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  1. Prevalence and associated factors of glaucoma in rural central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

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    Vinay Nangia

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of glaucoma in rural Central India. METHODS: The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a rural region of Central India. The study included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc morphology, and in a second step, by the criteria of the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO. RESULTS: Optic disc photographs were available for 4570 (97.0% subjects. Glaucoma was detected in 122 subjects (51 unilateral (2.67% (95%CI: 2.20, 3.14. Glaucoma prevalence for the age groups of 30-39yrs, 40-49yrs, 50-59yrs, 60-69yrs, 70-79yrs, and 80+ years was 0.54% (95%CI: 0.11, 0.98, 1.03% (95%CI: 0.49, 1.57, 1.40% (95%CI: 0.58, 2.23, 6.62% (95%CI: 4.92, 8.31, 8.71% (95%CI: 5.55, 11.75, and 14.3% (95%CI: 4.13, 24.4, respectively. In multivariable analysis, glaucoma was associated with higher age (P<0.001, lower body mass index (P = 0.025, lower blood hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.03, higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001, disc hemorrhages (P<0.001, higher prevalence of myopic retinopathy (P<0.001, lower level of education (P = 0.03, longer axial length (P<0.001, thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (P<0.001, higher vertical cup/disc diameter ratio (P<0.001, and narrow anterior chamber angle (P = 0.02. Ratio of open-angle glaucoma to angle-closure glaucoma was 7.7:1 (1.93% (95%CI: 1.64, 2.22 to 0.24% (95%CI: 0.14, 0.34. Using the ISGEO criteria, glaucoma prevalence was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3, 3.3 with a less clear association with older age. CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma prevalence in remote rural Central India is comparable to other regions. Associated factors were older age, lower body mass index, lower blood concentration of hemoglobin, lower level of education, higher intraocular pressure, disc hemorrhage, myopic retinopathy, and longer axial

  2. AWARENESS AND KNOWLEDGE OF DIABETIC EYE DISEASE AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS PRESENTING TO EYE OPD IN CENTRAL INDIA

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    Pranav Saluja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic eye disease can lead to permanent visual impairment or blindness if medical attention is delayed. Awareness and knowledge of diabetes-related eye complications is important for early medical presentation and maximisation of visual prognosis. The aim of the study is to study the level of awareness and knowledge of diabetic eye disease among diabetic patients presenting to eye OPD in central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based study was conducted on 300 diabetic patients presenting to eye OPD. A questionnaire was provided to the patients based on their awareness and knowledge of diabetic eye disease. On the basis of their response, answers were categorised into three groups for awareness (fully, partially and not aware and for knowledge (good, fair and poor knowledge. RESULTS Out of 300, the mean age of participants was 50.3 ± 12.4 years (range 20-79 years from which 123 (41% were males and 177 (59% were females. 106 (35.3% were from rural area and 194 (64.7% were from urban area. 164 (54.7% were literate and 136 (45.3% were illiterate. Maximum patients 172 (57.3% were diabetic since last 5 years with the average duration being 5.9 ± 4.1 years. Out of 300 patients, only 89 (29.7% were found to be fully aware and only 66 (22.0% had good knowledge (p<0.001. There was little knowledge of retinopathy risk factors or the need for routine eye examination. Most of the patients 152 (50.7% were not advised by their physician for screening. CONCLUSION The present study showed that there is poor awareness and knowledge among a larger portion of the sample among the illiterate patients, patients from rural area and those who were recently diagnosed diabetics. There is therefore a need for increasing awareness about diabetes in patients and physicians and providing access to retinopathy screening services to the patients.

  3. Visual acuity and associated factors. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

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    Vinay Nangia

    Full Text Available Visual acuity is a major parameter for quality of vision and quality of life. Information on visual acuity and its associated factors in rural societies almost untouched by any industrialization is mostly non-available. It was, therefore, the purpose of our study to determine the distribution of visual acuity and its associated factors in a rural population not marked influenced by modern lifestyle. The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years, who underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination including visual acuity measurement. Visual acuity measurements were available for 4706 subjects with a mean age of 49.5±13.4 years (range: 30-100 years. BCVA decreased significantly (P<0.001 from the moderately hyperopic group (0.08±0.15 logMAR to the emmetropic group (0.16±0.52 logMAR, the moderately myopic group (0.28±0.33 logMAR, the highly hyperopic group (0.66±0.62 logMAR and finally the highly myopic group (1.32±0.92 logMAR. In multivariate analysis, BCVA was significantly associated with the systemic parameters of lower age (P<0.001, higher level of education (P<0.001, higher body stature (P<0.001 and higher body mass index (P<0.001, and with the ophthalmic parameters of more hyperopic refractive error (spherical equivalent (P<0.001, shorter axial length (P<0.001, lower degree of nuclear cataract (P<0.001, and lower intraocular pressure (P = 0.006. The results suggest that in the rural population of Central India, major determinants of visual acuity were socioeconomic background, body stature and body mass index, age, refractive error, cataract and intraocular pressure.

  4. Prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol intake and nicotine consumption in rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

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    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization.The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD, suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ, and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT.Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15-21 was detected in 1862 (39.6% individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women, and major depression (CESD sum score >21 in 613 (13.0% individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women. Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2% participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1% individuals. There were 887 (18.9% smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8% subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0% participants; 283 (6.0% subjects had an AUDIT score ≥ 8 (hazardous drinking, and 108 (4.63% subjects a score ≥ 13 (women or ≥ 15 (men (alcohol dependence.In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India.

  5. Pseudoexfoliation: normative data and associations. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

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    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PEX and its associations in a population-based setting. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 individuals. All study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination. After medical pupil dilation, PEX was assessed by an experienced ophthalmologist using slit-lamp based biomicroscopy. RESULTS: Slit lamp examination results were available for 4646 (98.6% study participants with a mean age of 49.3 ± 13.3 years (range: 30-100 years. PEX was detected in 87 eyes (prevalence: 0.95 ± 0.10% (95%CI: 0.75, 1.15 of 69 subjects (prevalence: 1.49 ± 0.18% (95%CI: 1.14, 1.83. PEX prevalence increased significantly (P<0.001 from 0% in the age group of 30-39 years, to 2.85 ± 0.56% in the age group of 60-69 years, to 6.60 ± 1.21% in the age group of 70-79 years, and to 12.3 ± 4.11% in the age group of 80+ years. In multivariate analysis, PEX prevalence was associated with higher age (P<0.001; regression coefficient B:0.11; odds ratio (OR: 1.11 (95%CI: 1.09, 1.13, lower body mass index (P = 0.001; B: -0.12; OR: 0.88 (95CI: 0.82, 0.95 and higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002; B: 0.02; OR: 1.03 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.04. In the multivariate analysis, PEX was not associated with retinal nerve fiber layer cross section area (P = 0.76 and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.15. CONCLUSIONS: In a rural Central Indian population aged 30+ years, PEX prevalence (mean: 1.49 ± 0.18% was significantly associated with older age, lower body mass index and higher diastolic blood pressure. It was not significantly associated with optic nerve head measurements, refractive error, any ocular biometric parameter, nuclear cataract, early age-related macular degeneration and retinal vein occlusion, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and dyslipidemia.

  6. Patient satisfaction regarding eye care services at tertiary hospital of central India

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    Anand Sudhan

    2011-01-01

    Study Design : Descriptive study. Materials and Methods : This study was conducted between September 2005 and June 2006. Patients attending the eye clinic of Sadguru Netra Chikitsalaya, Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh, India, and admitted as in-patients in this hospital were our study population. Randomly selected patients were interviewed by trained staff. Close-ended questionnaire was used to conduct these structured interviews. Their responses were grouped into one of five categories and evaluated to determine satisfaction for different components of eye care services. Results : Three hundred and twenty persons were interviewed. The satisfaction was of excellent grade among 77 (48.1% patients attending clinic and 156 (97.5% patients who were admitted in the hospital. The participants expressed dissatisfaction for the long waiting period in clinics, poor cleanliness, and insufficient toilet facilities. Those admitted in the hospital felt that food facilities were less than the expected quality. Child-friendly facilities received high satisfaction scores. Conclusion : Although eye care services both in clinics and in the wards were satisfactory according to the end-users, there are scopes for improvement. Patient satisfaction surveys should be encouraged in hospitals for better accountability and also for strengthening the quality of eye care services.

  7. Eye Donation Awareness and Conversion Rate in Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme in a Tertiary Hospital of Central India.

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    Sharma, Bhavana; Shrivastava, Ulka; Kumar, Kavita; Baghel, Rajendra; Khan, Farhana; Kulkarni, Shridhar

    2017-08-01

    Corneal blindness accounts for 6-8 million blinds in the world. In India, it is estimated that there are approximately 6.8 million people who have vision less than 6/60 in at least one eye due to corneal diseases. This study was done to assess the awareness about eye donation amongst attendants of critically ill and deceased patients, their willingness to donate eyes, the efficacy of grief counselling by Eye Donation Counsellors (EDC), its impact on the conversion rate and the reasons for poor donation rate. This prospective hospital based study was done in 554 participants (guardians of critically ill and deceased subjects) to understand the awareness of eye donation. Factors related to willingness for eye donation that influenced conversion to actual donation were evaluated. Data was analysed with tests for statistical significance: Chi square test; pdonation, time taken for motivation remained less than 12 hours, which was statistically significant (Chi square=106. pdonation in comparison to those who were unaware in a ratio of 2:1. Grief counsellors (57.5%) had the most influence among the causes that were facilitators of donation. Utilizing the services of eye donation counsellors is a promising way to motivate the guardians of deceased. Increasing the awareness in society, rendering simple assistances to next of kin and speeding the medico legal formalities can go a long way in increasing the conversion rate and hence actual donation.

  8. Models for Primary Eye Care Services in India

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    Vasundhra Misra

    2015-01-01

    In the current situation, an integrated health care system with primary eye care promoted by government of India is apparently the best answer. This model is both cost effective and practical for the prevention and control of blindness among the underprivileged population. Other models functioning with the newer technology of tele-ophthalmology or mobile clinics also add to the positive outcome in providing primary eye care services. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of various models presently functioning in the country with the idea of providing useful inputs for eye care providers and enabling them to identify and adopt an appropriate model for primary eye care services.

  9. A new pygmy grasshopper species (Tetrigidae: Tetriginae) from Central India.

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    Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-03-30

    Ergatettix subtruncatus sp. nov. is described from Durg district of Chhattisgarh, India. The new species is similar to Ergatettix callosus (Hancock, 1915), but differs from the latter by frontal cost bifurcation starts at the level of upper margin of compound eyes; median carina of vertex indistinct; posterior angle of lateral lobes of pronotum not broad, apex subtruncate, narrow; mid femur slender with small white hairs and 3indistinct lobes; dorsal valve of ovipositor less flattened. A distribution map of Ergatettix subtruncatus sp. nov. and a key to known species of the genus Ergatettix Kirby, 1914 from the Indian subcontinent is provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Central Entomological Laboratory (CEL), Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

  10. Dry eyes among information technology professionals in India

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    Amaravathy Karuppaiah Brindha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To perform the determination ofthe burden of dry eye syndrome among information technology(ITprofessionals and examine association of dry eye syndrome between various daily activities. METHODS: This was a pilot cross-sectional study conducted for a period of 3mo from October-December, 2013 in Chennai, South India. The study population was enrolled from three IT companies in a city in Chennai. The inclusion criteria consisted of individuals working in the IT industry at least for a period of 6mo, aged 18y or above and giving voluntary, written informed consent. Variable information was gathered by using series of questionnaires and ophthalmic assessment. Information about sociodemographic characteristics was also gathered. Schirmer's test was performed for ophthalmic assessment. All of the analysis was performed by using SPSS vs.16. RESULTS: About one fifth(n=36, 18%of the participants were suspected to have dry eyes, with mean age of 29y(SD=7, and majority of them being males, graduates/ postgraduates, single, living in extended families in urban areas. Windy environment significantly showed to aggravate redness(P=0.04and burning sensation of the eyes(P=0.000. Similarly, watching television significantly showed to aggravate gritty sensation(P=0.01and led to excess mucous in the eyes(P=0.02. CONCLUSION:Based on the results of our study, it can be concluded that the exposure to various daily activities such as watching television, using computer, reading, and use of air conditioning and windy environments(dry environmentswere associated with signs and symptoms of dry eyes. Also, watching television and windy environment were significantly positively correlated with some of the signs of dry eye. This study emphasizes the urgent need of multi-factorial approach including policy measures for addressing the burden of dry eye in population.

  11. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

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    Wagle, B.G.

    rocks of the central west coast of India. Vol. 10, No.2, 1990 bonate and Miliolite Problems of Gujarat, PRL Ahmedabad:41 42 Kale VS, RajagllIU SN (1985) Neogene and Quaternary transgres sional and regressional history of the west coast of India... (1990) 10: 111-115 Geo-Marine Letters ~1990 Springtr-Vtrlng Ntw Yolldnc. Beach Rocks of the Central West Coast of India B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India, 403004 Abstract Along the central west coast of India several...

  12. Rusia, China, India y Asia Central

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    Stephen Blank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La próxima entrada de India en la Organización de Cooperación de Shanghái puede ser importante para Delhi pero no puede deshacer el factor crítico de que China se está convirtiendo cada vez más en el actor extranjero más relevante en Asia Central y que Rusia está dependiendo de China hasta el punto de que su Ministerio de Defensa ha buscado formalmente una alianza con China en contra del terrorismo, «las revoluciones de colores» y los Estados Unidos. China está ganando en la competición por la influencia sobre Asia Central, India apenas es competitiva allí y Rusia está perdiendo terreno paulatinamente, principalmente debido a sus propios fracasos para acrecentar su capacidad económica-política, incluso antes de invadir Ucrania. Las consecuencias de esa jugada tan solo han acelerado el proceso de su creciente dependencia de China.

  13. A deep structural ridge beneath central India

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    Agrawal, P. K.; Thakur, N. K.; Negi, J. G.

    A joint-inversion of magnetic satellite (MAGSAT) and free air gravity data has been conducted to quantitatively investigate the cause for Bouguer gravity anomaly over Central Indian plateaus and possible fold consequences beside Himalayan zone in the Indian sub-continent due to collision between Indian and Eurasian plates. The appropriate inversion with 40 km crustal depth model has delineated after discriminating high density and magnetisation models, for the first time, about 1500 km long hidden ridge structure trending NW-SE. The structure is parallel to Himalayan fold axis and the Indian Ocean ridge in the Arabian Sea. A quantitative relief model across a representative anomaly profile confirms the ridge structure with its highest point nearly 6 km higher than the surrounding crustal level in peninsular India. The ridge structure finds visible support from the astro-geoidal contours.

  14. Cysticercosis of the eye in south India - A case series

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    Kaliaperumal S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of patients with ocular cysticercosis in southern India. Methods: This study included 10 patients who were diagnosed to have ocular or adnexal cysticercosis over a period of one year in Pondicherry, India. The clinical presentation, results of investigation and treatment outcome of the cases were analysed retrospectively. Results: Age of these patients ranged from 12 to 55 years. Four presented with loss of vision, two with a swelling in the eyelid, one with proptosis, one with diplopia and two with conjunctival involvement. ELISA for cysticercus antibodies in serum was positive in all cases. Albendazole and prednisolone were given for the treatment of these cases. Two patients responded well to treatment and were completely cured of the disease. There was partial improvement in 6 cases. Surgery in the form of excision was performed in two cases following a course of medical therapy. There was no significant change in visual acuity in eyes with intraocular cysticercosis following treatment. Conclusion: Ultrasonography B scan and ELISA for anticysticercal antibodies help to establish the diagnosis of ocular cysticercosis. A combination of oral albendazole and corticosteroids is found to be effective in confirmed cases. Intraocular cysticercosis is associated with a poor prognosis for vision.

  15. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

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    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  16. Evaluation of smile esthetics in central India

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    Rajesh Balani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken: (1 To establish static norms in the central India population for the various smile parameters. (2 To analyze and quantify the sexual dimorphism of esthetic smile. Settings and Design: Hundred subjects (50 males and 50 females with an average age of 14.5 years with a pleasing smile were selected for the study. Static photographs with posed smile in natural head position (NHP were taken. Materials and Methods: Following smile parameters were quantified using Adobe Photoshop ruler software: Maxillary incisor exposure (MIE (mm, smile index (SI (mm, smile arc, buccal corridor ratio (%, Most posterior maxillary tooth visible, anterior height of the smile (%, posterior height of the smile (%. Statistical Analysis: The data were compiled systematically. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. For MIE and SI, Unpaired t-test was applied. Chi-square test was applied for most posterior maxillary tooth visible, smile arc buccal corridor, anterior height of smile, and posterior height of smile. Results: The mean value of MIE was found to be 7.76 mm and 8.82 mm in boys and girls, respectively. SI showed a mean value of 8.26 for boys and 7.91 for girls. Girls displayed second premolar commonly in contrast to boys, who displayed first premolar. Parallel smile arc was noted more frequently in females, while males displayed flat smile arc commonly. Conclusion: Orthodontists, being smile architects, have the responsibility to design and create smiles. Smile analysis should be an integral part of dental/orthodontic treatment planning and mechanotherapy.

  17. The role of optometrists in India: An integral part of an eye health team

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    Neilsen De Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a proud tradition of blindness prevention, being the first country in the world to implement a blindness control programme which focused on a model to address blinding eye disease. However, with 133 million people blind or vision impaired due to the lack of an eye examination and provision of an appropriate pair of spectacles, it is imperative to establish a cadre of eye care professionals to work in conjunction with ophthalmologists to deliver comprehensive eye care. The integration of highly educated four year trained optometrists into primary health services is a practical means of correcting refractive error and detecting ocular disease, enabling co-managed care between ophthalmologists and optometrists. At present, the training of optometrists varies from two year trained ophthalmic assistants/optometrists or refractionists to four year degree trained optometrists. The profession of optometry in India is not regulated, integrated into the health care system or recognised by the majority of people in India as provider of comprehensive eye care services. In the last two years, the profession of optometry in India is beginning to take the necessary steps to gain recognition and regulation to become an independent primary health care profession. The formation of the Indian Optometry Federation as the single peak body of optometry in India and the soon to be established Optometry Council of India are key organisations working towards the development and regulation of optometry.

  18. Children's Moral Reasoning about Illness in Chhattisgarh, Central India

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    Froerer, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article is about children's moral reasoning about illness and supernatural retribution in a rural tribal community in Chhattisgarh, central India. Detailed ethnographic analysis is devoted to the norms and experiences within which conceptions about illness causality and morality are formed. The author is principally interested in the…

  19. Ooid turbidites from the Central Western continental margin of India

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    Rao, P.S.

    Gravity displaced debris flows/turbidites have been observed in five box cores collected between water depths of 649 and 3,627 m from the Central Western continental margin of India. Studies on grain size, carbonate content, and coarse fraction...

  20. Central crosstalk for somatic tinnitus: abnormal vergence eye movements.

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    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure. METHODS: Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23-63 years control adults and 19 (36-62 years subjects with somatic tinnitus. FINDINGS: 1 Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2 Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3 The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4 In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.

  1. Awareness regarding eye donation among stakeholders in Srikakulam district in South India.

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    Ronanki, Venkata Ramana; Sheeladevi, Sethu; Ramachandran, Brinda P; Jalbert, Isabelle

    2014-03-06

    There is a huge need for the availability of transplantable donor corneas worldwide to reduce the burden of corneal blindness due to corneal opacity. Voluntary eye donation depends on the awareness levels of various stakeholders in the community. This study aimed to assess the awareness level regarding eye donation among various stakeholders in Srikakulam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. 355 subjects were selected from the district using multi stage random sampling. A pre tested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding each individual's awareness, knowledge, and perception regarding eye donation. Each response was scored individually and a total score was calculated. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with willingness towards eye donation and increased awareness levels. Of the 355 subjects interviewed, 192 (54%) were male and 163 (46%) were female. The mean age of the stakeholders was 35.9 years (SD ±16.1) and all the study subjects were literate. Ninety-three percent of subjects were aware of the concept of eye donation. Knowledge levels were similar among the teaching community and persons engaged in social service, but lower among students (p stakeholders, there was considerable ambiguity regarding whether persons currently wearing spectacles or suffering from a chronic illnesses could donate their eyes. Older age group (p stakeholders in Srikakulam district in India. The services of stakeholders could be utilized, in conjunction with other community based eye donation counselors, to promote awareness regarding eye donation among the general population.

  2. A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India.

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    Ramai, Daryl; Elliott, Ryan; Goldin, Shoshanna; Pulisetty, Tejas

    2015-06-01

    Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants' major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers' competence in facilitating their children's eye health. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Framing REDD+ in India: Carbonizing and centralizing Indian forest governance?

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    Vijge, Marjanneke J.; Gupta, Aarti

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze whether India's REDD+ strategy induces carbonization and centralization. • REDD+ in India is framed as an opportunity for synergistic, decentralized governance. • Yet national safeguards are not as strong as asserted. • Controversial issues have so far been side-lined in India's REDD+ strategy. • Without investments, synergistic and decentralized REDD+ governance remains unlikely. - Abstract: This article analyzes the interaction of newly articulated climate governance goals with long-standing forest policies and practices in India. We focus on India's REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and related forest activities) strategy, with a particular focus on the Green India Mission (GIM). The GIM calls for a doubling of the area for afforestation and reforestation in India in the next decade as a dominant climate mitigation strategy. We analyze how the GIM policy document frames carbon versus non-carbon benefits to be derived from forest-related activities; and how the GIM envisages division of authority (between national, regional and local levels) in its implementation. We are interested in assessing (a) whether the GIM promotes a “carbonization” of Indian forest governance, i.e. an increased focus on forest carbon at the expense of other ecosystem services; and (b) whether it promotes an increased centralization of forest governance in India through retaining or transferring authority and control over forest resources to national and state-level authorities, at the expense of local communities. We argue that the GIM frames the climate-forest interaction as an opportunity to synergistically enhance both carbon and non-carbon benefits to be derived from forests; while simultaneously promoting further decentralization of Indian forest governance. However, based on past experiences and developments to date, we conclude that without significant investments in community-based carbon and biodiversity

  4. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

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    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    . [Keywords: Tidal propagation, Mumbai high, Global tidal model, Shelf model, Central west coast of India] Introduction In coastal regions, tides play an important role in determining circulation and hydrography. Barotropic tides coming from the open... with increase in the width of the shelf. Materials and Methods Global tidal models Schwiderski5 used a hydrodynamic interpolation technique to determine the amplitude and phase of tidal constituents of global ocean. Since the availability of satellite...

  5. Neonatal cholestasis - Single centre experience in Central India

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    Mayank Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal cholestasis syndrome (NCS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The disorder has rarely been studied in centers from Central India. Objectives: To study the prevalence, clinical presentation and etiology of NCS at a tertiary referral center in Central India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at a tertiary referral center in Central India. The study is a descriptive study. The records of all patients with suspected NCS treated in the Department of Pediatrics from 2007−2012 were analyzed. Results: One hundred and sixty-eight children had a provisional diagnosis of NCS. The complete records of 100 children were available for the study. The median age of presentation was 78 days (range 15−270 days. The male: female ratio was 1.17:1. The clinical features noted were- jaundice (100/100,100%, failure to thrive (73,73%, organomegaly (68, 68%, acholic stools (38,38%, abdominal distention (52,52% and poor feeding (29, 29%. The etiology as confirmed by investigations is as follows- neonatal hepatitis (20,20%, idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (18,18%, biliary atresia (41,41%, sepsis (14,14% and others (7,7%. Conclusions: The proportion of NCS in our group of patients was 1.2 per 1000 patients. Jaundice, organomegaly and failure to thrive are the common presentations. Biliary atresia, neonatal hepatitis and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis were the common etiological factors at our center.

  6. Neonatal Cholestasis - Single Centre Experience in Central India.

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    Jain, Mayank; Adkar, Sagar; Waghmare, Chandrashekhar; Jain, Jenisha; Jain, Shikhar; Jain, Kamna; Passi, Gouri Rao; Vinay, Rashmi Shad; Soni, M K

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal cholestasis syndrome (NCS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The disorder has rarely been studied in centers from Central India. To study the prevalence, clinical presentation and etiology of NCS at a tertiary referral center in Central India. The study was carried out at a tertiary referral center in Central India. The study is a descriptive study. The records of all patients with suspected NCS treated in the Department of Pediatrics from 2007-2012 were analyzed. One hundred and sixty-eight children had a provisional diagnosis of NCS. The complete records of 100 children were available for the study. The median age of presentation was 78 days (range 15-270 days). The male: female ratio was 1.17:1. The clinical features noted were- jaundice (100/100,100%), failure to thrive (73,73%), organomegaly (68, 68%), acholic stools (38,38%), abdominal distention (52,52%) and poor feeding (29, 29%). The etiology as confirmed by investigations is as follows- neonatal hepatitis (20,20%), idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (18,18%), biliary atresia (41,41%), sepsis (14,14%) and others (7,7%). The proportion of NCS in our group of patients was 1.2 per 1000 patients. Jaundice, organomegaly and failure to thrive are the common presentations. Biliary atresia, neonatal hepatitis and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis were the common etiological factors at our center.

  7. Effectiveness of using teachers to screen eyes of school-going children in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India

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    Sudhan Anand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To assess the effectiveness of teachers in a vision screening program for children in classes 5th to 12th attending school in two blocks of a district of north central India. Materials and Methods : Ophthalmic assistants trained school teachers to measure visual acuity and to identify obvious ocular abnormalities in children. Children with visual acuity worse than 20/30 in any eye and/or any obvious ocular abnormality were referred to an ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants also repeated eye examinations on a random sample of children identified as normal (approximately 1%, n=543 by the teachers. Ophthalmic assistants prescribed spectacles to children needing refractive correction and referred children needing further examination to a pediatric ophthalmologist at the base hospital. Results : Five hundred and thirty teachers from 530 schools enrolled 77,778 children in the project and screened 68,833 (88.50% of enrolled children. Teachers referred 3,822 children (4.91% with eye defects for further examination by the ophthalmic assistant who confirmed eye defects in 1242 children (1.80% of all screened children. Myopia (n=410, 33.01%, Vitamin A deficiency (n=143, 11.51% and strabismus (n=134, 10.79% were the most common eye problems identified by the ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants identified 57.97% referrals as false positives and 6.08% children as false negatives from the random sample of normal children. Spectacles were prescribed to 39.47% of children confirmed with eye defects. Conclusions : Primary vision screening by teachers has effectively reduced the workload of ophthalmic assistants. High false positive and false negative rates need to be studied further.

  8. Awareness of eye donation in an adult population of southern India. A pilot study.

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    Priyadarshini Brinda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine "awareness of eye donation" and corneal transplantation in an adult population of southern India. Methods: 507 participants chosen by systematic random sampling were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Participants were selected among patients attending two community outreach programmes at different sites, and from patients presenting directly to the hospital. Results: 257 participants (50.69% were aware of eye donations. The major source of awareness was publicity campaigns (n=105. Only 22 (4.34% participants were aware that eye donation had to be done within 6 hours of death. Four hundred and three (79.50% participants were not aware of corneal transplantation. Illiteracy and rural residence were more likely predictors of ignorance. Conclusion: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations and corneal transplants, more innovative strategies have to be developed, especially to target illiterate and rural populations.

