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Sample records for central mexico metallogenic

  1. Epigenetic Mineralisation in Central Namibia: a metallogenic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epigenetic gold, rare earth, tungsten and tin mineralisation has been investigated as part of a regional metallogenic study in the Omaruru -Usakos area, Central Namibia. The study has focused on the Nosib and Swakop Group metasediments, Damaran intrusions and associated alteration and mineralisation in the Northern Central Zone of the Damara Orogen. 1 fig., 1 ref

  2. Transitional adakite-like to calc-alkaline magmas in a continental extensional setting at La Paz Au-Cu skarn deposits, Mesa Central, Mexico: metallogenic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Porfirio J. Pinto Linares; Gilles Levresse; Jordi Tritlla; Víctor A. Valencia; José M. Torres Aguilera; Manuel González; David Estrada

    2008-01-01

    The granodiorite intrusions with associated Cu-Au skarn mineralization of La Paz district are located in the east part of the Mesa Central of Mexico. The skarn developed at the contact between a middle Cretaceous calc-argillaceous sedimentary sequence and the magmatic intrusions. A Ag-Pb-Zn vein system postdates the intrusive-skarn assemblage. Two well defined fault systems (N-S and E-W) divide the La Paz district. The N-S Dolores fault, with a normal vertical displacement estimated between 5...

  3. ALPINE MAGMATIC-METALLOGENIC FORMATIONS OF THE NORTHWESTERN AND CENTRAL DINARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Pamić

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented basic geological, petrologieca1, geochemi-cal and mineral deposit data for five main magmatic-metallogenic formations of the northwestern and central Dinarides: (lThe Permo Triassic rifting related andesite-diorite formations; (2 The Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous accretionary (ophiolite formations; (3 The Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene subduction related basalt-rhyohite formations; (4 The Paleogene collisional granite formations, and (5 The Oligo-cene-Neogene postsubduction andesite formations. All these magmatic-metallogenic formations originated in different geotectonic settings during the Alpine evolution of the Dinaridic parts of thc Tethys and the postorogenic evolution of the Paratethys and the Pannonian Basin, respectively.

  4. Urban Governance and Participation in Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Guarneros-Meza

    2007-01-01

    Valeria Guarneros-Meza looks at national aspects that characterize Mexico's democratization and decentralization processes, and their impact upon the central region of Mexico. Based on the region's social characteristics, she discusses the concept of ‘urban governance’ in terms of its ambiguity, which promotes municipal systems of participation at the same time as it fragments their internal organization. Development (2007) 50, 104–109. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100340

  5. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jazcilevich, D. Aron; Garcia, R. Agustin; Suarez, Gerardo Ruiz; Magana, R. Victor; Perez, L. Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Mexico City (Mexico); Fuentes-Gea, Vicente [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios del Posgrado, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  6. Research on Superimposed Metallogenic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Yusheng; Wang Jianping; Deng Jun; Peng Runmin

    2004-01-01

    As located in the junction of three tectonic plates (the Eurasian plate, the Indian plate and the west Pacific plate), the China continent shows complex regional metallogenic features due to tectonic evolution of "micro-plates, polycycle tectonic movements". Well developed superimposed metallogenic systems have constituted one of the regional metallogenic features in China. Through the study on superimposed metallogenic system of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and of the Yuebei basin (northern Guangdong Province), the authors put forward some basic combination pattern of sedimentary-magmatic superimposed metallogenic system and summarize its forming conditions (controlling factors).

  7. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Hernández-Camacho; Raúl Francisco Pineda-López; María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo; Germinal Jorge Cantó-Alarcón; Robert Wallace Jones; Marco Antonio Moreno-Pérez; Juan Joel Mosqueda-Gualito; Salvador Zamora-Ledesma; Brenda Camacho-Macías

    2016-01-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the ...

  8. Ground Motion in Central Mexico: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Juarez, A.; Rábade, S.; Aguirre, J.; Bielak, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the ground motion in Central Mexico based on numerical simulations, as well as broadband and strong ground motion records. We describe and evaluate a velocity model for Central Mexico derived from noise and regional earthquake cross-correlations, which is used throughout this research to estimate the ground motion in the region. The 3D crustal model includes a geotechnical structure of the Valley of Mexico (VM), subduction zone geometry, and 3D velocity distributions. The latter are based on more than 200 low magnitude (Mw Mexico originating from intra-slab deep events and temblors located along the Pacific coast. Also, we quantify the effects Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the low-velocity deposits on the ground motion. The 3D octree-based finite element wave propagation computations, valid up to 1 Hz, reveal that the inclusion of a basin with a structure as complex as the Valley of Mexico dramatically enhances the regional effects induced by the TMVB. Moreover, the basin not only produces ground motion amplification and anomalous duration, but it also favors the energy focusing into zones of Mexico City where structures typically undergo high levels of damage.

  9. , Recorded at Ladron Peak, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, J. W.; Kelley, S.; Read, A. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ladron Peak, situated on the western flank of the Rio Grande rift ~30 miles NW of Socorro, NM, is composed of Precambrian granitic and metamorphic assemblages that have been faulted and uplifted during the late Tertiary formation of the rift. The area is bounded on three sides by normal faults, including the anomalously low-angle (~26°) Jeter fault to the east, which places Precambrian rocks in the footwall against Paleozoic and Mesozoic fault slivers, and mainly Cenozoic Santa Fe Group basin fill in the hanging wall. New apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronological data collected at 22 locations along the NE and SE margins of Ladron Peak give a range of ages from 10.9 ± 1.9 to 20.4 ± 8.6 Ma. Samples within the footwall include granitic and metasedimentary rocks that have mean track lengths of 13.1 to 14.1 μm; one quartzite sample has a mean track length of 12.5 μm, suggesting time in the partial annealing zone. Within the hanging wall block, new AFT ages from the Permian Bursum and Abo Formations give cooling ages of 23.1 ± 3.3 Ma. and 59.9 ± 12.4 Ma., respectively. The Bursum Formation sample, with a track length of 13.7 μm, cooled below the 110°C isotherm during the Miocene, while the Abo Formation sample, with a track length of 11.2 μm, was only partially reset prior to rift-related deformation. Mylonitized granitic and metamorphic rocks in the immediate footwall preserve dip-slip lineations that are parallel to slip on the Jeter fault. This suggests that strain associated with exhumation was recorded by both brittle and ductile deformation. Although this type of deformation is common within metamorphic core complexes in highly extended terranes, ductile normal faulting has not been recognized within the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico, though there is some suggestion of ductile deformation around Blanca Peak in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. These observations imply one or both of the following: (1) Ductile deformation at Ladron Peak was

  10. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  11. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raúl Francisco; de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, María; Cantó-Alarcón, Germinal Jorge; Jones, Robert Wallace; Moreno-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Mosqueda-Gualito, Juan Joel; Zamora-Ledesma, Salvador; Camacho-Macías, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC) were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico) Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013-2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species), mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission. PMID:27408801

  12. Geothermal energy from deep sedimentary basins: The Valley of Mexico (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico has not been addressed in the past, although volcaniclastic settings in other parts of the world contain promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico is based on thermophysical data gained from outcrop analogues, covering all lithofacies types, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. Furthermore, the volumetric approach of Muffler and Cataldi (1978) leads to a first estimation of ca. 4000 TWh (14.4 EJ) of power generation from Neogene volcanic rocks within the Valley of Mexico. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Valley of Mexico for future geothermal reservoir utilization. The mainly low permeable lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas also auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use without artificial stimulation becomes reasonable. Thermophysical properties of tuffs and siliciclastic rocks qualify them as promising target horizons (Lenhardt and Götz, 2015). The here presented data serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modelling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization. References Lenhardt, N., Götz, A.E., 2015. Geothermal reservoir potential of volcaniclastic settings: The Valley of Mexico, Central Mexico. Renewable Energy. [in press] Muffler, P., Cataldi, R., 1978. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources. Geothermics, 7, 53-89.

  13. Characteristics of the Central Mexico Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, J.; Quintanar, L.; Jimenez, Z.

    2001-12-01

    Moderate magnitude but damaging earthquakes occur frequently in the central part (18o N) of Mexico along an east-west limited (96o to 99o W) narrow belt. From 1928 through 2000 this region of western Guerrero and Puebla-Oaxaca has been the site of nine intermediate depth earthquakes of similar characteristics, normal faulting and a notable extent of felt area and damage northwestern of the epicenters. Earthquakes in this area are very important since they occur in the most populated region of Mexico and they are used frequently in the discussion of the feasibility of the seismic cycle hypothesis. In the present paper we made an overall analysis of the earthquakes to find out common features in an attempt to characterize the earthquakes of the region. Special emphasis is place on the 1980, 1999 and 2000 earthquakes since they are best documented. Recorded acceleration amplitudes of the Puebla earthquake of June 15, 1999 a typical earthquake of this region, show a clear enhancement in the frequency range of 0.06 Hz to 6.0 Hz that can be up to eight times higher toward the northwest of the epicenter as compared to the opposite direction. This feature, that seems common to earthquakes in the region can not be fully explained by the involved rupture processes. Therefore, we investigate the possibility that the apparent directivity could be due to a regional propagation effect by analyzing the Lg coda decay. Our result explains however, only partially the observed feature. We especulate that probably the presence to the north of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt plays an important role in controlling the enhancement of low frequency seismic signals and other features of the Central Mexico earthquakes.

  14. Seismic stratigraphic framework of deep central Gulf of Mexico basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaub, F.J.; Buffler, R.T.; Parsons, J.G.

    1984-11-01

    The deep Gulf of Mexico basin is underlain by up to 10 km (33,000 ft) of Jurassic(.) to Holocene layered sedimentary rocks. The multichannel reflection seismic record from the deep Gulf of Mexico was divided into six seismic stratigraphic units for study of the geologic history of this accumulation. The basal Challenger unit (Jurassic (.) to middle Cretaceous) is considered coeval with early basin formation. We interpret it as a deep marine sequence overlying oceanic crust in the central basin and as continental and shallow through deep marine rocks, including thick evaporites, over adjacent transitional crust. The next three units, Campeche, Lower Mexican Ridges and Upper Mexican Ridges, indicate that from the Late Cretaceous through middle Miocene the basin filled progressively from the west and north, most probably with siliceous turbidites interlayered with pelagic deposits. By the late Tertiary, however, salt and shale deformation within thick sedimentary sections along the western and northern margins trapped much of the incoming sediment supply on the shelves and upper slopes. The late Miocene to Pliocene Cinco de Mayo unit, therefore, represents a relatively starved interval. In contrast, the uppermost, or Sigsbee unit, includes the Mississippi Fan, an accumulation up to 3 km (10,000 ft) thick of mainly mass-transported deposits that bypassed the shelf and slope and were deposited directly onto the abyssal plain. In the western and southwestern portions of the deep basin, beyond the fan pinchout, the Pleistocene section is largely a continuation of the Pliocene suspension deposits.

  15. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was established in 1949 to perform the engineering development and ordnance responsibilities associated with nuclear weapons. By the early 1960's the facility had evolved into an engineering research and development laboratory and became a multiprogram laboratory during the 1970s. Sandia is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, Incorporated. For several years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico. For this report, the reference period is FY 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997) and includes two major impact analyses: the impact of SNL activities on central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the central New Mexico region includes Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance counties. Total impact represents both direct and indirect respending by business, including induced effects (respending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts results from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Evaporation rates of pasture-mesquite vegetation in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, E. G.; Escobar, A. G.

    2004-12-01

    The semiarid highlands of Queretaro, in central Mexico, are characterized by booming urban and industrial developments with increasing demand for water. Agriculture takes place in the valleys and the surrounding hills have different types of xeric to subtropical rangeland. Hills are unfit for agriculture and usually are managed for cattle production and fuelwood. However, recent studies suggest that some hill areas are important for groundwater recharge and if they are not protected, important water shortages are envisioned. A critical question involves the effects of land management practices on rangeland hydrologic processes. Evaporation (E), which includes plant and soil evaporation is the largest water loss from rangelands and few data are available for central Mexico. The objective of this study was to estimate E from a mesquite (Prosopis sp.) dominated vegetation using the eddy correlation and the Pennman-Monteith models. Measurements were made during 24 summer days of 2004 at a piedmont site at Amascala, Queretaro (1919 m, 20° 41' N, 100° 16' W). Long term annual rainfall is 568 ± 137 mm. Shrub density was 770 plants per hectare and mean height was 1.8 m. The understory was composed by a mixture of annual and perennial grasses but their biomass was negligible. Agroforestry was the current land use of the site. Shrubs were pruned every 2 or 3 years to maintain its height and promote leafty regrowth. Goats usually browsed the mesquite canopy, but during the time of the study they were excluded from the area.The rainy season started on 15 May and measurements initiated on 1 June, five days after a severe hail storm. Although the mesquite canopy had a full developed canopy with leaf area index of 3.2 by this time, they lost approximately 70% of leaf area. May and June rainfall was 146 mm and 46 mm occurred during the measuring period. Throughout the measurement period E was coupled to global radiation and total evaporation was 73.8 mm. On cloudy days E ranged

  17. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Eddy; Stremme, Wolfgang; Bezanilla, Alejandro; Baylon, Jorge; Grutter, Michel; Blumenstock, Thomas; Hase, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Altzomoni is a high altitude station in central Mexico (19.12 N, 98.65 W, 4000 m a.s.l.) for continuous measurements of various atmospheric parameters. It is located within the Izta-Popo National Park and is operated remotely from the UNAM campus. Since May 2012, high resolution solar absorption spectra have been recorded from this site using a FTIR from Bruker (HR120/5) equipped with MCT, InSb and InGaAs detectors and various optical filters. In this contribution we present a detailed description of the measurement site and the instrumental set-up including a record of the instrumental line-shapes (modulation efficiency and phase error) obtained from cell measurements and analyzed with the LINEFIT code. A preliminary analysis of almost two years of spectra recorded at the Altzomoni site resulting in profile retrievals of four NDACC gases O3, CO, HF and HCl is presented. The retrieval code PROFFIT is used and the Averaging Kernels and an error analysis are used to describe the quality of the measurements. The annual cycles in the time series of O3 and CO are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of anomalies due to volcanic gas emissions of HF and HCl are shown. The presented work is part of an effort to certify this station as part of the NDACC international network.

  18. BLM/OCS Ecological Investigations of Petroleum Production Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Investigations of Petroleum Production Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico Project was conducted by Texas A and M University under contract to...

  19. Paleoseismological History of the Acambay Graben (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, P.; Zúñiga, R.; Ortuño, M.; Persaud, M.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Langridge, R. M.; Villamor, P.; Perea, H.; Štěpančíková, P.; Carreon, D.; Cerca, M.; Suñe Puchol, I.; Corominas Calvet, O.; Audin, L.; Baize, S.; Lawton, T. F.; Rendón, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Acambay graben is part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) which strikes ESE-WNW across central Mexico, where the major part of the Mexican population is concentrated. The TMVB is an active, calc-alkaline volcanic arc that is related to the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates underneath the North American plate. The TMVB contains a series of intra-arc basins that form the Chapala-Tula fault zone (450 km long, 50 km wide). One of these extensive basins, the Acambay graben, is 80 km long and 15 to 30 km wide. It is limited north by the E-W striking Epitacio-Huerta (EHF) and Acambay-Tixmadejé normal faults and south by the Venta de Bravo (VBF) and the Pastores faults (PF) in the south. Other minor active faults are located within the basin, along the axis of the Graben. In the area, the instrumental seismicity is low to moderate, although one major historical earthquake (Ms = 6.9 Acambay event) occurred on November 19, 1912, causing widespread damage. In the last decade, our group has focused on the neotectonic and paleoseismological study of the major faults of the Acambay graben. More than 30 trenches have been dug at 15 sites in order to interpret the paleoseismological history of 7 major faults of the graben. In addition to paleoseismological trench studies, tectonic geomorphology, subsurface geophysics and micro topographic surveys have been used to assess the rupture history. All of the studied faults have to be considered as active faults, with a minimum of 2 to 5 paleoseismic events on each fault during the last 20 ka. Each fault rupture corresponds to a vertical displacement ranging from 1 to 150 centimetres. Considering the size of the observed displacements and the length of active segments, we demonstrate that large earthquakes with magnitude higher than 7 have occurred along some of these faults. Based on paleoseismological results, we calculate a major earthquake recurrence interval ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 years over a time span (~20

  20. Patterns of illness in travelers visiting Mexico and Central America: the GeoSentinel experience

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Figueroa, J; Okhuysen, P C; von Sonnenburg, F.; DuPont, H L; Libman, M D; Keystone, J S; Hale, D C; Burchard, G; Han, P V; Wilder-Smith, A.; Freedman, D O

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mexico and Central America are important travel destinations for North American and European travelers. There is limited information on regional differences in travel related morbidity. METHODS: We describe the morbidity among 4779 ill travelers returned from Mexico and Central America who were evaluated at GeoSentinel network clinics during December 1996 to February 2010. RESULTS: The most frequent presenting syndromes included acute and chronic diarrhea, dermat...

  1. Seismic imaging of the Cocos plate subduction zone system in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, YoungHee; Miller, Meghan S.; Pearce, Frederick; Clayton, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Broadband data from the Meso-America Subduction Experiment (MASE) line in central Mexico were used to image the subducted Cocos plate and the overriding continental lithosphere beneath central Mexico using a generalized radon transform based migration. Our images provide insight into the process of subducting relatively young oceanic lithosphere and its complex geometry beneath continental North America. The converted and reverberated phase image shows complete horizontal tectonic underplatin...

  2. A Comparative Economic Analysis of North-Central New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; Eastman, Clyde

    North-Central New Mexico has many of the problems common to other rural areas. Unemployment and underemployment rates tend to be high and per capita income relatively low. This study evaluated regional economic performance over a 19-year period (1949-1968) as compared to other regions and the nation. Shift analysis (a means of examining regional…

  3. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands.

  4. Geothermal Exploration of the Winston Graben, Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophy, M. J.; Kelley, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    We are assessing the geothermal potential of the Winston Graben of central New Mexico using borehole temperature logs and geophysical data. The Winston Graben is a late Cenozoic rift basin, part of the larger Rio Grande rift, which is 5 to 10 km wide and 56 km long with northern and southern termini occurring at accommodation zones that coincide with late Cenozoic volcanic lineaments. The graben is interpreted to be symmetric based on geologic mapping, with 2 km of stratigraphic offset on both the western and eastern margins. The graben is bordered by the Black Range to the west and is separated from the Rio Grande valley by the Sierra Cuchillo, a horst block made of Paleozoic rocks intruded by a laccolith. Geothermal and geophysical data, including water table measurements, well temperature logs, thermal conductivity samples, bottom hole temperatures, water chemistry, and gravity data have been extracted from the New Mexico Geothermal Database, part of the National Geothermal Database, and the Geonet Gravity and Magnetic Dataset Repository. Combined with existing geologic maps of the Winston Graben and surroundings, these data help to identify spatial relationships between geologic structures and groundwater parameters and distribution. Geothermal gradients from industry temperature-depth well profiles range from 20°C/km to 60°C/km with a spatial distribution of higher gradients located on the eastern side of the Sierra Cuchillo horst, which is where a mapped warm spring is located. Lower thermal gradients were observed to the west in the groundwater recharge area of the basin. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data indicate a gravity low coinciding with the center of the Winston Graben, which is attributed to be the deepest part of the basin, symetrically surrounded by gravity highs. Gravity highs coincide with the middle Cenozoic Morenci and Chise volcanic lineaments along the northern and southern ends of the graben. The mapped warm spring occurs at the

  5. 全球成矿域和成矿区带%Global metallogenic domains and districts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅燕雄; 裴荣富; 杨德凤; 戴自希; 李进文; 徐丛荣; 瞿泓滢

    2009-01-01

    -Mongolia, Siberia and Sino-Ko-rea. it is characterized by large-scale mineralizations of natural gas, coals, iron, potash salt, oil, uranium, manganese, chromium, lead, zinc, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, antimony, gold, silver, phosphorus and diamond. The metallogenic epochs run through all the geological ages, mainly Paleozoic and subordinately Mesozoic and Proterozoic. Lying in the southern part of the earth, the Gondwana metallogenic domain runs across South America, Africa, Oceania and Asia and comprises five gigantic metallogenic districts, namely, South America, Africa-Arabia, India, Australia and Antarctic. It is featured by large-scale mineralizations of oil, gas, bauxite, diamond, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, iron, gold, chromium, tin and uranium. The metallogenic epochs also go through all the geological ages, with Proterozoic and Cenozoic being dominant, and Archean and Mesozoic possessing the subordinate importance. Running across the central part of the earth, the Tethys metallogenic domain straddles North America, Europe, Africa and Asia and is made up of five gigantic metallogenic districts, namely, Caribbean, Mediterranean, West Asia, Himalaya and Indo-China Peninsula. It is characterized by large-scale mineralizations of tin, potash salt, lead, zinc, bauxite, copper and molybdenum. The metallogenic epochs are dominated by Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Distributed around the Pacific Ocean, the circum-Pacific metallo-genic domain straddles Asia, Oceania, North America and South America and consists of five gigantic metallogenic districts, namely, North Cordilleran, Andean, Chokochi-Okhotsk, East Asia and Irian-New Zealand. It is characterized by large-scale mineralizations of copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, nickel, tungsten, tin, lead and zinc. The most important metallogenic epochs are Mesozoic-Cenozoic.

  6. Age of the Xalnene Ash, Central Mexico and Archeological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, P. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Waters, M. R.; Cabrales, J. A.; Castillo, P. O.; Campa, M. P.; Knight, K. B.

    2005-12-01

    Human footprints ~40 ka old have been reported from the Toloquilla quarry near Valsequillo Reservoir, ca. 15 km south of the city of Puebla in central Mexico (http://www.mexicanfootprints.co.uk/default.htm). If correct, this would be important evidence for early peopling of the Americas. The indentations interpreted as footprints and other ichnofossils occur on the surface of an indurated basaltic lapilli tuff within a several meter thick sequence of thinly bedded (1-10 cm) tuffs of similar character, lacking paleosols, erosional features or interlayered sediments, informally known as the Xalnene ash. A sample was collected at 18°55.402` N latitude and 098°09.375` W longitude from the surface on which the purported footprints occur. Lapilli were separated and analyzed by incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar methods, yielding 9 indistinguishable plateau ages averaging 1.30 ±0.03 Ma (2σ) for single lapilli (N=6) and multiple lapilli (N=3) subsamples. Though some minor discordance (presumably due to 39Ar recoil) is manifest in 5 of the age spectra, all plateaux comprise >60% of the 39Ar released and 4 or more consecutive steps. Paleomagnetic data from azimuthally unoriented bulk samples of 11.25 cm3 reveal a reverse polarity (I = -32.1°) thermoremanent component carried by titanomagnetite and a normal polarity component carried by goethite. Measurements on individual matrix-free lapilli lack the goethite component, which is presumed to be associated with the clay-rich cement. Consistency of the reverse component implies deposition of the lapilli at supra-Curie temperatures, with no postdepositional reworking. Reverse polarity is consistent with deposition during chron C1r.2r (1.77 to 1.07 Ma) as indicated by the 40Ar/39Ar data. If the features observed on the tuff are indeed footprints, their 1.3 Ma antiquity would be truly remarkable, predating by far any other evidence for human presence in the Americas and in fact predating the evolutionary emergence of Homo sapiens

  7. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-09

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major

  8. Cetaceans and gillnet fisheries in Mexico, Central America and the Wider Caribbean: a preliminary review

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, O.; Van Waerebeek, K.; Findley, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews published and unpublished information on the mortality of cetaceans in gillnets in Mexico, Central America and the wider Caribbean. Data on this incidental mortality are provided from only nine of the 36 nations in the area (Colombia, the Dominican Republic. French Guiana, Honduras, Mexico. Panama, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela); the lack of mortality records from the other countries reflects poor or non-existent documentation. We surveyed those types of passi...

  9. Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

  10. THE COMMUNITY OF FURCRAEA PARMENTIERI, A THREATENED SPECIE, CENTRAL MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Almeida-Leñero; Ana María Mondragón; Beatriz Ludlow-Wiechers; Verónica Aguilar-Zamora

    2014-01-01

    The fl ora and vegetation of Furcraea par- mentieri (Roezl ex Ortigies) Garcia-Mend. ( F. bedinghausii ) community was studied on the Pelado volcano, at the S area of Mexico City. Following Zurich-Montpellier criteria, 25 phytosociological plots were done, and the Jaccard index of similarity was calcula- ted. Furcraea parmentieri is associated with Muhlenbergia macroura to form an azonal community between 3 020 and 3 300 m, on rocky soils and gaps of Pinus - Alnus forest. Three subcommunities...

  11. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 235, 241, and 247 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... EIS for proposed Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 235, 241 and 247 in the Gulf of Mexico...

  12. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  13. A rock- and paleomagnetic study of a Holocene lava flow in Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlag, P.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Boer, C.B. de; Gonzalez, S.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic measurements of the Tres Cruces lava flow (ca. 8500 years BP, Central Mexico) show the presence of two remanence carriers, a Ti-rich titanomagnetite with a Curie temperature between 350 and 400 °C and a Ti-poor magnetite with a Curie temperature close to 580°C. Magnetic changes after heatin

  14. METALLOGENIC SYSTEM OF DACHANG TINPOLYMETALLIC ORE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-bin; DAI Ta-gen; WANG Zhi-bin; FANG Sheng-kui

    2001-01-01

    The Dachang tin-polymetallic ore field in northern Guangxi,China,lies in a mid-late Paleozoic rift that borders up the southern boundary of the Jiangnan-Xuefeng Massif.As a giant ore deposit,it deposited in middle of the Nandang-Hechi metallogenic zone.The orehosting strata are of the Devonion,which shows the evident characteristics of polymetallic elements,i.e: ,Sn,Zn,Pb,Sb,As,Cu,Ag,In,Ge,Cd,et al.,and over 1 000 000 t tin reserves.

  15. Atmospheric chemistry effects of the 1998 Mexican/Central American fires measured in central New Mexico USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, C. J.

    1998-12-16

    Atmospheric effects from large fires have received a great deal of interest recently, especially when the fires have the potential to effect human health when the plumes are transported long distances over areas of high population density. Examples are the recent large fires in Southeast Asia in 1997 (1) and the wildfires occurring in southern Mexico and Central America that were manifested in decreased visibility and high aerosol concentrations in the United States at distances of 2500-4000 km from the fires. In addition to fine aerosols, these biomass fires have the potential to produce and transport large quantities of oxygenated organic species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfate and nitrate species. Most of the literature reports dealing with products of biomass burning have been related to fireplace and wood burning stove emissions (2,3) and with local effects from forest fires(4). The recent super-large fires occurring in Indonesia and Mexico/Central America also bring about the issue of atmospheric reactivity because long-range transport affords long reaction times for photochemical reactions, wet and dry deposition and surface reactions on the aerosol particles. The smoke/haze conditions prompted considerable concern among the general population in New Mexico regarding health hazards and a large number of calls to the Albuquerque, NM Air Quality Division which reported the PM{sub 10} samples collected showed no significant increase in mass(5). The conclusion was that the particles were very fine and therefore had considerable influence on the visibility but did not violate health standards. In this study, organic and inorganic chemical species in the gaseous and aerosol phases have been identified and quantified under non-smoky and smoky conditions in Central New Mexico approximately 3000 km from the source of the fires.

  16. Contexts of offerings and ritual maize in the pictographic record in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Moragas Segura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is an initial enquiry into the evidence and classification of the offerings of maize in Central Mexico from the Classic period to early colonial times. In order to achieve this goal, we will analyse the presence of maize in Central Mexico according to the evidence found in mural paintings and some pictographic codices. Two Mesoamerican cultures will be considered to achieve our analysis: the Teotihuacan and Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Maize was instrumental in the performance of daily rituals and in the diet of these ancient Mesoamerican cultures and the cereal also had sacred connotations in pre-Hispanic, colonial and contemporary narratives. We suggest this by reading the iconographic and symbolic representations of corn in the form of seeds and pods, or as an ingredient in cooked foods which are represented in the mural paintings of Teotihuacan as well as some codices of the post-Classic Nahua tradition. These methodological enquiries reveal evidence of a cultural continuity in Central Mexico as a contrasting perspective on the archaeological and ethno-historical period.

  17. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  18. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.

    2000-10-01

    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  19. Water Quality of a Reservoir and Its Major Tributary Located in East-Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Castilla-Hernández; María del Rocío Torres-Alvarado; José Antonio Herrera-San Luis; Norma Cruz-López

    2014-01-01

    A reservoir with ecological and economic importance and its major tributary, localized in east-central Mexico, were studied. The aim of this work was to know the physicochemical water characteristics of both water bodies and to contrast these by their different uses, and also estimate overall water quality using a Water Quality Index (WQI). Water samples from the reservoir and the tributary were obtained in different climatic seasons. In the tributary, anoxic and hypoxic conditions and high l...

  20. Characterization, functioning and classification of two volcanic soil profiles under different land uses in Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, B.; Duwig, Céline; Hidalgo, C; Gomez, D.; Yee, H.; Prat, Christian; Esteves, Michel; Etchevers, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Volcanic soils constitute an important resource for agriculture and forestry in Central Mexico, as well as in various world regions. They exhibit unique properties and high productive potential related to the amorphous materials they contain. The relationship between amorphous materials, soil characteristic and functioning, has not been well studied. The objectives of the present work were to assess the influence of land use (agricultural and forest), topography and other soil forming factors...

  1. Depositional environments of Late Triassic lake, east-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, P.M. (Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The Redonda Member of the Chinle Formation represents deposition in a large, polymictic lake during the Late Triassic (Norian) in east-central New Mexico. This study documents and defines an extensive lacustrine system situated in western Pangaea which was influenced by both tectonic and climatic events. Areal extent of the lake may have been as much as 5,000 km{sup 2}.

  2. Geometry and seismic properties of the subducting Cocos plate in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.; Jackson, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The geometry and properties of the interface of the Cocos plate beneath central Mexico are determined from the receiver functions (RFs) utilizing data from the Meso America Subduction Experiment (MASE). The RF image shows that the subducting oceanic crust is shallowly dipping to the north at 15° for 80 km from Acapulco and then horizontally underplates the continental crust for approximately 200 km to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). The crustal image also shows that there is no contin...

  3. Seismic structure in central Mexico: Implications for fragmentation of the subducted Cocos plate

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Sara L.; Clayton, Robert W.; Helmberger, Don V.

    2012-01-01

    The fine-scale seismic structure of the central Mexico subduction zone is studied using moderate-sized (M4-6) intraslab earthquakes. Regional waveforms from the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS) seismic array are complicated and contain detailed information about the subduction zone structure, including evidence of lateral heterogeneity. This waveform information is used to model the structure of the subducted plates, particularly along the transition from flat to normal subduction, w...

  4. Toward a Unified Theory of Silent Seismicity in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Rivet, D. N.; Kostoglodov, V.; Husker, A. L.; Legrand, D.; Campillo, M.

    2011-12-01

    During the 2006 slow slip event (SSE) in Guerrero, Mexico, a seismic profile was deployed above the slipping interface. Data from this seismological network generated several observations, including the detection of an ultra-slow velocity layer confined to the uppermost part of the slab (Song et al., Science, 2009), high Poisson's and Vp/Vs ratios within a large slab segment (Kim et al., JGR, 2010), and a transient reduction of surface waves velocity in the middle crust of about 0.2% due to the quasi-static slow-slip process (Rivet et al., GRL, 2011). Based on these observations, we have proceeded as follow. The slip history of the 2006 Guerrero SSE (Radiguet et al., GJI, 2010) was put into a 3D viscoelastic finite difference code, approximating the pore pressure as Pp=B*Pc, where B is the Skempton coefficient (0≤B≤1) and Pc is the confining pressure. Solving the fluid diffusion equation in the model, we find that the silent earthquake induces a widespread decrease of effective pressure, Pe=Pc-Pp (i.e. dilation increase), above the horizontal segment of the plate interface, where the NVT activity has been localized by previous authors (Payero et al., GRL, 2008; Husker et al., submitted, 2011). Assuming a fluid seal along the plate interface as suggested in Cascadia (Audet et al., Nature, 2009), the time-dependent migration (velocity) of confined fluids in the ultra-slow layer is first upward everywhere and then reorganizes by pointing two 'attraction' poles (i.e. low-pressure slab segments), the first one 80-90 km and the second one around 150 km away from the coast. We present NVT relocations obtained with a new and promising technique (Cruz-Atienza et al., in preparation, 2011). This technique is based on NVT energy-like and waveform correlation measurements in the three ground motion components. By superimposing the hypocentral relocations over the evolving Pp lithospheric cross-section, a surprisingly good correlation appears between the slab 'attraction

  5. Uranium metallogenic geological conditions and prediction vision in Linxi-Wulanhaote region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linxi-Wulanhaote region, where the Mesozoic marginal-Pacific metallogenic domain superimposed the Paleozoic Paleo-Asian metallogenic domain, is a significant polymetallic metallogenic province and a Uranium mineralization vision area with prospecting potential. According to the special region of metallogenic geological environment, the distribution of Uranium deposits (mineral occurrence) and uranium mineralization types, geophysical and geochemical prospecting anomalous features and ore-forming geological background was studied, and summarizes the uranium mineralization geological characteristics, mineralization and metallogenic regularity, preliminary several differentiate uranium metallogenic areas. According to forecasting criterion and the prediction model, screening prospecting prospect areas. (authors)

  6. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    B. Brizuela; Armigliato, A.; S. Tinti

    2014-01-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that o...

  7. soil carbon pools within oak forest is endangered by global climate change in central mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Felipe; Merino, Agustín; González-Rodriguez, Antonio; Chávez-Vergara, Bruno; Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Oyama, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Forest soil represents the main C pool in terrestrial ecosystems. In particular, temperate forest ecosystems play an important role in the C budget among tropical countries, such as Mexico. For example, the temperate forest ecosystem contains higher C contents on average (295 Mg C ha-1) than the soil C associated with other ecosystems in Mexico (between 56 to 287 Mg C ha-1). At a regional scale, oak forest has the highest C content (460 Mg C ha-1) among the forest ecosystem in Michoacán State at Central Mexico. At the local scale, the soil C content is strongly affected by the composition of organic matter produced by the plant species. The oak species are very diverse in Mexico, distributed within two sections: Quercus sensu stricto and Lobatae. The oak species from Quercus s.s. section produced litterfall with lower concentrations of recalcitrant and thermostable compounds than oak species from Lobatae section, therefore the soil under the former species had higher microbial activity and nutrient availability than the soil under the later species. However, the forest fragment with higher amount of oak species from Quercus s.s. section increases the amount of soil C contents. Unfortunately, Quercus species distribution models for the central western region of Mexico predict a decrease of distribution area of the majority of oak species by the year 2080, as a consequence of higher temperatures and lower precipitation expected under climate change scenarios. Additionally to these scenarios, the remnant oak forest fragments suffer strong degradation due to uncontrolled wood extraction and deforestation. For this reason, the conservation of oak forest fragments is a priority to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere. In order to enhance the protection of these forest fragments it is required that the society identify the ecosystem services that are provided by these forest fragments.

  8. Seismic attenuation structure in central Mexico: Image of a focused high-attenuation zone in the mantle wedge

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ting; Clayton, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Velocity spectra from moderate-sized earthquakes were used to investigate the P wave attenuation structure in central Mexico. In particular, we included regional events with magnitudes in the range of 4.5 to 6.1 recorded from 2005 to 2007 on the Middle American Subduction Experiment (MASE) array, which consists of 100 broadband sensors across central Mexico from Acapulco to Tempoal, near the Gulf of Mexico. By assuming a Brune-type source, a frequency-independent t* value was obtained for eac...

  9. A review of ozone-induced effects on the forests of central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Maria de Lourdes de [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carretera Los Reyes-Texcoco, 56230 Montecillo, Edo. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: libauer@colpos.mx; Hernandez-Tejeda, Tomas [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas y Pecuarias, Mexico, Col. Viveros de Coyoacan, 04110 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    The first report on oxidant-induced plant damage in the Valley of Mexico was presented over 30 years ago. Ozone is known to occur in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and elsewhere as the cause of chlorotic mottling on pine needles that are 2 years old or older as observed in 1976 on Pinus hartwegii and Pinus leiophylla. Visible evidences for the negative effects of ozone on the vegetation of central Mexico include foliar injury expressed as chlorotic mottling and premature defoliation on pines, a general decline of sacred fir, visible symptoms on native forest broadleaved species (e.g. Mexican black cherry). Recent investigations have also indicated that indirect effects are occurring such as limited root colonization by symbiotic fungi on ozone-damaged P. hartwegii trees and a negative influence of the pollutant on the natural regeneration of this species. The negative ozone-induced effects on the vegetation will most likely continue to increase. - Ozone induced symptoms, poor tree regeneration and limited root colonization by mycorrhiza fungi observed in the valley of Mexico.

  10. Paleotectonic controls on deposition of upper Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, east-central Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Surface mapping of the basal Mesozoic La Casita Formation (upper Upper Jurassic) in east-central Chihuahua, Mexico, indicates initial Mesozoic sedimentation occurred in a segmented, interconnected subbasin of the Chihuahua trough. La Casite Formation (1200 m thick) is a tectonostratigraphic unit resting with angular unconformity on the Lower Permian Plomosas Formation. It consists primarily of siliciclastic material with sporadic interbedded limestones. The dominant lithofacies, approximately 1000 m thick, consists of turbiditic sandstone units (10-20 m) alternating with thicker, monotonous shale sequences. In the mapped area (approximately 30 km/sup 2/), flute cast measurements indicate flows from both the northeast (N20/degree/E) and southwest (S58/degree/W). Turbiditic sandstone units appear to pinch out and/or interfinger as they extend from the north and south into the central portion of the area. The initial opening of the Chihuahua trough is often associated with Late Jurassic block faulting, related to development of the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Synrift depositional sequences of a similar age have been described in southern Coahuila, northern Zacatecas, and western Chiapas, Mexico. The subbasin (graben ) examined here may be ascribed a paleoposition near the western edge of the early Chihuahua trough. The western boundary of the early trough may have comprised a series of these subbasins, forming a cuspate or serrated coastline. Late Jurassic ammonites recovered from this and other localities along the length of the Chihuahua trough suggest that the subbasins were interconnected by means of an eastern continuous seaway.

  11. The impact of religiosity on suicidal ideation among youth in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2014-02-01

    Although over 100 years of research has been dedicated to understanding the connection between religiosity and suicide, many questions still remain. This is especially true among adolescent populations in countries outside the US. In 2008, over 700 students attending eight alternative high school centers in central Mexico completed a health survey designed to provide a comprehensive overview of their physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional health. This article reports on the findings of a secondary analysis study of those data and focuses on the protective influence of religiosity on suicidal ideation. The findings of this study are discussed in light of the network theory's assertion that there is a belonging aspect to religion, and also to the idea that in religiously homogeneous communities of Mexico, religion can have a protective effect on the suicidal ideation of its members.

  12. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  13. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Seismic stratigraphy of middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU) in central Gulf of Mexico basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    A widespread high-amplitude reflector seen on seismic data throughout the Gulf of Mexico has been called the middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU). This reflector seems to be a major stratigraphic boundary in the Gulf of Mexico basin. It is believed to correspond to Vail's type 1 unconformity of middle Cenomanian age (97 Ma), which records an eustatic drop in sea level of approximately 200 m. This study area includes the entire Gulf of Mexico, except areas of thick, highly deformed salt where following the MCU with any degree of confidence becomes impossible. The MCU is easy to follow in multichannel seismic reflection profiles collected by the Institute for Geophysics of the University of Texas at Austin in the Gulf of Mexico. In central, deeper part of the gulf, reflectors above and below the MCU are parallel. In the southern and eastern rims of the gulf, along the Campeche and Florida escarpments, reflectors are truncated below the MCU and show onlap relationships above it. Therefore, the MCU may be interpreted as representing an unconformity along the southern and eastern rims of the Gulf of Mexico basin. The unconformity appears to die out and grade into a conformable section toward the center of the basin, and channeling is common along the Campeche and Florida escarpments. These channels can be projected back into canyons in the escarpments, which were probably initiated by subaerial exposure of the top of the escarpments during the middle Cretaceous lowstand. The downslope channels, being sourced by the canyons, were cut in deep water.

  15. The Central Gulf of Mexico Ocean Observing System (CenGOOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, S. D.; Asper, V.; Lohrenz, S.; Roman, D.

    2005-05-01

    The University of Southern Mississippi has established a coastal ocean observing system in the north-central Gulf of Mexico, where there is a dearth of real-time oceanographic observations on the continental shelf. The development of the Central Gulf of Mexico Ocean Observing System (CenGOOS) follows overall guidelines for the Integrated Ocean Observing System as articulated by Ocean.US, and draft regional guidelines set forth by the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA). The present system consists of a 3-m discus buoy measuring both meteorological and oceanographic parameters that are telemetered to the USM Department of Marine Science every three hours via Globalstar satellite communications. Data are served via a web site (www.cengoos.org). The near-term development of the system will include: Further integration with the coastal and near coastal observatories in the region Deployment of a two station, long range, high frequency radar system for mapping surface currents in the Mississippi Bight Deployment of additional instrumented moorings in the Mississippi Bight Development of a data assimilative nowcast/forecast numerical model of the region Regional database of high resolution multibeam and side-scan sonar data The initial plan for development of CenGOOS was formulated based on input solicited from identified stakeholders, regional priorities identified through opinion surveys conducted by the GCOOS-RA, and guidance from both Ocean.US and GCOOS-RA. An overview of our accomplishments, and vision for the future will be presented. This will include the hardware infrastructure, data management and communications plans and implementation, and other activities to integrate CenGOOS with the other observing systems in the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Subsidence and associated shallow faulting hazard assessment in central Mexico using InSAR and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Solano Rojas, D. E.; Oliver-Cabrera, T.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Wdowinski, S.; DeMets, C.; Pacheco, J.

    2014-12-01

    While subsidence has affected Mexico City for over a century, other cities in central Mexico have been subjected to subsidence since the '80, as a result of their large urban expansion, population increase and aggressive groundwater extraction rates. The continuous subsidence results in severe damage to urban infrastructure and civil structures. Unfortunately the damage cost assessment and vulnerability are difficult to evaluate, because of the variable geographic extent and the continuous nature of the process, which have different characteristics than localized, short duration hazards, as earthquakes or flood events.We have monitored land subsidence in 17 cities in central Mexico using both InSAR and GPS observations. InSAR provides an unsurpassed synoptic view of the earth's dynamic surface. However, different satellite sensors and sometimes widely spaced data availability make it difficult to derive long-term time series, rapid changes or nonlinear variations of subsidence velocities. To alleviate this situation, higher temporal resolution subsidence observations of associated fault motion has been pursued using continuously operating GPS stations. We have developed a GPS network that covers 6 urban centers to detect short duration variations using different processing schemes that include both real-time solutions using RTNet as well as daily solution using Gipsy-Oasis.Cartographic products based on these techniques have been merged with other population, hydrology and meteorology data sets. This approach allows a better hazard assessment and provides information for other purposes, such as vulnerability for shallow faulting, land use zonations, and other decision elements for water resource management agencies. We will provide examples of these hazard assessments for several cities, including Mexico City, Aguascalientes, Morelia, Irapuato and Celaya and the challenges encountered to integrate these results with other data sets from federal and state

  17. Some tentative idea about uranium metallogenic prognosis on the basis of application of GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geographic information system (GIS) is a new borderline subject. The principal components of MAPGIS are introduced, and the data needed, main procedures and outstanding advantages in uranium metallogenic prognosis applying MAPGIS are discussed. For uranium metallogenic areas with detailed research basis and abundant data, it is of great prospects to apply MAPGIS for metallogenic prognosis

  18. 76 FR 14040 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central and Western Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... 2012-2017 oil and gas leasing proposals in the Western and Central Planning Areas of the GOM (76 FR... step in a single multisale process covering all lease sales in the Central and Western Gulf of Mexico... program preparation process with publication of a Request for Information (RFI) on a program to cover...

  19. Fluoride in ash leachates: environmental implications at Popocatépetl volcano, central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Armienta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ash emitted by volcanic eruptions, even of moderate magnitude, may affect the environment and the health of humans and animals through different mechanisms at distances significantly larger than those indicated in the volcanic hazard maps. One such mechanism is the high capacity of ash to transport toxic volatiles like fluoride, as soluble condensates on the particles' surface. The mobilization and hazards related to volcanic fluoride are discussed based on the data obtained during the recent activity of Popocatépetl volcano in Central Mexico.

  20. Neotropical River Otter Micro-Habitat Preference In West-Central Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-Rubio E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We characterised habitat selected by the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Río San Pedro, located in the central portion of the State of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico. We monitored a 30 km stretch of the river for over two years and compared micro-site habitat characteristics at 21 used and 25 random sites. Characteristics of habitat preferred by the otter included pools that averaged >0.8 m deep, >14.6 m wide, >64% under-story vegetation cover, and rock talus/vegetation cover within 4.8 m.

  1. CO2 Total Column Variability From Ground-Based FTIR Measurements Over Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylon, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Plaza, E.; Bezanilla, A.; Grutter, M.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.

    2014-12-01

    There are now several space missions dedicated to measure greenhouse gases in order to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle. Ground based measurement sites are of great value in the validation process, however there are only a few stations in tropical latitudes. We present measurements of solar-absorption infrared spectra recorded on two locations over Central Mexico: the High-Altitude Station Altzomoni (19.12 N, 98.65 W), located in the Izta-Popo National Park outside of Mexico City; and the UNAM's Atmospheric Observatory (19.32 N, 99.17 W) in Mexico City. These measurements were performed using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer FTIR (Bruker, HR 120/5) at Altzomoni and a moderate resolution FTIR (Bruker, Vertex 80) within the city. In this work, we present the first results for total vertical columns of CO2 derived from near-infrared spectra recorded at both locations using the retrieval code PROFFIT. We present the seasonal cycle and variability from the measurements, as well as the full diagnostics of the retrieval in order assess its quality and discuss the differences of both instruments and locations (altitudes, urban vs remote). This work aims to contribute to generate high quality datasets for satellite validation.

  2. Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  3. Stratigraphy, geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Mesozoic Nazas Formation, north-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Claudio

    Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic volcanic-sedimentary sequences that were part of the Mesozoic continental-margin of western North America are exposed in northern and central Mexico. These sequences have been grouped into the Nazas Formation and crop out in the states of Durango, Coahuila, Zacatecas, and San Luis Potosi. The Nazas Formation consists of 2,500 m or more of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks and interbedded clastic sedimentary rocks that were deposited in alluvial fan and fluvial depositional systems that developed in intra-arc basins, mainly fault-bound grabens and topographic depressions within an extending Mesozoic volcanic arc. Major and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks suggests that the volcanic suite is calc-alkaline and includes rhyolite, dacite, rhyodacite, andesite, trachyandesite and rare basalt. Pyroclastic rocks are basically air-fall tuffs and volcanic breccias. The sedimentary strata include conglomerate, sandstone, shale, and siltstone, locally red in color. Geochronology (Ar-Ar, K-Ar and Rb-Sr) and field evidence indicate that the age of the Nazas Formation ranges from Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, but the peak of arc volcanism appears to be Early and Middle Jurassic. The Mesozoic magmatic arc in Mexico has a northwest trend and extends from Sonora to Chiapas. The arc structure is more than 2,000 km long, and possibly up to 150 km wide. The width of the arc is uncertain due to the limited number of surface outcrops, however, it did not extend east into the Gulf of Mexico. Arc-related magmatism began in latest Triassic time, but the peak of arc evolution occurred during the Early and Middle Jurassic. By Oxfordian time, the arc was deeply dissected and eroded, and magmatic activity had ceased. A marine transgression from the Gulf of Mexico covered most of the Nazas arc, depositing the initial sediments of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Limestone in the Mexican Geosyncline. Jurassic crustal extension in the Gulf of Mexico was

  4. Contextualizing the trauma experience of women immigrants from Central America, South America, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltman, Stacey; Hurtado de Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women.

  5. Microsystems technologist workforce development capacity and challenges in Central New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Thor D.

    2008-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has made major investments in microsystems-related infrastructure and research staff development over the past two decades, culminating most recently in the MESA project. These investment decisions have been made based in part upon the necessity for highly reliable, secure, and for some purposes, radiation-hardened devices and subsystems for safety and sustainability of the United States nuclear arsenal and other national security applications. SNL's microsystems development and fabrication capabilities are located almost entirely within its New Mexico site, rendering their effectiveness somewhat dependent on the depth and breadth of the local microsystems workforce. Consequently, the status and development capacity of this workforce has been seen as a key personnel readiness issue in relation to the maintenance of SNL's microsystems capabilities. For this reason SNL has supported the instantiation and development of the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education, an Advanced Technology Education center funded primarily by the National Science Foundation, in order to foster the development of local training capacity for microsystems technologists. Although the SCME and the associated Manufacturing Technology program at Central New Mexico Community College have developed an effective curriculum and graduated several highly capable microsystems technologists, the future of both the center and the degree program remain uncertain due to insufficient student enrollment. The central region of New Mexico has become home to many microsystems-oriented commercial firms. As the demands of those firms for technologists evolve, SNL may face staffing problems in the future, especially if local training capacity is lost.

  6. Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle reared under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mondragón-Zavala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies and prevalence of parasite DNA in blood, and estimate the association between seroprevalence and the potential risk of some factors in beef cattle under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico. Materials and methods. Blood samples from 139 cows and only 10 bulls belonging to 13 farms were collected and evaluated by ELISA test to detect antibodies against N. caninum. Furthermore, to determine the presence of parasite DNA, nested PCR probe was performed on blood samples. Association between potential risk factors and seroprevalence was estimated. Results. Overall seroprevalence was 23% (35/149 samples, while the prevalence of parasite DNA in blood was 28% (42/149 samples. Of the 149 animals examined 28 (19% were positive to both tests (25 cows and 3 bulls. Concordance between tests was k = 0.63. All herds had seropositive animals with positive parasite DNA detection in blood. The only risk factor identified was the presence of dogs (OR= 2.65. Conclusions. This study showed that bovine neospososis should be considered as an important infectious disease in north-central Mexico herds. Therefore, an epidemiological control should be taken into consideration to avoid the negative effect of this disease on mexican beef industry.

