozoic ecologies(i.e.,epifaunal),followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies(i.e.,infaunal,thick shells)and then a return to Paleozoic taxa(i.e.,brachiopods)and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  11. An algorithm for calculating fresh air age in central ventilation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先庭; 李冬宁; 窦春鹏

    2003-01-01

    Fresh air age is an important index to evaluate indoor environment. The conventional method for measuring or calculating fresh air age is only suitable for simple ventilation systems and not for central ventilation systems. In this paper, an algorithm for calculating fresh air age in central ventilation system is presented, which is based on the analysis of air flow in duct and air mixing. An example is given to illustrate the algorithm. The fresh air age in every ventilated room and duct can be acquired after all rooms and duct are directly calculated in turn without iteration. The algorithm is suitable for different central ventilation systems.

  12. Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra eParbery-Clark; Samira eAnderson; Emily eHittner; Nina eKraus

    2012-01-01

    Older adults frequently complain that while they can hear a person talking, they cannot understand what is being said; this difficulty is exacerbated by background noise. Peripheral hearing loss cannot fully account for this age-related decline in speech-in-noise ability, as declines in central processing also contribute to this problem. Given that musicians have enhanced speech-in-noise perception, we aimed to define the effects of musical experience on subcortical responses to speech and sp...

  13. Familial longevity is marked by better cognitive performance at middle age: the Leiden Longevity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon Stijntjes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive performance is a highly prevalent health condition in elderly. We studied whether offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity, perform better on cognitive tests compared to their partners as controls. This is relevant since it could provide insights into determinants underlying decline in cognitive performance. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis within the longitudinal cohort of the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of middle-aged offspring of nonagenarian siblings together with their partners (n = 500, mean age (SD 66.3 (6.1 and 65.7 (7.2 years, respectively as controls. Memory function, attention and processing speed were tested using the 15-Picture Learning Test, Stroop test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Data were analyzed with regression adjusted for age, gender, years of education and additionally for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, alcohol use, smoking, inflammatory markers and apolipoprotein E genotype. Robust standard errors were used to account for familial relationships among the offspring. RESULTS: Cognitive performance was worse at higher calendar age (p<0.001, all except Stroop test part 1. The offspring performed better compared to their partners on trial 3 (p = 0.005, the immediate (p = 0.016 and delayed (p = 0.004 recall of the 15-Picture Learning Test as well as on the interference and combined interference score of the Stroop test (p = 0.014 and p = 0.036, respectively in the fully adjusted model. The difference between offspring and partners was estimated to be more than three years according to the observed difference in calendar age. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity have better cognitive performance compared to the group of their partners of comparable age. This effect is independent of age-related diseases and known possible confounders. Possible explanations might be differences in subclinical

  14. Ablation of neurogenesis attenuates recovery of motor function after focal cerebral ischemia in middle-aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Sun

    Full Text Available Depletion of neurogenesis worsens functional outcome in young-adult mice after focal cerebral ischemia, but whether a similar effect occurs in older mice is unknown. Using middle-aged (12-month-old transgenic (DCX-TK((+ mice that express herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK under control of the doublecortin (DCX promoter, we conditionally depleted DCX-positive cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ and hippocampus by treatment with ganciclovir (GCV for 14 days. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO or occlusion of the distal segment of middle cerebral artery (dMCAO on day 14 of vehicle or GCV treatment and mice were killed 24 hr or 12 weeks later. Increased infarct volume or brain atrophy was found in GCV- compared to vehicle-treated middle-aged DCX-TK((+ mice, both 24 hr after MCAO and 12 weeks after dMCAO. More severe motor deficits were also observed in GCV-treated, middle-aged DCX-TK((+ transgenic mice at both time points. Our results indicate that ischemia-induced newborn neurons contribute to anatomical and functional outcome after experimental stroke in middle-aged mice.

  15. Clinical analysis of 82 eases of ACI (Acute Cerebral Infarction) developed by the young and middle-aged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    @@Eight hundred cases of ACI have been treated in omr hospital in the recent 5 years, There are 82 cases from 25 to 45 years of age, accounting for about 10 percent. So ACI suffered by the young and middle-aged should be paid attention to

  16. Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Lorkiewicz

    Full Text Available For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB. The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0. The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

  17. Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, Wiesław; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Strapagiel, Dominik; Haduch, Elżbieta; Szczepanek, Anita; Grygiel, Ryszard; Witas, Henryk W

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG) from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0). The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

  18. Social factors and coping status in asymptomatic middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller;

    2013-01-01

    , respectively, and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged Danes. Methods: This is a DanRisk screening substudy, thus including healthy Danish males and females aged 50 or 60 years. Social measures included grade of education, employment and co-habiting status. The coping status was estimated...... by the general self-efficacy (GES) scale. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed by computed tomography using the Agatston score (AS). Conventional clinical risk factors included sex, family history of CAD, BMI > 25, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension. Results: In 568 individuals...... the prevalence of subjects with CAC was 267 (45%). Independent predictors of CAC in males were age (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04–1.16, p smoking (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03–2.99, p = 0.038), and low co-habiting status (OR = 3.66, 95% CI = 1.19–11.25, p = 0.023). Independent predictors in females were age (OR...

  19. Lifestyle and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly women: Chiba bone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Terano, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Suzuki, Kiminori; Kubota, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Jyunichi; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Tanaka, Tomaki; Shozu, Makio

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis causes an enormous health and economic impact in Japan. We investigated the relation between lifestyle and bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly women. This was a population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chiba City, Japan (Chiba bone survey). This survey included 64,809 Japanese women aged > 40 years. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements including bone mineral density (BMD) and completed a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administered questionnaire also including patient lifestyle. Bone fracture during the recent 5 years was observed in 5.3%, and the fracture group had significantly higher age, BMI, and prevalence of delivery, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, kidney disease, exercise, fall, and osteoporosis, and had significantly lower BMD and proportion of menstruating participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that bone fracture was closely associated with not only low bone mass but also age, fall, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, DM, kidney disease, menopause, and lifestyle factors of dieting, exercise, and alcohol. Women's health care focusing on lifestyle-related fracture risks such as dieting, exercise, and alcohol appears necessary to prevent bone fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  20. Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitto, Alessandro; Ito, Takashi K; Pineda, Victor V; LeTexier, Nicolas J; Huang, Heather Z; Sutlief, Elissa; Tung, Herman; Vizzini, Nicholas; Chen, Belle; Smith, Kaleb; Meza, Daniel; Yajima, Masanao; Beyer, Richard P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Davis, Daniel J; Gillespie, Catherine H; Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The FDA approved drug rapamycin increases lifespan in rodents and delays age-related dysfunction in rodents and humans. Nevertheless, important questions remain regarding the optimal dose, duration, and mechanisms of action in the context of healthy aging. Here we show that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy by up to 60% and improve measures of healthspan in middle-aged mice. This transient treatment is also associated with a remodeling of the microbiome, including dramatically increased prevalence of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. We also define a dose in female mice that does not extend lifespan, but is associated with a striking shift in cancer prevalence toward aggressive hematopoietic cancers and away from non-hematopoietic malignancies. These data suggest that a short-term rapamycin treatment late in life has persistent effects that can robustly delay aging, influence cancer prevalence, and modulate the microbiome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16351.001 PMID:27549339

  1. Constraint on radiocarbon age correction in Lake Biwa environment from the middle to late Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Y., E-mail: miyata@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Minami, M. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onbe, S. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Archaeological Heritage Management Office, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Sakamoto, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Imamura, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Using data from previous studies and newly collected data, we compared the measured radiocarbon ages of molluscan shells, common reed (Phragmites australis) and pine needles (Pinus thunbergii) collected in 1966, 1970, 1990 and 2008 at Lake Biwa in Japan, and of archaeological samples, to examine radiocarbon reservoir effects at Lake Biwa. We also tested for differences in the radiocarbon reservoir effect between species and locations in the lake. The effects of nuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s are clear, the offset between atmospheric {sup 14}C and the Lake Biwa freshwater {sup 14}C is larger for this period because the atmospheric {sup 14}C is so high. The semiclosed Lake Biwa system is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, resulting in the {sup 14}C content of the water following the changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C caused by nuclear testing. The shells collected after 1990 had radiocarbon ages that were 330-450 {sup 14}C years older than those of the coeval atmosphere. The apparent differences in radiocarbon age (about 300 {sup 14}C years) between shell fossils and wood samples excavated from the same layer of the submerged Awazu shell midden at Lake Biwa suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir effect also existed in the middle Holocene (the Middle Jomon period, about 5000 years ago). Because the present-day average residence time of Lake Biwa water is 3-6 years, its direct influence on the radiocarbon reservoir effect is small, which suggests that old carbon has been supplied into Lake Biwa.

  2. EFFECT OF METOPROLOL ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS OF YOUNG TO MIDDLE AGE

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    S. A. Smakotina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of metoprolol tartrate on blood pressure (BP and cognitive function in young to middle aged patients with essential hypertension (HT.Material and methods. 40 men (age of 49,0±1,9 y.o. with HT of I-II stage not taking antihypertensive medication regularly were enrolled into the study. All patients were given metoprolol tartrate (start dose 50-100 mg/d. Variables of 24-h BP monitoring and clinic BP, left ventricular mass index (measured by echocardiography and characteristics of cognitive function (memory, attention, thinking and neurodynamic were assessed at the start, after 1 and 6 months of therapy.Results. Good and satisfactory antihypertensive effect was achieved in 75% of hypertensive patients with metoprolol (186,6±13,4mg/d monotherapy. Metoprolol significantly decreased maximum day-time systolic and diastolic BP, maximum night-time diastolic BP, mean day-time systolic and night-time diastolic BP, time-index, load-index and variability-index for night-time diastolic BP, day-time and night-time pulse BP. Left ventricular mass index reduced significantly (p<0,0001. After 6 months of therapy significant improvement of memory, attention, thinking and neurodynamic was observedConclusion. Metoprolol had beneficial effect on cognitive function in hypertensive patients, which demonstrate its cerebroprotective properties in addition to antihypertensive action. Metoprolol can reduce the risk of dementia in young to middle aged patients with HT.

  3. Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis in middle-aged and older adults.

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    Therese McNamee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and determinants of haematinic deficiency (lack of B12 folate or iron and macrocytosis in blood from a national population-based study of middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 1,207 adults aged ≥45 years, recruited from a sub-study of the Irish National Survey of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN 2007. Participants completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and a standard food frequency questionnaire. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained for measurement of full blood count and expert morphological assessment, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor assay (sTfR, B12, folate and coeliac antibodies. Blood samples were also assayed for thyroid function (T4, TSH, liver function, aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT. RESULTS: The overall prevalence (95% C.I. of anaemia (Hb 21 nmol/ml only 2.3% were iron-deficient. 3.0% and 2.7% were found to have low levels of serum folate (99fl was detected in 8.4% of subjects. Strong, significant and independent associations with macrocytosis were observed for lower social status, current smoking status, moderate to heavy alcohol intake, elevated GGT levels, deficiency of folate and vitamin B12, hypothyroidism and coeliac disease. The population attributable fraction (PAF for macrocytosis associated with elevated GGT (25.0% and smoking (24.6% was higher than for excess alcohol intake (6.3%, folate deficiency (10.5% or vitamin B12 (3.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis are common in middle-aged/older adults in Ireland. Macrocytosis is more likely to be attributable to an elevated GGT and smoking than vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.

  4. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

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    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  5. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review.

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    Majzoub, Ahmad A; Canguven, Onder; Raidh, Talib A

    2015-01-01

    Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ± 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%), 83 (5%) patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture. PMID:26229311

  6. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

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    Ahmad A Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ΁ standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ΁ 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%, 83 (5% patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture.

  7. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septotemporal axis in adulthood and middle age.

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    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-11-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is known to induce structural rearrangements and changes in synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuitry. In the adult hippocampus, structural changes include neurogenesis, dendritic, and axonal plasticity of pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and dedifferentiation of dentate granule neurons. However, much less is known about how chronic fluoxetine affects these processes along the septotemporal axis and during the aging process. Importantly, studies documenting the effects of fluoxetine on density and distribution of spines along different dendritic segments of dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons along the septotemporal axis of hippocampus in adulthood and during aging are conspicuously absent. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line in which mature dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons are genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment (18 mg/kg/day) on input-specific spine remodeling and mossy fiber structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in adulthood and middle age. In addition, we examine levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, maturation state of dentate granule neurons, neuronal activity, and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in response to chronic fluoxetine in adulthood and middle age. Our studies reveal that while chronic fluoxetine fails to augment adult hippocampal neurogenesis in middle age, the middle-aged hippocampus retains high sensitivity to changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) such as dematuration, hypoactivation, and increased glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression. Interestingly, the middle-aged hippocampus shows greater sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced input-specific synaptic remodeling than the hippocampus in adulthood with the stratum-oriens of CA1 exhibiting heightened structural plasticity. The input-specific changes and circuit

  8. Mitophagy plays a central role in mitochondrial ageing.

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    Diot, Alan; Morten, Karl; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying ageing have been discussed for decades, and advances in molecular and cell biology of the last three decades have accelerated research in this area. Over this period, it has become clear that mitochondrial function, which plays a major role in many cellular pathways from ATP production to nuclear gene expression and epigenetics alterations, declines with age. The emerging concepts suggest novel mechanisms, involving mtDNA quality, mitochondrial dynamics or mitochondrial quality control. In this review, we discuss the impact of mitochondria in the ageing process, the role of mitochondria in reactive oxygen species production, in nuclear gene expression, the accumulation of mtDNA damage and the importance of mitochondrial dynamics and recycling. Declining mitophagy (mitochondrial quality control) may be an important component of human ageing. PMID:27352213

  9. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

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    Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Gao, J.; Wang, T.; Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l.), located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo), a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research), an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory) and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific). High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88) were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5) concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5) derived from the ECOC analyzer). While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C) tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were recorded when the NOx/NOy ratio was low, implying

  10. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

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    Y. Kanaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were

  11. Alcohol use behaviors and risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean middle-aged men

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    Kim Kyungjoo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that small volumes of alcohol may have positive effects on health. However, excessive drinking results in serious health problems. An accurate method to determine individual alcohol use behaviors are needed to assess objectively the extent to which drinking affects health. This study investigated the association between risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS and alcohol use behaviors in middle-aged South Korean men using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Methods This study used data from the South Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (KNHANES IV (2008, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Data of 714 participants from KNHANES IV, 2008 were analyzed using Surveyfreq and Surveylogistic regression to investigate the association between MetS and alcohol use behaviors in middle-aged South Korean men. Results After adjustment for education, smoking, and physical activity, alcohol use behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension [odds ratio (OR = 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.5-4.06 in the hazardous group; OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.84-4.92 in the problem group]; impaired fasting glucose (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.16-3.99 in the hazardous group; OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.42-4.33 in the problem group; dyslipidemia (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.38-3.47 in the problem group; abdominal obesity (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.17-3.19 in the hazardous group; OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.17-2.92 in the problem group; and MetS (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.77 in the hazardous group; OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.41-4.58 in problem group. Conclusions This study found that excessive alcohol use behaviors increased the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and MetS. Considering the rising rate of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking at single sittings, a culture of less risky alcohol consumption must be established to promote

  12. Interactive effects of age and gender on EEG power and coherence during a short-term memory task in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Reichert, Johanna Louise; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    The effects of age and gender on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during a short-term memory task were assessed in a group of 40 healthy participants aged 22-63 years. Multi-channel EEG was recorded in 20 younger (mean = 24.65-year-old, 10 male) and 20 middle-aged participants (mean = 46.40-year-old, 10 male) during performance of a Sternberg task. EEG power and coherence measures were analyzed in different frequency bands. Significant interactions emerged between age and gender in memory performance and concomitant EEG parameters, suggesting that the aging process differentially influences men and women. Middle-aged women showed a lower short-term memory performance compared to young women, which was accompanied by decreasing delta and theta power and increasing brain connectivity with age in women. In contrast, men showed no age-related decline in short-term memory performance and no changes in EEG parameters. These results provide first evidence of age-related alterations in EEG activity underlying memory processes, which were already evident in the middle years of life in women but not in men.