  9. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

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    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  10. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  11. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  12. Neuro-Ophthalmology at a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Rebika; Singh, Digvijay; Gantayala, Shiva P; Ganesan, Vaitheeswaran L; Sharma, Pradeep; Saxena, Rohit

    2017-11-09

    Neuro-ophthalmology as a specialty is underdeveloped in India. The aim of our study was to determine the spectrum and profile of patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center with neuro-ophthalmic disorders. A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted, and records of all patients seen at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, over a 1-year period were retrieved and evaluated. Of a total of 30,111 patients referred to various specialty clinics in a span of 1 year, 1597 (5%) were referred for neuro-ophthalmology evaluation. The mean patient age was 30.8 ± 19.5 years, with a male dominance (M:F = 2.02:1). Among these patients, optic nerve disorders were noted in 63.8% (n = 1,020), cranial nerve palsy in 7% (n = 114), cortical visual impairment in 6.5% (n = 105), and others (eye/optic nerve hypophasia, blepharospasm, and optic disc drusen) in 6% (n = 95). Among the patients with optic nerve disorders, optic neuropathy without disc edema/(traumatic optic neuropathy, hereditary, tumor-related, retrobulbar neuritis, toxic, and idiopathic) was noted in 42.8% (n = 685) and optic neuropathy with disc edema (ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, post-papilledema optic atrophy, papillitis, neuroretinitis, and inflammatory optic neuropathy) in 20.9% (n = 335). Sixteen percent of patients (n = 263) were incorrect referrals. The neuro-ophthalmic clinic constitutes a significant referral unit in a tertiary eye care center in India. Traumatic and ischemic optic neuropathies are the most common diagnoses. Neuro-ophthalmology requires further development as a subspecialty in India to better serve the nation's population.

  13. PLACING INDIA IN THE EMERGING REGIONAL DYNAMICS OF CENTRAL ASIA

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    Meena Singh Roy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to examine India’s initiatives in the region in the context of the emerging regional geo-strategic landscape. With an aim to enhance political, economic and strategic ties, India’s policy towards the region has moved from ‘Look North’ to ‘Connect North’. Notably, the full membership of SCO offers India greater synergies to play a more active role in the region. India is, thus, all set to build more meaningful partnerships with the region in the context of new geo-political changes shaping Central Asia. More importantly, the region is seeking India to play a more active role. It is argued that the beginning of a new era of cooperation initiated by PM Modi can only be sustained if New Delhi continues to implement its various agreements and commitments. While building stronger bilateral ties with the region is important, working closely in the regional groupings will also help address regional economic and security challenges

  14. Profile of serpiginous choroiditis in a tertiary eye care centre in eastern India

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    Kumar Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the clinical profile of serpiginous choroiditis in eastern India. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one eyes of 54 patients with serpiginous choroiditis presenting to a tertiary care centre in eastern India between January 2006 and December 2010 were included in the study. Clinical presentation, treatment given, and visual outcome of the eyes were studied. Results: Thirty-five (64.8% patients were male and 19 (35.2% were female in the age group of 13-62 years (mean age: 34.1 μ 18.7 years. Blurring of vision (71; 78% and floaters (36; 39.5% were commonest symptoms. In 75 (82.4% eyes, choroiditis started from optic nerve head and spreading centrifugally. Overall, 38 (41.75% eyes had macular involvement at first visit. Mantoux test reading was 10 mm or more (Group A in 12 (22.22% patients and less than 10 mm (Group B in 42 (77.77% patients. Difference between Groups A and B in macular involvement at first visit (10; 50% vs. 28; 39.4% and rate of recurrence (3; 15% vs. 14; 19.7% was not statistically significant (P = 0.37 and 0.68. Oral steroid (51; 94.4% was the commonest mode of treatment. Fifty-one (56% eyes had two lines or more improvement in vision. Conclusions: The present study details the clinical presentation, treatment, and visual outcome of serpiginous choroiditis. Mantoux test reading does not affect the clinical presentation or the treatment outcome in these eyes.

  15. A clinicopathological study of eyelid malignancies from central India

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    Jahagirdar Sameer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eyelid malignancies are completely treatable if detected early. The treatment depends on the invasiveness of the cancer which in turn depends on the type of malignancy. Aim: The aim of the study was to characterize the distribution of the types of eyelid malignancies in central India. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: We report a series of 27 cases of eyelid malignancies. In the same case series, we also include a case of malignant hemangiopericytoma which is an extremely rare form of eyelid malignancy worldwide. Statistical Analysis: Depending on the underlying statistical distribution, either analysis of variance (ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis (K-W test was used to assess the differential distribution of these variables across the types of eyelid malignancies observed in this study. Results: We observed that sebaceous cell carcinoma (~37% was almost as prevalent as basal cell carcinoma (~44% in the study subjects and had an earlier age of occurrence and a more rapid clinical course. Conclusions: Sebaceous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is almost as common as basal cell carcinoma in a large tertiary care centre in central India.

  16. Barriers to accessing eye care services among visually impaired populations in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Kovai Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand the reasons why people in rural south India with visual impairment arising from various ocular diseases do not seek eye care. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,573 persons above the age of 15 were interviewed and examined in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh covering the districts of Adilabad, West Godavari and Mahaboobnagar. A pre-tested structured questionnaire on barriers to eye care was administered by trained field investigators. Results: Of the eligible subjects, 1234 (22.1%, N=5573 presented with distant visual acuity < 20/60 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye. Of these, 898 (72.7%, N=1234 subjects had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision citing personal, economic and social reasons. The analysis also showed that the odds of seeking treatment was significantly higher for literates [odds ratio (OR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.38 to 2.65], for those who would be defined as blind by visual acuity category (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.90 and for those with cataract and other causes of visual impairment (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.03. Barriers to seeking treatment among those who had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision over the past five years were personal in 52% of the respondents, economic in 37% and social in 21%. Conclusion: Routine planning for eye care services in rural areas of India must address the barriers to eye care perceived by communities to increase the utilization of services.

  17. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    -262 255 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in the Netherlands Letter Section Submerged Reef Systems on the Central Western Continental Shelf of India K.H. VORA and F. ALMEIDA National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403... 004 (India) (Revision accepted October 26, 1989) Abstract Vora, K.H. and Almeida, F., 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 91: 255-262. Echosounding and sidescan sonar data from the western...

  18. Diagnosis and treatment outcome of mycotic keratitis at a tertiary eye care center in eastern india

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    Rautaraya Bibhudutta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycotic keratitis is an important cause of corneal blindness world over including India. Geographical location and climate are known to influence the profile of fungal diseases. While there are several reports on mycotic keratitis from southern India, comprehensive clinico-microbiological reports from eastern India are few. The reported prevalence of mycotic keratitis are 36.7%,36.3%,25.6%,7.3% in southern, western, north- eastern and northern India respectively. This study reports the epidemiological characteristics, microbiological diagnosis and treatment outcome of mycotic keratitis at a tertiary eye care center in eastern India. Methods A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was done for all patients with laboratory proven fungal keratitis. Results Between July 2006 and December 2009, 997 patients were clinically diagnosed as microbial keratitis. While no organisms were found in 25.4% (253/997 corneal samples, 23.4% (233/997 were bacterial, 26.4% (264/997 were fungal (45 cases mixed with bacteria, 1.4% (14/997 were Acanthamoeba with or without bacteria and 23.4% (233/997 were microsporidial with or without bacteria. Two hundred fifteen of 264 (81.4%, 215/264 samples grew fungus in culture while 49 corneal scrapings were positive for fungal elements only in direct microscopy. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 186 of 264 (70.5% cases. The microscopic detection of fungal elements was achieved by 10% potassium hydroxide with 0.1% calcoflour white stain in 94.8%(238/251 cases. Aspergillus species (27.9%, 60/215 and Fusarium species (23.2%, 50/215 were the major fungal isolates. Concomitant bacterial infection was seen in 45 (17.1%, 45/264 cases of mycotic keratitis. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 94 (35.6%, 94/264 cases. Fifty two patients (19.7%, 52/264 required therapeutic PK, 9 (3.4%, 9/264 went for evisceration, 18.9% (50/264 received glue application with bandage

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CENTRALIZED AND STATE-WISE TOURISM CAMPAIGNS IN INDIA

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    Sunaina AHUJA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to distinguish the initiatives taken by the state authorities and Central authorities to promote tourism in India. Gaps in the centralized promotional campaign, "Incredible India" are identified in this study. The methodology includes collection of secondary data and discursive analysis. Information relevance, Promotion strategy, and Key events and places were used for the comparative analysis for the purposes of the research paper. Above mentioned three factors need to be added to the centralized campaign, to give a holistic picture of India. The paper is unique as it is the first time that identification of gaps in the centralized campaign is done.

  20. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  1. Cataract Surgery Visual Outcomes and Associated Risk Factors in Secondary Level Eye Care Centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Sumathi; Park, Jiwon; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate cataract surgery visual outcomes and associated risk factors in rural secondary level eye care centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), India. The Eye Health pyramid of LVPEI has a network of rural secondary care centres (SCs) and attached vision centres (VCs) that provide high quality comprehensive eye care with permanent infrastructure to the most disadvantaged sections of society. The most common procedure performed at SCs is cataract surgery. We audited the outcome of a random sample of 2,049 cataract surgeries done from October 2009-March 2010 at eight rural SCs. All patients received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, both before and after surgery. The World Health Organization recommended cataract surgical record was used for data entry. Visual outcomes were measured at discharge, 1-3 weeks and 4-11 weeks follow up visits. Poor outcome was defined as best corrected visual acuity gender discrimination in terms of outcome continues to be an issue and needs further investigation.

  2. Central corneal thickness measurements in unoperated eyes and eyes after PRK for myopia using Pentacam, Orbscan II, and ultrasonic pachymetry.

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    Kim, Sun Woong; Byun, Yeo Jue; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Tae-im

    2007-11-01

    To compare central corneal thickness measurements obtained in unoperated eyes and eyes after myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam), a scanning slit corneal topography system (Orbscan II), and ultrasonic pachymetry. Corneal thickness was measured using Pentacam, Orbscan II, and ultrasonic pachymetry in 25 unoperated eyes (unoperated group), 24 eyes 1 to 3 months after myopic PRK (early postoperative PRK group), and 21 eyes 4 months or more after myopic PRK (late postoperative PRK group). In the unoperated group, corneal thickness measurements were similar for all three methods (P=.125). In the early postoperative PRK group, Orbscan measurements were thinner than Pentacam and ultrasonic measurements by a mean of 69.4 microm and 63.4 microm (PPRK group, Orbscan measurements were thinner than Pentacam measurements by a mean of 36.0 microm (P=.017). Pentacam and ultrasonic pachymetry measurements were similar for all three groups with a mean difference of approximately 10 microm. Following myopic PRK, Pentacam was comparable to ultrasonic pachymetry in measuring corneal thickness, whereas Orbscan measurements were thinner.

  3. Gas-charged sediments in shallow waters off Redi along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    This study reports the occurrence of gas-charged sediments in the nearshore areas of the west coast of India. High resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles on the nearshore area along central west coast of India, at water depths of 11-18 m...

  4. Benthic foraminifera as proxy for oxygen-depleted conditions off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Saraswat, R.

    In order to study the response of benthic foraminifera, especially the rectilinear bi- and tri-serial benthic foraminifera (RBF) to oxygen-depleted conditions from the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India, 103 surface sediment samples...

  5. Graphic pattern of foraminiferal dominance in nearshore region of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Nigam, R.; Ambre, N.V.

    Within the inner neritic zone (0-55 m depth) along the central west coast of India, some foraminiferal groups such as @iAmmonia, Elphidium, Trochammina, Bulimina, Bolivina, Nonion, Nonionella@@ and Florilus@@ individually (total foraminiferal number...

  6. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    Geomorphological studies along the Central West Coast of India extending between Bombay to Goa, have been undertaken, using aerial photographs and LANDSAT imagery. Coastal features like active and abandoned cliffs, spits, bars, beach rock, beach...

  7. The Effect of Pseudoexfoliation and Pseudoexfoliation Induced Dry Eye on Central Corneal Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, M Orcun; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Ayar, Orhan; Kaldirim, Havva; Mert, Metin; Cabuk, Kubra Serefoglu; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and PEX-induced dry eye on central corneal thickness (CCT). This cross-sectional study consists of total 270 eyes of 135 patients (67 females, 68 males) in total. After excluding the PEX (-) 32 eyes with PEX in the other eye, totally 130 eyes in PEX (-) group and 108 eyes in the PEX (+) group were included in the study. The PEX (+) group was regrouped as PEX syndrome (80 eyes of 50 patients) and PEX glaucoma (28 eyes of 20 patients). In the PEX (-) group, the mean Schirmer test result was 12 ± 4 mm (4-25 mm), in the PEX syndrome group 10 ± 4 mm (4-22 mm), in the PEX glaucoma group 9 ± 3 mm (4-15 mm). The difference among the PEX (-) group, the PEX syndrome and the PEX glaucoma groups was statistically significant (p eyes with PEX (r = 0.307, p = 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant correlation between CCT, Schirmer and tear break up time tests in the eyes with PEX. PEX material can cause decrease in tear film secretion and disturb tear film stability. There is no effect of PEX-induced dry eye on CCT. Lower CCT values in the eyes with PEX material may be a result of decrease in corneal stromal cell density. Moreover, higher CCT values may be because of decreased endothelial cells in PEX glaucoma patients.

  8. Exposure to firearm: impact on psychological health in central India

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    S Saxena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of firearm exposure is one of the widespread prevailing problems in today’s world but at the same time it is least talked about. Its psychological effects vary from person to person and the degree of consequences has many variables to measure. The firearm exposure not only implies to an individual but also the whole gambit of social structures around him. Methods: A cross-section study on 505 subjects of the age group 20-45 years from central India was done, where routine social order depends upon massive armament of the citizen. We studied the relationship between socio-demographic variables and firearm exposure with variables of psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to find the correlates among them. The objectives of the study were to study the attributes of socio demographic variables, which affects psychological health and exposure to firearms in the study population and to see the impact of exposure to firearms on psychological health. Results: Higher education is associated positively with psychological health. The desire to have a gun (OR=1.988, CI 1.306-3.024, p-value <.005 is showing a significant association with low psychological domain score of QOL. Being married (OR=.556, CI .344-.901, p-value <.005 and not Living in a joint family (OR=.581, CI .379-.891, p-value <.005 is associated with poor psychological health. Conclusions: Higher education is the best predictor for good psychological health. Semiskilled workers (farmers and laborers should be prioritized as high risk groups for adverse life situations. Firearm exposures have a significant impact on psychological health. So, policies directed at rural population should target at specific needs of community. 

  9. Exposure to firearm: impact on psychological health in central India

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    S Saxena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of firearm exposure is one of the widespread prevailing problems in today’s world but at the same time it is least talked about. Its psychological effects vary from person to person and the degree of consequences has many variables to measure. The firearm exposure not only implies to an individual but also the whole gambit of social structures around him. Methods: A cross-section study on 505 subjects of the age group 20-45 years from central India was done, where routine social order depends upon massive armament of the citizen. We studied the relationship between socio-demographic variables and firearm exposure with variables of psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to find the correlates among them. The objectives of the study were to study the attributes of socio demographic variables, which affects psychological health and exposure to firearms in the study population and to see the impact of exposure to firearms on psychological health. Results: Higher education is associated positively with psychological health. The desire to have a gun (OR=1.988, CI 1.306-3.024, p-value <.005 is showing a significant association with low psychological domain score of QOL. Being married (OR=.556, CI .344-.901, p-value <.005 and not Living in a joint family (OR=.581, CI .379-.891, p-value <.005 is associated with poor psychological health. Conclusions: Higher education is the best predictor for good psychological health. Semiskilled workers (farmers and laborers should be prioritized as high risk groups for adverse life situations. Firearm exposures have a significant impact on psychological health. So, policies directed at rural population should target at specific needs of community.  

  10. Patterns of uveitis in children presenting at a tertiary eye care centre in south India

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    Narayana Kannan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the patterns of uveitis in the paediatric age group in a referral eye care centre in south India. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients 15 years or younger with uveitis, examined in the year 2000, were included in this study. The uveitis was classified according to the anatomical site of ocular involvement and the most probable aetiological factor. The final diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations and results of specific laboratory investigations. Results: A total 31 (6.29% paediatric uveitis cases were seen among the 493 uveitic cases in the year 2000. The male: female ratio was 17:14. Anterior (9 cases, intermediate (9 cases and posterior uveitis (9 cases were seen in equal number. Four patients had panuveitis. Twenty-seven patients had visual acuity of 6/36 or better at presentation. Approximately 25% (8 of 31 patients had cataract secondary to inflammation. Immunosuppressives were administered in 4 patients and one patient required cataract surgery. Conclusion: Uveitis in children comprises approximately 6% of uveitis cases in a referral practice in south India. Anterior, intermediate and posterior uveitis are seen in equal numbers. We recommend that intermediate uveitis be ruled out in all cases of anterior uveitis by careful clinical evaluation including examination under anesthesia (EUA when required.

  11. Pattern of Uveitis in a Referral Eye Clinic in North India

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    Singh Ramandeep

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the pattern of uveitis in a north Indian tertiary eye center. Methods: A retrospective study was done to identify the pattern of uveitis in a uveitis clinic population of a major referral center in north India from January 1996 to June 2001. A standard clinical protocol, the "naming and meshing" approach with tailored laboratory investigations, was used for the final diagnosis. Results: 1233 patients were included in the study; 641 (51.98% were males and 592 (48.01% females ranging in age from 1.5 to 75 years. The anterior uveitis was seen in 607 patients (49.23% followed by posterior uveitis (247 patients, 20.23%, intermediate uveitis (198 patients, 16.06% and panuveitis (181 patients, 14.68%. A specific diagnosis could be established in 602 patients (48.82%. The infective aetiology was seen in 179 patients, of which tuberculosis was the commonest cause in 125 patients followed by toxoplasmosis (21 patients, 11.7%. Non-infectious aetiology was seen in 423 patients, of which ankylosing spondylitis was the commonest cause in 80 patients followed by sepigionous choroidopathy (62 patients, 14.65% . Conclusion: Tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis were the commonest form of infective uveitis, while ankylosing spondylitis and serpiginous choroidopathy were commonly seen as the non-infective causes of uveitis in North India.

  12. RETINOBLASTOMA IN INDIA: Clinical Presentation and Outcome in 1,457 Patients (2,074 Eyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliki, Swathi; Patel, Anamika; Iram, Sadiya; Ramappa, George; Mohamed, Ashik; Palkonda, Vijay A R

    2017-11-23

    To study the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of patients with retinoblastoma (RB) in India. Retrospective study of 1,457 patients with RB (2,074 eyes). The mean age at presentation of RB was 29 months (median, 24 months; range, presentation of RB in 57% (n = 834) and bilateral in 43% (n = 623). Familial RB was present in 4% (n = 55). The most common presenting complaints included leukocoria (n = 1,100; 75%), proptosis (n = 91; 6%), strabismus (n = 77; 5%), and red eye (n = 68; 5%). Most (n = 1,889; 91%) tumors were intraocular in location, and 185 (n = 185; 9%) had extraocular tumor extension at presentation. The most common modalities of primary treatment-included systemic chemotherapy (n = 1,171; 60%) and enucleation (n = 674; 35%). At a mean follow-up period of 44 months (median, 30 months; range, 3-234 months), 92% (n = 1,206) were alive, and 108 (8%) patients died because of RB. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, the survival at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years was 94%, 91%, 90%, and 89%, respectively. The most common presenting signs of RB in Asian Indian population are leukocoria and proptosis. With appropriate treatment, the survival rate is favorable at 92%.

  13. Characteristics of Keratoconus Patients at a Tertiary Eye Center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay B Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the presentation and characteristics of patients with keratoconus at a tertiary eye care center in Mumbai, India. Methods: This single center, non-comparative, retrospective cohort analysis was performed on patients with keratoconus who presented to the Clear Vision Eye Center clinic from April 2007 to March 2009. Data was collected to characterize correlations among visual acuity, corneal biomicroscopic findings, and refractive and topographic findings in keratoconus. Results: Records of 274 patients including 189 male and 85 female subjects with mean age of 20.1±3.5 (range, 13 to 29 years at the time of diagnosis were assessed. There was history of skin allergy in 73 (26.6%, symptomatic ocular allergy in 67 (24.45% and asthma in 31 (11.31% patients. The most frequent corneal sign was Fleischer′s ring which was observed in 81% of cases. Corneal topography revealed mean simK (simulated keratometry of 53.3±6.1 (range, 41.2 to 69.0 diopters. Corneal topography analysis with the Cone Location Magnitude Index disclosed the presence of inferior cones in 93% of patients. Conclusion: This group of patients had younger age at presentation and more severe keratoconus as compared to western populations; contact lenses were used only in a minority of patients.

  14. Restoration of mangroves along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    of various measures taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. New Delhi, conservation and management policies were initiated between 1985-1995. During this period it was observed, with remote sensing techniques, that vast...

  15. A bird's eye survey of Central American planorbid molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraense, W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    In the course of two trips to Central America (June 1967 and JulyAugust 1976) I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Planorbis nicaraguanus Morelet, 1849, anatomically defined in this paper, and of P. yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879, the identity of the latter with Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835) is confirmed. The following planorbid species were also found: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817) in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Belize; H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879) in Costa Rica; Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835) in Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and El Salvador; B. kuhniana (Clessin, 1883) in Panama; B. obstructa (Morelet,1849) in Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador; B. straminea (Dunker, 1848) in Costa Rica; B. subprona (Martens, 1899) in Guatemala; D. anatinum (Orbigny,1835) in Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; D. depressissimum (Moricand,1839) in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839) in Guatemala, Belize and Nicaragua; D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884) in Costa Rica and Panama; and Gyraulus percarinatus sp. n. in Panama. The occurrence of B. kuhniana and D. surinamense is first recorded in Central America, and Gyraulus percarinatus is the first representative of the genus provenly occurring in the American continent south of the United States. The following synonymy is proposed: Planorbis declivis Tate, 1870 = Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835); Planorbis isthmicus Pilsbry, 1920 = Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883); Planorbis cannarum Morelet, 1849 and Segmentina donbilli Tristram, 1861 = Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849); and Planorbis yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879 = Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835), confirming Aguayo (1933).

  16. Longshore sediment transport rate-measurement and estimation, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.; Naik, G.N.

    rate—measurement and estimation, central west coast of India V. Sanil Kumar * , N.M. Anand, P. Chandramohan, G.N. Naik Ocean Engineering Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Donapaula, Goa 403 004, India Received 26 October 2001; received... engineering designs. The longshore current generated by obliquely incident breaking waves plays an important role in transporting sediment in the surf zone. The longshore current velocity varies across the surf zone, reaching a maximum value close to the wave...

  17. Profile of glaucoma in a major eye hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayachandra

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the clinical profile and distribution of various subtypes of glaucoma in a referral practice in North India. Method: A retrospective analysis was done of 2425 patients who attended the glaucoma clinic in a tertiary eye-care centre for five years from Januaryl995 to December 1999. A detailed history was obtained and a thorough examination was performed, including gonioscopy, disc assessment, applanation tonometry and automated perimetry. Diurnal variation of IOP and provocative tests for glaucoma were done where applicable. Result: Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG was the most common glaucoma subtype. The primary open angle glaucoma (POAG to the PACG ratio was 37:63. Chronic angle closure glaucoma (CACG was the most common PACG subtype. The majority of CACG cases were relatively asymptomatic. Male dominance was seen for POAG, juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG, CACG, normal tension glaucoma (NTG and secondary glaucomas. Female dominance was seen for ocular hypertension (OHT, acute or intermittent ACG and developmental glaucomas. The mean age in years at presentation was POAG: 60.54 years (males 61.54 years, females 59.01 years and PACG: 55.13 years (males 57.25 years, females 53.60. The three common secondary glaucomas were: glaucoma secondary to adherent leucoma, aphakic and pseudophakic glaucomas and traumatic glaucomas. Advanced glaucoma was detected in 42 to 53% of patients and bilateral blindness in 8 to 14% of patients in various subtypes. Conclusion: Compared to Caucasians, glaucoma patients in North India seem to present nearly a decade earlier and the disease is more advanced at presentation. While PACG is the most commonly encountered glaucoma, NTG and exfoliative glaucoma are relatively rare.

  18. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: Two-year results from tertiary eye-care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to describe treatment outcomes and complications of selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC for intraocular retinoblastoma (RB. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, interventional series of 10 eyes with RB which underwent IAC using melphalan (5 mg/7.5 mg and topotecan (1 mg, or melphalan (5 mg/7.5 mg alone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated in terms of tumor control, vitreous seeds (VS and subretinal seeds (SRS control, and globe salvage rates. Results: Ten eyes of 10 patients underwent 38 IAC sessions (mean = 3.8; median = 4; range = 3–5 sessions. Following IAC, complete regression of main tumor was seen in 9 eyes (90% and partial regression in 1 (10%. All four eyes with SRS showed complete regression (100%. Of 5 eyes with VS, 3 eyes (60% showed complete regression, 1 eye (20% showed relapse, while 1 eye (20% showed no response. Globe salvage was achieved in 8 of 10 eyes (80%. Complications included transient ophthalmic artery narrowing (n = 2, branched retinal vein occlusion (n = 1, forehead skin pigmentation (n = 1, and vitreous hemorrhage (n = 2. There was no case of stroke, hemiplegia, metastasis, or death. Transient hematological changes included relative pancytopenia (n = 4, relative leukopenia (n = 5, and relative thrombocytopenia (n = 4. Mean follow-up was 26 months (median = 28, range = 13–36 from the initiation of first IAC. Conclusions: IAC is an effective therapy for globe preservation in eyes with intraocular RB, in the setting of a developing country like India. Larger studies with longer follow-up are required to validate these results.

  19. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  20. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India`s rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs.

  1. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and

  2. Soil moisture variations in remotely sensed and reanalysis datasets during weak monsoon conditions over central India and central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sourabh; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, Anu Rani

    2017-07-01

    Variation of soil moisture during active and weak phases of summer monsoon JJAS (June, July, August, and September) is very important for sustenance of the crop and subsequent crop yield. As in situ observations of soil moisture are few or not available, researchers use data derived from remote sensing satellites or global reanalysis. This study documents the intercomparison of soil moisture from remotely sensed and reanalyses during dry spells within monsoon seasons in central India and central Myanmar. Soil moisture data from the European Space Agency (ESA)—Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has been treated as observed data and was compared against soil moisture data from the ECMWF reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) and the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) for the period of 2002-2011. The ESA soil moisture correlates rather well with observed gridded rainfall. The ESA data indicates that soil moisture increases over India from west to east and from north to south during monsoon season. The ERA-I overestimates the soil moisture over India, while the CFSR soil moisture agrees well with the remotely sensed observation (ESA). Over Myanmar, both the reanalysis overestimate soil moisture values and the ERA-I soil moisture does not show much variability from year to year. Day-to-day variations of soil moisture in central India and central Myanmar during weak monsoon conditions indicate that, because of the rainfall deficiency, the observed (ESA) and the CFSR soil moisture values are reduced up to 0.1 m3/m3 compared to climatological values of more than 0.35 m3/m3. This reduction is not seen in the ERA-I data. Therefore, soil moisture from the CFSR is closer to the ESA observed soil moisture than that from the ERA-I during weak phases of monsoon in the study region.