  7. Teacher perceptions of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence: Central Gulf of Mexico program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempier, Tracie Tingle

    The 12 Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) are funded by the National Science Foundation and are designed to promote creative ways of disseminating marine science research and its importance to the public. The focus of this study is the COSEE Central Gulf of Mexico program which encourages active partnerships between research scientists and teachers. In these collaborative partnerships, teachers and scientists work together to create educational products and disseminate best practices in ocean sciences education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the lesson plans and curricula created through the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence: Central Gulf of Mexico program (COSEE:CGOM), which are the products of this collaboration, were being used effectively in the classroom. The study addressed issues such as teacher perceptions of collaboration with scientists, effectiveness of COSEE:CGOM curriculum implementation in producing more ocean literate students, and teachers' varying views concerning how to successfully implement new COSEE:CGOM knowledge and concepts into their classrooms in order to improve student scientific understanding. In addition, the study examined frequency of use of COSEE:CGOM lesson plans and identified predictor variables that can produce a model for understanding factors hindering or enhancing lesson plan use. Further, participant perceptions of using peer-teaching as a method for disseminating COSEE:CGOM information in their districts were addressed.

  8. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  9. Fast airborne aerosol size and chemistry measurements above Mexico City and Central Mexico during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration, size, and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was measured over Mexico City and central Mexico with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. This was the first aircraft deployment of the HR-ToF-AMS. During the campaign the instrument performed very well, and provided 12 s data. The aerosol mass from the AMS correlates strongly with other aerosol measurements on board the aircraft. Organic aerosol (OA species dominate the NR-PM1 mass. OA correlates strongly with CO and HCN indicating that pollution (mostly secondary OA, SOA and biomass burning (BB are the main OA sources. The OA to CO ratio indicates a typical value for aged air of around 80 μg m−3 (STP ppm−1. This is within the range observed in outflow from the Northeastern US, which could be due to a compensating effect between higher BB but lower biogenic VOC emissions during this study. The O/C atomic ratio for OA is calculated from the HR mass spectra and shows a clear increase with photochemical age, as SOA forms rapidly and quickly overwhelms primary urban OA, consistent with Volkamer et al. (2006 and Kleinman et al. (2008. The stability of the OA/CO while O/C increases with photochemical age implies a net loss of carbon from the OA. BB OA is marked by signals at m/z 60 and 73, and also by a signal enhancement at large m/z indicative of larger molecules or more resistance to fragmentation. The main inorganic components show different spatial patterns and size distributions. Sulfate is regional in nature with clear volcanic and petrochemical/power plant sources, while the urban area is not a major regional source for this species. Nitrate is enhanced significantly in the urban area and immediate outflow, and is strongly correlated with CO indicating a strong urban source. The importance

  10. Seismic structure along transitions from flat to normal subduction: central Mexico, southern Peru, and southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Sara L.

    The fine-scale seismic structure of the central Mexico, southern Peru, and southwest Japan subduction zones is studied using intraslab earthquakes recorded by temporary and permanent regional seismic arrays. The morphology of the transition from flat to normal subduction is explored in central Mexico and southern Peru, while in southwest Japan the spatial coincidence of a thin ultra-slow velocity layer (USL) atop the flat slab with locations of slow slip events (SSEs) is explored. This USL is also observed in central Mexico and southern Peru, where its lateral extent is used as one constraint on the nature of the flat-to-normal transitions. In western central Mexico, I find an edge to this USL which is coincident with the western boundary of the projected Orozco Fracture Zone (OFZ) region. Forward modeling of the 2D structure of the subducted Cocos plate using a finite-difference algorithm provides constraints on the velocity and geometry of the slab's seismic structure in this region and confirms the location of the USL edge. I propose that the Cocos slab is currently fragmenting into a North Cocos plate and a South Cocos plate along the projection of the OFZ, by a process analogous to that which occurred when the Rivera plate separated from the proto-Cocos plate 10 Ma. In eastern central Mexico, observations of a sharp transition in slab dip near the abrupt end of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) suggest a possible slab tear located within the subducted South Cocos plate. The eastern lateral extent of the USL is found to be coincident with these features and with the western boundary of a zone of decreased seismicity, indicating a change in structure which I interpret as evidence of a possible tear. Analysis of intraslab seismicity patterns and focal mechanism orientations and faulting types provides further support for a possible tear in the South Cocos slab. This potential tear, together with the tear along the projection of the OFZ to the northwest

  11. Satellite Remote Sensing Analysis to Monitor Desertification Processes in Central Plateau of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, R.; González Sosa, E.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Hernández-Tellez, M.

    2013-05-01

    Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to climatic variations and human activities. Therefore there is a need to monitor the desertification process in the spatiotemporal scale in order to develop strategies to fight against desertification (Wu and Ci, 2002). In this sense, data provided by remote sensing is an important source for spatial and temporal information, which allows monitoring changes in the environment at low cost and high effectiveness. In Mexico, drylands hold 65% of the area, with about 1,280,494 km2 (UNESCO, 2010), where is located 46% of the national population (SEMARNAT, 2008). Given these facts, there is interest in monitoring the degradation of these lands, especially in Mexico because no specific studies have identified trends and progress of desertification in the country so far. However, it has been considered land degradation as an indicator of desertification process. Thus, it has been determined that 42% of soils in Mexico present some degradation degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal dynamics of desertification for 1993, 2000 and 2011 in the semiarid central plateau in Mexico based on demographic, climatic and satellite data. It took into consideration: 1) the Anthropogenic Impact Index (HII), based on the spatial population distribution and its influence on the use of resources and 2) the Aridity Index (AI), calculated with meteorological station records for annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Mosaics were made with Landsat TM scenes; considering they are a data source that allows evaluate surface processes regionally and with high spectral resolution. With satellite information five indices were estimated to assess the vegetation and soil conditions: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI), Grain Size Index (GSI) and Bare Soil Index (BSI). The rates

  12. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, James G.; Shedlock, Kaye M.

    2004-10-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently.

  13. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J.G.; Shedlock, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage. PMID:12339665

  15. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  16. Cooperation and tensions in multiethnic corporate societies using Teotihuacan, Central Mexico, as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla, Linda R

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, I address the case of a corporate society in Central Mexico. After volcanic eruptions triggered population displacements in the southern Basin of Mexico during the first and fourth centuries A.D., Teotihuacan became a multiethnic settlement. Groups from different backgrounds settled primarily on the periphery of the metropolis; nevertheless, around the core, intermediate elites actively fostered the movement of sumptuary goods and the arrival of workers from diverse homelands for a range of specialized tasks. Some of these skilled craftsmen acquired status and perhaps economic power as a result of the dynamic competition among neighborhoods to display the most lavish sumptuary goods, as well as to manufacture specific symbols of identity that distinguished one neighborhood from another, such as elaborate garments and headdresses. Cotton attire worn by the Teotihuacan elite may have been one of the goods that granted economic importance to neighborhood centers such as Teopancazco, a compound that displayed strong ties to the Gulf Coast where cotton cloth was made. The ruling elite controlled raw materials that came from afar whereas the intermediate elite may have been more active in providing other sumptuary goods: pigments, cosmetics, slate, greenstone, travertine, and foreign pottery. The contrast between the corporate organization at the base and top of Teotihuacan society and the exclusionary organization of the neighborhoods headed by the highly competitive intermediate elite introduced tensions that set the stage for Teotihuacan's collapse.

  17. Cooperation and tensions in multiethnic corporate societies using Teotihuacan, Central Mexico, as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla, Linda R

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, I address the case of a corporate society in Central Mexico. After volcanic eruptions triggered population displacements in the southern Basin of Mexico during the first and fourth centuries A.D., Teotihuacan became a multiethnic settlement. Groups from different backgrounds settled primarily on the periphery of the metropolis; nevertheless, around the core, intermediate elites actively fostered the movement of sumptuary goods and the arrival of workers from diverse homelands for a range of specialized tasks. Some of these skilled craftsmen acquired status and perhaps economic power as a result of the dynamic competition among neighborhoods to display the most lavish sumptuary goods, as well as to manufacture specific symbols of identity that distinguished one neighborhood from another, such as elaborate garments and headdresses. Cotton attire worn by the Teotihuacan elite may have been one of the goods that granted economic importance to neighborhood centers such as Teopancazco, a compound that displayed strong ties to the Gulf Coast where cotton cloth was made. The ruling elite controlled raw materials that came from afar whereas the intermediate elite may have been more active in providing other sumptuary goods: pigments, cosmetics, slate, greenstone, travertine, and foreign pottery. The contrast between the corporate organization at the base and top of Teotihuacan society and the exclusionary organization of the neighborhoods headed by the highly competitive intermediate elite introduced tensions that set the stage for Teotihuacan's collapse. PMID:25775567

  18. A detailed rock-magnetic and archeomagnetic study of lime-plasters from central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Ramirez, O.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Caballero-Miranda, C.; Hueda-Tanabe, Y.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2003-04-01

    We carried out a reconnaissance rock-magnetic and archeomagnetic investigations of lime-plasters at some most important pre-Hispanic sites in Central Mexico. Both burned and unburned lime plasters (in total 30 samples) were analyzed from Teotihuacan, Tlatelolco, Santa Cruz Atizapan and Pañhu. The characteristic directions determined in this study are considered to be of primary origin. Thermomagnetic investigation show that the remanence is carried in most cases by magnetite or Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Unblocking temperature spectra and relatively high coercivity point to 'small' pseudo-single domain magnetic structure grains as responsible for remanent magnetization. Single-component, linear demagnetization plots were observed in most of cases. The mean site directions are consistent with the available reference master curve for Mesoamerica.

  19. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  20. Land Management Strategies and their Implications for Mazahua Farmers’ Livelihoods in the Highlands of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Fajardo Belina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study from a Mazahua indigenous community in the rural Highlands of Central Mexico. It analyses Mazahua farming livelihoods characterised by subsistence agriculture, marginality, poverty and severe land degradation. Mazahua farmers face constrained environmental, socioeconomic and cultural conditions, which influence their local decisions on natural resource management. The results describe the capital assets base used, where land, livestock and crop production are imperative assets to support farmers’ livelihood strategies. It analyses local management practices to achieve livelihood outcomes in the short/long term, and to improve or undermine land characteristics and other related assets. It also presents a farmer typology constructed by local perceptions, a controversial element to drive sustainable development strategies at the local level. Finally, it discusses how local land management practices are adopted and their importance in developing alternatives to encourage positive trade-offs between conservation and production in order to improve rural livelihoods.

  1. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs. PMID:25619188

  2. Late Quaternary vegetation history of Rough Canyon, south-central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J.L.; Aasen, Rylander K.; Penalba, C.; McVickar, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    South-central New Mexico, USA, at the junction of the Rocky Mountains, High Plains and Chihuahuan Desert, is one of the better known regions in the late Quaternary of North America. Plant macrofossils and pollen from a packrat midden series in Rough Canyon, New Mexico allows refinement of plant distributions and paleoclimates in this transitional area since full glacial times. From 17000 to 12000 14C yr BP, Pinus edulis-Juniperus scopulorum woodlands dominated limestone substrates between 1800 and 1490 m, with Pseudotsuga menziesii and other mixed-conifer species restricted to shady, north-facing slopes. Juniperus deppeana, the dominant juniper today above 2000 m in southern New Mexico, is conspicuously absent from glacial middens and must have been displaced south of the US-Mexico border. The minimum climatic conditions for P. edulis-J. scopulorum woodlands are ca 20% wetter and 3.5-5??C cooler (July mean maximum temperatures) than the modern climate at Rough Canyon. Holocene warming/drying may have started as early as 12000 14C yr BP with the extirpation of J. scopulorum from Rough Canyon, and was completed by at least 10540 14C yr BP. The record for arrivals of some desert species is confounded by traces of pollen and macrofossils in some of the glacial middens, which could signify either earliest occurrence or temporal mixing (contamination) of assemblages. AMS 14C dating can discriminate between early arrival and contamination in midden macrofossils but not in pollen. AMS dates show that Choisya dumosa, presently near its northern (cold) limits at Rough Canyon, endured late glacial winters, possibly as clonal populations. Some Larrea tridentata leaves and pollen occur in middens dominated by conifers and oaks no longer at the site; an AMS date of 3205 14C yr BP on Larrea leaves from one midden indicates contamination. Evidence for some macrofossil contamination, however, does not rule out the possibility that pollen of desert elements (e.g. Larrea, Prosopis

  3. 77 FR 29683 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Sale; 216/222

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Mexico are specified as (1) less than 800 meters and (2) 800 meters or more. Per 64 FR 37560, if....gov . This requirement was implemented on October 1, 2003, and requires all entities doing business... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Consolidated Central Gulf of...

  4. Strategic integration of public transport networks with airport infrastructure in the megalopolis of Central Mexico: Evolution and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas, C.R.; Garcia Cejudo, D.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    Airports represent the contemporary global gateways of metropolitan areas worldwide. In the case of the megalopolis of Central Mexico, air transport was traditionally used only by upper social segments of the population, however, during the last years, the introduction of low-cost airlines in the co

  5. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  6. The economic impact of Los Alamos National Laboratory on north-central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratory with a mission to enhance national military and economic security through science and technology. Its mission is to reduce the nuclear danger through stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile and through its nonproliferation and verification activities. An important secondary mission is to promote US industrial competitiveness by working with US companies in technology transfer and technology development partnerships. Los Alamos is involved in partnerships and collaborations with other federal agencies, with industry (including New Mexico businesses), and with universities worldwide. For this report, the reference period is FY 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997) and includes two major impact analysis: the impact of LANL activities on north-central New Mexico and the economic impacts of LANL on the state of New Mexico. Total impact represents both direct and indirect respending by business, including induced effects (respending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the three-county region and the state of New Mexico. 5 figs., 12 tabs

  7. The economic impact of Los Alamos National Laboratory on north-central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US); Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Albuquerque Operations Office, Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (US); Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (US). Dept. of Economics; Temple, J. [Temple (John), Albuquerque, NM (US)

    1999-08-05

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratory with a mission to enhance national military and economic security through science and technology. Its mission is to reduce the nuclear danger through stewardship of the nation`s nuclear stockpile and through its nonproliferation and verification activities. An important secondary mission is to promote US industrial competitiveness by working with US companies in technology transfer and technology development partnerships. Los Alamos is involved in partnerships and collaborations with other federal agencies, with industry (including New Mexico businesses), and with universities worldwide. For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). It includes two major impact analysis: the impact of LANL activities on north-central New Mexico and the economic impacts of LANL on the state of New Mexico. Total impact represents both direct and indirect responding by business, including induced effects (responding by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the three-county region and the state of New Mexico.

  8. Environmental interpretation of lithofacies and biofacies, lower Sierra Madre Limestone, west central Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.K.T.

    1989-03-01

    The Jiquipilas section of the Cretaceous Sierra Madre Limestone, which encompasses the lower part of the formation, was measured northwest of the town of Ocozocuautla in west-central Chiapas, Mexico. The section is 2140 m thick and is characterized by six lithofacies interpreted to represent supratidal, intertidal platform, restricted inner shelf, open inner shelf, shoal, and open-marine middle shelf environments. Overall, the sequence is submergent, with minor emergent episodes. Based upon cluster analysis, three biofacies associations were established: offshore middle shelf, nearshore middle shelf, and inner shelf. The lower 2045 m of the section are dominated by the inner shelf association, while the upper 95 m are dominated by the offshore association. The nearshore middle-shelf association is a minor component throughout the section. Correlation with a measure section from a previous study resulted in a composite thickness for the Sierra Madre Limestone in west-central Chiapas of 3355 m. This figure is considerably greater than previously reported thicknesses for the formation. It indicates that sedimentation on the Yucatan carbonate platform during the middle Cretaceous may have approached sediment accumulation rates in modern sedimentary basins.

  9. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  10. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  11. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  12. Influence of supercontinent cyclicity on global metallogenic processes: Main tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A. V.; Rundquist, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    The distribution of large and superlarge mineral deposits (LSMD) of the most important raw materials is correlated with supercontinent cycles in the geological history of the Earth. The latter displays the distinct correlation between metallogenic activity and cyclic global endogenous processes reflected in quasi-regular cycles, which result eventually in the assembly and breakup of supercontinents. In the framework of these cycles, the maximums in the LSMD assembly coincide with periods of intense growth of the subcontinent crust owing to growth of the matter originated from juvenile sources (Kenoran, Columbian cycles) or with epochs of intense recycling of the mature crust (Pangean, Amasian cycles). The Rodinian cycle with minimum activity of these both endogenous processes demonstrates simultaneously minimum metallogenic activity. The distribution of most LSMD types generally follows these main tendencies.

  13. Tectonic Setting and Metallogenic System of North China Block Margins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The paleocontinental margins have frequent and intensive tectonic movement and various ore-forming processes. According to their tectono-dynamic characteristics, the paleocontinental margins can be classified into three types: the divergent, the convergent and the transformational. Each type has its specific geological-geochemical processes and metallogenic system. The paper discusses thetectonic evolution and ore-forming features of the North China block margins, puts forward conceptions such as complexity, variety and multi-stage development of metallogenic evolution in the paleocontinental margins, and expounds five factors controlling the formation of large-superlarge ore deposits in the paleocontinental margins: (1) channelway, (2) rendezvous of fluids, (3) abundance of ore source, (4) thermo-dynamic anomaly, (5) long duration of structural activities.

  14. Metallogenic Districts of Yangtze Cratonic Rim at the Edge of Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Combining the science of complexity with ore geology, the author puts forward a new theory of metallogenesis: "complexity and self-organized criticality of metallogenic dynamic systems", and three fundamental theories are raised for it. The ore genesis and regularity of ore formation of four metallogenic districts around the Yangtze craton in China are studied with this theory. It is found that"metallogenic districts of Yangtze cratonic rim are all at the edge of chaos". This proposition is expounded by four determinative criteria of the edge of chaos for metallogenic districts of Yangtze cratonic rim.

  15. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  16. Geology and Geochronology of the Central Part of Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P. W.

    2006-12-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA) is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in a northwest direction, including El Chichón volcano located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, southern Mexico. It lies between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Arc to the northwest, and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast, in a complex zone of the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos Plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 12 volcanic structures located 80 km to the southeast of El Chichón (the only currently active volcano in the CVA). These structures include one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), one dome complex (Tzontehuitz) and nine volcanic domes (Navenchauc, Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza, Miguel Hidalgo and Santotón) with associated pyroclastic flow deposits. The juvenile lithics from these deposits have a porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (±), amphibole (±), clinopyroxene (±), orthopyroxene (±) and Fe-Ti oxides surrounded by a matrix composed by microlites of plagioclase and glass. The chemical results obtained from representative samples from the deposits and structures indicate that these belong to the series of subalkaline rocks, and fall into the calcalkaline field with medium to high contents of potassium. They vary in their composition from andesite to dacite with an interval of silica between a 56 to a 66% (wt.). The ages reported in the literature and obtained in this study by means of the K-Ar and the 40Ar/39Ar methods, respectively, indicated that volcanism was episodic and spanned a time from 2100 ky ago (Tzontehuitz) to 225 ky ago (Venustiano Carranza).

  17. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  18. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    2008-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  19. Water balances of old-growth and regenerating montane cloud forests in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Villers, L. E.; Holwerda, F.; Gómez-Cárdenas, M.; Equihua, M.; Asbjornsen, H.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Marín-Castro, B. E.; Tobón, C.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryThis paper compares the water budgets of two adjacent micro-catchments covered by mature (MAT) and 20-year-old secondary (SEC) lower montane cloud forests, respectively, in central Veracruz, Mexico over a 2-year period. Rainfall (P) and streamflow (Q) were measured continuously, whereas dry canopy evaporation (transpiration Et), wet canopy evaporation (rainfall interception I), and cloud water interception (CWI) were quantified using a combination of field measurements and modeling. Mean annual P was 3467 mm, of which typically 80% fell during the wet season (May-October). Fog interception occurred exclusively during the dry season (November-April), and was ⩽2% of annual P for both forests. Rainfall interception loss was dominated by post-event evaporation of intercepted water rather than by within-event evaporation. Therefore, the higher overall I (i.e. including CWI) by the MAT (16% of P vs. 8% for the SEC) reflects a higher canopy storage capacity, related in turn to higher leaf area index and greater epiphyte biomass. Annual Et totals derived from sapflow measurements were nearly equal for the MAT and SEC (˜790 mm each). Total annual water yield calculated as P minus (Et + I) was somewhat higher for the SEC (2441 mm) than for the MAT (2077 mm), and mainly reflects the difference in I. Mean annual Q was also higher for the SEC (1527 mm) than for the MAT (1338 mm), and consisted mostly of baseflow (˜90%). Baseflow recession rates were nearly equal between the two forests, as were stormflow coefficients (4% and 5% for MAT and SEC, respectively). The very low runoff response to rainfall is attributed to the high infiltration and water retention capacities of the volcanic soils throughout the ˜2 m deep profile. The water budget results indicate that ˜875 and 700 mm year-1 leave the SEC and MAT as deep groundwater leakage, which is considered plausible given the fractured geology in the study area. It is concluded that 20 years of natural regeneration

  20. Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, a new species from central Veracruz, Mexico Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, una especie nueva de la región central de Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Croat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, a new species in section Monstera, endemic to central Veracruz, Mexico, is described and illustrated. This species appears to be most closely related to Monstera siltepecana Matuda and Monstera dubia (Kunth Engl. et K. Krause.Se describe e ilustra Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, una nueva especie de la sección Monstera, endémica de la región central del estado de Veracruz, México. Esta especie parece estar más cercanamente relacionada a los taxones Monstera siltepecana Matuda y Monstera dubia (Kunth Engl. et K. Krause.

  1. Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), a new species from central Veracruz, Mexico Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), una especie nueva de la región central de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Croat, Thomas B.; Thorsten Krömer; Amparo Acebey

    2010-01-01

    Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), a new species in section Monstera, endemic to central Veracruz, Mexico, is described and illustrated. This species appears to be most closely related to Monstera siltepecana Matuda and Monstera dubia (Kunth) Engl. et K. Krause.Se describe e ilustra Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), una nueva especie de la sección Monstera, endémica de la región central del estado de Veracruz, México. Esta especie parece estar más cercanamente relacionada a los taxones Monster...

  2. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  3. Extinction Risk of Pseudotsuga Menziesii Populations in the Central Region of Mexico: An AHP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Upton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP framework, a hierarchical model was created considering anthropogenic, genetic and ecological criteria and sub-criteria that directly affect Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. risk of extinction in central Mexico. The sub-criteria values were standardized, weighted, and ordered by importance in a pairwise comparison matrix; the model was mathematically integrated to quantify the degree of extinction risk for each of the 29 populations present in the study area. The results indicate diverse levels of risk for the populations, ranging from very low to very high. Estanzuela, Presa Jaramillo, Peñas Cargadas and Plan del Baile populations have very low risk, with values less than 0.25. On the other hand, Vicente Guerrero, Morán, Minatitlán, La Garita and Tonalapa populations have very high risk (>0.35 because they are heavily influenced by anthropogenic (close to roads and towns, ecological (presence of exotic species and little or no natural regeneration and genetic (presence of mature to overmature trees and geographic isolation factors. In situ conservation activities, prioritizing their implementation in populations at most risk is highly recommended; in addition, germplasm collection for use of assisted gene flow and migration approaches, including artificial reforestation, should be considered in these locations.

  4. The influence of mistletoes on birds in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Castellanos, Ignacio; Gates, J. Edward

    2014-11-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic flowering plants that function as keystone resources in forests and woodlands of temperate regions, where a positive relationship between mistletoe density and avian species richness has been observed. Mistletoes have been less studied in tropical regions and the relationship between birds and mistletoes has seldom been explored in tropical agricultural systems. Therefore, we studied the presence of infected trees and infection prevalence (i.e., number of parasitized trees/total number of trees) by Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes in 23 hedgerows located in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico during the dry and rainy seasons, and investigated the relationship between bird species richness and abundance and the abundance of mistletoes. We found a mean of 74 mistletoe plants per 100-m transect of only one species, Psittacanthus calyculatus. Thirty-one percent of the trees surveyed were infected and tree species differed in infection prevalence, mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) being the most infected species with 86% of the surveyed trees infected. For both seasons, we found a positive and significant association between bird species richness and number of mistletoe plants. The same pattern was observed for total bird abundance. Many resident and Neotropical migratory birds were observed foraging on mistletoes. Our results show that mistletoes are important in promoting a higher bird species richness and abundance in tropical agricultural landscapes.

  5. Urban-Rural Relations in the Central Region of Mexico: A Viewpoint from Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosales Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 90’s there was an important expansion of outsourcing industries all around the country and particularly on central region of Mexico, which enhanced an industrial diffusion that transformed the relation between rural an urban areas of the region. Labor and social practices around the textile industry on the region and particularly on the Tlaxcala state, enhanced the organization of a complex local-global network that was built on the context of the Nafta Agreement. Now a day, the local-global network around the textile industry has fall down due to the growing Chinese textile goods on the local and national market. The answer to this economic change has generated a wide range of changes among the different social actors that participated on the local-global network created by de textile industry during the golden years of the Nafta Agreement. Our research analyze the experience and strategies of a group of families from Tlaxcala, organized around the mixture of agricultural, manufacturing and service activities in order to reorganize the economic activities of their localities.

  6. Morphological variation and the process of domestication of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, A; Caballero, J; Valiente-Banuet, A; Soriano, J A; Dávila, P

    1999-04-01

    Morphological variation was analyzed in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in central Mexico. The purpose was to evaluate whether morphological divergence between manipulated and wild populations has resulted from domestication processes. Variation of 23 morphological characters was analyzed among 324 individuals from 19 populations of the Tehuacán Valley and La Mixteca Baja. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to group individuals and populations according to their morphological similarity. Individuals grouped according to the way of management and fruit characteristics were the most relevant for grouping. Within each region, sweet fruits with pulp colors other than red were more frequent in cultivated populations, where fruits were also larger, contained more and bigger seeds, and had thinner peel and fewer spines than fruits from wild individuals. Phenotypes common in managed in situ and cultivated populations generally occur in the wild but in lower frequencies. Artificial selection has thus operated by enhancing and maintaining desirable rare phenotypes in managed in situ and cultivated populations, causing divergent patterns of morphological variation from wild populations. Cultivation has caused the strongest level of divergence, but divergence has also been significant with management of wild populations in situ.

  7. Modeling susceptibility to deforestation of remaining ecosystems in North Central Mexico with logistic regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Miranda-Aragón; E.J. Trevi(n)o-Garza; J. Jiménez-Pérez; O.A. Aguirre-Calderón; M.A. González-Tagle; M. Pompa-García; C.A. Aguirre-Salado

    2012-01-01

    Determining underlying factors that foster deforestation and delineating forest areas by levels of susceptibility are of the main challenges when defining policies for forest management and planning at regional scale.The susceptibility to deforestation of remaining forest ecosystems (shrubland,temperate forest and rainforest) was conducted in the state of San Luis Potosi,located in north central Mexico.Spatial analysis techniques were used to detect the deforested areas in the study area during 1993-2007.Logistic regression was used to relate explanatory variables (such as social,investment,forest production,biophysical and proximity factors) with susceptibility to deforestation to construct predictive models with two focuses:general and by biogeographical zone.In all models,deforestation has positive correlation with distance to rainfed agriculture,and negative correlation with slope,distance to roads and distance to towns.Other variables were significant in some cases,but in others they had dual relationships,which varied in each biogeographical zone.The results show that the remaining rainforest of Huasteca region is highly susceptible to deforestation.Both approaches show that more than 70% of the current rainforest area has high and very high levels of susceptibility to deforestation.The values represent a serious concern with global warming whether tree carbon is released to atmosphere.However,after some considerations,encouraging forest environmental services appears to be the best alternative to achieve sustainabie forest management.

  8. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. nov., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae: Grewioideae also found in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Dorr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae also found in Mexico and Central America is T. lessertianum (Hochr. Dorr, comb. n. The name T. mexicanum (DC. Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico.

  9. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. n., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae, Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Dorr, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America is Trichospermum lessertianum (Hochr.) Dorr, comb. n. The name Trichospermum mexicanum (DC.) Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico.

  10. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, T. J; R. J. Yokelson; B. Cárdenas; Molina, L. T.; G. Engling; Hsu, S.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl, NO3, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case ...

  11. Initial Time Of Two High Altitude Crater Lakes (Nevado De Toluca, Central Mexico) Recorded In Subfossil Cladocera

    OpenAIRE

    Szeroczyńska Krystyna; Zawisza Edyta; Wojewódka Marta

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the recognition and reconstruction of the origin of two high altitude lakes and the ecological conditions of their early existence based on subfossil Cladocera and chemical analyses. The study focused on the oldest lacustrine sediments from Lake Sol and Lake Luna, located in the crater of Volcano Nevado de Toluca (Central Mexico). The Nevado de Toluca crater developed approximately 12 ka yr BP. According to the literature, the volcano was last active approximat...

  12. A new species of Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from a high altitude saline lake in Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Suarez Morales; Omar Barrera-Moreno; Jorge Ciros-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    During the analysis of littoral samples collected from a high-altitude saline crater lake in Central Mexico, several female and male specimens of harpacticoid copepods were recovered and taxonomically examined. They were found to represent an undescribed species of the canthocamptid genus Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875. The new species, C. gomezi n. sp. is described herein based on specimens of both sexes. It resembles C. stimpsoni Gómez, Fleeger, Rocha-Olivares and Foltz, 2004 from Louisi...

  13. Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

  14. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  15. Cenozoic evolution of tectono-fluid and metallogenic process in Lanping Basin,western Yunnan Province, Southwest China: Constraints from apatite fission track data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoming; SONG Yougui

    2006-01-01

    Since the Mesozoic, abundant metal and salt deposits have been formed in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province, Southwest China, constituting a well-known hydrothermal ore belt in China. Most of the deposits are meso-epithermal hydrothermal deposits. This paper preliminarily deals with the mineralization ages of hydrothermal deposits in the Lanping Basin by using the apatite fission track method, and integrates the spatial distribution of the deposits and their regional geological backgrounds, to give the preliminary viewpoints as follows: (1) the apatite fission track ages acquired range from 19.9 Ma to 52.8 Ma, much younger than those of their host strata, so they may be considered to be mineralization ages, which represent the late mineralization period; (2) the apatite fission track ages tend to become younger from the west to the middle of the basin, indicating that the latest evolution of tectono-fluid and/or metallogenic processes of the middle basin ended later than that in the west; (3) in the Paleogene, most of the Cu deposits were formed in the western part of the basin; (4) the major metallogenic processes occur between the Paleogene and the Neogene, because the eastern and western edges of the basin were subducted into and collided with its bilateral continental blocks, respectively, and the central fault was strongly activated, which led to the processes of large-scale ore-forming fluids, and their differentiation and transport because of the variation of their physical and chemical properties. Having been squeezed and uplifted, the Lanping Basin became an intermontane basin that contains many kinds of fluid traps resulting in the formation of different types of ore deposits (for example, Pb-Zn, Cu, Ag) of different scales in the middle of the basin. Simultaneously, the fluids with volatile elements such as Hg, Sb and As were transported upwards along the central fault system and diffused into its subordinate fractures, thus leading to the

  16. The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

    2013-05-01

    Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain

  17. Regionalization and classification of bioclimatic zones in the central-northeastern region of Mexico using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Martinez, L.F.; Carbajal, N.; Medina-Roldan, E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A. C., San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: lpineda@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2007-04-15

    Applying principal component analysis (PCA), we determined climate zones in a topographic gradient in the central-northeastern part of Mexico. We employed nearly 30 years of monthly temperature and precipitation data at 173 meteorological stations. The climate classification was carried out applying the Koeppen system modified for the conditions of Mexico. PCA indicates a regionalization in agreement with topographic characteristics and vegetation. We describe the different bioclimatic zones, associated with typical vegetation, for each climate using geographical information systems (GIS). [Spanish] Utilizando un analisis de componentes principales, determinamos zonas climaticas en un gradiente topografico en la zona centro-noreste de Mexico. Se emplearon datos de precipitacion y temperatura medias mensuales por un periodo de 30 anos de 173 estaciones meteorologicas. La clasificacion del clima fue llevada a cabo de acuerdo con el sistema de Koeppen modificado para las condiciones de Mexico. El analisis de componentes principales indico una regionalizacion que concuerda con caracteristicas de topografia y vegetacion. Se describen zonas bioclimaticas, asociadas a vegetacion tipica para cada clima, usando sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG).

  18. Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-02-26

    This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine

  19. Agave salmiana Plant Communities in Central Mexico as Affected by Commercial Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Salvador, Martin; Mata-González, Ricardo; Morales Nieto, Carlos; Valdez-Cepeda, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Agave salmiana is a native plant species harvested for the commercial production of mezcal ( Agave spirits) in the highlands of central Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify vegetation changes in natural communities where A. salmiana has been differentially harvested for commercial purposes. Three plant community categories were identified in the state of Zacatecas based on their history of A. salmiana utilization: short (less than 10 years of use), moderate (about 25 years), and long (60 or more years). Species cover, composition, and density were evaluated in field surveys by use category. A gradient of vegetation structure of the communities parallels the duration of A. salmiana use. A. salmiana density was greatest (3,125 plants ha-1) in the short-use areas and less (892 plants ha-1) in the moderate-use areas, associated with markedly greater density of shrubs (200%) and Opuntia spp. (50%) in moderate-use areas. The main shrubs were Larrea tridentata, Mimosa biuncifera, Jatropha dioica and Buddleia scordioides while the main Opuntia species were Opuntia leucotricha and Opuntia robusta. A. salmiana density was least (652 plants ha-1) in the long-use areas where shrubs were less abundant but Opuntia spp. density was 25% higher than in moderate-use areas. We suggest that shrubs may increase with moderate use creating an intermediate successional stage that facilitates the establishment of Opuntia spp. Long-term Agave use is generating new plant communities dominated by Opuntia spp. (nopaleras) as a replacement of the original communities dominated by A. salmiana (magueyeras).

  20. Semiarid watershed response in central New Mexico and its sensitivity to climate variability and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Vivoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic processes in the semiarid regions of the Southwest United States are considered to be highly susceptible to variations in temperature and precipitation characteristics due to the effects of climate change. Relatively little is known about the potential impacts of climate change on the basin hydrologic response, namely streamflow, evapotranspiration and recharge, in the region. In this study, we present the development and application of a continuous, semi-distributed watershed model for climate change studies in semiarid basins of the Southwest US. Our objective is to capture hydrologic processes in large watersheds, while accounting for the spatial and temporal variations of climate forcing and basin properties in a simple fashion. We apply the model to the Río Salado basin in central New Mexico since it exhibits both a winter and summer precipitation regime and has a historical streamflow record for model testing purposes. Subsequently, we use a sequence of climate change scenarios that capture observed trends for winter and summer precipitation, as well as their interaction with higher temperatures, to perform long-term ensemble simulations of the basin response. Results of the modeling exercise indicate that precipitation uncertainty is amplified in the hydrologic response, in particular for processes that depend on a soil saturation threshold. We obtained substantially different hydrologic sensitivities for winter and summer precipitation ensembles, indicating a greater sensitivity to more intense summer storms as compared to more frequent winter events. In addition, the impact of changes in precipitation characteristics overwhelmed the effects of increased temperature in the study basin. Nevertheless, combined trends in precipitation and temperature yield a more sensitive hydrologic response throughout the year.

  1. Food habits of rodents inhabiting arid and semi-arid ecosystems of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Parmenter, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe seasonal dietary composition for 15 species of rodents collected in all major habitats on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (Socorro County) in central New Mexico. A comprehensive literature review of food habits for these species from throughout their distribution also is provided. We collected rodents in the field during winter, spring and late summer in 1998 from six communities: riparian cottonwood forest; piñon-juniper woodland; juniper-oak savanna; mesquite savanna; short-grass steppe; and Chihuahuan Desert scrubland. Rodents included Spermophilus spilosoma (Spotted Ground Squirrel), Perognathus flavescens (Plains Pocket Mouse), Perognathus flavus (Silky Pocket Mouse), Dipodomys merriami (Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys ordii (Ord’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys spectabilis (Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat), Reithrodontomys megalotis (Western Harvest Mouse), Peromyscus boylii (Brush Mouse), Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus Mouse), Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse), Peromyscus truei (Piñon Mouse), Onychomys arenicola (Mearn’s Grasshopper Mouse), Onychomys leucogaster (Northern Grasshopper Mouse), Neotoma albigula/leucodon (White-throated Woodrats), and Neotoma micropus (Southern Plains Woodrat). We collected stomach contents of all species, and cheek-pouch contents of heteromyids, and quantified them in the laboratory. We determined seasonal diets in each habitat by calculating mean percentage volumes of seeds, arthropods and green vegetation (plant leaves and stems) for each species of rodent. Seeds consumed by each rodent were identified to genus, and often species, and quantified by frequency counts. Comparisons of diets between and among species of rodents, seasons, and ecosystems were also examined. We provide an appendix of all plant taxa documented.

  2. Late Pleistocene flank collapse of Zempoala volcano (Central Mexico) and the role of fault reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, José Luis; Macías, Rodolfo; García Palomo, Armando; Capra, Lucia; Macías, José Luis; Layer, Paul; Rueda, Hernando

    2008-11-01

    Zempoala is an extinct Pleistocene (˜ 0.7-0.8 Ma) stratovolcano that together with La Corona volcano (˜ 0.9 Ma) forms the southern end of the Sierra de las Cruces volcanic range, Central Mexico. The volcano consists of andesitic and dacitic lava flows and domes, as well as pyroclastic and epiclastic sequences, and has had a complex history with several flank collapses. One of these collapses occurred during the late Pleistocene on the S-SE flank of the volcano and produced the Zempoala debris avalanche deposit. This collapse could have been triggered by the reactivation of two normal fault systems (E-W and NE-SW), although magmatic activity cannot be absolutely excluded. The debris avalanche traveled 60 km to the south, covers an area of 600 km 2 and has a total volume of 6 km 3, with a calculated Heim coefficient (H/L) of 0.03. Based on the textural characteristics of the deposit we recognized three zones: proximal, axial, and lateral distal zone. The proximal zone consists of debris avalanche blocks that develop a hummocky topography; the axial zone corresponds with the main debris avalanche deposit made of large clasts set in a sandy matrix, which transformed to a debris flow in the lateral distal portion. The deposit is heterolithologic in composition, with dacitic and andesitic fragments from the old edifice that decrease in volume as bulking of exotic clasts from the substratum increase. Several cities (Cuernavaca, Jojutla de Juárez, Alpuyeca) with associated industrial, agricultural, and tourism activities have been built on the deposit, which pose in evidence the possible impact in case of a new event with such characteristics, since the area is still tectonically active.

  3. Ecosystem service trade-offs, perceived drivers, and sustainability in contrasting agroecosystems in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability of agroecosystems to provide food ultimately depends on the regulating and supporting ecosystem services that underpin their functioning, such as the regulation of soil quality, water quality, soil erosion, pests, and pollinators. However, there are trade-offs between provisioning and regulating or supporting services, whose nature at the farm and plot scales is poorly understood. We analyzed data at the farm level for two agroecosystems with contrasting objectives in central Mexico: one aimed at staple crop production for self-subsistence and local markets, the other directed to a cash crop for export markets. Bivariate and multivariate trade-offs were analyzed for different crop management strategies (conventional, organic, traditional, crop rotation and their underpinning socioeconomic drivers. There was a clear trade-off between crop yield and soil quality in self-subsistence systems. However, other expected trade-offs between yields and soil quality did not always occur, likely because of the overall good soils of the region and the low to medium input profile of most farms. Trade-offs were highly dependent on farm-specific agricultural practices; organic, traditional, and rotation management systems generally showed smaller trade-offs between yield and soil quality, pest control, and biodiversity than did conventional management systems. Perceived drivers reported by farmers included increasing prices for cash crops, rising costs of inputs, and extreme climatic events (e.g., drought, hail, frost. Farmers did not identify the regulation of soil quality, water quality, soil erosion, pests, or pollinators as important constraints. Although acceptable yields could be maintained irrespective of key regulating and supporting services according to these perceptions, current levels of soil erosion and nutrient runoff are likely to have important negative effects at the watershed scale. Sustainability in both agroecosystems could be

  4. Urea treated maize straw for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2009-10-01

    Maize straw is the main roughage for dairy herds in campesino farms in central Mexico. The objective was to evaluate feeding milking cows on maize straw treated with 40 g/kg DM of urea (A) or untreated straw (B), and 3.0 kg/d of 18% CP concentrate. Twenty-four Holsteins in late lactation from 8 farmers were sorted in two groups: sequence A-B-A or B-A-B; periods were 28 days. Mean daily milk yield for the last two weeks per period, and live-weight and body-condition score every 14 days were used for analysis. Maize straw was ad libitum. Chemical analysis and in vitro digestibility were analysed by Student's t test, animal variables by a switch-back design. 'A' had 44.3 g/kg DM more CP and 106.5 g/kg DM higher in vitro digestibility than 'B' (710 g/kg DM +/- 0.75 'A' vs. 603.5 g/kg DM +/- 1.44 'B'). Despite higher digestibility and intake, there were no differences (P > 0.05) for milk yield, live-weight or body-condition score, although there were in straw intake (P < 0.05). Cows on 'A' ate 1.7 kg/cow/day more straw DM than on 'B'. Lack of response did not offset higher feeding costs although margins were high. Lack of response is attributed to short length of periods and late lactation of cows. PMID:19330533

  5. Inversion polymorphism in some natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura from central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salceda Víctor M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of D. pseudoobscura were taken in seventeen localities in Central Mexico inside the parallels 18o - 20o N, with the purpose of determine the chromosomal polymorphism in the third of the different populations of this species. From each captured female a single larva of its offspring was taken, its salivary glands extracted and stained with a solution of aceto orcein to observe the polytene chromosomes. From these smears the corresponding karyotype of each larva was determined, keeping a record of them. With the information gathered the relative frequency of each one of the fourteen different inversions found was calculated. A grand total of 1894 third chromosomes were analyzed. The fourteen different inversions found are equivalent to a 34.1 % of the total chromosomal variation of the species. The most abundant inversions found were: TL 50.6 %, CU 27.2 5, SC 9.1 % and EP 5.5 %; the remaining ten inversions detected are in general grounds rare ones with variable relative frequencies depending on the locality. Analysis of the predominant inversions for each population was done. The presence of West-East gradients is reported, even if in cases not so well defined, since as one moves in a particular direction the ups and downs in relative frequency for the alternating pairs TL-CU; TL-SC in the western populations and TL-CU in the eastern ones were observed. The assignment of each population to a particular race was also done, and such a way we were able to recognize three different races coexisting in the area of study.

  6. Agave salmiana plant communities in central Mexico as affected by commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Salvador, Martin; Mata-González, Ricardo; Morales Nieto, Carlos; Valdez-Cepeda, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Agave salmiana is a native plant species harvested for the commercial production of mezcal (Agave spirits) in the highlands of central Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify vegetation changes in natural communities where A. salmiana has been differentially harvested for commercial purposes. Three plant community categories were identified in the state of Zacatecas based on their history of A. salmiana utilization: short (less than 10 years of use), moderate (about 25 years), and long (60 or more years). Species cover, composition, and density were evaluated in field surveys by use category. A gradient of vegetation structure of the communities parallels the duration of A. salmiana use. A. salmiana density was greatest (3,125 plants ha(-1)) in the short-use areas and less (892 plants ha(-1)) in the moderate-use areas, associated with markedly greater density of shrubs (200%) and Opuntia spp. (50%) in moderate-use areas. The main shrubs were Larrea tridentata, Mimosa biuncifera, Jatropha dioica and Buddleia scordioides while the main Opuntia species were Opuntia leucotricha and Opuntia robusta. A. salmiana density was least (652 plants ha(-1)) in the long-use areas where shrubs were less abundant but Opuntia spp. density was 25% higher than in moderate-use areas. We suggest that shrubs may increase with moderate use creating an intermediate successional stage that facilitates the establishment of Opuntia spp. Long-term Agave use is generating new plant communities dominated by Opuntia spp. (nopaleras) as a replacement of the original communities dominated by A. salmiana (magueyeras).

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Grant County, Central and Southern Parts, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  9. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  10. Eolic central Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, performance first year operation; Central eolica Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, resultados del primer ano de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Sanchez Cornejo, Carlos; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Ley Romero, Jose R [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad installed a 600 kW wind turbine in the Guerrero Negro isolated electrical grid to evaluate, under actual operation conditions, the contribution of wind energy in the generation of electricity. This paper describes the performance of the wind turbine in terms of its availability, power curve and electricity produced. The results have been satisfactory, electricity was supplied with a lesser fuel consumption than before. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad instalo en Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico un aerogenerador de 600 kW para evaluar en condiciones reales de operacion la integracion de la energia del viento a sistemas electricos aislados basados en diesel. En este trabajo se describen los resultados del primer ano de operacion del aerogenerador en terminos de su disponibilidad, curva de potencia y generacion obtenida. Los resultados han sido satisfactorios, registrandose una reduccion en el consumo de combustible fosil en el sistema.

  11. Implementation of MAR within the Rio Grande Basin of Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Robert; Blandford, T. Neil; Ewing, Amy; Webb, Larry; Yuhas, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has identified the Rio Grande basin within Central New Mexico as one of several regions where water supplies are over-allocated and future conflicts over the inadequate resource are highly likely. Local water providers have consistently identified managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as an important tool to provide conjunctive management of surface-water, groundwater, and reclaimed water sources in order to extend the useful life of existing water sources. However, MAR projects have been slow to take root partly due to rigorous demonstration requirements, groundwater quality protection concerns, and ongoing water right uncertainties. At first glance the several thousand meters of unconsolidated basin-fill sediments hosting the regional aquifer appear to provide an ideal environment for the subsurface storage of surplus water. However, the basin has a complex structural and depositional history that impacts the siting and overall effectiveness of MAR systems. Several recharge projects are now in various stages of implementation and are overcoming site specific challenges including source water and ambient groundwater compatibility, low-permeability sediments and compartmentalization of the aquifer by extensive faulting, well clogging, and overall water quality management. This presentation will highlight ongoing efforts of these water providers to develop full-scale recharge facilities. The performance of natural in-channel infiltration, engineered infiltration galleries, and direct injection systems designed to introduce from 500 to 5,000 mega-liters per annum to target intervals present from 150 to 600 meters below ground surface will be described. Source waters for recharge operations include inter-basin transferred surface water and highly treated reclaimed water sources requiring from minor to extensive treatment pre-recharge and post-recovery. Operational complexities have raised concerns related to long-term operation and maintenance

  12. Environmental history of mangrove vegetation in Pacific west-central Mexico during the last 1300 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Lorena Figueroa-Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMangroves are a highly threatened ecosystem due to climate change and human activity, which increases coastal vulnerability. Knowledge about the ecological dynamics of mangroves on a centennial timescale can reveal the different responses in vegetation, which is useful for implementing basic actions for mangrove restoration, conservation and management. A mangrove ecosystem in the Cuyutlán Lagoon area along the Pacific coast of west-central Mexico is significantly altered as a result of industrialization, salt extraction, and road construction. The long-term dynamics of the mangrove ecosystem has also been controlled by Holocene climatic variability. This study reconstructs the environmental history of mangrove vegetation around the Cuyutlán Lagoon during the last ~1300 years in response to periods of human activity and climate change. The reconstruction was performed using paleoecological techniques in sediment cores that include the use of fossil pollen as a proxy for vegetation and magnetic susceptibility and geochemical data (determined by loss-on-ignition and X-ray fluorescence as a proxy for past environmental changes. The chronology was determined using 14C dating and the age-depth model was constructed by linear interpolation. Redundancy analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were used to discern patterns of distribution of the different proxies. Results revealed that the mangrove pollen assemblage of the Cuyutlán Lagoon was dominated by the arboreal taxa Rhizophora mangle, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Pinaceae, herbaceous taxa like Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, and aquatics such as Typhaceae and Cyperaceae. NMDS showed a clear separation between two events of human activity—the Spanish Occupation of Colima (~AD 1523-1524 and the opening of the Manzanillo port (~AD 1824-1825. Climate change events such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA (~AD 800-1200 and the Little Ice Age (LIA (~AD 1350-1850 were

  13. Metallogenic characteristics of volcanic hydrothermal type U-Au-polymetallic deposits in Yanshan-Liaoning region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanshan-Liaoning area is located in the east part of the northern margin of North-China platform. It is a famous metallogenic region of Mesozoic volcanic hydrothermal type U-Au-polymetallic deposits in the country. The metallogenesis is controlled by a united Late Mesozoic continental taphrogenic volcano-magmatic activity. The metallogenic epochs are concentrated in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous periods. The metallogenic media are moderate and moderate-low temperature volcanic hydrothermal solutions originated from the mixing of volcano-magmatic water, metamorphic water and atmospheric water. The ore-forming materials are mainly derived from enrichment type upper mantle and lower crust. (8 refs., 5 figs.)

  14. Soil-geomorphology and “wet” cycles in the Holocene record of North-Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W.; Abbott, James T.; Frederick, Charles D.; Lehman, Paul H.; Cordova, Carlos E.; Oswald, John F.

    2008-10-01

    The distinction between the impact of climatic periodicities or land-use practices on soil erosion is an important issue for Pre-Hispanic and Colonial Mexico. That question can best be addressed by first documenting the dynamics of changing "wet" cycles during the Holocene in the central Mexican region between the northern limits of Pre-Hispanic agriculture and its southern margins in northwestern Chihuahua. Consequently the Laguna Project targeted a 125,000 km 2 sector of North-Central Mexico, 250 km from north to south and 500 km from east to west, from Saltillo to Durango. Some 40 sedimentary profiles with multiple cumulic soils were studied in the field and laboratory, supported by 163 conventional 14C and AMS dates on charcoal and soil humates. We distinguish: (1) wet floodplains (with humic paleosols, redox phenomena reflecting high water tables, channel-ponding sequences, and interbedded tufas) that imply aquifer recharge, sustained base flow, and mainly low-energy conditions; and (2) high-energy pulses of discharge that mobilized cobble gravels or forced channel entrenchment ("gullying") and were tied to episodic, excessive rains that promoted valley and slope instability. In between such "wet" cycles and recurrent disequilibrium events, climate was similar to today, probably less humid, with limited geomorphologic change or slow soil formation. "Wet" cycles were rare at the end of the Pleistocene, but prominent during the Holocene. Disequilibrium proxies became common and dramatic after 2500 BP. The drainages from the Eastern and Western Sierra Madres responded in phase, but varied in detail. Around AD 1050-1200 "natural" erosion led to loss of soil organic carbon, as alternating severe droughts and heavy rains destroyed the ground cover and led to ecological aridification, well before arrival of Spanish miners and settlers. The evidence that human activity triggered Pre-Hispanic or Colonial erosion in Central Mexico should therefore be re

  15. Description of piezometers installed in the middle Rio Grande basin area, 1997-99, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, J.R.; Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1993, the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, and particularly in the Albuquerque area, has been the focus of studies to further define the extent of the most productive parts of the aquifer and to gain a better understanding of how ground- water levels are changing over time. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer, installed nine piezometers during 1998-99 at five sites in and near the margin of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. In addition, the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer installed another nine piezometers at three sites during 1997. These piezometers allow for collection of ground-water-level data in areas for which little information is available. Most of the piezometers were constructed of 2.5-inch-diameter flush-joint polyvinyl chloride (PVC) schedule 80 casing with 10-foot stainless steel screens; the shallow piezometer at the Tome site has a 40-foot screen, and the single piezometers at the Dome Road and Phoenix Road sites have steel casing with welded joints and a 10- and a 20-foot screen, respectively. Steel casing with a locking lid covers the uppermost 2 feet of the piezometer casing. Drillers' logs and petrophysical logs were collected from the deepest borehole at each site.