  13. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

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    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  14. Maps, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages: Some Reflections about Anachronism

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    Patrick Gautier Dalché

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: How were maps conceived in the Middle Ages? Using the words “map”, “travel” and “exploration”, historians must be wary of anachronism. Medieval maps, like ours maps, are always materialized thought-objects and are thus interpretations of the world, inevitably variable and subject to criticism; in this respect, “modernity” has neither invented nor changed anything. The article addresses some anachronisms about the role of mappae mundi in mental journeys, their function in maritime travels and their role during the great “discoveries”; it claims that no other pre-modern civilization, except perhaps the Chinese, was ever so imbuedwith cartographic culture.

  15. A demographic perspective on the Middle to Later Stone Age transition from Nasera rockshelter, Tanzania.

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    Tryon, Christian A; Faith, J Tyler

    2016-07-01

    Increased population density is among the proposed drivers of the behavioural changes culminating in the Middle to Later Stone Age (MSA-LSA) transition and human dispersals from East Africa, but reliable archaeological measures of demographic change are lacking. We use Late Pleistocene-Holocene lithic and faunal data from Nasera rockshelter (Tanzania) to show progressive declines in residential mobility-a variable linked to population density-and technological shifts, the latter associated with environmental changes. These data suggest that the MSA-LSA transition is part of a long-term pattern of changes in residential mobility and technology that reflect human responses to increased population density, with dispersals potentially marking a complementary response to larger populations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298469

  16. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

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    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  17. Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Reserve in a Middle-Aged Cohort at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Boots, Elizabeth A; Schultz, Stephanie A; Almeida, Rodrigo P; Oh, Jennifer M; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-11-01

    Higher occupational attainment has previously been associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology when individuals are matched for cognitive function, indicating occupation could provide cognitive reserve. We examined whether occupational complexity (OCC) associates with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy given comparable cognitive function in middle-aged adults at risk for AD. Participants (n = 323) underwent structural MRI, cognitive evaluation, and work history assessment. Three complexity ratings (work with data, people, and things) were obtained, averaged across up to 3 reported jobs, weighted by years per job, and summed to create a composite OCC rating. Greater OCC was associated with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy when matched for cognitive function; results remained substantively unchanged after adjusting for several demographic, AD risk, vascular, mental health, and socioeconomic characteristics. These findings suggest that, in people at risk for AD, OCC may confer resilience to the adverse effects of neuropathology on cognition.

  18. Two-Step Acceleration Model of Cosmic Rays at Middle-Aged SNR

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations of middle-aged supernova remnants revealed a mysterious broken power-law spectrum. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, we show that the interaction between a supernova blast wave and interstellar clouds formed by thermal instability generates multiple reflected shocks. The typical Mach numbers of the reflected shocks are shown to be M ~ 2 depending on the density contrast between the diffuse intercloud gas and clouds. These secondary shocks can further energize cosmic-ray particles originally accelerated at the blast-wave shock. This "two-step" acceleration scenario reproduces the observed gamma-ray spectrum and predicts the high-energy spectral index ranging approximately from 3 to 4.

  19. Development of Middle Stone Age innovation linked to rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Simon, Margit H; Hall, Ian R; Barker, Stephen; Stringer, Chris; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The development of modernity in early human populations has been linked to pulsed phases of technological and behavioural innovation within the Middle Stone Age of South Africa. However, the trigger for these intermittent pulses of technological innovation is an enigma. Here we show that, contrary to some previous studies, the occurrence of innovation was tightly linked to abrupt climate change. Major innovational pulses occurred at times when South African climate changed rapidly towards more humid conditions, while northern sub-Saharan Africa experienced widespread droughts, as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling. These millennial-scale teleconnections resulted from the bipolar seesaw behaviour of the Atlantic Ocean related to changes in the ocean circulation. These conditions led to humid pulses in South Africa and potentially to the creation of favourable environmental conditions. This strongly implies that innovational pulses of early modern human behaviour were climatically influenced and linked to the adoption of refugia.

  20. A 12-Week Exercise Therapy Program in Middle-Aged Patients With Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Roos, Ewa M.; Risberg, May Arna

    2012-01-01

    , progression, tolerance, and potential benefit from an exercise therapy program in these patients who have not had surgery. This study describes a progressive exercise therapy program aiming at improving neuromuscular function and muscle strength in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears...... global rating of change scale, isokinetic knee muscle strength tests, and 3 lower extremity performance tests. Post intervention there were clinically meaningful changes (greater than 10 points) in 16 of 20 patients on the KOOS knee related quality of life, 19 of 20 patients rated themselves as "a lot...... better" or "better" on the global rating of change scale, all patients had increased quadriceps muscle strength, and the majority of patients improved on the lower extremity performance tests. At 1 year post-intervention, the majority of patients had sustained the improvements and none of the patients...

  1. Historiographyical outlines of the process of the sovereignty from the Middle Ages

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    Giannina Burlando

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight two milestones of the complex progressive process within the sovereign power from the Christian Middle Ages: First, the beginning of the fourteenth century, where the prior clear signs of a split in sovereignty within the doctrine of sacerdotalism appear. The second one, at the end of the sixteenth century, where the legal factor is accentuated and it accelerates the process of secularization dividing the powers of Church and State to the point of accepting the doctrine of popular sovereignty. In my view, the process concerns the issue of relations between the sovereign power of the Church and the State, just before Jean Bodin and others formulate a theory of sovereign authority, that is, before the birth of the Modern State.

  2. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    normal group were taken as the reference value of the middle-aged people at different age and with different sex in Nanchang city. The value of IMT in this study is little lower than the values reported by literatures in China. Age is the major dangerous factor causing the carotid atherosclerosis. Other many dangerous factors are closely related with carotid atherosclerosis, but sex is not statistically significant to cause carotid atherosclerosis. (authors)

  3. Prehypertension and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Koreans

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    Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Chang Kwan; Cho, Eun Jeong; Cho, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is known to be a marker of myocardial damage, in particular myocardial fibrosis resulting from hypertension (HT). However, few studies have shown an association between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and blood pressure classification. We investigated the association between diastolic dysfunction and prehypertension (preHT) in apparently healthy adults who underwent routine health examinations. Subjects and Methods The study sample included 4261 Koreans, 45 to 64 years of age with no previous history of HT, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or valvular heart disease based on echocardiography, who underwent routine health examinations including echocardiography. The subjects were classified into three groups based on resting blood pressure: prehypertensive, hypertensive, and normotensive. Results The prevalence of preHT in our study was 42.1%. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid profile, and body mass index, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grades 1 and 2 were significantly more frequent in subjects with preHT (odds ratio [OR] 1.66 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.40-1.96] and 1.37 [95% CI 0.95-1.97], respectively). When analyzed according to gender, the increased OR was especially notable in males. Conclusion Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction appears to be significantly associated with preHT in Korean middle-aged males. PMID:27482263

  4. Maternal Body Weight and Inflammation Among Offspring in Late Middle Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Rod, Naja Hulvej;

    Higher maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring adiposity; however the effect of maternal BMI on subsequent inflammatory concentrations among offspring is unexplored. The aim is to estimate the direct and indirect effects of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on C-Reactive protein (CRP...... maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with 7 % higher offspring CRP (factor 1.07; 95 % C.I. 1.01, 1.12) and 3 % higher IL-6 (factor 1.03; 95 % C.I. 1.01, 1.06). The total effect was entirely mediated through the effect of maternal BMI on offspring’s BMI in adulthood but not through offspring size......) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations of male offspring in late middle age. The study is based on 598 Danish males from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (mean age, 55.2 years) with comprehensive historical data from birth. Path analysis is employed to estimate direct and indirect effects. A 10 % higher...

  5. Effect of Physical Activity and Obesity on Type 2 Diabetes in a Middle-Aged Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of physical activities such as occupational, household and daily lifestyle activities and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged population. Methods. All people (n = 2053), aged 45-64 years were selected for this study from the large sample of population-based cross-sectional data collected in the 1990-1994 by National Health Survey of Pakistan. The participants completed in-person interviews at baseline; the overall response rate was 92.6%. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of developing the type 2 diabetes. Results. Stair climbing was found to be inversely associated with the risk of diabetes and cycling was also associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (RR=0.82; 95% CI 0.68 1.00, P=.048). The relationship between physical activity and reduced risk of diabetes adjusted for age and body mass index was statistically significant only in women (P<.01). Conclusions. This study provides an incentive that physical activity in leisure-time exercise or daily activity reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population.

  6. Comparison of Physical Fitness Status between Middle-aged and Elderly Male Laborers According to Lifestyle Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Mi-hyun; Shin, Joong-il; Yang, Dong-joo; Yang, Yeong-ae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We sought to examine the relationship between lifestyle behavior and physical fitness in middle-aged and elderly laborers. [Subjects] In total, 2,469 male laborers between 45 and 64 years of age residing in eight cities in South Korea were studied between January and December 2007. [Methods] Age, height, and weight were evaluated as general characteristics. Lifestyle behavior items included exercise, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours. Physical fitness was assesse...

  7. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Kyu Lee; Min-Hyeok Kang; Tae-Sik Lee; Jae-Seop Oh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb streng...

  8. Physical activity and bone mineral density in Italian middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a major health issue in postmenopausal women on account of the association between low bone mineral density and fractures. A role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of low bone mineral density is possible but still unclear. The relationship between low spine bone mineral density measured by means of dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spines, and levels of past and recent physical activity has been assessed by means of a population-based screening study carried out on 1373 women (age 40-64 years) in the North-East of Italy. Physical activity at work and in leisure time was investigated for three specific periods of life: at age 12, between 15 and 19 years (during bone formative years), and in the recent years prior to the interview (30-39 or 50-59 years). Data were analysed comparing low versus high bone mineral density tertile (i.e., 458 and 461 women, respectively), after controlling for other known contributory factors in the development of osteoporosis. A positive association emerged with leisure time physical activity, with significant trends at age 15-19 (odds ratio (OR) for low versus high tertile of leisure time activity: 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4) and at most recent age (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Risk trends with occupational physical activity were less clear and non-statistically significant. The present Southern European cross-sectional study lends further support to the possibility that past and recent physical activity helps increasing bone mineral density in middle-aged women. Although the most beneficial type and intensity level of exercise has yet to be determined, the present results provide further evidence that participation in even moderate exercise programs should be encouraged

  9. Functional network endophenotypes unravel the effects of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Goveas

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4 accentuates memory decline, structural volume loss and cerebral amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy adults. We investigated whether APOE-ε4 carriers will show disruptions in the intrinsic cognitive networks, including the default mode (DMN, executive control (ECN and salience (SN networks, relative to noncarriers in middle-aged healthy adults; and the extent to which episodic-memory performance is related to the altered functional connectivity (Fc in these networks. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI was used to measure the differences in the DMN, ECN and SN Fc between 20 APOE-ε4 carriers and 26 noncarriers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between episodic-memory performance and Fc differences in the three resting-state networks across all subjects. There were no significant differences in the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics and the gray-matter volumes in the carriers and noncarriers. While mostly diminished DMN and ECN functional connectivities were seen, enhanced connections to the DMN structures were found in the SN in ε4 carriers. Altered DMN and ECN were associated with episodic memory performance. Significant Fc differences in the brain networks implicated in cognition were seen in middle-aged individuals with a genetic risk for AD, in the absence of cognitive decline and gray-matter atrophy. Prospective studies are essential to elucidate the potential of R-fMRI technique as a biomarker for predicting conversion from normal to early AD in healthy APOE-ε4 carriers.

  10. Promoting Energy-Balance Behaviors among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents: Overview and Baseline Findings of the Central Texas CATCH Middle School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E.; Kelder, Steven H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Delk, Joanne E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The Central Texas Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) Middle School Project is a 3.5-year school-based project aimed at promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and obesity prevention among public middle school students in Texas. This article describes the CATCH intervention model and presents baseline findings from spring 2009.…

  11. A Study of Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Diseases in Asymptomatic Middle Aged and Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar, Sandeep Garg, Hem Lata Gupta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease(CAD in apparently healthy middle aged and elderly population and to find the different betweenurban and rural group.Atotal of 160 individuals (80 urban and 80 rural were included in the study.All the subjects underwent detailed history and physical examination with special emphasis oncardiovascular system. The biochemical investigations were done in all the subjects which includedblood sugar, serum LDL and serum triglyceride levels. The prevalence of 2 or more than 2 riskfactors were observed in 95% subjects. The prevalence of smoking was 63%, which was moreprevalent in the rural population. The sedentary lifestyle was seen in 80% subjects more in femalesand urban group. The prevalence of asymptomatic hypertensives and isolated systolic hypertensionwere seen in 34% and 10% individuals respectively. Other risk factors were-diabetes mellitus (4%,Increase LDL (38%, hypertriglyceridemia (23% and central obesity (27.50%. The two mostcommon risk factors for CADwere sedentary lifestyle and smoking. These risk factors are modifiableand their reduction during adulthood can lead to marked reduction in the burden of CAD in middleaged and elderly Indian population.

  12. Bronchographical findings in central bronci stenoses in infant age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four chosen examples of infant bronchi stenoses are described after a review of the patient collective. The etiology and the radiological signs and symptoms of bronchi stenoses in infant age are discussed. The prerequisites for bronchography in infants are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Strength asymmetry of the knee extensors and physical activity in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences between muscle strength and power of lower limbs is one of the factors associated with falls in the elderly population. Muscle strength asymmetry of lower limbs increases with age. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess differences in the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA in the subgroups of women being at higher and lower risk of falls (with and without strength asymmetry of the knee extensors of dominant and non-dominant lower limb. Methods: Data from 42 women (age 56.3 ± 4.4 years; weight 76.5 ± 16.1 kg; body height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 28.1 ± 5.3 kg . m-2 were used for the purpose of the presented analysis. Furthermore the sample was divided into subgroups with lower and higher strength asymmetry of quadriceps muscle (as a criterion the asymmetry greater than 15% was chosen. Absolute concentric peak torque of the knee extensors was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in a sitting position at angular velocity of 180° . s-1. PA was monitored using Yamax SW-700 pedometers throughout 7 consecutive days and using the Czech version of standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups with lower and higher strength asymmetry were found in the amount of self-reported vigorous PA (p = .04; d = 0.6 only. Differences between the observed groups were not significant in self-reported moderate PA and walking. There were also no significant differences in the daily numbers of steps measured objectively. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that from the point of view of strength asymmetry of knee extensors as a factor associated with falls in middle-aged women, intensity of PA could be an important characteristic of PA. This suggestion should be taken into account in habitual PA and training programs in middle-aged population.

  14. Assessment of percent body fat content in young and middle aged men: skinfold method v/s girth method.

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    Hegde S

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Percent body fat content was found in apparently normal healthy 30 young (17-20 Yrs. and 30 middle aged men (30-46 Yrs. by measuring the skinfold and girth. None of the subjects were athletes or did regular physical exercise. Body density was calculated using mean of the four skinfold measurements as per the equations advocated by Durnin and Womersley, while percent body fat content was calculated from the body density by the Siri′s equation. The mean % body fat content by this method in young men was 15.87 +/- 3.85% and in middle aged men was 24.75 +/- 3.55%. Ten percent of the young subjects and 90% of the middle aged subjects were found to be obese. Percent body fat content was also calculated from the girth measurements as advocated by McArdle et al. The mean of % body fat content with this method was 14.91 +/- 3.82% in young men and 24.30 +/- 3.35% in middle aged men. On comparison, the difference in percent body fat content calculated by both the methods was found to be significant in young men but not for middle aged men. The correlation, coefficient between girth method and skinfold method was 0.95 in case of young men and 0.90 for middle aged men. Therefore, we advocate that girth measurements can be used to determine percent body fat content, main advantage being simplicity of technique and requirement of inexpensive instruments for measurement.