  3. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  4. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  5. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. Objectives: To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Results: Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%. The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. Conclusions: This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  6. Cabira rangarajani n. sp. (Polychaeta: Pilargidae) from the Goa coast, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, Sumit; Harkantra, S.N.; Salazar-Vallejo, S.I.

    Cabira rangarajani n. sp., is described from the Goa coast, in central west coast of India. It differs from C. brevicirris (Rangarajan, 1964), by having a single type of neurochaetae while the other species has three types. The new species also...

  7. Metal distribution in Halophila beccarii (Aschers) and sorrounding environment along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Halophila beccarii (Aschers), the surrounding water and the sediments showed varying concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Sr and Li at different localities along central west coast of India. Iron was found to be maximum in both the plant...

  8. Assessment of coastal wetland resources of central west coast, India, using LANDSAT data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, S.; Nagle, V.L.

    The part of central west coast (Maharashtra and Goa) of India has been classified and quantified for coastal wetlands using LANDSAT data of 1985-86. The classification accuracy of the maps and area estimates achieved was 84% at 90% confidence level...

  9. Meteorologically induced modulation in sea level off Tikkavanipalem Coast - Central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Mehra, P.; Nagvekar, S.

    on simultaneous observations of tidal and surface meteorological parameters in four temporal segments of 1-month duration each during a 1-year period in 1997-98. Sea level oscillations along the Tikkavanipalem segment of the central east coast of India contain...

  10. Clinical evaluation of low vision and central foveal thickness in highly myopic cataract eyes after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Li Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To retrospectively evaluate central foveal thickness in highly myopic eyes with best correct visual acuity(BCVAMETHODS: In this retrospective clinical study, we consecutively recruited 70 low highly myopic cataract subjects(70 eyesunderwent Phaco. Postoperative visits were performed at 1wk, 1 and 3mo. Postoperative BCVA were recorded and further divided into 2 groups with BCVARESULTS: The ratio of BCVAPr=-0.716, PCONCLUSION: In this study, BCVA is improved after 3mo follow up. There has significant correlation between postoperative BCVA and central foveal thickness.

  11. Key factors determining success of primary eye care through vision centres in rural India: Patients′ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas Kovai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This paper intends to discuss the patients′ perspective on the determinants of primary eye care services from vision centers (VC in rural India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study design and interview method was used on 127 randomly selected patients who accessed the 4 VCs in 2007. Factor analyses and linear regression models were used to predict the associations with patient satisfaction. Results : The three factors derived from factor analyses were: (1-vision technician (VT, (2-location of VC, and (3-access to VC; explaining 60% of the variance in total patients′ satisfaction with VC. The first model (R2 : 0.61; F 1,124=144.36, P <0.001, indicated that respondents who had ′difficulty to travel to the place of VC′ and those who can afford to pay had less satisfaction with VT services. The second model (R2 =0.18; F 1,124=29.5, P <0.001 explained that respondents′ difficulty to identify the building of VC had decreased patients′ satisfaction and the third model (R2 =0.36; F 1,124=45.6, P <0.001 indicated that those who had to travel<5 km to the VC and had 0.38 units of increased satisfaction level with the services of VC. Conclusion : A good VT can enhance patient satisfaction. However, patient expectations are not only confined to the provider but also other factors such as ability to pay and convenient transportation that helps patients reach the location of the VC with ease.

  12. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India's rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs

  13. Episodic crustal growth in the Bundelkhand craton of central India ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hiredya Chauhan

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... geochemical features indicate formation of the K-granites by anhydrous partial melting of the Paleo- ...... A metamorphic episode from white mica schist is reported ...... monian G 2013 Central/eastern Indian Bundelkhand and.

  14. A population based eye survey of older adults in Tirunelveli district of south India: blindness, cataract surgery, and visual outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalan, P K; Thulasiraj, R D; Maneksha, V; Rahmathullah, R; Ramakrishnan, R; Padmavathi, A; Munoz, S R; Ellwein, L B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess the prevalence of vision impairment, blindness, and cataract surgery and to evaluate visual acuity outcomes after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to randomly select a cross sectional sample of people ≥50 years of age living in the Tirunelveli district of south India. Eligible subjects in 28 clusters were enumerated through a door to door household survey. Visual acuity measurements and ocular examinations were performed at a selected site within each of the clusters in early 2000. The principal cause of visual impairment was identified for eyes with presenting visual acuity India) was found in 11.0%, and in 4.6% with best correction. Presenting blindness was associated with older age, female sex, and illiteracy. Cataract was the principal cause of blindness in at least one eye in 70.6% of blind people. The prevalence of cataract surgery was 11.8%—with an estimated 56.5% of the cataract blind already operated on. Surgical coverage was inversely associated with illiteracy and with female sex in rural areas. Within the cataract operated sample, 31.7% had presenting visual acuity ≥6/18 in both eyes and 11.8% were <6/60; 40% were bilaterally operated on, with 63% pseudophakic. Presenting vision was <6/60 in 40.7% of aphakic eyes and in 5.1% of pseudophakic eyes; with best correction the percentages were 17.6% and 3.7%, respectively. Refractive error, including uncorrected aphakia, was the main cause of visual impairment in cataract operated eyes. Vision <6/18 was associated with cataract surgery in government, as opposed to that in non-governmental/private facilities. Age, sex, literacy, and area of residence were not predictors of visual outcomes. Conclusion: Treatable blindness, particularly that associated with cataract and refractive error, remains a significant problem among older adults in south Indian populations, especially in females, the illiterate, and those living in rural areas. Further

  15. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.

    Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Abstract Gravity studies over the continental margin of the central west coast of India show a sediment thickness of 2-3 km on the shelf associated with deeper hoest and graben structures, of 6 km... sequence ranges from Palaeocene to Recent. Stratigraphy as obtained from the explor atory wells BH-I, DCS-IA, HI2-1, and R6-110cated in the Bombay offshore basin is shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 depicts the seismogeological section of the Bombay offshore...

  16. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-09-22

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km(2) landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors.

  17. Unlocking India’s Strategic Potential in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    war. Nearly 4 decades since, Islamabad has struggled to ensure do- mestic security amid militant attacks, some of which bear the hallmarks of...see Huasheng, pp. 131-138. 79. Jagannath P. Panda , “India’s New Look at Central Asia Policy: A Strategic Review,” in Laruelle, Huchet, et al., pp...Central Asia,” in Dash, p. 8. 99. Peyrouse, Monsoon, p. 197. 100. Stobdan, pp. 48-54. 101. Panda , p. 116. 102. Kavalski, pp. 102-103. 98 103. Peyrouse

  18. Lack of Screening Underlies Most Stage-5 Retinopathy of Prematurity among Cases Presenting to a Tertiary Eye Center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Rajvardhan; Chandra, Parijat; Gangwe, Anil; Kumar, Vivek

    2016-11-07

    To study the barriers to effective screening, early detection and treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity leading to advanced disease. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary eye care hospital in northern India. 115 babies with bilateral stage 5 ROP identified amongst 354 preterm infants examined over a one year period. Information regarding gestational age, birthweight, duration of stay in nursery, duration of supplemental oxygen therapy and treatment details were obtained from discharge summary when available, and by interviewing carers.28 stage 5 ROP eyes underwent pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy. Among the 354 infants (708 eyes) examined, 115 had stage 5 ROP in both eyes. The mean post conceptional age (PCA) at first visit to an ophthalmologist was 54.6 (7.6) weeks (Median 52.9 ± 4.2). The mean overall delay in first examination for Retinopathy of Prematurity was 24.7 (3.9) weeks. Most common risk factor was oxygen therapy in 103 babies (89.6%). 109 (89.8%) babies had never been screened for ROP; four babies fell outside the NNF guidelines (i.e. they had a birth weight of 1750 gms or more and were born at 34 weeks gestational age or more). Another important finding is that only 4.3% of babies were given the correct diagnosis. While 99 babies (86.1%) were referred by ophthalmologists, only 10 babies (8.7%) were referred by pediatricians. A large number were from the capital city of Delhi (21 babies, 18.2%). 28 stage 5 ROP eyes (12.1%) underwent surgery, and at 6 months follow up, only 20 operated eyes had visible attached posterior pole. 210 (91.3%) stage 5 eyes were irreversibly blind. ROP is an increasingly important cause of leucocoria. There were notable gaps in timely ROP screening, referral and treatment and much needs to be done to improve awareness amongst ophthalmologists about ROP. Measures are needed to improve the coverage of initiatives for the detection and timely treatment of sight threatening ROP in India as well as improving neonatal care to

  19. Evaluation of telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Surya; Gupta, Arti; Khan, Asif; Pakhare, Abhijit

    2016-04-01

    In a developing country such as India, there is substantial inequality in health care distribution. Telemedicine facilities were established in Madhya Pradesh in 2007-2008. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the infrastructure, equipment, manpower, and functional status of Indian Space and Research Organisation (ISRO) telemedicine nodes in Madhya Pradesh. All district hospitals and medical colleges with nodes were visited by a team of three members. The study was conducted from December 2013-January 2014. The team recorded the structural facility situation and physical conditions on a predesigned pro forma. The team also conducted interviews with the nodal officers, data entry operator and other relevant people at these centres. Of the six specialist nodes, four were functional and two were non-functional. Of 10 patient nodes, two nodes were functional, four were semi-functional and four were non-functional. Most of the centres were not working due to a problem with their satellite modem. The overall condition of ISRO run telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh was found to be poor. Most of these centres failed to provide telemedicine consultations. We recommend replacing this system with another cost effective system available in the state wide area network (SWAN). We suggest the concept of the virtual out-patient department. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Cataract Surgery Visual Outcomes and Associated Risk Factors in Secondary Level Eye Care Centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi Matta

    Full Text Available To evaluate cataract surgery visual outcomes and associated risk factors in rural secondary level eye care centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI, India.The Eye Health pyramid of LVPEI has a network of rural secondary care centres (SCs and attached vision centres (VCs that provide high quality comprehensive eye care with permanent infrastructure to the most disadvantaged sections of society. The most common procedure performed at SCs is cataract surgery. We audited the outcome of a random sample of 2,049 cataract surgeries done from October 2009-March 2010 at eight rural SCs. All patients received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, both before and after surgery. The World Health Organization recommended cataract surgical record was used for data entry. Visual outcomes were measured at discharge, 1-3 weeks and 4-11 weeks follow up visits. Poor outcome was defined as best corrected visual acuity <6/18.Mean age was 61.8 years (SD: 8.9 years and 1,133 (55.3% surgeries were performed on female patients. Pre-existing ocular co-morbidity was present in 165 patients (8.1%. The most common procedure was small incision cataract surgery (SICS with intraocular lens (IOL implantation (91.8%. Intraoperative complications were seen in 29 eyes (1.4%. At the 4-11 weeks follow-up visit, based on presenting visual acuity (PVA, 61.8% had a good outcome and based on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, 91.7% had a good outcome. Based on PVA and BCVA, those with less than 6/60 were only 2.9% and 1.6% respectively. Using multivariable analysis, poor visual outcomes were significantly higher in patients aged ≥70 (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.61, 13.30, in females (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.04, 2.41, those with preoperative comorbidities (odds ratio 4.68; 95% CI 2.90, 7.57, with intraoperative complications (OR 8.01; 95% CI 2.91, 22.04, eyes that underwent no IOL or anterior chamber-IOL (OR 12.63; 95% CI 2.65, 60.25 and those undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (OR 9

  1. Benefits of an Android Based Tablet Application in Primary Screening for Eye Diseases in a Rural Population, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Sayed Ahmed; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Bharath, Balasubramaniam; Ramani, Ramanathan V

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness, efficiency and cost gains in collecting patient eye health information from remote rural villages of India by trained field investigators through an Android Based Tablet Application namely 'Sankara Electronic Remote Vision Information System (SERVIS)". During January and March 2016, a population based cross-sectional study was conducted in three Indian states employing SERVIS and manual method. The SERVIS application has a 48-items survey instrument programed into the application. Data on 281 individuals were collected for each of these methods as part of screening. The demographic details of individuals between both screening methods were comparable (P>0.05). The mean time (in minutes) to screen an individual by SERVIS was significantly less when compared to manual method (6.57±1.46 versus 11.93±1.53) (P<0.0001). The efficiency of SERVIS in screening was significantly evident as 26% (n = 73) of the patients screened have been referred to campsite and 69.8% (n = 51) of those referred were visited the campsite for a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist. The cost of screening through SERVIS is significantly less when compared to manual method; INR 7,633 (USD 113.9) Versus INR 24,780 (USD 370). SERVIS is an effective and efficient tool in terms of patients' referral conversion to the camp site leading to timely detection of potential blinding eye conditions and their appropriate treatment. This ensures timely prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. In addition, the storage and access of eye health epidemiological quality data is helpful to plan appropriate blindness prevention initiatives in rural India.

  2. Use of traditional eye medicine and self-medication in rural India: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S N

    2017-01-01

    To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like 'kajal'(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices.

  3. Community structure and coral health status across the depth gradients of Grande Island, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.; Mohan, H.; Periasamy, R.; ManiMurali, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    The Grande Island, located at the central west coast of India is one of the less studied coral reef systems in India. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the coral community structure and health status of corals across...

  4. India : Note on Public Financial Management and Accountability in Centrally Sponsored Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The budget outlay for Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) for India in 2005-06 is significantly higher as compared to the previous year's level of Rs.395,000 million. This includes increased allocations for rural roads, rural employment, and education and nutritional support for pre-school children. At present there are over 200 such schemes in operation, of which a dozen accounts for more t...

  5. First report on occurrence of Babesia infection in Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus from central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baviskar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A male Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus of approximately 6-7 years was presented for post mortem examination to the Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur (Maharashtra. At necropsy, the lesions observed were enlarged spleen, congestion of liver and kidney and pale mucous membranes indicating severe anaemia. Blood smears were prepared, stained with leishman’s stain which revealed Babesia sp. Organisms in the erythrocytes, which seems to be the first report in Nilgai from Central India.

  6. Comparative account of macrofouling ecology at Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay, central western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    The extent and the nature of fouling were studied on mild steel, aluminum, and stainless steel panels at the Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay on the central western coast of India. In addition, cathodically protected and unprotected panels...

  7. Analysis of magnetic anomalies in relation to Placer deposits and basement configuration off Mirya bay, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    The offshore ilmenite placers off Konkan, central west coast of India, have been surveyed by echosounding, shallow seismic profiling, magnetics, and seabed sampling. The magnetic data show two different types of anomalies: (1) N-S trending high...

  8. A new distributional record of alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785) along Goa, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanaye, S.V.; Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A

    Present study is based on a single male specimen of alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785) collected from the bay-estuarine system of, Goa (central west coast of India) which is the new distributional record for this species. A...

  9. Qualitative assessment of tectonic lineaments over the coastal and innershelf of Kakinada and Kalingapatnam, central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Rao, K.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, M.M.M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rani, P.S.; Anuradha, A.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    -1 JOURNAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA Vol.69, June 2007, pp.1328-1334 Qualitative Assessment of Tectonic Lineaments Over the Coastal and Innershelf of Kakinada and Kalingapatnam, Central East Coast of India A.S.SUBRAHMANYAM, G. P. S. MURTY, K.V.L.N.S. SARMA... off 0016-7622/2007-69-6-1328/$ 1.00 ? GEOL. SOC. INDIA QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TECTONIC LINEAMENTS OVER COASTAL REGIONS, VISAKHAPATNAM, A.P. 1329 Fig.l. Earthquake distribution map of East Coast of India. Vizianagaram (18 Dec.1995...

  10. The oculomotor system of decapod cephalopods: eye muscles, eye muscle nerves, and the oculomotor neurons in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelmann, B U; Young, J Z

    1993-04-29

    Fourteen extraocular eye muscles are described in the decapods Loligo and Sepioteuthis, and thirteen in Sepia; they are supplied by four eye muscle nerves. The main action of most of the muscles is a linear movement of the eyeball, only three muscles produce strong rotations. The arrangement, innervation and action of the decapod eye muscles are compared with those of the seven eye muscles and seven eye muscle nerves in Octopus. The extra muscles in decapods are attached to the anterior and superior faces of the eyes. At least, the anterior muscles, and presumably also the superior muscles, are concerned with convergent eye movements for binocular vision during fixation and capture of prey by the tentacles. The remaining muscles are rather similar in the two cephalopod groups. In decapods, the anterior muscles include conjunctive muscles; these cross the midline and each presumably moves both eyes at the same time during fixation. In the squids Loligo and Sepioteuthis there is an additional superior conjunctive muscle of perhaps similar function. Some of the anterior muscles are associated with a narrow moveable plate, the trochlear cartilage; it is attached to the eyeball by trochlear membranes. Centripetal cobalt fillings showed that all four eye muscle nerves have fibres that originate from somata in the ipsilateral anterior lateral pedal lobe, which is the oculomotor centre. The somata of the individual nerves show different but overlapping distributions. Bundles of small presumably afferent fibres were seen in two of the four nerves. They do not enter the anterior lateral pedal lobe but run to the ventral magnocellular lobe; some afferent fibres enter the brachio-palliovisceral connective and run perhaps as far as the palliovisceral lobe.

  11. Hot iron rods branding, its complications: Still continue in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mahant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The middle of the 20th century has often been described as a golden age of scientific advancement and miraculous medical breakthroughs. In spite of a lot of awareness and many health education programs, still some traditional treatment exists in many places in our country including Central India. In some villages of Madhya Pradesh, many horrifying therapies such as iron rods branding are well known for a few common diseases such as ascites, headache, pneumonia, common cold, or hernia. Bruise marks can be seen on the bodies of a majority of villagers. Main reasons behind such therapy are lack of money for medical treatment, lack of medical facilities, and the unwillingness of medical officers to stay in small villages. Besides this, illiteracy compels them to follow old customs and practices. All these strengthen the faith of villagers in such treatments. It is all due to lack of education and proper awareness. Many female patients come to hospital with complications of iron rods branding suggest that despite being educated, strong cultural beliefs forces people to undergo branding as a treatment of many common diseases in India even in the 21st century. Aims and Objectives: To study the reasons and complications of hot iron branding. Materials and Methods: Sample size was 30. Thirty patients with old, healed (within 1 year, or recent scars of iron branding were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for the sociodemographic details and the information of underlying disease, pattern of lesions, and complications of branding. Results: Hot iron branding is still carrying on as traditional treatment in Central India. It is commonly seen in females of age 20–50 years. It is mostly found in illiterate patients of low socioeconomic status who have chronic disease and chronic pain. Conclusion: Skin branding which still has therapeutic uses in some cultural societies have severe medical complications in Central India.

  12. Solar lanterns for domestic lighting in India. Viability of central charging station model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    About 68 million households in India rely on kerosene as a fuel for domestic lighting. Kerosene-based lighting devices, not only for poor quality of light, but also for the risks of indoor air pollution and fire hazards, etc. are not a desired option for domestic lighting purposes. Solar lantern is a better alternative in terms of its quality of illumination, durability and versatility of use. The dissemination model for solar lantern in India has so far been based on cash sales with or without the incentive of capital subsidy. This paper analyses several dissemination models including rental and fee-for-service based on centralized solar charging station concept for CFL- and LED-based designs of solar lanterns available in India. The basis of comparison is the acceptable daily costs or rental to the user as well as to the owner of the charging station. Further, the paper studies the impact of likely escalation in kerosene price on the acceptable daily rental and estimates the amount of subsidy required to make the charging station model viable for disseminating solar lanterns among rural households. (author)

  13. Dietary patterns in India and their association with obesity and central obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B; Bowen, Liza; Bharathi, Ankalmadugu V; Vaz, Mario; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George; Kinra, Sanjay; Ebrahim, Shah

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in India, the dietary determinants of which have been studied using an 'individual food/nutrient' approach. Examining dietary patterns may provide more coherent findings, but few studies in developing countries have adopted this approach. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in an Indian population and assess their relationship with anthropometric risk factors. FFQ data from the cross-sectional sib-pair Indian Migration Study (IMS; n 7067) were used to identify dietary patterns using principal component analysis. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine associations with obesity and central obesity. The IMS was conducted at four factory locations across India: Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. The participants were rural-to-urban migrant and urban non-migrant factory workers, their rural and urban resident siblings, and their co-resident spouses. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'cereals-savoury foods' (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), 'fruit-veg-sweets-snacks' (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and 'animal-food' (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs). In adjusted analysis, positive graded associations were found between the 'animal-food' pattern and both anthropometric risk factors. Moderate intake of the 'cereals-savoury foods' pattern was associated with reduced odds of obesity and central obesity. Distinct dietary patterns were identified in a large Indian sample, which were different from those identified in previous literature. A clear 'plant food-based/animal food-based pattern' dichotomy emerged, with the latter being associated with higher odds of anthropometric risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify this relationship in India.

  14. Processing and Memory of Central versus Peripheral Information as a Function of Reading Goals: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul; Oudega, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of reading goals on the processing and memory of central and peripheral textual information. Using eye-tracking methodology, we compared the effect of four common reading goals--entertainment, presentation, studying for a close-ended (multiple-choice) questions test, and studying for an open-ended questions…

  15. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAM KEERTI VERMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soni KK, Pyasi A, Verma RK. 2011. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. The present study aim on isolation and identification of fungi associated with decomposition of litter of sal forest in central India. Season wise successional changes in litter mycoflora were determined for four main seasons of the year namely, March-May, June-August, September-November and December-February. Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were associated with litter decomposition throughout the year, while Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, and C. lunata were recorded in three seasons. Some fungi including ectomycorrhiza forming occur only in the rainy season (June-August these are Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba and four sterile fungi. Fungi like Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis and Pithomyces cortarum were rarely recorded only in one season.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception of Barriers for Eye Care among Diabetic Persons Registered at Employee Health Department of a Tertiary Eye Hospital of Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Abeer; Al-Hassan, Arif; Chauhan, Deepti; Al-Futais, Muneera; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and barriers to diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening among diabetic healthcare staff at a tertiary eye hospital in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a descriptive survey using a closed-ended questionnaire. A. 5-grade. Likert scale was used for responses to each question. Data were collected on patient demographics and the status of diabetes. Survey responses related to knowledge, attitude, and barriers were grouped. Results: The study sample was comprised of 45 diabetics employed at the hospital. The mean age was 49 ± 11 years and 33 diabetics were males. One-third of the study population was referred to the eye clinic for DR screening. DR screening was performed in 25% of diabetics over the previous year. Twenty-nine (64%; 95% confidence intervals: 50–78) participants had excellent knowledge of eyecare for diabetic complications. Thirteen percent of participants had a positive attitude toward periodic eye checkups. Travel distance to an eyecare unit, no referral from family physicians for annual eye checkups and the lack of availability of gender-specific eyecare professionals were the main perceived barriers. Conclusion: Annual DR screening needs to be promoted to primary healthcare providers and diabetic patients. Barriers should be addressed to improve the uptake of DR screening. PMID:26957842

  17. Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception of Barriers for Eye Care among Diabetic Persons Registered at Employee Health Department of a Tertiary Eye Hospital of Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Abeer; Al-Hassan, Arif; Chauhan, Deepti; Al-Futais, Muneera; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and barriers to diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening among diabetic healthcare staff at a tertiary eye hospital in central Saudi Arabia. This was a descriptive survey using a closed-ended questionnaire. A. 5-grade. Likert scale was used for responses to each question. Data were collected on patient demographics and the status of diabetes. Survey responses related to knowledge, attitude, and barriers were grouped. The study sample was comprised of 45 diabetics employed at the hospital. The mean age was 49 ± 11 years and 33 diabetics were males. One-third of the study population was referred to the eye clinic for DR screening. DR screening was performed in 25% of diabetics over the previous year. Twenty-nine (64%; 95% confidence intervals: 50-78) participants had excellent knowledge of eyecare for diabetic complications. Thirteen percent of participants had a positive attitude toward periodic eye checkups. Travel distance to an eyecare unit, no referral from family physicians for annual eye checkups and the lack of availability of gender-specific eyecare professionals were the main perceived barriers. Annual DR screening needs to be promoted to primary healthcare providers and diabetic patients. Barriers should be addressed to improve the uptake of DR screening.

  18. Training primary care physicians in community eye health. Experiences from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sanjeev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the impact of training on primary-care physicians in community eye health through a series of workshops. 865 trainees completed three evaluation formats anonymously. The questions tested knowledge on magnitude of blindness, the most common causes of blindness, and district level functioning of the National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB. Knowledge of the trainers significantly improved immediately after the course (chi 2 300.16; p < 0.00001. This was independent of the timing of workshops and number of trainees per batch. Presentation, content and relevance to job responsibilities were most appreciated. There is immense value addition from training primary-care physicians in community eye health. Despite a long series of training sessions, trainer fatigue was minimal; therefore, such capsules can be replicated with great success.

  19. Clinical Objective Dry Eye Tests in a Population of Tannery Workers in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Ratnesh; Kushwaha, Raj Nath; Khan, Perwez; Mohan, Shalini; Gupta, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-10-01

    To analyze the correlation between subjective symptoms and clinical signs of dry eye among tannery workers. In this cross-sectional study, three classic clinical tests, namely the fluorescein tear film break-up time (FTBUT) test, the fluorescein staining (FS) test, and the Schirmer test (ST), were performed to assess the clinical signs of dry eye disease in 246 tanners who were found symptomatic for dry eye in a prior ocular surface disease index survey. All workers were male with a mean age of 35 ± 9 years, and the mean duration of work at tanneries was 8 ± 5 years. Among 246 symptomatic subjects, the FTBUT test, the FS test and the ST were positive in 63.8%, 30.9% and 41.9% workers, respectively. Mean FTBUT and ST scores were 10.6 ± 4.2 seconds and 10.1 ± 7.7mm, respectively. Mean FTBUT for mild, moderate and severe symptom categories differed significantly. Mean ST scores for the mild symptom group were significantly higher than that of the moderate group (p < 0.0001). The FTBUT and ST score showed a strong negative correlation with severity of symptoms (p < 0.0001). A moderate positive correlation was observed between FS positivity and increasing symptom severity (p < 0.0001). The effect of age was insignificant for FTBUT (p = 0.10), while significant for ST score (p < 0.001). The effect of duration of tannery work was significant for both FTBUT and ST scores (p < 0.0001). Clinical tests correlated well with symptom severity among tanners, and a multifactorial etiology is suggested for dry eye diseases.