  16. Gulf of Mexico sales 147 and 150: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1. Sections I through IV.C. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales (Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)). The document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the description of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities

  17. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  18. Formation conditions of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    The results of previous geological, petrochemical, and metallogenic surveys conducted from the 1960s to the 1990s provide the geological and tectonic basis of this study. The unique mineral deposits of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province were formed in the Middle Paleozoic (S2-C1) at the junction between different structures of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: the Alei-Charysh-Tigirek rift (in the north) with the Korgon-Markakol' island arc and Belaya Uba-Maimyr intra-arc trough (in the southwest). The Rudny Altai structural-formational zone that formed at the junction between these structures evolved as a magmatic arc and was characterized by the formation of granite-greenschist arches, volcanoplutonic magmatism and high heat and fluid flow (greenschist-facies metamorphism of Upper Silurian-Upper Devonian rocks and deposition of pyrite-bearing hydrothermal-sedimentary horizons, VMS and copper-VMS deposits and isolated base-metal ore bodies). The tectonomagmatic history of the Rudny Altai zone can be subdivided into several stages: Ludlow-Emsian, Late Emsian-Givetian, Frasnian-Early Famennian, Middle Famennian-Early Visean, and Late Visean-Serpukhovian. The island arc is represented by volcanic rocks of the andesite-dacite-rhyolite (early stage), basalt-rhyolite (Late Emsian-Eifelian), and basalt-andesite-rhyolite series (Late Visean). Volcanosedimentary strata (until the Givetian age) and turbidites up to 3-5 km thick were deposited in the interarc trough. Because of their metastable behavior, the volcanic rocks became actively involved in ion-exchange reactions with the formational waters, whereas the differences in hydraulic head between arches and troughs created favorable conditions for the transport of the metamorphic fluids, and the thermal gradient promoted thermodiffusion of divalent species of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu, etc. toward the high-temperature zone and development of the high-Mg metamorphic-metasomatic alteration with a VMS-base-metal mineralization. As a

  19. Land subsidence in major cities of Central Mexico: Interpreting InSAR-derived land subsidence mapping with hydrogeological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Arroyo-Domínguez, Norma; Martel, Richard; Calderhead, Angus I.; Normand, Jonathan C. L.; Gárfias, Jaime; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Significant structural damages to urban infrastructures caused by compaction of over-exploited aquifers are an important problem in Central Mexico. While the case of Mexico City has been well-documented, insight into land subsidence problems in other cities of Central Mexico is still limited. Among the cities concerned, we present and discuss the cases of five of them, located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB): Toluca, Celaya, Aguascalientes, Morelia, and Queretaro. Applying the SBAS-InSAR method to C-Band RADARSAT-2 data, five high resolution ground motion time-series were produced to monitor the spatio-temporal variations of displacements and fracturing from 2012 to 2014. The study presents recent changes of land subsidence rates along with concordant geological and water data. It aims to provide suggestions to mitigate future damages to infrastructure and to assist in groundwater resources management. Aguascalientes, Celaya, Morelia and Queretaro (respectively in order of decreasing subsidence rates) are typical cases of fault-limited land subsidence of Central Mexico. It occurs as a result of groundwater over-exploitation in lacustrine and alluvial deposits covering highly variable bedrock topography, typical of horst-graben geological settings. Aguascalientes and Toluca show high rates of land subsidence (up to 10 cm/yr), while Celaya and Morelia show lower rates (from 2 to 5 cm/yr). Comparing these results with previous studies, it is inferred that the spatial patterns of land subsidence have changed in the city of Toluca. This change appears to be mainly controlled by the spatial heterogeneity of compressible sediments since no noticeable change occurred in groundwater extraction and related drawdown rates. While land subsidence of up to 8 cm/yr has been reported in the Queretaro Valley before 2011, rates inferior to 1 cm/yr are measured in 2013-2014. The subsidence has been almost entirely mitigated by major changes in the water management

  20. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Burke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: C. tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; C. ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; C. gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and C. mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated.

  1. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alan F.; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatodera tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatodera ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatodera gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatodera mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated. PMID:26257571

  2. Modeling groundwater levels on the Calera Aquifer Region in Central Mexico using ModFLow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A conceptual model for the Calera Aquifer has been created to represent the aquifer system beneath the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The CAR area was uniformly partitioned into a 500 X 500 m grid generating a high resolution model that represented the natural boundar...

  3. Structural Vulnerability among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico:The Public Health Impact of Humanitarian Parole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Salerno Valdez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol (USCBP has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the United States. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project Helping Hands (PHH utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency.These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before, and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing

  4. Helminth infracommunity structure of the sympatric garter snakes Thamnophis eques and Thamnophis melanogaster from the Mesa Central of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustin; García-Prieto, Luis; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2002-06-01

    Seventy-two Mexican garter snakes (Thamnophis eques) and 126 black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) were collected from 4 localities of the Mesa Central of Mexico between July 1996 and February 1998 and examined for helminths. Both species of garter snakes occurred sympatrically in every locality except in Lake Cuitzeo. Both species of snakes shared 9 helminth species, and in general, T. melanogaster hosted a larger number of species than T. eques. In each locality, a different helminth species showed the highest levels of prevalence and abundance (Spiroxys susanae in Ciénaga de Lerma, Telorchis corti in Lago de Pátzcuaro, Proteocephalus variabilis in Lago de Cuitzeo, and Contracaecum sp. in Lago de Chapala). Helminth communities in garter snakes of the Mesa Central are depauperate and dominated by a single parasite species. In those localities where the snakes occurred in sympatry, helminth communities were, in general, more diverse and species-rich in T. melanogaster. Differences in the ecology and physiology of these species of garter snakes may explain this pattern because black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) are more aquatic than Mexican garter snakes (T. eques) and primarily eat aquatic prey, potentially exposing themselves to a larger number of helminths transmitted by predator-prey infection. The helminth infracommunities of garter snakes in the Mesa Central of Mexico show a strong Nearctic influence because most of the species infecting these hosts have been recorded in other Nearctic colubrid snakes. However, the helminth infracommunities of these garter snakes are less species-rich and less diverse than those in colubrid snakes in more temperate latitudes. The widespread ecological perturbation of sampling sites in the Mesa Central because of human activity, and geographic differences in foraging ecology of the hosts and, thus, exposure to parasites transmitted by intermediate hosts may help to explain these patterns. PMID:12099411

  5. Assessment of the sustainability of dual-purpose farms by the IDEA method in the subtropical area of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Reyes, Isela Guadalupe; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sustainability of 10 dual-purpose cattle farms in a subtropical area of central Mexico. The IDEA method (Indicateurs de Durabilité des Exploitations Agricoles) was applied, which includes the agroecological, socio-territorial and economic scales (scores from 0 to 100 points per scale). A sample of 47 farms from a total of 91 registered in the local livestock growers association was analysed with principal component analysis and cluster analysis. From results, 10 farms were selected for the in-depth study herein reported, being the selection criterion continuous milk production throughout the year. Farms had a score of 88 and 86 points for the agroecological scale in the rainy and dry seasons. In the socio-territorial scale, scores were 73 points for both seasons, being the component of employment and services the strongest. Scores for the economic scale were 64 and 56 points for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, when no economic cost for family labour is charged, which decreases to 59 and 45 points when an opportunity cost for family labour is considered. Dual-purpose farms in the subtropical area of central Mexico have a medium sustainability, with the economic scale being the limiting factor, and an area of opportunity. PMID:25958175

  6. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems. PMID:26992734

  7. Breed and environmental factors of sows and their repeatabilities in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    José C. Segura-Correa; José Herrera-Camacho; Rosa E. Pérez-Sánchez; Ernestina Gutiérrez-Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Background: reproductive traits influence lifetime productivity of sows. Objective: to determine the effects of year and season of farrowing, parity number, and breed, on litter size at birth, weaning to service interval (WSI), farrowing to service interval (FSI), and to estimate their repeatabilities. Methods: data from years 1998 to 2008 from a farm in La Piedad, Michoacan, Mexico, were used. Sow breeds were Camborough 22 (PIC), Yorkshire (Y), F1 Landrace x Yorkshire (F1 LY), and ¼ Landrace...

  8. Canopy arthropods community within and among oak species in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín TOVAR-SANCHEZ

    2009-01-01

    Quercus rugosa and Q.laurina are species that presents a wide geographical distribution range in temperate forests of Mexico. Oak canopies contain a considerable portion of arthropod diversity and the arthropods fauna fulfill a wide variety of ecological roles. We examined the effect of oak species and seasonal changes on some community structure parameters (diversity, composition, similarity, biomass, rare species, and density of arthropod fauna) of canopy arthropods. In total, 40 oak ca...

  9. The ~ 2000 yr BP Jumento volcano, one of the youngest edifices of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Muñoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Salinas, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Chichinautzin Volcanic Field is situated at the southern limit of the Basin of Mexico and the Metropolitan area of Mexico City, the third most populated city around the world. The Chichinautzin Volcanic field holds more than 220 monogenetic volcanoes. Xitle is the youngest of these with an estimated age of 1.6 ky BP. Xitle's eruptive activity took place during the Mesoamerican Mexican Pre-classic period and is related to the destruction of Cuicuilco Archaeological Site, the oldest civilization known in Central Mexico. However, there are still several regional cones that have not been dated. Based on 14C ages, stratigraphic and geomorphologic criteria, we conclude that the Jumento volcano, located to the west of Xitle, is one of the youngest cones of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field. The Jumento volcano has a basaltic andesite composition, and its eruptive activity was initially hydromagmatic, followed by Strombolian and finally effusive events occurred recorded through: (1) a sequence of hydromagmatic pyroclastic surges and ashfall layers emplaced at a radius of > 5 km from the crater with charcoal fragments at its base; this activity built the Jumento's cone with slopes of 32°; and (2) lava flows that breached the southern part of the cone and flowed for up to 2.5 km from the vent. The resulting 14C ages for this volcano yielded a maximum age of ~ 2 ky BP. Morphometric analysis indicates that the state of degradation of Jumento cone is similar to the Xitle, suggesting that the Jumento could be in the state of degradation of a volcanic structure of similar age or younger adding credence to the probable radiocarbon age of ~ 2 ky BP for the Jumento edifice.

  10. Centrality of Event across Cultures. Emotionally Positive and Negative Events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms: Participants with higher PTSD and depression scores reported that a traumatic or negative event was highly central to their identity and life story; and 3) A significant number of positive event occurred during participants’ adolescence and early adulthood, while...... negative events increased as participants grew older....

  11. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina Tectonic, paleogeographic, and metallogenic evolution during the Cenozoic in the Andes of Central and Northern Chile and implication for the adjacent regions of Bolivia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental también existieron importantes episodios de erosión que originaron depósitos que se encuentran en la vertiente oriental de la cadena en la actualidad y presentan una cronología comparable con la de los depósitos del dominio occidental. Sin embargo, la evolución se caracterizó por presentar, a partir del Eoceno Tardío, diferencias al norte y sur de los ~27ºS. Al norte de esa latitud, en el ámbito del Altiplano-Puna, el arco magmático se mantuvo aproximadamente en la misma posición, coincidente con la del arco actual, y estuvo bordeado por una cuenca de antepaís de retroarco; mientras que, al sur de ~27ºS, se desarrollaron sucesivos arcos magmáticos con una marcada migración hacia el este. El arco magmático del Eoceno Tardío al Oligoceno Tardío - Mioceno Temprano se caracterizó por el desarrollo de una amplia cuenca extensional de intra-arco, la cuenca de Abanico. En esta cuenca se acumularon hasta 3.000 m de rocas volcánicas, volcaniclásticas y, subordinadamente, sedimentarias. A partir del límite oligoceno-mioceno, tuvo lugar un nuevo evento compresivo a lo largo de todo el orógeno que rejuveneció el núcleo de la Cordillera Incaica e invirtió la cuenca de Abanico permitiendo la generación de abundantes depósitos sintectónicos a ambos lados de los nuevos relieves. El inicio de este evento coincide con la orogenia pehuenche, los pulsos compresivos se mantuvieron hasta el Plioceno Temprano. En el Mioceno Temprano a Medio

  12. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in a watershed in central Mexico and removal from domestic sewage in a treatment wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Marco A; Ikonomou, Michael; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    The Texcoco River in central Mexico is polluted with domestic wastewater as a result of discharges of untreated or inadequately treated sewage. Since nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) surfactants and their intermediate degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and NP mono- and diethoxylate (NP1EO, NP2EO) have been found in domestic wastewater and in surface waters near wastewater discharges in industrialized countries, the Texcoco River was sampled to determine whether these compounds were present. The results indicated that NPEOs were present at very high concentrations (> 100 microg/L) in the lower reaches of the Texcoco River, but unlike rivers in industrialized countries, relatively low concentrations of intermediate degradation products, including NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP, were present. The presence and fate of NPEOs compounds in wastewater treatment plants have been studied only in conventional treatment systems in industrialized countries. In this study, the fate of these compounds was studied in a pilot-scale treatment wetland constructed in the small community of Santa Maria Nativitas in the Texcoco River watershed. The treatment wetland removed > 75% of NPEOs from the domestic wastewater, but the greatest proportion of removal occurred in parts of the treatment wetland where sedimentation existed. This is the first report of NPEO compounds in the water resources of a developing country. These data indicate that construction of low-cost and technologically simple treatment wetlands may be one solution to reducing the impacts of contaminants from domestic sewage in developing countries, such as Mexico.

  13. The functional PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism confers risk for rheumatoid arthritis in patients from Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, J F Mendoza; Cano, D López; Morales, S Jiménez; Jiménez, M L Rivas; Cobos, R E Barbosa; Bello, J Ramírez

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex genetic disease. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes are reportedly associated with an increased risk of RA. The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 gene (PTPN22), which encodes the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) protein, is one of the best examples of a non-HLA gene associated with a risk for RA in several populations. The functional PTPN22 C1858T (R620W) non-synonymous polymorphism is widely associated with an increased risk for RA in Europeans and non-Europeans. The aim of this study was to determine if the PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism confers susceptibility to RA in a sample of patients from Mexico. This study included 364 RA patients and 387 non-related controls from Central Mexico. Genotyping of the PTPN22 C1858T (rs2476601) polymorphism was performed using allelic discrimination assays with TaqMan probes. The functional PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism was associated with an increased risk for RA in our study population. The CC vs CT genotype in RA patients versus healthy controls had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.17 (95 % CI 1.79-9.74, p = 0.00036), while T allele had an OR of 4.06 (95 % CI 1.75-9.41, p = 0.00043). PTPN22 is a genetic risk factor for developing RA in the Mexican population. PMID:26951256

  14. Sources and Delivery of Nutrients to the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico from Streams in the South-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, R.A.; Houston, N.A.; Mize, S.V.; Pearson, D.K.; Ging, P.B.; Evan, Hornig C.

    2011-01-01

    SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were developed to estimate nutrient inputs [total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP)] to the northwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico from streams in the South-Central United States (U.S.). This area included drainages of the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf hydrologic regions. The models were standardized to reflect nutrient sources and stream conditions during 2002. Model predictions of nutrient loads (mass per time) and yields (mass per area per time) generally were greatest in streams in the eastern part of the region and along reaches near the Texas and Louisiana shoreline. The Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River watersheds, which drain nearly two-thirds of the conterminous U.S., delivered the largest nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico, as expected. However, the three largest delivered TN yields were from the Trinity River/Galveston Bay, Calcasieu River, and Aransas River watersheds, while the three largest delivered TP yields were from the Calcasieu River, Mermentau River, and Trinity River/Galveston Bay watersheds. Model output indicated that the three largest sources of nitrogen from the region were atmospheric deposition (42%), commercial fertilizer (20%), and livestock manure (unconfined, 17%). The three largest sources of phosphorus were commercial fertilizer (28%), urban runoff (23%), and livestock manure (confined and unconfined, 23%). ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Sources and Delivery of Nutrients to the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico from Streams in the South-Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, Richard A; Houston, Natalie A; Mize, Scott V; Pearson, Daniel K; Ging, Patricia B; Evan Hornig, C

    2011-10-01

    SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were developed to estimate nutrient inputs [total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP)] to the northwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico from streams in the South-Central United States (U.S.). This area included drainages of the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf hydrologic regions. The models were standardized to reflect nutrient sources and stream conditions during 2002. Model predictions of nutrient loads (mass per time) and yields (mass per area per time) generally were greatest in streams in the eastern part of the region and along reaches near the Texas and Louisiana shoreline. The Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River watersheds, which drain nearly two-thirds of the conterminous U.S., delivered the largest nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico, as expected. However, the three largest delivered TN yields were from the Trinity River/Galveston Bay, Calcasieu River, and Aransas River watersheds, while the three largest delivered TP yields were from the Calcasieu River, Mermentau River, and Trinity River/Galveston Bay watersheds. Model output indicated that the three largest sources of nitrogen from the region were atmospheric deposition (42%), commercial fertilizer (20%), and livestock manure (unconfined, 17%). The three largest sources of phosphorus were commercial fertilizer (28%), urban runoff (23%), and livestock manure (confined and unconfined, 23%).

  16. A new species of Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida from a high altitude saline lake in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suarez Morales

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During the analysis of littoral samples collected from a high-altitude saline crater lake in Central Mexico, several female and male specimens of harpacticoid copepods were recovered and taxonomically examined. They were found to represent an undescribed species of the canthocamptid genus Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875. The new species, C. gomezi n. sp. is described herein based on specimens of both sexes. It resembles C. stimpsoni Gómez, Fleeger, Rocha-Olivares and Foltz, 2004 from Louisiana but also C. trichotus Kiefer, 1929. The new species differs from C. stimpsoni and from other congeners by details of the maxillular armature, the setation of the endopodal segments of legs 2 and 3, and the armature of the third exopodal segment of legs 3 and 4. Also, the dorsal (VII and the outer (IV caudal setae are both relatively shorter than in C. stimpsoni. This is the second species of the genus known to be distributed in Mexico. The occurrence of the new species in a high-altitude saline lake, the isolation of the type locality, and its absence from adjacent freshwater lakes suggest that this species is endemic to this site.

  17. Hantavirus testing in rodents of north-central New Mexico 1993-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Salisbury, M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993, 1994, and 1995 the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations using live capture-recapture methods in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, to determine seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region. EST used trapping grids in 1993 and 1994 and used trapping webs in 1995. Grids were 120 m x 120 m (400 ft x 400 ft) with 144 trap stations at each grid. Three webs consisting of 148 traps each were used in 1995. Trapping took place over 4 to 8 consecutive nights. Programs CAPTURE and Distance were used to determine density estimates for grids and webs, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control and the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The 1994 and 1995 samples were analyzed by the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most commonly captured species at all locations except one site where voles (Microtus spp.) were the most commonly captured species. Other species sampled included: harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), woodrats (Neotoma spp.), shrews (Sorex spp.), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). Results of the 1993, 1994, and 1995 testing identified a total overall seroprevalence rate among deer mice of approximately 5.5%, 4.2%, and 0%, respectively. Several other species tested positive for the hantavirus but it is uncertain if it is Sin Nombre virus. Further studies will be necessary to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Higher seroprevalence rates were found in males than females. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  18. Occurrence of environmental mycobacteria in water from the central zone of the Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental mycobacteria are inhabitants of many reservoirs, including water, soil, plats, animals and humans, The aquatic environment is an important reservoir of environmental mycobacteria; where their presence is influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. The presence of environmental mycobacteria in water has been related with health problems in immunosuppressed patients. In Mexico, there are not reports of the ecology of mycobacteria; therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize reservoir sites, like creeks and drinking troughs, and to determine some biotic and abiotic environmental factors to understand the conditions leading to their environmental persistence. (Author)

  19. Detection of ULF geomagnetic signals associated with seismic events in Central Mexico using Discrete Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    O. Chavez; J. R. Millan-Almaraz; R. Pérez-Enríquez; J. A. Arzate-Flores; Kotsarenko, A.; Cruz-Abeyro, J. A.; Rojas, E

    2010-01-01

    The geomagnetic observatory of Juriquilla Mexico, located at longitude –100.45° and latitude 20.70°, and 1946 m a.s.l., has been operational since June 2004 compiling geomagnetic field measurements with a three component fluxgate magnetometer. In this paper, the results of the analysis of these measurements in relation to important seismic activity in the period of 2007 to 2009 are presented. For this purpose, we used superposed epochs of Discrete Wavelet Transform of filtered signals for the...

  20. Permeability alteration in small-displacement faults in poorly lithified sediments: Rio Grande Rift, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigda, John M.; Goodwin, Laurel B.; Mozley, Peter S.; Wilson, John L.

    Faults in clastic rocks influence fluid flow by juxtaposition of different lithologic units and by localized alteration of petrophysical properties through cataclasis, cementation, or other deformational and diagenetic processes. Extensional tectonic settings, such as the Basin and Range Province and the Rio Grande rift, are characterized by numerous faults in both sedimentary rocks and poorly lithified basin-fill sediments. Faults in poorly lithified sediments have received little attention; our study is the first to examine their permeability. We tested whether faulting of poorly lithified sediments significantly affects permeability by comparing two uncemented, small-displacement, normal faults in New Mexico's central Rio Grande rift: one with a clay-rich core (displacement > bed thickness) and one without a clay-rich core (displacement Southwest. Numerous in extensional basins but typically not included on most geologic maps, such faults could significantly influence flow through basin-fill sediments.

  1. Participatory study on feeding strategies for working donkeys used by Campesino farmers in the highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colunga, G B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M; Veláquez Beltran, L; González-Ronquillo, M; Smith, D G; Estrada-Flores, J; Rayas-Amor, A; Castelán-Ortega, O A

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the feeding strategies for donkeys used by peasant farmers in central Mexico. Feeding strategies for the dry and wet seasons are described, as well as the nutritional characteristics of the main forages and supplements used by the farmers. The extent to which the feeding practices used by farmers matched the digestible energy and crude protein requirements of donkeys for maintenance and work was determined. It was concluded that grazing on native grassland could provide enough energy and protein for donkeys at maintenance level and for those performing only a moderate amount of work. More research in required in order to have better estimates of intake and plant species preferred by donkeys under prevailing grazing conditions. PMID:16335076

  2. Common vetch (Vicia sativa) for improving the nutrition of working equids in Campesino systems on hill slopes in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Beltrán, L G; Felipe-Pérez, Y E; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2002-03-01

    Campesino systems on hill slopes in Central Mexico rely on equids for multiple activities and have a problem in adequately feeding them. A participatory trial was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of common vetch in the traditional forage oat crop to improve its feeding value. An agronomic evaluation was undertaken by intersowing common vetch at 40 kg seed/ha with oats at 80-100 kg/ha in small plots, recording the yield and the chemical composition of the fresh forage in ten plots at harvest. The data were analysed as a completely random design, taking each farmer/plot as a treatment. A feeding trial compared the live weight of 7 donkeys fed oats and vetch against 17 donkeys fed traditional forage. There were differences between farmers in forage yields (p campesino farming systems. PMID:11969114

  3. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    contrasting minerals endowment. The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui (MMM) Belt hosts crustal-melt S-type granites with significant tin-tungsten mineralization, and contains the historically major tungsten deposit of Mawchi. The Wuntho-Popa Arc comprises I-type granites and granodiorites with porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, and includes the world-class Monywa copper mine. Recent U-Pb radiometric age dating has shown the potential for the two belts to be both active from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. The spatial juxtaposition of these two sub-parallel belts, the implication of contemporary magmatism, and their distinct but consistent metallogenic endowment bears strong similarities to the metallogenic belts of the South American Cordillera. Here we investigate whether they together represent the magmatic and metallogenic expression of an Andean-type setting in Myanmar during the subduction of Neo-Tethys. In this analogue the Wuntho-Popa Arc represents a proximal I-type magmatic belt sited immediately above the eastwards-verging Neo-Tethys subduction zone. Exhibiting porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, this would therefore be the Myanmar equivalent of the Andean coastal copper belts. Conversely, the parallel MMM Belt, comprised of more distal crustal-melt S-type tin granites, would have an analogue in the Bolivian tin belt.

  4. A new species of Torrestrongylus (Trichostrongylidae, Anoplostrongylinae) from Macrotus waterhousii (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Galindo-García, María Guadalupe; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín

    2015-01-01

    A new species of nematode, Torrestrongylus tetradorsalis n. sp., is described herein, based on specimens recovered from the small intestine of the leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus waterhousii, from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The new species is included in Torrestrongylus because it features a bursa of the type 3 – 2, a divided cephalic vesicle with an anterior half in the shape of an umbrella, and a posterior widened half. The new species can be distinguished from the only other congener T. torrei Pérez-Vigueras, 1935 by four key features: first, by the absence of cervical alae in both males and females; second, by the relatively longer second half of the cephalic cap; third, by the configuration of the dorsal ray, that does not have a medial terminal ray, and finally, by the structure of the spicules. This is the second species in the genus, previously known from bats of the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae in Cuba, and now in Mexico. PMID:26514594

  5. Coyotes, Concessions and Construction Companies: Illegal Water Markets and Legally Constructed Water Scarcity in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of (semiarid Mexico, such as the Valley of Toluca, face challenges due to rapid growth and the simultaneous overexploitation of groundwater. The water reform of the 1990s introduced individual water rights concessions granted through the National Water Commission (Comisión Nacional del Agua, or CONAGUA. Since then, acquiring new water rights in officially 'water-scarce' aquifers is only possible through official rights transmissions from users ceding their rights. With the law prohibiting the sale of water rights, a profitable illegal market for these rights has emerged. The key actor in the water rights allocation network is the coyote, functioning as a broker between a people wanting to cede water rights and those needing them, and b the formal and informal spheres of water rights allocation. Actors benefitting from water rights trading include the coyote and his 'working brigades', water users selling surplus rights, and (senior and lower-level staff in the water bureaucracy. The paper concludes that legally constructed water scarcity is key to the reproduction of illegal water rights trading. This has important implications regarding the current push for expanding regularisation of groundwater extraction in Mexico. Currently, regularisation does not counter overexploitation, while possibly leading to a de facto privatisation of groundwater.

  6. Geochemical proxies and millennial-scale climate variability during MIS 3 at Lake Chalco, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Lozano, S.; Roy, P.; Ortega, B.; Caballero, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Basin of Mexico (20N, 99W; 2240 m.a.s.l.) is present at the northern limit of the American tropics and is surrounded by up to 5400 m high mountains. The Lake Chalco is situated at the southern part of the basin and spreads over 120 km2. The precipitation in the modern era is influenced by the seasonal displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the high-pressure belt located at about 35 N. Five cores were drilled (up to 122.5 m depth) in order to document climate variability in paleohydrological conditions during the late Quaternary. The age model includes several 14C dates and tephra layers present in the upper 25 m of the core. We documented millennial-scale events during MIS 3 based on geochemical data (total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), C/N ratio) and abundance of charcoal particles. By temporal correlation with GISP2 core we founded that Greenland interstadials match with TOC percentages suggesting wet conditions while stadials match with high TIC percentages and high charcoal concentrations suggesting dry conditions. We compared our data with speleothem records (δ18O) from Fort Station Cave (New Mexico) and Terciopelo Cave (Costa Rica), our preliminary results indicate that Chalco record has a similar climatic signal as Terciopelo Cave, both presented wet interstadials and dry stadials which appear to have been regulated by the seasonal migration of the ITCZ.

  7. [Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Aldán, Epigmenio; Lira Torres, Iván; Güiris Andrade, Dario Marcelino; Osorio Sarabia, David; Quintero M, Ma Teresa

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed 19 samples of Baird's tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie's sedimentation and Ferreira's quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis.

  8. [Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Aldán, Epigmenio; Lira Torres, Iván; Güiris Andrade, Dario Marcelino; Osorio Sarabia, David; Quintero M, Ma Teresa

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed 19 samples of Baird's tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie's sedimentation and Ferreira's quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis. PMID:18494314

  9. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Anita G.; Poole, Forrest G.; Repetski, John E.

    2003-12-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest.

  10. Reflections on Critical Incidents of EFL Teachers During Career Entry in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martha Lengeling

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reflections of critical incidents of eight beginning English as a foreign language teachers and one of their trainers in Mexico. Based upon narrative inquiry and through the use of journals, critical incidents and how they have impacted beginning teachers in their thinking were specifically looked at. From the data we found seven emerging themes which basically revolve around the relationships that are established between the teacher and the students, the emerging professional identities of the beginning teachers, and the tutor’s reflection on knowledge transfer. Results showed how these teachers reflected upon their teaching practice and how the critical incidents helped them to analyze and evaluate their teaching process.

  11. Detection of ULF geomagnetic signals associated with seismic events in Central Mexico using Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chavez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic observatory of Juriquilla Mexico, located at longitude –100.45° and latitude 20.70°, and 1946 m a.s.l., has been operational since June 2004 compiling geomagnetic field measurements with a three component fluxgate magnetometer. In this paper, the results of the analysis of these measurements in relation to important seismic activity in the period of 2007 to 2009 are presented. For this purpose, we used superposed epochs of Discrete Wavelet Transform of filtered signals for the three components of the geomagnetic field during relative seismic calm, and it was compared with seismic events of magnitudes greater than Ms > 5.5, which have occurred in Mexico. The analysed epochs consisted of 18 h of observations for a dataset corresponding to 18 different earthquakes (EQs. The time series were processed for a period of 9 h prior to and 9 h after each seismic event. This data processing was compared with the same number of observations during a seismic calm. The proposed methodology proved to be an efficient tool to detect signals associated with seismic activity, especially when the seismic events occur in a distance (D from the observatory to the EQ, such that the ratio D/ρ < 1.8 where ρ is the earthquake radius preparation zone. The methodology presented herein shows important anomalies in the Ultra Low Frequency Range (ULF; 0.005–1 Hz, primarily for 0.25 to 0.5 Hz. Furthermore, the time variance (σ2 increases prior to, during and after the seismic event in relation to the coefficient D1 obtained, principally in the Bx (N-S and By (E-W geomagnetic components. Therefore, this paper proposes and develops a new methodology to extract the abnormal signals of the geomagnetic anomalies related to different stages of the EQs.

  12. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2010-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO3-, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB), then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5) for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2-10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6-9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using

  13. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC, anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO3-, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB, then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that 2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5 for garbage burning of ~10±5 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2–10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6–9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for biomass burning, so it could

  14. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC, anhydrosugars, Cl, NO3, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB, then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5 for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2–10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6–9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for

  15. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2009-04-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO3-, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB), then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that 2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5 for garbage burning of ~10±5 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2-10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6-9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using these tracers to

  16. Lacustrine sedimentation and facies model for the last 45,000 yr in Chalco basin. Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Herrera, D.

    2013-05-01

    Chalco basin in central Mexico (19° 15' N, 98° 58' W, 2200 m asl) is one of the most detailed lake sediment sequence analyzed in Mexico for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies. In this former lake, five drill cores up to 27 m depth were recovered in 1987-1989 by the UNAM team, and three cores covering most of the former sequence were obtained in 2008 and 2011. The upper 27 m of the Chalco lacustrine sequence contains the record of the last 45 kyr climate history in the northern American tropics. The active tectonic and volcanic setting of Chalco Lake in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, provides an opportunity to evaluate environmental (volcanic + tectonic vs. climatic) controls on lacustrine sedimentation. The establishment of a detailed time scale by 14C in pollen extracts provides an accurate chronological control. The stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses presented here provided the recognition of depositional environments and the architecture of the upper lacustrine succession. Sedimentary facies were defined on the basis of sedimentological descriptions, microscopic observation and compositional analyses. According to compositional criteria, facies were identified and groped into two main categories according to compositional criteria: 1) detrital and volcaniclastic, and 2) biogenic facies. The clastic facies includes massive to laminated, silty and clayey sediments composed of clay minerals, feldspars, amphiboles with minor amounts of quartz, opaque minerals and calcite. Diatoms are the most common biological remains in all the clastic facies. Most of the volcaniclastic deposits correspond to fall-out deposits, some of them of well documented eruptions of the nearby large stratovolcanoes Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca, which in turn serve as stratigraphical markers. The biogenic facies are massive to finely laminated diatom ooze and ostracod ooze layers. The sedimentary architecture of the lacustrine succession has been controlled by

  17. Study of Metallogenic Fluid Sources of Five Gold Deposits in Zhangjiakou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊浩; 刘丛强; 袁艳斌

    2001-01-01

    It is very important to define the type and composition of metallogenic fluid in terms of the hydrogen and oxygen isotope data in the study of ore-forming mechanism. In the long past, the method to discriminate metallogenic fluid sources by comparing the δD-δ18O diagram with the standard values is not valid when the hydrogen and oxygen isotope values are plotted between the meteoric water line and the magmatic water area. Based on their hydrogen and oxygen isotope information on five gold deposits (Shuijingtun, Xiaoyingpan, Dongping,Zhongshangou and Jinjiazhuang) in the Zhangjiakou area, this paper details the metallogenic fluid sources and presents water/rock ratios in the five gold deposits and the principle of water/rock exchange.

  18. Study of Metallogenic Fluid Sources of Five Gold Deposits in Zhangjiakou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊浩; 刘丛强; 等

    2001-01-01

    It is very important to define the type and composition of metallogenic fluid in terms of the hydrogen and oxygen isotope data in the study of ore-forming mechanism.In the long past,the method to discriminate metallogenic fluid sources by comparing the δD-δ18 O diagram with the standard values in not valid when the hydrogen and oxygen isotope values are plotted between the meteoric water line and the magmatic water area.Based on their hydrogen and oxygen isotope information of five gold deposits(Shuijingtun,Xiaoyingpan,Dongping, Zhongshangou and Jinjiazhuang)in the Zhangjiakou area,this paper details the metallogenic fluid sources and presents water/rock ratios in the vie gold deposits and the principle of water/rock exchange.

  19. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS and Tepeji (TEP was 75.1 and 36.8 μg/m3, respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μg/m3. JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm−1, while aerosol scattering (76 Mm−1 was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ13C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  20. Canopy arthropods community within and among oak species in central Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Efraín TOVAR-SANCHEZ

    2009-01-01

    Quercus rugosa and Q.laurina are species that presents a wide geographical distribution range in temperate forests of Mexico. Oak canopies contain a considerable portion of arthropod diversity and the arthropods fauna fulfill a wide variety of ecological roles. We examined the effect of oak species and seasonal changes on some community structure parameters (diversity, composition, similarity, biomass, rare species, and density of arthropod fauna) of canopy arthropods. In total, 40 oak canopies were fogged during rainy and dry season. A total of 614 identified arthropod morphospecies were recognized belonging to 22 orders associated with tree canopies. A separation of host tree species during both seasons, suggesting a different community structure on host plants species was demonstrated by the principal component analyses (PCA), therefore, differences between oak species results in phenotypes that structure the composition of the arthropod community. Q.laurina registered the highest densities, diversity index and number of rare species in comparison with Q.rugosa. While arthropod biomass showed an inverse pattern. Trees more close to one another (spatial distance) register a more similar canopy arthropod fauna. This study suggests that the trees of Q.laurina could act as a center of biodiversity by the accumulation of arthropod fauna with a considerable number of rare species, which presents wide ecological roles or is involved in critical processes that maintain forest ecosystems[Current Zoology 55(2):132-144,2009].

  1. Elevation Control on Vegetation Organization in a Semiarid Ecosystem in Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudurupati, S. S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Adams, J. M.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Hutton, E. W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Many semiarid and desert ecosystems are characterized by patchy and dynamic vegetation. Topography plays a commanding role on vegetation patterns. It is observed that plant biomes and biodiversity vary systematically with slope and aspect, from shrublands in low desert elevations, to mixed grass/shrublands in mid elevations, and forests at high elevations. In this study, we investigate the role of elevation dependent climatology on vegetation organization in a semiarid New Mexico catchment where elevation and hillslope aspect play a defining role on plant types. An ecohydrologic cellular automaton model developed within Landlab (component based modeling framework) is used. The model couples local vegetation dynamics (that simulate biomass production based on local soil moisture and potential evapotranspiration) and plant establishment and mortality based on competition for resources and space. This model is driven by elevation dependent rainfall pulses and solar radiation. The domain is initialized with randomly assigned plant types and the model parameters that couple plant response with soil moisture are systematically changed. Climate perturbation experiments are conducted to examine spatial vegetation organization and associated timescales. Model results reproduce elevation and aspect controls on observed vegetation patterns indicating that this model captures necessary and sufficient conditions that explain these observed ecohydrological patterns.

  2. Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gaspar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. “Pyramids” Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

  3. Geological characteristics and metallogenic prognosis of main gold deposit in Altai gold ore belt, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yuan-chao; SHEN Ping; ZHENG Qing-dong; LIU Tie-bing; LI Guang-ming

    2004-01-01

    Altai polymetallic mineralization belt is famous copper-polymetallic mineralization belt in the world. There are a lot of gold deposits in the Altai ore belt in Xinjiang, China. These gold deposits belong to two genetic types: volcanogene late-stage hydrothermal type and fractured altered rock type. The authors discuss mainly the geological and mineralized features of fractured altered rock type of gold deposits in Altai gold ore belt. Base on this study, the metallogenic law is summarized and the deep metallogenic prognosis has been done in Duolanasayi and Tuokuzibayi gold deposits, and some mineralized anomalys have been discovered.

  4. Pedogenesis and paleoenvironmental records in the tephra-paleosol sequences of Central Mexico: micromorphometric indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jaime; Solleiro, Elizabeth; Sedov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    tepetates (hardened volcanic soils) in Mexico have been studied from an agronomic and mechanisms viewpoint, however due to their different origins have not been established mechanisms that link them to environmental studies. This paper uses morphometric tools to determine the origin of the Tepetates in Mexico, using them as indicators of environmental changes and periods of instability of the landscape. The Glacis de Buenavista is located mainly in the northwestern portion of the state of Morelos, between the parallels 18° 20'and 19° 08' north latitude and meridians 98° 37' and 99° 30' west, forming a piedmont relief caused by erosion-sedimentation phases of volcanic materials from the Sierra de Zempoala mainly, and that is a big fan of Pleistocene age. Covers an area of 202.7 km 2. The maximum altitude is in the north, 2600 m, and minimun in the south to the 970 m, with an average slope of 6 . The Glacis de Buenavista has soils cover which consists of Luvisols, Vertisols, and layers of Tepetates, Phaeozems and Luvisols, in particular, represent soils polycyclic polygenetic high degree of development that have been formed in the Holocene. The next question is what mechanisms control the presence of a floor or other unit that occurs in the area? Since the lateral boundaries between soil types are abrupt, which speaks of discontinuities in the processes that have given rise. The morphometric study was carried out in thins sections of the blocks of Tepetates undisturbed. The blocks were vacuum impregnated with polyester resin. The thins sections were scanned with an Epson scanner 7100 with high resolution 9600 dpi and 24 bit color depth and analyzed using Image Pro Plus 5.1 program. The stratigraphic control was performed by 14C dating of organic matter. The pedofeatures measured were roundness of soil fragments, matrix percentage, percentage of papules and porosity. Was also carried out a microscopic control using a microscope BX51 Olimpus pedofeatures observing

  5. Geology and geochemistry characteristics of the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (Central Area), Chiapas Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J. C.; Jaimes-Viera, M. C.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Layer, P. W.; Pompa-Mera, V.; Godinez, M. L.

    2007-04-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in the northwest direction between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the northwest and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast. The CVA is located in a complex zone marking the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos plates, near the Motagua-Polochic fault system, the boundary between North American and Caribbean plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 10 volcanic structures generally lying along NNW-SSE-trending faults splayed from the Motagua-Polochic system. Among the structures there are seven volcanic domes (Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza and Santotón), one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), and one dome complex (Tzontehuitz). In the majority of the structures there is a clear resurgence with the formation of several domes in the same structure, with the destruction of previous domes (Navenchauc) or with the formation of new explosion craters or collapse structures (Apas). The volcanic activity in the CVA was mainly effusive accompanied by explosive and phreatomagmatic events and is characterized by volcanic domes accompanied by block-and-ash-flows, ash flows with accretionary lapilli, falls, and pumice flows. The volcanic structures and deposits are calcalkaline in composition with a medium to high content of potassium. CVA volcanic rocks vary from andesite to dacite with SiO 2 between 57 and 66 wt.%, show low concentrations of Ti, P, Nb and Ta, are enriched in Light Rare Earths, depleted in Heavy Rare Earths, and show a small Eu anomaly; all indicative of arc-related volcanism associated with subduction of the Cocos plate under the North American plate, but complicated by the geometry of the plate boundary fault system.

  6. Phenology of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus say (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Juan Di Trani

    2006-01-01

    We studied the seasonal activity of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus Say in subtropical conditions of the Mexican Central Plateau. Monthly during 1998, we recorded caste of active individuals (inferred form corporal size measured as wing length), presence and activity of reproductive individuals, and mating activity. Also, we recorded the flower plants used as resources. Subtropical conditions of the Mexican Central Plateau do not seem to modify phenological features of B. pennsylvanicus sonorus since the species presents annual colonies and a clearly defined period of inactivity. The size of individuals progressively increased between the first recorded activity period in middle April and the end of the colonies in November. Reproductive bees were observed since the second half of the year. The presence of males was recorded between July and November and queens and mating pairs were observed during November and December. Then mating queens were noted seeking hibernation places. Activity resumed in February of the following year. Seasonal activity seems to be more related to availability of floral resources (which, in turn, is related to rain regime), than to changes in temperature and day length. Some of the main food resources used by B. pennsylvanicus sonorus were Tithonia tubiformis, Cosmos bipinnatus, Anoda cristata, Solanum rostratum and Jacaranda mimosaefolia.

  7. Reproductive cycles and reproductive strategies among populations of the Rose-bellied Lizard Sceloporus variabilis (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Elizalde, Raciel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio

    2016-03-01

    Species with wide distribution, generally show variations in life history characteristics, which can be attributed to environmental causes. In this study, we analyzed the reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics from three populations (Atlapexco, San Pablo Tetlapayac, and Santa Catarina) of the lizard Sceloporus variabilis from central Mexico. The specific goal of this study was to evaluate life history characteristics such as reproductive period extent, SVL (snout-vent length) at sexual maturity, clutch size, egg mass and volume, and RCM (relative clutch mass). The San Pablo Tetlapayac population showed a larger clutch size, RCM, egg mass, and a smaller SVL, body mass and reproductive period (January-September), as well as egg volume than the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics were more similar between the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Differences found in the population of San Pablo Tetlapayac with respect to the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations could be attributed to environmental variations where lizard populations occur. Differences in the reproductive period and reproductive characteristics in each population could be the result of both historical (phylogenetic; e.g., reproductive mode) and nonhistorical (environmental; e.g., temperature, food availability) causes. This study showed that populations of the same species are under different selection pressures, and these affect the reproductive characteristics of populations. Our results also indicate that long-term and targeted studies on predation, use and selection of food, are needed to determine the causes of these variations in populations of S. variabilis. PMID:26929815

  8. Economic contribution of draught animals to Mazahua smallholder Campesino farming systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Jordán, C M; Pedraza-Fuentes, A M; Velázquez-Beltrán, L G; Nava-Bernal, E G; Chávez-Mejía, M C

    2005-10-01

    The economic contribution of draught animals to smallholder Mazahua campesino systems in two mountain villages of San Felipe del Progreso, in the central highlands of Mexico, was assessed. Campesinos rely on draught animals for cultivation tasks, as pack animals, and as transport for agricultural and domestic activities. The villages were San Pablo Tlalchichilpa (SPT) and La Concepción Mayorazgo (LCM). Twelve households that possessed draught animals were monitored from July 1999 to June 2000, nine in SPT and three in LCM, in terms of animal inventories and income from their draught animals, in cash and opportunity values. Equines in SPT have substituted bulls, and are recognized for their multipurpose contribution, while in LCM bulls are still used for ploughing the land. Overall total mean gross income was US dollar 490.78 per farm per year, plus US dollar 56 as opportunity value of the fertilizer value of manure for both villages. Deducting estimated costs, owning draught animals leaves a mean net margin of US dollar 412.50/year in SPT and of US dollar 285.64/year in LCM. There is a significant correlation (p campesino families. PMID:16450864

  9. Farm and socio-economic characteristics of smallholder milk producers and their influence on technology adoption in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos Galdino Martínez; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir

    2012-08-01

    In order to identify the factors influencing adoption of technologies promoted by government to small-scale dairy farmers in the highlands of central Mexico, a field survey was conducted. A total of 115 farmers were grouped through cluster analysis (CA) and divided into three wealth status categories (high, medium and low) using wealth ranking. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the association of wealth status with technology adoption. Four groups of farms were differentiated in terms of farms' dimensions, farmers' education, sources of incomes, wealth status, management of herd, monetary support by government and technological availability. Statistical differences (p technologies identified, six of which focused on crop or forage production and 11 of which were related to animal husbandry. Relatives and other farmers played an important role in knowledge diffusion and technology adoption. Although wealth status had a significant association (p adoption, other factors including importance of the technology to farmers, usefulness and productive benefits of innovations together with farmers' knowledge of them, were important. It is concluded that the analysis of the information per group and wealth status was useful to identify suitable crop or forage related and animal husbandry technologies per group and wealth status of farmers. Therefore the characterizations of farmers could provide a useful starting point for the design and delivery of more appropriate and effective extension.

  10. Bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of three cactus species from semi-arid highlands in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Garrido, J Félix; Montiel-Lugo, Daniel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Torres-Cortes, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C

    2012-05-01

    The nature reserve of Tehuacan-Cuicatlan in central Mexico is known for its diversity and endemism mainly in cactus plants. Although the xerophytic flora is reasonably documented, the bacterial communities associated with these species have been largely neglected. We assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in bulk (non-rhizospheric) soil and the rhizosphere of three cactus plant species: Mammillaria carnea, Opuntia pilifera and Stenocereus stellatus, approached using cultivation and molecular techniques, considering the possible effect of dry and rainy seasons. Cultivation-dependent methods were focused on putative N(2)-fixers and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, in the two media tested the values obtained for dry season samples grouped together regardless of the sample type (rhizospheric or non-rhizospheric), these groups also included the non-rhizospheric sample for rainy season, on each medium. These CFU values were smaller and significantly different from those obtained on rhizospheric samples from rainy season. Genera composition among isolates of the rhizospheric samples was very similar for each season, the most abundant taxa being α-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Interestingly, the genus Ochrobactrum was highly represented among rhizospheric samples, when cultured in N-free medium. The structure of the bacterial communities was approached with molecular techniques targeting partial 16S rRNA sequences such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags. Under these approaches, the most represented bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The first two were also highly represented when using isolation techniques.

  11. Farm and socio-economic characteristics of smallholder milk producers and their influence on technology adoption in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos Galdino Martínez; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir

    2012-08-01

    In order to identify the factors influencing adoption of technologies promoted by government to small-scale dairy farmers in the highlands of central Mexico, a field survey was conducted. A total of 115 farmers were grouped through cluster analysis (CA) and divided into three wealth status categories (high, medium and low) using wealth ranking. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the association of wealth status with technology adoption. Four groups of farms were differentiated in terms of farms' dimensions, farmers' education, sources of incomes, wealth status, management of herd, monetary support by government and technological availability. Statistical differences (p technology adoption. Although wealth status had a significant association (p < 0.05) with adoption, other factors including importance of the technology to farmers, usefulness and productive benefits of innovations together with farmers' knowledge of them, were important. It is concluded that the analysis of the information per group and wealth status was useful to identify suitable crop or forage related and animal husbandry technologies per group and wealth status of farmers. Therefore the characterizations of farmers could provide a useful starting point for the design and delivery of more appropriate and effective extension. PMID:22297420

  12. Decadal to millennial-scale solar forcing of Last Glacial Maximum climate in the Estancia Basin of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menking, Kirsten M.

    2015-05-01

    Lacustrine sediments from the Estancia Basin of central New Mexico reveal decadal to millennial oscillations in the volume of Lake Estancia during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) time. LGM sediments consist of authigenic carbonates, detrital clastics delivered to the lake in stream flow pulses, and evaporites that precipitated in mudflats exposed during lake lowstands and were subsequently blown into the lake. Variations in sediment mineralogy thus reflect changes in hydrologic balance and were quantified using Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction traces. Radiocarbon dates on ostracode valve calcite allowed the construction of mineralogical time series for the interval ~ 23,600 to ~ 18,300 ka, which were subjected to spectral analysis using REDFIT (Schulz and Mudelsee, 2002). Dominant periods of ~ 900, ~ 375, and ~ 265 yr are similar to cycles in Holocene 14C production reported for a variety of tree ring records, suggesting that the Lake Estancia sediments record variations in solar activity during LGM time. A prominent spectral peak with a period of ~ 88 yr appears to reflect the solar Gleissberg cycle and may help, along with the ~ 265 yr cycle, to explain an ongoing mystery about how Lake Estancia was able to undergo abrupt expansions without overflowing its drainage basin.

  13. Artificial nest predation in hedgerows and scrub forest in a human-dominated landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Gates, J. Edward; Castellanos, Ignacio

    2007-03-01

    Hedgerows as well as other narrow corridors could be valuable habitats for birds in regions of intensive agriculture, however, it is still not clear how successful breeding birds are in different types of hedgerows as compared to birds nesting in their natural habitats. We used artificial nests to examine whether hedgerows were sinks (ecological traps) for birds by comparing rates of predation in two types of hedgerows with different vegetation structure (simple and complex), and in a tract of scrub forest in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico. We determined also the types of predators responsible for egg predation. Ground and elevated nests were baited with one Japanese quail Coturnix japonica egg and one plasticine egg and placed alternately along transects. Significantly, greater predation rates were found in scrub forest and complex hedgerows than in simple hedgerows. Higher predation rates in complex habitats seemed to reflect the higher number of predator types found there. The most important predator types were carnivores followed by rodents, birds, and humans. Carnivores and rodents mainly predated ground nests, whereas birds and humans predated elevated nests. Simple hedgerows in this landscape appeared to offer relatively safe nest sites in terms of predation pressure when compared to more complex habitats (complex hedgerows and scrub forest).