  15. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  16. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Jimenez Arnulfo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hatha Yoga (HY can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle- aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions. The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI, % body fat and ∑ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VE max , maximal O 2 consumption (VO 2max , maximal heart rate (HR max , systolic (BPs and diastolic blood pressure (BPd], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day, program adherence (~85%, and exercising skills (asana performance were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO 2max and VE max and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO 2max and HDL-C in middle-aged and older women.

  17. Cluster analysis of polyphenol intake in a French middle-aged population (aged 35-64 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Touvier, Mathilde; Lassale, Camille; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols have been suggested as protective factors for a range of chronic diseases. However, studying the impact of individual polyphenols on health is hindered by the intrinsic inter-correlations among polyphenols. Alternatively, studying foods rich in specific polyphenols fails to grasp the ubiquity of these components. Studying overall dietary patterns would allow for a more comprehensive description of polyphenol intakes in the population. Our objective was to identify clusters of dietary polyphenol intakes in a French middle-aged population (35-64 years old). Participants from the primary prevention trial SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study were included in the present cross-sectional study (n 6092; 57·8 % females; mean age 48·7 (sd 6·4) years). The fifty most consumed individual dietary polyphenols were divided into energy-adjusted tertiles and introduced in a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), leading to comprehensive factors of dietary polyphenol intakes. The identified factors discriminating polyphenol intakes were used in a hierarchical clustering procedure. Four clusters were identified, corresponding broadly to clustered preferences for their respective food sources. Cluster 1 was characterised by high intakes of tea polyphenols. Cluster 2 was characterised by high intakes of wine polyphenols. Cluster 3 was characterised by high intakes of flavanones and flavones, corresponding to high consumption of fruit and vegetables, and more broadly to a healthier diet. Cluster 4 was characterised by high intakes of hydroxycinnamic acids, but was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking. Profiles of polyphenol intakes allowed for the identification of meaningful combinations of polyphenol intakes in the diet. PMID:27547391

  18. Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the effects of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. The subjects of this study are a total of 24 middle-aged women in the swimming group and the control group, with 12 women for each group. The swimming group performed swimming exercise for 60 min every time for 3 times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. For data processing, SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to calculate the me...

  19. Water Consumption Increases Weight Loss During a Hypocaloric Diet Intervention in Middle-aged and Older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55–75 years, BMI 25–40 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water...

  20. Detrital zircon provenance from three turbidite depocenters of the Middle-Upper Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex, central China: Record of collisional tectonics, erosional exhumation, and sediment production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    To test the idea that the voluminous upper Middle to Upper Triassic turbidite strata in the Songpan-Ganzi complex of central China archive a detrital record of Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane unroofing, we report 2080 single detrital U-Pb zircon ages by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis from 29 eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex sandstone samples. Low (block and Yidun arc complex, likely recording nascent uplift of the Longmenshan deformation belt due to impingement of the Yidun arc complex upon the western margin of the South China block. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  1. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Guido; Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Haak, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  3. Paleomagnetism of red beds of Early Devonian age from Central Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.

    1983-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results are reported from 13 sites of red beds of Early Devonian age from Central Iran. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses were carried out. Two types of partial progressive demagnetization were applied, one using alternating magnetic fields, the other heating.

  4. Stress buffering effects of social support on depressive symptoms in middle age: reciprocity and community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Sakihara, Seizou; Ariizumi, Makoto; Watanabe, Naoki; Oyama, Hirofumi

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the association between depression and the buffering effects of social support in mid-life crisis. The aim of this study is to determine the buffering effects of social support on depression concerning middle-aged individuals, while also taking reciprocity and gender differences into careful consideration. A cross-sectional survey of all middle-aged individuals (40-69 years of age) using a large sample (n = 4558) from a community-living population, who resided in Rokunohe town, Aomori prefecture in northern Japan (response rate = 69.8%), was undertaken. This town recently had a lot of suicides. Two-way anova was used to analyze the effects of stressor and social support on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. The authors found a stress buffering effect of social support on the depressive symptoms occurring in middle age, however, a significant difference in the stress buffer effect was only observed in male subjects. Moreover, when the authors take reciprocity into account, the effect of the buffer on depression was found not only in males receiving support but in males providing support as well. In conclusion, pertaining to males, social support reduces depressive symptoms under stressful circumstances in middle age, not only when they receive such support but also when they provide it. Therefore, these findings suggest that reciprocal social support is important for males in relation to community mental health.

  5. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  6. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: an African middle stone age industry in Southern Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey I Rose

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry--the late Nubian Complex--known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5.

  7. Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ≥ 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05).

  8. Surgical Treatment Options for the Young and Active Middle-Aged Patient with Glenohumeral Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic chondral lesions in young and active middle-aged patients continues to be a challenging issue. Surgeons must differentiate between incidental chondral lesions from symptomatic pathology that is responsible for the patient's pain. A thorough history, physical examination, and imaging work up is necessary and often results in a diagnosis of exclusion that is verified on arthroscopy. Treatment of symptomatic glenohumeral chondral lesions depends on several factors including the patient's age, occupation, comorbidities, activity level, degree of injury and concomitant shoulder pathology. Furthermore, the size, depth, and location of symptomatic cartilaginous injury should be carefully considered. Patients with lower functional demands may experience success with nonoperative measures such as injection or anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. When conservative management fails, surgical options are broadly classified into palliative, reparative, restorative, and reconstructive techniques. Patients with lower functional demands and smaller lesions are best suited for simpler, lower morbidity palliative procedures such as debridement (chondroplasty and cartilage reparative techniques (microfracture. Those with higher functional demands and large glenohumeral defects will usually benefit more from restorative techniques including autograft or allograft osteochondral transfers and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI. Reconstructive surgical options are best suited for patients with bipolar lesions.

  9. The groundwater age in the Middle-Upper Devonian aquifer system, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrik, R.; Mažeika, J.; Baublytė, A.; Martma, T.

    2009-06-01

    3H, δ13C and hydrochemical data were used to estimate the corrected groundwater age derived from conventional 14C age of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The Middle-Upper Devonian aquifer system from the Baltic upland recharge area in eastern Lithuania towards the discharge area on the Baltic Sea coast in the west was considered. The concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater changes from 300 to 24,000 mg/L and increases downgradient towards the coast. The other major constituents have the same trend as the TDS. The hydrochemical facies of groundwater vary from an alkali-earth carbonates facies at the eastern upland area to an alkali-earth carbonate-sulfate and chloride facies at transit and discharge areas. Meteoric water percolating through the Quaternary and Devonian aquifers regulate the initial 14C activities of groundwater involving two main members of DIC: soil CO2 with modern 14C activity uptake and dissolution of 14C-free aquifer carbonates. Other sources of DIC are less common. 14C activity of DIC in the groundwater ranged from 60 to 108 pMC at the shallow depths. With an increase of the aquifers depth the dolomitization of aqueous solution and leakage of the “old” groundwater from lower aquifers take place, traced by lower activities (7-30 pMC).

  10. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society. PMID:25813865

  11. Dependency conflict, marital threat, and alcohol consumption in a middle-aged sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J C; Wheeler, D S

    1992-09-01

    The hypothesis that dependency conflict is associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption when dependency needs are threatened or thwarted was tested with a sample of 672 middle-aged, married adults with college-age children. The subjects' current level of alcohol consumption was predicted based on the present level of threat to the marital relationship (assessed by reports from several family members) and on indices of dependency need and inhibition of dependent behavior estimated from sibship size, sibship density, and sibling position. A multiple regression analysis yielded a significant two-way interaction (p less than .05) between marital threat and subject sex, and a significant three-way interaction of dependency need, inhibition of dependent behavior, and marital threat. High marital threat was associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in men and slightly lower levels of alcohol consumption in women. Additionally, when dependency need was high, alcohol consumption was generally low, except when both inhibition of dependent behavior and marital threat were high. However, when dependency need was low, the highest alcohol consumption score occurred when marital threat was low and inhibition was high.

  12. Sexual activity and perceived health among Finnish middle-aged women

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    Helenius Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS and performance impairment (PI are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years. In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.

  13. Conditions of life and climacteric in middle aged women in a health area of Sancti Spiritus.

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    Silvia Esther de la Torre Cárdenas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric is one of the difficult steps in women life in which a particular attention is needed by the doctor and a big comprehension from the social point of view. A retrospective descriptive study was made in the South Area Polyclinic of Sancti Spiritus Municipality, period january – april 2007, with a female population having between 45 -59 years of age from 8 family medical clinics, 4 belonging to the urban area and 4 to the rural one (191 in total, including all which referred to present any disorder with the menstrual cycle due to excess or defect in the 6 months previous to interview (165 in total with the objective to evaluate the relation between conditions of life and the frequency; criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome. Life conditions, kind of work, kind of activity carried out and associated pathologies are the factors that according to the study influence in frequency, criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome in middle aged women and the overhead given by the conditioning of gender, favored the appearance of symptoms such as hot, depression, anxiety, tachycardia and vaginal dryness.

  14. V(H)3 antibody response to immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in middle-aged and elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; Valayam, Josemon; Musher, Daniel M; Rossen, Roger D; Pirofski, Liise-anne; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C

    2011-03-01

    Pneumococcal disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Older adults may have high levels of anticapsular antibody after vaccination, but their antibodies show decreased functional activity. In addition, the protective effect of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) seems to cease as early as 3 to 5 years postvaccination. Recently, it was suggested that PPV elicits human antibodies that use predominantly V(H)3 gene segments and induce a repertoire shift with increased V(H)3 expression in peripheral B cells. Here we compared V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects receiving PPV as initial immunization or revaccination. We studied pre- and postvaccination sera from 36 (18 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) middle-aged and 40 (22 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) elderly adults who received 23-valent PPV. Concentrations of IgGs to four individual serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and of V(H)3-idiotypic antibodies (detected by the monoclonal antibody D12) to the whole pneumococcal vaccine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPV elicited significant IgG and V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects, regardless of whether they were vaccine naïve or undergoing revaccination. Age did not influence the magnitude of the antibody responses, as evidenced by similar postvaccination IgG and V(H)3 antibody levels in both groups, even after stratifying by prior vaccine status. Furthermore, we found similar proportions (around 50%) of elderly and middle-aged subjects experiencing 2-fold increases in V(H)3 antibody titers after vaccination. Age or repeated immunization does not appear to affect the V(H)3-idiotypic immunogenicity of PPV among middle-aged and elderly adults.

  15. The Middle Miocene Climate Transition in the Central Mediterranean. Geologica Ultraiectina (326)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Miocene Climate Transition (~15-13.7 Ma) is one of the major steps in Cenozoic climate evolution. The rapid expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ~13.9 – 13.7 Ma caused important climate changes on a global scale. The aim of this PhD research has been to study the effects of the Mi

  16. Middle Grades Teachers' Understanding and Teaching of the Central Ideas of the Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The research reported on in this paper addresses the problem of preparing Massachusetts middle school mathematics, science, and computer teachers to teach engineering. The results presented here are part of a larger dissertation study investigating six urban public school teachers and their subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge teachers…

  17. Luminescence ages for three 'Middle Palaeolithic' sites in the Nihewan Basin, northern China, and their archaeological and palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Jie; Li, Bo; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Yuan, Bao-Yin; Xie, Fei; Roberts, Richard Graham

    2016-05-01

    The Nihewan Basin is a key region for studying the Palaeolithic archaeology of East Asia. However, because of the lack of suitable dating methods and representative lithic technologies in this region, the 'Middle Palaeolithic' sites in this basin have been designated based mainly on stratigraphic correlation, which may be unreliable. In this study, three Palaeolithic sites, Motianling, Queergou and Banjingzi, which have been assigned previously to the 'Middle Palaeolithic', are dated based on luminescence dating of K-feldspar grains. Our results show that the cultural layers at Motianling, Queergou and Banjingzi have ages of 315 ± 13, 268 ± 13 and 86 ± 4 ka (corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages 9, 8 and 5), respectively, suggesting that Motianling and Queergou should be assigned to the Lower Palaeolithic, while the age of Banjingzi is consistent with a Middle Palaeolithic attribution. Our results suggest that reassessing the age of 'Middle Palaeolithic' sites in the Nihewan Basin, and elsewhere in North China, is crucial for understanding the presence or absence of the Middle Palaeolithic phase in China. Our dating results also indicate that the Sanggan River developed sometime between about 270 and 86 ka ago.

  18. Head impact exposure in youth football: middle school ages 12-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-09-01

    The head impact exposure experienced by football players at the college and high school levels has been well documented; however, there are limited data regarding youth football despite its dramatically larger population. The objective of this study was to investigate head impact exposure in middle school football. Impacts were monitored using a commercially available accelerometer array installed inside the helmets of 17 players aged 12-14 years. A total of 4678 impacts were measured, with an average (±standard deviation) of 275 ± 190 impacts per player. The average of impact distributions for each player had a median impact of 22 ± 2 g and 954 ± 122 rad/s², and a 95th percentile impact of 54 ± 9 g and 2525 ± 450 rad/s². Similar to the head impact exposure experienced by high school and collegiate players, these data show that middle school football players experience a greater number of head impacts during games than practices. There were no significant differences between median and 95th percentile head acceleration magnitudes experienced during games and practices; however, a larger number of impacts greater than 80 g occurred during games than during practices. Impacts to the front and back of the helmet were most common. Overall, these data are similar to high school and college data that have been collected using similar methods. These data have applications toward youth football helmet design, the development of strategies designed to limit head impact exposure, and child-specific brain injury criteria.

  19. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - With emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-01-01

    , possibly Euparkeria, probably made the Brachychirotherium trackways that have been found across much of Central Europe. Large lepidosaurs such as Tanystrophaeus probably hunted in the tidal ponds and channels, where they locally produced Synaptichnium tracks. Recently discovered tracks made by a basal prosauropod are the world's oldest record of this group of dinosaurs, occurring in beds that have an age of about 243.5 Ma. (Pelsonian substage). This shows that very large prosauropods existed much earlier than was previously believed. These prosauropod tracks, along with tracks of small bipedal dinosaurs found in the Alps and Eastern France, show that by the middle part of the Middle Triassic the radiation and diversification of dinosaurs was already in progress. In the Germanic Basin, aquatic-adapted paraxial swimming sauropterygians are not known to have left tracks, except for occasional subaquatic swimming scratch-mark "trackways" within the coastal tidal flat zone. Marine-adapted aquatic reptiles migrated into the Germanic Basin with increasing frequency in the upper part of the Middle Triassic, when the bathymetry of the Germanic Basin was at its deepest following a strong regression that occurred due to basin uplift in the middle part of the Middle Triassic. These large marine reptiles included Pistosaurus, the ichthyosaurs Cymbospondylus or Mixosaurus, and many placodonts such as Cyamodus, Placodus and Paraplacodus, which fed on macroalgae and seem to have been the Triassic sea cows of their day. The distribution of these reptiles was mainly controlled by tectonics, but eustatic changes in sea level also were important and produced widespread environmental changes across the tidal flats up until their disappearance in the Germanic Basin in the late Middle Triassic. The initial break-up of Pangaea already had started in Middle Triassic time, and this event had begun to drastically change environments all over Central Europe. It is very interesting that dinosaurs

  20. Theory of mind through the ages: older and middle-aged adults exhibit more errors than do younger adults on a continuous false belief task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Wendy Loken; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2011-10-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n=37), middle-aged (n=20), and older (n=37) adults completed a continuous false belief task measuring ToM. Middle-aged and older adults exhibited more false belief bias than did younger adults, irrespective of language ability, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The authors conclude that ToM declines from younger to older adulthood, independent of age-related changes to domain-general cognitive functioning.