  20. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments of central India studied by NAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution in the Indian continent is increasing due to rapid industrialisation. Among heavy metals, the element: mercury is considered as global pollutant. In central India it is considered as global pollutant. Central India has been chosen for the investigation of the mercury pollution and their health impacts in the proposed project. The concentration and flux levels of the organic, inorganic and total mercury and their variations, sources and co-relation are investigated in various atmospheric and environmental compartments air, dry deposit, wet deposits, water, soil, sediment, etc. of central India lying between 18-23 deg. N latitude and 80-84 deg. longitude. The techniques CVAAS, NAA, XFS, ICP-MS, etc. would be used for monitoring the various chemical species of mercury employing established methodologies. (author)

  1. Mapping the Characteristics of Critical Care Facilities: Assessment, Distribution, and Level of Critical Care Facilities from Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Saurabh; Sharma, Jai Prakash; Pakhare, Abhijit; Bhaskar, Santosh; Dhanuka, Sanjay; Kumar, Sanjay; Sabde, Yogesh; Bhattacharya, Pradip; Joshi, Rajnish

    2017-10-01

    In low- and middle-income countries such as India, where health systems are weak, the number of available Critical Care Unit (Intensive Care Unit [ICU]) beds is expected to be low. There is no study from the Indian subcontinent that has reported the characteristics and distribution of existing ICUs. We performed this study to understand the characteristics and distribution of ICUs in Madhya Pradesh (MP) state of Central India. We also aimed to develop a consensus scoring system and internally validate it to define levels of care and to improve health system planning and to strengthen referral networks in the state. We obtained a list of potential ICU facilities from various sources and then performed a cross-sectional survey by visiting each facility and determining characteristics for each facility. We collected variables with respect to infrastructure, human resources, equipment, support services, procedures performed, training courses conducted, and in-place policies or standard operating procedure documents. We identified a total of 123 ICUs in MP. Of 123 ICUs, 35 were level 1 facilities, 74 were level 2 facilities, and only 14 were level 3 facilities. Overall, there were 0.17 facilities per 100,000 population (95* confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.20 per 100,000 populations). There were a total of 1816 ICU beds in the state, with an average of 2.5 beds per 100,000 population (95* CI 2.4-2.6 per 100,000 population). Of the total number of ICU beds, 250 are in level 1, 1141 are in level 2, and 425 are in level 3 facilities. This amounts to 0.34, 1.57, and 0.59 ICU beds per 100,000 population for levels 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This study could just be an eye opener for our healthcare authorities at both state and national levels to estimate the proportion of ICU beds per lac population. Similar mapping of intensive care services from other States will generate national data that is hitherto unknown.

  2. Use of Cooking Fuels and Cataract in a Population-Based Study: The India Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Gupta, Sanjeev; Ravindran, Ravilla D; Vashist, Praveen; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Maraini, Giovanni; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2016-12-01

    Biomass cooking fuels are commonly used in Indian households, especially by the poorest socioeconomic groups. Cataract is highly prevalent in India and the major cause of vision loss. The evidence on biomass fuels and cataract is limited. To examine the association of biomass cooking fuels with cataract and type of cataract. We conducted a population-based study in north and south India using randomly sampled clusters to identify people ≥ 60 years old. Participants were interviewed and asked about cooking fuel use, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and attended hospital for digital lens imaging (graded using the Lens Opacity Classification System III), anthropometry, and blood collection. Years of use of biomass fuels were estimated and transformed to a standardized normal distribution. Of the 7,518 people sampled, 94% were interviewed and 83% of these attended the hospital. Sex modified the association between years of biomass fuel use and cataract; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 1-SD increase in years of biomass fuel use and nuclear cataract was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.23) for men and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.48) for women, p interaction = 0.07. Kerosene use was low (10%). Among women, kerosene use was associated with nuclear (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) and posterior subcapsular cataract (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.64). There was no association among men. Our results provide robust evidence for the association of biomass fuels with cataract for women but not for men. Our finding for kerosene and cataract among women is novel and requires confirmation in other studies. Citation: Ravilla TD, Gupta S, Ravindran RD, Vashist P, Krishnan T, Maraini G, Chakravarthy U, Fletcher AE. 2016. Use of cooking fuels and cataract in a population-based study: the India Eye Disease Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1857-1862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP193.

  3. Comparison of Opinion Referendum of Medical and Dental Postgraduates Towards Plagiarism in Bhopal - Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shubham; Saxena, Vrinda; Hongal, Sudheer; Jain, Manish; Torwane, Nilesh; Sharva, Vijayta

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate awareness and attitude towards plagiarism of postgraduates of health fraternity in Bhopal, Central India. Across-sectional survey. People's University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, from January to March 2014. A total of 164 postgraduates, medical (n = 80) and dental postgraduates (n = 84) were included in the study. A standard pre-tested self-administered questionnaire assessing positive, negative and subjective norms towards plagiarism was the assessing tool. Data was captured through distribution of the instrument and collected as scheduled from the study participants. The distribution of scores based on the responses to the individual questions in each dimension between the groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Among dental and medical postgraduates the median values for the questions under positive attitude was 34.0 and 32.0, negative attitude was 21.5 and 19, subjective norms was 29.0 and 27.5 respectively. The difference in the opinion regarding positive attitude was found to be statistically significant in between the groups (p plagiarism was favored more by dental students as compared to medical students. Moreover, inadequate level of knowledge and awareness was observed in both the streams. Efforts should be undertaken to motivate health professionals to instill honest behavior in order to preserve the intellectual property right.

  4. Assessment of orthodontic treatment need among tribal children of Indore division, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURALIDHARAN, SHRIKANTH; GOWDA, SRINIVASA; AMBEKAR, RUTUJA; RATHORE, BHUPENDRA S.; CHABRA, SAKSHI; LALANI, AFSHEEN; HARANI, HARSH

    2018-01-01

    Introduction India is home to many tribes which have an interesting and varied history of origins, customs and social practices. Oral health care in tribal areas is limited due to shortage of dental manpower, financial constraints and the lack of perceived need for dental care among tribal masses. Objective To assess orthodontic treatment need among tribal children of Indore division, Central India. Methods A cross-sectional house to house survey was carried out among 800 tribal children aged 5 to 15 years old in two major tribal districts of Indore division. Permissions and consent were obtained from local administrative authorities, ethical committee and parents respectively. A structured proforma was used to record demographic data. Examination for dentofacial anomalies was conducted according to WHO 1997 survey methods. Descriptive tables and analytical tests like ANOVA, post-hoc and chi-square test were employed. Results The mean age was 9.75(±2.43) years. The mean DAI score among 12 to 15 years old children was 23.19±5.22. Female exhibited higher (24.51±5.34) mean DAI score compared to males (22.12±4.87) (pdental services. PMID:29440959

  5. Occurrence of the spider crab Acanthonyx euryseroche, a seaweed associate along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joshi, S.A.; Savant, S.B.; Kulkarni, V.A.; Shenai-Tirodkar, P.; Emparanza, E.J.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    , T. J. and Koteeswaran, R., Ploidy induction and sex con- trol in fish. Hydrobiologia, 1998, 384, 167–243. 11. Rao, G. R., Tripathi, S. D. and Sahu, A. K., Breeding and seed production of the Asian catfish Clarias batrachus (Lin.). Central..., directed forward, lateral margin of eave concave. Eyestalk was short, slender, cornea con- cealed under eye, eave completely covering eye when apposed against carapace. Hepatic margin was produced to triangular, flat, broad, with blunt tip, posterior...

  6. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Commercially Important Oysters from Goa, Central-West Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Ansari, Zakir A

    2016-12-01

    The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg -1 ) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg -1 ) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites). Moreover, significant (p metals concentrations among the species, seasons and sites. The high concentrations of Cd and Cu in tissues of edible oyster pose a threat to human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring, people awareness and a stringent government policy should be implemented to mitigate the metal pollution along the studied sites.

  7. Data on nearshore wave process and surficial beach deposits, central Tamil Nadu coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V; Chandrasekar, N

    2017-08-01

    The chronicles of nearshore morphology and surficial beach deposits provide valuable information about the nature of the beach condition and the depositional environment. It imparts an understanding about the spatial and temporal relationship of nearshore waves and its influence over the distribution of beach sediments. This article contains data about wave and sediment dynamics of the ten sandy beaches along the central Tamil Nadu coast, India. This present dataset comprises nearshore wave parameters, breaker wave type, beach morphodynamic state, grain size distribution and weight percentage of heavy and light mineral distribution. The dataset will figure out the beach morphology and hydrodynamic condition with respect to the different monsoonal season. This will act as a field reference to realize the coastal dynamics in an open sea condition. The nearshore entities were obtained from the intensive field survey between January 2011 and December 2011, while characteristics of beach sediments are examined by the chemical process in the laboratory environment.

  8. Petrogenesis of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite pipe, Indrāvati Basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Chalapathi Rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New geochemical data of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite system sandwiched between the lower and upper stratigraphic horizons of the Mesoproterozoic Indrāvati Basin are presented. The kimberlite has been subjected to extensive and pervasive low-temperature alteration. Spinel is the only primary phase identifiable, while olivine macrocrysts and juvenile lapilli are largely pseudomorphed (talc-serpentine-carbonate alteration. However, with the exception of the alkalies, major element oxides display systematic fractionation trends; likewise, HFSE patterns are well correlated and allow petrogenetic interpretation. Various crustal contamination indices such as (SiO2 + Al2O3 + Na2O/(MgO + K2O and Si/Mg are close to those of uncontaminated kimberlites. Similar La/Yb (79–109 of the Tokapal samples with those from the kimberlites of Wajrakarur (73–145 and Narayanpet (72–156, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India implies a similarity in their genesis. In the discriminant plots involving HFSE the Tokapal samples display strong affinities to Group II kimberlites from southern Africa and central India as well as to ‘transitional kimberlites’ from the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India, and those from the Prieska and Kuruman provinces of southern Africa. There is a striking similarity in the depleted-mantle (TDM Nd model ages of the Tokapal kimberlite system, Bastar craton, the kimberlites from NKF and WKF, Eastern Dharwar craton, and the Majhgawan diatreme, Bundelkhand craton, with the emplacement age of some of the lamproites from within and around the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin, southern India. These similar ages imply a major tectonomagmatic event, possibly related to the break-up of the supercontinent of Columbia, at 1.3–1.5 Ga across the three cratons. The ‘transitional’ geochemical features displayed by many of the Mesoproterozoic potassic-ultrapotassic rocks, across these Indian cratons are inferred to be

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of foot care in patients with diabetes at central rural India

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    Bharati Amar Taksande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot syndrome is one of the common and most devastating preventable complications of diabetes mellitus (DM. It is associated with morbidity and premature mortality due to long-term complications affecting foot. The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes should have a comprehensive foot examination once per year. Most of the foot problems can be prevented with careful foot care. It may take effort and time to build up good foot care habits, but self-care is essential. Aim: The main aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and practice of foot care in patients with DM in central rural India. Methodology: This study was conducted at a rural educational hospital in central part of India over 200 patients who have Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. They were evaluated for their knowledge about foot care and footwear practices. A structured and validated questionnaire was administered to cases. Results: Around 82.9% of the patients were aware of the disease and 23.2% were aware of the complications of the DM. In 63% of the patients, foot care examination and education regarding foot complications were not suggested by their treating physicians. Annual examination of feet by the physician and self-examination were not known facts to the diabetic population. Conclusion: It is necessary to firstly develop awareness of diabetes mellitus and the related complications, one amongst which is foot care. Certain educational strategies should be established for both the consultant physician and also the common man to create awareness for effective foot care.

  10. Depression in chronic respiratory disorders in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer singhal; Pankaj Banode; Nitish Baisakhiya

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence of depression in chronic respiratory disorders in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India. Various studies done in past have shown that prevalence of depression in diabetes and hypertension is around 40%-57%. Few studies have been done to screen depression in chronic respiratory disorders. This study was conducted in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India to find out prevalence of depression in indoor patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders. Methods: Total 68 patients were evaluated for depression. Patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders (total duration of illness >3 months) were evaluated using Prime MD Questionnaire. Patients suffering from diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, having past history of psychiatric illness, drug abusers, having lack of social support and suffering from chronic upper respiratory tract infections were excluded from this study. Questionnaire was asked when treatment for acute phase of illness is over. Results: Out of 68 patients evaluated, 36 (53%) were found out to be suffering from depression. Female gender (80%) was more prone to depression, inspite of the fact that all alcoholics were male. 39% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were suffering from depression in comparison to 65% for pulmonary tuberculosis and 44% for other chronic respiratory illness. 54% of patients suffering from depression are 60 yrs of age, suggesting that age has no relation with depression. No association was seen between alcoholism and depression. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression in patients of chronic respiratory illness is very high, like in cases of diabetes and hypertension. Further community and hospital based studies are needed to find out exact prevalence of depression in chronic respiratory illnesses.

  11. THE STUDY OF CARDIAC ABNORMALITY IN GERIATRIC POPULATION OF RURAL CENTRAL INDIA

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    Aman Chaturvedi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Health care of elderly in the society has emerged as an increasingly important issue in the recent years. As the elderly proportion of our population expands, maintaining health and wellness of the aged will continue to be an important research priority in the near future. This study was undertaken to determine cardiac abnormalities in geriatric population by echocardiography in rural central India. The aim of this study is to map the spectrum of cardiac abnormality in geriatric population of rural central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out on subjects from September 2014 – August 2016. All geriatric subjects i.e. above the age of 60 years who were admitted in medicine ward or who attended medicine OPD were considered for the study. All the preliminary biodata was collected, history taking and physical examination were done, ECG was recorded and finally 2D echo was performed in MMode, 2D echo, Doppler (CW and PW and TDI. All observations were recorded on a standard proforma sheet, statistical analysis was performed and results and conclusions drawn. RESULTS In present study, there was higher prevalence of major diseases. On M-Mode echocardiography, left atrial enlargement, LV hypertrophy/dilatation was found in significant number of subjects. On 2D echo, Myocardial Scarring/Thinning, valvular Degeneration was found significantly higher in elderly males, mitral and aortic calcification was found most frequently with prevalence higher in males. On Doppler echocardiography, diastolic dysfunction was common in elderly with very few subjects having normal diastolic function, most of the subjects having grade II diastolic dysfunction. Aortic, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation was common in elderly, and stenotic lesions of aortic and mitral valve were common. CONCLUSION We recommend that echocardiography should become an investigative norm in the elderly, this will aid in early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities

  12. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

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    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. Materials and Methods: All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14, following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Results: Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Conclusion: Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  13. Origin of amphibole-rich beach sands from Tila-Mati, Karwar, central-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The pocket beach at Tila-Mati, Karwar, central west coast of India, is characterised by the occurrence of amphibole-rich (chiefly tremolite-actinolite) coarse sand in the zone of minimal impact of waves and currents. In the total sediment, grain...

  14. Simulation of coastal winds along the central west coast of India using the MM5 mesoscale model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pushpadas, D.; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; George, S.; Babu, M.T.; Nair, T.M.B.

    A high-resolution mesoscale numerical model (MM5) has been used to study the coastal atmospheric circulation of the central west coast of India, and Goa in particular. The model is employed with three nested domains. The innermost domain of 3 km...

  15. On the distribution of fluoride, calcium and magnesium in the waters off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Dias, C.F.M.

    The distribution of fluoride, calcium and magnesium was studied in the waters off the central west coast of India. The averages F/Cl, Ca/Cl and Mg/Cl ratios observed are (6.83 plus or minus 0.023) x 10@u-5@@, (0.02194 plus or minus 0.00068) and (0...

  16. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  17. A Pilot Study to Improve Access to Eye Care Services for Patients in Rural India by Implementing Community Ophthalmology through Innovative Telehealth Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sheila; Premila, M; Javed, Mohd; Vikas, G; Wagholikar, Amol

    2015-01-01

    To inform about a very unique and first of its kind telehealth pilot study in India that has provided virtual telehealth consultation to eye care patients in low resource at remote villages. Provision of Access to eye care services in remote population is always challenging due to pragmatic reasons. Advances in Telehealth technologies have provided an opportunity to improve access to remote population. However, current Telehealth technologies are limited to face-to-face video consultation only. We inform about a pilot study that illustrates real-time imaging access to ophthalmologists. Our innovative software led technology solution allowed screening of patients with varying ocular conditions. Eye camps were conducted in 2 districts in South India over a 12-month period in 2014. Total of 196 eye camps were conducted. Total of 19,634 patients attended the eye camps. Innovative software was used to conduct consultation with the ophthalmologist located in the city hospital. The software enabled virtual visit and allowed instant sharing of fundus camera images for assessment and diagnosis. About 71% of the patients were found to have Refractive Error problems, 15% of them were found to have cataract, 7% of the patients were diagnosed to have Retina problems and 7% of the patients were found to have other ocular diseases. The patients requiring cataract surgery were immediately transferred to city hospital for treatment. Software led assessment of fundus camera images assisted in identifying retinal eye diseases. Our real-time virtual visit software assisted in specialist care provision and illustrated a novel tele health solution for low resource population.

  18. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Shen, Wei; Niu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China. Methods 6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and princ...

  19. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

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    Mason lll JO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV rate in eyes with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO or a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, and to study factors that may influence the ONV rate secondary to CRAO.Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients (286 total eyes: 83 CRAOs and 203 BRAOs who were diagnosed with a retinal artery occlusion from 1998 to 2013 at the Retina Consultants of Alabama and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between hypothesized risk factors and ONV development.Results: Twelve (14.5% of the 83 eyes with a CRAO developed ONV. Eleven of 12 eyes (91.7% had iris neovascularization, ten of 12 eyes (83.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and two of 12 eyes (16.7% had neovascularization of the optic disc. The average time for ONV development secondary to CRAO was 30.7 days, ranging from the date of presentation to 137 days. Only two (<1.0% of the 203 eyes with a BRAO developed iris neovascularization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was a risk factor for ONV development following a CRAO with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–19.8 (P=0.02.Conclusion: ONV is an important complication of CRAO and is a less-frequent complication of BRAO. Patients with a CRAO, especially those with diabetes mellitus type 2, should be closely monitored for the first 6 months for ONV. Keywords: neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, central

  20. A comparison of the Goldmann applanation and non-contact (Keeler Pulsair EasyEye) tonometers and the effect of central corneal thickness in indigenous African eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, O E; Kehinde, A V; Iloegbunam, A C; Akinbinu, T; Moghalu, C; Onuoha, I

    2009-03-01

    The Keeler Pulsair EasyEye non-contact tonometer (NCT) was introduced into practice at Rachel Eye Center Abuja, Nigeria, where the patients are indigenous Africans. This was compared to the 'gold standard' Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) to determine if the instrument was accurate in Africans, with particular reference to the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT). 174 eyes of 88 patients were analysed. Pachymetry was performed using Sonomed PacScan AP300, and GAT with the Haag Streit R-900. Pachymetric corrections of NCT (NCTc) and GAT (GATc) were carried out with the Sonomed algorithm. Pearson's correlation r, linear regression analysis, Student t-test and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the instruments. Mean NCT readings were similar (17.36 mmHg) to mean GAT (17.42 mmHg; p = 0.769). GAT/NCT correlation coefficient, r, was 0.883 as compared with 0.868 for GATc/NCTc. The linear regression equation was GAT = 2.79 + 0.84*NCT (r(2) = 0.78). Forty-five per cent of differences were within 1 mmHg, while 79% were within 3 mmHg. This was similar to findings in some studies on Caucasians. Bland-Altman analysis however suggested that the spread of differences was wider than in those studies. Outliers (differences more than 5 mmHg) sometimes reflected difficulties encountered with GAT in routine practice. Mean CCT was 537.9 microm, (S.D. 38.4, 95% confidence interval 532.1-543.7 microm) and CCT appeared lower than in Caucasians. Both GAT and NCT IOP tended to rise with increasing CCT but NCT had a greater tendency to do so. Regression analysis suggested that NCT IOP increased by 0.6 mmHg for every 10 mum increase in CCT, compared to 0.4 mmHg for GAT. Thirty-eight per cent of the patients preferred NCT as opposed to 25% GAT. The Keeler Pulsair EasyEye gives reliable measurements of IOP in African eyes but is significantly affected by CCT. Particularly in borderline cases where management decisions have to be taken, it may be necessary to have pachymetric

  1. Assessment of orthodontic treatment need among tribal children of Indore division, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Shrikanth; Chauhan, Astha; Gowda, Srinivasa; Ambekar, Rutuja; Rathore, Bhupendra S; Chabra, Sakshi; Lalani, Afsheen; Harani, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    India is home to many tribes which have an interesting and varied history of origins, customs and social practices. Oral health care in tribal areas is limited due to shortage of dental manpower, financial constraints and the lack of perceived need for dental care among tribal masses. To assess orthodontic treatment need among tribal children of Indore division, Central India. A cross-sectional house to house survey was carried out among 800 tribal children aged 5 to 15 years old in two major tribal districts of Indore division. Permissions and consent were obtained from local administrative authorities, ethical committee and parents respectively. A structured proforma was used to record demographic data. Examination for dentofacial anomalies was conducted according to WHO 1997 survey methods. Descriptive tables and analytical tests like ANOVA, post-hoc and chi-square test were employed. The mean age was 9.75(±2.43) years. The mean DAI score among 12 to 15 years old children was 23.19±5.22. Female exhibited higher (24.51±5.34) mean DAI score compared to males (22.12±4.87) (p<0.05). The Patelia tribes (24.38±5.13) reported higher mean DAI score than Bhilala (23.02±5.69) and Bhil tribe (22.73±4.79) (p<0.005). The tribal children had minor malocclusion with no or slight treatment need. Categorization of orthodontic treatment need according to malocclusion severity is particularly important for the planning of corresponding public policies. The isolation of the villages, lack of transportation options imposes limitations on the availability of health professionals to provide dental services.

  2. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.

    2017-11-01

    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  3. Awareness and Knowledge of Glaucoma in Central India: A Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Prafulla K; Rai, Vaishali G; Pattebahadur, Rajesh; Singhi, Shipra; Chauhan, Ashish K

    2017-01-01

    To assess the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma among people attending the ophthalmology outpatient department at a tertiary care hospital in central India. A prospective observational study. A questionnaire-based study was conducted, involving persons aged 18 and above attending the ophthalmology outpatient department from October 2014 to September 2015. Data on awareness and knowledge of glaucoma was collected through a face-to-face interview. Fourteen hundred people participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 43 ± 15 years (range, 18-85). The study participants included 53% men and 47% women. Only 27% (n = 380/1400) of the participants were aware of glaucoma. Age, sex, and presence or type of refractive error had no impact on glaucoma awareness. Awareness level was greater in individuals with higher education levels and those belonging to an upper socioeconomic class (SEC). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher levels of glaucoma awareness among participants belonging to the upper 2 SECs (P = 0.05) and those educated above the high school level (P = 0.001). The most common source of awareness was close acquaintance with relatives, famly members, and friends of glaucoma patients. Awareness of glaucoma in India is low. Lack of education and lower socioeconomic status are the major risk factors for late preentation of glaucoma. Continuous presence of a low level of awareness and the same factors accounting for it warrants the need for an aggressive and refined approach to increase awareness of glaucoma to prevent glaucoma-related blindness. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  4. Fighting malaria in Madhya Pradesh (Central India: Are we loosing the battle?

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    Thimasarn Krongthong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria control in Madhya Pradesh is complex because of vast tracts of forest with tribal settlement. Fifty four million individuals of various ethnic origins, accounting for 8% of the total population of India, contributed 30% of total malaria cases, 60% of total falciparum cases and 50% of malaria deaths in the country. Ambitious goals to control tribal malaria by launching "Enhanced Malaria Control Project" (EMCP by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP, with the World Bank assistance, became effective in September 1997 in eight north Indian states. Under EMCP, the programme used a broader mix of new interventions, i.e. insecticide-treated bed nets, spraying houses with effective residual insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes, rapid diagnostic tests for prompt diagnosis, treatment of the sick with effective radical treatment and increased public awareness and IEC. However, the challenge is to scale up these services. A retrospective analysis of data on malaria morbidity and associated mortality reported under the existing surveillance system of the Madhya Pradesh (Central India for the years 1996–2007 was carried out to determine the impact of EMCP on malaria morbidity and associated mortality. Analysis revealed that despite the availability of effective intervention tools for the prevention and control of malaria, falciparum malaria remains uncontrolled and deaths due to malaria have increased. Precisely, the aim of this epidemiological analysis is to draw lessons applicable to all international aid efforts, bureaucracy, policy makers and programme managers in assessing its project performance as a new Global Malaria Action Plan is launched with ambitious goal of reducing malaria and its elimination by scaling up the use of existing tools.

  5. Male involvement in reproductive health among scheduled tribe: experience from Khairwars of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kalyan B; Singh, Neeru; Chatterjee Saha, Uma; Roy, Jyotirmoy

    2007-01-01

    Indian tribal men's lack of participation in reproductive health not only damages their own health, but also contributes to the reproductive ill health of their female partners and children. In India the involvement of men in such matters is a new concept. There is a paucity of data particularly on Scheduled tribesmen's knowledge and the extent of their participation in reproductive health. This inhibits planning. The present study aims to understand the involvement of Scheduled tribesmen in reproductive health and the barriers to their involvement by generating a database from the Khairwar tribe of Central India. A door-to-door survey on knowledge, attitude and practice relating to aspects of reproductive health was conducted by canvassing a pre-designed interview schedule among 15-40 year old, currently married Khairwar males in the Sidhi district of Madhya Pradesh, India. As far as reproductive morbidity is concerned, only 17% of the respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, and most had no proper knowledge of its transmission. Although 74% of the respondents had heard about reproductive tract infections, the majority of them were unaware of the mechanism of transmission and seriousness of the problem. The duel role of condoms, both as a method of family planning and a protective measure against sexually transmitted infections, was also unknown to them. Approximately 59% of the males were aware of family planning but only 13% were using any method (mostly female sterilization) at the time of survey. Their view on the ideal number of children (3.56) exceeded the actual number of children born and living. High infant and child mortality influenced their preference for higher fertility. Very few among them (29%) had knowledge of antenatal care. They expressed faulty knowledge, myths and unhelpful attitudes towards sexual health matters. The study revealed the male Scheduled tribe population's lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding male sexual health issues, the

  6. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arif

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem. Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India. Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis. Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis. Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  7. High prevalence of hypertension and its selected risk factors among adult tribal population in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Tapas; Kavishwar, Arvind; Sharma, Ravendra K; Rao, P Vinay

    2017-10-01

    A community based cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors like salt intake, 24-h urinary sodium excretion and body mass index (BMI) among tribal population of Mandla District, Central India. A total of 3090 individuals, from 1258 house hold drawn from 33 sampled villages and 12 urban wards were studied for blood pressure measurements and clinical examination, while 414 urine samples were collected for estimation of 24-h sodium excretion. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the associations of BMI, urinary sodium output and other risk factors with hypertension. Across the sample, 28.2% of males and 23.6% of females had either stage-I or stage-II hypertension. More than 8% of subjects  25 were considerably more to have high blood pressure. Salt intake is directly related to the hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly greater among those whose salt intake was more than 10 g per day. A positive association between urine sodium excretion and blood pressure was observed. The results of the present study show that the tribal population is also affected by the life style diseases at par with the non-tribal population.

  8. Factors associated with long-term species composition in dry tropical forests of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Qureshi, Q.; Jhala, Y. V.