  14. Seismicity and structure in central Mexico: Evidence for a possible slab tear in the South Cocos plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Sara L.; Clayton, Robert W.

    2014-04-01

    The morphology of the transition from flat to normal subduction in eastern central Mexico is explored using intraslab earthquakes recorded by temporary and permanent regional seismic arrays. Observations of a sharp transition in slab dip near the abrupt end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) suggest a possible slab tear located within the subducted South Cocos plate. The eastern lateral extent of a thin ultra-slow velocity layer (USL) imaged atop the Cocos slab in recent studies along the Meso America Subduction Experiment array is examined here using additional data. We find an end to this USL which is coincident with the western boundary of a zone of decreased seismicity and the end of the TMVB near the sharp transition in slab dip. Waveform modeling of the 2-D structure in this region using a finite difference algorithm provides constraints on the velocity and geometry of the slab's seismic structure and confirms the location of the USL. Analysis of intraslab seismicity patterns reveals clustering, sudden increase in depth, variable focal mechanism orientations and faulting types, and alignment of source mechanisms along the sharp transition in slab dip. The seismicity and structural evidence suggests a possible tear in the South Cocos slab. This potential tear, together with the tear along the Orozco Fracture Zone to the northwest, indicates a slab rollback mechanism in which separate slab segments move independently, allowing for mantle flow between the segments.

  15. Genetic diversity and conservation of Mammillaria huitzilopochtli and M. supertexta, two threatened species endemic of the semiarid region of central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Solórzano; Patricia Diana Cuevas-Alducin; Verónica García-Gómez; Patricia Dávila

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 168 species of Mammillaria are endangered at the global level; most of these cactus species exhibit a narrow distribution range and/or small population size. Recently, the first population genetics studies showed low to moderate levels of heterozygosity in this genus. This study examines Mammillaria huitzilopochtli and M. supertexta, 2 threatened species endemic to the central semiarid region of Mexico, to propose conservation actions, as well as to identify the underlying processes th...

  16. Metallogenic systems related to Mesozoic and Cenozoic granitoids in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华仁民; 陈培荣; 张文兰; 刘晓东; 陆建军; 林锦富; 姚军明; 戚华文; 张展适; 顾晟彦

    2003-01-01

    Large scale mineralizations of nonferrous, precious, and rare metals took place in South China in Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, which were mostly closely related with granitic magmatisms of different sources and features. Four metallogenic systems related to Mesozoic and Cenozoic granitoids are put forward in this paper. They are: (i) the porphyry-epithermal copper-gold system related to calc-alkaline volcanic-intrusive magmatism, (ii) rare metal (mainly W, Sn, Ta, Nb, etc) metallogenic system related with continental crust re-melting type granitoids, (iii) copper and polymetallic metallogenic system related with intra-plate high potassium calc-alkaline and shoshonitic magmatism, and (iv) Au-Cu and REE metallogenic system related to A-type granites. The main characteristics of these systems are briefly discussed. These Mesozoic and Cenozoic granitoids of different sources were the products of different periods of lithosphere evolution in that area under different tectonic-dynamic environments. Fundamentally speaking, however, the granitoids and related metallogeneses are the results of mantle-crust interactions under a tensile tectonic environment in South China.

  17. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  18. Rock magnetic and geochemical proxies for iron mineral diagenesis in a tropical lake: Lago Verde, Los Tuxtlas, East Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Beatriz; Caballero, Margarita; Lozano, Socorro; Vilaclara, Gloria; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2006-10-01

    inferred are in concordance with the glacial advances recorded in central Mexico. Higher erosion rates reflect destruction of the rainforest over the last 40 years.

  19. Microanalysis of the aerosol collected over south-central New Mexico during the alive field experiment, May-December 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.; Schnell, Russel C.; Kahl, Jonathan D.; Boatman, Joe F.; Garvey, Dennis M.

    Thirty-eight size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in the lower troposphere over the high desert of south-central New Mexico, using cascade impactors mounted onboard two research aircraft. Four of these samples were collected in early May, sixteen in mid-July, and the remaining ones in December 1989, during three segments of the ALIVE field initiative. Analytical electron microscope analyses of aerosol deposits and individual particles from these samples were performed to physically and chemically characterize the major particulate species present in the aerosol. Air-mass trajectories arriving at the sampling area in the May program were quite different from those calculated for the July period. In general, the May trajectories showed strong westerly winds, while the July winds were weaker and southerly, consistently passing over or very near the border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Aerosol samples collected during the May period were predominantly fine (0.1-0.5 μm dia.), liquid H 2SO 4 droplets. Samples from the July experiment were comprised mostly of fine, solid (NH 4) 2SO 4 or mostly neutralized sulfate particles. In both sampling periods, numerous other particle classes were observed, including many types with probable terrestrial or anthropogenic sources. The numbers of these particles, however, were small when compared with the sulfates. Composite particle types, including sulfate/crustal and sulfate/carbonaceous, were also found to be present. The major differences in aerosol composition between the May and July samples (i.e. the extensive neutralization of sulfates in the July samples) can be explained by considering the different aerosol transport pathways and the proximity of the July aerosol to the El Paso/Juarez urban plume. Winds during the December experiment were quite variable, and may have contributed to the widely varying aerosol compositions observed in these samples. When the aircraft sampled the El Paso

  20. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico (the Mexican Volcanic Belt – MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; A. Figueroa-Soto; Valdés, C.; M. Montiel; O. Chavez; Arroyo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east–west orientation. The risk and hazard seismic of this seismogenic zone has not been studied at detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regimen of Central Mexico is not too frequent, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone...

  1. Geologic Map of the Albuquerque 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Cole, James C.

    2007-01-01

    local folding and uplift within the complex rift seems to have occurred in the late Miocene, accompanied by erosion and recycling of earlier rift-fill sediments. This deformation may reflect clockwise reorientation of the primary extension direction to its Pliocene and current east-west alignment. Late Miocene and early Pliocene uplift and erosion were widespread in the region, as indicated by channeled and local angular unconformities at the bases of all Pliocene units, especially prominent along basin margins. These Pliocene fluvial and alluvial deposits (Ceja and Ancha Formations and Tuerto Gravel) and the upper part of the Cochiti Formation are all conspicuously coarser grained than the Miocene beds they cover, particularly near source areas along the margins of the rift. These observations together indicate that the regional streams flowed at much greater discharge than the Miocene streams and that the Pliocene onset of cooler, wetter climate worldwide was the most likely cause. Despite these higher discharge conditions, it appears there was no Pliocene trunk stream through the rift valley because the youngest Pliocene beds in the basin center are largely fine grained sand, pebbly sand, and sandy silt. No Pliocene cobble-gravel deposits, or thick crossbed sets indicative of major stream discharge, have been documented in the basin center. Considerable evidence indicates significant erosion began in late Pliocene time, coincident with and following eruption of abundant basalt from several local centers at about 2.7-2.6 Ma. The onset of central valley erosion marks the initiation of the first through-flowing, high-energy trunk stream (the 'ancestral' Rio Grande), which most likely was caused by integration of drainage southward through the Socorro region. No upper Pliocene fluvial deposits have been identified in the valley center; rather, a significant unconformity separates beds with medial (or earliest late) Blancan fauna (older than about 2.2 Ma) from

  2. Initial Time Of Two High Altitude Crater Lakes (Nevado De Toluca, Central Mexico Recorded In Subfossil Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeroczyńska Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the recognition and reconstruction of the origin of two high altitude lakes and the ecological conditions of their early existence based on subfossil Cladocera and chemical analyses. The study focused on the oldest lacustrine sediments from Lake Sol and Lake Luna, located in the crater of Volcano Nevado de Toluca (Central Mexico. The Nevado de Toluca crater developed approximately 12 ka yr BP. According to the literature, the volcano was last active approximately 3.3 ka yr BP, and the lakes developed after that eruption. The remains of nine Cladocera species were found in the bottom sediments of both lakes. The most dominant taxa were two endemic littoral species: Alona manueli and Iliocryptus nevadensis. The total frequency of Cladocera specimens in both of the sediment cores was very low. No Cladocera remains were recorded in the sediment layer at depths between 123–103 m from Lake Luna. The results of the lithological and geochemical analyses showed that this sediment layer was composed of allochthonous material, probably originating from slid down from the volcanic cone. This was suggested by the content of silica (up to 13%, iron (up to 12%, and titanium (up to 4%. The Cladocera remains recorded in the bottom sediments suggested that both reservoirs developed as freshwater lakes at the beginning of the sedimentation. The calibrated radiocarbon dates obtained for the bottom samples were 4040 to 3990 yr BP for Lake Luna (129 cm and 4485 to 4485 yr BP for Lake Sol (89 cm. The obtained ages were older than the dates of the last eruption, which occurred approximately 3300 yr BP. This result was likely related to the type of radiocarbon dated materials (charcoals.

  3. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  4. The role of working equines to livelihoods in current day campesino hill-slope communities in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Beltrán, Leon G; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Nava-Bernal, Eufemio Gabino; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-12-01

    Small-holder campesino agriculture is based on the diversified use of resources and off-farm work. Working equines have a multifunctional character and sustain the diversification of livelihoods having different values as assets or providing services. The objective was to identify the role of working equines in current diversification strategies in the livelihoods of campesino families in a hill-slope community in central Mexico within livelihoods analysis. Thirty-one variables related to ownership and use of working equines were analysed by cluster analysis and descriptive statistics contrasting the presence of equines in the diversification of livelihoods. Four groups were identified, determined mainly by age of farmer and number of family members who utilise equines. Results show these systems diversify in response to conditions of risk or to take advantage of opportunities, such that a balance is reached by resorting to off-farm activities without the total loss of components of the farming system. Two main situations were found in relation to working equines: the disappearance and change of functions of the large equines (mules), and the adaptation of small equines (donkeys) to the new conditions. It is concluded that there is a process of adaptation in hill-slope campesino farms such that large equines are less present in farms that have moved towards more diversification, but are kept in those farms less diversified. The use of equines for draught force in agricultural production and as pack animals continues, as is the presence of small livestock (sheep and poultry) irrespective of the context of the farm. PMID:21637993

  5. Using ecological-niche modeling as a conservation tool for freshwater species: live-bearing fishes in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Zambrano, Luis; De León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2006-12-01

    Ecological-niche modeling is an important tool for conservation assessment of terrestrial species; however, its applicability has been poorly explored in the aquatic realm. Goodeines are a monophyletic group of viviparous freshwater fishes that are well known in central Mexico, with 41 species in 19 genera. Given the number of threats to biodiversity in the region, goodeines represent an excellent model with which to test novel conservation approaches. We assessed the conservation status of the goodeines (37 species), based on their potential distributions predicted by ecological-niche models generated with the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP). Predictions of species' distributions performed well in six out of eight species for which sufficient information was available to perform estimations of the area under the curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic plots. Extensive field surveys conducted in recent years in most cases confirm the models' predictions. Species richness exhibited a nested pattern, in which the number of species increased toward the center of the distribution of the group. At the basin level, the Río Ameca Basin had the highest number of species (11), chiefly because of the high number of microendemic species (6). Human activities within water bodies (e.g., extensive aquaculture) and drainages (e.g., agriculture, ranching, industrial activities) have affected most goodeines severely, given the deleterious effects of pollution and introductions of exotic species, such as carp (Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharingodon idella) and tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Our results paint a pessimistic picture for the long-term survival of many goodeines in their natural environment, and realistic conservation measures are complex and would require immediate protection of specific areas that we have identified. Ecological-niche modeling is a suitable tool for conservation assessment of freshwater species, but availability of environmental

  6. Contribution of family labour to the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production systems in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Domínguez, Rodolfo Rogelio; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of family labour on the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of Central Mexico. Economic data from 37 farms were analysed from a stratified statistical sampling with a Neyman assignment. Three strata were defined taking herd size as criterion. Stratum 1: herds from 3 to 9 cows plus replacements, Stratum 2: herds from 10 to 19 cows and Stratum 3: herds from 20 to 30 cows. The policy analysis matrix was used as the method to determine profitability and competitiveness. The coefficient of private profitability (CPP) when the economic cost of family labour is included in the cost structure was 8.0 %, 31.0 % and 46.0 %. When the economic cost of family labour is not included, CPP increase to 47.0 %, 57.0 % and 66.0 % for each strata, respectively. The private cost ratio (PCR) when family labour is included was 0.79, 0.51 and 0.42 for strata 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When family labour is not included, the PCR was 0.07, 0.25 and 0.26. Net profit per litre of milk including family labour was US$0.03 l(-1) for Stratum 1, US$0.09 for Stratum 2 and US$0.12 l(-1) for Stratum 3; but increased to $0.12, 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when the economic cost of family labour is not included. It is concluded that family labour is a crucial factor in the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production.

  7. Contribution of family labour to the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production systems in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Domínguez, Rodolfo Rogelio; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of family labour on the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of Central Mexico. Economic data from 37 farms were analysed from a stratified statistical sampling with a Neyman assignment. Three strata were defined taking herd size as criterion. Stratum 1: herds from 3 to 9 cows plus replacements, Stratum 2: herds from 10 to 19 cows and Stratum 3: herds from 20 to 30 cows. The policy analysis matrix was used as the method to determine profitability and competitiveness. The coefficient of private profitability (CPP) when the economic cost of family labour is included in the cost structure was 8.0 %, 31.0 % and 46.0 %. When the economic cost of family labour is not included, CPP increase to 47.0 %, 57.0 % and 66.0 % for each strata, respectively. The private cost ratio (PCR) when family labour is included was 0.79, 0.51 and 0.42 for strata 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When family labour is not included, the PCR was 0.07, 0.25 and 0.26. Net profit per litre of milk including family labour was US$0.03 l(-1) for Stratum 1, US$0.09 for Stratum 2 and US$0.12 l(-1) for Stratum 3; but increased to $0.12, 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when the economic cost of family labour is not included. It is concluded that family labour is a crucial factor in the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production. PMID:24097246

  8. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

    2013-05-01

    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15 h and predominantly nocturnal (9 h), pollen was released at 23:00 h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success.

  9. Linking hydropedology and ecosystem services: differential controls of surface field saturated hydraulic conductivity in a volcanic setting in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gómez-Tagle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the variation of field saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Kfs as key control variable and descriptor of infiltration was examined by means of a constant head single ring infiltrometer. The study took place in five coverage types and land uses in a volcanic setting in central Mexico. The tested hypothesis was that there exist a positive relationship between plant cover and surface Kfs for the study area. The examined coverage types included; Second growth pine-oak forest, pasture land, fallow land, gully and Cupresus afforestation. Results indicate that Kfs did not depend exclusively of plant cover; it was related to surface horizontal expression of the unburied soil horizons and linked to land use history. Therefore the Kfs measured at a certain location did not depend exclusively of the actual land use, it was also influenced by soil bioturbation linked to plant succession patterns and land use management practices history. The hypothesis accounts partially the variation between sites. Kfs under dense plant cover at the Cupresus afforestation was statistically equal to that measured at the fallow land or the gully sites, while second growth pine-oak forest Kfs figures were over an order of magnitude higher than the rest of the coverage types. The results suggest the relevance of unburied soil horizons in the soil hydrologic response when present at the surface. Under these conditions loosing surface soil horizons due to erosion, not only fertility is lost, but environmental services generation potential. A conceptual model within the hydropedological approach is proposed. It explains the possible controls of Kfs, for this volcanic setting. Land use history driven erosion plays a decisive role in subsurface horizon presence at the surface and soil matrix characteristic determination, while plant succession patterns seem to be strongly linked to soil bioturbation and

  10. Students and Teachers’ Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Pablo Irasema

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.

     

    La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta. Palabras clave: investigación cualitativa, puntos de vista de alumnos y maestros, uso de la lengua materna.

  11. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  12. Characteristics of the Composite Metallogenic System along the Jilin Paleocontinental Margin and the Evolution of Continental Dynamic Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhongshi; JIANG Yanguo; DENG Jun; CHE Yingfang; WANG Jianping

    2004-01-01

    In view of the existing problems about the metallogenic epoch and origin of the complex along the Jilin paleocontinental margin, we propose the composite metallogenic system of the Jilin old land, based on the theory of metallogeny and from the continental dynamics and comprehensive analysis on the metallogenic characteristics. Its scientific theory is demonstrated by the following aspects: (1) Screening and analysis of the multi-stage superimposition and sequences. The composite ore-forming system consists mainly of three types: the divergent-type epicontinental metallogenic system on the southern margin, the convergent-type epicontinental metallogenic system on the northern margin and the strike-slip-type epicontinental metallogenic system on the northeastern margin. Their major metallogenic epochs are Archean-Proterozoic, Variscan and Yanshanian respectively. (2) Comprehensive analysis of the genetic relations of the complicated deposits. The above-mentioned three types all indicate a consanguinity among granites, vein rocks and gold deposits, correspondence with geochemical elements, and unicity showing the same activities of mantlederived fluids and multi-source origin of ore-forming substances. (3) As to the mechanisms for mineral concentration, in addition to the sources, we also focus on the co-actions of permeability, vibration, gas-liquid state alternation and abrupt changes of flow velocity during the movement of ore-forming liquids, as well as the extraction and communication of multi-sequence circulating liquids. (4) It is helpful for establishing the relationship between metallogeny and the evolution of continental dynamic regimes, i.e., the ore-controlling correlations between the ore-forming elements-metallogenic series-metallogenic systems-composite metallogenic system and ore-controlling structural features (stratabound, primary and branching types)-regional faulting or secondary continental extension and collision-transformation of different

  13. 78 FR 9731 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ...: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD) for CPA Lease Sale 227 in the Gulf of Mexico... Statement (Multisale FEIS). Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations (40 CFR...

  14. 77 FR 40376 - Outer Continental Shelf, Oil and Gas Lease Sales in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (76 FR 14040). The March 2011 Call identified the area under... the Multipurpose Marine Cadastre (MMC) Web site for the Gulf of Mexico. You can ] view the...

  15. Feeding habits and trophic morphology of inshore lizardfish (Synodus foetens) on the central continental shelf off Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Escalona, Víctor Hugo; Peterson, M S; Campos Dávila, Lucia; Zetina Rejón, Manuel Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The inshore lizardfish, Synodus foetens, is one of the most common coastal demersal predators on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), but the biology and feeding ecology of this species is virtually unknown. Between November 2001 and January 2003 (10 collections), 603 individuals of S. foetens ranging from 112 to 420 mm standard length (SL) and 13 to 630 g (wet weight) were collected from the continental shelf of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. About 60% of the individuals had empty...

  16. Persistence of Carbonate Platform Environments in Central Mexico during the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: impact of the Carribean Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomou, Brahimsamba; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl; Arnaud-Vanneau, Annie; Fleitmann, Dominik

    2010-05-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 is described as an interruption of normal pelagic sediment deposition by several distinct intervals of widespread oceanic anoxia (Schlanger & Jenkyns, 1976; Jenkyns, 1980; Arthur et al., 1990) characterized by black shales deposition coinciding with a positive shift in carbon isotope excursion. Some authors show a relationship between OAEs and massive volcanic events associated with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) and sea floor spreading at mid-ocean ridges (Kuroda et al., 2007; Snow et al., 2005). High metal abundance anomalies recorded in pelagic sections (e.g. Pueblo, Colorado) coincide with the massive volcanism that built the Carribean plateau (around 93-94 Ma), associated with the onset of OAE 2 (Snow et al., 2005). Mort et al., (2007) demonstrate that the onset of the OAE 2 was triggered by a short-lived but significant increase in phosphorus burial. The bottom waters became anoxic and switched from being a P sink to a P source, sustaining the productivity in a positive feedback loop. However, the behaviour of phosphorus and trace metals at larger scale, in different paleogeography and paleodepht is still poorly known. The Axaxacualco and Baranca el Cañon sections, located at the Guerrero-Morelos carbonate platform in southern Mexico exhibit a fully correlateable d13C curves. In the distal part of the carbonate platform at Axaxacualco, the maximum d13C positive excursion coincides with oligotrophic carbonate platform environments supported by low concentrations in P and characterized by abundant and diversified benthic microfauna and rudists. The impact of OAE appears may be more significant in the proximal part of the carbonate platform at Barranca, characterized by the deposition of thick laminated microbialites indicative of mesotrophic conditions. The Morelos Carbonate platform with oligotrophic to mesotrophic conditions was persistent throughout the entire OAE2 in Central Mexico despite

  17. The economic impact of Los Alamos National Laboratory on North-Central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico. Fiscal Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Business; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1996-08-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratory with a mission to enhance national military and economic security through science and technology. Its mission is to reduce the nuclear danger through stewardship of the nation`s nuclear stockpile and through its nonproliferation and verification activities. An important secondary mission is to promote U.S. industrial competitiveness by working with U.S. companies in technology transfer and technology development partnerships. Los Alamos has provided technical assistance to over 70 small New Mexico businesses enabling economic development activities in the region and state.

  18. The economic impact of Los Alamos National Laboratory on North-Central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico. Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratory with a mission to enhance national military and economic security through science and technology. Its mission is to reduce the nuclear danger through stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile and through its nonproliferation and verification activities. An important secondary mission is to promote U.S. industrial competitiveness by working with U.S. companies in technology transfer and technology development partnerships. Los Alamos has provided technical assistance to over 70 small New Mexico businesses enabling economic development activities in the region and state

  19. The sources of the shallow, upper plate earthquakes in Central Mexico, and their possible triggering by the subduction earthquakes, 'normal' and slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manighetti, I.; Vergnolle, M.; Campillo, M.; Cotton, F.; Thollon, O.

    2008-12-01

    Large earthquakes have broken the Central Mexico upper plate in the historical time (1887, M5.3; 1912, M6.9; 1920, M6.5; 1976, M5.3; 1979, M5.3), but the faults responsible for those earthquakes are not precisely known. Nor is their link with the subduction, especially in terms of possible triggering between subduction and shallow earthquakes. To address those issues, we first identify the major active faults that cut the upper plate, and determine their slip mode and overall organization. For that, we conduct a morphological analysis of the region, based on the use of satellite and topographic images. The upper plate appears dissected by a dense network of hundreds of major active faults, which overall form 2 distinct large-scale systems, named Jalisco and Mexico. The Jalisco system is made of the N-S Colima normal fault system which runs from the coast to the Transmexican Belt (TMB) where it ends in a large fishtail centered on the Chapala Lake. The western branch of the fishtail is made of NW-striking, N-dipping faults that are both normal and left-lateral, while the eastern branch is made of ENE-trending, N-dipping normal faults. The Mexico system resembles a large-scale horsetail. It is made of a major NNW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault that runs from the coast to the TMB, at the eastern edge of the Oaxaca region. As it enters the TMB, that NNW system connects to a series of E-W, N-dipping, normal-right-lateral faults, while extending further north through a series of NNW, E-dipping normal-left-lateral faults. Together these faults bound to the south and west a series of rhomboidal half-grabens, among those are the basins of Mexico City and Acambay. Mexico City is thus bounded by large active faults but also dissected by smaller ones, both E-W and NNW. The E-W fault system that bounds the Acambay half-graben to the south is likely the one to have ruptured in 1912. Second, we examine whether the subduction interface and the upper plate active faults

  20. Quaternary volcanism in the Acambay graben, Mexican Volcanic Belt: Re-evaluation for potential volcanic danger in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Lacan, P.; Roldan-Quintana, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Zuniga, R. R.; Laurence, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is best known for the major active stratovolcanoes, such as Popocatépetl, Citlaltépetl and Colima. The most common stratovolcanoes in this province are modest-size cones with heights of 800 to 1000 m. Examples are Tequila, Sangangüey, Las Navajas, Culiacán, La Joya, El Zamorano, Temascalcingo and Altamirano; these last two were formed within the Acambay Graben in central MVB. The Acambay graben (20 x 70 km) is 100 km to the NW of Mexico City, with E-W trending seismically active normal faults; in particular the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault related to a mB =7 earthquake in 1912. Within the graben there are many volcanic structures, including calderas, domes, cinder cones and stratovolcanoes; Temascalcingo and Altamirano are the largest, with about 800 and 900 m heights, respectively. Temascalcingo is mostly composed of dacitic lavas and block and ash flow deposits. Includes a 3 x 2.5 km summit caldera and a magmatic sector collapse event with the associated debris avalanche deposit. 14C ages of 37-12 ka correspond to the volcano's latest phases that produced pyroclastic deposits. A major plinian eruption formed the San Mateo Pumice with an age of <20 Ka. Altamirano volcano is poorly studied; it is andesitic-dacitic, composed of lavas, pyroclastic flow deposits, and pumice fallouts. Morphologically is better preserved than Temascalcingo, and it should be younger. 14C ages of 4.0-2.5 ka were performed in charcoal within pyroclastic flow deposits that apparently were erupted from Altamirano. An undated 3 m thick pumice fallout on the flanks of Altamirano volcano could be also Holocene. It represents a major explosive event. The relatively young ages found in volcanic deposits within the Acambay graben raise the volcanic danger level in this area, originally thought as an inactive volcanic zone. The two major volcanoes, Temascalcingo and Altamirano, should be considered as dormant volcanoes that could restart activity at any time. We

  1. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-10-21

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project began. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water.

  2. Population size of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the central Gulf of California, Mexico, based on mark-recapture data

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Bojorquez, Enrique; Hernández Herrera, Agustin; Nevárez Martínez, Manuel O; Díaz Uribe, Juan Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The use of mark-recapture data can be an alternative to other methods for estimating abundance of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and can be used when catch-per-unit-effort data applied to depletion models or estimates from survey research are not available. Two mark-recapture events were analyzed in the central Gulf of California, Mexico, during October 2001 and April 2002 to assess the status of jumbo squid. Results from October 2001 yielded a population size of 20.2 million squid with a 95...

  3. Tectonogeochemical features and metallogenic prognosis in the Xiaolongtan copper mining district, Binchuan, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; SU Xunqing

    2007-01-01

    The Xiaolongtan copper mining district is an important area in Dali, West Yunnan, where porphyry copper deposits occur, and copper orebodies are controlled by fault or contact zone structures between porphyry massifs and country rocks. Based on detailed field investigation and deep-going analysis, the authors systematically studied the tectonogeochemical features of this mining district, proposed the principle and foundation of metallogenic prognosis, and delineated the most potential mineralization target area.

  4. Uranium deposits of Gabon and Oklo reactors. Metallogenic model for rich deposits of the lower proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the Franceville basin (Gabon) is examined: stratigraphy, tectonics and geodynamics. The mobile zone of the Ogooue is specially studied: lithology, metamorphism and tectonics, isotopic geochronologic data are given. The different uranium deposits are described. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of Oklo natural nuclear reactor. A metallogenic model is proposed evidencing conditions required for deposit genesis. Tectonics, microstructures sedimentology, organic matter, diagenesis and uraniferous mineralizations are examined

  5. 秘鲁国金属矿成矿带%METALLOGENIC BELTS IN PERU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良根; 蒋科; 黄什

    2014-01-01

    秘鲁国金属成矿带划分依据为秘鲁境内的主要断层系统、有利成矿作用的岩性及矿化年代、已发现226个矿床(点)的地质特征和空间分布,共划分为24个成矿带。本文对每个成矿带的名称、分布、控矿地层、构造、岩浆岩及成矿时间逐一进行论述,并列出成矿带里典型矿床名称、资源量及品位情况。%Metallogenic belts in Peru are divided into 24 by major fault system, lithology favorable to metallogenic process, time of mineralization, geological features and spatial distribution of 226 known ore deposits (prospects) in the country. This paper discussed the name, distribution, ore-control stratum, structure, magmatic rock and metallogenic time of each belt and listed the name, resource and grade of typical ore deposit of the belts.

  6. TECTONIC SETTING AND METALLOGENESIS OF THE PRINCIPAL SECTORS OF THE TETHYAN EURASIAN METALLOGENIC BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Slobodan; Jankovic

    2001-01-01

    Three global metallogenic belts were formed in the world during Mesozoic and post-Mesozoic times. Two of them are situated along the western and eastern Pacific margins, and the third one - the Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt (TEMB) is related to the domain of Eurasian plate and flanked on the south by the Afro-Arabian and Indian plates. The general tectonic evolution of the realm where the TEMB was formed is closely connected with the history of Tethys. The emplacement of ore deposits and the development of regional metallogenic units are related to a definitive time interval and to specific tectonic settings such as: (1) Intracontinental rifting along the northern margin of Gondwana and/or fragments already separated; (2) Oceanic environments (i.e. ophiolite complexes and ocean floor sediments) host podiform chromite deposits, volcano-sedimentary cupriferous pyrite deposits (Cyprus type), stratiform manganese deposits, and sporadically PGE deposits; (3) Subduction related settings involve mainly porphyry copper deposits, hydrothermal massive sulphide polymetallic deposits, and epithermal deposits. So far identified mineralization of porphyry copper exceeds in the TEMB over 100 million tons of copper metal; and(4) Collision and post-collision continent-continent setting includes deposits of lead-zinc, antimony, gold, in some sectors tin deposits, as well. The giant deposits of Li-pegmatite occur sporadically.The TEMB is almost a continuously mineralized belt, but within it, some sectors display specific features of tectonic settings, association of elements, minerals and morphogenetic types of mineralization.

  7. Nematodes parasites of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) in the seasonally dry tropical highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raul; López-González, Carlos A; Jones, Robert W

    2011-06-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) is the most abundant and opportunistic wild canid in Mexico. However, the parasites of this canid in Mexico are poorly known, and an intensive parasite survey is lacking. A survey of gray fox parasitological feces was conducted in El Cimatario National Park, a protected area representative of the seasonally dry, tropical highlands of Mexico. Feces were collected in six 1-km-length transects during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2004. The coproparasitoscopical survey registered nine species of nematodes, typical of wild and domestic canids such as Strongyloides stercoralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Dioctophyme renale, Trichuris vulpis, Trichuris sp., and Capillaria sp. Ecological factors such as temperature and humidity appear to play a more important role in the establishment of these species of parasites in this protected area than the presence of domestic dogs.

  8. Magnetic Mineralogy as Indicator of dry Conditions in Lacustrine Sediments From Santa María del Oro, Nayarit, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Vazquez, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Combined magnetic and geochemical analysis were conducted on laminated sediments from Santa Maria del Oro, a crater lake in Nayarit (Mexico), to build up a model of paleoenvironmental conditions for the late Holocene. The occurrence of a severe drought at the end of the archeological Classic period (100 - 900 AD) has been documented in sites of central Mexico (Zirahuen lake and Lerma basin), the Gulf of Mexico coast (Los Tuxtlas) and the Yucatan peninsula. The effects of this climatic event are considered to have stressed the social and political situation in the Yucatan area and other sites in Mesoamerica, and resulted in the "collapse" of the Maya civilization. Santa Maria del Oro sediments between ca. 600 - 1140 AD are characterized by repeated sequences of ocher silt laminae with high inorganic carbon content, authigenic siderite, and low concentration of SD magnetic minerals, followed upward by an increase of concentrations of fine grained SD and SP ferrimagnetic minerals in brown silt laminae. This sequence is considered to represent dissolution-precipitation cycles of magnetic minerals in low erosion, concentrated waters and anoxic water-sediment interface environments. Dissolution of magnetite occurs in reductive conditions, which are considered as warmer and dryer periods. Above the ocher silt, precipitation of fine grained magnetite occurs when conditions change to oxic environments. Ostracode C and O isotopy document a negative precipitation/evaporation balance during this time period.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: The cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); S.G. Zelle (Sten); C. Gutiérrez-Delgado (Cristina); A. Peña (Alberto); B.R. Hidalgo Balarezo (Blanca Rosa); E.P. Steller (Erick); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects w

  10. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niens, L.M.; Zelle, S.G.; Gutierrez-Delgado, C.; Rivera Pena, G.; Hidalgo Balarezo, B.R.; Rodriguez Steller, E.; Rutten, F.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adj

  11. Endohelminth parasites of seven goodein species (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae) from Lake Zacapu , Michoacán, Central Mexico Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Martínez-Aquino; Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez; David I. Hernández-Mena; Lorena Garrido-Olvera; Rogelio Aguilar-Aguilar; Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León

    2012-01-01

    A total of 11 parasitic endohelminth taxa were found in 7 freshwater fish species of the subfamily Goodeinae in Zacapu Lake, Michoacan, Mexico. Six were adults (Margotrema cf. bravoae, Phyllodistomum sp., Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Caryophillidae gen. sp.), while the remaining 5 taxa (Clinostomum complanatum, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Tylodelphis sp., Eustrongylides sp. and Polymorphus brevis) were larvae. The taxa S. sogandaresi,...

  12. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards—A prewildfire evaluation for the Jemez Mountains, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.

    2016-08-11

    and Rio Grande-Santa Fe watershed areas. No subbasins in this group have basin areas less than 1.0 km2. Many of these areas already had significant mass‑wasting episodes following the Las Conchas Fire in 2011. Other subbasins with integrated hazard index values in the top 2 percent are scattered throughout the Jemez River watershed area, including some subbasins in the interior of the Valles Caldera. Only a few subbasins in the top integrated hazard index group are in the Rio Chama watershed area.This prewildfire assessment approach is valuable to resource managers because the analysis of the debris-flow threat is made before a wildfire occurs, which facilitates prewildfire management, planning, and mitigation. In north‑central New Mexico, widespread watershed restoration efforts are being done to safeguard vital watersheds against the threat of catastrophic wildfire. This study was designed to help select ideal locations for the restoration efforts that could have the best return on investment.

  13. On the behavior of site effects in central Mexico (the Mexican volcanic belt – MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; A. Figueroa-Soto; Valdés, C.; M. Montiel; O. Chavez; Arroyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican volcanic belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east–west orientation. The seismic risk and hazard of this seismogenic zone has not been studied in detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regime of central Mexico is not too frequent. However, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The valley of Mex...

  14. Formation of sulphation deposits in cables in the electricity generation plant of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Sulfatacion de cables en la central geotermoelectrica Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara Rangel, Agustin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    In the construction of a central electrical generation plant using geothermal fluids, high quality standards are applied in all aspects of engineering. Los Humeros generation units were installed through trenches, ducts and trays according to norms for cables of control, force and power, specifically in point to point cables and connections. Performance of the power plant has been affected by electric momentary and sequence flaws due to problems of cable sulfating, which were solved by tinning the conductors. [Spanish] En la construccion de centrales generadoras de electricidad con fluidos geotermicos se aplican criterios de calidad de diseno en todos los aspectos de la ingenieria. En Los Humeros Puebla, se realizo la instalacion conforme a normas de cables de control, fuerza y potencia a traves de trincheras, ductos y charolas y especificamente en el cableado asi como en las conexiones de punta a punta. Todos estos aspectos son referidos a planos de los componentes y equipos electricos existentes en una central. Al paso del tiempo existieron fallas electricas momentaneas y secuenciales por el problema de sulfatacion en cables, los cuales fueron resueltos con el estanado de conductores.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens M Niëns

    Full Text Available This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$. To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY. For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY. If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY, adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand

  16. The establishment of Central American migratory corridors and the biogeographic origins of seasonally dry tropical forests in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Charles G.; Franzone, Brian F.; Xi, Zhenxiang; Davis, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Biogeography and community ecology can mutually illuminate the formation of a regional species pool or biome. Here, we apply phylogenetic methods to a large and diverse plant clade, Malpighiaceae, to characterize the formation of its species pool in Mexico, and its occupancy of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) biome that occurs there. We find that the ~162 species of Mexican Malpighiaceae represent ~33 dispersals from South America beginning in the Eocene and continuing until the Pli...

  17. Accumulation, mobility and plant availability of heavy metals in soils irrigated with untreated sewage effluent in Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Irrigation District 03, Tula, Mexico, wastewater from Mexico City has been used for irrigating agricultural land since the beginning of this century. Today, approximately 85 000 ha are irrigated, alfalfa and maize being the main crops. The sewage effluent does not receive any treatment previous to its evacuation to this irrigation district, and only a part of the water is stored in the Endho Dam before being used, receiving in this way a kind or primary treatment through the sedimentation processes taking place. The reuse of wastewater for agricultural purposes represents an economic source of water and nutrients and has become an important disposal alternative for Mexico City. Nevertheless the contaminants and pathogens contained in the water represent a potential public health hazard and the production capacity of the soils. The aim of the present investigation is to determine the actual contamination levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) in soils, analysing the accumulation tendencies in time and space, and also to characterize their mobility and plant availability and thus their ecotoxicity. (orig.)

  18. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  19. Metallogenic Age of Dapinggou Gold Deposit in Northern Altun Area, Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bailin; Wang Xiaofeng; Yang Yi; Chen Xuanhua

    2005-01-01

    Studying the metallogenic age of Dapinggou gold deposit may provide important material not only for the study of metallization and the further prospecting of gold deposits but also for research into tectonic evolution in the Altun area. In this study, we used Rb-Sr isotopic dating method of fluid inclusion in the Au-bearing quartz, combining field investigation, REE, sulfur isotopes, lead isotopes, strontium isotopes and hydrogen-oxygen isotope, to determine the metallogenic age of the Dapinggou gold deposit. The only newly-discovered medium-sized gold deposit in the northern Altun area, Dapinggou gold deposit, is controlled by a ductile shear zone. It is characterized by mainly altered mylonite-types with a little K-feldspar quartz vein-types. Data from REE, sulfur isotopes, lead isotopes and strontium isotopes show that the source materials of the deposit were derived mainly from the metamorphic rocks. The data from the inclusion and hydrogen-oxygen isotope indicate that the ore-forming fluid came mainly from dynamic metamorphic water and partly from remelting magmatic water, with a little influence from meteoric water. The density of the ore-forming fluid is 0.791-0.971 g/cm3 and it contains 2.36 %-5.5 % salinity. The gold deposit was formed at 1.61-2.68 km below the surface at a temperature of 198-290 ℃ and a pressure of (420-700)×105 Pa. The isotopic age from the Rb-Sr isochron of fluid inclusion in quartz is 487 Ma, which indicates that the mineralization occurred in the early Caledonian epoch. The study on the metallogenic age of Dapinggou gold deposit may provide important material not only for the study of metallization and the further prospecting of gold deposits but also for research into tectonic evolution in the Altun area.

  20. Metallogenic characteristic of Sasyk-kul lake water type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasyk-kul lake water type uranium deposit is located in Pamirs uranium metallogenic area, the ore body is the lake water, uranium concentration of lake water reaches the level of industrial production solution, and can be regarded as one of special type of hydrogenic uranium deposit. Uranium metallogenesis not only includes surficial infiltration origin but also deep geothermal water origin, main reason of uranium concentration was caused by evaporation under condition of arid climate, and the deposit can be classified to the polygenetic uranium deposit. (authors)

  1. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth. PMID:15963553

  2. Paleomagnetic study of the eastern sector of chapala lake and implications for the tectonics of west-central mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Rosas-Elguera, J.

    1994-12-01

    Western Mexico is characterized by several large-scale tectonic depressions which have been interpreted in terms of active continental rifting, tectonic transpression and coastal sinistral lateral transport of terranes. In this paper we report results of a paleomagnetic study of 148 samples from 22 sites in the Neogene volcanics from the eastern sector of the Chapala graben (western end of the E-W Chapala-Tula fault zone). Characteristic remanent magnetization directions have been isolated after detailed thermal demagnetization for sixteen sites. Six sites present reverse polarities and ten sites present normal polarities. Two sites show a low-latitude VGP and are considered as transitional. The normal and reverse polarity directions are almost antipodal. The overall characteristic pole position for the normal and reverse polarity sites, N = 16, pLAT = 74° N, Plong = 160° E, K = 25 and A95 = 7.6°, lies to the left of the Neogene segment of the North American or northern Mexico apparent polar wander path, which suggest the occurrence of a counterclockwise rotation of -15.5 ± 7.4 to -16.5 ± 6.9°. Results are interpreted in terms of counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation associated with regional transtension and left-lateral shear as a result of oblique subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American trench. We suggest that the Chapala graben developed early in the Miocene, in a left-lateral strike-slip environment within the regional E-W Chapala-Tula fault zone. Results support recent studies that propose relative motion for southern Mexico along the volcanic arc and trench-parallel strike-slip faulting.

  3. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  4. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  5. Out of operation in simultaneous way of the two reactors of nucleoelectric central of Laguna Verde(Mexico); Fuera de operacion, de maneira simultanea, los dos reactores de la central nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar, Bernardo Salas, E-mail: salasmarb@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias. Departamento de Fisica

    2013-11-01

    The two nuclear reactors that Mexico has in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant, were out of operation simultaneously in September 2012. First it was reported that one of the reactors had problems with the diesel generator, while the other had problems with the nuclear fuel reloading. The day after it was reported a problem related to sediment in the Obra de Toma, place the plant feeds seawater to cool the condenser the depth to which it must operate is 6 meters, with the current level of 1.5 meters, causing a lack of cooling water. Finally it was reported the cause of the suspension of operations, the cracks in jet pumps in both reactors. It is described a brief analysis of these opinions. The reactors are of cooling water of General Electric (BWR-5) and generate 1640 MWe each one.

  6. Extreme changes to barrier islands along the central Gulf of Mexico coast during Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 5C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, Asbury; Wright, Wayne; Lillycrop, Jeff; Howd, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary; Guy, Kristy K.; Morgan, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused extreme changes to the barrier islands of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Dauphin Island, Ala., migrated landward and stranded the remains of its oceanfront row homes in the sea. Chandeleur Islands, La., were completely stripped of their sand, leaving only marshy outcrops in the storm's wake.

  7. Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the west-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W.A.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco basin indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco basin was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco basin with

  8. Measurement of Metallogenic Depth and Deep Second Enrichment Belt Forecasting in Jiaodong Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Tao; Lü Guxian

    2004-01-01

    The depth is important for ore finding in Jiaodong gold deposit. However, many geologists are still discussing how to confirm the depth for the tectonic and metallogenesis formation. The authors of this paper propose a new method-the correction of metallogenic depth via its structure to calculate the depth. This method, based on the crust rock in a solid stress state, emphasizes the elastic pattern rather than the static-fluid pattern. In addition, this method is more appropriate to the actual situation in the crust than the method of weight/special weight. The authors of this paper illustrating, with the Jiaodong gold deposit as an example, the metallogenic depth correction via structure conclude that the depth of the most deposits, lower than 4-6 km, is often 2.5 km. Therefore, the authors suggest that there exists a second enrichment belt and that ore resources are more potential at the belt of Jiaodong area. These results have been demonstrated by years of exploration.

  9. Origin and Superposition Metallogenic Model of the Sandstone-type Uranium Deposit in the Northeastern Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ziying; CHEN Anping; FANG Xiheng; OU Guangxi; XIA Yuliang; SUN Ye

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the metallogenic model of the sandstone type uranium deposit in thenortheastern Ordos Basin from aspects of uranium source, migration and deposition. A superpositionmetallogenie model has been established due to complex uranium mineralization processes withsuperposition of oil-gas reduction and thermal reformation.

  10. Seismic stratigraphy and clay mineral distribution in shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits, central Mississippi sound, North-central Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, G.G.; Manley, F.H.; Staheli, A.C.

    1983-03-01

    Three north-south high-resolution (7 kHz) seismic profiles and 16 20-foot cores taken at shot-point locations in central Mississippi Sound were utilized to determine: (1) any meaningful seismic reflector configurations in the subsurface; (2) the clay species dispersal pattern and its relation to transport systems that move sediment into the depositional basin; (3) any change in clay mineral species that has occurred through time with respect to deposition of 5 to 6 m (16 to 20 ft) of sediment. Interpretation of shallow seismic events (20 m (66 ft)) and clay mineral analysis indicates that extrinsic factors largely determined the clay mineral species and geologic history of Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentation in central Mississippi Sound. Trend surface maps, residual maps, profiles of the smectite (montmorillonite) to kaolinite ratios, and seismic profiles illustrate that: (1) Mississippi Sound has been influenced by transgressions and regressions associated with proglacial and interglacial stages; (2) a toplap seismic reflection configuration forms the probable Pleistocene-Holocene boundary; (3) at least one ancient barrier island is located inside the Holocene barrier system; (4) there is a late date for sea level reaching its present location (2500 years B.P.); (5) the influence of the Mississippi River system on sedimentation is soon after inundation of Mississippi Sound; (6) the longshore currents and flood tides supplied sediment rich in kaolinite to the study area; (7) the drainage systems emptying into the study area have local influence on clay mineral distribution; and (8) the dredging of ship channels affects the clay-mineral distribution within the sediments immediately below the sediment-water interface in central Mississippi Sound.

  11. Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Mathur, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Sungun porphyry copper deposit (PCD) is located in NW Iran, neighbouring several other PCDs and prospects in the region and the Lesser Caucasus (south Armenia). It lies on the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), which formed through the northeast-ward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Central Iranian plate during late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic [1], and hosts the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran. The Sungun PCD is the second largest deposit in Iran with ore reserves of about 850 Mt at 0.62 wt% Cu and 0.01 wt% Mo and probable reserves over 1Gt. The monzonitic to quartz monzonitic porphyry stock intruded the upper Cretaceous carbonates and Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks. It produced a skarn-type mineralization at its contact zone with the carbonate rocks, as well as vast hydrothermal alteration zones and porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization. The zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry stock is about 22.5±0.4 to 20.1±0.4 Ma [2]. Re-Os dating of four molybdenite separates from this PCD shows ages ranging between 22.9±0.2 to 21.7±0.2 Ma, with an average of 22.57±0.2 Ma, corresponding to the early Miocene (Aquitanian). These ages indicate that both the porphyry stock and the Cu-Mo mineralization are post-collisional events, similar to many other deposits and prospects in NW and central Iran and south Armenia, and the mineralization occurred shortly after the emplacement of the host stock, corresponding better to the ages obtained from the marginal parts of the stock. Magmatism and mineralization in Sungun coincides with the third metallogenic epoch in the Lesser Caucasus (Eocene to Miocene; [3]), though it is considerably younger than all of the dated PCDs and prospects in the south Armenia. It also postdates Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Saheb Divan (35 Ma), Qaradagh batholith (31.22±0.28 to 25.19±0.19 Ma), as well as Haft Cheshmeh PCD (28.18±0.42 to 27.05±0.37 Ma) in NW Iran, while it seems to be coeval with the Kighal

  12. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  13. The 1997 and 2001 lahars of Popocatépetl volcano (Central Mexico): textural and sedimentological constraints on their origin and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Poblete, M. A.; Alvarado, R.

    2004-03-01

    Popocatépetl volcano is the most active volcano in central Mexico, and represents a high risk for more than 40 million people, including Mexico City. In 1994, volcanic activity at Popocatépetl renewed with the formation of ash-rich plumes up to 7 km high. In April 1996, lava emissions filled the crater and were accompanied by a series of explosions that produced eruptive columns up to 8 km high. Associated with explosive events in 1997 and 2001, two major lahars events occurred, leaving debris flow deposits along Huiloac Gorge for as far as 15 km, to the town of Santiago Xalitzinta. The 1997 debris flow deposit originated after a prolonged emission of ash which caused glacier melt and a rapid release of water (1×10 7 m 3). The amount of melting water was sufficient to gradually erode the river bed causing a flood that gradually transformed from a debris flow to a hyperconcentrated flow. In contrast, the 2001 debris flow that originated from a post-depositional remobilization of a pumice flow deposit, did not experience any flow transformation and carried 25% water at maximum. The different behavior of these two lahars has important hazard implications. Both lahars reached Xalitzintla town, but at that point, the 1997 lahar had already transformed into a sediment-loaded stream flow. The 2001 lahar, by contrast, maintained the characteristics of a debris flow, being more competent, and with greater destructive power. What happened with these lahars demonstrates how important it is to take into consideration secondary volcanic phenomena. Even though they were not large flows, they were capable of threatening populated areas, even during periods of volcanic quiescence or reduced magmatic activity.

  14. Analysis of fern spore banks from the soil of three vegetation types in the central region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Trejo, María Del Rosario; Pérez-García, Blanca; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

    2004-05-01

    The vertical structure of fern spore banks was studied in a xerophilous shrubland, montane rain forest, and pine-oak forest in Hidalgo, Mexico, using the emergence method. Soil samples were collected in April 1999 at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. Viable spores decreased significantly with depth in all vegetation types, and the highest number of prothallia and sporophytes was found in the uppermost layer. The montane rain forest and the xerophilous shrubland had the largest and the richest banks, respectively. Twenty-three fern taxa were registered in the aboveground vegetation, 12 in the soil banks, and 43.5% were in both. Aboveground and in the soil bank, the xerophilous shrubland, the montane rain forest, and the pine-oak forest had, 17 and 7, 1 and 6, and 7 and 3 taxa, respectively. These were distributed differentially in relation to depth. The Sørensen index indicated a similarity of 61.5% between the xerophilous shrubland and the montane rain forest, and the Czeckanovsky index indicated 19.75%. The presence of viable spores in the soil of all vegetation types confirmed the existence of natural spore banks. Long-distance dispersal was an important factor determining the specific composition of the xerophilous shrubland and the pine-oak forest. PMID:21653423

  15. Feeding strategies for rearing replacement heifers in small-scale dairy production systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Jordán, C M; García-Martínez, A; Albarrán-Portillo, B; Espinoza-Ortega, A; Castelán-Ortega, O A

    2003-06-01

    The growth of Holstein heifers in the campesino dairy systems in the highlands of Mexico was evaluated in three feeding strategies. Thirty-three heifers from 11 farmers, grouped according to strategy, were weighed every 14 days for 28 weeks. The live weight change over each 14-day period was estimated by individually regressing live weight over period, taking the regression coefficient as an unbiased estimate of live weight change. Regression coefficients were analysed as a randomized design with feeding strategies as treatments. Strategies were as follows: S1: grazed or cut pasture all year, maize silage and maize straw in the dry season, and 1.0-1.5 kg concentrate/heifer per day. S2: maize straw in the dry season, cut pasture forage, grazing of native grass, weeds from maize fields, and 1.0-1.5 kg concentrate/heifer per day. S3: maize straw in the dry season, grazed native grasses and weeds in the rainy season. Live weight gains were: S1, 0.511 kg/heifer per day; S2, 0.271 kg/heifer per day; and S3, 0.252 kg/heifer per day. Despite the better gains in S1, they are 24% below recommendations, arriving to service at 20 months of age. Not rearing their replacements may be a better alternative for campesino farmers under current economic conditions. PMID:12797415

  16. The origin of groundwater arsenic and fluorine in a volcanic sedimentary basin in central Mexico: a hydrochemistry hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Arredondo, Iván; Rodríguez, Ramiro; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Villanueva-Estrada, Ruth Esther

    2016-06-01

    A groundwater sampling campaign was carried out in the summer of 2013 in a low-temperature geothermal system located in Juventino Rosas (JR) municipality, Guanajuato State, Mexico. This groundwater presents high concentrations of As and F- and high Rn counts, mainly in wells with relatively higher temperature. The chemistry of major elements was interpreted with different methods, like Piper and D'Amore diagrams. These diagrams allowed for classification of four groundwater types located in three hydrogeological environments. The aquifers are hosted mainly in alluvial-lacustrine sediments and volcanic rocks in interaction with fault and fracture systems. The subsidence, faults and fractures observed in the study area can act as preferential channels for recharge and also for the transport of deep fluids to the surface, especially in the basin plain. The formation of a piezometric dome and the observed hydrochemical behavior of groundwater suggest a possible origin of the As and F-. Geochemical processes occurring during water-rock interaction are related to high concentrations of As and F-. High temperatures and alteration processes (like rock weathering) induce dissolution of As and F--bearing minerals, increasing the content of these elements in groundwater.