  1. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies are indicators of the course, but not of the onset, of diabetes in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

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    A. Vigo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently examine the association of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA positivity with the onset and progression of diabetes in middle-aged adults, we performed a case-cohort study representing the ~9-year experience of 10,275 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants, initially aged 45-64 years. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 were measured by radioimmunoassay in 580 incident diabetes cases and 544 non-cases. The overall weighted prevalence of GADA positivity (³1 U/mL was 7.3%. Baseline risk factors, with the exception of smoking and interleukin-6 (P £ 0.02, were generally similar between GADA-positive and -negative individuals. GADA positivity did not predict incident diabetes in multiply adjusted (HR = 1.04; 95%CI = 0.55, 1.96 proportional hazard analyses. However, a small non-significant adjusted risk (HR = 1.29; 95%CI = 0.58, 2.88 was seen for those in the highest tertile (³2.38 U/mL of positivity. GADA-positive and GADA-negative non-diabetic individuals had similar risk profiles for diabetes, with central obesity and elevated inflammation markers, aside from glucose, being the main predictors. Among diabetes cases at study's end, progression to insulin treatment increased monotonically as a function of baseline GADA level. Overall, being GADA positive increased risk of progression to insulin use almost 10 times (HR = 9.9; 95%CI = 3.4, 28.5. In conclusion, in initially non-diabetic middle-aged adults, GADA positivity did not increase diabetes risk, and the overall baseline profile of risk factors was similar for positive and negative individuals. Among middle-aged adults, with the possible exception of those with the highest GADA levels, autoimmune pathophysiology reflected by GADA may become clinically relevant only after diabetes onset.

  2. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

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    Y. Kanaya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations by the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that the BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. This range is significant, but is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP instrument and the PSAP instrument equipped with a heated inlet (400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two possibilities. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC

  3. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

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    Ryoko Kawakami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods: Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results: In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01. In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83 in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06. Conclusions: Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men.

  4. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

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    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  5. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9±7.1 years) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans

  6. In the Age of the Web: Strategies for Building a Collection of Primary Sources for European History from the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts by the Newberry Library (Chicago) to obtain original source materials for studying the literature and history of western Europe from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century. Discusses joint acquisitions with higher education institutions; acquisition of rare book collections from religious colleges and seminaries; and…

  7. Interaction between diazepam and hippocampal corticosterone after acute stress: impact on memory in middle-aged mice

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    Daniel eBeracochea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BDZ are widely prescribed in the treatment of anxiety disorders associated to aging. Interestingly, whereas a reciprocal interaction between the GABAergic system and HPA axis has been evidenced, there is to our knowledge no direct evaluation of the impact of BDZ on both hippocampus (HPC corticosterone concentrations and HPC-dependent memory in stressed middle-aged subjects. We showed previously that an acute stress induced in middle-aged mice severe memory impairments in a hippocampus-dependent task, and increased in parallel hippocampus corticosterone concentrations, as compared to non stressed middle-aged controls (Tronche et al., 2010. Based on these findings, the aims of the present study were to evidence the impact of diazepam (a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor on HPC glucocorticoids concentrations and in parallel on HPC-dependent memory in acutely stressed middle-aged mice.Microdialysis experiments showed an interaction between diazepam doses and corticosterone concentrations into the HPC. From 0.25 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg, diazepam dose-dependently reduces intra-HPC corticosterone concentrations and in parallel, dose-dependently increased hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In contrast, the highest (1.0mg/kg diazepam dose induces a reduction in HPC corticosterone concentration, which was of greater magnitude as compared to the two other diazepam doses, but however decreased the hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In summary, our study provides first evidence that diazepam restores in stressed middle-aged animals the hippocampus-dependent response, in relation with HPC corticosterone concentrations. Overall, our data illustrate how stress and benzodiazepines could modulate cognitive functions depending on hippocampus activity.

  8. Changing patterns of tobacco use in a middle-aged population – the role of snus, gender, age, and education

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    Margareta Norberg

    2011-06-01

    use from baseline until follow-up and this was mainly due to a smoking cessation rate of < 1% a year. Snus use was started by 6.2% of the 30-year-old women (age at baseline, and this contributed to a stable prevalence of total tobacco use in this group. Seventy percent of baseline snus users still used snus at follow-up. Among smokers, 55% continued smoking, 12% of men and 7% of women switched to snus. Among those with dual tobacco use at baseline, a third of men and a fourth of women remained dual users 10 years later. Conclusion : There are increasing differences in tobacco use between educational groups. Higher smoking and snus use prevalence are found among those with basic education, and this is most pronounced in the younger group of this middle-aged population. In spite of a higher prevalence of smoking without snus use among women, total smoking prevalence is similar in men and women due to a higher prevalence of dual tobacco use, i.e. snus and cigarettes, among men. The increase in snus use is being paralleled by a slight increase in dual use and the smoking prevalence does not seem to be influenced by snus. This should be the subject of further studies and also have implications for tobacco control policies.

  9. Auditory Brainstem Gap Responses Start to Decline in Middle Age Mice: A Novel Physiological Biomarker for Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanika T.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The CBA/CaJ mouse strain's auditory function is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but on a mouse life cycle “time frame”. This pattern of ARHL is relatively similar to that of most humans: difficult to clinically diagnose at its onset, and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, CBA mice were used for the present study to analyze the beginning stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility, but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison to the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable to previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system is already beginning in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented as a possibility for attenuating further damage to the auditory system due to ARHL. PMID:25307161

  10. Auditory brainstem gap responses start to decline in mice in middle age: a novel physiological biomarker for age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanika T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    The auditory function of the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL) but within the "time frame" of a mouse life cycle. This pattern of ARHL is similar to that of most humans: difficult to diagnose clinically at its onset and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, we use CBA mice to analyze the initial stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, namely young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison with the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable with previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system begins in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented in order to attenuate further damage to the auditory system attributable to ARHL.

  11. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  12. Soy isoflavones interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis in orchidectomized middle-aged rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka, E-mail: brankasj@ibiss.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Biological Research, Siniša Stanković, University of Belgrade, Despot Stefan Blvd. 142, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Filipović, Branko [Institute for Biological Research, Siniša Stanković, University of Belgrade, Despot Stefan Blvd. 142, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Wirth, Eva Katrin [Institut für Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Charité — Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Živanović, Jasmina [Institute for Biological Research, Siniša Stanković, University of Belgrade, Despot Stefan Blvd. 142, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Radulović, Niko [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Janković, Snežana [Institute for Science Application in Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Despot Stefan Blvd. 68b, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Milošević, Verica [Institute for Biological Research, Siniša Stanković, University of Belgrade, Despot Stefan Blvd. 142, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Köhrle, Josef [Institut für Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Charité — Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    We previously reported that genistein (G) and daidzein (D) administered subcutaneously (10 mg/kg) induce changes in the angio-follicular units of the thyroid gland, reduce concentration of total thyroid hormones (TH) and increase thyrotropin (TSH) in serum of orchidectomized middle-aged (16-month-old) rats. To further investigate these effects, we now examined expression levels of the thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroperoxidase (Tpo), vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) and deiodinase type 1 (Dio 1) genes in the thyroid; in the pituitary, genes involved in TH feedback control (Tsh β, Dio 1, Dio 2, Trh receptor); and in the liver and kidney, expression of T{sub 3}-activated genes Dio 1 and Spot 14, as well as transthyretin (Ttr), by quantitative real-time PCR. We also analyzed TPO-immunopositivity and immunofluorescence of T{sub 4} bound to Tg, determined thyroid T{sub 4} levels and measured deiodinase enzyme activities in examined organs. Decreased expression of Tg and Tpo genes (p < 0.05) correlated with immunohistochemical staining results, and together with decreased serum total T{sub 4} levels, indicates decreased Tg and TH synthesis following treatments with both isoflavones. However, expression of Spot 14 (p < 0.05) gene in liver and kidney was up-regulated, and liver Dio 1 expression and activity (p < 0.05) increased. At the level of pituitary, no significant change in gene expression levels, or Dio 1 and 2 enzyme activities was observed. In conclusion, both G and D impaired Tg and TH synthesis, but at the same time increased tissue availability of TH in peripheral tissues of Orx middle-aged rats. - Highlights: • We tested how genistein and daidzein interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. • Thyroid: decreased expression of Tg and TPO genes correlated with IHC results. • Serum: total T{sub 4} reduced and TSH increased. • Liver and kidney: expression of Spot 14 and liver Dio 1 activity increased. • Pituitary: expression of T{sub 3}-regulated

  13. Validation of a novel automatic sleep spindle detector with high performance during sleep in middle aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Christensen, Julie A. E.; Kempfner, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    Many of the automatic sleep spindle detectors currently used to analyze sleep EEG are either validated on young subjects or not validated thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a fast and reliable sleep spindle detector with high performance in middle aged subjects. An a...

  14. Salivary Cortisol, Socioemotional Functioning, and Academic Performance in Anxious and Non-Anxious Children of Elementary and Middle School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…

  15. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  16. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheara Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  17. Giant Angiokeratoma of Fordyce over the Vulva in a Middle-Aged Woman: Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kudur, Mohan H; Manjunath Hulmani

    2013-01-01

    Angiokeratoma of Fordyce occurring over vulva is rare. Angiokeratoma of Fordyce commonly occurs in males over scrotum or penile shaft and presents as multiple verrucous reddish papules. They are usually asymptomatic and noticed accidentally. In the present article, we present and review the literature of giant angiokeratoma of Fordyce in middle-aged women due to its rarity.

  18. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  19. Higher muscle content of perilipin 5 and endothelial lipase protein in trained than untrained middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigelso, A; Prats, C; Ploug, T; Dela, F; Helge, J W

    2016-06-20

    A high VO(2)max in middle-age is related to high metabolic flexibility and lowered risk of metabolic diseases. However, the influence of a high VO(2)max induced by years of regular training in middle-age on protein expression related to muscle metabolism is not well studied. This study measures key proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidation, glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of trained and untrained middle-aged men. 16 middle-aged men, matched for lean body mass, were recruited into an endurance trained (TR, n=8) or an untrained (CON, n=8) group based on their VO(2)max. A muscle biopsy was obtained from m. vastus lateralis and protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting. The TR had higher protein levels of mitochondrial complex III-V, endothelial lipase (EL) and perilipin 5 compared to the CON. Glycogen synthase (P=0.05), perilipin 3 (P=0.09) and ATGL (P=0.09) tended to be higher in TR than CON, but there was no difference in AKT I/II, HKII, GLUT4 and LPL protein expression. Lastly, there was a positive correlation between plasma HDL and EL (R(2)=0.53, Pmuscle oxidative capacity, but also in higher endothelial lipase and perilipin 5 expression and a borderline higher glycogen synthase protein expression, which may contribute to a higher metabolic flexibility. PMID:26447519

  20. Physical activity, sleep, and nutrition do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Barberà, Elena; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisc

  1. Does age of onset of risk behaviors mediate the relationship between child abuse and neglect and outcomes in middle adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors-sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior-mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female; 66.2% White, 32.6% Black). Adult outcomes included employment status, welfare receipt, internalizing symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms, substance use problems, and criminal arrests. The results indicated gender differences in these relationships. For females, age of onset of sexual intercourse mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and both internalizing symptoms and substance use problems in middle adulthood. For males, age at first criminal arrest mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and extensive involvement in the justice system in middle adulthood. Age of onset of alcohol use and drug use did not mediate the relationship between child abuse/neglect and middle adult outcomes. This study expands current knowledge by identifying associations between early initiation of risk behavior in one domain and later, continuing problems in different domains. Thus, early initiation of specific risk behaviors may have more wide-ranging negative consequences than are typically considered during intervention or treatment and strategies may need to target multiple domains of functioning.

  2. Virtue is its own reward? : Support-giving in the family and loneliness in middle and old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong Gierveld, Jenny de; Dykstra, Pearl A.

    2008-01-01

    Gerontologists have emphasised that older adults are not only recipients of support but also important support providers. Using data from the first wave of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study of 727 middle-generation adults aged 45 to 79 years, we examined the associations between loneliness and giv

  3. Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Stegger, Jakob Gerhard;

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) measured at one point in time is positively associated with the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is not clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the risk of MI in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated...

  4. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-­related brain activation in middle-­aged males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; De Groot, Renate; Evers, Lisbeth; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno; Ligtenberg, Antoon; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Klaassen, E. B., De Groot, R. H. M., Evers, E. A. T., Snel, J., Veerman, E. C. I., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Jolles, J., & Veltman, D. J. (2013). The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged male. Neuropharmacology, 64, 160-167. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.0

  5. Effects of Social Networks on the Quality of Life in an Elder and Middle-Aged Deaf Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerich, Joachim; Fellinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This article endeavors to investigate the role of social networks in contributing to the quality of life of an elder and middle-aged Deaf population. In particular, it poses the question of whether a certain network composition (deaf and hearing network persons) provides positive resources to improve quality of life and attempts to identify…

  6. Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture...

  7. The paleomagnetism of the Salt Pseudomorph Beds of Middle Cambrian age from the Salt Range, West Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.

    1972-01-01

    Oriented cores for a paleomagnetic investigation were collected from ten sites in the sedimentary redbeds of the Salt Pseudomorph Beds of Middle Cambrian age in the Salt Range near Khewra. All samples were subjected to progressive, thermal demagnetization procedures which revealed the characteristic

  8. The paleomagnetism of the salt pseudomorph beds of middle cambrian age from the salt range, West Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.

    1972-01-01

    Oriented cores for a paleomagnetic investigation were collected from ten sites in the sedimentary redbeds of the Salt Pseudomorph Beds of Middle Cambrian age m the Salt Range near Khcwra. All samples were subjected to progressive, thermal demagnetization procedures which revealed the characteristic

  9. Stratigraphic significance of Middle Triassic radiolarians from the central part of Kotel'nyi Island (New Siberian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, N. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    New data on Middle Triassic radiolarians from the central part of Kotel'nyi Island are discussed. The Triassic section is represented by clays and mudstones with diverse macro- and microfossils, which confirm the presence of lower Anisian, upper Anisian, and upper Ladinian sediments on the island. The lower Anisian Substage 10-15 m thick is composed of clays with ammonoid species Karangatites evolutus. The upper Anisian Substage 20 m thick consists of clays with phosphate concretions and bivalves Daonella sp. cf. D. moussoni Merian, D. americana Smith, ammonoid form Indigirophyllites sp. ex gr. I. spetsbergensis (Oeberg), and radiolarian assemblage with Glomeropyle boreale Bragin. The upper Ladinian Substage 25-30 m thick is composed of clays with phosphate concretions and bivalves including Daonella frami Kittl., ammonoid species Indigirophyllites sp. ex gr. I. oimekonensis Popow, and radiolarian assemblage with Muelleritortis firma (Gorican). The middle Anisian and lower Ladinian substages are missing, which may be explained by the incompleteness of the section. The Middle Triassic section of Kotel'nyi Island is first stratified on the basis of radiolarians, which are supplemented by the data on cephalopods and bivalves. Glomeropyle saccum Bragin, sp. nov. is described.

  10. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP Rescues the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eSun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH-LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions.

  11. The impact of multimorbidity on sexual function in middle-aged and older women: Beyond the single disease perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Appa, AA; Creasman, J; Brown, JS; Van Den Eeden, SK; Thom, DH; Subak, LL; Huang, AJ

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Introduction: Little is known about sexual activity and function in women with multiple chronic health conditions. Aim: To examine the impact of multimorbidity on sexual activity and function in middle-aged and older women. Methods: Multiethnic cross-sectional cohort of 1,997 community-dwelling women (mean age of 60.2 [±9.5] years) in California. Structured questionnaires assessed prior diagnoses of common cardiometabolic, colorectal, neuropsy...