    2016-10-01

    The long-term future of species composition in forests depends on regeneration. Many factors can affect regeneration, including human use, environmental conditions, and species’ traits. This study examines the influence of these factors in a tropical deciduous forest of Central India, which is heavily used by local, forest-dependent residents for livestock grazing, fuel-wood extraction, construction and other livelihood needs. We measure size-class proportions (the ratio of abundance of a species at a site in a higher size class to total abundance in both lower and higher size classes) for 39 tree species across 20 transects at different intensities of human use. The size-class proportions for medium to large trees and for small to medium-sized trees were negatively associated with species that are used for local construction, while size class proportions for saplings to small trees were positively associated with those species that are fire resistant and negatively associated with livestock density. Results indicate that grazing and fire prevent non-fire resistant species from reaching reproductive age, which can alter the long term composition and future availability of species that are important for local use and ecosystem services. Management efforts to reduce fire and forest grazing could reverse these impacts on long-term forest composition.

  9. Seafloor classification using artificial neural network architecture from central western continental shelf of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Vasudev; Chakraborty, Bishwajit; Navelkar, Gajanan S.; Prabhu Desai, R. G.

    2005-04-01

    Seafloor classification studies are carried out at the central western continental shelf of India employing two frequency normal incidence single beam echo-sounder backscatter data. Echo waveform data from different seafloor sediment areas are utilized for present study. Three artificial neural network (ANN) architectures, e.g., Self-Organization Feature Maps (SOFM), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) are applied for seafloor classifications. In case of MLP, features are extracted from the received echo signal, on the basis of which, classification is carried out. In the case of the SOFM, a simple moving average echo waveform pre-processing technique is found to yield excellent classification results. Finally, LVQ, which is known as ANN of hybrid architecture is found to be the efficient seafloor classifier especially from the point of view of the real-time application. The simultaneously acquired sediment sample, multi-beam bathymetry and side scan sonar and echo waveform based seafloor classifications results are indicative of the depositional (inner shelf), non-depositional or erosion (outer shelf) environment and combination of both in the transition zone. [Work supported by DIT.

  10. Morphometric analysis in basaltic Terrain of Central India using GIS techniques: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Nisha; Obi Reddy, G. P.; Kumar, Nirmal; Nagaraju, M. S. S.; Srivastava, Rajeev; Singh, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    Morphometric analysis is significant for investigation and management of the watershed. This study depicts the morphometric analysis of Miniwada Watershed in Nagpur district, Maharashtra, Central India using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, which has been carried out through measurement of various aspects like linear, aerial and relief aspects of watershed. The drainage network of the watershed was generated from Cartosat-I DEM (10 m) using ESRI Software ArcGIS (ver.10.2). The analysis reveals that drainage pattern is dendritic and the stream order in the watershed varies from 1 to 4. The total number of stream segments of all orders counted as 37, out of which the majority of orders (70.27 %) was covered by 1st order streams and 4th order stream segments covers only 2.70 %. The bifurcation ratio reflects the geological and tectonic characteristics of the watershed and estimated as 3.08. The drainage density of the watershed is 3.63 km/sq km and it indicates the closeness of spacing of channels. The systematic analysis of various parameters in GIS helps in better understanding the soil resources distribution, watersheds prioritization, planning and management.

  11. Short communication: Massive erosion in monsoonal central India linked to late Holocene land cover degradation

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    L. Giosan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion plays a crucial role in transferring sediment and carbon from land to sea, yet little is known about the rhythm and rates of soil erosion prior to the most recent few centuries. Here we reconstruct a Holocene erosional history from central India, as integrated by the Godavari River in a sediment core from the Bay of Bengal. We quantify terrigenous fluxes, fingerprint sources for the lithogenic fraction and assess the age of the exported terrigenous carbon. Taken together, our data show that the monsoon decline in the late Holocene significantly increased soil erosion and the age of exported organic carbon. This acceleration of natural erosion was later exacerbated by the Neolithic adoption and Iron Age extensification of agriculture on the Deccan Plateau. Despite a constantly elevated sea level since the middle Holocene, this erosion acceleration led to a rapid growth of the continental margin. We conclude that in monsoon conditions aridity boosts rather than suppresses sediment and carbon export, acting as a monsoon erosional pump modulated by land cover conditions.

  12. Health status of the prisoners in a central jail of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil D; Kumar, Santosh A; Pattankar, Jayashree V; Reddy, Shrinivas B; Dhar, Murali

    2013-10-01

    Health care in prisons is one of the neglected health areas in our country. Looking into the health problems of prisons will show us a way for the approach in providing the heath care for prisoners. To assess the health status of convicted inmates of prison and to study their sociodemographic profile. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the inmates of central prison over a period of 1 year. Study population comprised of 300 convicted life-term prisoners. The inmates were interviewed using predesigned and pretested proforma. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by frequencies and percentages along with 95% confidence interval using statistical package SPSS18. In health status, 29 (9.6%) inmates suffered from acute upper respiratory tract infections and 15 (5%) from acute lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 54 (18%) inmates had ascariasis. Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue contributed to 26 (8.7%) of inmates. A total of 252 (84%) prisoners had anemia. In sociodemographic profile, it was found that rural people, unmarried, illiterates, lower socioeconomic status people were more likely to have committed the crime resulting in the conviction for life. As there is an increase in number of prisoners and morbidities among them, there is an urgent need for prison health care services in developing countries like India and provide training to the health care providers to manage the commonly existing health problems among prisoners in the prisons.

  13. Short communication: Massive erosion in monsoonal central India linked to late Holocene land cover degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu; Ponton, Camilo; Usman, Muhammed; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Galy, Valier; Haghipour, Negar; Johnson, Joel E.; McIntyre, Cameron; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2017-12-01

    Soil erosion plays a crucial role in transferring sediment and carbon from land to sea, yet little is known about the rhythm and rates of soil erosion prior to the most recent few centuries. Here we reconstruct a Holocene erosional history from central India, as integrated by the Godavari River in a sediment core from the Bay of Bengal. We quantify terrigenous fluxes, fingerprint sources for the lithogenic fraction and assess the age of the exported terrigenous carbon. Taken together, our data show that the monsoon decline in the late Holocene significantly increased soil erosion and the age of exported organic carbon. This acceleration of natural erosion was later exacerbated by the Neolithic adoption and Iron Age extensification of agriculture on the Deccan Plateau. Despite a constantly elevated sea level since the middle Holocene, this erosion acceleration led to a rapid growth of the continental margin. We conclude that in monsoon conditions aridity boosts rather than suppresses sediment and carbon export, acting as a monsoon erosional pump modulated by land cover conditions.

  14. IS HEMOGLOBIN E GENE WIDELY SPREAD IN THE STATE OF MADHYA PRADESH IN CENTRAL INDIA? EVIDENCE FROM FIVE TYPICAL FAMILIES

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    R S Balgir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell inherited hemoglobin anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose: To report five typical families of hemoglobin E disorders identified for the first time in the state of Madhya Pradesh from central India. Methods: Out of a total of 445 couples/families (excluding the present study with 1526 persons (848 males and 678 females referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of hemoglobin E disorders worthy of detailed investigations. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results: For the first time, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous hemoglobin E trait, two members with hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia (double heterozygosity, two cases of sickle cell-hemoglobin E disease (double heterozygosity, and none with homozygous hemoglobin E. Cases  of hemoglobin E trait, hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia, sickle cell-β-thalassemia and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like RBC, Hb level, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC, representing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions: Double heterozygosity for hemoglobinopathies such as occurrence of β-thalassemia mutation with structurally abnormal hemoglobins (Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations only in those areas or communities where these are highly prevalent, testifying the migrations and genetic admixture. Distribution of hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia in different districts of Madhya Pradesh

  15. Extended distribution of endemic Travancore Murainagrass Ischaemum travancorense Stapf ex C.E.C. Fisch. (Poaceae to central India

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    Mandar N. Datar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemum travancorense Stapf ex C.E.C. Fisch., an endemic species, earlier known only from the Western Ghats of Kerala, Maharashtra and Goa is reported here for the first time from central India

  16. Geological and Structural Inferences from Satellite Images in Parts of Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarayana, Tirumalachetty; Borra, Veeraiah; Basava, Sharana; Suryabali, Singh

    In search of new areas for hydrocarbon exploration, integrated ground geophysical studies have been taken up in Central India with seismic, magnetotellurics, deep resistivity and gravity surveys. Since the region is covered with basalt and well known for its intensive tectonic activity, remote sensing method seems to have value addition to the subsurface information derived from geophysical, geological and tectonic studies. The Narmada and Tapti rift zone and Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India, stems from its complexity. A Resourcesat-1 (IRS- P6) LISS-III satellite images covering an area of approximately 250,000 sq. km corresponding to the region in and around Baroda(Vadodara), Indore, Nandurbar, Khandwa, Akot, Nasik, Aurangabad, Pune and Latur in Central India was digitally processed and interpreted to present a schematic map of the geology and elucidate the structural fabric of the region. From our study, the disposition of the intensive dyke system, various faults and other lineaments in the region are delineated. Ground truth studies have shown good correlation with lineaments/dykes indicated in remote sensing studies and have revealed distinct ENE-WSW trending lineaments, dykes which are more prominent near the Narmada and Tapti river course. Evolution of these features with Deccan volcanism is discussed with available geochronological data set. These findings are significant in relation to structural data and form a part of the geo-structural database for ground surveys.

  17. Prevalence of the β(S) gene among scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward class groups in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikhande, Anuradha V; Arjunan, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Amit; Dani, Aarti; Tijare, Jayashri; Gettig, Elizabeth; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder of the blood, and characterized by vasoocclusive crises (VOC), risks for pneumococcal infections and organ toxicities, is associated with morbidity and premature mortality. India, with a population of 1.2 billion individuals, is estimated to be home to over 50.0% of the world's patients with sickle cell disease. The β(S) gene [β6(A3)Glu→Val; HBB: c.20A>T] has the highest prevalence in three socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic categories: the Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Class (OBC) groups in India. The tradition of endogamy practiced by the ethnic groups in India provides the rationale for the screening of individual populations to better understand the distribution of the β(S) gene, guide counseling and awareness programs and aid development of public policy. We undertook a study to describe the prevalence of the β(S) gene in these ethnic groups in the district of Nagpur, Maharashtra in Central India. Through community screening and subsequent targeted screening of high risk individuals, 35,636 individuals were screened, of whom 5466 were found to have sickle cell trait and 1010 were identified with sickle cell disease. Community screening revealed a sickle cell trait prevalence of 13.0% in the SC, 12.0% in the ST and 3.4% in the OBC population. This study describes the prevalence of the β(S) gene within these groups in Central India determined by large scale community screening. This program has uncovered previously undiagnosed cases, provided detailed information to guide population-based disease counseling, prevention and comprehensive care programs.

  18. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  19. Long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends and homogeneity analysis in Wainganga basin, Central India

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    Arun Kumar Taxak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gridded rainfall data of 0.5×0.5° resolution (CRU TS 3.21 was analysed to study long term spatial and temporal trends on annual and seasonal scales in Wainganga river basin located in Central India during 1901–2012. After testing the presence of autocorrelation, Mann–Kendall (Modified Mann–Kendall test was applied to non-auto correlated (auto correlated series to detect the trends in rainfall data. Theil and Sen׳s slope estimator test was used for finding the magnitude of change over a time period. For detecting the most probable change year, Pettitt–Mann–Whitney test was applied. The Rainfall series was then divided into two partial duration series for finding changes in trends before and after the change year. Arc GIS was used to explore spatial patterns of the trends over the entire basin. Though most of the grid points shows a decreasing trend in annual rainfall, only seven grids has a significant decreasing trend during 1901–2012. On the basis of seasonal trend analysis, non-significant increasing trend is observed only in post monsoon season while seven grid points show significant decreasing trend in monsoon rainfall and non-significant in pre-monsoon and winter rainfall over the last 112 years. During the study period, overall a 8.45% decrease in annual rainfall is estimated. The most probable year of change was found to be 1948 in annual and monsoonal rainfall. There is an increasing rainfall trend in the basin during the period 1901–1948, which is reversed during the period 1949–2012 resulting in decreasing rainfall trend in the basin. Homogeneous trends in annual and seasonal rainfall over a grid points is exhibited in the basin by van Belle and Hughes׳ homogeneity trend test.

  20. Late Quaternary glaciation history of monsoon-dominated Dingad basin, central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Tanuj; Mehta, Manish; Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Srivastava, Pradeep; Dobhal, D. P.; Nainwal, H. C.; Singh, Atul K.

    2018-02-01

    The study presents the Late Quaternary glaciation history of monsoon-dominated Dokriani Glacier valley, Dingad basin, central Himalaya, India. The basin is tested for the mechanism of landforms preservation in high relief and abundant precipitation regimes of the Higher Himalaya. Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating enabled identification of five major glacial events of decreasing magnitude. The oldest glacial stage, Dokriani Glacial Stage I (DGS-I), extended down to ∼8 km (2883 m asl) from present-day snout (3965 m asl) followed by other four glaciations events viz. DGS-II, DGS-III, DGS-IV and DGS-V terminating at ∼3211, 3445, 3648 and ∼3733 m asl respectively. The DGS-I glaciation (∼25-∼22 ka BP) occurred during early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) -2, characterized as Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) extension of the valley. Similarly, DGS-II stage (∼14-∼11 ka BP) represents the global cool and dry Older Dryas and Younger Dryas event glaciation. The DGS-III glaciation (∼8 ka BP) coincides with early Holocene 8.2 ka cooling event, the DGS-IV glaciations (∼4-3.7 ka BP) corresponds to 4.2 ka cool and drier event, DGS-V (∼2.7-∼1 ka BP) represents the cool and moist late Holocene glacial advancement of the valley. This study suggests that the Dokriani Glacier valley responded to the global lowering of temperature and variable precipitation conditions. This study also highlights the close correlation between the monsoon-dominated valley glaciations and Northern Hemisphere cooling events influenced by North Atlantic climate.

  1. Diaspora philanthropy from a homeland perspective: reciprocity and contestation over donations in Central Gujarat, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, N.; Rutten, M.

    2011-01-01

    Financial flows are an important aspect of transnational ties between migrants and their respective home countries. Worldwide, the amount of remittances has increased substantially, India being the largest recipient of overseas remittances in the developing world today. Although household level

  2. Awareness and eye health-seeking practices for cataract among urban slum population of Delhi: The North India eye disease awareness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasundhra; Vashist, Praveen; Singh, Senjam Suraj; Malhotra, Sumit; Gupta, Vivek; Dwivedi, S N; Gupta, Sanjeev K

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices related to cataract in urban slums of Delhi. This study design was a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants aged 18-60 years were recruited from randomly selected five slums of South Delhi. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on awareness and eye health-seeking practices related to cataract. The practices were recorded if the respondents themselves or any other member of the family was diagnosed with cataract in previous 2 years. A total of 1552 respondents participated in the study, of which, 89.9% had heard of cataract but only (42%) were aware of any symptom of cataract. The common symptoms of cataract reported by the participants were white opacity in eyes (25.9%) and loss of vision (20.6%). Surgery as a treatment of cataract was known to only 559 (40.1%) participants. Awareness about surgery as treatment of cataract was significantly higher among people aged 45-60 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.89, 95% confidence interval = 2.11-3.97) and in educated people (adjusted OR = 3.69 95% CI = 2.37-5.73). Out of 84 respondents who had been diagnosed with cataract, the health-seeking practices were observed by 70 (83.3%) participants. Among them, 51 (72.9%) had undergone surgery and another 19 (27.1%) had been advised to wait for surgery. Most of the operated patients 48 (94.1%) attended the postoperative follow-up. The study findings suggest the majority of participants have heard of cataract, but there is low awareness of its symptoms and treatment, and good eye health-seeking practices observed for cataract in urban slum population. Gaps in awareness observed can be filled up by implementing proper eye health education programs.

  3. Meta-analysis of Pentacam vs. ultrasound pachymetry in central corneal thickness measurement in normal, post-LASIK or PRK, and keratoconic or keratoconus-suspect eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjing; Wang, Yan; Xu, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement differences between Pentacam (Oculus Inc., Germany) and Ultrasound Pachymetry (USP) in normal (unoperated eyes , myopic and astigmatic eyes without corneal disease or topographic irregularity), after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and keratoconic or keratoconus suspected eyes. We assess whether Pentacam and USP have similar CCT differences in normal, thinner corneas after LASIK or PRK procedures, and kerotoconic or keratoconus suspected eyes. Data sources, including PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials on the Cochrane Library, were searched to find the relevant studies. Primary outcome measures were CCT measurement between Pentacam and USP. Three groups of eyes were analyzed: normal; LASIK or PRK eyes; and keratoconus suspected or keratoconic eyes. Nineteen studies describing 1,908 eyes were enrolled in the normal group. Pentacam results were 1.47 μm ,95 % confidence interval (CI) -2.32 to 5.27, higher than USP without statistically significant difference (P = 0.45). Nine studies with total 539 eyes were included in the corneas after LASIK or PRK. The mean difference in the CCT measurement with Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry was 1.03 μm, with the 95 % CI -3.36 to 5.42, there was no statistically difference (P = 0.64). Four studies with a total of 185 eyes were included in the keratoconic eyes or keratoconus-suspect group, however,the mean difference was -6.33 μm (95 % CI -9.17 to-3.49), which was statistically different between Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry in the CCT measurement (P LASIK or PRK procedures. However, in keratoconic or keratoconus-suspect eyes, Pentacam slightly underestimates the central corneal thickness than does ultrasound pachymetry, which may result from the difficulty in fixation of keratoconic eyes, misalignment of Pentacam and the variation

  4. Stakeholders Behaviour towards Clean India Mission's New Municipal Solid Waste Collection System in Chandrapur City, Central India

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    R. K. Kamble

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to analyze behavioural pattern of stakeholders–inhabitants of Chandrapur city as well as employees of Chandrapur Municipal Corporation (CMC–towards the "Clean India Mission" scheme as compared with previous scheme of women’s self help group. For behavioural change analysis field survey was carried out in October 2015 in Chandrapur city. Total 41 respondent including inhabitants and employees of CMC were interviewed. The results of the study shows that, previously municipal solid waste (MSW collection was irregular (41.66% however, since the implementation of this new scheme it has become regular (100%. Enhanced MSW collection frequency was observed (once a day, 83.33% with alternative staff arrangement in case of staff is absent. The work was monitored by officials (79% which were previously not existing. In previous scheme, extra money was charged for collection of MSW, however no such charges are levied in this new scheme. Satisfaction rate of this new scheme was 95.83% among inhabitants. As reported by MSW collection employees, there was awareness among inhabitants about dry and wet waste (41.17%. The employees were satisfied with the scheme (94.11% as there is improved and timely salary with a job guaranty.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2016, page: 32-43

  5. Contrasting pattern of hydrological changes during the past two millennia from central and northern India: Regional climate difference or anthropogenic impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Praveen K.; Prasad, Sushma; Marwan, Norbert; Anoop, A.; Krishnan, R.; Gaye, Birgit; Basavaiah, N.; Stebich, Martina; Menzel, Philip; Riedel, Nils

    2018-02-01

    High resolution reconstructions of the India Summer Monsoon (ISM) are essential to identify regionally different patterns of climate change and refine predictive models. We find opposing trends of hydrological proxies between northern (Sahiya cave stalagmite) and central India (Lonar Lake) between 100 and 1300 CE with the strongest anti-correlation between 810 and 1300 CE. The apparently contradictory data raise the question if these are related to widely different regional precipitation patterns or reflect human influence in/around the Lonar Lake. By comparing multiproxy data with historical records, we demonstrate that only the organic proxies in the Lonar Lake show evidence of anthropogenic impact. However, evaporite data (mineralogy and δ18O) are indicative of precipitation/evaporation (P/E) into the Lonar Lake. Back-trajectories of air-mass circulation over northern and central India show that the relative contribution of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) branch of the ISM is crucial for determining the δ18O of carbonate proxies only in north India, whereas central India is affected significantly by the Arabian Sea (AS) branch of the ISM. We conclude that the δ18O of evaporative carbonates in the Lonar Lake reflects P/E and, in the interval under consideration, is not influenced by source water changes. The opposing trend between central and northern India can be explained by (i) persistent multidecadal droughts over central India between 810 and 1300 CE that provided an effective mechanism for strengthening sub-tropical westerly winds resulting in enhancement of wintertime (non-monsoonal) rainfall over northern parts of the Indian subcontinent, and/or (ii) increased moisture influx to northern India from the depleted BoB source waters.

  6. A STUDY OF SPECTRUM OF BENIGN BREAST DISEASE IN A TERTIARY CARE INSTITUTE OF CENTRAL INDIA

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    Abhishek Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The presence of a lump in the breast is a great cause of anxiety and apprehension, to the female patients. This may be accrued to the increasing public awareness of breast cancer which is presently the most common female malignancy worldwide. The aim of th is study was to determine the frequency of benign breast diseases (BBD amongst patients in tertiary care institute of central India. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It was a cohort study. In this study all patients visiting the surgical OPD clinic with breast proble ms were included. This study was conducted at Chirayu Medical College and Hospital Bhopal over a period of four years starting from November 2010 to November 2014. All patients with definite symptoms and sign of malignancy or those who on evaluation were d iagnosed as carcinoma of breast were excluded from this study. RESULTS: A total of 112 patients were included in the study. About 54.4% (61/112 patients belonged to 3rd decade of life followed by 21.4% (24/112 from 4th decade (age between: 31 – 40 years . The most common benign breast disease, seen in 33.9% (38/112 of patients was fibro adenoma followed by fibrocystic disease seen in about 19.6% (22/112 patients. Breast abscess was seen in 20/112(17.8% and Mastalgia was present in 15/112 (13.3% patien ts. CONCLUSION: In females of reproductive age group Benign Breast Diseases (BBD are common problems. Fibro adenoma is the commonest of all benign breast disease mostly seen in 2nd and 3rd decade of life. Fibrocystic disease of the breast is the next comm on BBD whose incidence increases with increasing age. Routine mammographic screening of high risk groups aimed at early detection of these premalignant lesions is therefore indicated. A biopsy with histological diagnosis of all breast lumps is also recomme nded as this will aid in the detection of premalignant lesions particularly in low resource settings

  7. Magnitude of peripheral neuropathy in cirrhosis of liver patients from central rural India

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    Jyoti Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cirrhosis of liver is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and if associated with peripheral neuropathy (PN it also poses a huge financial, psychological burden for the patients and their families. Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the magnitude of PN among subjects with cirrhosis of liver presenting to tertiary care teaching hospital in central rural India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was performed in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: In all patients of cirrhosis of liver irrespective of etiology, aged 15 and above, undergone clinical assessment for peripheral nervous systems damage and confirmed by nerve conduction studies. Statistical Analysis Used: We used chi square test to study associations. P value ≤0.05 was considered as significant. Crude odds ratios were computed to assess the strength of association between independent variables and dependent variables along with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: We included 207 of cirrhosis of liver patients admitted in medicine department from November 2010 through November 2013. Nearly 83% patients were male and 63.2% patients were under the age of 45 years. Common features in these patients were ascites (71% splenomegaly (63.3% pedal edema (61.4% icterus (46.4% tingling (44.9% gastrointestinal bleeding(39.1%, ataxia (26.6%,numbness(26.6%,distal motor weakness (21.7% and paresthesia(20.8%.Among the manifestation of peripheral nerve involvement, loss of ankle reflex was the most common feature in 51.7%, followed by loss of temperature sense 29.5%, loss of vibration sense 20.8%, loss of touch 16.4%, loss of position sense 14.5% and loss of pain in 6.3% of the patients. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 53.6% [95% CI: 46.58- 60.56] study subjects on electrophysiological study. Conclusions: Analysis of electrophysiological study shows that the PN is very common in study subjects with cirrhosis of liver, especially in

  8. Geophysical signatures of fluids in a reactivated Precambrian collisional suture in central India

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    K. Naganjaneyulu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Central India Tectonic Zone (CITZ marks the trace of a major suture zone along which the south Indian and the north Indian continental blocks were assembled through subduction-accretion-collision tectonics in the Mesoproterozoic. The CITZ also witnessed the major, plume-related, late Cretaceous Deccan volcanic activity, covering substantial parts of the region with continental flood basalts and associated magmatic provinces. A number of major fault zones dissect the region, some of which are seismically active. Here we present results from gravity modeling along five regional profiles in the CITZ, and combine these results with magnetotelluric (MT modeling results to explain the crustal architecture. The models show a resistive (more than 2000 Ω·m and a normal density (2.70 g/cm3 upper crust suggesting dominant tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG composition. There is a marked correlation between both high-density (2.95 g/cm3 and low-density (2.65 g/cm3 regions with high conductive zones (<80 Ω·m in the deep crust. We infer the presence of an interconnected grain boundary network of fluids or fluid-hosted structures, where the conductors are associated with gravity lows. Based on the conductive nature, we propose that the lower crustal rocks are fluid reservoirs, where the fluids occur as trapped phase within minerals, fluid-filled porosity, or as fluid-rich structural conduits. We envisage that substantial volume of fluids were transferred from mantle into the lower crust through the younger plume-related Deccan volcanism, as well as the reactivation, fracturing and expulsion of fluids transported to depth during the Mesoproterozoic subduction tectonics. Migration of the fluids into brittle fault zones such as the Narmada North Fault and the Narmada South Fault resulted in generating high pore pressures and weakening of the faults, as reflected in the seismicity. This inference is also supported by the presence of broad

  9. Eye guidance during real-world scene search: The role color plays in central and peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthmann, Antje; Malcolm, George L

    2016-01-01

    The visual system utilizes environmental features to direct gaze efficiently when locating objects. While previous research has isolated various features' contributions to gaze guidance, these studies generally used sparse displays and did not investigate how features facilitated search as a function of their location on the visual field. The current study investigated how features across the visual field--particularly color--facilitate gaze guidance during real-world search. A gaze-contingent window followed participants' eye movements, restricting color information to specified regions. Scene images were presented in full color, with color in the periphery and gray in central vision or gray in the periphery and color in central vision, or in grayscale. Color conditions were crossed with a search cue manipulation, with the target cued either with a word label or an exact picture. Search times increased as color information in the scene decreased. A gaze-data based decomposition of search time revealed color-mediated effects on specific subprocesses of search. Color in peripheral vision facilitated target localization, whereas color in central vision facilitated target verification. Picture cues facilitated search, with the effects of cue specificity and scene color combining additively. When available, the visual system utilizes the environment's color information to facilitate different real-world visual search behaviors based on the location within the visual field.