  17. Alcohol and drug consumption, depressive features, and family violence as associated with complaints to the Prosecutor's Office in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermina Natera; García, Francisco Juárez; Icaza, María Elena Medina-Mora; Sainz, Marcela Tiburcio

    2007-01-01

    The article is aimed at reporting the characteristics of the population detected at State Prosecutors' Offices including the two such offices that existed in the city selected for the study, one located in a general hospital for the inspection of violence-related cases (n = 156); and the second in the facility where all detainees are taken when arrested (n = 129), and where victims can file a complaint (n = 186). A household survey undertaken among the population 18 to 65 years of age (n = 887) was used as a group of reference. Both studies were undertaken in Pachuca City, the capital of Hidalgo, located 100 km from Mexico City during the second half of 1996. Face-to-face questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic data, drug use and drinking patterns, depressive symptomatology, and family violence. Discriminant and logistic regression analysis were undertaken. The age group from 18 to 24 displayed the highest number of legal complaints and arrests (OR = 1.773). The likelihood for appearing at a State Prosecutor's Office was higher for those living in an atmosphere of threats and injuries within the family (OR = 19) and for those that reported alcohol consumption on the day of the event (OR = 14). Extremely high rates of family violence were obtained in this sample, increasing the likelihood of arriving at the Prosecutor's Office either because arrested or for being a victim. Results confirm the relationship between alcohol use, depression, and violence, reinforcing the need to prevent alcohol abuse, especially among youth. PMID:17918021

  18. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  19. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97...

  20. Nitrous oxide flux in maize and wheat cropped soils in the central region of Mexico during El nino year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longoria Ramirez, R. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Carbajal Benitez, G.; Mar Morales, B.E.; Ruiz Suarez, G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were measured in agricultural lands used for farming wheat and maize during 1998 in the states of Hidalgo and Tlaxcala in Mexico. In an irrigated wheat field (El Tenhe, Hidalgo), an average flux of -10.85 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 was obtained for the total cycle (155 days between December and May). There, high negative values were observed with Water Fill Porous Space (WFPS) close to 70%. The average flux of the complete cycle (269 days between March and December) in an irrigated maize field (El Progreso, Hidalgo) was 37.43 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1. In this case, more insignificant negative fluxes were found with WFPS close to 45% or less. These last results may have been influenced by the strong El Nino, which occurred in the middle of 1998. Twenty once percent of the measurements in the state of Hidalgo showed soil acting as a nitrous oxide sink. The samples from Tlaxcala showed that these fields acted as emitters. In the rain fed fields in the state of Tlaxcala, an average flux of 121 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 was obtained for the wheat field. The farming season lasted 142 days, from July to December. In addition, for the maize field the averaged flux was 285.61 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - Nm{sup -}2h-1. The farming season lasted 246 days, from April to December. [Spanish] En 1998 se midieron las emisiones de oxido nitroso (N{sub 2}O) de suelos agricolas para cultivar trigo y maiz en los estados de Hidalgo y Tlaxcala, en Mexico. Para un campo irrigado de trigo (El Tenhe, Hidalgo), se obtuvo un flujo promedio de -10.85 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 para el ciclo total (155 dias entre diciembre y mayo). En este caso se observaron valores negativos elevados en el espacio poroso relleno de agua (VFPS, pos sus siglas en ingles), cercanos a 70%. El flujo promedio para el ciclo completo (269 dias entre marzo y diciembre) en un campo irrigado de maiz fue de 37.43 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m

  1. Tectonics vs. eustasy: Mid Pennsylvanian carbonate-ramp cycles, ancestral Rocky Mountains, north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, T.L. (PRC Environmental Management, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology); Smith, G.A. (Univ. of Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic and sedimentologic analysis of measured sections within the Madera Limestone in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico, characterize depositional environments and transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles across a west-dipping ramp, situated approximately 70 kilometers west of the Pedernal uplift, a tectonically active element of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. The ramp setting was separated from the Pedernal Uplift by the deep, clastic-filled Estancia Basin. T-R cycles are 2--12 meters thick and consist of asymmetric, shoaling-upward calcareous shales, thick skeletal wackestones, packstones-grainstones, and are capped by subaerial exposure surfaces or terrigenous clastics. The presence of subaerial exposure features upon subtidal carbonates argues for an allogenic control on cycle formation. 15 T-R cycles are interpreted to coincide with 3rd-order eustatic curves of Ross and Ross (1987). Following the convention of most workers, these 3rd-order cycles are herein referred to as 4th-order. No higher-order cycles have been recognized. Cycles exhibit a bundling of 4, 4th-order cycles into larger, asymmetric 3rd-order cycles, similar in pattern to those described by Ross and Ross (1987). Correlation of Madera Limestone cycles with those in other regions indicates that ancestral Rocky Mountains tectonism was less effective than eustasy in controlling the stratigraphy of Middle Pennsylvanian sediments. Using various time scales for the Desmoinesian, cycle periodicities range between 200,000--370,000 years. This average cycle periodicity is similar to other 4th-order cycles reported in the literature for the Pennsylvanian and suggests a Milankovitch orbital forcing mechanism.

  2. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo González-Zamora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1 and other perturbed (MCF2. We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation.Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico.Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity. We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites.Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region.Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity.

  3. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  4. Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System - A New Model for the Origin of Ore-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Wu, G.; Deng, J.; Xiao, Q.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Origin and emplacement processes of ore-deposits connected with intrusions remains poorly understood. Here we propose a new model 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' to explain the origin of ore-deposits. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals will finally settle in the conduits at later stage of magma evolved in magma metallogenic system. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals include many types, such as sulfide melts and iron melts bearing fluids. Conduits will form along the zones of structural weakness, such as fault zone and interface of two different types of rocks. These conduits are usually very complicated in the magmatic system, exemplified by two typical ore-deposits, detailed as follows. The Jinchuan sulfide deposit, located in Gansu Province, China, is the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni Platinum Group Elements (PGE) in the world. There are mainly four orebodies (orebody 58, 24, 1, and 2) from west to east, with Ni/Cu value at 1.24, 1.56, 1.83 and 2.06 respectively; the content of Pt+Pd ranges from 0.4 to 10.3 ppm, with the highest value occurs in the west. This suggests that the direction of the melt flow bearing sulfide is from west to east and the front of the conduit system is in the east part of the deposit. Sulfide segregation in the magmatic chamber or in the conduits might have caused ore content to change in different part of the conduit systems. Another typical example is the Xishimen iron deposit, which is located in the South of Hebei Province, China. It has been considered as a skarn-type iron deposit conventionally. However, many geological evidence suggests that Xishimen iron deposit is a magmatic iron deposit instead. Such evidence includes: 1. The boundaries between iron orebodies and country rocks are obvious, no transitional relationship; 2. Iron ore body injected into the country rocks (including genesis, diorite, and marble); 3. There are some vesicular in the iron ores; 4. Magnetite as an interstitial mineral

  5. Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, K.; Peters, S.G.; Cromie, P.; Burrett, C.; Hou, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The South China Region is rich in mineral resources and has a wide diversity of deposit types. The region has undergone multiple tectonic and magmatic events and related metallogenic processes throughout the earth history. These tectonic and metallogenic processes were responsible for the formation of the diverse styles of base and precious metal deposits in South China making it one of the resource-rich regions in the world. During the Proterozoic, the South China Craton was characterised by rifting of continental margin before eruption of submarine volcanics and development of platform carbonate rocks, and the formation of VHMS, stratabound copper and MVT deposits. The Phanerozoic metallogeny of South China was related to opening and closing of the Tethyan Ocean involving multiple orogenies by subduction, back-arc rifting, arc-continent collision and post-collisional extension during the Indosinian (Triassic), Yanshanian (Jurassic to Cretaceous) and Himalayan (Tertiary) Orogenies. The Late Palaeozoic was a productive metallogenic period for South China resulting from break-up and rifting of Gondwana. Significant stratabound base and precious metal deposits were formed during the Devonian and Carboniferous (e.g., Fankou and Dabaoshan deposits). These Late Palaeozoic SEDEX-style deposits have been often overprinted by skarn systems associated with Yanshanian magmatism (e.g., Chengmenshan, Dongguashan and Qixiashan). A number of Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic VHMS deposits also developed in the Sanjiang fold belt in the western part of South China (e.g., Laochang and Gacun). South China has significant sedimentary rock-hosted Carlin-like deposits, which occur in the Devonian- to Triassic-aged accretionary wedge or rift basins at the margin of the South China Craton. They are present in a region at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces called the 'Southern Golden Triangle', and are also present in NW Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi, in an area known as

  6. The metallogenic condition analysis and prospecting direction of Chuanjing depression sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the research on the metallogenic condition analysis of Chuanjing depression sandstone type uranium deposit come to a conclusion, that in terms of the Chuanjing depression, is qualified sandstone-type uranium deposits, but according to different districts. The basic conditions of uranium mineralization coupling is poorer, So, it is difficult to find large sandstone type uranium deposit in this area, at present, we have found some uranium mineralization and uranium abnormalities. But, it will be broken in the groundwater hydrodynamic conditions which are relatively good location, these area have good hydrogeology conditions, Channel sands are dominated by the ancient migration of underground water channel, with a complete and independent power system ground water for the migration of oxygenated water containing uranium to provide a good channel, but also for the enrichment of uranium to provide a better Space, lots more abundant in the reducing agent mineralization. future exploration of these sites is our main site. (author)

  7. Accumulation of pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and resistance genes in soils irrigated with wastewater for zero to 100 years in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Dalkmann

    Full Text Available Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin, 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole, and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine in soils irrigated for 19-28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15 × 10(-3 ± 0.22 × 10(-3 copies/16S rDNA than in non-irrigated soils (4.35 × 10(-5± 1.00 × 10(-5 copies/16S rDNA, while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61 × 10(-4 ± 0.59 × 10(-4 versus 2.99 × 10(-5 ± 0.26 × 10(-5 copies/16S rDNA. Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a

  8. Shallow structure of the Chichinautzin Range, southern Mexico basin, central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A gravity and seismic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Lermo-Samaniego, J. F.; Antahyua-Vera, Y. T.; Chavacan, M.; Ramón, V. M.; Hernández-García; Pita, C.

    2013-12-01

    Chichinautzin Range (ChR) closes to the S the Mexico Basin (MB). Initially based on height differences between MB and the to-he S-located Morelos Plataform (MP) , a major S-dipping fault was proposed. Depths differences to the limestone basement beneath MB and MP respectively supported its existence. This assumed fault was named La Pera. Earlier studies reported the existence of several faults affecting the ChR. New studies were focused to analyze the cinematic and dynamic character of faults to the W of ChR (Tenango Fault System) and of southern Sierra de la Cruces Range. Also based on a gravity study (Campos-Enríquez et al., 2000), the existence of a major N-dipping fault was inferred to delimit the MB to the S (i.e., delimiting the ChR to the N). Our study is based on gravity modelling, and local seismicity analysis. Accordingly, Mezosoic sandstones above metamorphic rocks constitute the basement underlying ChR. This structural high is faulted to the N and S. To the N, fault blocks displace the basement to larger depths (2-4 km). To the S the basement is shallower. The faults of the gravity model correlate with all reported faults, which collectively are refferred to as Aztlan Fault System. Two N-S MT profiles confirm the model. Several of these faults are associated with seismic activity with a N-S extension and a left-lateral component. The seismic event were located at depths of 7-15 km (i.e. the brittle crust). The system can be traced from the Nevado de Tolca volcano up to the Popocatépetl volcano and even further eastwards. The system is about 200 km long, 30-40 km wide, tectonically active. It enabled the fast emplacement of the ChR volcanic rocs. A flower-type structure was inferred to the S of ChR, further south, the profile is cut by faults belonging either to the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende Fault System or to the Chapala-Oaxaca Fault System. This profile shows how the transpressive tectonics, to the S, accomodates, with the N-S extension affecting

  9. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  10. Medical therapeutic itineraries of women with breast cancer diagnosis affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Tayabas, Luz María; Salcedo, Liseth Amell; Espino, Joel Monárrez

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe the medical itineraries followed by breast cancer women affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico. We used an ethnographic approach based on oral histories of 12 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the year prior to the first meeting. Two face-to-face sessions per participant lasting 60 minutes each were conducted followed by a telephone interview. Content and diachronic analyses were used. Three main itineraries were identified: (1) diagnostic process, (2) final diagnosis to treatment, and (3) cancer control and relapse. Findings suggested that infrastructure and human resources to adequately screen and timely diagnose breast cancer were scant and insufficiently trained, respectively. Deferral of medical assessment was related with lack of information about breast cancer consequences, with women being afraid of a positive result, and with economic constraints. The current screening program needs to be redesigned to prevent diagnostic delays, as these seem to explain the high frequency of advanced stages reported at the time of diagnosis.

  11. A Study on the Knowledge, Perception, and Use of Breast Cancer Screening Methods and Quality of Care Among Women from Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castillo, Andrea B; Hernández-Valero, María A; Hovick, Shelly R; Campuzano-González, Martha Elva; Karam-Calderón, Miguel Angel; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Studies on health behaviors have observed several barriers to breast cancer screening, including lack of breast cancer knowledge, distrust of health care providers, and long waiting times to be screened or to receive screening results. We conducted a nested case-control study among a subsample of 200 women 21 years of age and older [100 patients (cases)], who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, and 100 controls, who were screened and found to be free of breast cancer), all residing in the Toluca metropolitan area in central Mexico. We examined how knowledge of breast cancer screening guidelines, perceptions of screening methods, and quality of health care influenced the use of breast cancer screening among study participants. Our study found that the most important factor associated with the decision to have breast cancer screenings was having a positive perception of the quality of care provided by the local health care centers, such as having competent clinic personnel, sufficient screening equipment, and reasonable waiting times to receive screening and to receive the screening results. Therefore, individual health care centers need to focus on the patients' perception of the services received by optimizing the care provided and, in so doing, increase the rates of early diagnosis and reduce the rate of mortality from breast cancer as well as its associated treatment costs.

  12. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  13. Public Participation as an Aid to Conserve Little Known Species: The Case of the Neotropical Otter Lontra Longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ramírez-Bravo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public participation is often disregarded during conservation projects despite the potential benefits as it can help to determine priority areas for conservation in highly fragmented landscapes or to increase knowledge of little known species. However, there is no information about its potential application in Central Mexico. We undertook a preliminary assessment based on 30 interviews preformed between December 2011 and May 2012 with hunters aimed to determine the presence, feeding habits, reproduction periods, and –threats of the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in a fragmented landscape in the Sierra Madre Oriental. Twenty three of the interviewed hunters indicated that the species is rare and considered to be solitary however, they have observed cubs and pregnant females feeding mainly on fish and crustaceans were made. Pollution, shortage of prey, habitat disturbance, and hunting were the main threats on the species. We verified the presence responses of the neotropical otter through field work and the life history information was obtained by doing a literature review. We concluded that public participation can be confidently incorporated in conservation plans of the neotropical otter in the Sierra Madre Oriental.

  14. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  15. Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae); Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. from Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculata (Heckel) (type host) and Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan) (both Poeciliidae); and Urocleidoides vaginoclaustrum Jogunoori, Kritsky et Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from P. labialis, Profundulus portillorum Matamoros et Shaefer and Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae). Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. differs from all other congeneric species in having anchors with well-differentiated roots, curved elongate shaft and short point. Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. most closely resembles U. vaginoclaustrum, but differs from this species mainly in the shape of its anchors (i.e. evenly curved shaft and short point vs curved shaft and elongate point extending just past the tip of the superficial anchor root). The complexity of potential hosts for species of Urocleidoides and their effect on its distribution on profundulid and poeciliid fishes are briefly discussed. PMID:26580223

  16. Effectiveness of bats as pollinators of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations in La Mixteca Baja, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cóyotl, Ethel; Stoner, Kathryn E; Casas, Alejandro

    2006-11-01

    Stenocereus stellatus is an endemic, self-incompatible, columnar cactus found in central Mexico where many of its wild populations have been fragmented. As an economically important species of fruit-producing cactus, S. stellatus occurs in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations. The objectives of this study were to determine the effective pollinators of S. stellatus, to compare pollinator visits and reproductive parameters among the three types of populations, and to determine if nectar feeding-bats are moving among populations. Effective pollinators were the nectarivorous bats Choeronycteris mexicana, Leptonycteris curasoae, and L. nivalis. Fewer total visits per flower per night and fewer visits by Choeronycteris were observed in cultivated populations, while the opposite pattern was observed for Leptonycteris. One aggressive interaction was filmed in which Choeronycteris was physically displaced by Leptonycteris, and Choeronycteris visits were significantly affected by Leptonycteris visits. Cultivated populations received more pollen grains and had more fruit set. Variation in pollinator visits between different populations and the consequent effects on reproductive success were likely a result of competition between bat species, and differences in foraging and in sensitivity of bat species to human populations. Three marked L. curasoae traveled 15 km from their roosting site to their foraging area, and one visited cultivated and managed populations, suggesting that this species may be particularly important in moving pollen among populations.

  17. A synthesis and review of geomorphic surfaces of the boundary zone Mt. Taylor to Lucero uplift area, West-Central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, S.G. [NEOTEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor volcanic field and Lucero uplift of west-central New Mexico occur in a transitional-boundary zone between the tectonically active Basin-and Range province (Rio Grande rift) and the less tectonically active Colorado plateau. The general geomorphology and Cenozoic erosional history has been discussed primarily in terms of a qualitative, descriptive context and without the knowledge of lithospheric processes. The first discussion of geomorphic surfaces suggested that the erosional surface underlying the Mt. Taylor volcanic rocks is correlative with the Ortiz surface of the Rio Grande rift. In 1978 a study supported this hypothesis with K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks within each physiographic province. The correlation of this surface was a first step In the regional analysis of the boundary zone; however, little work has been done to verify this correlation with numerical age dates and quantitatively reconstruct the surface for neotectonic purposes. Those geomorphic surfaces inset below and younger than the ``Ortiz`` surface have been studied. This report provides a summary of this data as well as unpublished data and a conceptual framework for future studies related to the LANL ISR project.

  18. Intercropped oats (Avena sativa) - common vetch (Vicia sativa) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Castro, Y; Espinoza-Ortega, A; González-Esquivel, C E; Mateo-Salazar, B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-06-01

    Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM/cow/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season feeding, for a more intensive use of the land through an oat-vetch catch crop. Cows had 9 h/d access to continuous grazing of perennial ryegrass - white clover pasture and 4 kg/d of commercial concentrate. The 9 week experiment, recorded weekly milk yield and composition, and body condition score and live-weight every fortnight. Milk yield was 20.1 kg/cow/d for OVS and 15.4 for MS (SEM +/-2.9, P > 0.05), with no differences for fat or protein content, body condition score, or live-weight (P > 0.05). The economic analysis showed that although feeding costs were higher for OVS, margins were greater than for MS, with feeding cost per litre of $0.21 for MS and $0.16 for OVS. OVS is a viable catch crop after the MS harvest that can substitute MS in the dry season enabling a more intensive use of the land.

  19. Medical therapeutic itineraries of women with breast cancer diagnosis affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Tejada-Tayabas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the medical itineraries followed by breast cancer women affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico. We used an ethnographic approach based on oral histories of 12 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the year prior to the first meeting. Two face-to-face sessions per participant lasting 60 minutes each were conducted followed by a telephone interview. Content and diachronic analyses were used. Three main itineraries were identified: (1 diagnostic process, (2 final diagnosis to treatment, and (3 cancer control and relapse. Findings suggested that infrastructure and human resources to adequately screen and timely diagnose breast cancer were scant and insufficiently trained, respectively. Deferral of medical assessment was related with lack of information about breast cancer consequences, with women being afraid of a positive result, and with economic constraints. The current screening program needs to be redesigned to prevent diagnostic delays, as these seem to explain the high frequency of advanced stages reported at the time of diagnosis.

  20. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  1. Strain Localisation at Rift Segment Boundaries: An Example from the Bocana Transfer Zone in Central Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Gleadow, A. J.; Kohn, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    Rifts are commonly segmented into several hundred kilometre long zones of opposing upper-plate transport direction with boundaries defined by accommodation and transfer zones. A number of such rift segments have been recognized in the northern Gulf of California, a youthful oceanic basin that is currently undergoing the rift-drift transition. However, detailed field studies have so far failed to identify suitable structures that could accommodate the obvious deformation gradients between different rift segments, and the nature of strain transfer at segment boundaries remains enigmatic. The situation is even less clear in central and southern Baja California, where a number of rift segments have been hypothesized but it is unknown whether the intervening segment boundaries facilitate true reversals in the upper-plate transport direction, or whether they simply accommodate differences in the timing, style or magnitude of deformation. The Bocana transfer zone (BTZ) in central Baja California is a linear, WNW-ESE striking structural discontinuity separating two rift segments with different magnitudes and styles of extensional deformation. North of the BTZ, the Libertad fault is part of the Main Gulf Escarpment, which represents the breakaway fault that separates the Gulf of California rift to the east from the relatively stable western portion of the Baja peninsula. The N-striking Libertad escarpment developed during the Late Miocene (~10-8Ma) and exhibits a topographic relief of ca. 1,000m along a strike-length of ca. 50km. Finite displacement decreases from ~1000m in the central fault segment to ~500m further south, where the fault bends SE and merges with the BTZ. In the hanging wall of the Libertad fault, a series of W-tilted horsts are bound along their eastern margins by two moderate-displacement E-dipping normal faults. South of the BTZ, extension was much less than further north, which explains the comparatively subdued relief and generally shallower tilt of

  2. Localized double-array stacking analysis of PcP: D″ and ULVZ structure beneath the Cocos plate, Mexico, central Pacific, and north Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutko, Alexander R.; Lay, Thorne; Revenaugh, Justin

    2009-01-01

    A large, high quality P-wave data set comprising short-period and broadband signals sampling four separate regions in the lowermost mantle beneath the Cocos plate, Mexico, the central Pacific, and the north Pacific is analyzed using regional one-dimensional double-array stacking and modelling with reflectivity synthetics. A data-screening criterion retains only events with stable PcP energy in the final data stacks used for modelling and interpretation. This significantly improves the signal stacks relative to including unscreened observations, allows confident alignment on the PcP arrival and allows tight bounds to be placed on P-wave velocity structure above the core–mantle boundary (CMB). The PcP reflections under the Cocos plate are well modelled without any ultra-low velocity zone from 5 to 20°N. At latitudes from 15 to 20°N, we find evidence for two P-wave velocity discontinuities in the D″ region. The first is ∼182 km above the CMB with a δln Vp of +1.5%, near the same depth as a weaker discontinuity (<+0.5%) observed from 5 to 15°N in prior work. The other reflector is ∼454 km above the CMB, with a δln Vp of +0.4%; this appears to be a shallower continuation of the joint P- and S-wave discontinuity previously detected south of 15° N, which is presumed to be the perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition. The data stacks for paths bottoming below Mexico have PcP images that are well matched with the simple IASP91 structure, contradicting previous inferences of ULVZ presence in this region. These particular data are not very sensitive to any D″ discontinuities, and simply bound them to be <∼2%, if present. Data sampling the lowermost mantle beneath the central Pacific confirm the presence of a ∼15-km thick ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) just above the CMB, with δln Vp and δln Vs of around −3 to −4% and −4 to −8%, respectively. The ULVZ models predict previous S-wave data stacks well. The data for this region

  3. KEY ROLE OF METALLOGENIC THEORY OF POLYGENETIC COMPOUND ORE DEPOSITS IN LOCATION PREDICTION OF HIDDEN ORE DEPOSITS IN DIWA REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Sheng-lin; LIU Liang-ming; LAI Jian-qing

    2001-01-01

    The metallogenic theory of polygenetic compound ore deposit is the Important basis for location prediction of hidden ore deposits in diwa regions.It can play an important role in each step of prediction research,targeting procedure,acquiring information and integrating information.In this paper,the authors discusses how to construct geological concept by using of the metallogenic theory of polygenetic ore deposits for predicting targeting area,to arrange investigation and detection for getting enough useful information,and to analyze and integrate information for reaching a trustful prediction conclusion.According to these strategies,we conduct a successful prediction of location of hidden ore bodies in the outer of the Fenghuangshan copper mine,a principal producing mine in Tongling Cu-Au district.

  4. Mineral Chemistry and Boron Isotopic Composition of Tourmaline from the Devonian Metallogenic District of Shanyang-Zhashui,Eastern Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Tourmaline is widespread in the host strata of strata-bound base metal sulphide deposits in the Devonian metallogenic deistrict around Shanyang-Zhashui in eastern Qinling,As a member of the schorl-dravite series,the tourmaline is characterized by Mg>Fe and Na>Ca,showing apparent chemical zonation which records the geochemistry during its formation and subsequent regional metamorphism and hydrothermal overprint.The close similarity in chemical and isotopic constitutions between the tourmaline of the main metallogenic epoch in this district [FeO/(FeO_MgO)=0.34-0.39and δ11B=-7.6‰--8.8‰] and those related to massive sulphide deposits typical of submarine(exhalative)hydrothermal sedimentation may add further support to a similar mechanism of mineralization for strata-bound depostis in the district.

  5. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Froese

    Full Text Available Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  6. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Gershenson, Carlos; Manzanilla, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration. PMID:25303308

  7. Material, energy and spatial fields for metallogenic prediction: Theory and practice An example: Limu Sn polymetallic crisis mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jianguang; Cui Bin; Li Gongjian; Hu Weiwu; Qin Zongguang

    2011-01-01

    The Limu tin deposits located in the Nanling tin and tungsten-polymetallic ore belt are now facing resource depletion after decades of exploitation. Peripheral mineral exploration therefore has become an urgent task. Using mineral exploration around the Limu crisis mines as an example, we introduce a breakthrough method of how the three-field theory, i.e., the material, energy and spatial fields, is applied to intensively studies areas, a history of years of mineral exploitation and complex ore-forming systems. Taking a cue from Limu regional metallogeny, we based our investigation on the metallogenic information from geology, geophysics, geochemistry and remote sensing. We conducted our study of the three-field integrated information system, associated with metallogenic prognoses from deposits, with assignments and calculations which correct and allocate synthetic metallogenic prognosis by relying on GIS. We submitted a synthetic metaUogenic prognosis map of tin in Limu where we delineated three ore target areas. A breakthrough was achieved by finding about 4785 t of tin metal outside the Shiziling deposit, which has been confirmed by drilling. The successful application in Limu shows that this threefield theory is of scientific and practical importance and deserves to be extended to utilization.

  8. Regional stratigraphy and distribution of epigenetic stratabound celestine, fluorite, barite and Pb-Zn deposits in the MVT province of northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Francisco; Camprubí, Antoni; González-Partida, Eduardo; Puente-Solís, Rafael; Canet, Carles; Centeno-García, Elena; Atudorei, Viorel

    2009-04-01

    Northeastern Mexico hosts numerous epigenetic stratabound carbonate-hosted low-temperature hydrothermal deposits of celestine, fluorite, barite and zinc-lead, which formed by replacement of Mesozoic evaporites or carbonate rocks. Such deposits can be permissively catalogued as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The deposits studied in the state of Coahuila are associated with granitic and metasedimentary basement highs (horsts) marginal or central to the Mesozoic Sabinas Basin. These horsts controlled the stratigraphy of the Mesozoic basins and subsequently influenced the Laramide structural pattern. The Sabinas Basin consists of ~6,000-m-thick Jurassic to Cretaceous siliciclastic, carbonate and evaporitic series. The MVT deposits are mostly in Barremian and in Aptian-Albian to Cenomanian formations and likely formed from basinal brines that were mobilized during the Laramide orogeny, although earlier diagenetic replacement of evaporite layers (barite and celestine deposits) and lining of paleokarstic cavities in reef carbonates (Zn-Pb deposits) is observed. Fluid inclusion microthermometry and isotopic studies suggest ore formation due to mixing of basinal brines and meteoric water. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 45°C to 210°C; salinities range from 0 to 26 wt.% NaCl equiv., and some inclusions contain hydrocarbons or bitumen. Sulfur isotope data suggest that most of the sulfur in barite and celestine is derived from Barremian to Cenomanian evaporites. Regional geology and a compilation of metallogenic features define the new MVT province of northeastern Mexico, which comprises most of the state of Coahuila and portions of the neighboring states of Nuevo León, Durango and, perhaps extends into Zacatecas and southern Texas. This province exhibits a regional metal zonation, with celestine deposits to the south, fluorite deposits to the north and barite and Zn-Pb deposits mostly in the central part.

  9. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the

  10. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  11. The implications of geology, soils, and vegetation on landscape morphology: Inferences from semi-arid basins with complex vegetation patterns in Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetemen, Omer; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the relationship between land surface properties (e.g. soil, vegetation, and lithology) and landscape morphology quantified by the catchment descriptors: the slope-area (S-A) relation, curvature-area (C-A) relation, and the cumulative area distribution (CAD), in two semi-arid basins in central New Mexico. The first site is composed of several basins located in today's desert elevations with mesic north-facing and xeric south-facing hillslopes underlain by different lithological formations. The second site is a mountainous basin exhibiting vegetation gradients from shrublands in the lower elevations to grasslands and forests at higher elevations. All three land surface properties were found to have significant influences on the S-A and C- A relations, while the power-law exponents of the CADs for these properties did not show any significant deviations from the narrow range of universal scaling exponents reported in the literature. Among the three different surface properties we investigated, vegetation had the most profound impact on the catchment descriptors. In the S-A diagrams of the aspect-controlled ecosystems, we found steeper slopes in north-facing aspects than south-facing aspects for a given drainage area. In elevation-controlled ecosystems, forested landscapes exhibited the steepest slopes for the range of drainage areas examined, followed by shrublands and grasslands in all soil textures and lithologies. In the C-A diagrams, steeper slopes led to a higher degree of divergence on hillslopes and a higher degree of convergence in the valleys than shallower slopes. The influence of functional types of vegetation detected on observed topography provided some initial understanding of the potential impacts of life on the organization of topography. This finding also emphasizes the critical role of climate in catchment development. We suggest that climatic fluctuations that are capable of replacing vegetation communities could lead to highly

  12. Fault kinematics in northern Central America and coupling along the subduction interface of the Cocos Plate, from GPS data in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Monterosso, D.; Robles, V.; Figueroa, C.; Amaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Moran, S.; Flores, O.; Romero, J.; Santiago, J. A.; Manea, M.; Manea, V. C.

    2012-06-01

    New GPS measurements in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador are used to constrain the fault kinematics in the North America (NA), Caribbean (CA) and Cocos (CO) plates triple junction area. The regional GPS velocity field is first analysed in terms of strain partitioning across the major volcano-tectonic structures, using elastic half-space modelling, then inverted through a block model. We show the dominant role of the Motagua Fault with respect to the Polochic Fault in the accommodation of the present-day deformation associated with the NA and CA relative motion. The NA/CA motion decreases from 18-22 mm yr-1 in eastern Guatemala to 14-20 mm yr-1 in central Guatemala (assuming a uniform locking depth of 14-28 km), down to a few millimetres per year in western Guatemala. As a consequence, the western tip of the CA Plate deforms internally, with ≃9 mm yr-1 of east-west extension (≃5 mm yr-1 across the Guatemala city graben alone). Up to 15 mm yr-1 of dextral motion can be accommodated across the volcanic arc in El Salvador and southeastern Guatemala. The arc seems to mark the northern boundary of an independent forearc sliver (AR), pinned to the NA plate. The inversion of the velocity field shows that a four-block (NA, CA, CO and AR) model, that combines relative block rotations with elastic deformation at the block boundaries, can account for most of the GPS observations and constrain the overall kinematics of the active structures. This regional modelling also evidences lateral variations of coupling at the CO subduction interface, with a fairly high-coupling (≃0.6) offshore Chiapas and low-coupling (≃0.25) offshore Guatemala and El Salvador.

  13. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  14. A GIS-based methodology for highlighting fuelwood supply/demand imbalances at the local level: A case study for Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghilardi, Adrian; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar [CIECO, Center for Ecosystems Research, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Antigua carretera a Patzcuaro 8701, 58 190 Morelia (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    When fuelwood is harvested at a rate exceeding natural growth and inefficient conversion technologies are used, negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, such as fuelwood shortages, natural forests degradation and net GHG emissions arise. In this study, we argue that analyzing fuelwood supply/demand spatial patterns require multi-scale approaches to effectively bridge the gap between national results with local situations. The proposed methodology is expected to help 1) focusing resources and actions on local critical situations, starting from national wide analyses and 2) estimating, within statistically robust confidence bounds, the proportion of non-renewable harvested fuelwood. Starting from a previous work, we selected a county-based fuelwood hot spot in the Central Highlands of Mexico, identified from a national wide assessment, and developed a grid-based model in order to identify single localities that face concomitant conditions of high fuelwood consumption and insufficient fuelwood resources. By means of a multi-criteria analysis (MCA), twenty localities, out of a total of 90, were identified as critical in terms of six indicators related to fuelwood use and availability of fuelwood resources. Fuelwood supply/demand balances varied among localities from -16.2 {+-} 2.5 Gg y{sup -1} to 4.4 {+-} 2.6 Gg y{sup -1}, while fractions of non-renewable fuelwood varied from 0 to 96%. These results support the idea that balances and non-renewable fuelwood fractions (mandatory inputs for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) cookstoves projects) must be calculated on a locality by locality basis if gross under or over-estimations want to be avoided in the final carbon accounting. (author)

  15. A detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation of the Matuyama-Bruhnes geomagnetic reversal recorded in tephra-paleosol sequence of Tlaxcala(Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Arechalde, Ana; Goguitchaichvili, Avtandyl; Carrancho, Ángel; Sedov, Sergey; Caballero-Miranda, Cecilia; Ortega, Beatriz; Solís, Berenice; Morales Contreras, Juan; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Bautista, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic reversals are global phenomena, for about 50 years the paleomagnetists attempted to acquire as many detailed records as possible using the magnetic memory of sediments and lava flows. Yet, transitional field behavior remains poorly characterized largely because of sporadic aspect of volcanic eruptions. In some specific cases, paleosols such as those developed from alluvial or aeolian sediments, may also record the variations of the Geomagnetic Field across the polarity changes. Here, we report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation on some radiometrically dated chromic luvisols located in Central Mexico carrying detrital or chemical remanent magnetization. The research was developed in order i) to demonstrate the primary origin of the magnetic remanence and ii) to show that paleosoils are good candidates to provide a high resolution record of the behavior of geomagnetic field during reversals. The lower part of the paleosoil sequence shows a clearly defined reverse polarity magnetization followed by geomagnetically unstable transitional field and ended by normal polarity remanence. Our AMS and rock magnetic data suggest that magnetization is acquired during the initial stage of soil formation in context of active volcanic activity since magnetic fabric is essentially sedimentary and reverse and normal polarity paleodirections are almost antipodal. Titanomagnetites are identified as main magnetic carriers of rock-magnetic measurements including thermomagnetics and hysteresis cycles. We propose that the transition recorded in this study correspond to the B-M boundary, considering the K-Ar datings available at the sequence bottom and that the chromic luvisols are potentially good recorders of the paleosecular variation. The identification of the B-M boundary within the studied sequence has fundamental significance for improving the chronological scale of Tlaxcala paleosol-sedimentary sequence and its correlation with the global proxies.

  16. A detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation of the Matuyama-Bruhnes geomagnetic reversal recorded in tephra-paleosol sequence of Tlaxcala(Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Soler-Arechalde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic reversals are global phenomena, for about 50 years the paleomagnetists attempted to acquire as many detailed records as possible using the magnetic memory of sediments and lava flows. Yet, transitional field behavior remains poorly characterized largely because of sporadic aspect of volcanic eruptions. In some specific cases, paleosols such as those developed from alluvial or aeolian sediments, may also record the variations of the Geomagnetic Field across the polarity changes. Here, we report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation on some radiometrically dated chromic luvisols located in Central Mexico carrying detrital or chemical remanent magnetization. The research was developed in order i to demonstrate the primary origin of the magnetic remanence and ii to show that paleosoils are good candidates to provide a high resolution record of the behavior of geomagnetic field during reversals. The lower part of the paleosoil sequence shows a clearly defined reverse polarity magnetization followed by geomagnetically unstable transitional field and ended by normal polarity remanence. Our AMS and rock magnetic data suggest that magnetization is acquired during the initial stage of soil formation in context of active volcanic activity since magnetic fabric is essentially sedimentary and reverse and normal polarity paleodirections are almost antipodal. Titanomagnetites are identified as main magnetic carriers of rock-magnetic measurements including thermomagnetics and hysteresis cycles. We propose that the transition recorded in this study correspond to the B-M boundary, considering the K-Ar datings available at the sequence bottom and that the chromic luvisols are potentially good recorders of the paleosecular variation. The identification of the B-M boundary within the studied sequence has fundamental significance for improving the chronological scale of Tlaxcala paleosol-sedimentary sequence and its correlation with the

  17. The characteristics, origins, and geodynamic settings of supergiant gold metallogenic provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Kerrich[1; Richard; Goldfarb[2; David; Groves[3; Steven; Garwin[4

    2000-01-01

    There are six distinct classes of gold deposits, each represented by metallogenic provinces, having 100’s to > 1 000 tonne gold production. The deposit classes are: (1) erogenic gold; (2) Carlin and Carlin-like gold deposits; (3) epithermal gold-silver deposits; (4) copper-gold porphyry deposits; (5) iron-oxide copper-gold deposits; and (6) gold-rich volcanic hosted massive sul-fide (VMS) to sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits. This classification is based on ore and alteration mineral assemblages; ore and alteration metal budgets; ore fluid pressure(s) and compositions; crustal depth or depth ranges of formation; relationship to structures and/or magmatic intrusions at a variety of scales; and relationship to the P-T-t evolution of the host terrane. These classes reflect distinct geodynamic settings. Orogenic gold deposits are generated at mid-crustal (4-16 km) levels proximal to terrane boundaries, in transpressional subduction-accretion complexes of Cordilleran style erogenic belts; other orogeni

  18. Copper-Polymetal Metallogenic Series and Prospecting Perspective of Eastern Section of Gangdise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Youye; Xue Yingxi; Gao Shunbao

    2003-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing comprehensive studies show that big ore-prospecting potentiality is contained in the eastern section of the Gangdise Mountains, Tibet.There are various mineralization types with dominant types of porphyry and exhalation. According to their relations with tectonic evolution, they are divided into four kinds of metallogenic series as follows:magmatic type (Cr, Pt, Cu, Ni) and exhalation type (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag) ore deposit series related to Neo-Tethys oceanic crust subduction action (125-96 Ma); epithermal type (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, Sb), altered fractured rock type (Cu, Mo) and skarn rock type (Cu) ore deposit series related to arc-continental collision; porphyry type (Cu, Mo), cryptoexplosion breccia type (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn), shear zone type (Au, Ag, Sb) and skarn rock type (Cu, Fe) ore deposit series with relation to post-orogenic extensional strike-slip. From subductive complex to the north, zoning appears to be crystallization differentiation type (segregation type)-shear zone type (altered rock type)-skarn rock type, epithermal type-porphyry type-porphyry type and exhalation type-exhalation type-hydrothermal filling-replacement type.The ore deposit is characterized by multi-places from the same source, parity and multi-stage, hypabyssal rock from the deep source and poly genetic compound as a whole.

  19. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Donato, Katharine M.; Blake Sisk

    2015-01-01

    In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1) enter without legal authorization to do so; (2) are more likely to cross the ...

  20. Numerical simulation of vertical ground-water flux of the Rio Grande from ground-water temperature profiles, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    1999-01-01

    An important gap in the understanding of the hydrology of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, is the rate at which water from the Rio Grande recharges the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Several methodologies-including use of the Glover-Balmer equation, flood pulses, and channel permeameters- have been applied to this problem in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. In the work presented here, ground-water temperature profiles and ground-water levels beneath the Rio Grande were measured and numerically simulated at four sites. The direction and rate of vertical ground-water flux between the river and underlying aquifer was simulated and the effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying the river was estimated through model calibration. Seven sets of nested piezometers were installed during July and August 1996 at four sites along the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area, though only four of the piezometer nests were simulated. In downstream order, these four sites are (1) the Bernalillo site, upstream from the New Mexico State Highway 44 bridge in Bernalillo (piezometer nest BRN02); (2) the Corrales site, upstream from the Rio Rancho sewage treatment plant in Rio Rancho (COR01); (3) the Paseo del Norte site, upstream from the Paseo del Norte bridge in Albuquerque (PDN01); and (4) the Rio Bravo site, upstream from the Rio Bravo bridge in Albuquerque (RBR01). All piezometers were completed in the inner-valley alluvium of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Ground-water levels and temperatures were measured in the four piezometer nests a total of seven times in the 24-month period from September 1996 through August 1998. The flux between the surface- and ground-water systems at each of the field sites was quantified by one-dimensional numerical simulation of the water and heat exchange in the subsurface using the heat and water transport model VS2DH. Model calibration was aided by the use of PEST, a model-independent computer program that uses

  1. Shallow geothermal investigations into the existence of the Valles Caldera outflow plume near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, north-central, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaz, Robert Ezekiel

    Geothermal research within the Jemez Mountains spans several decades and is documented in many papers. This study serves to extend the research boundary to the south and east outside of Valles caldera and Canon de San Diego, where the main occurrences of geothermal activity are located. The focus of this investigation is to test for a deep ~900 m, stratigraphically-bound thermal aquifer within the Madera Limestone along the western margin of the Santo Domingo basin transition zone near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, in north-central New Mexico. Numerous springs were sampled for aqueous geochemistry to identify leakage of a deeper geothermal aquifer into shallow aquifers. Wells were sampled for temperature anomalies. In addition, two travertine deposits were analyzed for stable isotope composition and one deposit was dated using U-Series techniques to assess the timing and origin of deposition. This study is important because researchers in other extensional basins have identified reasonably good geothermal reservoirs in deep carbonate aquifers that are similar in geologic setting to the Madera Limestone aquifer of this study. The existence of a deep geothermal aquifer near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico could prove to be another prospect for geothermal exploration in the Jemez Mountains. Aqueous geochemistry of springs are plotted on ternary Piper diagrams to help classify similar geochemical trends and group these trends into recognizable patterns. These data indicate calcium carbonate rich waters in the north that may gradationally change to alkaline type waters as they flow south through the study area. Contrasting this data, SiO2 and TDS concentrations show two separate systems that may indicate separate confined aquifers. Two distinct TDS regions are observed, one with higher concentrations (>1000 ppm) shows a decrease from N-S and one with lower concentrations (geothermal mixing was observed in any of the samples. Temperature data taken from shallow

  2. Effects of overcast and foggy conditions on transpiration rates of Pinus patula trees along a chronosequence within the cloud belt of the Sierra Madre Oriental, central Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Holwerda, F.; Asbjornsen, H.; Sauer, T.; Dawson, T. E.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Pinus patula is a native tree species of the montane cloud belt of central Veracruz, Mexico, and one of the most popular species for regional reforestation efforts, both within and outside its natural range of occurrence. Projected regional climate change is likely to cause a rise in the average cloud condensation level by several hundred meters, thereby reducing fog occurrence, whilst overcast conditions are likely to remain similar. To improve our understanding of how water use of P. patula plantations is affected by changes in climatic conditions, we analyzed the response of transpiration rates to fine-scale variations in microclimate, particularly fog immersion and the occurrence of high clouds. We conducted measurements of micrometeorological parameters and transpiration (Et, using the heat ratio sap flow technique) of 15 pine trees representing a range of ages (10-34 years) and sizes (7-60 cm of dbh) during one and a half years (Nov 2008 - May 2010), covering two dry seasons and one wet season. Foggy days were defined using daytime “M-of-N” constructs (at least 4 hours with visibility 1000 m and a maximum incoming solar radiation (Sin) climatic conditions using the FAO reference evaporation ETo to allow determination of the proportional contributions to Et suppression by reductions in Sin and VPD relative to leaf wetness. We found that both foggy and overcast conditions without rainfall produced similar % of Et reduction compared to sunny conditions (60-70%). The strongest Et suppression effects occurred when foggy or overcast conditions were associated with rainfall. However, there was just a slight and non significant difference between the average Et/ETo ratio for foggy days with rainfall (i.e. partially wetted canopy) and fog-only days, suggesting that the suppression of Et was mainly caused by reductions in VPD and Sin. Further, reverse daytime sap flow rates (possibly due to water uptake by tree crowns) occurred almost exclusively during periods

  3. Do the historical biogeography and evolutionary history of the digenean Margotrema spp. across central Mexico mirror those of their freshwater fish hosts (Goodeinae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martínez-Aquino

    Full Text Available Host-parasite systems provide an ideal platform to study evolution at different levels, including codivergence in a historical biogeography context. In this study we aim to describe biogeographic and codivergent patterns and associated processes of the Goodeinae freshwater fish and their digenean parasite (Margotrema spp. over the last 6.5 Ma (million years, identifying the main factors (host and/or hydrogeomorphology that influenced the evolution of Margotrema. We obtained a species tree for Margotrema spp. using DNA sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers (COI and ITS1, respectively and performed molecular dating to discern divergence events within the genus. The dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC model was used to describe the historical biogeography of digeneans and applied to cophylogenetic analyses of Margotrema and their goodeine hosts. Our results showed that the evolutionary history of Margotrema has been shaped in close association with its geographic context, especially with the geological history of central Mexico during the Pleistocene. Host-specificity has been established at three levels of historical association: a Species-Species, represented by Xenotaenia resolanae-M. resolanae exclusively found in the Cuzalapa River Basin; b Species-Lineage, represented by Characodon audax-M. bravoae Lineage II, exclusive to the Upper and Middle Mezquital River Basin, and c Tribe-Lineage, including two instances of historical associations among parasites and hosts at the taxonomical level of tribe, one represented by Ilyodontini-M. bravoae Lineage I (distributed across the Ayuquila and Balsas River Basins, and another comprised of Girardinichthyini/Chapalichthyini-M. bravoae Lineage III, found only in the Lerma River Basin. We show that the evolutionary history of the parasites is, on several occasions, in agreement with the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of their hosts. A series of biogeographic and host

  4. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  5. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF as 0.34–0.20×OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47–0.43×OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(−1/3, within measurement uncertainty (~20%. The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0–0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as −0.70×OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust. Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  6. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100-nm particles decreased with the organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF as 10(−0.43−0.44*OMF over Central Mexico and 10(−0.29−0.70*OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(−1/3, within measurement uncertainty (~20%. The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0–0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as −0.70*OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust. Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemistry and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  7. Water-Quality Assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas--Surface-Water Quality, Shallow Ground-Water Quality, and Factors Affecting Water Quality in the Rincon Valley, South-Central New Mexico, 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, surface-water and ground-water samples were collected in 1994 and 1995 for analysis of common constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, radioactivity, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides to characterize surface- water quality and shallow ground-water quality and to determine factors affecting water quality in the Rincon Valley, south-central New Mexico. Samples of surface water were collected from three sites on the Rio Grande and from sites on three agricultural drains in the Rincon Valley in January 1994 and 1995, April 1994, and October 1994. Ground-water samples were collected in late April and early May 1994 from 30 shallow wells that were installed during the investigation. Dissolved-solids concentrations in surface water ranged from 434 to 1,510 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Dissolved-solids concentrations were smallest in water from the Rio Grande below Caballo Dam and largest in the drains. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 3.3 mg/L as nitrogen, and ammonia concentrations ranged from less than 0.015 to 0.33 mg/L as nitrogen in surface-water samples. Trace-element concentrations in surface water were significantly smaller than the acute-fisheries standards. One or more pesticides were detected in 34 of 37 surface-water samples. DCPA (dacthal) and metolachlor were the most commonly detected pesticides. No standards have been established for the pesticides analyzed for in this study. Dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow ground water ranged from 481 to 3,630 mg/L. All but 2 of 30 samples exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level for dissolved solids of 500 mg/L. Water from about 73 percent of the wells sampled exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L for sulfate, and water from about 7 percent of the wells sampled exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L for chloride. Nitrite plus nitrate

  8. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  9. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  10. El género Hydrophilus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilina en México y Centroamérica The genus Hydrophilus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilina in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arce-Pérez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión morfológica de 499 ejemplares adultos y datos bibliográficos se actualizó la identidad y la distribución precisa de las especies del género Hydrophilus Geoffroy, 1762 que habitan en México y Centroamérica. Se presenta a H. (Dibolocelus purpuracens Régimbart, 1901 como nuevo registro para México. Las especies más ampliamente distribuidas son H. (H. ensifer Brullé, 1837 en 5 países y las Antillas e H. (H. insularis Castelnau, 1840 en 4 países y las Antillas. Los países con mayor riqueza fueron México con 5 especies, y Nicaragua y Costa Rica con 3 especies. En México el estado con mayor riqueza es Veracruz, y en Nicaragua los departamentos de León y Río San Juan. Se presenta una clave ilustrada para el reconocimiento de las especies.The taxonomy and precise distribution of the species of the genus Hydrophilus Geoffroy, 1762 from Mexico and Central America are reviewed, based on the morphological study of499 adult specimens, descriptions and literature records. Hydrophilus (Dibolocelus purpuracens Régimbart, 1901 is recorded for the first time for Mexico. Species with widest distribution are H. (H. ensifer Brullé, 1837 cited from 5 countries and in the Antilles, and H. (H. insularis Castelnau, 1840 cited from 4 countries and the Antilles. The richest countries are Mexico with 5 species, and Costa Rica and Nicaragua with 3 species. The highest species richness is recorded for the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and from the departments of León and Río San Juan, Nicaragua. An illustrated key to the species is included.