  12. The influence of a six month aerobics programme on middle aged women's aerobic capacity and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Šeděnková; Pavel Stejskal; Jaroslav Šimíček; Milan Elfmark; Tereza Bušinová; Barbora Raníková

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive influence on increasing physical fitness, which has considerable impact on health and, consequently, on the quality and length of human life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of six months of physical endurance activity on the body composition and aerobic capacity of middle aged women. METHODS: Forty women between the ages of 40 to 55 years with a sedentary occupation and without regular physical activity took par...

  13. Pain and pain treatment were associated with traffic accident involvement in a cohort of middle-aged workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarde, E.; CHASTANG, JF; Lafont, S.; COEURET-PELLICER, M; CHIRON, M

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objective: To assess the influence of medical conditions on road traffic accidents among a cohort of middle-aged workers and pensioners. Study Design and Setting: A longitudinal study of 13,548 participants from a cohort study of French workers. Follow-up data covered the 1989-2000 period. Adjusted hazards ratios (HRadj) for serious accidents were computed by Cox's proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates adjusted for age, occupation, annual mileage in 2...

  14. Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Young and Middle-Aged men in Urban Mwanza, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhihi, Alfa; Njelekela, Marina; Mpembeni, Rose; Masesa, Zablon; KITAMORI, KAZUYA; Mori, Mari; Kato, Norihiro; Mtabaji, Jacob; Yamori, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and middle aged men in a fast growing city of Mwanza in Tanzania. Methods Physical activity was assessed among 97 healthy men aged 20–50years using Sub-Saharan Africa Activity Quest...

  15. Young and middle-aged schoolteachers differ in the neural correlates of memory encoding and cognitive fatigue: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa B Klaassen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was inspired by growing evidence that middle-aged persons in a cognitively demanding profession might be characterized by subtle cognitive fatigue. We studied young and middle-aged male schoolteachers. They were compared in a study with functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate differences during successful memory encoding. The schoolteachers were additionally subjected to an induced fatigue condition involving the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks and to a control condition. Results showed age-related brain activation differences underlying behavioural performance including: 1 greater activation in middle-aged versus young teachers in bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC areas; and 2 differential fatigue effects in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC depending on age group. Middle-aged schoolteachers showed decreased ACC activation in the fatigue compared to the control condition, whereas no change in activation was found in young teachers. Findings demonstrate age effects in these middle-aged subjects that are typically found in older adults, specifically in PFC over-activation. Findings also indicate that already in middle age cognitive aging may be associated with greater resource depletion following sustained task performance. The findings underscore the notion that persons in a cognitively demanding profession can experience subtle age effects, which are evident on fMRI and which impact daily functioning. Possible practical implications for middle-aged schoolteachers are discussed.

  16. Young and Middle-Aged Schoolteachers Differ in the Neural Correlates of Memory Encoding and Cognitive Fatigue: A Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Plukaard, Sarah; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was inspired by growing evidence that middle-aged persons in a cognitively demanding profession might be characterized by subtle cognitive fatigue. We studied young and middle-aged male schoolteachers. They were compared in a study with functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate differences during successful memory encoding. The schoolteachers were additionally subjected to an induced fatigue condition involving the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks and to a control condition. Results showed age-related brain activation differences underlying behavioral performance including: (1) greater activation in middle-aged vs. young teachers in bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas; and (2) differential fatigue effects in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) depending on age group. Middle-aged schoolteachers showed decreased ACC activation in the fatigue compared to the control condition, whereas no change in activation was found in young teachers. Findings demonstrate age effects in these middle-aged subjects that are typically found in older adults, specifically in PFC over-activation. Findings also indicate that already in middle age cognitive aging may be associated with greater resource depletion following sustained task performance. The findings underscore the notion that persons in a cognitively demanding profession can experience subtle age effects, which are evident on fMRI and which impact daily functioning. Possible practical implications for middle-aged schoolteachers are discussed.

  17. Young and Middle-Aged Schoolteachers Differ in the Neural Correlates of Memory Encoding and Cognitive Fatigue: A Functional MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B.; Plukaard, Sarah; Evers, Elisabeth A. T.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Backes, Walter H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was inspired by growing evidence that middle-aged persons in a cognitively demanding profession might be characterized by subtle cognitive fatigue. We studied young and middle-aged male schoolteachers. They were compared in a study with functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate differences during successful memory encoding. The schoolteachers were additionally subjected to an induced fatigue condition involving the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks and to a control condition. Results showed age-related brain activation differences underlying behavioral performance including: (1) greater activation in middle-aged vs. young teachers in bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas; and (2) differential fatigue effects in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) depending on age group. Middle-aged schoolteachers showed decreased ACC activation in the fatigue compared to the control condition, whereas no change in activation was found in young teachers. Findings demonstrate age effects in these middle-aged subjects that are typically found in older adults, specifically in PFC over-activation. Findings also indicate that already in middle age cognitive aging may be associated with greater resource depletion following sustained task performance. The findings underscore the notion that persons in a cognitively demanding profession can experience subtle age effects, which are evident on fMRI and which impact daily functioning. Possible practical implications for middle-aged schoolteachers are discussed. PMID:27092068

  18. Facets of negative affectivity and blood pressure in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel V. Igna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Research results suggesting that facets of negative affectivity, i.e. anxiety, anger-hostility, and depression, relate to incident cardiovascular diseases have been steadily increasing. Evidence for depression has been especially extensive. Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is one probable mediator in this context. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of specific key elements of depressive disposition, i.e. depressive symptoms, hopelessness and vital exhaustion, with health behavior and blood pressure. Study sample was comprised of 710 middle-aged men. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing health behavior, depressive symptoms, vital exhaustion and hopelessness. Statistical analyses involved descriptive analyses, correlations and path analysis. Depressive symptoms and vital exhaustion associated with several unfavorable lifestyles such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and inactivity (standardized solution coefficients: 0.10, 0.14, 0.17, accordingly. However, no significant direct associations with blood pressure could be found for depressive symptoms or vital exhaustion. Hopelessness associated only with unhealthy diet (standardized solution coefficient -0.10 Moreover, for hopelessness, results showed a direct but inverse association with systolic blood pressure (standardized solution coefficient -0.08. Results suggest that the previously reported relations of depression and vital exhaustion with blood pressure could be mediated by unfavorable lifestyles. The relation of hopelessness with adverse health behaviors seems to be less significant. Also, the role of hopelessness as a risk factor of elevated blood pressure is not supported by the results of this study.

  19. Trajectories of Body Mass Index from Young Adulthood to Middle Age among Canadian Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of BMI trajectories is limited for the Canadian population. Using latent class growth modelling, four distinct BMI trajectories of individuals from young adulthood to middle age were identified for both women and men from the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey. The associations between BMI trajectories and the individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics and behavioural factors were also examined. Aboriginal women were found more likely to be in the long-term overweight or obese groups. It reveals that increased years of smoking, drinking, and being physically active were associated with lowering the BMI trajectory in all groups for both women and men, with some exceptions in the long-term normal weight group for men. Increased years of rural living, being employed, and living with low income were associated with raising the BMI trajectory in all groups for women and in some groups for men. Food insecurity was associated with raising the BMI trajectory in each group for both women and men.

  20. Marital status and twins' health and behavior: an analysis of middle-aged Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; McGue, Matt; Lund, Rikke;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To disentangle the influences on health of selection processes related to genetic and rearing environmental factors from factors related to marriage benefits. We compared health status among same-sex male and female twin pairs who lived together during childhood and were discordant or ...... divorce with depression and smoking in Danish twins are due to the stressful effects of marital dissolution, but that marital differences in other health and behavioral outcomes are most consistent with selection effects related to genetic or rearing environmental factors.......OBJECTIVE: To disentangle the influences on health of selection processes related to genetic and rearing environmental factors from factors related to marriage benefits. We compared health status among same-sex male and female twin pairs who lived together during childhood and were discordant...... or concordant on adult marital status. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of middle-aged Danish twins was conducted in 1998 to 1999. This study included 1175 same-sex twin pairs (52.5% monozygotic (MZ) and 47.5% dizygotic (DZ)). Data were obtained on adult marital status and on height, body...

  1. [A study on observation of bone metabolism in middle-aged and senile female Graves' disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L Q; Liu, Y H; Zhou, Y B

    1996-08-01

    Sixty-nine cases of middle aged and senile female Graves' desease (GD) patients suffered from abnormal bone metabolism have been studied. They were divided randomly into group A and B, treated separately with antithyroid drugs (Tapazol and inderal, etc.) in group A, and added with Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying Kidney and promoting blood circulation in group B. Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood calcium (Ca) 24-hour urinary Ca, phosphorus (P) and serum clcitonin (CT) levels than that in normal subjects. These patients' serum Ca, moreover, had a parallel relationship with serum T3 levels (r = 0.6142, P < 0.01) and the serum Ca also a paralleled with serum CT levels (r = 0.5714, P < 0.05). After six months of treatment, the serum Ca, 24-hour urinary Ca, P and blood CT values were all reduced in various degree. The decrease of these bone metabolic parameters were more significant in group B than that in group A. PMID:9387746

  2. An unusual case of spontaneous Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer in a healthy middle-aged adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vipul Bhandari, R Sriganesh, Kirti RelekarDepartment of Cornea, Nethradhama Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, IndiaBackground: To report a rare presentation of culture-positive Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer and its management.Findings: We report a rare case of a patient with a history of chronic pain and blurriness of vision. Examination revealed a chronic nonhealing paracentral corneal ulcer inferiorly at the 5–7 o'clock meridian with anterior chamber reaction unresponsive to routine antibiotic and antifungal medications with Mantoux test positivity in a middle-aged nondiabetic patient with no prior history of trauma, ocular surgery, and contact lens usage. Ziehl–Neelsen staining of the nonhealing ulcer revealed acid-fast bacilli typical of M. chelonae, with subsequent culture positivity in Löwenstein–Jensen medium. Subsequent treatment with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin resulted in rapid healing of the corneal ulcer.Conclusion: M. chelonae presenting as a chronic nonhealing corneal ulcer spontaneously occurring in a healthy adult with no predisposing factor draws attention towards the need to have a good index of suspicion by performing a Ziehl–Neelsen stain and culture, and subsequent successful management with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin.Keywords: spontaneous, M. chelonae, nonhealing corneal ulcer, healthy

  3. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozowyk, P R B; Langejans, G H J; Poulis, J A

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives.

  4. Night eating and weight change in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, G S; Stunkard, A J; Sørensen, T I A;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the habit of eating at night, and the 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight changes in a middle-aged population, with particular focus on the obese. DESIGN: Prospective study with initial examination of the cohort in 1982-83, re-examination in 1987......-94 too. Subjects working night shifts were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Night eating in 1987-88, 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight change. RESULTS: In total, 9.0% women and 7.4% men reported 'getting up at night to eat'. Obese women with night eating experienced an average 6-y weight gain of 5.2 kg (P=0.......004), whereas only 0.9 kg average weight gain was seen among obese women who did not get up at night to eat. No significant associations were found among all women, or between night eating and the 5-y preceding weight change for women. Night eating and weight change were not associated among men. CONCLUSION...

  5. Water Collection and Distribution Systems in the Palermo Plain during the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that Palermo is short of available water. However, nothing could be more wrong. Well-documented Arab sources and narrative chronicles reported an abundance of groundwater resources in Palermo Plain since the Middle Ages. The scarcity of sources and surface water in the Palermo Plain, compared to the groundwater abundance, led the inhabitants to use groundwater both for irrigation and domestic usage through a complex and sustainable hydraulic system. Vertical and horizontal (qanāts wells, conveyed water towards gardens and public fountains making the Arabic Bal’harm (Palermo a flourishing town. When visitors walk through the streets of Palermo’s historical center, among Arab ruins and Baroque architecture, they hardly imagine that there is a wide and varied cultural heritage of underground cavities hidden in the basements where water flows in intricate networks fed from a numerous springs. Only in recent years was a part of this system brought to light. Moreover, the city still has a wide and fascinating water distribution system consisting of irrigation basin (gebbie, ingenious hydraulic machines named senie, and distribution chessboard of irrigation (saje and drinking water (catusi canals. The medieval water collection and distribution systems and their various components in the Palermo Plain are reviewed together with the influence of the Arab water management on environment.

  6. An in situ corrosion study of Middle Ages wrought iron bar chains in the Amiens Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassini, S.; Angelini, E.; Parvis, M.; Bouchar, M.; Dillmann, P.; Neff, D.

    2013-12-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Middle Ages wrought iron bar chains exposed to indoor atmospheric corrosion for hundred of years in the Notre Dame Cathedral of Amiens (France) has been evaluated by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), a well-established electrochemical technique extensively used for testing anticorrosive properties of metal coatings. The measurements have been performed in situ with a portable EIS instrument designed to work as a standalone device, in six different areas of the wrought iron bar chains characterized by different aesthetical appearance. Moreover, a properly designed electrochemical cell has been employed to carry out the impedance measurements without affecting the artefacts surfaces. The wrought iron bar chains, as evidenced by μ-Raman and microscopic analyses, are covered by corrosion products constituted by iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, such as goethite, lepidocrocite, maghemite, akaganeite, organized in complex layered structures. In situ EIS allows one to investigate the phenomena involved at the electrochemical interfaces among the various corrosion products and to assess and predict their corrosion behaviour. From the analysis of the experimental findings of this monitoring campaign, EIS measurements can be proposed to restorers/conservators as a reliable indicator of dangerous situations on which they must act for the preservation of the iron artefacts.

  7. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure.