  10. Design of test JIG for centralized interlock and protection module of ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Vipal; Rao, S.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Fast Interlock and protection system plays very crucial role in ensuring the safe and reliable operation of high power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system. Critical Protection Interlocks are generally implemented using hardwired components and are required to have a response time as fast as < 10 μs. In this context, an Industrial grade prototype Centralized Interlock and Protection Module (CIM) based on ITER-India design has been developed successfully with the help of local industry. This paper presents the complete requirements, approach, detailed design concept and current status of Test JIG in detail

  11. Genetic diversity in the block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum in central India

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    Bharti Praveen K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a significant health problem in India. Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 has been extensively studied from various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from India. The aim of the present study was a molecular characterization of block 2 region of MSP-1 gene from the tribal-dominated, forested region of Madhya Pradesh. Methods DNA sequencing analysis was carried out in 71 field isolates collected between July 2005 to November 2005 and in 98 field isolates collected from July 2009 to December 2009. Alleles identified by DNA sequencing were aligned with the strain 3D7 and polymorphism analysis was done by using Edit Sequence tool (DNASTAR. Results The malaria positivity was 26% in 2005, which rose to 29% in 2009 and P. falciparum prevalence was also increased from 72% in 2005 to 81% in 2009. The overall allelic prevalence was higher in K1 (51% followed by MAD20 (28% and RO33 (21% in 2005 while in 2009, RO33 was highest (40% followed by K1 (36% and MAD20 (24%. Conclusions The present study reports extensive genetic variations and dynamic evolution of block 2 region of MSP-1 in central India. Characterization of antigenic diversity in vaccine candidate antigens are valuable for future vaccine trials as well as understanding the population dynamics of P. falciparum parasites in this area.

  12. Psoriasis: an eye opener – a cross-sectional study in a Tertiary Care Hospital of South India

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    Hari Kishan Kumar Yadalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a multi-system chronic inflammatory skin disease targeting 2% to 3% of the general population. It is a prototype of immune dysregulation mediated by TH1 proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-gamma, IL-6, and IL-12 with far reaching systemic effects. There is growing and emerging evidence that psoriasis patients have a higher prevalence of associated comorbid diseases, with severe skin disease portends a serious risk for development of these comorbidities and are found to have a higher association of extracutaneous disease manifestations. Aim: To look for eye involvement in psoriasis patients and to evaluate the risk and prognostic factors of disease association. Material and Methods: 200 Patients with psoriasis were screened for any eye involvement after few unusual case presentations with eye complications during the period from September 2013 - August 2014. Results: First case was a post cataract sudden loss of vision secondary to development of uveitis in a female patient aged 52 years, with past history of psoriasis with minimal skin lesions and no arthritis. Another 5 cases of psoriasis with eye involvement were detected during the screening employed in a series of 200 psoriasis cases. Conclusion: The present report highlights the importance of psoriasis and eye involvement, need for collaboration between dermatologists and ophthalmologists for thorough examination and evaluation prior to any surgical intervention and also further long term follow-up studies are warranted for confirmation of this causal relationship.

  13. Euparatettix dandakaranyensis sp. nov. (Tetrigidae: Tetriginae)-a new pygmy grasshopper species from Central India.

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    Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-03-29

    Euparatettix dandakaranyensis Gupta sp. nov. is described from Bastar, Chhattisgarh, India. A brief comparison with the type specimen of Euparatettix sikkimensis (Hancock, 1915) formerly placed within the genus Xistra is given. A key to the species of the genus Euparatettix known from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  14. Hereditary retinal eye diseases in childhood and youth affecting the central retina

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    Martin M Nentwich

    2013-01-01

    Classic examinations for patients suffering from hereditary retinal dystrophies of the central retina are funduscopy - also using red-free light - visual-field tests, electrophysiologic tests as electro-retinogram [ERG] and multifocal ERG and tests evaluating color vision. Recently, new imaging modalities have been introduced into the clinical practice. The significance of these new methods such as high-resolution spectral-domain optic coherence tomography [SD-OCT] and fundus autofluorescence will be discussed as well as "next generation sequencing" as a new method for the analysis of genetic mutations in a larger number of patients.

  15. Dynamics Governing Women's Decision on Reproductive Health Matters: Reflections from a Qualitative Study in Central India

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    Somen Saha

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India is addressing the barriers in communication and improve dialogue between diverse stakeholders, particularly women in the community. Through a qualitative study conducted in one of the rural districts of India, it was attempted to understand the factors affecting women's decision-making process. It is observed that most of the factors are affected by strong intrinsic environment and hence it becomes important for programme managers to understand the environment first in order to design an acceptable and effective communication strategy. In this study, knowledge, tradition, stigma and accessibility of services are identified as the key primary factors affecting decision making of women in the community, particularly on their health related issues. These in turn are governed by various supporting factors. Finally, it is observed that communication strategies can achieve their desired objective only when the local intrinsic environment is taken into cognisance.

  16. Occurrence of pockmarks and gas seepages along the central western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Veerayya, M.

    Izatnagar 243 122 The 39th IUPAC Congress and 86th Conference of The C a nadian Society for Chemistry Date: 10 ? 15 Aug ust 2003 Place: Ottawa, Canada Contact: Secretariat 39th IUPAC Congress and 86th Conference....ca International Conference on Discotic Liquid Crystals Date: 25 ? 26 November 2002 Place: Bangalore, India Topics include: Chemistry, physics and applications of dis - cotics, including discotic olig omers, polymers and networks. Contact: Prof. S...

  17. Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

    2013-02-01

    In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

  18. Morphological and Dimensional Characteristics of Dental Arch among Tribal and Non-tribal Population of Central India: A Comparative Study

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    Yadav, Naveen S; Saxena, Vrinda; Vyas, Rajesh; Sharma, Rohit; Sharva, Vijayta; Dwivedi, Ashish; Jain, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differences in the dental arch among Bhil Aboriginals were investigated and compared with non-tribal individuals residing in a tribal zone of Central India. Plaster models (120) were made with the help of alginate impression of tribal adults as well as non-tribal adults residing in the same area. The supposition as aboriginals being primitive due to dietary practices maxillary arch size and mandibular arch size is distended in comparison to the non-tribal population as adaptation of soft refined diet has disrupted the growth of the jaws. Hence, an attempt was made to evaluate the arch widths of tribal population and to associate it with non-tribe population in the same area of Central India. Materials and Methods: Difference in morphology and dimension of the maxillary and mandibular arches was aimed at Bhil tribes as well as non-tribal residents of tribe rich zone of Central India. The study was steered amid 120 individuals both tribal and non-tribe equally around 60 each through a well-organized out-reach program intermittently. Study models were made of dental arches of all participants. All measurements of the arch dimension were patent on the study casts using an electronic digital sliding caliper. Pair t-test was applied by using SPSS software version-19.0. Results: In the maxillary arch, on appraisal the non-tribal and Bhil tribe’s subjects, it showed a statistically significant difference in inter-incisor width (2.95 mm), inter-canine width (2.60 mm), arch depth (3.25 mm). While inter premolar width (0.20 mm) and inter molar width (0.80 mm) anterior arch length (0.60 mm), and posterior arch length (0.10 mm) showed statistically not significant difference between non-tribal population and Bhil tribe subjects. In the mandibular arch, it showed a statistically significant difference in inter-canine width (1.00 mm). Although, inter-incisor width (0.72 mm), inter-molar width (0.80 mm), arch depth (0.90 mm), anterior arch length (0.30 mm), posterior

  19. Ethnic differences of intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Tham, Yih Chung; Liao, Jiemin; Zheng, Yingfeng; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-10-01

    To determine the ethnic differences in the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in a multi-ethnic Asian population by self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 10 033 adults (3353 Chinese, 3280 Malays, and 3400 Indians) aged >40 years. Participants underwent standardized systemic and ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. The IOP readings were obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry (Haag-Streit, Konig, Switzerland) before pupil dilation. The CCT was measured with ultrasound pachymetry. Genetic ancestry was derived using principal component (PC) analysis. Regression models were used to investigate the association of IOP and CCT with potential risk factors and genetic ancestry. Intraocular pressure and CCT. After excluding participants with a history of glaucoma surgery or medication, refractive surgery, corneal edema, or corneal dystrophy, IOP and CCT readings were available for 3251 Chinese, 3232 Malays, and 3317 Indians. The mean IOP readings in the Chinese, Malay, and Indian participants were 14.3±3.1, 15.3±3.7, and 15.8±2.9 mmHg, respectively (P Chinese, 6.2% in Malays, and 4% in Indians (P Malay and Indian participants on average had 0.81 and 1.43 mmHg higher IOP levels, respectively, than Chinese (P Chinese, 540.9±33.6 μm in Malays, and 540.4±33.6 μm in Indians (P Chinese, 68.5% in Malays, and 66.2% in Indians (P Chinese have the thickest CCT but lowest IOP among the 3 major ethnic groups. In addition, there is a higher proportion of Malays with IOP ≥21 mmHg and CCT Chinese or Indians. This disparity across ethnic groups should be taken into account by future studies investigating IOP and CCT as risk factors or diagnostic tests for glaucoma in Asian populations. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A questionnaire-based survey of dry eye disease among leather tannery workers in Kanpur, India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramesh Chandra; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Kushwaha, Raj Nath; Khan, Perwez; Mohan, Shalini

    2014-12-01

    Kanpur is a major leather processing center in India, where a large number of tanneries are situated. During tanning process, workers are constantly exposed to heat, leather dust produced in buffering operations and a wide range of chemicals. All these factors are known to cause dry eye. Being ophthalmologists of a tertiary health care center in Kanpur, we used to notice over a period of time that a considerable number of patients with dry eye symptoms, attending our out-patient department, were related to leather tanning industries. But, no published data is available on the prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye disorders among tannery worker. To estimate the prevalence of dry eye problem and its severity among the workers of leather tanneries in the industrial belt of Kanpur and to evaluate various risk factors related to it. In this cross-sectional case-control study, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) Questionnaire was presented to randomly selected tannery workers and control group. OSDI score was calculated based on subjects' response, and was evaluated with OSDI chart to assess the magnitude of dry eye symptoms and to grade its severity. RESULTS were analyzed statistically to evaluate the significance level. A total of 800 workers were selected by simple random sampling, out of which 72 workers were excluded from the study. Thus the questionnaire was presented to a total of 728 workers, while control group included 260 individuals. All the workers as well as controls were male with age ranging from 20 to 59 years. The mean age for tannery workers was 34.05 ± 8.96 years and that for control group was 32.97 ± 10.59 years (p = 0.14). The tannery workers had mean duration of work at tanneries for 6.99 ± 4.86 years. The prevalence of dry eye symptoms among tannery workers was 33.79% (95% CI: 30.35-37.24), while that in control group was 15.77% (95% CI: 11.31-20.23) (p workers, 47.96% (95% CI: 41.68-54.26) workers had mild, 36.99% (95% CI: 30

  1. Health literacy on tuberculosis amongst vulnerable segment of population: special reference to Saharia tribe in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, M; Rao, V G; Bhat, J; Yadav, R; Sharma, R K; Bhondeley, M K

    2015-05-01

    Health literacy on tuberculosis (TB) is an understanding about TB to perform activities with regard to prevention, diagnosis and treatment. We undertook a study to assess the health literacy on TB among one of the vulnerable tribal groups (Saharia) in central India. In this cross-sectional study, 2721 individuals aged >15 yr from two districts of Madhya Pradesh State of India were interviewed at their residence during December 2012-July 2013. By using a short-form questionnaire, health literacy on cause, symptoms, mode of transmission, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB was assessed. Of the 2721 (Gwalior 1381; Shivpuri 1340) individuals interviewed; 76 per cent were aged literacy rate was 19 per cent, and 22 per cent had >7 members in a house. Of the 2721 respondents participated, 52 per cent had never heard of TB; among them 8 per cent mentioned cough as a symptom, 64 per cent mentioned coughing up blood, and 91 per cent knew that TB diagnosis, and treatment facilities were available in both government and private hospitals. Health literacy score among participants who had heard of TB was 60 per cent among 8 per cent of respondents. The finding that nearly half of the respondents had not heard of TB indicated an important gap in education regarding TB in this vulnerable population. There is an urgent need to implement targeted interventions to educate this group for better TB control.

  2. Quality of Life Determinants in Breast Cancer Patients in Central Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Khairkar, Pravin; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2017-12-29

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women throughout world, with incidence rates increasing in India. Improved survival in breast cancer patients has resulted in their quality of life (QOL) becoming an important issue. Identifying determinants for QOL may provide insights into how to improve their living conditions. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic and clinical factors, as well as the role of self-efficacy, in relation to QOL among women with breast cancer in rural India. Methods: A total of 208 female patients with infiltrating carcinoma of the breast participated in the study. A questionnaire was administered that included sections for socio-demographic characteristics, clinical stage of the cancer and patient delay in seeking health care. A standardized instrument to measure self-efficacy was applied. To assess QOL, the WHOQOL – BREF instrument was used. Results: The overall mean score for QOL was 59.3. For domain 1 (physical health) the mean score across all groups was 55.5, for psychological health 58.2, for social relationships 63.2 and for environmental factors, 60.4. The environmental domain in QOL was negatively associated with lower education. Being divorced/widowed/unmarried had a negative association with the psychological health and social relationship dimensions, whereas higher income was positively associated with QOL parameters such as psychology, social relationships and environmental factors. Self-efficacy was positively associated with all four domains of QOL. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated a moderate QOL in women with breast cancer in rural India. Young age, lack of education and being without a partner were negatively related to QOL, and employment as casual and industrial workers, high monthly family income and higher self-efficacy were positively associated with QOL. A comprehensive public health initiative is required, including social, financial and environmental support, that

  3. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Shen, Wei; Niu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin

    2015-01-01

    To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China. 6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationship of ethnicity and other factors with CCT. The mean CCT readings were 536.4 ± 34.2 μm in ethnic Bai, 532.1 ± 32.1 μm in ethnic Yi and 529.6 ± 32.7 μm in ethnic Han adults (Pethnic groups. In multivariate linear regression models, increasing CCT was associated with younger age (Pethnicity, greater body mass index (PEthnicity contributed significantly to presence of thin cornea (60%; Pethnic groups. This study of more than 6500 multiethnic participants demonstrates significant ethnic variations in CCT, with Han ethnicity having the thinnest cornea compared with ethnic minorities. These data are essential to guide future multiethnic clinical trials on CCT-related ocular conditions such as glaucoma.

  4. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Maslovaric

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol on a sample of adolescents, after the earthquake in Central Italy on 24 August 2016. The objective of the EMDR intervention was to reduce PTSD symptoms. Before and after EMDR, specific assessment to find changes in PTSD symptoms was made using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and through the analyses of the Subjective Units of Disturbance. The EMDR treatment was given in three sessions (T1, T2, and T3, each lasting 90 min, and the results at follow-up phase (T4 were also monitored. The results are very encouraging, showing significantly reduced PTSD symptoms in the majority of the subjects. The clinical implications and limitations will be discussed.

  5. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovaric, Giada; Zaccagnino, Maria; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Perilli, Sava; Trivellato, Denis; Longo, Vittorio; Civilotti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol on a sample of adolescents, after the earthquake in Central Italy on 24 August 2016. The objective of the EMDR intervention was to reduce PTSD symptoms. Before and after EMDR, specific assessment to find changes in PTSD symptoms was made using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and through the analyses of the Subjective Units of Disturbance. The EMDR treatment was given in three sessions (T1, T2, and T3), each lasting 90 min, and the results at follow-up phase (T4) were also monitored. The results are very encouraging, showing significantly reduced PTSD symptoms in the majority of the subjects. The clinical implications and limitations will be discussed.

  6. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments of Central India studied by NAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Khageshwar Singh

    2002-01-01

    The environmental and atmospheric samples i.e. surface water, ground water, surface soil, sediment, rain and fog from various sites of contaminated environments of central India were collected in year, 2000-2001. The concentration levels of total-Hg in these samples were analyzed by using techniques i.e. cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS), X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer XFS). Further, the data base of total Hg in the environmental samples would be validated in other laboratories i.e. Prof Dr. Klaus Heumann (Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany), David Amouroux (University of Pau, France) and Dr Joerg Feldmann (University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK) for exploration of the Hg-contaminated environments by using techniques i.e. ICP-MS/GC, gas chromatography-induced couple atomic emission spectrophotometer (GC-ICP-AES), neutron activation analysis (NAA). (author)

  7. Minor Millets as a Central Element for Sustainably Enhanced Incomes, Empowerment, and Nutrition in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Padulosi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Minor millets comprise a group of cereal species that are genetically diverse and adapted to a range of marginal growing conditions where major cereals such as wheat, rice, and maize are relatively unsuccessful. Millets require few inputs and withstand severe biotic and abiotic stresses. They are also more nutritious than major cereals. Despite these advantages, neglect in several arenas has resulted in a steady decline in the cultivation of minor millets in India over the past few decades. As part of a United Nations global project on underutilized species, we undertook action research intended to stem the decline in cultivation and enhance the conservation and use of minor millets in 753 households spread across 34 villages in four states of India. Our aim was to improve incomes, nutritional status, and empowerment, especially for women. Overall, our holistic approach to mainstreaming species such as finger millet, little millet, foxtail millet, and barnyard millet indicates that these neglected and underutilized species can play a strategic role in improving many dimensions of livelihoods.

  8. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sautya, S.; Nag, A.

    and exploitation for sustainable development and conservation on fish stocks, V.S. Somvanshi, (Ed.)), Fishery Survey of India, (pp 54-58). 17. Hines, A.H., Hadden, A.E. & Weichest, L.A. 1990. Guild structure and foraging impact of blue crabs and epibenthic fish...) between the harbours A 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 s p eci es r i ch n ess ± S E B 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Rat1 Rat2 Goa 1 Goa 2 Kar 1 Kar 2 Stations D i ve r s it y ± S E 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 E ven n ess ± S E H J 23 Fig. 6: ABC curve...

  9. Andromorphic female of the dragonfly Neurothemis tullia tullia (Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae, central India

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    R.J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurothemis tullia tullia (Drury is a common dragonfly which occurs in large colonies in swamps and heavily- weeded tanks in different parts of India. It exhibits striking sexual dimorphism in colour and wing spot patterns. The male is dark with a large blue-black spot on the wing base while the female is dull olivaceous and the wing base is amber yellow. The sexes can be easily identified from quite a far distance. Andromorphic females are very rarely found in anisopteran dragonflies. This paper describes and compares not only the coloration and wing spots of the normal male and female with this andromorphic female but also reports about its sexual fitness to produce viable eggs.

  10. Predominance of Central Asian and European families among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Gulnaz; Wani, Tehmeena; Sharma, Pragya; Katoch, V M; Lone, Rubina; Shah, Azra; Katoch, Kiran; Kakru, D K; Chauhan, Devendra Singh

    2017-10-01

    As there are no data available regarding the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Kashmir Valley, India, the current study aimed at describing the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in this region, by spoligotyping and 12-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat). Sputa from 207 smear positive cases with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to culture for M. tuberculosis. Eighty-five isolates confirmed as M. tuberculosis were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs. Drug susceptibility results of 72 isolates revealed 76.3% as fully sensitive while 5.5% as multidrug resistant (MDR). Spoligotyping of 85 isolates detected 42 spoligotypes with 50 isolates (58.8%) clustered into seven spoligotypes. SIT26/CAS1_Del was the major spoligotype (23, 27%) followed by SIT127/H4 (12, 14.1%); CAS lineage (37.6%) was predominant, followed by Haarlem (25.8%) and ill-defined T clade (23.5%). MIRU-VNTR analysis displayed 82 MIRU patterns from 85 strains, including 3 small clusters and 79 unique. MIRU 26 was found to be the most discriminatory locus. Kashmir Valley has CAS as the predominant lineage of M. tuberculosis similar to the rest of the Indian sub-continent, while it is peculiar in having Euro American lineages such as Haarlem and ill-defined T clade. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies.

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    Chen-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China.6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationship of ethnicity and other factors with CCT.The mean CCT readings were 536.4 ± 34.2 μm in ethnic Bai, 532.1 ± 32.1 μm in ethnic Yi and 529.6 ± 32.7 μm in ethnic Han adults (P<0.001, respectively. There was a decreasing trend of mean CCT with increasing age across all ethnic groups. In multivariate linear regression models, increasing CCT was associated with younger age (P<0.001, male gender (P<0.001, Bai (P<0.001 or Yi (P<0.001 ethnicity, greater body mass index (P<0.001, higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001, greater corneal curvature (P<0.001, deeper anterior chamber (P < 0.001, and thicker lens (P<0.001. Ethnicity contributed significantly to presence of thin cornea (60%; P< 0.001 compared with other factors. CCT had similar impact on intraocular pressure readings across all ethnic groups.This study of more than 6500 multiethnic participants demonstrates significant ethnic variations in CCT, with Han ethnicity having the thinnest cornea compared with ethnic minorities. These data are essential to guide future multiethnic clinical trials on CCT-related ocular conditions such as glaucoma.

  12. The Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) 1: prevalence and causes of visual impairment among tribal children in an urban school in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkad, Vivekanand U; Panda, Lapam; Behera, Pradeep; Das, Taraprasad; Mohanta, Bikash C; Khanna, Rohit

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and other ocular comorbidities among tribal children in an urban school population in eastern India. In this cross-sectional study, vision screening tests were administered to tribal school children. Demographic data, including name, age, sex, home district, height, and weight of each child, and examination data, including unaided and pinhole visual acuity, external eye examination with a flashlight, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and undilated fundus photography, were collected. Children with visual acuity of less than 20/20, abnormal anterior or posterior segment findings, and IOP of >21 mm Hg were referred for further evaluation. Of 10,038 children (5,840 males [58.2%]) screened, 335 (median age, 9 years; range, 6-17 years) were referred. Refractive error was the most common cause of visual impairment (59.52%; 95% CI, 51.97-66.65) followed by amblyopia (17.2%; 95% CI, 12.3-23.6) and posterior segment anomaly (14.88%; 95% CI, 10.2-21.0). The prevalence of best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 was 0.13%. The prevalence of blindness was 0.03%. Visual impairment among tribal children in this residential school is an uncommon but important disability. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  14. Metabolic syndrome in the rural population of Wardha, Central India: An exploratory factor analysis

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    Pradeep R Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome - a plausible precondition for type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is also on rise. To understand the mechanistic complexity of metabolic syndrome it is imperative to study the specific contribution of the determinants of metabolic syndrome. Such study can help to identify the most significant factor which may be of use in early detection as well as prevention efforts. Such information is scarcely available from India and especially from rural India. Hence, the present study was undertaken to explore for such factor which might be considered crucial for development of such pathogenesis particularly in rural population of Wardha. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising of 300 subjects was carried out in rural area of Primary Health Center, attached to medical college with approximate 31,000 populations. The anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist circumference were measured. Overnight fasting samples were collected for lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and fasting blood glucose levels. The National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel, ATP-III guidelines were used to categorize the study subjects. As many of the variables are highly intercorrelated, exploratory factor analysis was carried out to reduce the data to a smaller number of independent factors that accounts for the most of the variances in the data. Principal component analysis was used as a method of extraction. Results: For both sexes, three factors were extracted accounting for about 71% variance in the measured variables. An adiposity factor which accounted for highest explained variance (28%, was the initial factor extracted. It was loaded positively by waist circumference, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein and negatively loaded by high density lipoprotein. Second factor extracted

  15. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  16. Matsushimamyces, a new genus of keratinophilic fungi from soil in central India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Rahul; Sharma, Rohit; Crous, Pedro W.

    2015-01-01

    During a collecting trip exploring new habitats and locations for keratinophilic fungi, soil samples were collected from Bohani village in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Following isolation using a hair baiting technique, one sample yielded an interesting hyphomycetous fungus. The

  17. Characteristics of Sediment Transportation in Two Contrasting Oak Forested Watersheds in the Lesser Central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, N. U. Q.; Bruijnzeel, S., Sr.; Rai, S. P., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment transfer from mountainous areas to lowland areas is one of the most important geomorphological processes globally with the bulk of the sediment yield from such areas typically deriving from mass wastage processes. This study presents monthly, seasonal and annual variations in sediment transport (both suspended load and bedload) as well as dissolved loads over three consecutive water years (2008-2011) for two small forested watersheds with contrasting levels of forest disturbance in the Lesser Himalaya of Northwest India. Seasonal and annual suspended sediment yields were strongly influenced by amounts of rainfall and streamflow and showed a 10-63 fold range between wet and dry years. Of the annual load, some 93% was produced on average during the monsoon season (June-September). Sediment production by the disturbed forest catchment was 1.9-fold (suspended sediment) to 5.9-fold (bedload) higher than that for the well-stocked forest catchment. By contrast, dissolved loads varied much less between years, seasons (although minimal during the dry summer season), and degree of forest disturbance. Total mechanical denudation rates were 1.6 times and 4.6 times larger than chemical denudation rates for the little disturbed and the heavily disturbed forest catchment, respectively whereas overall denudation rates were estimated at 0.69 and 1.04 mm per 1000 years, respectively.

  18. Male perceptions on female sterilization: a community-based study in rural Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija

    2009-09-01

    Use of modern contraceptive methods has increased fourfold in India since the 1970s, characterized by a predominance of female sterilization. There has been considerable investigation about women's choice of female sterilization, but little from the male perspective. Seven focus group discussions were conducted among 58 men currently married to women aged 15-45, followed by a cross-sectional survey among 793 men currently married to same-aged women. Bivariate analysis was used for the survey data, and content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Men's primary source of reproductive health information was mass media, although they expressed interest in getting information through discussion with knowledgeable sources. Men understood family planning and contraception to be two separate issues: Men viewed "family planning" as synonymous with female sterilization, whereas they saw "contraception" as referring to spacing methods, knowledge of which was limited. Thirty-four percent of men reported that their wives had been sterilized; 79% of men who did not rely on any permanent method said they wanted their wives to be sterilized. In focus group discussions, most men reported themselves as their family's sole decision maker about reproductive health; however, only one-third of survey respondents did so. Men are interested in acquiring family planning information, but lack knowledge about available information sources, which hampers their ability to make informed family planning choices. Family planning service providers and program planners need to be aware of males' knowledge and perceptions pertaining to family planning, and make appropriate modifications to communication strategies.

  19. Scrub typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure; an unrecognized alarming entity in central India: A report of two cases

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    Amrish Saxena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness, distributed throughout the Asia Pacific rim. In India, it has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India. However, cases of scrub typhus have not been well-documented from Vidarbha, an eastern region of Maharashtra state in central India. We report two cases of complicated scrub typhus from Vidarbha region. These cases admitted in unconscious state with 8-10 days history of fever, body ache, cough, and progressive breathlessness. The diagnosis in both cases was based on presence of eschar, a positive Weil-Felix test, and a positive rapid diagnostic test (immunochromatographic assay. Both cases were complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and multiorgan failure. Both of them presented in their 2 nd week of illness and died during the hospital course in spite of intensive supportive care. The main cause of mortality was delayed referral leading to delay in diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Neovascular events in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion undergoing serial bevacizumab or ranibizumab intravitreal injections: A retrospective review

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    Francis Char DeCroos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Neovascular events occur in eyes with CRVO undergoing serial anti-VEGF therapy, and these events may be delayed compared to the natural history of CRVO-associated neovascularization. Iris neovascularization occurred most frequently.