  11. On the behavior of site effects in central Mexico (the Mexican volcanic belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2014-06-01

    The Mexican volcanic belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The seismic risk and hazard of this seismogenic zone has not been studied in detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regime of central Mexico is not too frequent. However, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, that has been studied in detail. Studies have mainly focused on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred off coast of Michoacán. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects in the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data when obtaining attenuation parameters in future works, as well as some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with negligible site amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with significant site amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on central Mexico due to large earthquakes within

  12. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico (the Mexican Volcanic Belt – MVB, based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Clemente-Chavez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east–west orientation. The risk and hazard seismic of this seismogenic zone has not been studied at detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regimen of Central Mexico is not too frequent, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0 that have taken place in this zone. The Valley of Mexico City (VM is the sole zone, within the MVB, which has been studied in detail; mainly focusing on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred in Michoacan. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects on the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data to obtain attenuation parameters in future works, and some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier Acceleration Spectrum (FAS shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1 stations with Negligible Site Amplification (NSA and (2 stations with Significant Site Amplification (SSA. Most of the sites in the first group showed small ( These aspects help to advance the understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on the Central Mexico due to large

  13. On the behavior of site effects in central Mexico (the Mexican volcanic belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2014-06-01

    The Mexican volcanic belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The seismic risk and hazard of this seismogenic zone has not been studied in detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regime of central Mexico is not too frequent. However, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, that has been studied in detail. Studies have mainly focused on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred off coast of Michoacán. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects in the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data when obtaining attenuation parameters in future works, as well as some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with negligible site amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with significant site amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (seismicity regions. These variations were attributed to the location of the source. These aspects help to advance the understanding

  14. Gulf of Mexico sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Sections IV.D through IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The report provides a description of the areas, the affected environment, and the environmental consequences; it discusses the proposed actions, issues and areas of concern, and the major differences of holding these lease sales

  15. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1. Sections I through IV.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The report provides a description of the areas, the affected environment, and the environmental consequences; it discusses the proposed actions, issues and areas of concern, and the major differences of holding these lease sales

  16. Diagenetic-metallogenic ages of pyritic cherts and their implications in Mojiang nickel-gold deposit in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Diagenetic-metallogenic ages of pyritic cherts formed by the syn-sedimentation of hydrothermal vent and ages of the Jinchang Rock Formation in the Mojiang large nickel-gold deposit in the Ailaoshan gold metallogenic belt have been discussed on the basis of chronology of isotopic geochemistry.. Nickel-gold.bearing pyritic cherts in the mining were formed by syn-sedimentation of hydrothermal vent in the Late Devonian, i.e. age by Sm-Nd isochronal method (t)= (358 4±8.6) (2σ) Ma and age by Rb-Sr isochronal method (t)= (354.74±0.72) (2σ) Ma. On the other hand, deep-water cherts from the Jinchang Rock Formation of the Upper Devonian in the area were initiated at the same time; that is,age by Sm-Nd isochronal method (t) = (359±21) (2σ) Ma and age by Rb-Sr isochronal method (t) = (358.02±0.30) (2σ)Ma.

  17. PETROGENETIC AND METALLOGENETIC AGES FOR THE PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSITS IN THE GANGDISE METALLOGENIC BELT IN SOUTHERN TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guangming; RUI Zongyao

    2004-01-01

    Recent examination and assessment about the porphyry copper deposits in Gangdise metallogenic belt in southern Tibet have revealed that these porphyry copper deposits are highly prospective. Several methods have been used for the isotopic dating of the Qulong, Tinggong and Chongjiang porphyry copper deposits, which gives out a petrogenetic age of 17.58±0.74Ma (single-zircon dating of SHRIMP), a metallogenetic age of 15.99±0.32Ma (Re-Os isochron dating) and an alteration age ranging between12.00Ma and 16.5Ma (K-Ar dating). The metallogenetic age is in general agreement with the alteration age.It can be seen that the petrogenetic and metallogenetic ages for the porphyry copper deposits in Gangdise metallogenic belt are noticeably later than the age for the collisional granitic intrusion in this belt. The authors contend that the porphyry copper deposits in the study area were formed in a post-collisional extensional tectonic setting, and are closely related to the delamination of the mountain roots of the orogenic belts and the uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  18. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metallic mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Ailaoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of several complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geophysical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There exists an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  19. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE LiangSheng; DENG Jun; GUO XiaoDong; ZOU YiLin; LIU YinChun

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metalllc mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Aileoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of sev-eral complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geo-physical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There ex-lets an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  20. First Steps Towards the Paleoseismological History of the Pastores and Venta de Bravo Faults, Acambay Graben, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, M.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.; Villamor, P.; Langridge, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Acambay graben is part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) which strikes ESE-WNW across central Mexico. The belt is an active, calc-alkaline volcanic arc that is related to the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates underneath the North American plate (e.g. Suter et al. 1995). The TMVB comprises a series of intra-arc basins that form the Chapala-Tula fault zone (450 km long, 50 km wide, Suter et al. 1995). The Acambay graben is c. 80 km long, 15 to 35 km wide and limited by four large E-W striking normal faults that are from west to east, the Epitacio-Huerta (EHF) and the Acambay-Tixmadejé faults (ATF) in the north and the Venta de Bravo (VBF) and the Pastores faults (PF) in the south. In the region, there is a low current seismicity but two known historic earthquakes occurred in the graben, the November 19, 1912, ms = 7.0 Acambay event and the February 22, 1979, ms = 4.9 Maravatío earthquake (Astíz-Delgado 1980). The paleoseismic history of the ATF has been previously studied by Langridge et al. (2000). Our focus lies on the paleoseismicity of the southern faults. The rupture history is assessed by tectonic geomorphology and paleoseismic trenches. To study the recent paleoseismic history of the two southern faults, we excavated two trenches on the PF. These trenches lie on young alluvial fans protruding from the Pastores fault scarp. Their location was chosen because of ' steps'\\ in the surface of the alluvial fan that might indicate the position of the most recent fault scarps, in combination with georadar profiles that confirmed vertical displacements in reflectors underneath those steps. The strata in the trenches consist of lake sediments at the base of one trench overlain by interbedded volcanic pyroclastic flows and ash falls which are found in both trenches. In both trenches we found evidence for one paleoearthquake respectively. We are in the process of dating these events by means abundant charcoal which we found in the pyroclastic

  1. Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico; Conformacion de un proceso de evaluacion para una solicitud de renovacion de licencia de una central nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M. L., E-mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    So that the construction stages, of operation, closing, dismantlement and the radioactive waste disposal of a nuclear power plant (NPP) are carried out in Mexico, is necessary that the operator has a license, permission or authorization for each stage. In Mexico, these licenses, permissions or authorizations are granted by the Energy Secretariat with base in the verdict of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The operation licenses ar the moment effective for the reactors of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) they will expire respectively in the year 2020 and 2025 for the Unit 1 and Unit 2, for what the CNSNS has begun its preparation before a potential solicitude of the licensee to continue the operation of the NPP-L V. Defining the process to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this phase as normalization, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc., is the task that intends to be carried out the regulator body so that the evaluation process is effective and efficient, so much for the same regulator body as for the licensee. This work exposes the advance that the CNSNS has in this aspect and is centered specifically in the conformation of an evaluation process of license renovation solicitude, taking as base what the regulator body of the United States of North America (US NRC) established and following to the IAEA. Also, this work includes statistical of electric power production in Mexico, licensing antecedents for the NPP-L V, a world perspective of the license renovations and the regulation of the US NRC related to the license renovation of a NPP. (Author)

  2. Regulator process for the authorization of an amendment to the operation license of a nuclear power plant in Mexico; Proceso regulador para la autorizacion de una enmienda a la licencia de operacion de una central nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Espinosa V, J.M.; Salgado, J.R.; Mamani, Y.R. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The regulator process by which an authorization is granted from an amendment to the License of Operation of a nuclear power station in Mexico is described. It makes an appointment the effective legal mark, the technical characteristics of the modification, the evaluation process and deposition upon oath of tests and finally the elaboration of the Safety report and the Technical Verdict that is a correspondent for the regulator organism to the Secretary of Energy, the one that in turn is the responsible of granting the amendment the License just as it establishes it the Law. (Author)

  3. Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System in Jinchuan Cu-Ni (PGE) Sulfide Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Zhou, M.; Song, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Jinchuan Cu-Ni (PGE) sulfide deposit is located in the southwestern margin of North China Craton. Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion hosts the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni deposit in the world. There are mainly four orebodies, namely, orebody-58, orebody-24, orebody-1, and orebody-2, respectively from west to east in the deposit. The primary characteristics of Jinchuan Cu-Ni sulfide deposit are the following: (1) There is an obvious boundary between orebodys and country rocks, usually orebodys intruded into country rocks. (2) "sulfide melts" migrate and settle in the later stage of magma evolution. (3) Fluid Minerals Assemblages are found in the sulfide ores, there is Phl+Cc+Pn+Ccp+Po in orebody-2; Phl+Dol+AP+Pn+Ccp+Po in orebody-24; Q+Mag+AP+Pn+Ccp+Po in orebody-58. (4) Massive sulfides mainly occur in orebody-2, and its PGE content is very rare. Pt-Pd enrichment zones mainly occur in orebody-1; orebody-24 and orebody-58. Ir vs. Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd show positive relationship in orebody-2, but Ir vs. Ru, Rh show positive relationship, Ir vs. Pt, Pd exhibit negative relationship in orebody-1, orebody-24 and orebody-58. The modeling of Ir-Pd shows that the massive sulfide in orebody-2 maybe the origin of MSS. Pt-Pd enrichment zones in orebody-1 orebody-24 and orebody-58 are the relic liquid of monosulfide solid solution segregation; (5) Cu/Ni value is 1.24 in orebody-58, 1.56 in orebody-24, 1.83 in orebody-1, and 2.06 in orebody-2. These features imply that (1) "ore magma" or "melt-fluid bearing metal" formed in the staging chamber in depth; (2) "ore magma" might contain a lot of fluids; (3) "melt-fluid bearing metal" flow moves as a whole; (4) The moving direction of melt-fluid bearing metal flow is form west to east. The ores are enriched in Ni in the front, and enriched in Cu, Pt, Pd in the back of Jinchuan Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System.

  4. Origin and evolution of ore-forming fluids in the Hemushan magnetite-apatite deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China, and their metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gan; Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Yangsong; Pang, Zhenshan; Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Yongwei

    2015-12-01

    The Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in the northern Yangtze Block is one of the most important economic mineral districts in China. The Hemushan deposit is a medium-class Fe deposit located in the southern part of the Ningwu iron ore district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt. The Fe-orebodies are mainly hosted in the contact zone between diorite and Triassic marble. The actinolite-phlogopite-apatite-magnetite ore shows metasomatic/filling textures and disseminated/mesh-vein structures. Based on evidences and petrographic observations, the ore-forming process can be divided into three distinct periods-the early metallogenic period (albite-diopside stage), the middle metallogenic period (magnetite stage and hematite stage), and the late metallogenic period (quartz-pyrite stage and carbonate stage). Fluid inclusion studies show four types of inclusions: type I daughter mineral-bearing three-phase inclusions (L + V + S), type II vapor-rich two-phase inclusions (L + V), type III liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L + V), and minor type IV liquid-phase inclusions (L). Apatites from the magnetite stage contain type I, type II and type III inclusions; anhydrites from the hematite stage mainly contain abundant type II inclusions and relatively less type I inclusions; quartz and calcite from the late metallogenic stage are mainly characterized by type III inclusions. Laser Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry of fluid inclusions show that the ore-forming fluids broadly correspond to unsaturated NaCl-H2O system. From the magnetite stage to the carbonate stage, the ore-forming fluids evolved from moderate-high temperature (average 414 °C), moderate salinity (average 25.01 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions to low temperature (average 168 °C), low salinity (average 6.18 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic studies indicate that the ore-forming fluid during the early stage of middle metallogenic period was mainly of magmatic

  5. Computer input and output files associated with ground-water-flow simulations of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-94, with projections to 2020; (supplement one to U.S. Geological Survey Water-resources investigations report 94-4251)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the computer input files required to run the three-dimensional ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, documented in Kernodle and others (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.). Output files resulting from the computer simulations are included for reference.

  6. Used battery collection camping in central Mexico: statics and metal content report, advances in recycling technology and legislative/regulatory situation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, environmental pollution produced by the disposal of used cells and batteries is a major concern in Mexico. The regulatory law proposal (NMX-AA-104-SCFI-2006) establish a content limit 20, 7.5 and 5 fold higher in Hg, Cd and Pb, respectively, than the European directive 2006/66/CE. Furthermore, transnational companies refused to have participation on the collection/recycling process, putting forward that pollution comes only from illegal market batteries. (Author)

  7. Used battery collection camping in central Mexico: statics and metal content report, advances in recycling technology and legislative/regulatory situation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Garcia, J. A.; Montiel-Corona, V.; Juarez Galindo, A.; Mendoza Sarmiento, G.; Munoz Lopez, F.; Papalotzi Juarez, S.; Cruz Diaz, R. de la

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, environmental pollution produced by the disposal of used cells and batteries is a major concern in Mexico. The regulatory law proposal (NMX-AA-104-SCFI-2006) establish a content limit 20, 7.5 and 5 fold higher in Hg, Cd and Pb, respectively, than the European directive 2006/66/CE. Furthermore, transnational companies refused to have participation on the collection/recycling process, putting forward that pollution comes only from illegal market batteries. (Author)

  8. Suivi temporel de la zone de subduction d'Amérique Centrale et imagerie de la vallée de Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rivet, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen the development of a new method for imaging geological structures based on continuous seismic noise. In this work we used this approach in two different problems. The first is to monitor seismic waves velocity in the crust during slow slip events that occurred in the region of Guerrero in Mexico. These slow slip events are aseismic transients that were observed recently in the seismic gap of Guerrero. They are considered an important part of the strain relaxation in the...

  9. Radiological surveillance in Mexico, derived of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant; Vigilancia radiologica en Mexico, derivado del accidente en la central nuclear de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J.; Nohpal J, X., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Departamento de Vigilancia Radiologica, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    March 11, 2011 an earthquake of 9.0 grades in the Richter scale, originated in the coast of Tohoku, Japan, in the Pacific Ocean gave origin to a tsunami that caused an accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Due to this accident, derived of the loss of the reactor cooling system, as well as of the prolonged absence of alternating and direct current, radiological protection actions were realized without being able to avoid the liberation of radioactive material to the atmosphere and ocean. The radiological impact of these liberations, not only in Japan but around the world, mainly in the north hemisphere of the Earth, was analyzed by means of environmental dose measurements and radionuclide concentrations in soil and water, among others. In the Mexico case, air samples data were obtained, as well as environmental dose celerity and full-length counts of the people coming from Japan near the disaster area. The present work contains the obtained results of the realized measurements in Mexico, same that have been used to make a summary and analysis of the dispersion in the environment in several countries of the world. (Author)

  10. Oil and Gas in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Gerardo Carreón Rodríguez; Juan Rosellón

    2012-01-01

    Mexico is a highly centralized federation. The states and municipalities are highly dependent on federal transfers and so equally at risk to the country’s fiscal dependence on oil. Although Mexico has become more truly federal since multiparty competition has become vibrant and several states are in opposition hands, the states remain very minor actors in relation to oil and gas. However, as the political system has democratized, states have had an increasing say regarding oil and gas activit...

  11. Another Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2009-01-01

    A Mexican saying holds that "Como Mexico no hay dos"--There is only one Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the border, a…

  12. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  13. La geopolítica de México en Centro América: ¿una hegemonía regional? Mexico's geopolitics in Central America: regional hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rocha

    2006-12-01

    analizar el Mecanismo de Diálogo y Concertación de Tuxtla-Gutiérrez y sus tres ámbitos de operación: 1. El ámbito político. 2. El ámbito del desarrollo. 3. El ámbito de la cooperación técnica regional. 4. El ámbito económico, comercial y financiero.Mexico as well as Brazil (first decade of 2000 started to release geo-economic and geo-political projections about their unmediated surroundings (their region of belonging and their mediated surroundings (their neighboring region, besides playing major political roles in their far surroundings (the Latin American and Caribbean region and their remote surroundings (the American continent. As a result, we have proposed and developed the idea that such situations and realities are those of processes of constitution of States with "sub-hegemonic" roles, with their respective functions of "sub-hegemony". We therefore ask the following question: Why are both Mexico and Brazil defining "sub-hegemonic" roles? Are such roles and functions possible within a continental space where a "superpower" exerts unquestionable "supremacy" besides seeking to redefine its "hegemony" (the one now undergoing a crisis? In order to work on the theme of Mexico's geopolitical relations with Central America, we have carried out four approximations: Mexico's current stance; historical background of the relations; process of institutionalization of cooperation; and field of action of the relations. Besides, the work is concluded with some ideas about Mexico's geopolitical view. The approximation to Mexico's structural stance in the world and in the American Continent seeks to highlight realities in its condition of semiperipheral and "sub-hegemonic" country. The historical approximation leads to the 1980s and the 1990s, when the background for Mexico's cooperation with Central America is established and that cooperation is started and strengthened. The institutional approximation, focused on the 1990s and the early 2000s, approaches the field of

  14. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván; Barboza-Corona, José E.; A. Arianna Lechuga-Arana; Mauricio Valencia-Posadas; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Carlos Cedillo-Pelaez; Erika A. Martínez-Ortega; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages f...

  15. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  16. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

  17. Gulf of Mexico sales 147 and 150: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Sections IV.D through IX. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives; proposed central gulf sale 147; proposed western gulf sale 150; analysis of a large oil spill; consultation and coordination; bibliography and special references; glossary; appendices

  18. Demand of natural uranium to satisfy the requirements of nuclear fuel of new nuclear power plants in Mexico; Demanda de uranio natural para satisfacer los requerimientos de combustible nuclear de nuevas centrales nucleares en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Rios, M. del C.; Alonso, G.; Palacios H, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrrs@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    Due to the expectation of that in Mexico new plants of nuclear energy could be installed, turns out from the interest to evaluate the uranium requirements to operate those plants and to also evaluate if the existing reserves in the country could be sufficient to satisfy that demand. Three different scenes from nuclear power plant expansion for the country are postulated here that are desirable for the diversification of generation technologies. The first scene considers a growth in the generation by nuclear means of two reactors of type ABWR that could enter operation by years 2015 and 2020, in the second considers the installation of four reactors but as of 2015 and new every 5 years, in the scene of high growth considers the installation of 6 reactors of the same type that in the other scenes, settling one every three years as of 2015. The results indicate that the uranium reserves could be sufficient to only maintain in operation to one of the reactors proposed by the time of their useful life. (Author)

  19. Increase in surface runoff in the central mountains of Mexico: lessons from the past and predictive scenario for the next century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gratiot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of a medium scale mountainous watershed (Mexico is analysed over half a century. The hydrograph separation highlights an increasing surface runoff contribution since the early 1970's. This increase is attributed to land use changes while the meteorological forcing (rains remains statistically stable over the same period. As a consequence, the intensity of annual extreme floods has tripled up over the period of survey, increasing flood risks in the region. The paper ends with a climatic projection over the 21st century. The decrease of precipitation and the increase of temperature should accentuate the trend engaged since the 1970's by reducing groundwater resources and increasing surface-runoff and associated risks.

  20. Consideraciones e importancia social en torno al cultivo del frijol en el centro de México Considerations and social importance of the bean crop in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Ma. Sangerman-Jarquín

    Full Text Available En México, el grano de frijol por su alto contenido de proteína es básico para la alimentación de su población; ocupa el segundo lugar en importancia nacional después del maíz. La producción de las leguminosas, principalmente el frijol ha disminuido una tasa de 3.2%, con respecto a un crecimiento de población más rápido que la producción. El frijol es una leguminosa que constituye una fuente de proteínas e hidratos de carbono natural; además es abundante en vitamina B como: niacina, ácido fólico y tianina; también proporciona hierro, cobre, zinc, fósforo, potasio, magnesio y calcio, contiene un alto contenido de fibra. Existen múltiples variedades de frijol que se caracterizan por su tamaño, color, forma y tipo de crecimiento. Se considera que en total existen 70 especies; en México estás ascienden a 50, destacan cinco especies que se han domesticado Phaseolus vulgaris L. (frijol común, Phaseolus coccineus L. (frijol ayocote, Phaseolus lunatus L. (frijol comba, Phaseolus dumosus (frijol gordo y Phaseolus acutifolius Gray (frijol tepari. En México se cultivan cerca de 70 variedades, de acuerdo a la norma son: negros, pintos, bayos, amarillos y rosados. El cultivo del frijol presenta características propias y definidas en el marco de la soberanía alimentaria, en virtud de que representa un alimento principal para la población rural y urbana. El programa de mejoramiento genético de frijol del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP del Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX, ha contribuido en gran medida en generar la tecnología necesaria para que el país alcance la autosuficiencia alimentaria sostenida en este cultivo. Esta tecnología incluye la liberación de variedades con mayor capacidad de rendimiento y mejor calidad alimentaria y culinaria.In Mexico, common bean is an essential component in the diet of the population due to its high protein content; it ranks second

  1. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham. forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pineda Lopez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa.Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico.Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, orthophotographs were used: (UTM; GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa was estimated using an equation specific to species.Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%. The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41; the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1 was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico.Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit.Key words: Aboveground biomass; carbon storage; ecological corridors; fir forest.

  2. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Lopez, M. R.; Sanchez-Velasquez, L. R.; Vazquez-Dominguez, G.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study.) Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa). Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, ortho photographs) were used: (UTM); GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa) was estimated using an equation specific to species. Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%). The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41); the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1) was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico. Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration) and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit. (Author) 55 refs.

  3. Egade, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubany, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a business school design in Mexico, whose spiral building sits atop a parking structure creating a compact, symbolic form for an arid urban landscape. Includes seven photographs, a floor plan, and sectional drawing. (GR)

  4. Fluid inclusions and U/Pb dating of the El Pilote Fluorite skarn occurrence: Metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levresse, Gilles; Tritlla, Jordi; Solorio-Munguía, Jose Gregorio; Valencia, Victor; Linares, Porfirio Julio Pinto

    2011-05-01

    The "El Pilote" deposit, located in the Coahuila State (NE Mexico), is a small fluorite-bearing calcic skarn we dated at 28.4 ± 0.4 Ma (U/Pb). Fluid inclusion studies, performed on fluorite, indicate the occurrence of hot, hypersaline fluids, trapped during the prograde stage. The retrograde fluids present progressively lower temperatures and salinities. All this fluid data depicts a coherent scenario where early magmatic-dominated fluids were progressively mixed up with low-temperature, low-salinity meteoric fluids whose predominance indicates the waning of the hydrothermal system.

  5. Appendix C: Summary of Major Metallogenic Belts in Northeast Asia (the Russian Far East, Yakutia, Siberia, Transbaikalia, Northern China, Mongolia, South Korea, and Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, Sergey M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Distanov, Elimir G.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Davydov, Yuriy V.V.; Fridovskiy, Valeriy Yu.; Gamyanin, Gennandiy N.; Gerel, Ochir; Kostin, Alexei V.; Letunov, Sergey A.; Li, Xujun; Nikitin, Valeriy M.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Sudo, Sadahisa; Sotnikov, Vitaly I.; Spiridonov, Alexander V.; Stepanov, Vitaly A.; Sun, Fengyue; Sun, Jiapeng; Sun, Weizhi; Supletsov, Valeriy M.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tyan, Oleg A.; Vetluzhskikh, Valeriy G.; Wakita, Koji; Yakovlev, Yakov V.; Zorina, Lydia M.

    2010-01-01

    The major purposes of this chapter are to provide (1) an overview of the regional geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia for readers who are unfamiliar with the region, (2) a general scientific introduction to the succeeding chapters of this volume, and (3) an overview of the methodology of metallogenic and tectonic analysis used in this study. We also describe how a high-quality metallogenic and tectonic analysis, including construction of an associated metallogenic-tectonic model will greatly benefit other mineral resource studies, including synthesis of mineral-deposit models; improve prediction of undiscovered mineral deposit as part of a quantitative mineral-resource-assessment studies; assist land-use and mineral-exploration planning; improve interpretations of the origins of host rocks, mineral deposits, and metallogenic belts, and suggest new research. Research on the metallogenesis and tectonics of such major regions as Northeast Asia (eastern Russia, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan) and the Circum-North Pacific (the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera) requires a complex methodology including (1) definitions of key terms, (2) compilation of a regional geologic base map that can be interpreted according to modern tectonic concepts and definitions, (3) compilation of a mineral-deposit database that enables a determination of mineral-deposit models and clarification of the relations of deposits to host rocks and tectonic origins, (4) synthesis of a series of mineral-deposit models that characterize the known mineral deposits and inferred undiscovered deposits in the region, (5) compilation of a series of metallogenic-belt belts constructed on the regional geologic base map, and (6) construction of a unified metallogenic and tectonic model. The summary of regional geology and metallogenesis presented here is based on publications of the major international collaborative studies of the metallogenesis and

  6. Geological and geochemical character and genesis of the Jinlongshan-Qiuling gold deposits in Qinling orogen: Metallogenic mechanism of the Qinling-pattern Carlin-type gold deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复新,陈衍景,李超Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China; ,张静Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China; ,马建秦,李欣Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China

    2000-01-01

    The Qinling Carlin-type gold deposit belt is the second largest Carlin-type gold ore concentrated area in the world and occurs in Mesozoic intracontinental collisional orogen, contrasting to the Carlin-type gold deposits in the Basin and Range province in Cenozoic active continental margin of West America. With ore-forming ages focussed at the range of 197.45-129.45 Ma, its metallogenic geodynamic background was the decornpression-pyrogenation regime at the transition stage from collisional compression to extension, indicating that gold mineralization synchronized with the Mesozoic continental collision. Geochemical studies discover that ore fluids and materials mainly came from the Hercynian-lndosinian tectonic layer. Mesozoic intracontinental subduction of Hercynian-lndosinian association along the Shuanghe-Gongguan fault led to the formation of Jinlongshan-Qiuling gold deposits. Accordingly, the tectonic metallogenic model is established for Qinling-pattern Carlin-type gold deposits.

  7. Endohelminth parasites of seven goodein species (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae from Lake Zacapu , Michoacán, Central Mexico Plateau Endohelmintos parásitos de siete especies de godeinos (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae del lago de Zacapu, Michoacán, en la Mesa Central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martínez-Aquino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 11 parasitic endohelminth taxa were found in 7 freshwater fish species of the subfamily Goodeinae in Zacapu Lake, Michoacan, Mexico. Six were adults (Margotrema cf. bravoae, Phyllodistomum sp., Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Caryophillidae gen. sp., while the remaining 5 taxa (Clinostomum complanatum, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Tylodelphis sp., Eustrongylides sp. and Polymorphus brevis were larvae. The taxa S. sogandaresi, Tylodelphis sp., and R. lichtenfelsi reached the highest levels of prevalence and mean abundance among all hosts, while the cestodes B. acheilognathi and Caryophillidae gen. sp. showed the lowest values. This study contributes with the inventory of the freshwater fish helminth fauna in Central Mexico Plateau, and particularly with the previous work that has been done with Goodeinae, a subfamily of freshwater fishes endemic to that part of the country.En este trabajo se registran 11 taxa de helmintos endoparásitos de 7 especies de peces de la subfamilia Goodeinae del lago de Zacapu, Michoacán, en la mesa central de México. Seis taxa se registraron en estado adulto (Margotrema cf. bravoae, Phyllodistomum sp., Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi y Caryophillidae gen. sp., en tanto que los 5 restantes correspondieron a larvas (Clinostomum complanatum, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Tylodelphys sp. y Eustrongylides sp. y Polymorphus brevis. Los taxa S. sogandaresi, Tylodelphis sp. y R. lichtenfelsi presentaron los valores más altos de prevalencia y abundancia en los peces estudiados, mientras que los céstodos B. acheilognathi y Caryophillidae gen. sp. presentaron los valores más bajos. Este estudio contribuye al inventario de la fauna helmintológica de peces de agua dulce de la mesa central de México y en particular al que ha sido realizado con Goodeinae, una subfamilia de peces dulceacuícolas endémica de esa

  8. Molecular detection and sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriocins of pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in family dairy herds of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E; Lechuga-Arana, A Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  9. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  10. Value of Riparian Vegetation Remnants for Leaf-Litter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Human-Dominated Landscape in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Miguel Á; Escobar-Sarria, Federico; López-Barrera, Fabiola; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Valenzuela-González, Jorge E

    2015-12-01

    Riparian remnants are linear strips of vegetation immediately adjacent to rivers that may act as refuges for biodiversity, depending on their habitat quality. In this study, we evaluated the role of riparian remnants in contributing to the diversity of leaf-litter ants by determining the relationship between ant diversity and several riparian habitat characteristics within a human-dominated landscape in Veracruz, Mexico. Sampling was carried out in 2012 during both dry and rainy seasons at 12 transects 100 m in length, where 10 leaf-litter samples were collected along each transect and processed with Berlese-Tullgren funnels and Winkler sacks. A total of 8,684 individuals belonging to 53 species, 22 genera, and seven subfamilies were collected. The observed mean alpha diversity accounted for 34.4% of the total species recorded and beta diversity for 65.6%. Species richness and composition were significantly related to litter-layer depth and soil compaction, which could limit the distribution of ant species depending on their nesting, feeding, and foraging habits. Riparian remnants can contribute toward the conservation of ant assemblages and likely other invertebrate communities that are threatened by anthropogenic pressures. In human-dominated landscapes where remnants of riparian vegetation give refuge to a diverse array of myrmecofauna, the protection of the few remaining and well-preserved riparian sites is essential for the long-term maintenance of biodiversity.

  11. Evolution of the 2014-2015 sea surface temperature warming in the central west coast of Baja California, Mexico, recorded by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carlos J.

    2016-07-01

    Extraordinarily warm sea surface temperatures were present in the California Current System during 2014-2015. In several locations surface waters temperature registered new record high in the recent time series. This study focuses in the evolution of the warming in the southern part of the California Current System (CCS), off the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. Analysis of monthly sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure, and wind speed as measured by satellite from January 1988 to December 2015 show that recent warming occurred during two distinct periods. From May 2014 to April 2015, SST warming was related to weak coastal winds not associated to El Niño. During this period occurred the longest sustained record of 15 months of negative wind anomalies in the series. A reduction of wind stress suggests a weakened coastal upwelling, and consequently, cold water not transported into the surface. The second process of warming occurred from September to December 2015, during a strong El Niño condition.

  12. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  13. From Back-arc Drifting to Arc Accretion: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Guerrero Terrane Recorded by a Major Provenance Change in Sandstones from the Sierra de los Cuarzos, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios Garcia, N. B.; Martini, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Guerrero terrane composed of Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous arc assemblages, were drifted from the North American continental mainland during lower Early Cretaceous spreading in the Arperos back arc basin, and subsequently accreted back to the continental margin in the late Aptian. Although the accretion of the Guerrero terrane represents one of the major tectonic processes that shaped the southern North American Pacific margin, the stratigraphic record related to such a regional event was not yet recognized in central Mexico. Due to the Sierra de los Cuarzos is located just 50 km east of the Guerrero terrane suture belt, its stratigraphic record should be highly sensitive to first order tectonic changes and would record a syn-tectonic deposits related to this major event. In that study area, were identified two main Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic units. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation represents the lowermost exposed stratigraphic record. Sedimentary structures, sandstones composition, and U-Pb detrital zircon ages document that the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation reflects a vigorous mass wasting along the margin of the North American continental mainland, representing the eastern side of the Arperos back arc basin. Sandstones of the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation are free from detrital contributions related to the Guerrero terrane juvenile sources, indicating that the Arperos Basin acted like an efficient sedimentological barrier that inhibited the influence of the arc massifs on the continental mainland deposits. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation is overlain by submarine slope deposits of the Pelones formation, which mark a sudden change in the depositional conditions. Provenance analysis documents that sandstones from the Pelones formation were fed by the mafic to intermediate arc assemblages of the Guerrero terrane, as well as by quartz-rich sources of the continental mainland, suggesting that, by the time of deposition of the Pelones

  14. Differences in plant cover and species composition of semiarid grassland communities of Central Mexico and its effects on net ecosystem exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Delgado-Balbuena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land use across the semiarid grasslands of Northern Mexico have driven a decline of plant cover and alteration of plant species composition. A number of different plant communities have resulted from these changes, however, their implications on the carbon cycle and regional carbon balance are still poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of plant cover loss and changes in species composition on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE and their biotic and abiotic controls. Five typical plant community types were examined in the semiarid grassland by encasing the entire above-ground ecosystem using the geodesic dome method. Sites included an oat crop (crop, a moderately grazed grassland (moderate grazing, a 28 yr-old grazing exclosure (exclosure, an overgrazed site with low perennial grass cover (overgrazed, and an overgrazed site presenting shrub encroachment (shrub encroachment. For natural vegetation, rates of daytime NEE for sites with a high plant cover (exclosure and moderate grazing were similar (P>0.05 as compared to sites with low plant cover (overgrazed and shrub encroachment. However, night time NEE (carbon loss was more than double (P<0.05 for sites with high plant cover compared to sites with low cover, resulting into slight C sinks for the low plant cover sites and neutral or sources for the high plant cover sites on an annual basis. Differences in plant cover and its associated biomass defined the sensitivity to environmental controls. Thus, daytime NEE in low plant cover sites reached light compensation points at lower PPFD values than those from high plant cover sites. Differences in species composition did not influence NEE rates even though there were transient or permanent changes in C3 vs. C4 functional groups.

  15. 青海省东昆仑成矿带铁矿成矿规律与找矿方向研究%Metallogenic Law and Prospect Direction of Iron Deposits in the East Kunlun Metallogenic Belt in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许长坤; 王红英; 张文君; 乔强; 刘世宝; 赵子基; 张梅芬; 张开成; 刘建华; 詹发余; 黄朝晖; 张钟月

    2012-01-01

    The East Kunlun metallogenic belt, located in the binding part between the south mobile belt of Xiyu block and South China block, belongs to the Kunlun suture belt of Qilian-Qinling suture system. It consists of three regional deep-seated faults trending from near EW to NWW in the south, middle and north of the Kunlun basin, and forms a complicated structure of this belt. Hence, three tectonic metallogenic units were divided: the north, middle and south belt of East Kunlun. All three fractures are the long-lived regional deep fractures cutting through the earth's crust or lithosphere, which not only form the boundary of each geologic unit but control the distribution of magmatic rock, uplifting of East Kunlun, sedimentary basins and formation of depression zone. Along with secondary NW-, NNW- and NE-trending faults, the three fractures cut strata of different era and some rock masses into fault blocks on various scales. Therefore, the fracture structures of different levels, which can be storage space for ore, provide excellent migration passages and occurrence space for formation of various ore deposits. The strata in the region were formed mainly in Precambrian, Ordovician-Silurian, Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Cenozoic Era. As for regional distribution, the outcrops in the middle and northern Kunlong belts are similar while there is significant difference between the south belt and other two belts. Magmatic activities were very strong and frequent, and are distributed extensively in fault-uplift zone of the north slope of Kunlun Mountain as well as the Qimantage region, with the famous granite belt formed in the major ridge of Kunlun mountain and small amount of intermediate-acid intrusive rocks exposed in the south slope. Lithological characters are shown as mafic, ultramafice and acid. The main active periods are Caledonian and Variscan, followed by Indosinian and Yanshanian, with minor mafic and ultramafic exhalative activities existing in Xingkai and

  16. the case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez Carrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Food products require efficient marketing systems to move from producers to consumers keeping high quality and price. In many developing countries, although mushroom production is well established and increasing, the marketing systems are poorly understood. During 1999-2004, we studied the channels of distribution for wild and cultivated mushrooms in central Mexico following an institutional approach (550 interviews. Most wild and cultivated mushrooms are marketed within this region. Representative places were selected for this study: a large city (Mexico, two medium cities (Puebla, Toluca, and a rural community (Cuetzalan. Several marketing channels were identified and described, involving middlemen, wholesalers, retailers, “tianguis”, public markets, retail food stores, and food services. The grower’s share, the gatherer’s share, and the mushroom marketing margin were also estimated. The present mushroom marketing system evolved from a small centralized process to a combination of centralized and decentralized marketing processes involving limited activities. During this series of changes, large private enterprises took over several marketing functions supporting the decentralization process, but discouraging the development of new firms specialized in mushroom marketing and processing. At the same time, changes also led to the market concentration of open-market sales in large private enterprises and functional wholesalers. Main structure, organization and trends of the Mexican mushroom marketing system are discussed.

  17. Research on information model for metallogenic specialization of the intermediate-acid magmatic rocks in nanling region: a case of hydrothermal uranium deposit and hydrothermal tungsten and tin deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on geochemistry analysis data of Nanling granite massifs, according to the granite hydrothermal mineralization principle, the article initially proposes the metallogenic specialization factor group target system using GIS geo-information model, establishes metallogenic specialization information model of the uranium and the tungsten mineral intrusions. According to mineralization granite rock element geochemical behavior and magmatic evolution, the paper suggests the measure that metallogenic specialization influence factor will divided into the acidity factor group, the alkalinity factor group, magmatic fractionation factor group, oxidation reduction factor group, rare-earth element factor group, source area factor group, geostructure environment factor group and so on. The paper selects the best factor group meeting the mechanism of mineralization geological and geochemical principles by using kind of statistical analysis model analyses the space and intrinsic relations of some factor. On the basis of the above aspects, it forecasts undistinguished granite massifs by using the model and the criterion. The result accords with geological fact, indicates that metallogenic specialization information model has objectivity and operability, realizes metallogenic specialization quantitative appraisal, and provides a scientific basis further distinguished the ore-bearing granite massifs. (authors)

  18. Evidence for Metallogenic Geochemistry of Volcano-Hot Spring Deposition in Xiqiu Copper deposit,Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There were strong volcanic and hot spring activities in Late proterozic in the Xiqiu mining district,Zhejiang province,The volcanic rocks and hydrothermal sedimentary cherts have high contents of the major metallogenic elements,Their atomic percentage of Cu:Zn:Pb is similar very much between volcanic rock,hydrothermal sedimentary chert and ore.Therefore,the metallization has a direct bearing on the volcanic and hot spring activities in the Xiqiu area.The δ34S values vary from -6.5‰to 2.8‰,the δ30Si Values from-0.2‰ to 0.6‰,and the δ18O Values from 8.14‰ to 22.32‰,Lead isotopes were derived mainly from the lower crust.The ores have high contents of As,Sb,Bi,Ga,Zn,and Ba,and low Al/(Al+Fe+Mn)ratios,with Zn/(Zn+Pb)ratios approximate to unity,Therefore,the Xiqiu massive copper sulfide deposit can be ascribed to volcano-hot spring deposition.

  19. Large clusters of gold deposits and large-scale metallogene-sis in the Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Jiaodong Peninsula is the largest repository of gold in China based on the production in history. It covers less than 0.2% of China's territory, but production of gold accounts for about one fourth of the whole country. Thus, the Jiaodong Peninsula is a typical area or case of large-scale metallogenesis and a large clusters of mineral deposits in China. It is characterized by the large clusters of gold deposits in large scale, high reserve and short mineralizing stage. In this study, we suggest that the eastern boundary of the large clusters of gold deposits is as same as that of North China Block, the gold deposits are hosted by Archean metamorphic rocks or Mesozoic granites, and the age of gold mineralization is 121.6 to 122.7 Ma. Gold and related ore-forming materials are derived from multisources, i.e. Archean metamorphic rocks, granites and intermediate-mafic dikes, especially, intermediate-mafic dikes and calc-alkaline granites. The metallogenic geodynamic process is constrained by the tectonic evolution of eastern North China Block during Late Mesozoic, and it is the result of the interaction between mantle and crust as the boundary plates are playing role on the block.

  20. Mixed volcanogenic-lithogenic sources for Permian bauxite deposits in southwestern Youjiang Basin, South China, and their metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenchao; Algeo, Thomas J.; Du, Yuansheng; Zhang, Qilian; Liang, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Bauxite deposits at the base of the Upper Permian Heshan Formation in the Youjiang Basin, South China, contain zircons with dominant age peaks at 263-262 Ma. During the Middle to Late Permian, the Youjiang Basin consisted of a number of isolated and attached carbonate platforms separated by inter-platform troughs. The bauxite deposits are limited to the isolated carbonate platform facies and are not present on attached carbonate platforms and inter-platform troughs. Discriminant plots based on the trace element composition of the zircons indicate a combination of within-plate/anorogenic and arc-related/orogenic sources. Geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the metallogenic materials of the bauxite deposit came from felsic volcanic rocks of the Emeishan Large Igneous Provence (ELIP) in South China and from the Truong Son volcanic arc located between the South China and Indochina cratons. The northwestern and southeastern parts of the Youjiang Basin received larger amounts of ELIP detritus and volcanic arc detritus, respectively. Coarser siliciclastic material in proximal attached carbonate platform and inter-platform trough settings was delivered by rivers, but finer siliciclastics that accumulated on distally located carbonate platforms in isolated deep-water areas was probably transported by wind.

  1. Tracking recent climate and anthropogenic change in Central America in sediments form the lower fan of the Rio Yaqui, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.; Moraes, R.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of preliminary sedimentologic analyses of a ~3.3m long piston core (P13) collected in the lower fan of the Rio Yaqui (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California; depth, 1859m) by UNAM's (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) research ship El Puma in 2014. The core was collected to test the potential for high-resolution reconstructions of basin-scale paleoclimate in the Pacific and the Mesoamerican region. Shipboard and post-cruise analyses include magnetic susceptibility (MS), smear slide counts and laser diffraction particle size analysis. The core is being analyzed for X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and color reflectance, and a 210Pb age model is being constructed. Preliminary results show that Rio Yaqui lower fan sediment differs significantly from that in the Guaymas Basin, which is dominantly diatom ooze. The lower ~2m of core P13 show prominent alternations (~10-20cm) between very-fine-grained, clay intervals characterized by higher MS and mixed diatom and clay intervals, with coarser grain size and lower MS values. In contrast, the upper ~1m has distinctive high MS sand turbidites alternating with diatom-rich layers. Previous core studies from nearby ODP Leg 64 site show sedimentation rates of ~1.2 m/ka; as these sites are further away from the Yaqui delta the sedimentation rates for core P13 should be higher possibly recording only the last few hundred years of sedimentation. Clay/diatom cycles in the lower part of the core could record decadal- or ENSO-scale wet/aridity cycles in the Sonoran Mainland. Conversely, the coarser siliciclastic intervals and the diatom layers in the upper part of the core could reflect the last few decades of land usage in the watershed of the Rio Yaqui, the most important river in the state of Sonora, Mexico. These include large modifications to the river's hydrography (e.g. construction of dams and aqueducts), rapidly expanding mass agricultural practices in the region, and increased eutrophication in the Gulf.

  2. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Frías Armenta; Livier Gómez Martínez

    2014-01-01

    The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia†in Spanish) of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective ...

  3. Mexico's Oxbridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussman, Fay

    1979-01-01

    For 400 years the National Autonomous University of Mexico has remained at the hub of the country's intellectual and political life. The history of the University from the Mayas and the Aztecs, University expansion, upward mobility of students, and student pressure groups and politics are described. (MLW)

  4. Study and thermodynamic characterization of the central area of the geothermal field Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico; Estudio y caracterizacion termodinamica del sector centro del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizano Herrera, Arturo; Machorro Jimenez, Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    Wells H-1, H-7, H-8, H-13 and H-40 are in the Central Sector of Los Humeros geothermal field. On the basis of production data analysis, two productive intervals were observed: the first between 1000 and 1500 masl, in the Augite Andesites with an average temperature of 250 Celsius degree; and the second between 650 and 1000 masl, observed in wells H-7, H-8 and H-40, with average temperatures of 280 Celsius degrees. The production mechanics are related to the presence of the Humeros-Maztaloya and Antigua faults. Wells H-13 and H-40 do not sustain production probably because although the drilling objectives were to penetrate geologic faults, this did not occur, resulting in a poor supply of geothermal fluids. In this zone, a calculation was made of the energy potential using volumetric analysis. This resulted in an estimated of 21 megawatts for the zone over a 20-years period, indicating that is possible to continuum exploiting the area. In the future, development wells must be drilled towards structural objectives and completed at depth of 2500 m. [Spanish] En el Sector Centro del Campo Geotermico de Los humeros se encuentran los pozos H-1, H-7, H-8, H-13 y H-40. La informacion analizada permite observar dos intervalos productores: el primero entre 1000 y 1500 msnm en las Andesitas de Augita, con una temperatura promedio de 250 grados Celsius y el segundo entre 650 y 1000 msnm, observado en los pozos H-7, H-8 y H-40, con 280 grados Celsius. La produccion de fluidos esta relacionada con las fallas Humeros-Maztaloya y Antigua. Los pozos H-13 y H-40 no sostienen su produccion, probablemente debido a que, pese a que su objetivo durante la perforacion fue intersectar fallas geologicas, al parecer estas quedaron alejadas de los mismos, ocasionando un aporte pobre de fluidos geotermicos. En esta zona se realizo un calculo del potencial energetico por medio de un analisis volumetrico; como resultado se estimo un potencial de generacion electrica de 21 MW durante un periodo

  5. Computer input and output files associated with ground-water-flow simulations of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020; (supplement three to U.S. Geological Survey Water-resources investigations report 94-4251)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the computer input files required to run the three-dimensional ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, documented in Kernodle and others (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) and revised by Kernodle (Kernodle, J.M., 1998, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, 1901-95, with projections to 2020 (supplement two to U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-209, 54 p.). Output files resulting from the computer simulations are included for reference.

  6. Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central Basin Platform, Delaware Basin, and Midland Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian Basin were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform.

  7. RECHERCHE SUR LES MAQUILADORAS DU SUD DU MEXIQUE ET EN AMÉRIQUE CENTRALE : TRAVAIL, GENRE ET IDENTITÉ RESEARCH ON THE MAQUILADORAS OF SOUTHERN MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA: WORK, GENDER AND IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Labrecque, Marie-France; Beatriz Castilla RAMOS

    2010-01-01

    Les maquiladoras de la frontière nord du Mexique ont fait couler beaucoup d’encre particulièrement en ce qui a trait à la présence des femmes dans ce type d’usine. Celles du sud et de l’Amérique centrale sont pourtant de plus en plus importantes du point de vue numérique. Leur configuration est particulière dans la mesure où, du moins dans le sud du Mexique et au Guatemala en particulier, le facteur ethnique est davantage présent dans la composition de la force de travail. Dans cet article, l...

  8. Primer registro de Harriota raleighiana (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Rhinochimaeridae en la costa del Pacífico central de México First record of Harriota raleighiana (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Rhinochimaeridae in the central Pacific coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Castro-Aguirre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este es el primer registro de la quimera narizona, Harriota raleighiana Goode y Bean 1895, en el litoral del Pacífico central de México, con base en una hembra moribunda, recolectada en la superficie del océano sobre agua muy profunda cerca de Manzanillo, Colima. También constituye el segundo registro de su existencia en el océano Pacífico oriental, lo que podría comprobar su patrón distribucional que la calificaría como cosmopolita. Se proporcionan sus medidas y algunos datos biológicos.This is the first record in Mexican central Pacific of the "longnosed chimaera" Harriota raleighiana Goode and Bean 1895, based on a nearly dead female specimen collected at sea surface over very deep water of Manzanillo, Colima. Also, it is the second published report on the occurrence of this species in the eastern Pacific ocean, and seems to support its geographical distribution pattern, which has been classified as cosmopolitan-like type. Morphometric and some biological data are also offered.

  9. The environmental policy in Mexico: Crisis and perspectives; La politica ambiental en Mexico: Crisis y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Victor [Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper some aspects of the environmental situation in Mexico are condensed. The main roll performed by the modality of the energy resources consumption and the evolution of the environmental policy in Mexico from 1971 to 1996 is analyzed. It is concluded that in Mexico it has not been able to define the environmental policy in all its extension requiring, therefore, a greater participation of all the sectors to protect Nature and fight against the industrial and municipal pollution [Espanol] En esta ponencia se resumen algunos aspectos de la situacion ambiental actual de Mexico. Se analiza el papel central desempenado por la modalidad del consumo de energeticos y la evolucion de la politica ambiental en Mexico desde 1971 hasta 1996. Se concluye en que la politica ambiental en Mexico no se ha podido definir todavia en todos sus alcances por lo que se requiere una mayor participacion de todos los sectores para proteger la naturaleza y combatir la contaminacion industrial y municipal

  10. Research History and Current Situation of Qinzhou-Hangzhou Metallogenic Belt, South China%钦杭成矿带的研究历史和现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德明; 蔺志永; 龙文国; 张鲲; 王磊; 周岱; 黄皓

    2012-01-01

    介绍了钦杭结合带与成矿带的提出过程及其基本特征,以及有关华南大地构造和华夏古陆问题的研究历史和现状。20世纪80年代中期在重新认定华夏古陆的基础上建立扬子与华夏古陆碰撞拼接模式,随之于20世纪90年代初提出钦杭结合带与成矿带,这是华南大地构造研究的重要转折,对华南大地构造和区域成矿的研究有着重要贡献。钦杭成矿带不仅在华南大地构造格局中占有十分重要的地位,对探讨全球Grenville造山、Rodinia超大陆裂解、新元古代成矿爆发等也有重要意义。目前已从岩石组合、构造特征、地球物理信息、成矿作用等方面对钦杭成矿带进行了论证。但毕竟钦杭成矿带的研究历史不长,还有许多基础地质和区域成矿问题尚无定论,为此提出了若干值得关注并可望在近期取得突破的问题。%The Qinzhou-Hangzhou (Qi-Hang) joint belt is located along the Neoproterozoic suture zone in South China, which separates the Yangtze and Cathaysian Blocks. This paper summarizes the proposed process and geological characterisitics of the Qin-Hang joint belt and Qing-Hang Metallogenic Belt, as well as the research history and present situation of tectonic evolution of South China block and Cathaysian block. In mid-1980s, the subduction/collision model between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks was proposed based on the comprehensive understanding of the Cathaysia; followed in early-1990s, the Qin-Hang joint belt and Qin-Hang metallogenic belt were gradually proposed, which was an important turning point and contributed hugely in the tectonic and regional metallogenic studies of South China. This metallogenic belt play an important role in reconstructing the tectonic framework of South China, as well as in discussing the worldwide Grenvillian orogenesis, break-up history of the supercontinent Rodinia and the Neoproterozoic explosive mineralization. Previous

  11. Survey of hydrologic models and hydrologic data needs for tracking flow in the Rio Grande, north-central New Mexico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne; Eggleston, Jack R.