  8. OPEC at middle age: facing an uncertain future in the world oil market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International institutions, like individuals, groups, and even societies and cultures, pass through various stages in their development as they grow from youth through middle age into more experienced and mature members of the international community. OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is no exception to this generally observable phenomenon on the world economic scene. It has clearly undergone a gradual process of growth over the past three decades or so since its establishment by five founding states in Baghdad in September 1960. OPEC's history since then could be characterized as being divided into three distinct developmental stages. The first decade, the 1960s, was a period of consolidation of OPEC's power over the oil companies and their control over the member countries'oil resources. The second decade - the 1970s - was a decade characterized by almost continuous and prolonged producer - consumer confrontation as well as revelation of some of the more basic cleavages within OPEC as an organization. This was followed by the decade of the 1980s -- a period of relative accommodation between producers and consumers in the interest of longer term market stability

  9. [Hospitals in Prague from the high Middle Ages to the Enlightenment (1135-1800)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenberg, A

    1995-01-01

    Based on hitherto unknown layouts and documents from the Prague archives, this paper reviews the evolution of the health care system in the capital of Bohemia. From the high Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, the town's history as well as changing political and religious tendencies provide a unique background for the development of different types of institutions for the care of the poor and sick. The first charitable foundations of the sovereigns and the archbishops were soon followed by the semi-monasterial infirmaries of the Hospitallers. Leprosoria and other shelters for the contagious deserve special attention. After the counter-reformation, the newly built hospitals of orders like the Brothers of Saint John of God and the Sisters of Saint Elizabeth played an important role. From the architectural point of view, the baroque hospitals built by Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer belong to the most impressive examples of hospital architecture in Europe. Finally, the medical reforms of Emperor Joseph II. led to a series of completely new institutions, which can be regarded as the beginning of modern medicine im Bohemia. It was especially intended to describe exactly the site and the architectonic appearance of the preserved buildings. Thus, the medical historian can contribute to the care and preservation of these medical monuments. PMID:7631381

  10. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  11. Economic activity of middle-aged women in Serbia as relevant gender equality issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šobot Ankica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic characteristics of the female population are important dimensions of contemporary gender regime. Thus, this paper focuses on disadvantageous characteristics of economic activity pointing to the range and the intensity of economic dependence of women as one of the obstacles to the improvement of their social position and reducing of gender gap. Statistical data show economic inactivity and unemployment of middle-aged women in Serbia. Also, regarding the employed women the economic disadvantages could be discussed. The indicator of this is a gender difference in earnings as a result of a smaller number of women having well-paying jobs. In the base of gender economic differences are characteristics of gender roles, and for this reason a specific “women’s work” is seen as an important segment in the improvement of the economic position of women and reducing of gender-based economic gap. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47006: Investigation of demographic phenomena with regard to public policies in Serbia

  12. Confusion and conflict in assessing the physical activity status of middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Thompson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (including exercise is prescribed for health and there are various recommendations that can be used to gauge physical activity status. The objective of the current study was to determine whether twelve commonly-used physical activity recommendations similarly classified middle-aged men as sufficiently active for general health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the commonality in the classification of physical activity status between twelve variations of physical activity recommendations for general health in ninety men aged 45-64 years. Physical activity was assessed using synchronised accelerometry and heart rate. Using different guidelines but the same raw data, the proportion of men defined as active ranged from to 11% to 98% for individual recommendations (median 73%, IQR 30% to 87%. There was very poor absolute agreement between the recommendations, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (A,1 of 0.24 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.34. Only 8% of men met all 12 recommendations and would therefore be unanimously classified as active and only one man failed to meet every recommendation and would therefore be unanimously classified as not sufficiently active. The wide variability in physical activity classification was explained by ostensibly subtle differences between the 12 recommendations for thresholds related to activity volume (time or energy, distribution (e.g., number of days of the week, moderate intensity cut-point (e.g., 3 vs. 4 metabolic equivalents or METs, and duration (including bout length. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity status varies enormously depending on the physical activity recommendation that is applied and even ostensibly small differences have a major impact. Approximately nine out of every ten men in the present study could be variably described as either active or not sufficiently active. Either the effective dose or prescription that underlies each physical activity recommendation is different

  13. Chronic fatigue syndrome in middle-aged women: the role of disorders of glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya V Pleshcheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS among middle-aged women and to assess the role of glucose metabolism disturbances in the development of this pathology. Materials and Methods: The study included 231 women from 40 to 60 years old (mean age 52.3 ± 5 years, observed at urban polyclinic in Moscow, who was referred to or was observed by an endocrinologist (n = 142, group 1, therapist (n = 56, group 2 or had a prophylactic medical examinations (n = 33, group 3. We recorded demographic and anthropometric data, accessed levels of glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin and calculated BMI and HOMA indexes. Results: The prevalence of CFS in the whole group of patients studied was 27%. The highest frequency of CFS is registered in the group of patients observed by the endocrinologist – 35%, and at dispensary examination – 21%, which was significantly different from the prevalence of CFS in patients seeking an appointment with a therapist – 13% (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03 for Fisher's exact test, respectively. Higher BMI, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HOMA insulin resistance index as naturally expected were observed in group 1, but after further division for the presence or absence of CFS, significant differences for patients with CFS were only higher fasting glucose levels in group 2. Conclusions: We determined the prevalence of CFS in the examined groups of patients and showed only a weak correlation of CFS and disturbances of glucose metabolism.

  14. Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Lin; Tun-Jen Hsiao; Pau-Chung Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among early middle- aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT).METHODS: A retrospective, observational followup study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetScomponents,liver enzymes, serological markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasound, insulin resistance status, lifestyles, and workplace factors were analyzed.RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated serum ALT (> 40 U/L, e-ALT) at baseline was 19.1%. There were 381 (38.3%) workers with long-term exposures to daynight rotating shift work (RSW). 14.2% of subjects developed MetS during follow-up. After 5 years, the workers with e-ALT had significantly unfavorable changes in MetS-components, and higher rates of MetS development, vs subjects with normal baseline ALT levels. Workers with both baseline e-ALT and 5-year persistent RSW (pRSW) exposure had the highest rate of MetS development. Also, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers had a significant increase in MetS-components at follow-up, compared with the other subgroups. After controlling for potential confounders, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers posed a significant risk for MetS development (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.3, vs workers without baseline e-ALT nor pRSW). CONCLUSION: We suggest that all early middleaged male employees with e-ALT should be evaluated and managed for MetS. Particularly in terms of job arrangements, impacts of long-term RSW on MetS development should be assessed for all male employees having baseline e-ALT.

  15. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.

  16. Prognostic significance of exercise blood pressure and heart rate in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovský, J; Ducimetière, P; Safar, M E

    1992-09-01

    Systolic blood pressure and heart rate measured at rest and during a standardized exercise test were analyzed in the cohort of middle-aged male employees followed-up an average of 17 years in the Paris Prospective Study I. The population sample selected for the analysis included 4,907 men who completed at least 5 minutes of bicycle ergometry, who had no heart disease at entry, and whose resting blood pressure was less than or equal to 180/105 mm Hg. Exercise-induced increase in systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with resting systolic blood pressure (r = 0.104, p less than 0.0001), whereas the correlation of exercise-induced heart rate increase with resting heart rate was negative (r = -0.169, p less than 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis with the inclusion of resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate; exercise-induced elevations of systolic blood pressure and heart rate; and controlling for age, smoking, total cholesterol, body mass index, electrical left ventricular hypertrophy, and sports activities, cardiovascular mortality was found to be associated with the systolic blood pressure increase (p less than 0.05), whereas no association with resting systolic blood pressure was found. Total mortality was predicted by resting systolic blood pressure and its elevation (p less than 0.01 for both) and by resting heart rate (p less than 0.0001). The heart rate increase did not contribute to death prediction. In conclusion, the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of systolic blood pressure, but not of heart rate, may represent a risk factor for death from cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular causes, independently of resting blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:1387630

  17. Reduced neural specificity in middle-aged HIV+ women in the absence of behavioral deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post combination antiretroviral therapy (cART era, the prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND in individuals with HIV-infection remains high. There is a pressing need to find biomarkers that can aid clinical assessment of HAND, especially in those with mild or no neurocognitive symptoms. Here we hypothesized that a reduction in neural specificity, or the specificity of neuronal tuning, could serve as a potential biomarker of asymptomatic HAND. To directly test this hypothesis, we applied two advanced fMRI techniques to examine the difference in neural specificity between middle-aged HIV+ women and age-matched negative controls, with a focus on the fusiform face area (FFA, a critical region in face processing. Face discrimination performance was assessed outside of the scanner. While the behavioral performance of face discrimination was comparable between the two groups, a reduced neural specificity in the FFA of HIV-positive women was revealed by a novel fMRI analysis technique, local regional heterogeneity analysis, or Hcorr, as well as an established technique, fMRI-rapid adaptation. In contrast, conventional fMRI techniques were insensitive to these early changes. These results suggest that, prior to the onset of detectable behavioral deficits, significant neuronal dysfunctions are already present in HIV+ individuals, and these early neuronal dysfunctions can be detected and assessed via neural specificity, which, in combining with the novel Hcorr technique, has a strong potential to serve as a biomarker of asymptomatic HAND and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Reduced neural specificity in middle-aged HIV+ women in the absence of behavioral deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenglong; Wang, Cuiwei; Leclair, Matthew; Young, Mary; Jiang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    In the post combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, the prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in individuals with HIV-infection remains high. There is a pressing need to find biomarkers that can aid clinical assessment of HAND, especially in those with mild or no neurocognitive symptoms. Here we hypothesized that a reduction in neural specificity, or the specificity of neuronal tuning, could serve as a potential biomarker of asymptomatic HAND. To directly test this hypothesis, we applied two advanced fMRI techniques to examine the difference in neural specificity between middle-aged HIV+ women and age-matched negative controls, with a focus on the fusiform face area (FFA), a critical region in face processing. Face discrimination performance was assessed outside of the scanner. While the behavioral performance of face discrimination was comparable between the two groups, a reduced neural specificity in the FFA of HIV-positive women was revealed by a novel fMRI analysis technique, local regional heterogeneity analysis, or Hcorr , as well as an established technique, fMRI-rapid adaptation. In contrast, conventional fMRI techniques were insensitive to these early changes. These results suggest that, prior to the onset of detectable behavioral deficits, significant neuronal dysfunctions are already present in HIV+ individuals, and these early neuronal dysfunctions can be detected and assessed via neural specificity, which, in combining with the novel Hcorr technique, has a strong potential to serve as a biomarker of asymptomatic HAND and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26288750

  19. [Tobacco smoking in a sample of middle-size city inhabitants aged 35-55].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniecka-Bryła, Irena; Maciak, Aleksandra; Kowalska, Alina; Bryła, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking constitutes a common risk factor for the majority of civilization diseases, such as cardiovascular system diseases, malignant neoplasms and digestion and respiratory system disorders as well. Tobacco-related disorders relate to exacerbation of chronic diseases, for example diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Poland is one of those countries, where the prevalence of smoking is especially widespread. In Poland 42% of men and 25% of women smoke cigarettes and the amount of addicted people amounts to approximately 10 million. The latest data from the year 2003 show that the amount of cigarettes smoked by a particular citizen in Poland has risen fourfold since the beginning of 21st century. This paper presents an analysis of prevalence of tobacco smoking among inhabitants of a middle-size city in the Lodz province aged 35-55 years. The study sample comprised 124 people, including 75 females and 49 males. The tool of the research was a questionnaire survey containing questions concerning cigarette smoking. The study found out that 39.5% of respondents (41.3% of females and 36.7% of males) smoked cigarettes. The percentage of former smokers amounted to 15.3% and the percentage of non-smokers was higher than regular smokers and amounted to 44.8%. The study results showed that the majority of smokers were in the age interval of 45 to 49. Cigarette smoking influenced on smokers' health. The blood pressure and lipid balance was higher among smokers than among people who did not smoke cigarettes. The results of the conducted study confirm that there is a strong need of implementation of programmes towards limiting tobacco smoking, which may contribute to lowering the risk of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:19189562

  20. Insights from heavy minerals and zircon U-Pb ages into the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution of the Yinggehai Basin, northwestern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Licheng; Xie, Xinong; Wang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xushen; Zhang, Yingzhao; Zhang, Daojun; Sun, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The well-preserved Cenozoic sedimentary record in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea, is suitable to explore the tectonic and climatic evolution of SE Asia. Red River, a large-scale fluvial system in this region, was previously regarded as the major sediment source for the basin. Here we combine heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb dating to shed new light on the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution at a basin scale. The results clearly reveal potential source areas additional to the Red River. Sediments have been delivered to the proximal areas from Hainan Island, as indicated by the high zircon content and the Yanshanian U-Pb ages in the southern segment of the Yingdong Slope. A provenance from Central Vietnam is explicitly discerned in the upper Miocene of the Central Depression, where sediments are characterized by few metamorphic heavy minerals and the U-Pb age pattern peaking at around 250 Ma and 440 Ma. Coeval large-scale relative sea-level fall and rapid exhumation along the Vietnamese margin together may have facilitated this long-distance sediment transport. Provenance of sediments from the Red River seems to change over time. Song Lo River, on the north side of the main stream, probably flowed from the NE and carried Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic zircons to the Yinggehai Basin during the middle Miocene. Since the late Miocene, rocks along the Red River Fault Zone have become the dominant source. Subsequently, widespread metamorphic minerals in the Central Depression of the Yinggehai Basin, combined with the strong river incision and high offshore sedimentation rates, indicate an increased sediment supply from the Red River in the Pliocene.

  1. Post-Stroke Infections Exacerbate Ischemic Brain Injury in Middle-Aged Rats: Immunomodulation and Neuroprotection by Progesterone

    OpenAIRE

    Yousuf, Seema; Atif, Fahim; Sayeed, Iqbal; Wang, Jun; Stein, Donald G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of delayed, prolonged systemic inflammation on stroke outcomes and progesterone (P4) neuroprotection in middle-aged rats. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO) surgery, rats received P4 (8 or 16 mg/kg) or vehicle injections at 2h, 6h and every 24h until day 7 post-occlusion. At 24h post-injury systemic inflammation was induced by giving 3 doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 mg/kg, at 4h intervals) to model post-stroke infections. We me...

  2. Oxidative stress, aging, and central nervous system disease in the canine model of human brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Elizabeth; Rofina, Jaime; Zicker, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Decline in cognitive functions that accompany aging in dogs may have a biologic basis, and many of the disorders associated with aging in dogs may be mitigated through dietary modifications that incorporate specific nutraceuticals. Based on previous research and the results of laboratory and clinical studies, antioxidants may be one class of nutraceutical that provides benefits to aged dogs. Brains of aged dogs accumulate oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, which may lead to dysfunction of neuronal cells. The production of free radicals and lack of increase in compensatory antioxidant enzymes may lead to detrimental modifications to important macromolecules within neurons. Reducing oxidative damage through food ingredients rich in a broad spectrum of antioxidants significantly improves, or slows the decline of, learning and memory in aged dogs.

  3. Cognitive function and brain structure after recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries in young-to-middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eList

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs are regarded as an independent risk factor for developing dementia in later life. We here aimed to evaluate associations between recurrent mTBIs, cognition, and grey matter volume and microstructure as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the chronic phase after mTBIs in young adulthood. We enrolled 20 young-to-middle-aged subjects, who reported two or more sports-related mTBIs, with the last mTBI>6 months prior to study enrolment (mTBI group, and 21 age-, sex- and education matched controls with no history of mTBI (control group. All participants received comprehensive neuropsychological testing, and high resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI in order to assess cortical thickness (CT and microstructure, hippocampal volume, and ventricle size. Compared to the control group, subjects of the mTBI group presented with lower CT within the right temporal lobe and left insula using an a priori region of interest approach. Higher number of mTBIs was associated with lower CT in bilateral insula, right middle temporal gyrus and right entorhinal area. Our results suggest persistent detrimental effects of recurrent mTBIs on CT already in young-to-middle-aged adults. If additional structural deterioration occurs during aging, subtle neuropsychological decline may progress to clinically overt dementia earlier than in age-matched controls, a hypothesis to be assessed in future prospective trials.

  4. Cognitive function and brain structure after recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries in young-to-middle-aged adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Jonathan; Ott, Stefanie; Bukowski, Martin; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are regarded as an independent risk factor for developing dementia in later life. We here aimed to evaluate associations between recurrent mTBIs, cognition, and gray matter volume and microstructure as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase after mTBIs in young adulthood. We enrolled 20 young-to-middle-aged subjects, who reported two or more sports-related mTBIs, with the last mTBI > 6 months prior to study enrolment (mTBI group), and 21 age-, sex- and education matched controls with no history of mTBI (control group). All participants received comprehensive neuropsychological testing, and high resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI in order to assess cortical thickness (CT) and microstructure, hippocampal volume, and ventricle size. Compared to the control group, subjects of the mTBI group presented with lower CT within the right temporal lobe and left insula using an a priori region of interest approach. Higher number of mTBIs was associated with lower CT in bilateral insula, right middle temporal gyrus and right entorhinal area. Our results suggest persistent detrimental effects of recurrent mTBIs on CT already in young-to-middle-aged adults. If additional structural deterioration occurs during aging, subtle neuropsychological decline may progress to clinically overt dementia earlier than in age-matched controls, a hypothesis to be assessed in future prospective trials. PMID:26052275

  5. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  6. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  7. Third-molar development in relation to chronologic age in young adults of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuming; Mao, Jing; Zhu, Shengrong; Wei, Wei

    2008-08-01

    The estimation of chronologic age based on the stages of third-molar development was evaluated by using the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian and the third-molar development was compared, in terms of sex and age, with results of previous studies. The samples consisted of 291 orthopantomograms from young Chinese subjects of known chronologic age and sex (including 139 males with a mean age of 14.67+/-3.62 y and 152 females with a mean age of 14.85+/-3.70 y). Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Mann-Whitney U-test and the t-test. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain regression formulas for calculating dental age from the chronologic age. Our results showed statistically significant differences (Pthird-molar development between males and females, at the calcification stages D, E and H. And a strong correlation was found between age and third-molar development in both males (r (2)=0.65) and females (r (2)=0.61). New equations (Age=8.76+1.32 Development stage) for estimating chronologic age were derived. It is concluded that third-molar genesis took place earlier in males than in females. The use of third molars as a developmental marker is appropriate in young adults of Central China. The formula obtained in the present study can be used as a guide for estimation of dental maturity and a standard for age estimation for young adults of Central China.