  1. Reconnaissance Rb-Sr dates for the Himalayan Central Gneiss, Northwest India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C. McA.; Crawford, A.R.; Armstrong, R.L.; Wynne-Edwards, H.R.; Prakash, R.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr analysis of whole-rock samples and biotite and biotite - or muscovite - whole rock pairs suggests that the Himalayan Central Gneiss in the crystalline nappes of the Lesser Himalaya and the root zone in the High Himalaya was formed during Oligocene to mid-Miocene times by deformation and metamorphism of older rocks, including Precambrian. Four whole-rock samples from the Almora-Askot thrust sheets define an isochron of 1620 +- 90 Ma with a high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.749 +- 0.007; other single whole-rock samples give dates in the range 268 to 1065 Ma, assuming an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.704. These dates are considered to represent either depositional or early instructive/deformational events. Three biotite-whole rock pairs from the root zone of the Himalayan Central Gneiss in Lahaul give aqes of 16 to 19 Ma and two muscovite-whole rock pairs give similar mid-Cenozoic ages (12 and 26 Ma); two muscovite-whole rock pairs give Paleozoic ages, which suggests incomplete resetting of the muscovite by the Cenozoic metamorphism. The pattern of ages is similar to recent results from adjacent areas, and consistent with models of Himalayan tectonics involving formation of the Central Gneiss from older Indian crust during the mid-Cenozoic. (auth.)

  2. Nutrition profile of under-five year rural children and correlates of undernutrition in central India

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    Venkaiah Kodavalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High prevalence of undernutrition in Madhya Pradesh contributing to high mortality and morbidities among young children. Aims & objectives: to assess prevalence of undernutrition and its co-relates among under 5 year children in Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: It was a community based cross- sectional study carried out in all the districts of Madhya Pradesh, India using systematic random sampling. Results: A total of 22,895 children (Boys:12379, Girls:10516, mean age 26.1 months, SD 15.9, were covered. The overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was about 52%, 49% and 26% respectively. The prevalence was significantly (p<0.01 higher among boys as compared to girls. The risk of underweight, stunting and wasting was significantly higher among children belonging to SC+ST communities (OR: 1.36, 1.21 & 1.23 as compared to others, among children of illiterate parents and landless labourers (OR: 1.27, 1.32 & 1.15. The risk of stunting was significantly higher among children living in HHs without electricity (OR: 1.41 and HHs not using sanitary latrine (OR: 1.29. Similarly, the risk of wasting was significantly higher among households not having access to safe drinking water, mothers not cleaning their hands before feeding and among children with history of morbidity during preceding fortnight. Prevalence of underweight (28%, stunting (17% and wasting (34% was significantly (p<0.01 lower among children who were exclusively breast fed up to 6 months. Conclusions: Multiple risk factors are associated with childhood undernutrition and needs multi-pronged and multi-sector approach to tackle the problem. The results will help planners to develop and implement appropriate intervention strategies, for effective control and prevention of undernutrition among under-five year children in Madhya Pradesh

  3. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia among children (6-35 months) in rural Wardha, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N; Deshmukh, P R; Garg, B S

    2008-02-01

    Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Seven hundred seventy-two children between 6 months and 35 months of age were studied for anemia by cluster-sampling method. The hemoglobin was estimated in the child by 'Filter paper cyanmethemoglobin method.' Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and other variables. Data was analyzed by SPSS 12.0.1. Mean hemoglobin level was 98.5+/-12.9 gm/L. Prevalence of anemia was 80.3%. Only 1.3% children had severe anemia (hemoglobineducation of mother and father, occupation of father, socioeconomic status, birth order and nutritional status as measured by weight for age. The final model suggested that only educational status of the mother, occupation of the father, birth order and nutritional status of the child were significantly associated with anemia. For short-term impact, appropriate nutritional interventions remain the only operational intervention as only the nutritional status (weight for age) is a modifiable factor. But for long-term sustained impact, policy makers need to focus on improving maternal education and reducing family size.

  4. Pseudotachylitic breccia from the Dhala impact structure, north-central India: Texture, mineralogy and geochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Schmitt, R. T.; Koeberl, C.; Pati, P.; Prakash, K.

    2015-05-01

    Pseudotachylitic breccia (PTB) occurs in a drill core from the crater floor of the 11 km diameter, Proterozoic Dhala impact structure, India. PTBs were intersected in late Archean granitoids between 348.15 m and 502.55 m depth in the MCB-10 drill core from the center of the Dhala structure. The breccias comprise both cataclastic-matrix as well as melt breccias. The presence of microlites and vesicles in the groundmass and a widely observed flow fabric in the PTB support the presence of melt in the groundmass of some samples. Clasts in PTB are derived from the Archean granitoid basement. PTB matrix, the matrix of impact melt breccia also occurring between 256.50 m and 502.55 m depth, and the target granitoids vary in terms of silica, total alkali, magnesium and iron oxide contents. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of PTB and target granitoids are similar, but the elemental abundances in the PTB are lower. The restricted size of PTB as veins and pods of up to 2.5 cm width, their occurrence at varied depths over a core length of 150 m, the clast population, and the chemical relationships between PTB and their host rocks all suggest the derivation of these breccias locally from the fractured basement granitoids involving in-situ melting. We favor that this took place due to rapid decompression during the collapse and modification stage of impact cratering, with, locally, additional energy input from frictional heating. Locally, amphibolite and dioritic mylonite occur in the host granitoids and their admixture could have contributed to the comparatively more mafic composition of PTB. Alteration of these crater floor rocks could have involved preferential reduction of silica and alkali element abundances, possibly due to impact-induced hydrothermal activity at crater floor level. This process, too, could have resulted in more mafic compositions.

  5. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  6. CLINICO - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF EALES’ DISEASE AT A TERTIARY EYE CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijnya Birajita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eales’ disease is an idiopathic inflammatory venous occlusion that primarily affects the peripheral retina of adults. Retinal changes include perivascular phlebitis, peripheral non - perfusion, and neovascularization. The prese nt - day modalities of treatment are confined to corticosteroids, anti - VEGF (Vasculo - endothelial growth factor therapy, and photocoagulation with or without anterior retinal cryoablation, and vitrectomy at various stages of the disease process. AIM : This study was conducted to study the age and sex distribution along with the mode of presentation of Eales disease. The natural course, aetiopathogenesis, treatment outcome in the study population was also studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this descriptiv e study, 63 eyes of 37 newly diagnosed cases of Eales disease were enrolled. The demographic profile and clinical parameters of each patient were studied with special reference to place of origin, age and sex, mode of presentation, and treatment outcome. A ll patients underwent complete systemic and ophthalmologic examinations. Study patients were classified according to the stage of their disease and treated accordingly. RESULTS: Young males (21 - 30 years were mostly affected and 70% had bilateral presentat ion. 61% presented with symptoms related to posterior segment disease. Recorded best corrected visual acuity were 6/6 - 6/12 in 44.5%, 6/12 - 6/60 in 20% and <6/60 in 36.5%. 2 patients were kept on observation, 17 with medical treatment alone, 10 with photocoa gulation alone, 3 with photocoagulation and medical treatment and 5 were taken for vitreo - retinal surgery. Good visual recovery was observed in all subgroups at subsequent follow - up visits. CONCLUSION: As noted by this study, Eales disease is a disease mos tly in the young. These patients can present with no typical symptom or can be asymptomatic. Staging of the disease at presentation is important and correct treatment options should be

  7. Sources and controls of Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Rajnandgaon and Kanker District, Chattisgarh Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dericks Praise; Dubey, C. S.; Singh, Ningthoujam P.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Chaudhry, M.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryA high concentration of Arsenic (As) contamination in ground water has been reported in the village of Kaudikasa in Rajnandgaon district, wherein around 10% of the population is suffering from As-borne diseases. The region does not share any demographic or geological similarity with the sedimentary aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain in Eastern India, but represents an igneous terrain with elevated As concentrations in groundwater. There is limited information about the source of As in groundwater and its mobility constraints. In this area, almost all the wells are located in the granitic terrain with pegmatitic intrusions. Most of these wells are characterized by As concentration above the World Health Organization ( WHO, 1999) and the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) standards, with the highest being found in a well with more than 250 μg/L of As. Here we report petrographic studies of the granitic host rock and X-ray diffraction results that indicate that altered realgar (α-As 4S 4), para realgar (AsS), and/or tennantite (Cu 12As 4S 13), are the main mineral that contain As. This element is leached during the weathering and water-rock interactions. Microprobe analysis of the altered realgar grains of in pegmatitic intrusions of the host granite indicate 23-27 wt.% As. Remote sensing is useful to delineate the source of this contaminant, which appears to lie at the intersection of a mineralized NW-SE and N-S lineaments associated with the Kotri rift zone. These lineaments are structurally controlled as rifting followed by thrusting and other types of faulting caused left-lateral displacement of N-S Kotri lineament along a NW-SE fault plane showing sinistral shearing. This process caused water drainage in the areas to flow along these highly mineralized weak zones. Thus, the water becomes highly contaminated due to leaching of minerals at the intersection of these lineaments, clearly visible at two areas of high contamination that lie very near to this

  8. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity and its associated factors among a sample of university students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and the lifestyle characteristic of Indian society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity and its associated factors in a sample of Indian university students. In a cross-sectional survey assessed anthropometric measurements and a self-administered questionnaire among a sample of randomly selected university students. The sample included 800 university students from non health (mainly sciences) courses Gitam University in India. The students were 541 (67.6%) males and 259 (32.4%) females in the age range of 17-20 years (M age 18.2 years, SD=1.0). 37.5% were overweight or obese, 26.8% overweight (≥23-27.4 BMI) and 10.7% obese (≥27.5 kg/m(2)), 11.7% underweight (obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women). In multivariate analysis among men lack of non-organised religious activity (odds ratio=OR 0.85, confidence interval=CI 0.77-0.95), lower dietary risk knowledge (OR=0.64, CI=0.41-0.99), tobacco use (OR=2.23, CI=1.14-4.38), and suffering from depression (OR=1.59, CI=1.00-2.47) were associated with overweight/obesity, and younger age (OR=0.32, CI=0.12-0.90), lives away from parents or guardians (OR=1.79, CI=1.04-3.07), healthy dietary practices (OR=1.95, CI=1.02-3.72) and 9 or more hours sleep duration (OR=0.28, CI=0.09-0.96) were associated with central obesity. In bivariate analysis among women, lack of social support, lower dietary risk knowledge, tobacco use, and 9 or more hours sleep duration were associated with overweight/obesity and lives away from parents or guardians and abstinence from alcohol associated with central obesity. The study found a high prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity. Several gender specific health risk practices were identified including lack of dietary risk knowledge, shorter sleep duration, living away from parents or guardians, tobacco use and lack of social support and

  9. Correspondence: risk factors of acute respiratory infection in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India – Authors’ reply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Taksande

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor,We thank the authors for their interest and comments on our paper. They have raised some very valid points. This corrispondence refers to the following article:Taksande AM, Yeole M. Risk factors of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2016;5(1:e050105. doi: 10.7363/050105 br />Comments can be found in the following article:Mandal A, Sahi PK. Correspondence: risk factors of acute respiratory infection in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2016;5(2:e050207. doi: 10.7363/050207

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of wave energy in the nearshore waters of the central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of wave power potential at different water depths and time is required for identifying a wave power plant location. This study examines the variation in wave power off the central west coast of India at water depths of 30, 9 and 5 m based on waverider buoy measured wave data. The study shows a significant reduction ( ˜ 10 to 27 %) in wave power at 9 m water depth compared to 30 m and the wave power available at 5 m water depth is 20 to 23 % less than that at 9 m. At 9 m depth, the seasonal mean value of the wave power varied from 1.6 kW m-1 in the post-monsoon period (ONDJ) to 15.2 kW m-1 in the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS) period. During the Indian summer monsoon period, the variation of wave power in a day is up to 32 kW m-1. At 9 m water depth, the mean annual wave power is 6 kW m-1 and interannual variations up to 19.3 % are observed during 2009-2014. High wave energy ( > 20 kW m-1) at the study area is essentially from the directional sector 245-270° and also 75 % of the total annual wave energy is from this narrow directional sector, which is advantageous while aligning the wave energy converter.

  11. Assessment of Cr, Ni and Pb Pollution in Rural Agricultural Soils of Tonalite-Trondjhemite Series in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kriti; Kumar, Bijendra; Agrawal, Rahul; Priyanka, Kumari; Venkatesh, Madavi; Anshumali

    2017-06-01

    Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) contamination was investigated in wheat cultivated rain-fed and irrigated rural agricultural soils (n = 31) of Tonalite-Trondjhemite Series in Central India. The soil sampling was carried out by using stratified random sampling method. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb were 54.8, 38.1 and 68.9 mg/kg, respectively. The average values of enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and contamination factor (CF) followed the order as: Pb > Ni > Cr. Distribution patterns of soil parent material and weathering processes govern mineral enrichments, irrespective of rainfed or irrigated agricultural practices. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed strong loading of Cr and Ni (PC1) and Pb and clay (PC3). The strong loading on Cr and Ni indicates soils are originating from basic and volcanic rocks in the study area. The strong loading of Pb and clay indicates Pb is strongly adsorbed on clay minerals and Fe-oxides. The cancer risk (CR) index showed negligible carcinogenic risk to the residing population. However, hazard index (HI) values for children exceed the safe limit (HI > 1) for Cr and Pb. Spatial distribution of pollution load index suggest highest pollution in the northeastern part of the district. The study revealed that geogenically enriched soils of the area are suitable for agricultural activities under present conditions.

  12. A geochemical and Pb, Sr isotopic study of the evolution of granite-gneisses from the Bastar craton, Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, G.; Paul, D.K.; Misra, V.P.; de Laeter, J.R.; Mc Naughton, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr geochronology of granitic and gneissic rocks from the Sukma area of the Bastar craton, Central India, provides important constraints on crustal evolution. Much of the craton is made up of felsic orthogneisses and younger granitic intrusives, compositionally ranging from tonalite to granite. Pb-Pb isotopic data suggest the presence of ca. 3.0 Ga old gneisses. Younger granitic intrusives have been dated at ca. 2.6 Ga which represents a widespread resetting and/or emplacement event. Comparison of the Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr whole rock ages suggests that the latter were more perturbed after the gneiss-forming or emplacement events. All rock suites show significant geological scatter of isotopic data probably because of sampling on a regional scale, and reflect multi-stage isotopic evolution in a complex terrain. The present isotopic data indicate the presence of Archaean rock in the Bastar craton and suggest temporal similarity with the oldest crustal rocks in the Singhbhum and Dharwar cratons. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  13. Intervillous macrophage migration inhibitory factor is associated with adverse birth outcomes in a study population in Central India.

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    Puspendra P Singh

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent factor produced by a variety of cells. It plays an important biological role in the regulation of pregnancy and has been shown to influence malaria pathogenesis. In this study, the levels of MIF in the peripheral, cord and placental intervillous blood (IVB plasma collected from women residing in a malaria endemic region of Central India was determined and its association with malaria in pregnancy and birth outcomes was investigated. MIF levels were significantly different in IVB, peripheral, and cord plasma, with IVB plasma having the highest MIF levels and peripheral plasma having the lowest. Placental malaria positive women had significantly higher IVB plasma MIF levels than placental malaria negative women, but this relationship was not seen in peripheral or cord plasma MIF levels. In addition, the odds of stillbirth and low birth weight deliveries for the uppermost placental MIF quartile (irrespective of placental malaria status was significantly higher than that of the lowest placental MIF quartile, supporting the hypothesis that elevated concentrations of placental MIF may be associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcome.

  14. Fate of Metals in Relation to Water and Sediment Properties in a Subtropical Lake in Central Himalaya, India.

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    Inaotombi, Shaikhom; Gupta, Prem Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Lakes of Himalaya are one of the most fragile ecosystems on earth. Tourism and urban development in the upland region strongly affect its water resources. The high rate of sedimentation and organic matter deposition alters the ecological state of sediment bed, which indirectly influences on dynamics of metallic elements. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of water and sediment characteristic in Lake Sattal of Central Himalaya, India. Samples were collected seasonally from four sampling locations from January 2011 to December 2012. Pearson's correlation and Canonical correspondence analysis (CCAs) were applied to examine the dynamics and behaviors of heavy metals. Concentrations of elements were in the order of fluoride (Fl) > zinc (Zn) > copper (Cu) > iron (Fe) > manganese (Mn). Sand size fraction was higher in the littoral zone while clay particle was dominant in the profundal zone of the lake. Dissolved oxygen at sediment-water-interface (SWI) and water temperature were the major factors influencing the dynamics of metallic contents in the water column. Spatially, total organic matter (TOM) was higher in the deeper portion of the lake. Our study revealed that mobility of Fe is temperature-dependent, whereas speciation of Mn and Cu are primarily controlled by the suboxic condition of SWI in organic-rich site. Upland lakes are more vulnerable to anoxic condition and have severe implications on heavy metals speciation. Proper implementation of land use policies and management practices, including stormwater detention, can be integrated into resolving such problems.

  15. Identification of Calotropis procera L. as a potential phytoaccumulator of heavy metals from contaminated soils in Urban North Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Rohan J.; Varun, Mayank; Masih, Jamson; Paul, Manoj S.

    2010-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels were monitored in soil at fifteen urban (riverbank, roadside, industrial and residential) sites in the north central part of India. Calotropis procera, a hardy xerophytic plant was identified and selected for remedial potential as it was seen growing well at all sites. Root and leaf samples were collected simultaneously with soil samples to assess the characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of Pb and Cd in C. procera. Chlorophyll and phenological studies were undertaken to investigate the health of plants. The overall trend of Pb and Cd content in soil and plant samples was in the order Industrial > Roadside > Riverbank > Residential. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance like vehicular and machinery exhausts exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth as well as a delayed, shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of Pb in leaves to Pb in soil were in the range of 0.60-1.37; while similar ratios of Cd were in the range of 1.25-1.83. Highly significant correlation coefficients were determined between concentrations of Pb and Cd in the samples with R 2 values 0.839 for soil, 0.802 for leaf and 0.819 for root samples. The strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of Pb and Cd in plant samples identifies C. procera as an effective heavy metal remediator of contaminated lands coupled with environmental stress.

  16. Opinions of the commuters to receive oral health messages in South central railway zone India: A cross-sectional study

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    P Parthasarathi Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The railroads of India are the fourth most heavily used system in the world. Railways are one of the main modes of transport and millions of people travel by train daily. Aim: To know the opinions of commuters in receiving oral health messages in railways station through various methods and also their knowledge and practice regarding oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Using convenient sampling method data from the commuters was obtained by a pretested questionnaire through interview method from 14 railway stations of South Central Railway zone. Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare the opinions of commuters based on their gender to receive oral health messages. Results: A total of 596 (97.3% responded to the survey; a maximum of 297 (49.8% subjects strongly agreed to the statement that railway platforms should have informative posters on oral health. A maximum of 188 (31.5% commuters strongly agreed that prerecorded messages on oral health if played before the announcement of arrival and departure of train will be helpful to spread oral health awareness. Majority of 43% commuters (255 preferred to receive oral hygiene instructions printed on back side of the ticket followed by messages on television and through posters. Conclusion: Majority of the commuters preferred to receive oral health information in railways stations. Hence, efforts can be directed in spreading oral health information among public through railways.

  17. Mass loading and episodic variation of molecular markers in PM2.5 aerosols over a rural area in eastern central India

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    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Deb, Manas K.; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2015-09-01

    The impact of biomass burning in atmospheric aerosols load is poorly known. We investigated the impact of biomass burning through molecular markers on the concentration of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected from a rural site in eastern central India during three episodic periods from October to November 2011. The collected PM2.5 samples were chemically quantified for potassium as well as sugars and dicarboxylic acids using ion chromatography. Levoglucosan and glucose were found as the most abundant sugar compounds and sugar-alcohols showed the predominance of mannitol whereas oxalic acid was the most abundant diacid followed by maleic acid in PM2.5 aerosols. Substantially enhanced concentrations of K+ as well as levoglucosan and glucose were observed in eastern central India. Analysis of the source specific molecular markers and ratios of sugars and diacids infer that combustion of biomass was the major emission sources of organic compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosols over eastern central India. We applied Spearman correlation analysis and principal component analysis to further investigate the sources of measured sugars and diacids. The concentrations of K+ and levoglucosan were significantly correlated with sugars and diacids that verifying their common sources from biomass burning emission. This study demonstrates that biomass burning for domestic heating and cooking purposes and agricultural activities significantly influence the air quality of eastern central India during the investigation period. The obtained data in this research is helpful for the global scientific community to assessments and remedial of air quality parameters in rural areas of developing countries under similar atmospheric circumstances.

  18. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  19. Risk factors for possible serious bacterial infection in a rural cohort of young infants in central India

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    Marie E. Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible serious bacterial infection (PBSI is a major cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. We studied risk factors for PSBI in a large rural population in central India where facility deliveries have increased as a result of a government financial assistance program. Methods We studied 37,379 pregnant women and their singleton live born infants with birth weight ≥ 1.5 kg from 20 rural primary health centers around Nagpur, India, using data from the 2010–13 population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry supported by NICHD’s Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research. Factors associated with PSBI were identified using multivariable Poisson regression. Results Two thousand one hundred twenty-three infants (6 % had PSBI. Risk factors for PSBI included nulliparity (RR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.03–1.23, parity > 2 (RR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.07–1.57 compared to parity 1–2, first antenatal care visit in the 2nd/3rd trimester (RR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.08–1.98 compared to 1st trimester, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (RR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.60–2.61, low birth weight (RR 3.10, 95 % CI 2.17–4.42, male sex (RR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.10–1.31 and lack of early initiation of breastfeeding (RR 3.87, 95 % CI 2.69–5.58. Conclusion Infants who are low birth weight, born to mothers who present late to antenatal care or receive antenatal corticosteroids, or born to nulliparous women or those with a parity > 2, could be targeted for interventions before and after delivery to improve early recognition of signs and symptoms of PSBI and prompt referral. There also appears to be a need for a renewed focus on promoting early initiation of breastfeeding following delivery in facilities. Trial registration This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01073475 .

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of Hot Springs in Central India Reveals Hydrocarbon Degrading Thermophiles and Pathways Essential for Survival in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rituja; Dhakan, Darshan B.; Mittal, Parul; Waiker, Prashant; Chowdhury, Anirban; Ghatak, Arundhuti; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5–55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5–98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together

  1. Indications of human activity from amino acid and amino sugar analyses on Holocene sediments from lake Lonar, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Wiesner, M.; Prasad, S.; Basavaiah, N.; Stebich, M.; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Brauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The DFG funded HIMPAC (Himalaya: Modern and Past Climates) programme aims to reconstruct Holocene Indian Monsoon climate using a multi-proxy and multi-archive approach. First investigations made on sediments from a ca. 10 m long core covering the whole Holocene taken from the lake Lonar in central India's state Maharashtra, Buldhana District, serve to identify changes in sedimentation, lake chemistry, local vegetation and regional to supra-regional climate patterns. Lake Lonar occupies the floor of an impact crater that formed on the ~ 65 Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. It covers an area of ca. 1 km2 and is situated in India's core monsoon area. The modern lake has a maximum depth of about 5 m, is highly alkaline, and hyposaline, grouped in the Na-Cl-CO3 subtype of saline lakes. No out-flowing stream is present and only three small streams feed the lake, resulting in a lake level highly sensitive to precipitation and evaporation. The lake is eutrophic and stratified throughout most of the year with sub- to anoxic waters below 2 m depth. In this study the core sediments were analysed for their total amino acid (AA) and amino sugar (AS) content, the amino acid bound C and N percentage of organic C and total N in the sediment and the distribution of individual amino acids. The results roughly show three zones within the core separated by distinct changes in their AA content and distribution. (i) The bottom part of the core from ca. 12000 cal a BP to 11400 cal a BP with very low AA and AS percentage indicating high lithogenic contribution, most probably related to dry conditions. (ii) From 11400 cal a BP to 1200 cal a BP the sediments show moderate AA and AS percentages and low values for the ratios of proteinogenic AAs to their non-proteinogenic degradation products (e.g. ASP/β-ALA; GLU/γ-ABA). (iii) The top part of the core (land use. This hypothesis is corroborated by the dating of more than 10 temple ruins surrounding the lake, which were built in the 12

  2. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  3. Paleogene volcanism in Central Afghanistan: Possible far-field effect of the India-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuza, Gediminas; Šliaupa, Saulius

    2017-10-01

    A volcanic-sedimentary succession of Paleogene age is exposed in isolated patches at the southern margin of the Tajik block in the Ghor province of Central Afghanistan. The volcanic rocks range from basalts and andesites to dacites, including adakites. They are intercalated with sedimentary rocks deposited in shallow marine environments, dated biostratigraphically as Paleocene-Eocene. This age corresponds to the age of the Asyābēd andesites located in the western Ghor province estimated by the 40Ar/39Ar method as 54 Ma. The magmatism post-dates the Cimmerian collision between the Tajik block (including the Band-e-Bayan block) and the Farah Rod block located to the south. While the investigated volcanic rocks apparently bear geochemical signatures typical to an active continental margin environment, it is presumed that the magmatism was related to rifting processes most likely initiated by far-field tectonics caused by the terminal collision of the Indian plate with Eurasia (Najman et al., 2017). This event led to the dextral movement of the Farah Rod block, particularly along Hari Rod (Herat) fault system, resulting in the development of a transtensional regime in the proximal southern margin of the Tajik block and giving rise to a rift basin where marine sediments were interbedded with pillow lavas intruded by sheeted dyke series.

  4. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

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    Aditya Joshi

    Full Text Available Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  5. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  6. Clinical and epidemiological study of stress hyperglycemia among medical intensive care unit patients in Central India

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    Jitendra Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress hyperglycemia is common in patients presenting at the emergency medical ward and is associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of mortality. Aims and Objective: To study and determine the prevalence and factors associated with stress hyperglycemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed on 536 nondiabetic patients presented to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at Gandhi Medical College and allied Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, between March 31, 2015, and May 28, 2015. A detailed history including demographic profile, presence of chronic disease, history of hospitalization and ICU admission, surgical status, and major reason for ICU admission (i.e., predominant diagnostic category was collected. Hematological and other parameters based on profile of study population were also analyzed. Results: Out of 536 patients, 109 (20.33% had stress hyperglycemia. Out of 109 patients with stress hyperglycemia, 87 (16.23% patients had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c <5.7% and 22 (4.10% patients had HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%. Mean age of the study population was 40.27 ± 1.44 years, with male dominance. Mean random blood glucose level was 181.46 ± 3.80 mg/dl. Frequency of stress hyperglycemia was 24.13% in stroke, 19.54% in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, 17.24% in chronic kidney disease (CKD, 12.64% in central nervous system (CNS infection, 8.05% in chronic liver disease (CLD, and 8.05% in seizure patients. Association between stroke and stress hyperglycemia was significant (P = 0.036. Association between hospital stay more than 7 days and stress hyperglycemia was significant in stroke patients (P = 0.0029, CKD patients (P = 0.0036, CLD (P = 0.0099, and MODS patients (P = 0.0328. Conclusions: The factors associated with stress hyperglycemia were stroke, MODS, CKD, CNS infection, CLD, seizure patients, with prolonged hospital stay and expected proportion.