    2012-01-01

    The six Middle Rio Grande Pueblos have prior and paramount rights to deliveries of water from the Rio Grande for their use. When the pueblos or the Bureau of Indian Affairs Designated Engineer identifies a need for additional flow on the Rio Grande, the Designated Engineer is tasked with deciding the timing and amount of releases of prior and paramount water from storage at El Vado Reservoir to meet the needs of the pueblos. Over the last three decades, numerous models have been developed by Federal, State, and local agencies in New Mexico to simulate, understand, and (or) manage flows in the Middle Rio Grande upstream from Elephant Butte Reservoir. In 2008, the Coalition of Six Middle Rio Grande Basin Pueblos entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a comprehensive survey of these hydrologic models and their capacity to quantify and track various components of flow. The survey of hydrologic models provided in this report will help water-resource managers at the pueblos, as well as the Designated Engineer, make informed water-resource-management decisions that affect the prior and paramount water use. Analysis of 4 publicly available surface-water models and 13 publicly available groundwater models shows that, although elements from many models can be helpful in tracking flow in the Rio Grande, numerous data gaps and modeling needs indicate that accurate, consistent, and timely tracking of flow on the Rio Grande could be improved. Deficient or poorly constrained hydrologic variables are sources of uncertainty in hydrologic models that can be reduced with the acquisition of more refined data. Data gaps need to be filled to allow hydrologic models to be run on a real-time basis and thus ensure predictable water deliveries to meet needs for irrigation, domestic, stock, and other water uses. Timeliness of flow-data reporting is necessary to facilitate real-time model simulation, but even daily data are sometimes difficult to

  12. Crustal structure and geodynamics of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Liu, Zhendong; Zhang, Yongqian; Dong, Shuwen; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-12-01

    A 300 km long seismic reflection profile was acquired across the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLY) metallogenic belt and its adjacent areas. The objective of the survey was to establish the deep architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include (1) Tan-Lu fault appears as a subvertical thrust fault or transpression fault with its deep portion dipping toward the southeast; (2) the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out along this fault; (3) complex upper crustal deformation structures beneath the Chuquan depression include both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; (4) the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, which represents the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust associated with intra-continental subduction; (5) further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline; (6) the entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River metallogenic belt is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. The Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. The seismic reflection data suggest that lithosphere delamination and asthenosphere upwelling that may result from the Mesozoic intra-continental orogenesis is responsible for the formation of large scale magmatism and mineralization in the MLY metallogenic belt.

  13. Mexico - PROGRESA

    OpenAIRE

    IFPRI

    2002-01-01

    For many of the world's poor, public safety-net programs are the only hope for a life free from chronic poverty and undernutrition. But the proper combination of incentives and support can be difficult to achieve. The International Food Policy Research Institute's in-depth evaluation of Mexico's PROGRESA (Programa de Educación, Salud y Alimentación) indicates that antipoverty programs that combine education, health, and nutrition interventions in one package can be quite successful in improvi...

  14. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the intrusives in the Tongling metallogenic cluster and its dynamic setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper selected five typical Mesozoic intrusives from the Tongling metallogenic cluster (Xiaotongguanshan, Fenghuangshan, Xinqiao, Dongguashan, and Shatanjiao plutons), and made a systemic SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating for the five plutons, which produced an age range of 151.8±2.6- 142.8±1.8 Ma. This work put an accurate constraint on the formation age of the intrusives in the Tongling metallogenic cluster. These age data indicate that magmatic activity reached a peak during Late Jurassic. The intrusive sequence of magma is generally from quartz monzonite (porphyry) through monzonite to granodiorite to quartz monzodiorite to pyroxene monzodiorite to gabbro-diabase. The intrusives of different lithology differed in crystallization age, probably implying the intrusives in the Tongling area underwent an evolutional process of magma, which was closely related to geodynamical setting in the depths of the area. A dynamic model was presented for the origin of the igneous rocks in the study area as follows. The assembly between the Yangtze craton and the North China craton fini- shed at the end of T3, and then the stage of another compressional orogeny began in the Tongling area, i.e., Pacific dynamic system. Along with the subduction of the Izanagi plate underneath the Eurasian plate at J2-J3, NW-trending compression toward the East China continent was produced, and compres- sional deformation also took place, forming NE-trending fold and resulting in thickening of the crust in the Tongling area. High-density eclogite-facies rocks were produced in the low part of the crust, re- sulting in the delamination of mantle lithosphere and lower crust, and upwelling of materials in as- thenosphere. Decompression melting produced basaltic magma, and the materials in lower crust were heated by the underplating of the basaltic magma. Thus, melting of lower crust yielded granitic magma, which intruded along deep and large faults through various geological processes (J3-K1). The

  15. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the intrusives in the Tongling metallogenic cluster and its dynamic setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU GanGuo; ZHANG Da; DI YongJun; ZANG WenShuan; ZHANG XiangXin; SONG Biao; ZHANG ZhongYi

    2008-01-01

    This paper selected five typical Mesozoic intrusives from the Tongling metallogenic cluster (Xiaotongguanshan,Fenghuangshan,Xinqiao,Dongguashan,and Shatanjiao plutons),and made a systemic SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating for the five plutons,which produced an age range of 151.8±2.6-1 42.8±1.8 Ma.This work put an accurate constraint on the formation age of the intrusives in the Tongling metallogenic cluster.These age data indicate that magmatic activity reached a peak during Late Jurassic.The intrusive sequence of magma is generally from quartz monzonite(porphyry)through monzonite to granodiorite to quartz monzodiorite to pyroxene monzodiorite to gabbro-diabase.The intrusives of different lithology differed in crystallization age,probably implying the intrusives in the Tongling area underwent an evolutional process of magma,which was closely related to geodynamical setting in the depths of the area.A dynamic model was presented for the origin of the igneous rocks in the study area as follows.The assembly between the Yangtze craton and the North China craton finished at the end of T3,and then the stage of another compressional orogeny began in the Tongling area,i.e.,Pacific dynamic system.Along with the subduction of the Izanagi plate underneath the Eurasian plate at J2-J3,NW-trending compression toward the East China continent was produced,and compressional deformation also took place,forming NE-trending fold and resulting in thickening of the crust in the Tongling area.High-density eclogite-facies rocks were produced in the low part of the crust,resulting in the delamination of mantle lithosphere and lower crust,and upwelling of materials in asthenosphere.Decompression melting produced basaltic magma,and the materials in lower crust were heated by the underplating of the basaltic magma.Thus,melting of lower crust yielded granitic magma,which intruded along deep and large faults through various geological processes(J3-K1).The SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 151.8±2

  16. Perspective and resource evaluation and metallogenic studies on sandstone-type uranium deposit in Qianjiadian depression of Songliao Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geotectonic evolution history of the southeastern part of Songliao Basin has been clearly described and it is pointed out that both of the provenance rocks and evolution features of the studied area are favorable to the formation of U-rich sandstone bodies, development of interlayered oxidation and providing uranium source for mineralization. Yaojia Formation in Qianjiadian depression has been found out to be the favorable target ore bed for looking for sandstone-type uranium deposit. On the basis of analysis of metallogenetic conditions, the perspective target area has been circled and a sandstone-type uranium deposit with a certain amounts of uranium tonnages has been discovered. The achievements and data have been gotten in the following aspects: constitution and features of ore-forming beds and sandstone bodies, uranium existence forms and mineralogical and chemical compositions of the ores, associated elements and their economic values for comprehensive mining. The study of metallogenetic features and mechanism of the uranium deposit suggested that pre-enrichment of uranium during the depositional-diagenetic stage provide a good basis for uranium mineralization, and hereafter interlayered oxidation as well as oil-gas reduction processes played a decisive role to uranium mineralization. U-Pb isotopic studies indicate that the ores have two isochron ages of 53±3 Ma and 7.0±0 Ma, corresponding to the periods of arid and semiarid paleo-climates which are favorable to interlayered oxidation development and uranium mineralization. It is concluded that the Qianjiadian sandstone-type uranium deposit is genetically related to interlayered oxidation and secondary reduction of oil-gas. The metallogenic model of Qianjiadian uranium deposit was set up. (authors)

  17. Clastic metasediments of the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group, New South Wales, Australia: Geochemistry, provenance, and metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Whole-rock analyses of samples of pelite, psammite, and psammopelite from the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group (Willyama Supergroup) in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales, Australia, reveal distinctive geochemical signatures. Major-element data show high Al2O3 and K2O, low MgO and Na2O, and relatively high Fe2O3T MgO ratios, compared to average Early Proterozoic clastic metasediments. High field strength elements (HFSE) are especially abundant, including Nb (most 15-27 ppm), Ta (most 1.0-2.2 ppm), Th (17-36 ppm), Hf (4-15 ppm), and Zr (most 170-400 ppm); Y (33-74 ppm) is also high. Concentrations of ferromagnesian elements are generally low (Sc = Broken Hill Group by the erosion mainly of felsic igneous (or meta-igneous) rocks. High concentrations of HFSE, Y, and REEs in the metasediments suggest a provenance dominanted by anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites, including those with A-type chemistry. Likely sources of the metasediments were the rhyolitic to rhyodacitic protoliths of local quartz + feldspar ?? biotite ?? garnet gneisses (e.g., Potosi-type gneiss) that occur within the lower part of the Willyama Supergroup, or chemically similar basement rocks in the region; alternative sources may have included Early Proterozoic anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites in the Mount Isa and(or) Pine Creek Blocks of northern Australia, or in the Gawler craton of South Australia. Metallogenic considerations suggest that the metasediments of the Broken Hill Block formed enriched source rocks during the generation of pegmatite-hosted deposits and concentrations of La, Ce, Nb, Ta, Th, and Sn in the region. Li, Be, B, W, and U in pegmatite minerals of the district may have been acquired during granulite-facies metamorphism of the local metasediments. ?? 1994.

  18. Pb-Pb and U-Pb zircon ages of archean syntetocnic granites of the Carajas metallogenic province, northern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carajas Metallogenic Province is located in the southeastern Amazonian Craton. It has been divided in two domains, the southernmost comprises the Rio Maria region and the northernmost corresponds to Caraj region (Souza et al. 1996). The former domain is made up of Archean greenstone sequences (2,97 Ga), TTG (2,9 Ga) and calc-alkaline granitoids (2,87 Ga) (Macambira and Lafon 1995, Leite et al. 1999, Althoff et al. 2000). The Carajas block is constituted of minor mafic granulites (3,00 Ga) and quartzofeldspathic gneisses (2,81 Ga), metavolcanosedimentary sequences (2,76 Ga) and granites (2,76 to 2,56 Ga) (Machado et al. 1991; Huhn et al. 1999, Pidgeon et al. 2000). Widespread anorogenic A-type granites are found in both areas (Docegeo 1988; Dall'Agnol et al. 1994). In the last two decades several authors (Lindenamyer et al. 1994, Barros and Barbey 1998, Huhn et al. 1999 and others) have emphasized the role of the Archean granite magmatism in the tectonicthermal evolution in the Carajas Province. In this paper we discuss the tectonic significance of the Pb- Pb and U-Pb ages obtained in some granitoids from the Carajas region. The Estrela Granite Complex and the granitoids located to the north of Parauapebas were dated by Pb- Pb evaporation zircon method (cf. Kober 1987). Data are presented considering 2σ∼. The Pb corrections have been done in the basis of the evolution model of Pb in double stage (cf. Stacey and Kramers 1975). U-Pb zircon method (cf. Krogh 1973, Stacey and Kramers 1975, Parrish 1987, Ludwuig 1999), recently put on routine in the Para-Iso laboratories, was employed to date the granite from the Serra do Rabo area. Analyses were carried on the Finnigan Mat 262 spectrometer (au)

  19. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  20. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  1. "CEZAC 06": nueva variedad de ajo tipo Jaspeado para la región norte centro de México "CEZAC 06": new Jaspeado garlic cultivar for the northem-central region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Reveles-Hernández

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Alrededor de 5 200 hectáreas de ajo son cultivadas en México donde la región norte centro, es una de las principales áreas productoras de esta hortaliza. La falta de variedades de ajo localmente adaptadas es una seria desventaja para los productores de ajo. En este reporte se mencionan las principales características agronómicas de "CEZAC 06", una nueva variedad de ajo disponible para los productores de los estados de Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Durango, Chihuahua y Coahuila. Las principales ventajas de esta variedad son rendimientos más altos, bulbos consistentemente redondos, menor número de dientes por bulbo y maduración homogénea. En parcelas comerciales el rendimiento se ha mejorado en 9-17% y se han alcanzado rendimientos de hasta 30 t ha-1 con el uso de "CEZAC 06".About 5 200 hectares of garlic are cultivated in Mexico; the north-central region is one of the main producing areas of this vegetable. The lack of locally adapted varieties of garlic is a serious disadvantage for garlic producers. In this paper are mentioned the main agronomic characteristics of "CEZAC 06", a new garlic variety available for producers of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Durango, Chihuahua and Coahuila. The main advantages of this variety are higher yield, consistently round bulbs, fewer numbers of cloves per bulb and homogeneous maturation. In commercial plots, yield has improved in 9-17% and there have been achieved yields of up to 30 t ha-1 using "CEZAC 06".

  2. Metallogenic conditions and prospecting direction for Permian manganess deposits in Northern Guizhou%黔北二叠纪锰矿成矿条件与找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小全

    2011-01-01

    黔北地区二叠纪锰矿是中国南方重要的沉积锰矿床类型,在贵州的锰矿资源中占有重要的地位.开展区内二叠纪锰矿成矿条件与找矿方向的研究与探讨,对锰矿勘查工作部署意义重大.文章拟从黔北成锰盆地的古地理环境、岩相特征、锰质来源和锰矿赋存规律4个方面,分析区内二叠纪锰矿成矿条件,在此基础上提出找矿方向并对资源前景预测.%The Permian manganese deposits in Northern Guizhou, a main aedimentary type manganese deposit in Southem Chi na, play an important role in manganese mineral resources of Guizhou. It is meaningful to study regional metallogenic condition of Per mian manganese deposit for exploration. In this paper, the author analyzed metallogenic conditions of Permian manganese deposits from four aspects, i. e. , the paleo - geographical environment of the basin in which manganese deposit developed, lithofacie8 characteris ticts, source of mangancse, and hosting regularity of manganese deposits, and then proposed the prospecting direction and forecasting potential resource.

  3. Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallhofer, Daniela; Quadt, Albrecht von; Peytcheva, Irena; Schmid, Stefan M.; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-09-01

    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen formed on the European margin during closure of the Neotethys Ocean. It was subsequently deformed into a complex orocline by continental collisions. The Cu-Au mineralized arc consists of geologically distinct segments: the Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Panagyurishte, and Eastern Srednogorie segments. New U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical whole rock data for the Banat and Apuseni segments are combined with previously published data to reconstruct the original arc geometry and better constrain its tectonic evolution. Trace element and isotopic signatures of the arc magmas indicate a subduction-enriched source in all segments and variable contamination by continental crust. The magmatic arc was active for 25 Myr (~92-67 Ma). Across-arc age trends of progressively younger ages toward the inferred paleo-trench indicate gradual steepening of the subducting slab away from the upper plate European margin. This leads to asthenospheric corner flow in the overriding plate, which is recorded by decreasing 87Sr/86Sr (0.70577 to 0.70373) and increasing 143Nd/144Nd (0.51234 to 0.51264) ratios over time in some segments. The close spatial relationship between arc magmatism, large-scale shear zones, and related strike-slip sedimentary basins in the Timok and Pangyurishte segments indicates mild transtension in these central segments of the restored arc. In contrast, the Eastern Srednogorie segment underwent strong orthogonal intraarc extension. Segmental distribution of tectonic stress may account for the concentration of rich porphyry Cu deposits in the transtensional segments, where lower crustal magma storage and fractionation favored the evolution of volatile-rich magmas.

  4. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  5. Mexico: prospects for democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Yvonne D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze why Mexico has failed to democratize and offer recommendations for U.S. policy towards Mexico. The thesis examines the impact of three casual variables on the level of democracy in Mexico: civilian control of the military, the fairness of Mexico's political party system, and U.S. foreign policy towards Mexico. NA U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author

  6. Anthropometric variation in west-central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, A F

    2001-06-01

    Anthropometric data from five indigenous Mexican groups, collected by Carlos and Manuel Basauri in 1933, were reanalyzed and compared with serological and cranial non-metric data. Ten cranial and 14 postcranial measurements were used, both separately and together. Bias-corrected r0 and FST values were slightly higher for the postcranial analysis (0.033) than for the cranial analysis (0.024). Given the degree of linguistic differentiation among the Mexican populations, not to mention the different histories of the communities sampled, this result is surprisingly low. The two groups which were closest linguistically and geographically, the Cora and Huichol, were also close biologically. The other three groups, Tarascan, Aztecan, and Otomi, were not closely related to each other or to the Cora-Huichol pair. More interesting than the relationship between populations in this case are those within them. The Aztecas of Tuxpan, Jalisco, exhibit high rii values and lower-than-expected phenotypic variance, suggesting the pronounced action of genetic drift. The Otomi of Ixmiquilpan and Cora of the Sierra de Nayarit, despite their very different histories, both exhibit low rii values and higher-than-expected phenotypic variance, indicating a high level of gene flow. Despite the phenotypic similarities between the Cora and Huichol, their residual variance is very different; this mirrors serological investigations of relative admixture. Over all, recent population history, and especially non-indigenous admixture, are at least as explicative of the observed biological variation as historical linguistic ties are. PMID:11441457

  7. Anthropometric variation in west-central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, A F

    2001-06-01

    Anthropometric data from five indigenous Mexican groups, collected by Carlos and Manuel Basauri in 1933, were reanalyzed and compared with serological and cranial non-metric data. Ten cranial and 14 postcranial measurements were used, both separately and together. Bias-corrected r0 and FST values were slightly higher for the postcranial analysis (0.033) than for the cranial analysis (0.024). Given the degree of linguistic differentiation among the Mexican populations, not to mention the different histories of the communities sampled, this result is surprisingly low. The two groups which were closest linguistically and geographically, the Cora and Huichol, were also close biologically. The other three groups, Tarascan, Aztecan, and Otomi, were not closely related to each other or to the Cora-Huichol pair. More interesting than the relationship between populations in this case are those within them. The Aztecas of Tuxpan, Jalisco, exhibit high rii values and lower-than-expected phenotypic variance, suggesting the pronounced action of genetic drift. The Otomi of Ixmiquilpan and Cora of the Sierra de Nayarit, despite their very different histories, both exhibit low rii values and higher-than-expected phenotypic variance, indicating a high level of gene flow. Despite the phenotypic similarities between the Cora and Huichol, their residual variance is very different; this mirrors serological investigations of relative admixture. Over all, recent population history, and especially non-indigenous admixture, are at least as explicative of the observed biological variation as historical linguistic ties are.

  8. Is the Mesa Central of Mexico a biogeographical province? Descriptive analysis based on freshwater biotic components ¿La mesa central de México es una provincia biogeográfica? Análisis descriptivo basado en componentes bióticos dulceacuícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents an analysis of the concept of Mesa Central of México as a potential biogeographical province. This region of México has been used as a reference for describing species richness and distribution patterns of the freshwater fish fauna. However, it has not been recognized as a biogeographical province in the available schemes which are mostly based on the composition of terrestrial biota. Here, we provide a historical sketch of the way the concept of Mesa Central arose in the literature as a physiographic province, and we provide a comparison with respect to the regionalization schemes of the Mexican territory, which are based on attributes such physiography, elevation, hydrology, geology and biogeography. We conclude that the Mesa Central, even though it represents a practical concept for establishing the distribution pattern of the fish fauna, in the way it was described originally cannot be circumscribed to any of the regions or provinces in which Mexico has been divided. We also argue that this geographical region cannot be considered as a synonym of the Transmexican Volcanic Axis biogeographical province, and also that it is possible that the fact that this area is not circumscribed to any regionalization scheme is due to the fact that freshwater elements have not been considered in the establishment of such biogeographical regions. We end by pointing out the need for a biogeographical analysis that integrates most of the freshwater elements in order to determine whether both the aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna are driven by the same geobiotic processes.En este ensayo se presenta un análisis del concepto de Mesa Central de México como una posible provincia biogeográfica. Esta región del país ha sido utilizada como referencia para describir la riqueza y distribución de una parte importante de la fauna ictiológica dulceacuícola, sin embargo, no es reconocida como provincia biogeográfica en ninguno de los

  9. Mexico Gravity Data per 2 min Cell (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity density grid for Mexico, North-Central America, and the Western Caribbean Sea shows the distribution of about one million terrestrial and marine...

  10. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are...

  11. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Vessel Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during June-August and Oct-Nov, 2010 in the north central Gulf of Mexico to collect data on marine mammal spatial distribution...

  12. Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Acoustic Prey Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summer of 2009 and the winter of 2010 in the north-central Gulf of Mexico to examine the spatial distribution of...

  13. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae from the intestine of Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae in central Mexico Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae del intestino de Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae en la región central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falcón-Ordaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Angiostoma (Angiostomatidae is described from the intestine of the plethodontid salamander, Pseudoeurycea mixteca from Puebla State, in central Mexico. The new species closely resembles Angiostoma limancis, Angiostoma kimmeriensis, Angiostoma spiridonovi, Angiostoma stammeri, and Angiostoma carettae, because they all possess 8 pairs of pedunculate papillae in the caudal region; however, the new species can be distinguished by the unique arrangement of papillae, with 1 pre-cloacal pair, and 7 post-cloacal pairs. Among the 12 congeneric species of Angiostoma described so far, 2 have been described as parasites of salamanders, Angiostoma plethodontis from Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon richmondi in Virginia, USA, and Angiostoma onychodactyla from Onychodactylus japonicus in Japan. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. is readily distinguished from these 2 species by the presence of lateral alae and by the number of pre-cloacal papillae.En este trabajo se describe una especie nueva del género Angiostoma (Angiostomatidae como parásito del intestino de la salamandra pletodóntida Pseudoeurycea mixteca en el estado de Puebla, en el centro de México. La nueva especie es morfológicamente similar a Angiostoma limancis, Angiostoma kimmeriensis, Angiostoma spiridonovi, Angiostoma stammeri y Angiostoma carettae, porque todas ellas poseen 8 pares de papilas pedunculadas en la región caudal; sin embargo, se puede distinguir de éstas por el arreglo característico de dichas papilas: 1 par en posición precloacal y 7 pares postcloacales. Dos de las 12 especies congenéricas de Angiostoma fueron descritas de salamandras, Angiostoma plethodontis de Plethodon cinereus y Plethodon richmondi en Virginia, EUA y Angiostoma onychodactyla de Onychodactylus japonicus en Japón. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. se distingue fácilmente de estas 2 especies por la presencia de alas laterales y por el número de papilas precloacales.

  14. PGE patterns of ores of Dajing Cu-polymetallic deposit in Linxi County, Inner Mongolia: Indicator to source of metallogenic elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By comparing PGE patterns of sulfide ores with that of basic-ultrabasic dikes occurring in the Dajing Cu-polymetallic deposit, we discover that there are similar positive slopes between the basic-ultrabasic dikes and the black ores composed mainly of sphalerite and galena, reflecting affinity of their source. The PGE patterns of the yellow ores composed basically of chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite and pyrite are actually different. One is close to the pattern of the mantle lherzolite, and others resemble the pattern of the basic rocks. However, the concentrations of Ru are higher in the yellow ores, reflecting that sulfur attains or approaches saturation in their parent magma. The PGE characteristics of ores and dikes show that the magmas derived from the deep of crust and the metallogenic elements were supplied mainly by growth material of the crust. In addition, the mantle-derived magma also offered some elements.

  15. Basement Characteristics and Crustal Evolution of the Copper-Gold Metallogenic Belt in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River: Some Isotope Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Studies of the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Mesozoic intrusive rocks indicate that the basement of the copper-gold metallogenic belt of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has "two-layer structure" and partly has "multi-layered structure", and is inhomogeneous and shows the distinct feature of E-W provincialism. The calculated model lead ages (t1) are mostly greater than 2600 Ma, and the model neodymium ages (TDM) vary from 953 to 2276 Ma and concentrate in two time intervals: 1800- 2000 Ma and 1200- 1600 Ma. It is concluded that the basement of the MBYR is composed of the Late Archaeozoic to Middle Proterozoic metamorphic series and that the crust was initiated in the Archaean and continued to grow in the Early and Middle Proterozoic, and the proportion of new crust formed by mantle differentiation during the Late Proterozoic is low.

  16. Petrogenesis of the Paleoproterozoic rapakivi A-type granites of the Archean Carajás metallogenic province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Teixeira, Nilson P.; Rämö, O. Tapani; Moura, Candido A. V.; Macambira, Moacir J. B.; de Oliveira, Davis C.

    2005-03-01

    Three Paleoproterozoic A-type rapakivi granite suites (Jamon, Serra dos Carajás, and Velho Guilherme) are found in the Carajás metallogenic province, eastern Amazonian craton. Liquidus temperatures in the 900-870 °C range characterize the Jamon suite, those for Serra dos Carajás and Velho Guilherme are somewhat lower. Pressures of emplacement decrease from Jamon (3.2±0.7 kbar) through Serra dos Carajás (2.0±1.0 kbar) to Velho Guilherme (1.0±0.5 kbar). Oxidizing conditions (NNO+0.5) characterized the crystallization of the Jamon magma, the Velho Guilherme magmas were reducing (marginally below FMQ), and the Serra dos Carajás magmas were intermediate between the two in this respect. The three granite suites have Archean T DM model ages and strongly negative ɛNd values (-12 to -8 at 1880 Ma), and they were derived from Archean crust. The Jamon granite suite may have been derived from a quartz dioritic source, and the Velho Guilherme granites from K-feldspar-bearing granitoid rocks with some sedimentary input. The Serra dos Carajás granites either had a somewhat more mafic source than Velho Guilherme or were derived by a larger degree of melting. Underplating of mafic magma was probably the heat source for the melting. The petrological and geochemical characteristics of the Carajás granite suites imply considerable compositional variation in the Archean of the eastern Amazonian craton. The oxidized Jamon suite granites are similar to the Mesoproterozoic magnetite-series granites of Laurentia, and they were derived from Archean igneous sources that were more oxidized than the sources of the Fennoscandian rapakivi granites. The Serra dos Carajás and Velho Guilherme granites approach the classic reduced rapakivi series of Fennoscandia and Laurentia. No counterparts of the Mesoproterozoic two-mica granites of Laurentia have been found, however. Following the model of Hoffman [Hoffman, P., 1989. Speculations on Laurentia's first gigayear (2.0 to 1.0 Ga

  17. Time distribution of the main Brazilian mineral deposits. 2: metallogenic epochs; Distribuicao no tempo geologico dos principais depositos minerais brasileiros. 2: epocas metalogeneticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondi, Joao C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: jcbiondi@setuva.geologia.ufpr.br

    1999-12-01

    The metallogenic epochs of the main mineral deposit groups were defined with base on the ore's of the 194 main Brazilian mineral deposits. Mineral deposits are rare on epochs that: precede the beginning of juvenile accretion peak periods, and/or of cooling of rocks formed during each of the main brazilian thermo-tectonic events. Deposits are more frequent on epochs that are coincident or immediately younger than these peak periods. The most important metallogenic epoch, with about 30% of the selected deposits, is between 50 Ma and the Recent, and corresponds to the formation of supergenic and/or residual and placer deposits. Brazilian's volcanogenic (VHMS), Mississippi Valley (MTV) and mesothermal gold-lode deposits have discordant ages as compared with their equivalents in other countries, while deposits believed to be SEDEX have concordant ages. With the exception of Urucum, the primary iron and manganese ores of brazilian deposits are Archean. Primary tin deposits from Amazonas, Amapa and Goias State cluster between 1500 and 2300 Ma. Tin deposits from Rondonia and Mato Grosso are more recent and most formed between 1000 and 1600 Ma, in sequence with the other groups of tin deposits. Uranium deposits vary on genetic model and ages, due to the mobility of the element in all geologic environments. Most part of Brazilian deposits of phosphate, titanium, niobium, Rare Earths, diamond in kimberlites and of amethyst formed during the Mesozoic, and arte genetically related to the alkaline and basaltic magmatism that affected the brazilian territory in this period. Gemstone (tourmaline and aquamarine), talc and magnesite deposits are more frequent in the Brasiliano period. Gipsite, silvite and barite occur in Senonian to Aptian evaporites. (author)

  18. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  19. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2014-01-01

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de Gra

  20. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  1. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  2. New Mexico Convention Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of convention centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data...

  3. New Mexico National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery Administration maintains 2 national cemeteries in the state of New Mexico; the Fort Bayard...

  4. New Mexico Golf Courses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of golf courses in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from...

  5. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  6. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Mexico presents econometric investigation of the cyclical determinants of remittances to Mexico. The aggregate U.S. business cycle is not necessarily relevant for remittances. Remittances to Mexico do show a significant relationship with employment conditions in certain regions of the United States. Employment conditions in the U.S. construction sector seem to be especially important as well as remittances for certain regions of Mexico with high rates of emigrati...

  7. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper is a wide-ranging survey of the conditions for, and obstacles to, the growth in Mexico. It frames the issue of Mexico’s growth record, and presents the paper’s prior assumptions and approach. It highlights the main observations and conclusions emerging from the survey of growth conditions in Mexico. It also presents an overview of remittances in Mexico, motivated by their recent increase and possible macroeconomic implications.

  8. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  9. Religious Syncretism in Mexico. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, David

    This document is an outline for a three-week unit of study focusing on religious syncretism in Mexico as part of a community college course in comparative religions or philosophy of religion. While this outline is intended to give information and direction to the instructor wishing to use Mexico as an example of religious syncretism, unit goals…

  10. The best bookshops in Mexico City, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Hung-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Hung-Ya Lien takes us on a tour of the best bookshops in Mexico City, Mexico. If there’s a bookshop that you think other students and academics should visit when they’re undertaking research or visiting a city for a conference, further information about contributing follows this article.

  11. Flor de Mayo Eugenia, nueva variedad de frijol para riego y temporal en el centro de México Flor de Mayo Eugenia, new bean cultivar for irrigated and rainfall conditions in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Acosta Gallegos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del frijol tipo Flor de Mayo, el subtipo 'media oreja' esta cobrando importancia en el norte-centro de México, éste es de tamaño mediano, forma alargada y color rosa atractivo. Se describe una nueva variedad de este tipo de frijol, Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME. FME se derivó de una cruza interracial entre Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA (raza Jalisco y Rayado Rojo (raza Nueva Granada. El rendimiento promedio de FME en temporal varia de 0.8 a 2.0 t ha-1 y bajo riego el máximo rendimiento ha sido de 3.8 t ha-1. El peso de 100 semillas promedio de diferentes localidades de FME es significativamente superior al de FMA en condiciones de temporal, 32 vs 26 g 100 semillas, y riego 35 vs 31 g 100 semillas. En cuanto la calidad del grano, el tiempo promedio de cocción de FME en cocedor tipo Mattson es 97 min, mientras que el de FMA es de 109 min; el contenido promedio de proteína del grano de FME es 19% en base a peso seco, similar al de FMA, mientras que el contenido de hierro de FME resultó superior al de FMA con 6.1 vs 5 mg 100 g. FME es tolerante a las razas de roya presentes en el Altiplano de México, a la raza 292 de antracnosis y tolerante a los tizones común y de halo.Within 'Flor de Mayo' bean type, the 'media oreja' subtype is becoming important in North-Central México; this last type has a mid-size elongated seed with showy pink color. A new bean cv. of 'media oreja' subtype is described: Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME. FME was derived from an interracial cross between Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA (Jalisco breed and Rayado Rojo (Nueva Granada breed. The seed yield of FME under rainfall conditions varied from 0.8 to 2.0 t ha-1 and under irrigation the highest yield recorded was 3.8 t ha-1. The 100-seed weight of FME across different locations was significantly superior to the weight of FMA, 32 vs 26 g per 100 seeds under rainfall conditions and 35 vs 31 g per 100 seeds under irrigation conditions. In regard to seed quality, cooking time average of

  12. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del

  13. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico Dos nuevas especies del género Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae, de la cuenca del río Lerma, México central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior findings suggest the existence of undescribed species among the cyprinids of central Mexico. Within the genus Notropis distributed across central Mexico and adjacent areas sometimes reaching southern basins, two groups have been recognized: a Southern Mexican clade and a central Mexican clade. Within this last clade, Notropis calientis has been defined as a species complex of four small minnows inhabiting upland areas. Here we describe two new species of this complex based on morphometric, meristic and genetic characters. Notropis marhabatiensis sp. nov. was diagnosed according to the following set of characters: 7, rarely 8, branched pelvic fin rays (vs. 8, rarely 7 or 9, in other species of the N. calientis complex and 9, rarely 8, scales in a transverse series (vs. 10, rarely 9 or 11 in N.grandis & N. calientis; a dark, narrow lateral stripe running from around the pectoral fin to the caudal peduncle origin; and twenty-six fixed nucleotide positions in the cytochrome b gene. The diagnosis of Notropis grandis sp. nov. was based on: 6, rarely 7, branched fin rays (vs. 7, rarely 6 or 8, in N. marhabatiensis, N. calientis and N. aulidion and 8, rarely 7 or 9, in N. calbazas and N. amecae, 42, rarely 40-41, or 43-45 scales in a lateral series (vs. 40, rarely 37-39, in N. calabazas; 35-36, rarely 37-39, or 33-34 in N. amecae; 35, rarely 31-34, or 36 in N. marhabatiensis and N. calientis and 34, rarely 30-33, or35 in N. aulidion and 11 rarely 10 or 12 gill rakers in the first arch; a dark lateral stripe widening from approximately the pectoral fin origin to the dorsal fin origin, forming a slightly convex segment; adult animals larger (n=30, or = 42.6, SD=4.69 relative to N. calientis (n=55, or = 33.3, SD= 3.28 and N. marhabatiensis sp. nov. (n=30, or = 30.5, SD=7.57 (F = 16.87; p or = 6.3% to 8.1% for N. grandis.Diversos estudios sugieren la existencia de especies no descritas de ciprínidos en el centro de México. Las especies del g

  14. Large clusters of gold deposits and large-scale metallogene-sis in the Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI; Mingguo

    2001-01-01

    [1]Tu, G. C., The unique nature in ore deposition, geological background and metallogenic mechanism of non-conventional superlarge ore deposits: A preliminary discussion, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1998, 41 (sup.): 1-6.[2]Pei, R. F., Qiu, X. P., Yin, B. C. et al., The Explosive anomaly of ore-forming processes and super-accumulation of metals, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1999, 18 (4): 333-340.[3]Zhai, Y. S., De, J., Li, X. B., Essentials of Metallogeny (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1999: 1-288.[4]Mao, J. W., Hua, R. M., Li, X. B., A preliminary study of large-scale metallogenesis and large clusters of mineral deposits, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1999, 18(4): 291-298.[5]Zhang, C. H., Gu, D. L., Study on the microstructure and deformation mechanism of the sinistral slick ductile shear zone in the middle of the northern Jiaonan uplift, in Tectonic and Geological Evolution of the Northern Jiaonan Uplift (in Chi-nese) (eds. Gu, D. L., Zhang, C. H.), Beijing: China University of Geosciences Press, 1996, 96-104.[6]Zhai, M. G., Guo, J. H., Wang, Q. C. et al., Division of geological-tectonic units in the northern Sulu ultra-high pressure zone: An example of thick-skin thrust of crystalline units, Scientica Geologica Acta (in Chinese), 2000, 35(1): 16-26.[7]Zhai, M. G., Guo, J. H., Cong, B. L. et al., Sm-Nd geochronolgy and petrography of garnet pyroxene granulites in the northern Sulu region and their geotectonic implication, Scientica Geologica Acta (in Chinese), 1999, 34(3): 301-310.[8]Zhai, M. G., Cong, B., Guo, J., Sm-Nd geochronology and petrography of garnet pyroxene granulites in the northern Sulu region of China and their geotectonic implication, Lithos, 2000, 52: 23-33.[9]Jahn, B. M., Geochemical and isotopic study of UHP terrain in China (abstract), in First Workshop on UHP Metamor-phism and Tectonics, Stanford: Stanford University, 1994, A71-74.[10]Li, S. G., Jagoutz

  15. Modernization of the Electric Power Systems (transformers, rods and switches) in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico); Modernizacion de los Sistemas Electricos de Potencia (Transformadores de Principales, Interruptor de Generacion, Barras de Fase Aislada) de la Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Solarzano, J. J.; Gabaldon Martin, M. A.; Pallisa Nunez, J.; Florez Ordeonez, A.; Fernandez Corbeira, A.; Prieto Diez, I.

    2010-07-01

    Description of the changes made in the Electric Power Systems as a part of the power increase project in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico). The main electrical changes to make, besides the turbo group, are the main generation transformers, the isolated rods and the generation switch.

  16. Metallogenic Prediction Between Lumwana and Nomwana of Northwest Province in Zambia%赞比亚西北省卢姆瓦纳-诺姆瓦纳间成矿预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富昌

    2014-01-01

    卢姆瓦纳-诺姆瓦纳工作区位于赞比亚西北省,大地构造位置位于赞比亚最重要的铜矿成矿带-卢菲利安(Lufilian)褶皱带的西端,与褶皱带的地质发展经历较相似。同时,卢姆瓦纳区处于总体呈北东向分布的卡波姆坡(kabombo )穹窿上,根据工作区的地质条件,区域铜矿带的成矿规律及分布特征,借鉴相邻区域的一些资料解译情况,通过对比分析,对卢姆瓦纳-诺姆瓦纳工作区进行铜、钴矿成矿预测,以利于进一步正确研判该区的找矿前景。%Lumwana - nomwana work area is located in the northwest province of Zambia .The geotectonic position is in the western end of Lufilian fold belt which is the most important copper metallogenic belt in Zambia , similar to the geological development experience of the fold belt . Lumwana is on the "kabombo"fornix that distributes in northeast . According to the comparative analysis of the geological condition , the metallogenic regularity and distribution features of the regional metallogenic belt , this paper states the copper and cobalt ore metallogenic prognosis for Lumwana - nomwana work area in order to correctly judge the prospecting potential furtherly .

  17. A new species of Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae) from the lungs of a nine-banded armadillo in Central Mexico Especie nueva de Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae) de los pulmones de un armadillo del centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    F. Agustín Jiménez; Rogelio Rosas-Valdez; Scott L. Gardner

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four worms were collected from the bronchioles in both lungs of a male nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 captured in Teacalco, Morelos, Mexico. The worms, herein named Metathelazia mexicana n. sp., show a constriction in the esophagus at the level of the nerve ring; males of the species have 7 pairs of papillae, fewer than the other species in the genus. Metathelazia capsulata is the most similar species to Metathelazia mexicana; however, the latter has much sho...

  18. Large clusters of gold deposits and large-scale metallogene-sis in the Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI; Mingguo

    2001-01-01

    [1]Tu, G. C., The unique nature in ore deposition, geological background and metallogenic mechanism of non-conventional superlarge ore deposits: A preliminary discussion, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1998, 41 (sup.): 1-6.[2]Pei, R. F., Qiu, X. P., Yin, B. C. et al., The Explosive anomaly of ore-forming processes and super-accumulation of metals, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1999, 18 (4): 333-340.[3]Zhai, Y. S., De, J., Li, X. B., Essentials of Metallogeny (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1999: 1-288.[4]Mao, J. W., Hua, R. M., Li, X. B., A preliminary study of large-scale metallogenesis and large clusters of mineral deposits, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1999, 18(4): 291-298.[5]Zhang, C. H., Gu, D. L., Study on the microstructure and deformation mechanism of the sinistral slick ductile shear zone in the middle of the northern Jiaonan uplift, in Tectonic and Geological Evolution of the Northern Jiaonan Uplift (in Chi-nese) (eds. Gu, D. L., Zhang, C. H.), Beijing: China University of Geosciences Press, 1996, 96-104.[6]Zhai, M. G., Guo, J. H., Wang, Q. C. et al., Division of geological-tectonic units in the northern Sulu ultra-high pressure zone: An example of thick-skin thrust of crystalline units, Scientica Geologica Acta (in Chinese), 2000, 35(1): 16-26.[7]Zhai, M. G., Guo, J. H., Cong, B. L. et al., Sm-Nd geochronolgy and petrography of garnet pyroxene granulites in the northern Sulu region and their geotectonic implication, Scientica Geologica Acta (in Chinese), 1999, 34(3): 301-310.[8]Zhai, M. G., Cong, B., Guo, J., Sm-Nd geochronology and petrography of garnet pyroxene granulites in the northern Sulu region of China and their geotectonic implication, Lithos, 2000, 52: 23-33.[9]Jahn, B. M., Geochemical and isotopic study of UHP terrain in China (abstract), in First Workshop on UHP Metamor-phism and Tectonics, Stanford: Stanford University, 1994, A71-74.[10]Li, S. G., Jagoutz

  19. A review on advances in seismology in Mexico after 30 years from the 1985 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Zúñiga, Ramón; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Aguirre, Jorge; Husker, Allen; Cuéllar, Armando; Sánchez, Tomás

    2016-10-01

    The 19 September 1985 (Mw8.1) earthquake, located on the Michoacán coast, Mexico, generated great damage in Mexico City, more than 300 km away from the epicentral area. Other important cities near the coast and in central Mexico also suffered severe damage. Thirty years after this important event, the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (CICESE) and other institutions organized a conference to discuss the scientific advances, particularly in seismology, that had taken place in Mexico since then.

  20. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M

    1991-09-15

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of {sup 222} Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  1. International migration statistics in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Y Griego, M

    1987-01-01

    During the past decade, Mexico has experienced both large-scale emigration directly, mostly to the US, and the mass immigration of Central American refugees. The implementation of the US Immigration and Control Act of 1986 and the possible escalation of armed conflicts in Central America may result in expanded inflows either of returning citizens or of new refugee waves. To develop appropriate policy responses, Mexico needs reliable information on international migration flows. This research note reviews available sources of that information--arrival and departure statistics, population censuses, refugee censuses, and survey data--and concludes that most of them are relatively weak. Currently, the published data on entries and departures provide little information on the demographic impact of legal migration, although they suggest that the inflow of foreigners is small. The census corroborates such findings, but it yields inadequate demographic detail. The movement of Mexican nationals, on the other hand, is poorly reflected by both sources. The void they leave has been palliated somewhat by surveys, but the only nationally representative survey on emigration was carried out in the late 1970s and might be a less than ideal basis for current policy formulation. It is hoped that as the relevance of international migration becomes more evident, steps towards the improvement of existing statistical systems may be undertaken. In the absence of such measures, policy-makers and researchers will have to continue relying on ad hoc surveys to answer the most pressing questions on the subject. PMID:12280914

  2. Organic beekeeping in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador V.; Vandame, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    Mexico is often described as a cornucopia, a land with high diversity in ecosystems, crops, fauna and flora. These are superb preconditions for organic honey production. Already the pre-hispanic Maya cultures produced honey from the native stingless bee (Meliponini) before the Spanish introduced European honey bee (Apis mellifera L). The main beekeeping product in Mexico is honey. Mexico ranks sixth in the world in honey production (57,000 t) and third as an exporter (25,000 t).

  3. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper considers the “informal sector†in Mexico. In Mexico and many other countries, the informal sector represents a large share of total employment. The paper reviews the literature on informality, with special focus on findings for Mexico, and develops a theoretical model that highlights the importance of externalities and the distortion associated with the informal sector. The analysis provides insight into the kinds of policy measures that might sustainably reduce...

  4. Organic Beekeeping in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador; Gänz, Peter; Vandame, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    Mexico is often described as a cornucopia, a land with high diversity in ecosystems, crops, fauna and flora. These are superb preconditions for organic honey production. Already the pre-hispanic Maya cultures produced honey from the native stingless bee (Meliponini) before the Spanish introduced European honey bee (Apis mellifera L). The main beekeeping product in Mexico is honey. Mexico ranks sixth in the world in honey production (57,000 t) and third as an exporter (25,000 t). Two condit...

  5. Competition Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Estrada Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    The CFC faces significant challenges from cartel activity, prevailing regulatory restrictions on competition, and exclusionary practices undertaken by some of the most powerful corporations in Mexico.

  6. The diagenetic and metallogenic depth:main constriants and the estimation methods%成岩成矿深度:主要影响因素与压力估算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德会; 徐九华; 余心起; 李健康; 毛世德; 王科强; 李泳泉

    2011-01-01

    成岩成矿深度是金属矿床成矿地质体的重要空间参数,受到地质构造、岩浆岩、围岩等诸多因素的影响.初步讨论了成矿深度的主要影响因素:岩浆因素和构造因素.内生矿床,特别是岩浆热液矿床的形成深度与岩浆作用的深度有关,岩浆侵位深度限定了矿床形成深度的下限,而岩浆上升和侵位过程中分异出的热液的深度直接决定了成矿深度.构造变形直接控制了多孔介质的渗透率,渗透率制约了流体的流动,成矿流体运移和就位则直接与成矿深度相关联.还阐述了成岩成矿深度(压力)的估算方法,以流体包裹体温压计为主,结合其它矿物地质温度计和压力计,并综合考虑成矿地质构造、岩浆岩、围岩等因素,才能获得合理和符合地质实际的成矿深度,为找矿勘查提供经得起检验的深度参数.%Rock-forming and metallogenic depth are the important spatial parameters for mineralized geologic bodies of metallic ore deposit, and affected by many factors including geological structures, magmatic rock and wall rock. The major influencing factors on metallogenic depth are discussed preliminarily, including magma and structure factors. The depth of endogenic mineralization, especially the formation depth of magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits, is related to the depth of magmatism and magma emplacement.The depth of magmatic emplacement restricts the lower limit of the formation depth of mineral deposits, while the depth of magmatic hydrothermal fluid exsolved from ascending magma and intrusion directly determines metallogenic depth. Structural deformation directly controls the permeability of porous medium, and permeability restricts fluid flow, while ore-forming fluid migration and accumulation are directly associated with metallogenic depth. Estimation methods for diagenetic and metallogenic depth (or pressure) are also discussed. Finally, the author indicated that the reasonable

  7. Megadrought and megadeath in 16th century Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Cleaveland, Malcolm K; Therrell, Matthew D

    2002-04-01

    The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest") were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.

  8. Digital Atlas of Mexico Provides Accessible Climate Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge; Fernández-Eguiarte, Agustin; Romero-Centeno, Rosario; Zavala-Romero, Olmo

    2010-04-01

    Modern geomatic technologies—and particularly geoscientific, digital, and online multimedia cartography—represent one response to the growing demand for climatic information by the scientific community and general users. The Digital Climatic Atlas of Mexico (DCAM) fills the need to have readily accessible climate information about Mexico, Central America, and adjacent areas in preconfigured or user-configured georeferenced maps. The atlas provides information about the continental and oceanic climate, bioclimatic variables, and socioeconomic indicators (Figure 1).

  9. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Bontemps, C.; Rogel, M. A.; Wiechmann, A.; Mussabekova, A.; Moody, S.; Simon, M F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, G. N.; Lacercat-Didier, L.; Dasilva, C.; Grether, R; Camargo-Ricalde, S. L.; Chen, W.M.; SPRENT, J. I.; Martinez-Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for ...

  10. Richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    T. Contreras-MacBeath; M. B. Rodríguez; Sorani, V.; Goldspink, C.; G. McGregor Reid

    2014-01-01

    A study of richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico, was carried out in order to identify hotspots and inform conservation efforts. This was done by mapping and overlaying individual species distributions by means of geographical information systems based on museum data. The study was able to confirm several previously proposed centres of freshwater fish richness (Southeastern Mexico, the Mesa Central, the Bravo-Conchos river system and the Panuco and Tuxpan-Nautla rivers). Se...

  11. 660铀矿田成矿地质特征及成矿预测%Geological characteristics and metallogenic prediction of No.660 uranium ore field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷遥鸣

    2012-01-01

    火山岩型铀矿在我国铀矿资源中占有较大份额.660铀矿田是一个典型的火山岩型铀矿聚集区,对该区已发现的矿床、矿点以及成矿异常点(带)的地质特征进行研究分析,找出其矿化特征、矿体分布规律,总结出其控矿因素、成矿规律及成矿地质作用,并根据其成矿地质特征和找矿标志等,提出660铀矿田新一轮找矿预测区和方向.%Volcanic-type uranium deposits account for a large share in uranium ore resources of China. No. 660 uranium ore field is the metallogenie area of typical volcanic-type uranium deposits. The geo- logical features of discovered deposits, occurrences and metallogenic outliers (belt) in the region are studied in order to identify the mineralization characteristics and ore body distribution, and sum up its ore-controlling factors, regularities and geological roles of mineralization. According to its geological characteristics and mineralization abnormalities, a new target and direction of prospecting in No. 660 uranium ore field are pointed out.

  12. Mexico Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Carmel; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Abraham, Cally

    2008-01-01

    As a NAFTA partner and Canada's third largest export market for agri-food products, developments in Mexico are of direct interest to Canada. Rural poverty, low productivity, poor infrastructure and unclear property rights for both land and water still inhibit the efforts of Mexico's government to improve competitiveness of its agricultural sector.

  13. An overview of the geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa: Explanatory note for the 1:4,000,000 map “Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, J. P.; Toteu, S. F.; Deschamps, Y.; Feybesse, J. L.; Lerouge, C.; Cocherie, A.; Penaye, J.; Tchameni, R.; Moloto-A-Kenguemba, G.; Kampunzu, H. A. B.; Nicol, N.; Duguey, E.; Leistel, J. M.; Saint-Martin, M.; Ralay, F.; Heinry, C.; Bouchot, V.; Doumnang Mbaigane, J. C.; Kanda Kula, V.; Chene, F.; Monthel, J.; Boutin, P.; Cailteux, J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper is prepared within the frameworks of IGCP Project 470 and the associated BRGM scientific project "Africa 1999-2004" to accompany the 1:4,000,000 scale map "Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa, presented at the 20th Colloquium of African Geology in Orleans in June 2004. It incorporates geological and metallogenic data from eight countries in Central Africa (Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea and Zambia). The map is a harmonised and geo-referenced preliminary map, based on a GIS at 1:2,000,000 scale, and focusses on the spatial and temporal distribution of selected major deposits.

  14. Trends in Production, Trafficking and Consumption of Methamphetamine and Cocaine in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Case, Patricia; Ramos, Rebeca; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Bucardo, Jesus; PATTERSON, THOMAS L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, Mexico has experienced a significant increase in trafficking of cocaine and trafficking and production of methamphetamine. An estimated 70% of U.S. cocaine originating in South America passes through the Central America-Mexico corridor. Mexico-based groups are now believed to control 70%–90% of methamphetamine production and distribution in the U.S. Increased availability of these drugs at reduced prices has led to a parallel rise in local drug consumption. Methamphetami...