  8. Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai CL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chung-Liang Lai,1,2 Han-Yu Chen,3 Shiuan-Yu Tseng,1,2 Wan-Chun Liao,2 Bing-Tang Liu,2 Meng-Chih Lee,1,4,* Hsin-Shui Chen5,6,* 1Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Physical Therapy, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Family Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan; 6School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods: A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results: After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side, but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups

  9. Comparison of clinical characteristics of new onset ulcerative colitis in the elderly versus the youth and middle-aged patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the differences in the clinical characteristics,endoscopy,pathology and therapy between the patients with new onset ulcerative colitis(UC)in the elderly versus youth and middle-aged patients.Methods A review analysis was carried out in the 178hospitalized patients with UC in Third Hospital of Peking University from 1994 to 2010.The patients were divided into two groups according to the age of onset:UC onset at age of 60 years and older were enrolled in elderly

  10. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kantyka Joanna; Herman Damian; Roczniok Robert; Kuba Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg) that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165...

  11. Stellar Ages and Metallicities of Central and Satellite Galaxies: Implications for Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Anna; Fontanot, Fabio; Bosch, Frank C van den; De Lucia, Gabriella; Mo, H J; Yang, Xiaohu

    2009-01-01

    Using a large SDSS galaxy group catalogue, we study how the stellar ages and metallicities of central and satellite galaxies depend on stellar mass and halo mass. We find that satellites are older and metal-richer than centrals of the same stellar mass. In addition, the slopes of the age-stellar mass and metallicity-stellar mass relations are found to become shallower in denser environments. This is due to the fact that the average age and metallicity of low mass satellite galaxies increase with the mass of the halo in which they reside. A comparison with the semi-analytical model of Wang et al. (2008) shows that it succesfully reproduces the fact that satellites are older than centrals of the same stellar mass and that the age difference increases with the halo mass of the satellite. This is a consequence of strangulation, which leaves the stellar populations of satellites to evolve passively, while the prolonged star formation activity of centrals keeps their average ages younger. The resulting age offset i...

  12. Immunosenescence of microglia and macrophages: impact on the ageing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawji, Khalil S; Mishra, Manoj K; Michaels, Nathan J; Rivest, Serge; Stys, Peter K; Yong, V Wee

    2016-03-01

    Ageing of the central nervous system results in a loss of both grey and white matter, leading to cognitive decline. Additional injury to both the grey and white matter is documented in many neurological disorders with ageing, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Accompanying neuronal and glial damage is an inflammatory response consisting of activated macrophages and microglia, innate immune cells demonstrated to be both beneficial and detrimental in neurological repair. This article will propose the following: (i) infiltrating macrophages age differently from central nervous system-intrinsic microglia; (ii) several mechanisms underlie the differential ageing process of these two distinct cell types; and (iii) therapeutic strategies that selectively target these diverse mechanisms may rejuvenate macrophages and microglia for repair in the ageing central nervous system. Most responses of macrophages are diminished with senescence, but activated microglia increase their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while diminishing chemotactic and phagocytic activities. The senescence of macrophages and microglia has a negative impact on several neurological diseases, and the mechanisms underlying their age-dependent phenotypic changes vary from extrinsic microenvironmental changes to intrinsic changes in genomic integrity. We discuss the negative effects of age on neurological diseases, examine the response of senescent macrophages and microglia in these conditions, and propose a theoretical framework of therapeutic strategies that target the different mechanisms contributing to the ageing phenotype in these two distinct cell types. Rejuvenation of ageing macrophage/microglia may preserve neurological integrity and promote regeneration in the ageing central nervous system.

  13. Environmental changes and human settlement in the central Marches (Italy during the early-middle Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Calderoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Early Holocene, the central Marches (Italy underwent a widespread development of forest cover and soils which drastically reduced slope degradation and related aggradation processes in riverbeds. In such conditions, streams deeply incised the previous alluvial sediments. In the Apennine sectors, linear erosion was locally prevented by the growth of travertine dams in correspondence with river channel knickpoints and waterfalls. Fluvial deposition prevailed in the peri-Adriatic hilly belt, where river valleys still extended from the present coastline to the uprising Adriatic Sea, as testified by a 50-m-deep cored log, drilled near the Potenza River mouth. Several archaeological sites, ranging from the Mesolithic to the Aeneolithic, testify the recurrent presence of small-scale human groups on the alluvial plains of the lower valley sectors. Sandy-clayey sediments, emplaced by flooding episodes, repeatedly buried these settlements which were commonly located on the riversides. Small Aeneolithic communities were also present in the mountain sectors, around travertine-dammed swampy-lacustrine basins. On top of the sequences, Bronze Age sites were locally found. Widespread deforestation started in the early Iron Age (about 3000 yr BP, when alluvial plains and terraces were permanently occupied by large-scale human settlements. Geo-archaeological evidence of systematic deforestation at 2950 ± 50 14C yr BP, consisting of numerous round-shaped 1.5-3 m wide hollows, filled with soil sediments and upturned blocks of alluvial gravels, were found on top of a fluvial terrace in the Esino River basin. From the Iron Age to recent historical times, notwithstanding the progressive increase of debris supply to the drainage systems due to the spreading agricultural-pastoral activities, erosion dominated almost everywhere in the Marches rivers, likely induced by climatic factors.À l’Holocène inférieur, comme ailleurs dans le monde, les Marches

  14. OSL ages in central Norway support a MIS 2 interstadial (25-20 ka) and a dynamic Scandinavian ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Timothy F.; Olsen, Lars; Murray, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Recent work has suggested that the Scandinavian ice sheet was much more dynamic than previously believed, and its western marine-based margin can provide an analogue to the rapid-paced fluctuations and deglaciation observed at the margins of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. In this study we used a complimentary dating technique, OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating), to support the existence of the Trofors interstadial in central Norway; an ice-free period that existed from ˜25 to 20 ka recorded at multiple sites throughout Norway (cf. Andøya interstadial) and that divides the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) into two stadials. OSL signal component analysis was used to optimize data analysis, and internal (methodological) tests show the results to be of good quality. Both large and small aliquots gave consistent OSL ages (22.3 ± 1.7 ka, n = 7) for sub-till glaciofluvial/fluvial sediments at the Langsmoen stratigraphic site, and an apparent old age (˜100 ka) for a poorly-bleached sample of glaciolacustrine sediment at the nearby stratigraphically-related Flora site. Eight radiocarbon ages of sediment from the Flora site gave consistent ages (20.9 ± 1.6 cal ka BP) that overlap within 1σ with OSL ages from the nearby Langsmoen site. The similarity in age within and between these stratigraphically-related sites and using different geochronological techniques strongly suggests that this area was ice-free around ˜21 or 22 ka. The existence of the Trofors interstadial along with other interstadials during the Middle and Late Weichselian (MIS 3 and MIS 2) indicates that not only the western margin, but the whole western part of the Scandinavian ice sheet, from the ice divide to the ice margin was very dynamic. These large changes in the ice margin and accompanying drawdown of the ice surface would have affected the eastern part of the ice sheet as well.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010.

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    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010.Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50-59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox's discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors.Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time.Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions.

  16. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

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    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  17. Determination of radionuclides in samples of middle-aged and older human femurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the studies of the presence of gamma isotopes and 90Sr in 19 middle-to old-aged human femur samples. The samples were taken up during routine orthopedic operations in 2012. The aim of the paper was determination of some radionuclides in human bones and estimation of radiation dose created by 90Sr and 90Y (in bones). The 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra, 228Th, 234Th and 210Pb isotopes were determined by gamma spectrometry. The above mentioned radionuclide contents were in the ranges: 137Cs (0.04–1.45); 40K (13–86); 226Ra (1–21.5); 228Th (1.4–40.2); 234Th (0.4–5.7); 210Pb (0.7–8.4) Bq/kg d.w. 90Sr was assayed based on radiometric measurement of ingrown 90Y. The 90Sr content was in the range 0.27–1.85 Bq/kg d.w. Measurements of concentration of 90Sr and 90Y in bones were used to estimation of health risk by calculation of radiation dose. Adsorbed doses ranged from 2.7· 10−7 to 1.9 · 10−6 Gy/y for 90Sr and from 1.2 · 10−6 to 8.3 · 10−7 Gy/y for 90Y. - Highlights: • The paper presents the studies of the presence of gamma isotopes and 90Sr in 19 human femur samples. • The 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra, 228Th, 234Th, 210Pb. isotopes were determined by the gamma spectrometry method. • The 90Sr content was determined by LSC method

  18. Footprints of middle ages kingdoms are still visible in the contemporary surname structure of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Manni, Franz; Blanco-Villegas, María José

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century), and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day) on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia), and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León). Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón) during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista) of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface. PMID:25849152

  19. X-ray Observations of Parsec-Scale Tails behind Two Middle-Aged Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, O; Pavlov, G G; Wong, J A; Garmire, G P

    2008-01-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton resolved extremely long tails behind two middle-aged pulsars, J1509-5850 and J1740+1000. The tail of PSR J1509-5850 is discernible up to 5.6' from the pulsar (6.5 pc at a distance of 4 kpc), with a flux of 2*10^{-13} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} in 0.5-8 keV. The tail spectrum fits an absorbed power-law (PL) model with the photon index of 2.3\\pm0.2, corresponding to the 0.5-8 keV luminosity of 1*10^{33} ergs s^{-1}, for n_H= 2.1*10^{22} cm^{-2}. The tail of PSR J1740+1000 is firmly detected up to 5' (2 pc at a 1.4 kpc distance), with a flux of 6*10^{-14} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} in 0.4-10 keV. The PL fit yields photon index of 1.4-1.5 and n_H=1*10^{21} cm^{-2}. The large extent of the tails suggests that the bulk flow in the tails starts as mildly relativistic downstream of the termination shock, and then gradually decelerates. Within the observed extent of the J1509-5850 tail, the average flow speed exceeds 5,000 km s^{-1}, and the equipartition magnetic field is a few times 10^{-5} G. For the J1740+...

  20. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A

    2015-05-01

    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem. PMID:25805041

  1. Footprints of middle ages kingdoms are still visible in the contemporary surname structure of Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rodríguez-Díaz

    Full Text Available To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century, and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia, and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León. Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface.

  2. The relationship between lifetime health trajectories and socioeconomic attainment in middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohoon; Jackson, Margot

    2015-11-01

    A large literature demonstrates the direct and indirect influence of health on socioeconomic attainment, and reveals the ways in which health and socioeconomic background simultaneously and dynamically affect opportunities for attainment and mobility. Despite an increasing understanding of the effects of health on social processes, research to date remains limited in its conceptualization and measurement of the temporal dimensions of health, especially in the presence of socioeconomic circumstances that covary with health over time. Guided by life course theory, we use data from the British National Child Development Study, an ongoing panel study of a cohort born in 1958, to examine the association between lifetime health trajectories and socioeconomic attainment in middle age. We apply finite mixture modeling to identify distinct trajectories of health that simultaneously account for timing, duration and stability. Moreover, we employ propensity score weighting models to account for the presence of time-varying socioeconomic factors in estimating the impact of health trajectories. We find that, when poor health is limited to the childhood years, the disadvantage in socioeconomic attainment relative to being continuously healthy is either insignificant or largely explained by time-varying socioeconomic confounders. The socioeconomic impact of continuously deteriorating health over the life course is more persistent, however. Our results suggest that accounting for the timing, duration and stability of poor health throughout both childhood and adulthood is important for understanding how health works to produce social stratification. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between confounding and mediating effects of time-varying socioeconomic circumstances. PMID:26463537

  3. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eGärtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using Deformation Field Morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed.Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout

  4. Nomadic pastoralism in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans evaluation of background knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porčić Marko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine background knowledge about the orga­nizational properties of mobile pastoral groups in order to assess the likelihood of the existence of pastoral nomads in the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans. The patterning found by A. L. Johnson (2002 is taken as a point of departure for the cross-cultural analysis conducted in this study. Johnson’s findings are in the main corroborated. Acquired knowledge about the workings of pastoral societies suggests that highly mobile pastoral groups should not be expected in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans.

  5. Central nervous system medications and falls risk in men aged 60-75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, Tahir; Frost, Morten; Ryg, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years.......Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years....

  6. Environmental changes and human settlement in the central Marches (Italy) during the early-middle Holocene

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Calderoni; Giuseppe Cilla; Francesco Dramis; Cecilia Gobbi

    2007-01-01

    In the Early Holocene, the central Marches (Italy) underwent a widespread development of forest cover and soils which drastically reduced slope degradation and related aggradation processes in riverbeds. In such conditions, streams deeply incised the previous alluvial sediments. In the Apennine sectors, linear erosion was locally prevented by the growth of travertine dams in correspondence with river channel knickpoints and waterfalls. Fluvial deposition prevailed in the peri-Adriatic hilly b...

  7. Hormonal and metabolic response in middle-aged women to moderate physical effort during aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmas, Małgorzata; Opaszowski, Benedykt H; Charmas, Robert; Rózańska, Dorota; Jówko, Ewa; Sadowski, Jerzy; Dorofeyeva, Lena

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the metabolic and hormone response in middle-aged women to acute physical aerobic exercise accompanied by music, the so-called "aerobics." The experiment (single 60-minute aerobics session) included 11 women aged between 30 and 50. The following variables were determined in blood samples collected from the participants four times (in fasting state [I], before exercise [II], after exercise [III], and after 12 hours of rest [IV]): concentration of lactic acid, glucose, free fatty acids, leptin, insulin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, the measurements included body mass before and after the exercise, and body temperature was taken in the auditory canal and on the forehead. The heart rate was registered during the exercise on a continuous basis. In all cases, the heart rate did not reach its maximum level, and on average, it amounted to approximately 70% of the maximum pulse rate. Therefore, this effort can be considered as submaximal. In all cases, we observed loss of body mass (from 0.2 to 0.7 kg) (p > 0.02) increase in the temperature measured on forehead. Significantly, accompanied by nonsignificant increase in the temperature measured on the tympanic membrane was registered. Single loading gives rise to change in hormone and metabolic profiles. Furthermore, a decrease in blood concentration of glucose before and after aerobics (p > 0.001) could be observed, and if the determination taken at measurement IV of glucose in blood is taken into consideration, then the value taken in measurement I is significantly the highest in relation to other measurements. Concentration of free fatty acids were increased (p > 0.002) after exercise and remained on the same level until the following day. The levels of insulin were significantly decreased, but growth hormone levels were increased. The exercise had no impact on testosterone concentration, whereas average blood concentration of leptin in the successive

  8. Description of piezometers installed in the middle Rio Grande basin area, 1997-99, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, J.R.; Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1993, the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of how ground- water levels are changing over time. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer, installed nine piezometers during 1998-99 at five sites in and near the margin of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. In addition, the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer installed another nine piezometers at three sites during 1997. These piezometers allow for collection of ground-water-level data in areas for which little information is available. Most of the piezometers were constructed of 2.5-inch-diameter flush-joint polyvinyl chloride (PVC) schedule 80 casing with 10-foot stainless steel screens; the shallow piezometer at the Tome site has a 40-foot screen, and the single piezometers at the Dome Road and Phoenix Road sites have steel casing with welded joints and a 10- and a 20-foot screen, respectively. Steel casing with a locking lid covers the uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing. Drillers' logs and petrophysical logs were collected from the deepest borehole at each site.

  9. Association of Metabolic Dysregulation With Volumetric Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cognitive Markers of Subclinical Brain Aging in Middle-Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Beiser, Alexa S; Au, Rhoda; Himali, Jayandra J.; Debette, Stephanie; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Seshadri, Sudha; Tan, Zaldy S.; Fox, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic and prediabtic states, including insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia, are associated with metabolic dysregulation. These components have been individually linked to increased risks of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to comprehensively relate all of the components of metabolic dysregulation to cognitive function and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in middle-aged adults. Research Design and Methods: Framingham Offspring ...

  10. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship. METHODS: A cohort...... of 11 532 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1953-7906, 10 246 and 2483 participants-had completed assessments of cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, respectively. Linear regression was used to investigate the association of early-life characteristics with cognitive test scores at these...... ages and with score changes from early to mid-adulthood. RESULTS: The cognitive scores at age 57 years had high correlations with scores at ages 12 (r = 0.67) and 18 years (r = 0.70), and these two scores also showed bivariate correlation (r = 0.69). Having a father from the working class at birth was...

  11. Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative...... of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network...... broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs...

  12. Study on Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes in Middle andAged Women with Kidney Deficiency and Bone Metabolic Disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some researches have found out, in recent years, there usually exist calcium negative equilibrium and urinary calcium elevation in diabetes mellitus due to glucose metabolic disturbance.(1,2) On the other hand, sex hormone reduction is apparently concerned with Kidney deficiency, with worsened bone mineral substance loss resulting from Kidney Deficiency that resulted in postmenopausal osteoporosis.(3,4)  Diabetes in middle aged and elderly comes on when the women patients are in the menopausal or postmenopausal state, so the deterioration of the ovary endocrine function and the reduction of the serum estradiol level will become more remarkable, and Kidney Deficiency as well as calcium negative equilibrium will also become more obvious. For this reason, a study has been conducted on the treatment effect of combining medicinal herbs and glibenclamide in middle aged and elderly female diabetic patients.

  13. Survey of the Hypertention Suffered by the Middle-aged from Suburban Areas and Its Related Pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyang Li; Fen Jiang; Yanping Wang

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the related pathogenic factors of hypertension affecting the middle-aged in suburban areas in Mudanjiang City and further popularize health education with regard to hypertension.Methods A survey was conducted on 858 middle-aged people of 35 to 59 years old from such suburban areas as Jinglong village,Bada village and Fengshou village by adopting the hypertensive definition and classifying standard of an WHO/ISH hypertensive treatment guidance in 1999.Results Positive correlation was shown between occurrence of hypertension and such elements as diet in excess salt,drinking,obesity,smoking.Conclusions It is of great clinical significance to combat and prevent the hypertension by regulating one's diet and life style.

  14. Rapid middle Miocene collapse of the Mesozoic orogenic plateau in north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    The modern Sierra Nevada and Great Basin were likely the site of a high-elevation orogenic plateau well into Cenozoic time, supported by crust thickened during Mesozoic shortening. Although crustal thickening at this scale can lead to extension, the relationship between Mesozoic shortening and subsequent formation of the Basin and Range is difficult to unravel because it is unclear which of the many documented or interpreted extensional episodes was the most significant for net widening and crustal thinning. To address this problem, we integrate geologic and geochronologic data that bear on the timing and magnitude of Cenozoic extension along an ???200km east-west transect south of Winnemucca, Battle Mountain, and Elko, Nevada. Pre-Cenozoic rocks in this region record east-west Palaeozoic and Mesozoic compression that continued into the Cretaceous. Little to no tectonism and no deposition followed until intense magmatism began in the Eocene. Eocene and Oligocene ash-flow tuffs flowed as much as 200km down palaeovalleys cut as deeply as 1.5km into underlying Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks in a low-relief landscape. Eocene sedimentation was otherwise limited to shallow lacustrine basins in the Elko area; extensive, thick clastic deposits are absent. Minor surface extension related to magmatism locally accompanied intense Eocene magmatism, but external drainage and little or no surface deformation apparently persisted regionally until about 16-17Ma. Major upper crustal extension began across the region ca. 16-17Ma, as determined by cross-cutting relationships, low-temperature thermochronology, and widespread deposition of clastic basin fill. Middle Miocene extension was partitioned into high-strain (50-100%) domains separated by largely unextended crustal blocks, and ended by 10-12Ma. Bimodal volcanic rocks that erupted during middle Miocene extension are present across most of the study area, but are volumetrically minor outside the northern Nevada rift. The modern

  15. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis. PMID:26318578

  16. Effects of a low-volume, vigorous intensity step exercise program on functional mobility in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-08-01

    Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility. PMID:23568151

  17. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; Randall F. D’Souza; Eric B. Thorstensen; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D; David Cameron-Smith

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biops...

  18. THE COMPARISON OF THE BODY IMAGE BETWEEN YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN AND MIDDLE AGE PARTICIPANTS IN AEROBICS SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Kiaei; Jafar Noori Biglouei; Maasoumeh Shojaei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research had been the comparison of the body image between young menand women and middle age participants in aerobics sports. The statistical population of thisinvestigation was composed of participants doing aerobics sports in the parks around the Alborzprovince. Among these amounts of participants; eighty athletes were chosen randomly. Theresearch tools; were included the self physical description questionnaire (3 subscales of bodyfat; whole body; appearance; figure) and...

  19. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    James Dollman; Melissa Hull; Nicole Lewis; Suzanne Carroll; Dorota Zarnowiecki

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant pr...

  20. Astronomy, Geodesy and Map-Drawing in Moldova Since the Middle Ages Till the World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, A.

    A short outline of the history of astronomy, astronomical navigation, geodesy and map-drawing in Moldova since the Middle Ages till the World War I is presented. The contribution of Rudjer Bošković to the determination of geographical coordinates of Galati and Iasi and the triangulation of Montenegro in 1879-1880 by Russian military geodesists has been discussed as well.

  1. The impact of a diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and aerobic exercise on memory of middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Gai, Rafaela M; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-08-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and has received attention for its role as a nutrient. The combination of exercise and nutrients has been proposed to promote health. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and swimming exercise on memory of middle-aged rats. Male Wistar rats (12months) received standard diet chow supplemented with 1ppm of (PhSe)2 for 4weeks. Rats were submitted to swimming training (20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, memory was evaluated in the object recognition test (ORT) and in the object location test (OLT). The hippocampal levels of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) were determined. The results of the present study demonstrated that the association of (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise improved short-term memory, long-term memory and spatial learning, and this effect was not related to the increase in hippocampal p-CREB levels in middle-age rats. This study also revealed that middle-aged rats in the swimming exercise group had the best performance in short- and long-term memory. In conclusion, we demonstrated that swimming exercise, (PhSe)2-supplemented diet or the association of these factors improved learning and memory functioning. The hippocampal levels of CREB were not directly related to the benefits of swimming exercise and (PhSe)2-supplemented diet association in memory of middle-aged rats.

  2. Does Age of Onset of Risk Behaviors Mediate the Relationship between Child Abuse and Neglect and Outcomes in Middle Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Horan, Jacqueline M.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors—sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior—mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female;...

  3. Large increase in arthroscopic meniscus surgery in the middle-aged and older population in Denmark from 2000 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas B; Hare, Kristoffer B; Lohmander, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background - Arthroscopic meniscal surgery is the most common orthopedic procedure, and the incidence has increased in Denmark over the last 10 years. Concomitantly, several randomized controlled trials have shown no benefit of arthroscopic procedures including arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in...... and 2011. Interpretation - The incidence of meniscal procedures performed in Denmark doubled from 2000 to 2011, with the largest increase in middle-aged and older patients. This increase contrasts with the mounting evidence showing no added benefit of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy over non...

  4. Lycopene from two food sources does not affect antioxidant or cholesterol status of middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    RA, Baker; Perkins-Veazie P; Claypool PL; Arjmandi BH; Collins JK; Clevidence BA

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have reported associations between reduced cardiovascular disease and diets rich in tomato and/or lycopene. Intervention studies have shown that lycopene-containing foods may reduce cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, factors implicated in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of lycopene rich foods conferred cardiovascular protection to middle-aged adults as indicated by pl...

  5. Cerebral White Matter Integrity and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Middle-aged Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogenboom, Wouter S.; Marder, Thomas J.; Flores, Veronica L.; Huisman, Susanne; Eaton, Hana P.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Bolo, Nicolas R.; Simonson, Donald C.; Jacobson, Alan M.; Kubicki, Marek; Martha E. Shenton; Musen, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of brain abnormalities at the preclinical stage can be useful for developing preventive interventions to abate cognitive decline. We examined whether middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients show reduced white matter integrity in fiber tracts important for cognition and whether this abnormality is related to preestablished altered resting-state functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN). Diabetic and nondiabetic participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging, funct...

  6. Study of changes in Flow Volume curves in obese middle-aged individuals with obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    C. Anithu; C.P. Ganashree; Rajalakshmi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of obesity on Flow Volume curves of middle aged individuals with obstructive pulmonary disease. Background: Obesity and obstructive pulmonary disease quite often co-exist in the same individual seeking treatment for respiratory illness. Not many studies have been done about the impact of obesity on dynamic respiratory mechanics in patients with obstructive lung disease in South India. Materials & Methods: This is a retrospective cross sectional study where data ...

  7. Great and small trade in the crown of aragon. The example of valencie in the late middle ages

    OpenAIRE

    Igual Luis, David

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the historiographic debate about the relations between great and small trade during the later Middle Ages. It does so emphasising the social and economic role of the small trade, and the elements of integration and coordination between both categories of market. With this aim, the text takes the Crown of Aragon as its reference framework, especially the city and kingdom of Valencia, between the 13th and 15th centuries. Two types of maritime exchanges around the t...

  8. The Analysis to the Influence of the Mass Athletic Dance on the Middle and old aged Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangYueYueChunfang; AthleticDepartment

    2005-01-01

    The article gives the analysis to the mass athletic dances and its influence on the health of the middle and old-aged people. The research shows, through contrasting, observing and physiologically analyzing, that there is an improvement in lowering people's blood viscosity and increasing fats catabolism, raising the serum level as well as lowering the serum density, if these people take part in the mass athletic dances regularly for a long time.

  9. The obesity epidemic slows among the middle-aged population in Sweden while the socioeconomic gap widens

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Margareta; Lindvall, Kristina; Stenlund, Hans; Lindahl, Bernt

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence has continuously increased in Northern Sweden as elsewhere. A cohort effect has been shown and an increasing proportion of the middle-aged population is maintaining body weight. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the obesity epidemic continues but at different speeds that are dependent on socioeconomic status. Design: Cross-sectional (103,940 adults) and longitudinal (26,872 adults) data from the Va¨sterbotten Intervention Program 1990-2007 were included...

  10. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlyn Teri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment. • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However

  11. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety: speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M.; Boele, M.J.; Vlakveld, W.P.; Christoph, M.; Sikkema, R.; Remij, R.; Schwab, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  12. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing.

  13. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  14. Risk indicators of coronal and root caries in Greek middle aged adults and senior citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamai-Homata Eleni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay of multiple determinants which may change overtime. Therefore, periodic surveys of caries experience and redetermination of the risk indicators of the disease are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of coronal and root caries in Greeks aged 35-44 and 65-74-year-old in relation to socio-demographic parameters. Furthermore, trends in coronal caries experience of the 35-44-year-olds were investigated. Methods A sample of 1188 35-44-year-old and 1093 65-74-year-old individuals was selected in 2005 according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys. Caries was assessed in dentate subjects using the DMFT, DMFS, RDFS and RCI indices. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the effect of socio-demographic parameters. Results The mean DMFT and DMFS scores of the adults were 14.06 and 45.78 respectively, while those of the senior citizens were 20.63 and 89.82. Among the 35-44-year-ods, men and those having a higher educational attainment had significantly lower DMFS values (women OR = 1.679, CI: 1.243-2.267 and >12 years of education OR = 0.321, CI: 0.193-0.535 respectively, while educational level was the only predictor of DMFS in senior citizens (OR = 0.279, CI: 0.079-0.992. The mean DMFT score of the 35-44-year-olds has not improved since 1985, but there was a remarkable reduction in the number of DT related to a simultaneous increase in the number of FT. The mean RDFS rose from 0.39 in adults to 2.66 in senior citizens. The mean RDFS score of the middle aged adults was significantly correlated with education (OR = 0.346, CI: 0.180-0.664. The RCI was almost four times greater in seniors (9.73 than in adults (2.53. There were significant differences in caries experience between the surveyed regions. MS and RDS were the major components of the

  15. The effects of buthionine sulfoximine treatment on diaphragm contractility and SERCA pump function in adult and middle aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ian C; Vigna, Chris; Levy, Andrew S; Steven G Denniss; Rush, James W E; Tupling, A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 10 days of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment on in vitro contractility and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) expression and function in adult (AD; 6–8 months old) and middle aged (MA; 14–17 months old) rat diaphragm in both the basal state and following fatiguing stimulation. BSO treatment reduced the cellular concentrations of free glutathione (GSH) by >95% and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by >80% in both age cohorts. GSH content in AD Control...

  16. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantyka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165.00 ± 3.91 cm, weight 70.01 ± 11.36 kg not involved in any kind of targeted exercise. The aqua aerobics classes were tailored to suit the age and abilities of the participants, with workout intensity controlled and maintained at approximately 128-137 bpm. Results. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found for body weight, total body water, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. A significant increase in post-intervention hemoglobin and erythrocyte counts was observed in the experimental group. Conclusions. Future studies should determine the intensity of physical activity with the most beneficial effect on blood variables in middle-aged and older individuals.

  17. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (pwork ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  18. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pedersen

    Full Text Available AIMS: Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 40 to 65 year-old patients with type 2 diabetes and limited co morbidity (N = 56, age-matched individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (N = 56 as well as age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (N = 72. Specific cognitive functions were assessed with focus on verbal memory, processing speed, executive functions, and a composite overall mean score. Oral glucose tolerance test, VO(2max test, systemic inflammation, DXA scanning and abdominal MRI were measured. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender and verbal intelligence demonstrated that a low score in processing speed, executive functions and overall cognitive function were related to high fasting C-peptide, as well as low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and VO(2max. Measurements of blood glucose, obesity and inflammation were not associated with cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Low cognitive scores are seen in middle aged individuals with hyperinsulinemia, low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and low aerobic capacity. These findings emphasize the importance of appropriate lifestyle and not only blood glucose control in prevention of cognitive disability.

  19. Systemic inflammation in young adults is associated with abnormal lung function in middle age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kalhan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is associated with reduced lung function in both healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Whether systemic inflammation in healthy young adults is associated with future impairment in lung health is uncertain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the association between plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP in young adults and lung function in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort study. Higher year 7 fibrinogen was associated with greater loss of forced vital capacity (FVC between years 5 and 20 (439 mL in quartile 4 vs. 398 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001 and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1 (487 mL in quartile 4 vs. 446 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001 independent of cigarette smoking, body habitus, baseline lung function and demographic factors. Higher year 7 CRP was also associated with both greater loss of FVC (455 mL in quartile 4 vs. 390 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001 and FEV(1 (491 mL in quartile 4 vs. 442 mL in quartile 1, P = 0.001. Higher year 7 fibrinogen and CRP were associated with abnormal FVC at year 20 (odds ratio (OR per standard deviation 1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.30-1.75 for fibrinogen and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.14-1.59 for CRP. Higher year 5 fibrinogen was additionally associated with abnormal FEV(1. A positive interaction was observed between pack-years cigarette smoking and year 7 CRP for the COPD endpoint, and among participants with greater than 10 pack-years of cigarette exposure, year 7 CRP was associated with greater odds of COPD at year 20 (OR per standard deviation 1.53 (95% CI: 1.08-2.16. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Systemic inflammation in young adults is associated with abnormal lung function in middle age. In particular, elevated CRP may identify vulnerability to COPD among individuals who smoke. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00005130.

  20. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las