  15. MVT铅一锌矿床的地球化学研究方法及其成矿系统探讨%Study on Metallogenic Systems and Geochemistry Methodology of MVT Lead-Zinc Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周灵洁; 张正伟; 张中山; 游富华

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarized the latest geochemical research methods of MVT lead-zinc deposits, including δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr, C1/Br, δ34S, 206Pb/204 Pb, REE, MTE, δ44Ca, isotopic dating and numerical simulation of geochemistry parameters. On the basis of research results of these methods, analysis of the dolomitization and organic matter effects in metallogenic systems, we discussed in details about the metallogenic system of MVT lead-zinc deposits, and proposed a hypothesis of organic matter related fluid mixing metallogenic. Besides, we emphasized the latest research results of metallic sulfide and gangue sulfide's dissimilar compositions of fluid inclusion, which will be increasingly important in the future research.%本文总结MVT铅-锌矿床的最新地球亿学研究方法及研究成果,包括δO、Sr/Sr、δ S、Pb/ Pb、Cl/Br、δCa、同位素定年,以及利用地球化学参数所进行的数值模拟等.以这些方法的研究成果为依据,结合对白云石化作用和有机质在成矿系统中作用的分析,深入探讨了MVT铅-锌矿床的成矿系统,总结出一个与有机质密切相关的流体混合成矿假说.另外,强调了最新研究成果-金属硫化物和脉石矿物相异的流体包裹体成分,将在今后成矿系统的研究中发挥重要作用.

  16. 蓝屋顶多金属矿床地质特征及成矿模式探讨%Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Metallogenic Model of Lanwuding Deposit in Lianping County,Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文昌生; 王军

    2015-01-01

    The Lanwuding mining area is situated in Jiulian town,Lianping county of Guandong Province.It is adjacent to the large polymetallic ore of Jubangkeng,which is in the nortern of Yaolin-Shirenzhang-Meiziwo-Dajishan-Jubangkeng tungsten mineralization zone of Nanling multi-metallic mineralized belt.The tungsten mineralization belt is an important metallogenic belt of the Naling area,which is characterized as a wealth of vein-type tungsten deposits with five leveling zoning feature.The metallogenic prognosis exploration and geochemical anomaly investigation indicate that Lanwuding has the similar multi-metallic mineralization type and gangue mineral assemblages with Jubangkeng,which could be the five level zoning metallogenic model.%蓝屋顶矿区位于广东省连平县东北九连镇,紧邻重要的多金属矿锯板坑矿区,即南岭成矿带中的瑶岭—石人嶂—梅子窝—大吉山—锯板坑钨矿带的东端,该钨矿带是南岭地区最为重要的成矿带之一,以大量出现“五层楼”式脉状钨矿床为特色。成矿预测勘查和化学异常调查表明,蓝屋顶矿区与锯板坑矿区的多金属矿化类型和脉石矿物组合类似,可能具有“五层楼”模式。

  17. Morfología, diversidad y distribución de los Cyclopoida (Copepoda de zonas áridas del centro-norte de México. I. Cyclopinae Morphology, diversity, and distribution of the Cyclopoida (Copepoda from arid areas of central-north Mexico. I. Cyclopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy F. Mercado-Salas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Los copépodos ciclopoides de aguas continentales representan un grupo cuya diversidad y biogeografía han sido estudiadas en distintas zonas de México pero su conocimiento en los ambientes áridos, principalmente en la región centro-norte del país, era muy limitado. A partir de muestras previamente obtenidas (1985-2008 y de nuevas recolecciones, se revisaron los copépodos de la subfamilia Cyclopinae de los cuerpos de agua de esta extensa zona árida de México. El estudio abarcó tres eco-regiones prioritarias (CONABIO que incluyen los estados de Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Durango, Chihuahua y Coahuila. Se encontraron 16 especies de Cyclopinae, incluyendo 3 especies no descritas (una de Acanthocyclopsy dos de Microcyclops y otras posiblemente endémicas de esta región del país; se registra por primera vez al género Metacyclops en México. Se proporcionan diagnosis e ilustraciones taxonómicas de las especies encontradas y se hacen análisis comparativos de los especímenes examinados. Se presentan 22 nuevos registros estatales de ciclópinos; se trata, además, del primer estudio taxonómico de los copépodos continentales enfocado a esta región árida de México. Con los hallazgos presentados el número de especies de Cyclopinae presentes en México aumentó de 37 a 43 (16%.Freshwater cyclopoid copepods represent a group whose diversity and biogeography has been studied in different areas of Mexico, but its knowledge in arid environments, mainly in the Central-Northern region of the country, was still limited. From samples previously obtained (1985-2008 and also from new collections, we reviewed the copepod of the subfamily Cyclopinae from water bodies of this extense arid zone of Mexico. This study incorporated three priority eco-regions (CONABIO, that include the states of Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Durango, Chihuahua and Coahuila. Up to 16 species of the subfamily Cyclopinae were found, including

  18. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes reforms to Mexico’s fiscal framework. Mexico’s resilient economic performance would be consolidated by increasing fiscal policy buffers and preparing for challenges associated with long-term budget pressures. In the short term, reducing public debt levels can create space to implement countercyclical fiscal policies and reduce exposure to high financing and hedging costs, which would protect Mexico’s credit rating at times of distress. The paper highl...

  19. Census Snapshot: New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in New Mexico. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in New Mexico. In many ways, the more than 6,000 same-sex couples living in New Mexico are similar to married couple...

  20. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes external shocks and business cycle fluctuations in Mexico. The paper examines the relative importance of U.S. demand shocks—and other foreign disturbances—in explaining Mexican output fluctuations. It identifies the dynamic response of Mexico’s output to those shocks. The paper investigates which U.S. variables are most relevant to explaining business cycles in Mexico. It analyses potential spillovers and channels of transmission underlying the linkag...

  1. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes reserve adequacy in Mexico. Reserve adequacy has been of renewed interest, as the authorities have introduced a new rules-based mechanism of U.S. dollar sales to reduce the rate of reserve accumulation. The paper examines the recent experience with Mexico’s fiscal management tools in light of the need for further consolidation. It reviews evidence on the cyclical behavior of fiscal policy in Mexico, finding that it has generally been procyclical since the...

  2. 塔里木盆地北缘英岗地区铀成矿特征及找矿远景%Uranium Metallogenic Characteristics and Prospecting Prospective of Yinggang area of the Northern Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炎龙; 邬力生; 王国荣

    2016-01-01

    英岗地区位于塔里木盆地柯坪断隆,属塔里木北缘铀成矿带,区内含铀及富铀层众多,为铀矿化的形成提供了重要的物质来源。结合区域铀矿勘查成果,对区域地质背景、地质特征、铀成矿特征进行了详细分析,并划分了成矿远景区。研究结果表明:①英岗地区上石炭统康克林组具备铀资源找矿前景,初步确定其铀成矿类型为古层间氧化带型;②英岗地区上石炭统康克林组铀成矿可分为3个阶段,即晚石炭世铀初始富集阶段、早二叠世铀叠加富集阶段和新生代强烈构造改造阶段。上述分析成果对于该区今后铀矿找矿工作有一定的参考价值。%Yinggang area is located in Kalpin fault uplift of Tarim basin,it belongs to the uranium metallogenic belt of the northern Tarim basin,many uranium layers and rich uranium layers are distributed in Yinggang area,they area provide the important material resources of the formation of uranium minerali-zation.Based on the prospecting results of the uranium deposits in Yanggang area,the regional geological background,geological characteristics of the area,uranium metallogenic characteristics area analyzed,be-sides that the prospect areas are delineated.The study results show that:①the prospecting prospective of uranium deposit of upper carboniferous Kangkelin formation of Yinggang area is good,the uranium metal-logenic type of upper carboniferous Kangkelin formation is determined as inter -layer oxidation zone type;②the uranium metallogenic of upper carboniferous Kangkelin formation of Yinggang are can be di-vided into three stages,they are the initial enrichment stage of uranium in late carboniferous epoch,super-position enrichment stage of uranium in early permian epoch and strong tectonic reworking stage in ceno-zoic.The above study results can provide some reference for the uranium deposit prospecting work in Yinggang area.

  3. 新疆库鲁克塔格成矿带主要矿床类型及成矿系列划分%Tectonic Evolution and Formation of Major Ore Deposits in Kuluketage Metallogenic Belt,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓峰; 王祥东; 吕新彪; 袁迁; 汪一凡; 刘文; 申文

    2015-01-01

    库鲁克塔格是新疆前寒武纪出露较全的地区,然而该区区域成矿规律研究程度非常低.通过对研究区已有资料进行总结分析,系统阐述研究区矿床类型,并对其成矿系列进行划分.研究区从太古代到早古生代形成了7个主要的岩浆构造演化阶段:古太古代陆核形成阶段(3.3~3.0 Ga)、新太古代-古元古代陆壳增生改造阶段(2.6~2.3 Ga)、古元古代中晚期陆壳改造阶段(2.1~1.8 Ga)、中元古代晚期-新元古代早期造山运动阶段(1.1~0.86 Ga)、新元古代中期后碰撞伸展阶段(830~800 Ma)、新元古代中晚期陆内裂解阶段(770~600 Ma)和早古生代造陆运动阶段.成矿作用主要发生在古元古代、新元古代及早古生代.依据各构造演化阶段、含矿建造特征及矿床成因特征,将库鲁克塔格成矿作用类型总结为以下6个主要成矿系列,即形成于古元古代陆壳增生改造环境下的 Fe-P-Cu-Au 系列、新元古代俯冲碰撞环境下的 Cu-Au 系列、新元古代后碰撞环境下的 Cu-Mo-Au-Fe-P-REE 系列、新元古代裂解环境下的 Cu-Ni 系列、早古生代沉积盆地中 Ag-V-Mo-Au-U-P 系列和早古生代俯冲岛弧环境下的 Cu-Au 系列.%Kuluketage block is one of the best areas for Precambrian geology studies in Xinjiang,however,the regional metal-logeny of the research area is still too poon.In this paper,all the published literatures are summarized.Then,the geology of main ore deposits and the classified metallogenic series in this block are systematically described.The following seven tectono-thermal periods are distinguished:Archean crust nucleus growing stage (3.3 -3.0 Ga),Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic crust growth and transformation stage (2.6-2.3 Ga),middle-late Paleoproterozoic crust transformation stage (2.1-1.8 Ga),Late Mesoproterozoic to Early Neoproterozoic orogeny stage (1.1 -0.86 Ga

  4. Zircon U-Pb dating of Maherabad porphyry copper-gold prospect area: evidence for a late Eocene porphyry-related metallogenic epoch in east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Iran has great potential for porphyry copper deposits, as a result of its past subduction zone tectonic setting that lead to extensive alkaline to calc-alkaline magmatic activity in Tertiary time. Maherabad is the first porphyry Cu-Au prospecting area which is discovered in eastern Iran. This is related to a succession o f monzonitic to dioritic porphyries stocks that were emplaced within volcanic rocks. Monzonitic porphyries have basic role in mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration zones are well developed including potassic, sericitic-potassic, quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite, quartz-carbonate-pyrite, silicified-propylitic, propylitic, carbonate and silicified zones. Mineralization occurs as Disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. Based on early stage of exploration, Cu is between 179- 6830 ppm (ave. 3200 ppm and Au is up to 1000 ppb (ave. 570 ppb. This prospect is gold- rich porphyry copper deposit. Laser-ablation U-Pb dating of two samples from ore-related intrusive rocks indicate that these two monzonitic porphyries crystallized at 39.0 ± 0.8 Ma to 38.2 ± 0.8 Ma, within a short time span of less than ca. 1 Ma during the middle Eocene. This provides the first precise ages for metallogenic episode of porphyry-type mineralization. Also, the initial 87Sr/86Sr and (143Nd/144Ndi was recalculated to an age of 39 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios for monzonitic rocks are 0.7047-0.7048. The (143Nd/144Ndi isotope composition are 0.512694-0.512713. Initial ε Nd isotope values 1.45-1.81. Based on isotopic data the magma had originated beyond the continental crust. The study will be used for tectonic-magmatic setting and evolution of eastern Iran. Keywords: Lut block, Middle Eocene, Zircon, Geochronology, Laser ablation ICP-MS,

  5. Variation of molybdenum isotopes in molybdenite from porphyry and vein Mo deposits in the Gangdese metallogenic belt, Tibetan plateau and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Lian; Gao, Shan; Li, Jian-Wei; Hu, Zhi-Fang; Yang, Lu; Hu, Zhao-Chu

    2016-02-01

    We present Mo isotopic ratios of molybdenite from five porphyry molybdenum deposits (Chagele, Sharang, Jiru, Qulong, and Zhuonuo) and one quartz-molybdenite vein-type deposit (Jigongcun) along the Gangdese metallogenic belt in the Tibetan Plateau. These deposits represent a sequence of consecutive events of the India-Asia collision at different periods. Additional molybdenite samples from the Henderson Mo deposit (USA), the oceanic subduction-related El Teniente (Chile), and Bingham (USA) porphyry Cu-(Mo) deposits were analyzed for better understanding the controls on the Mo isotope systematics of molybdenite. The results show that molybdenite from Sharang, Jiru, Qulong, and Zhuonuo deposits have similar δ97Mo (˜0 ‰), in agreement with the values of the Henderson Mo deposit (-0.10 ‰). In contrast, samples from the Changle and Jigongcun deposit have δ97Mo of 0.85 ‰ to 0.88 ‰ and -0.48 %, respectively. Molybdenite from the El Teniente and Bingham deposits yields intermediate δ97Mo of 0.27 and 0.46 ‰, respectively. The Mo isotopes, combined with Nd isotope data of the ore-bearing porphyries, indicate that source of the ore-related magmas has fundamental effects on the Mo isotopic compositions of molybdenite. Our study indicates that molybdenite related to crustal-, and mantle-derived magmas has positive or negative δ97Mo values, respectively, whereas molybdenite from porphyries formed by crust-mantle mixing has δ97Mo close to 0 ‰. It is concluded that the Mo isotope composition in the porphyry system is a huge source signature, without relation to the tectonic setting under which the porphyry deposits formed.

  6. 晋东北地区银矿床类型及成矿机制%Silver Ore Deposit Type and Its Metallogenic Mechanism in Northeast Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英福; 张连营; 李兆龙

    2011-01-01

    Research on silver ore deposit type and geological characteristics of the ore deposit shows that the main genetic types of silver deposits in northeast Shanxi are medium to lower temperature hydrothermal deposit type associated with volcanic process including quartz-vein type silver deposit, volcanic type silver deposit, cryptoexplosion breccia type silver deposit), and contact metasomatism skarn type silver deposit, stratabond silver and manganese ore deposit including oxidation leaching type manganese and silver deposit and iron-manganese stain silver and manganese deposit. The major metallogenic period is Yanshanian. A series of silver deposits were formed through volcanic to sub-volcanic hydrothermal process and oxidation and leaching process on the earth surface.%银矿床类型和矿床地质特征研究表明,晋东北地区银矿王要成因类型为与火山作用有关的中低温热液银矿床(包括石英脉型银矿、火山岩型银矿、(隐)爆破角砾岩型银矿),其次为接触交代矽卡岩型银矿、层控银锰矿床(包括氧化淋滤型锰银矿和铁锰帽型银锰矿).银的主要成矿期为燕山期.在沉积作用、火山一次火山热液作用和地表氧化淋滤作用条件下形成了系列银矿床.

  7. Fluid evolution in H2O-CO2-NaCl system and metallogenic analysis of the Surian metamorphic complex, Bavanat Cu deposit, Southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Sina; Moore, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The Bavanat Cu deposit occurs as veins controlled by a NE-trending structure within the Permo-Triassic Surian metamorphic complex (SMC), southwest of Iran. The SMC rocks exposed in the area have undergone greenschist-facies metamorphism. The ore-forming process can be divided into early, middle, and late stages, represented by, respectively, pyrite-quartz, polymetallic sulfide-quartz, and late-stage barren quartz veins. Systematic studies of fluid inclusions (FIs) in the quartz veins found four types: aqueous, mixed aqueous-carbonic, carbonic, and multiphase-bearing inclusions. The FIs of early, middle and late-stages are mainly homogenized at temperatures of 335-417 °C, 230-380 °C, and 190-227 °C, with salinities of 1.1-6.7, 2.9-36.6, and 0.8-2.6 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The main stage of Cu mineralization is related to the middle-stage, where FIs show evidence of fluid immiscibility. The metal precipitation resulted from a decrease in copper solubility during the fluid immiscibility, cooling, crystallization of multiphase-bearing inclusions, and a small increase in pH. Laser Raman spectroscopy and FIs evidences indicate that the metallogenic system evolved from metamorphic CO2 (+CH4)-rich, relatively high fO2 (10-25 to 10-29 bars) to CO2-poor and relatively low fO2 (10-31 to 10-34 bars). Muscovite from the middle-stage veins yields 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 195.2 ± 1.0 Ma, suggesting that the Cu mineralization at Bavanat formed in the Early Jurassic coeval with the retrograde metamorphic events during the post-early Cimmerian orogeny.

  8. A new species of Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae from the lungs of a nine-banded armadillo in Central Mexico Especie nueva de Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae de los pulmones de un armadillo del centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agustín Jiménez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four worms were collected from the bronchioles in both lungs of a male nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 captured in Teacalco, Morelos, Mexico. The worms, herein named Metathelazia mexicana n. sp., show a constriction in the esophagus at the level of the nerve ring; males of the species have 7 pairs of papillae, fewer than the other species in the genus. Metathelazia capsulata is the most similar species to Metathelazia mexicana; however, the latter has much shorter spicules. This is the fourth species in the genus known to occur in the New World.Se recolectó un total de 24 nemátodos de las cavidades bronquiales de un armadillo de 9 bandas Dasypus novemcinctus Lineo, 1758 en la localidad de Teacalco, Morelos, México. Los nemátodos, descritos con el nombre Metathelazia mexicana, muestran una constricción en el esófago al nivel del anillo nervioso y 7 pares de papilas caudales en los machos, número que es menor al observado en las otras especies del género. Metathelazia mexicana es semejante a Metathelazia capsulata en varios rasgos morfológicos pero difiere en el tamaño de las espículas, que son más cortas en la especie aquí descrita. Esta es la cuarta especie del género registrada en el continente americano.

  9. Bottlenose dolphin age structure and growth in the Mississippi Sound region of the Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Teeth were collected from bottlenose dolphins that stranded within the north-central Gulf of Mexico between 1986-2003. These teeth were sectioned and growth rings...

  10. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  11. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  12. 1973 Veracruz, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — South of Veracruz, southeastern Mexico. Damage: Severe. The earthquake caused heavy damage in the states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Thousands were left...

  13. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  14. Warm season tree growth and precipitation over Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrell, Matthew D.; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Villanueva-Diaz, Jose

    2002-07-01

    We have developed a network of 18 new tree ring chronologies to examine the history of warm season tree growth over Mexico from 1780 to 1992. The chronologies include Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Montezuma pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb.) latewood width, and Montezuma bald cypress (Taxodium mucronatum Ten.) total ring width. They are located in southwestern Texas, the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and southern Mexico as far south as Oaxaca. Seven of these chronologies are among the first precipitation sensitive tree ring records from the American tropics. Principal component analysis of the chronologies indicates that the primary modes of tree growth variability are divided north and south by the Tropic of Cancer. The tree ring data in northern Mexico (PC1) are most sensitive to June-August rainfall, while the data from southern Mexico (PC2) are sensitive to rainfall in April-June. We find that the mode of tree growth variability over southern Mexico is significantly correlated with the onset of the North American Monsoon. Anomalies in monsoon onset, spring precipitation, and tree growth in southern Mexico all tend to be followed by precipitation anomalies of opposite sign later in the summer over most of central Mexico.

  15. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico. PMID:12028953

  16. Privatization in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Alberto; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, Mexico redefined the role of the state in its economy through an ambitious program to liberalize trade, promote efficiency and reduce the size and scope of the state-owned sector. In Mexico, privatization led to a significant improvement in firm performance, as profitability increased 24 percentage points and converged to levels similar to those of private firms. From this increase, at most 5 percent can be attributed to higher prices and 31 percent to transfers from w...

  17. Mexico; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the global crisis and potential growth in Mexico. The paper uses two methodologies to assess to what extent the global crisis is likely to weigh on Mexico’s growth potential. The first approach is sectoral, examining the historical relationship between financial stress and growth in manufacturing industries. The second approach uses a growth-accounting framework to take a closer look at likely developments in the factors that drive potential growth. The p...

  18. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    Mexico’s growth process in trend and cyclical factors, with implications for policy decisions, is discussed. Mexico’s trade integration has been important for growth. But the high export growth experienced has been followed by a more muted performance. Reforms to improve productivity are important to sustain export dynamism. Fiscal credibility, underpinned by prudent fiscal management and a strong fiscal framework, permitted a countercyclical fiscal response during the global crisis. Howe...

  19. REDD+ i Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leithoff Christensen, Anneliese; Bondo Vester, Rasmus; Q. Madsen, Camilla Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Mexico joined the REDD+ program (Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) in 2010, and has since worked on the design of a national strategy to be implemented in the country. Through ACF's theoretical perspective, we analyze advocacy coalitions and belief systems of the actors in the subsystem in the design of Mexico's REDD+ national strategy. All coalitions in the subsystem share a deep core belief that REDD+ as vision has the potential to tackle deforestation problems. ...

  20. Poverty alleviation in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Santiago

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of poverty in Mexico. Its four objectives are to : i) present evidence; ii) analyze economic determinants; iii) discuss policy options; and iv) assess existing poverty programs. The author begins by giving a very brief discussion of recent economic events, as these set the stage for poverty programs in the 1990's. The paper goes on to discuss the concept of poverty measurement. The author presents evidence of the extent of poverty in Mexico. He aims at...

  1. C and S isotope characteristics of bitumen, calcite, Fe and Cu sulfides in the metallogenic analysis of the Ocoita metallotec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a significant increase in the rate of convergence of the Phoenix and South American plates during the Early Cretaceous (120 -100 Ma.), a basin, defined by Aberg et al., (1984) as an 'Aborted Marginal Basin', developed in Central Chile. In the late stages of this back-arc marine basin, submarine lava flows extruded through the thinned continental crust underlying the bottom of the shallow sea. The porphyritic lavas of the Pabellon Formation are the northernmost units of this event and are very similar to those of the Ocoa member in the Veta Negra Formation (Cisternas et al. 1999). The lava sequence lies conformably above calcareous rocks of the Pabellon Formation (Barremian-Aptian) and average 70 meters of thickness. The whole sequence dips to the east with a north-south directed strike. A notable characteristic of these lavas are the abundant (>40%) centimeter-size plagioclase phenocrysts, which can be associated with the 'lavas ocoiticas' or 'ocoitas' of the Ocoa member in the Veta Negra Formation of Central Chile. Geochemical analysis of the Pabellon formation lavas indicates that these lavas were derived from K-rich calc-alkaline to transitional magmas, typical of a continental margin subduction, however with an important component of intra-plate contamination (Galindo 1998; Cisternas et al., 1999). The basal rocks are cut by intrusives (119-93 ma.), the same age as the lavas. These intrusives are believed to be the source of heat needed for the thermal maturation of organic matter in the underlying beds. The organic matter rich limestones of the Nantoco formation are the most probable source of the hydrocarbons, which were mobilized by hydrothermal fluids and deposited in veinlets and voids in the lavas (au)

  2. H-66 híbrido de maíz para los valles altos de los estados de México y Tlaxcala H-66 maize hybrid for the central highlands of the Mexico and Tlaxcala states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Arellano Vázquez

    Full Text Available El nuevo maíz híbrido H-66 fue desarrollado en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP; este híbrido se adapta a los Valles Altos (> 2 200 m en el Estado de México y Tlaxcala. H-66 se obtuvo de tres líneas (M43/M44//M52; M52 es una línea del programa de maíz del Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT, mientras que las líneas M43 y M44 se derivaron de un criollo colectado en una localidad de la parte alta del estado de Michoacán. H-66 es un híbrido cuyo grano es de color blanco y se recomienda para condiciones de riego y temporal. El rendimiento del híbrido H-66 varía de 6.5 a 10.5 t ha-1, supera entre 7 y 12% el rendimiento de híbridos comerciales de compañías privadas, que se cultivan en la región bajo las mismas condiciones. Es resistente al acame y a enfermedades que se presentan en la región, como son: pudrición de la mazorca (Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, estado perfecto Giberella fujikuroi Sawada y carbón de la espiga (Sporisorium reilianum= Sphacelotheca reiliana. El grano de maíz H-66 se recomienda para la industria de la masa y la tortilla.The new maize hybrid H-66 was developed in the Valley of Mexico Experimental Field (CEVAMEX of the National Forestry, Agriculture and Cattle Research Institute (INIFAP. This hybrid adapts to the high valleys (> 2 200 m in the states of Mexico and Tlaxcala. H-66 was obtained from three lines (M43/M44//M52; M52 is a line of the maize program of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT, while lines M43 and M44 were derived from a creole line derived from a location in the higher area in the state of Michoacán. H-66 is a hybrid with a white grain, recommended for irrigation and rainy conditions. The yield of hybrid H-66 varies from 6.5 to 10.5 t ha-1, and surpasses by 7 to 12% the yield of commercial hybrids from private companies, which are grown in

  3. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  4. American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990-2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1-3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  5. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  6. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  7. New Mexico Voting Precincts (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico Voting Precinct Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage...

  8. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  9. The origin of the Avram Iancu U-Ni-Co-Bi-As mineralization, Băiţa (Bihor) metallogenic district, Bihor Mts., Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajzon, Norbert; Szentpéteri, Krisztián; Szakáll, Sándor; Kristály, Ferenc

    2015-10-01

    The Băiţa metallogenic district in the Bihor Mountains is a historically important mining area in Romania. Uranium mining took place between 1952 and 1998 from various deposits, but very little is known about the geology and mineralogy of these deposits. In this paper, we describe geology and mineralogy of uranium mineralization of the Avram Iancu uranium mine from waste dump samples collected before complete remediation of the site. Texturally and mineralogically complex assemblages of nickeline, cobaltite-gersdorffite solid solution, native Bi, Bi-sulfosalts, molybdenite, and pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite occur with uraninite, "pitchblende," and brannerite in most of the ore samples. The association of nickel, cobalt, and arsenic with uranium is reminiscent of five-element association of vein type U-Ni-Co-Bi-As deposits; however, the Avram Iancu ores appear to be more replacement-type stratiform/stratabound. Avram Iancu ore samples contain multistage complex, skarn, uranium sulfide, arsenide assemblages that can be interpreted to have been formed in the retrograde cooling stages of the skarn hydrothermal system. This mineralizing system may have built-up along Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene "Banatite" intrusions of diorite-to-granite composition. The intrusions crosscut the underlying uraniferous Permian formations in the stacked NW-verging Biharia Nappe System. The mineralization forms stacked, multilayer replacement horizons, along carbonate-rich lithologies within the metavolcanic (tuffaceous) Muncel Series. Mineral paragenesis and some mineral chemistry suggest moderate-to-high uranium sulfide stage along stratigraphically controlled replacement zones and minor veins. Uranium minerals formed abundantly in this early stage and include botryoidal, sooty and euhedral uraninite, brannerite, and coffinite. Later and/or lower-temperature mineral assemblages include heterogeneous, complexly zoned arsenide-sulfarsenide solid solutions associated with minute but

  10. Geological, geochronological, and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of the Chengchao skarn Fe deposit, Edong ore district, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Lü, Zhicheng; Zhao, Caisheng; Zheng, Xianwei; Ding, Ning

    2015-04-01

    The Edong ore district is located within the westernmost Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt (MLYRB), and hosts the largest concentration of skarn Fe deposits in China, although the origin of these deposits remains controversial. The Chengchao deposit is the largest skarn Fe deposit so far discovered within the MLYRB, and provides a good opportunity to address the debate surrounding the origin of these skarn Fe deposits. Here, we present geological, geochronological, and mineralogical data from the Chengchao skarn deposit and associated intrusions, and discuss the relationships between granitoids and mineralization in the Chengchao deposit. The NW-SE-striking orebodies in the study area have porphyritic quartz monzonite and/or granite footwalls, and Triassic marble or diorite hangingwalls, indicating a spatial relationship between these intrusions and Fe mineralization. Zircon U-Pb data from the granite, porphyritic quartz monzonite, diorite, and porphyritic diabase dike within the deposit show ages of 129 ± 1, 128 ± 1, 140 ± 1, and 126 ± 1 Ma, respectively. These ages and the previously reported ages on the timing of mineralization suggest that the porphyritic quartz monzonite and granite are coeval with the formation of the skarn Fe deposit. Our data confirm that the granitic rocks are temporally associated with Fe mineralization. The prograde substage of skarn development is characterized by two stages of andradite (Adr98-38Grs61-2Prp2-0Sps1-0Alm1-0) and diopside (Di95-61Hd37-5Jo3-0), including an early stage of garnet and pyroxene formation that is genetically associated with the mineralization. The early stage garnets are more andradite-rich (Adr98-50Grs49-2Prp1-0Sps1-0Alm0) than the late veinlet garnets characterized by intermediate grandite compositions (Adr67-37Grs61-31Prp2-0Sps1-0Alm1-0). The early stage pyroxenes (Di95-74Hd26-5Jo1-0) are compositionally distinct from the late stage pyroxenes (Di84-61Hd37-16Jo3-0). Compositional

  11. Apatite trace element and halogen compositions as petrogenetic-metallogenic indicators: Examples from four granite plutons in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Chuan; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Song; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Li, Chusi

    2016-06-01

    The abundances of trace elements including Sr, Ga and rare earth elements (REE) and halogens in apatite crystals from four intermediate-felsic plutons in the Zhongdian terrane in the Sanjiang region have been determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the potential of apatite as a petrogenic-metallogenic indicator. The selected plutons include one that is not mineralized (the Triassic Xiuwacu pluton, or the TXWC pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Cu deposit (the Pulang pluton, or the PL pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Mo deposit (the Tongchanggou pluton, or the TCG pluton), and one that hosts a vein-type Mo deposit (the Cretaceous Xiuwacu pluton, or the CXWC pluton). Except for the CXWC pluton, the other three plutons have adakite-like trace element signatures in whole rocks. The results from this study show that REE, Sr and halogens in apatite can be used to track magma compositions, oxidation states and crystallization history. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like plutons are characterized by much higher Sr/Y and δEu than the non-adakite-type pluton. This means that apatite, which is not susceptible to alteration, is a useful tool for identifying the adakite-like plutons that no longer preserve the initial Sr/Y ratios in whole rocks due to weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Based on apatite Ga contents and δEu values, it is inferred that the parental magmas for the two adakite-like plutons containing porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization are more oxidized than that for the non-adakite-type pluton containing vein-type Mo mineralization. Apatite crystals from the vein-type Mo deposit have much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like pluton without Cu or Mo mineralization is characterized by much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the adakite-like plutons that host the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. The

  12. Humboldt's works on Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Leitner

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in English, Abstracts in Spanish and English. Humboldt wrote about Mexico from the perspective of a scientific explorer and naturalist. His works include his diaries, the Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne, the Tablas géograficas, the Vues des Cordillères and a geographic atlas. Concerning the scientific aspect, the lack of a section on Mexico in the Relation historique is not a real deficit, since this can be found in the Essai. But only the diaries and letters from the journey, both published by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Research Centre, Berlin, can be considered an adequate substitute.The following will show the origin of Humboldt's writings on Mexico, offer historical and bibliographical facts and present the publications "Beiträge zur Alexander von Humboldt-Forschung", as well as Humboldt’s handwritten estate as far as they are available to us.

  13. Cambio en la distribución de goodeidos (Osteichthyes: Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae en cuencas hidrológicas del centro de México Changes in the distribution of goodeids (Osteichthyes: Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae in river basins of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Mesa Central de México cuenta aproximadamente con 100 especies nativas de peces, el 70% son endémicas de la región. Los ecosistemas de esa área geográfica son sobre los que mayor impacto ha tenido la actividad antropogénica. El grupo de peces más representativo es el de los goodeidos que aparentemente han sobrevivido a grandes cambios de calidad de agua y flujo hídrico. Para entender los cambios en la distribución de esta familia, el presente trabajo documenta las desapariciones y extinciones locales de especies de goodeidos y su relación con las diferentes regiones de la Mesa Central. Para conocer su distribución previa, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica y en bases de datos de colecciones. Estos registros se compararon con recolectas realizadas entre junio de 1999 y septiembre del 2004 en 287 localidades en 15 estados de la República Mexicana. Se cubrió el 95% de los sitios de recolecta que presentaban registros previos. La comparación entre distribuciones arrojó que en el 68% de estos sitios se registró la desaparición de alguna especie. En 9 de las 18 regiones, las especies previamente registradas redujeron su distribución a la mitad, han desaparecido 5 en más del 50% de su intervalo de distribución y al menos 2 se señalan como extintas. Las especies se clasificaron según su vulnerabilidad y las localidades fueron categorizadas de acuerdo al promedio de desaparición de poblaciones. Se discute el efecto de las extinciones sobre la viabilidad de las especies a largo plazo, y la pertinencia de establecer áreas de conservación para los goodeidos. Las extinciones locales pueden afectar la viabilidad de las especies, y por lo tanto es urgente generar áreas de conservación para los godeidos.The Mexican central plateau hosts around 100 native freshwater fish species, 70% of which are endemic to the region. Freshwater ecosystems in this area are highly impacted by anthropogenic activities. Goodeids are the most

  14. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the sources of Mexico’s economic growth since the 1960s, and compares various decompositions of historical growth into trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflation process is assessed. The paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative productivity growth rates. The paper also describes the significant steps Mexico has taken to strengthen the structure of its public debt in recent years, both in terms ...

  15. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    Mexico is an open economy with strong real and financial links to the rest of the world with risks of spillovers from global turbulence. Recent gains in market share in the U.S. manufacturing market are owed to improved relative unit labor costs and reemergence of a location advantage. Mexico’s current fiscal framework requires measures to offset the emerging challenges of a decline in oil revenues and the projected increase in health- and pensions-related spending. The sustained increase o...

  16. Firearms in New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor, S. Z.; Gallaher, M M; Baron, R C; Watson, M E; Sewell, C M

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of firearm ownership and storage practices in New Mexico, we did a random-digit-dialing survey of New Mexico residents in October 1991. Of 200 households surveyed, 79 (40%) had 1 or more firearms in the home. Rural households were more likely than urban households to have firearms (44% versus 30%), and households with annual incomes of greater than $25,000 were more likely to have a firearm than households with incomes of $25,000 or less (41% versus 33%). Household...

  17. Geology Spatial Data Mining Method for Regional Metallogenic Prediction%基于地质空间数据挖掘的区域成矿预测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何彬彬; 崔莹; 陈翠华; 陈建华

    2011-01-01

    以多源地质空间数据库和空间数据挖掘技术为基础,顾及地质数据的空间特征和不确定性,提出一种基于地质空间数据挖掘的区域成矿预测方法,主要包括:连续型地质空间数据离散化、成矿空间关系提取及属性化、成矿关联规则提取及质量评价、成矿关联规则综合评价与潜力制图.最后,以青海省东昆仑地区铁矿资源潜力预测为例进行实验,并将地质空间数据挖掘预测结果与传统的证据权模型预测结果进行对比.实验对比结果表明,基于地质空间数据挖掘的预测结果较传统的证据权模型方法预测精度更高,该方法用于区域成矿预测效果良好.%Spatial data mining (SDM) refers to extracting and "mining" the hidden, implicit, valid, novel and interesting spatial or non-spatial patterns or rules from a large amount of, incomplete, noisy, fuzzy, random, and practical spatial databases. At present, SDM mainly concentrates on the efficiency of mining algorithm itself. Another important issue-application in SDM-has not been paid much attention to. Geological data are typical spatial data, which include geological, geophysical, geochemical, and remote sensing data. Regional metallogenic prediction and quantitative resource assessment have been recognized as important when integrating multi-source geological spatial data in recent years. The statistical and mathematical approaches that have developed recently for multiresources geological spatial data integration include weights-of -evidence modelling, and the logistic regression modeling. The fuzzy logic model, artificial neural networks model and the fractal method have been applied in the prediction and assessment of mineral resources potential. These methods promote the effectiveness of mineral resource prospecting. However, under the shortage of mineral resources and the leap cost of prospecting and exploring, how to make full use of the existing multi-sources geo

  18. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  19. New Mexico's Challenge 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert M.; And Others

    This report presents a comprehensive strategy developed by the New Mexico Education Technology Planning Committee to maximize resources in educational technology to achieve the long-range goals adopted for education in the state. Four basic strategies are recommended: (1) to forge relationships between schools and businesses, and partnerships…

  20. Mexico Policy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This note presents an overview of Mexico's forthcoming reform agenda-from the World Bank's vantage point. It distills the main messages in the policy notes that make up this compendium. The purpose is not to provide definitive answers to the many policy questions likely to occupy the New Mexican administration, or to provide a comprehensive account of progress to date and policy recommenda...

  1. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  2. Electroacoustic Music in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Sigal

    2010-01-01

    Mexico has been an outsider to the electroacoustic music movement. Countries likeArgentina, Cuba and Chile were pioneers in establishing electronic music centers in thecontinent. This texts aim to illustrate briefly the story behind the first initiatives in Mexicoandthe actual situation and characteristics of the institutional electroacoustic music scene.

  3. Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala-Castro, Jorge E.; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E.; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar F.; Uicab, Justo E. Sulú

    2009-01-01

    The detection of Rickettsia akari in 2 human patients increased the diversity of rickettsioses affecting the public health in the southeast of Mexico. Rickettsialpox should be considered in the differential diagnosis with other febrile illnesses for the correct diagnosis and accurate treatment of this potential threat to human health.

  4. ADDRESSING CONFLICT IN TOP MEDIA EDUCATION IN MEXICO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Gatica Reyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is going through a period of exacerbated violence, corruption, intolerance, etc. as it is shown by the index of Peace (2015, where the country as a whole is less than the peaceful Central America and the state of Mexico ranks 23 out of 32 states that make up the Mexican republic. These behaviors permeate schools are a product of society itself and although efforts have been made to reverse these trends by manual or classical coercive discipline offenders actually work must be with the entire school population that the results are lasting.

  5. ENDEMIC ORTHOPOXVIRUS CIRCULATING IN PROCYONIDS IN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Emerson, Ginny L; Martínez-Martínez, Flor O; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Ramírez-Cid, Citlali; Gama-Campillo, Lilia M; Gual-Sill, Fernando; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Carroll, Darin S

    2016-07-01

    Limited serosurveillance studies suggested that orthopoxviruses (OPXV) are widespread in the US (e.g., Raccoonpox virus, Skunkpox virus, Volepox virus) and Brazil (Vaccinia virus); however, their animal reservoir(s) remain unconfirmed. Mexican mammal diversity includes several species related to those in which evidence for OPXV infections has been found (Oryzomys, Peromyscus, Microtus, and Procyonidae). The presence of these groups of mammals in Mexico and the evidence of their possible involvement in the maintenance of OPXV in nature suggest the same or similar OPXV are circulating in Mexico. We tested 201 sera from 129 procyonids via modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) to estimate OPXV antibody prevalence in these animals. We detected a prevalence of 16.67% in Nasua narica (white-nosed coati), 35% in Procyon lotor (raccoon), and 30.4% in Bassariscus astutus (ring-tailed cat) when tested by either ELISA or WB. Western blot results presented protein bands consistent with the size of some OPXV immunodominant bands (14, 18, 32, 36, and 62 kDa). These results support the hypothesis that OPXV circulate in at least three genera of Procyonidae in Central and Southeast Mexico. PMID:27224209

  6. Mexico’s monetary policy communication and money markets

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Garcia-Herrero; Eric Girardin; Arnoldo Lopez Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    Central bank communication is becoming a key aspect of monetary policy. How much financial markets listen and, possibly, understand Banco de Mexico’s communication on its monetary policy stance should be a key consideration for the central bank to further modernize its monetary policy toolkit

  7. Geological Fluid Mapping in the Tongling Area: Implications for the Paleozoic Submarine Hydrothermal System in the Middle-Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Tongling area is one of the 7 ore-cluster areas in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, East China, and has tectonically undergone a long-term geologic history from the late Paleozoic continental rifting, through the Middle Triassic continent-continent collision to the Jurassic-Cretaceous intracontinental tectono-magmatic activation. The Carboniferous sedimentary-exhalative processes in the area produced widespread massive sulfides with ages of 303-321 Ma, which partly formed massive pyrite-Cu deposits, but mostly provided significant sulfur and metals to the skarn Cu mineralization associated with the Yanshanian felsic intrusions.To understand the Carboniferous submarine hydrothermal system, an area of about 1046 km2 was chosen to carry out the geological fluid mapping. Associated with massive sulfide formation, footwall sequences 948 m to 1146 m thick, composed of the Lower Silurian-Upper Devonian sandstone, siltstone and thin-layered shale, were widely altered. This hydrothermal alteration is interpreted to reflect largescale hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the late Paleozoic crustal rifting and subsidence. Three hydrothermal alteration types, i.e., deep-level semiconformable silicification (S1), fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration (S2-3), and upper-level sub-discordant quartz-sericite-chlorite alteration (D3), were developed to form distinct zones in the mapped area. About 50-m thick semiconformable siliclfication zones are located at ~1-km depth below massive sulfides and developed between an impermeable shale caprock (S1) and the underlying Ordovician unaltered limestone.Comparisons with modern geothermal systems suggest that the alteration zones record a sub-seafloor aquifer with the most productive hydrothermal fluid flow. Fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration formed transgressive zones, which downward crosscut the semiconformable alteration zones,and upwards grade into sub-discordant alteration zones

  8. Presencia de Circulifer tenellus Baker y Beet mild curly top virus en maleza durante el invierno en el centro norte de México Circulifer tenellus Baker and Beet mild curly top virus presence in weeds during the winter in north-central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las enfermedades más importantes del chile para secado en el norte centro de México es la denominada amarillamientos del chile. Existe poca información acerca de la interacción entre el vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker, el Beet mild curly top virus y la maleza durante el invierno en esta región, consecuentemente el objetivo del trabajo fue identificar maleza de invierno que sirve como refugio para el vector y hospedero del virus en esta región. Entre enero y marzo de 2011 se muestrearon 26 manchones de maleza en los estados de Aguascalientes y Zacatecas. Se capturaron adultos de C. tenellus en 69.2% de los manchones de maleza muestreados; la mayoría (75.5% de los especímenes eran hembras. El Beet mild curly top fue identificado sólo 15.4% de los sitios de muestreo infectando especies de maleza como Eruca sativa, Reseda sp., Chenopodium sp. y Solanum rostratum L.One of the most important diseases of chili pepper for drying in the north-central Mexico is called yellowing of chili. There is little information about the interaction between the vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker, the Beet mild curly top virus and weeds during the winter in this region; therefore, the objective was to identify winter weeds that serve as are fuge for the vector and host of the virus in this region. Between January and March, 2011, 26 patches of weed were sampled in Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Adult C. tenellus were captured in 69.2% of the weed sampled patches; most of the specimens were females (75.5%. Beet mild curly top was identified in only 15.4% of the sampling sites, infecting weed species suchas Eruca sativa, Reseda sp., Chenopodium sp. and Solanum rostratum L.

  9. Caracterización de Propiedades Químicas y Fisicoquímicas de Chorizos Comercializados en la Zona Centro de México Characterization of Chemical and Physicochemical Properties of Sausages Marketed in the Central Region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto González-Tenorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron cuarenta chorizos de cuatro tipos; dos tradicionales (de mercados rurales y carnicerías locales y dos industriales (de centrales de abasto y supermercados con el fin de determinar las condiciones técnicas de elaboración y comercialización de los chorizos que pueden afectar su calidad. El chorizo es un embutido crudo que se comercializa en prácticamente todo México y su elaboración se realiza tanto de modo artesanal como industrial. Se determinó el valor de pH, la actividad de agua, el contenido de humedad, grasa, proteína, cenizas, sal y colágeno, y el perfil de ácidos grasos. Se completó la caracterización analizando la morfología de los chorizos, así como el color y textura. Se encontró variación en las características de los chorizos, dependiendo principalmente del origen de los mismos.Forty sausages (chorizos of four types; two traditional (rural markets and local butchers and two industrial (wholesale large-city markets and supermarkets were analyzed for determining the quality of the elaboration process and of the commercialization that could affect sausage quality. Chorizos are raw sausage elaborated in most places in Mexico either by small producers or by food industries. The pH, water activity values, moisture, fat, protein, common salt and collagen contents and the fatty acid profile were determined. Additionally, morphological parameters, color and texture were assessed to complete the characterization. As expected, variations in the properties of chorizo depended on the type and origin.

  10. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English in Central Mexico Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema Mora Pablo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta.

  11. Late Cretaceous porphyry copper mineralization in Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the evolution of the Southwest North America porphyry copper province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fernando; Valencia, Victor A.

    2014-10-01

    Two porphyry Cu-Mo prospects in northern Sonora, Mexico (Fortuna del Cobre and Los Humos) located within the southwestern North American porphyry province have been dated in order to constrain the timing of crystallization and mineralization of these ore deposits. In Fortuna del Cobre, the pre-mineralization granodiorite porphyry yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 76.5 ± 2.3 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz feldespathic porphyry were dated at 74.6 ± 1.3 and 75.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Four molybdenite samples from Los Humos porphyry Cu prospect yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 73.5 ± 0.2 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyry gave U-Pb zircon ages of 74.4 ± 1.1 and 74.5 ± 1.3 Ma, showing a Late Cretaceous age for the emplacement of this ore deposit. The results indicate that Laramide porphyry Cu mineralization of Late Cretaceous age is not restricted to northern Arizona as previously thought and provide evidence for the definition of NS trending metallogenic belts that are parallel to the paleo-trench. Porphyry copper mineralization follows the inland migration trend of the magmatic arc as a result of the Farallon slab flattening during the Laramide orogeny.

  12. Simulation of the concentration of SO{sub 2} issued by major stationary sources in 2003 in northwestern Chiapas and central Tabasco, Mexico; Simulacion de la concentracion de SO{sub 2} emitido por fuentes fijas mayores durante 2003 en el noroeste de Chiapas y centro de Tabasco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Manzanilla, Arturo [Division Academica de Ciencias Biologicas, UJAT, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)]. E-mail: avmanzanilla@hotmail.com; Fernandez Garcia, German [Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara Campus Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Ramos Herrera, Sergio [Division Academica de Ciencias Biologicas, UJAT, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Bautista Margulis, Raul G. [Division Academica de Ciencias Biologicas, UJAT, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    The CALPUFF dispersion model was used to simulate the spatial distribution of the SO{sub 2} emitted by Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) gas-processing complexes in Cactus, NW Chiapas, Nuevo PEMEX and Ciudad PEMEX, in central Tabasco, during 2003. It was found that the zone with the highest concentrations of SO{sub 2} is located SW from the PEMEX facilities. The zone, where the World Health Organization's norm for SO{sub 2} is surpassed (20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), includes the city of Reforma, Chiapas and Ciudad PEMEX, Tabasco. [Spanish] El modelo de dispersion CALPUFF fue usado para simular la distribucion espacial de la concentracion de SO{sub 2} emitido por los complejos procesadores de gas de Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) en Cactus, en el noroeste de Chiapas, Nuevo PEMEX y Ciudad PEMEX, en el centro de Tabasco, durante 2003. Se encontro que la zona con mayor concentracion de SO{sub 2} esta localizada al suroeste de las instalaciones de la empresa petrolera. La zona, donde la norma de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud para el SO{sub 2} es sobrepasada (20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), incluye la ciudad de Reforma, Chiapas y Ciudad PEMEX, Tabasco.

  13. Energetic sustainability: Challenges and options in Mexico; Sustentabilidad energetica: Retos y opciones en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Flores, Dionicio; Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this report present a general overview of energy trends and objectives of policy for Mexico, in the context of sustainable development. The work is divided in two main parts: the first one presents trends in energy use and potential, energy sector reform, social and economics indicators and revision of efficiency and renewable energy. The second part discusses options and instruments of energy politics for the country in regard of the sustainable development. The energy is central to concerns of sustainable development, affecting economic; the local and global environment, and social problems as poverty, population, health and education. Mexico should promote political energy that permit the fulfillment the energy requirements while developing strategies that help to alleviate the social problems and productivity, based on lesser environmental impacts. [Spanish] Este reporte presenta una vision sobre las tendencias energeticas de Mexico y plantea prioridades y objetivos de politica para el pais, en el contexto de desarrollo sustentable. El trabajo muestra dos partes principales: la primera seccion presenta tendencias en el uso de energia, potenciales energeticos e indicadores economicos y sociales, ademas de una revision de eficiencias y politicas de energias renovables. La segunda parte discute opciones, instrumentos y restricciones en el contexto del desarrollo energetico sustentable en el pais. La energia es un elemento central en el desarrollo ya que esta relacionado con la economia, el ambiente local y global y aspectos sociales como pobreza, poblacion, salud y educacion. Esto obliga en Mexico a promover politicas que permitan la cobertura de los requerimientos energeticos, las cuales deben desarrollarse de manera conjunta con estrategias, para ayudar a disminuir los problemas, productivos y sociales con menores impactos ambientales.

  14. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  15. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  16. Idle Youth in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael; Gutierrez Fierros, Carlos; Vargas M., J. Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The present study combines data from Mexico's employment surveys (Encuesta Nacional de Empleo and Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo) with the country's official statistics on murder rates to create a state-level panel data set covering the period 1995 to 2013. Including most of the common controls identified by the literature, the results show that the rate of male youth ages 19 to 2...

  17. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the scope and manner of regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Quantitative indicators on business regulations and their enforcement have been created for 12 cities and states, which can now be compared with Mexico City, and to 154 countries around the world. The indicators cover four "Doing Business" topics: starting a business, registering property, getting credit and enforcing contracts. The 12 cities and states are: Aguascalientes,...

  18. Inequality in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Prát, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    This thesis project has the aim of analysing the development of inequality in Mexico, income redistribution, and future possibilities of investment into the educational system. Human capital is one of the determinants of economic growth. Although human capital includes health, education, and social capital, the major focus of this diploma thesis is on education. Education becomes a suitability criterion for employment in all sectors of industry. Everyone is rewarded for exercising the knowled...

  19. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the impact of Mexico’s energy reform on hydrocarbons production. These reforms aim to increase oil and gas production by eliminating the state oil company’s (PEMEX) monopoly on exploration and production of hydrocarbons, while retaining the prime directive that these resources are the property of the Mexican nation. This paper focuses on the nature of reforms and what problems these reforms are addressing. It presents illustrative production scenarios f...

  20. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.