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of wave energy in the nearshore waters of the central west coast of India

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    M. M. Amrutha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of wave power potential at different water depths and time is required for identifying a wave power plant location. This study examines the variation in wave power off the central west coast of India at water depths of 30, 9 and 5 m based on waverider buoy measured wave data. The study shows a significant reduction ( ∼  10 to 27 % in wave power at 9 m water depth compared to 30 m and the wave power available at 5 m water depth is 20 to 23 % less than that at 9 m. At 9 m depth, the seasonal mean value of the wave power varied from 1.6 kW m−1 in the post-monsoon period (ONDJ to 15.2 kW m−1 in the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS period. During the Indian summer monsoon period, the variation of wave power in a day is up to 32 kW m−1. At 9 m water depth, the mean annual wave power is 6 kW m−1 and interannual variations up to 19.3 % are observed during 2009–2014. High wave energy ( >  20 kW m−1 at the study area is essentially from the directional sector 245–270° and also 75 % of the total annual wave energy is from this narrow directional sector, which is advantageous while aligning the wave energy converter.

  8. Risk factors of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India

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    Amar M. Taksande

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries in children especially in under-fives. Every year in the world, about 13 million under-5 children dies, 95% from developing countries; one third of total deaths are due to ARI. The aim of this study was to identify the significant risk factors for ARI in children less than five years of age living in rural areas of Central India.Methods: A hospital based case control study was undertaken to determine risk factors associated with respiratory tract infections in children. Children less than 5 years admitted in a pediatric ward with diagnosis of ARI were enrolled in the study as cases (n = 300 while the same number of controls (n = 300 were selected from neighborhood and were matched for age, sex and religion. Details of risk factors in cases and controls were recorded in pre-designed proforma. Results: A significant association was found between ARI and lack of breastfeeding, nutritional status, immunization status, delayed weaning, prelactal feeding, living in overcrowded conditions, mothers’ literacy status, low birth weight and prematurity. Among the environmental variables, inadequate ventilation, improper housing condition, exposure to indoor air pollution in form of combustion from fuel used for cooking were found as significant risk factors for ARI in under-fives.Conclusions: ARIs are affected by socio-demographic and socio-cultural risk factors, which can be modified with simple interventions. The various risk factors identified in this study were lack of breastfeeding, undernutrition, delayed weaning, overcrowding and prelactal feeding.

  9. Bionomics of Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in Relation to Malaria Transmission in East-Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S S; Gunasekaran, K; Krishnamoorthy, N; Vanamail, P; Mathivanan, A; Manonmani, A; Jambulingam, P

    2017-07-01

    The southern districts of Odisha State in east-central India have been highly endemic for falciparum malaria for many decades. However, there is no adequate information on the abundance of the vector species or their bionomics in relation to space and time in these districts. Therefore, a study was carried out on the entomological aspects of malaria transmission to generate such information. Collections of mosquitoes were made once during each of the three seasons in 128 villages selected from eight districts. Villages within the foot-hill ecotype had a significantly greater abundance of Anopheles fluviatilis James s. l., whereas the abundance of Anopheles culicifacies Giles s. l. was significantly greater in the plain ecotype. The abundance of An. fluviatilis was maximum during the cold season, whereas An. culicifacies abundance was highest during summer and rainy seasons. The maximum likelihood estimation of the malaria infection rate in An. fluviatilis was 1.78%, 6.05%, and 2.6% in Ganjam, Kalahandi, and Rayagada districts, respectively. The infection rate of An. culicifacies was 1.39% only in Kandhamal district; infected females were not detected elsewhere. Concurrently, the annual malaria parasite incidence (MPI) was significantly higher in hill-top (17.6) and foot-hill (14.4) villages compared to plain villages (4.1). The districts with more villages in hill-top and foot-hill ecotypes also had a greater abundance of An. fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, and exhibited a higher incidence of malaria than villages within the plain ecotype, where An. culicifacies was the most abundant vector. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Metastasis in central nervous system: Clinicopathological study with review of literature in a tertiary care center in South India

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    Rashmi Patnayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Secondary central nervous system (CNS tumors are common in Western countries, but in Indian literature, scant data are available. With the advent of newer imaging techniques, the confirmatory histopathological diagnosis has become comparatively easier. Hereby, we have analyzed our data from a single tertiary care center in south India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2010, histopathologically diagnosed secondary CNS tumors were reviewed along with clinical, imaging, and relevant immunohistochemical findings. Meningeal, lymphoproliferative, and myeloproliferative tumors and autopsy data were not included in the study group. Results: There were 40 secondary CNS tumors. Male to female ratio was 2.3:1. Age range was wide (28-75 years. Majority of cases were seen in the fourth and fifth decade. Imaging-wise, (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging majority were single lesions ( n = 34, 85%. Most commonly, these single lesions were present in the cerebral hemisphere ( n = 20, 50% followed by cerebellum ( n = 10, 25%. Adenocarcinoma accounted for maximum number of cases ( n = 25, 62.5% with lungs being the most common primary. Conclusion: We have noted 25% metastatic adenocarcinomas in cerebellar location, which is higher when compared with available world literature. However, we also encountered a good number of cases (30% due to unknown primary. Though histopathological examination with use of immunohistochemical markers can reliably distinguish primary from secondary CNS tumors in addition to available clinical and imaging data, particularly in developing countries, still a better work-up with an array of immunohistochemical markers and newer imaging modalities is desirable.

  11. The nature and evolution of the Main Central Thrust: Structural and geochronological constraints from the Sikkim Himalaya, NE India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dilip K.; Chakraborty, Sumit; Trepmann, Claudia; Rubatto, Daniela; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Gaidies, Fred; Dasgupta, Somnath; Chowdhury, Priyadarshi

    2017-06-01

    The Main Central Thrust (MCT) is a prominent continental-scale fault within the Himalaya. Its definition has been the topic of some debate in the literature. After a brief consideration of the state of discussion to clarify the definition we use in this work, we report features from the field- to the microstructural- scale of a particularly well-exposed section in Sikkim, NE India. The nature of the protoliths as well as the overlying and underlying rocks is characterized in terms of ε-Nd. The dates of motion on the fault are constrained using U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite from pegmatitic dikes that cross-cut the deformation fabric. It is found that the mechanism of deformation recorded in the fault zone rocks is different compared to that found in the overlying Greater Himalayan (GH) or the underlying Lesser Himalayan (LH) rocks. The GH and LH have different protolith characteristics as well. Combined with existing data on P-T history, dates of metamorphism, and cooling- and exhumation-rates of the GH and the LH, our measurements show that major motion on this fault occurred before 20 Ma at 450-700 °C but after peak metamorphism of rocks (750-800 °C) in this zone. Isolated events occurred in this zone as late as 11 Ma, possibly in the brittle domain. This underscores the pulsed nature of movement over an extended period on such major faults, and the related difficulties in dating fault movement, determination of the rates of movement, and designating a fault plane as in- or out-of-sequence within a propagating deformation front.

  12. Inter-instrument agreement and influence of central corneal thickness on measurements with Goldmann, pneumotonometer and noncontact tonometer in glaucomatous eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Viney; Sony, Parul; Agarwal, Harish C; Sihota, Ramanjit; Sharma, Ajay

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements by the Goldman applanation tonometer (GAT), non contact tonometer (NCT) and the ocular blood flow (OBF) pneumotonometer in different IOP ranges in glaucomatous eyes. The effect of central corneal thickness (CCT) on IOP measurement in chronic glaucomatous eyes using the three different tonometers was also evaluated. IOP measurements of 130 eyes of primary glaucoma patients were performed using GAT by an ophthalmologist while NCT and OBF-pneumotonometer measurements were performed by an experienced optometrist. The IOP values were compared amongst the three instruments in the three different IOP ranges (0-18 mmHg, > 18 to 25 mmHg, > 25 mmHg). CCT was also measured in all patients. The mean of paired difference between GAT and NCT was 0.9 +/- 3.1 mmHg while that between GAT and OBF-pneumotonometer was 0.3 +/- 3.4 mmHg. The OBF-pneumotonometer and NCT were more affected by corneal thickness (0.41 mmHg and 0.4 mmHg / 10 micro corneal thickness respectively) while GAT was the least affected by corneal thickness (0.3 mmHg / 10 micro corneal thickness) though the difference was not statistically significant ( P =0.42). With appropriate correction for corneal thickness the NCT and OBF-pneumotonometer can be used as reliably as GAT in following up glaucomatous patients.

  13. Inter-instrument agreement and influence of central corneal thickness on measurements with Goldmann, pneumotonometer and noncontact tonometer in glaucomatous eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Viney

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP measurements by the Goldman applanation tonometer (GAT, non contact tonometer (NCT and the ocular blood flow (OBF pneumotonometer in different IOP ranges in glaucomatous eyes. The effect of central corneal thickness (CCT on IOP measurement in chronic glaucomatous eyes using the three different tonometers was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: IOP measurements of 130 eyes of primary glaucoma patients were performed using GAT by an ophthalmologist while NCT and OBF-pneumotonometer measurements were performed by an experienced optometrist. The IOP values were compared amongst the three instruments in the three different IOP ranges (0-18 mmHg,> 18 to 25 mmHg, > 25 mmHg. CCT was also measured in all patients. Results: The mean of paired difference between GAT and NCT was 0.9 ± 3.1 mmHg while that between GAT and OBF-pneumotonometer was 0.3 ± 3.4 mmHg. The OBF-pneumotonometer and NCT were more affected by corneal thickness (0.41 mmHg and 0.4 mmHg / 10 µ corneal thickness respectively while GAT was the least affected by corneal thickness (0.3 mmHg / 10 µ corneal thickness though the difference was not statistically significant ( P =0.42. Conclusion: With appropriate correction for corneal thickness the NCT and OBF-pneumotonometer can be used as reliably as GAT in following up glaucomatous patients.

  14. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Maslovaric, Giada; Zaccagnino, Maria; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Perilli, Sava; Trivellato, Denis; Longo, Vittorio; Civilotti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Pro...

  15. VEGF Trap-Eye for macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: 6-month results of the phase III GALILEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Frank G; Roider, Johann; Ogura, Yuichiro; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Simader, Christian; Groetzbach, Georg; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Hiemeyer, Florian; Beckmann, Karola; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate intravitreal VEGF Trap-Eye (VTE) in patients with macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). In this double-masked study, 177 patients were randomised (3:2 ratio) to intravitreal injections of VTE 2 mg or sham procedure every 4 weeks for 24 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity was evaluated using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart. Central retinal thickness (CRT) was measured with optical coherence tomography. From baseline until week 24, more patients receiving VTE (60.2%) gained ≥ 15 letters compared with those receiving sham injections (22.1%) (p<0.0001). VTE patients gained a mean of 18.0 letters compared with 3.3 letters with sham injections (p<0.0001). Mean CRT decreased by 448.6 and 169.3 µm in the VTE and sham groups (p<0.0001). The most frequent ocular adverse events in the VTE arm were typically associated with the injection procedure or the underlying disease, and included eye pain (11.5%), increased intraocular pressure (9.6%) and conjunctival haemorrhage (8.7%). VTE 2 mg every 4 weeks was efficacious in CRVO with an acceptable safety profile. Vision gains with VTE were significantly higher than with observation/panretinal photocoagulation if needed. Based on these data, VTE may provide a new treatment option for CRVO.

  16. Treatment of wastewater and restoration of aquatic systems through an eco-technology based constructed treatment wetlands - a successful experience in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billore, S K; Sharma, J K; Singh, N; Ram, H

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of decades constructed wetlands (CWs) have drawn considerable interest in Central India. CWs offer an effective means of integrating wastewater treatment and resource enhancement, often at competitive cost in comparison to conventional wastewater treatments, with additional benefits of Green Urban Landscaping and wildlife habitat. This paper describes treatment performances and the design of some Sub Surface Flow CWs (SSFCW) and Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) in Central India. Central Indian CWs show significant pollution reduction load for total suspended solids (TSS) (62-82%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (40-75%), NH(4)-N (67-78%) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (59-78%). Field scale SSFCWs installed so far in Central India are rectangular, earthen, single/multiple celled having similar depths of 0.60-0.90 m, hydraulic retention capacity 18-221 m(3) with effective size 41.8-1,050 m(2). The major components of CWs incorporate puddled bottom/side walls, sealed with impermeable low-density polyethylene, a bed of locally available river gravel planted with Phragmites karka, and an inlet distribution and outlet collection system. A new variant on CWs are AFIs working under hydroponics. The field scale experimental AFIs installed in-situ in a slowly flowing local river were composed of hollow bamboo, a bed of coconut coir, floating arrangements and Phragmites karka as nutrient stripping plant species. The AFIs polish the aquatic system by reducing 46.6% of TSS, 45-55% of NH(4)-N, 33-45% of NO(3)-N, 45-50% of TKN and 40-50% of BOD. The study established that there is a need for further research and sufficient data to assist the development of CWs by instilling confidence in policymakers, planners and in the public.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  18. Echo-waveform classification using model and model free techniques: Experimental study results from central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Janakiraman, G.; Mahale, V.; Fernandes, W.A.; Rao, N.

    seafloor of India, but unable to provide a suitable means for seafloor classification. This paper also suggests a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) architecture i.e. Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) for seafloor classification. An analysis...

  19. Spectra and gross features of vertical temperature and salinity profiles off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Nagarajan, R.

    Continuous vertical profiles of temperature and salinity recorded by a CTD-system from the continental slope and the continental rise off Goa, west coast of India, were used for delineating the gross statistical features of the fine structure...

  20. Reproductive outcome in carrier couples of β-thalassemia disorders in a tertiary hospital in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir S. Balgir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The β-thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobin disorders are the major genetic and public health challenges in Central India. In view of dubious credit of the highest infant mortality rate in Madhya Pradesh (62 as against 47 per 1000 live-births of India in 2011 it was presumed that carrier couples of b-thalassemia disorders might be one of the contributing factors to high mortality. A total of 280 couples including their offspring with at least one affected and/or suspected case of β-thalassemia/ sickle cell disorders referred to our Centre from a tertiary hospital, Jabalpur during March 2010 to February 2013 were consecutively studied as matched case controls. Out of 280 couples, 200 were found normal and 80 couples had different b-thalassemia disorders. β-thalassemia carrier couples had significantly higher relative fertility (mean number of conceptions, i.e. 2.457 versus 1.480, higher infant mortality (3.5% versus 1.3%, higher below 10 years mortality (7.0% versus 2.7% and lower surviving offspring (925.9 versus 970.6 than of controls. Still-births were three times lower (12.3, neonatal deaths almost two folds higher (24.7, three folds higher infant mortality (37.0 and almost three times higher below 10 years mortality per 1000 live-births were observed in carriers of β-thalassemia major than in controls. The present study indicated that afflicted couples of these hereditary disorders are increasing the afflicted offspring, being 60.7% surviving against controls (39.3%. This increased production of afflicted (heterozygous and homozygous offspring leads to increased morbidity and mortality and might be contributing towards increased neonatal/infant mortality in Madhya Pradesh of Central India. As a preventive measure, affected families were imparted genetic/marriage counseling.  β-重型地中海贫血综合征和血红蛋白疾患是印度中部地区主要的基因以及公共卫生挑战。据不确切数据,印度中央邦

  1. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  2. Assessment of prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric inmates residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric jail patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of prediagnosed psychiatric patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A matched control consisting of cross-section of the population, that is, jail inmates residing in the same Central Jail locality was also assessed to compare the psychiatric subjects. An 18 item questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among study subjects. Results: The total number of subjects examined was 244, which comprised of 122 psychiatric inmates and 122 nonpsychiatric inmates. Among all psychiatric inmates, about 57.4% of inmates had a diagnosis of depression, 14.8% had psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia, and 12.3% had anxiety disorder. A total of 77% study inmates, which comprised of 87.7% psychiatrics and 66.4% nonpsychiatrics had a habit of tobacco consumption (smokeless or smoking. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common tobacco related practices among psychiatric inmate population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the hazards of tobacco consumption and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of the prison population.

  3. Assessment of village-wise groundwater draft for irrigation: a field-based study in hard-rock aquifers of central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. K.; Syed, T. H.; Saha, Dipankar; Sarkar, B. C.; Patre, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Extracted groundwater, 90% of which is used for irrigated agriculture, is central to the socio-economic development of India. A lack of regulation or implementation of regulations, alongside unrecorded extraction, often leads to over exploitation of large-scale common-pool resources like groundwater. Inevitably, management of groundwater extraction (draft) for irrigation is critical for sustainability of aquifers and the society at large. However, existing assessments of groundwater draft, which are mostly available at large spatial scales, are inadequate for managing groundwater resources that are primarily exploited by stakeholders at much finer scales. This study presents an estimate, projection and analysis of fine-scale groundwater draft in the Seonath-Kharun interfluve of central India. Using field surveys of instantaneous discharge from irrigation wells and boreholes, annual groundwater draft for irrigation in this area is estimated to be 212 × 106 m3, most of which (89%) is withdrawn during non-monsoon season. However, the density of wells/boreholes, and consequent extraction of groundwater, is controlled by the existing hydrogeological conditions. Based on trends in the number of abstraction structures (1982-2011), groundwater draft for the year 2020 is projected to be approximately 307 × 106 m3; hence, groundwater draft for irrigation in the study area is predicted to increase by ˜44% within a span of 8 years. Central to the work presented here is the approach for estimation and prediction of groundwater draft at finer scales, which can be extended to critical groundwater zones of the country.

  4. A PROSPECTIVE, OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF ADVERSE REACTIONS TO DRUG REGIME FOR MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN CENTRAL INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rohan C. Hire

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: 1 To assess the adverse drug reactions of second line anti-tubercular drugs used to treat Multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB in central India on the basis of causality, severity and avoidability scales. 2 To study the relationship of type of MDR TB (primary or secondary and presence of diabetes mellitus (DM with mean smear conversion time. Material and Methods: A prospective, observational study was carried out on diagnosed multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients enrolled for DOTS‑Plus regimen at TB and Chest Disease Department from January to December 2012. They were followed for 9 months thereafter and encountered adverse drug reactions (ADRs were noted along with the time of sputum conversion. The data were analysed by Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test and unpaired student’s‘t’ test. Results: Total 64 ADRs were reported in 55 patients out of total 110 patients (n = 110. As per the Naranjo causality assessment of ADRs, 7 patients had “definite” causal relation, 45 had “probable” causal relation and 3 had “possible” causal relation with drugs of DOTS Plus regime. As per the Hartwig’s severity assessment scale, there were total 7 ADRs in Level 1, 6 in Level 2, 33 in Level 3 and 9 in Level 4. Hallas avoidability assessment scale divided the ADRs as 3 being “Definitely avoidable”, 26 “Possibly avoidable”, 23 “Not avoidable” and 3 “unevaluable”. . Mean sputum smear conversion time is significantly higher in patients with secondary type than that of primary type of MDR TB (p = 0.0001 and in patients with DM than those without DM (p <0.0001. Conclusion: ADRs were common in patients of MDR TB on DOTs-Plus drug regime. It was due to lack of availability of safer and equally potent drugs in DOTs-Plus drug regime compared to DOTS regime in non-resistant TB. The frequency and severity of ADRs can be reduced by strict vigilance about known and unknown ADRs, monitoring their laboratory and

  5. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  6. Finger Length Ratio (2D:4D) in Central India and an Attempt to Verify Fraternal Birth Order Effect: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arjun; Maitra, Chaitali; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-12-01

    A normal physiology of a human being is not mere a series of functions occurring with specific intensities and timing. There are lot of factors that may change the normal physiological activity within normal limits. Finger length ratio is one of the markers of intrauterine androgen exposure and it is debated and contradicted by many authors. Digit ratio varies among the ethnicities. Many Indian studies show that there is considerable difference in finger length ratio in different population. Data regarding Central India was not found on extensive search. To find out the finger length ratio and explore the birth order effect on finger length ratio among the first two successive born in the said population. We conducted a survey on 1500 volunteer persons (800 male and 700 female) over two years of time. We measured the length of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) of both the hands and asked about their birth order history to find out the digit ratio for Central India population and any existing correlation of the same with birth order. T Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for the measure of significance and difference among the groups. The peffect among the eldest, second born with elder brother and second born with elder sister groups, no significant (p>0.05) variation for finger length ratio of right and left hands observed in both male and female population. Our study reports that the finger length ratio (2D:4D) for Central India population did not show significant association between finger length ratio and fraternal birth order among the first two successive born.

  7. Sickle cell disease in Madhya Pradesh, Central India: A comparison of clinical profile of sickle cell homozygote vs. sickle-beta thalassaemia individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajiv; Lazarus, Monica; Ghanghoria, Pawan; Singh, Mpss; Gupta, Rasik Behari; Kumar, Surendra; Sharma, Ravendra K; Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam

    2016-10-01

    The clinical manifestation in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients varies from one individual to another due to factors like the presence of alpha-thalassaemia mutation, foetal haemoglobin, and β-globin gene haplotype. The present study enumerates the clinical profile of sickle cell anaemia patients from Central India. Seven hundred seventy-six SCD patients from Jabalpur and surrounding districts (Madhya Pradesh) in central India were registered with the sickle cell clinic of NIRTH, Jabalpur. The present study reveals recorded signs and symptoms of genetically confirmed sickle cell anaemia (404) and sickle beta thalassaemia (92) patients. Majority of the patients were from scheduled caste communities (47.9%) and Gond tribal community (13.8%). Splenomegaly was the most common clinical manifestation observed (71.4%). Overall, 63.5% patients had a history of blood transfusion. The most frequent signs and symptoms observed were Pallor, Icterus, Joint pain, Fever, and Fatigue. Majority of the patients revealed onset of disease prior to attaining the age of 3 years (sickle cell anaemia 44.3% and sickle beta thalassaemia 35.9%). Mean haemoglobin levels among SCA individuals were marginally higher than SBT patients. On the other hand, mean foetal haemoglobin levels among SBT individuals showed the reverse trend. Notably, the present study reports the first incidence of priapism recorded in Central India. The study revealed a high prevalence of SCD among scheduled caste, backward caste, and tribal communities. Dissemination of study findings, screening, pre-marriage counselling, and pre-natal diagnosis are fundamental to preventing or lowering of birth of sickle cell anaemia children in the affected populations.

  8. Clinical and endoscopic profile of the patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in central rural India: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute Upper Gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is one of the common causes with which the patients present to emergency. The upper gastrointestinal (UGI endoscopy remains a crucial tool in identification of UGIB. The aim of the present study was to determine the endoscopic profile of UGIB in adult population of rural central India admitted with history of UGIB (hemetemesis and/or malena. Methods: This prospective, cross sectional study was conducted in rural hospital in central India and we enrolled all consecutive patients aged 18 years and above who were admitted in the hospital ward with the history of UGIB. After obtaining the demographic data, all patients underwent clinical examination, laboratory investigations and video-endoscopy. We used Student's t test to compare means, Chi-square test to compare proportions and Mann-Whitney test to compare medians. P value <0.05 will be considered significant. Results: The mean age of our study population (N = 118 was 46.2 years. Among 118 patients who underwent endoscopy, 47.4% had esophageal varices, 27.1% had portal hypertensive gastropathy, 14.4% had gastric erosions, 5.9% each had duodenal ulcers and esophagitis, 5% had gastric ulcer disease, 4.2% each had Mallory-Weiss tear and had gastric malignancy, 1.7% had esophageal malignancy and 16.1% had normal endoscopic findings. Conclusion: Esophageal varices were the most common cause of UGIB in the adult population of rural central India presenting with UGIB, when diagnosed by video-endoscopy.

  9. Rapid Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Eye Tracking Evidence for the Limits of Weak Central Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Noemi; Snedeker, Jesse; Rabagliati, Hugh

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have often been reported to have difficulty integrating information into its broader context, which has motivated the Weak Central Coherence theory of ASD. In the linguistic domain, evidence for this difficulty comes from reports of impaired use of linguistic context to resolve ambiguous words. However, recent work has suggested that impaired use of linguistic context may not be characteristic of ASD, and is instead better explained by co-occurring language impairments. Here, we provide a strong test of these claims, using the visual world eye tracking paradigm to examine the online mechanisms by which children with autism resolve linguistic ambiguity. To address concerns about both language impairments and compensatory strategies, we used a sample whose verbal skills were strong and whose average age (7; 6) was lower than previous work on lexical ambiguity resolution in ASD. Participants (40 with autism and 40 controls) heard sentences with ambiguous words in contexts that either strongly supported one reading or were consistent with both (John fed/saw the bat). We measured activation of the unintended meaning through implicit semantic priming of an associate (looks to a depicted baseball glove). Contrary to the predictions of weak central coherence, children with ASD, like controls, quickly used context to resolve ambiguity, selecting appropriate meanings within a second. We discuss how these results constrain the generality of weak central coherence. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dynamic changes of photorecrptor layer in eyes with acute central serous chorioretinopathy after laser treatment by fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qin Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To dynamically observe the feeling change of the photorecrptor layer in the eyes with acute central serous chorioretinopathy(CSCRkrypton laser treatment by fourier-domain optical coherence tomography(FD-OCT, and to study their correlation with the chang of vision.METHODS: This is a retrospective case series study. The clinical diagnosis of 52 patients with monocular initial onset of central serous chorioretinopathy, krypton laser photocoagulation before treatment, after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8wk, 6mo, FD-OCT were performed to observe the morphological changes characteristic of photoreceptor layer and changes in vision. RESULTS: After 1wk treatment, all cases were improved; 2wk, 6 cases were cured; 4wk, 38 cases were cured; 6wk, 41 cases were cured; 8wk, 45 cases were cured, the OCT showed macular retinal neuroepithelial layer(RNLfrom fully absorbed; 6mo with the same 8wk. Before and after treatment in patients with best corrected visual acuity and from the height difference between the macular region of RNL was statistically significant(PPPCONCLUSION: FD-OCT can dynamicaly observed acute central serous chorioretinopathy krypton laser treatment of photoreceptor ultrastruture changes. Photoreceptor layer of complete and incomplete best corrected visual acuity difference was statistically significant(P<0.01.

  11. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  12. Preparation of pre-cut corneas from fresh donated whole globes for Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty: 3-year results at the Central Eye Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Javadi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Tahereh

    2014-09-01

    To describe the technique and the results of the preparation of pre-cut corneas for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) during a 3-year period at the Central Eye Bank of Iran (CEBI). The method of preparation of pre-cut corneas from donated whole globes at the CEBI is described and the frequency and percentage of pre-cut corneas prepared for DSAEK, between April 2009 and March 2012, are specified. Moreover, post-operative reports are reviewed for any complaints about using pre-cut tissues for DSAEK. Out of the 1,518 donated whole globes appropriate for DSAEK, 1,478 (97.4 %) pre-cut corneas were successfully prepared. The method of preparation failed in 40 (2.6 %) cases. Based on the eye bank post-operative reports, thickness of pre-cut tissues for DSAEK was deemed unacceptable in only 6 (0.4 %) cases prior to surgery; five of these were too thick and one was too thin. Preparation of pre-cut corneas, for DSAEK from donated whole globes, in the CEBI is a safe and easy method, with very good preservation of endothelial cells after the preparation of the pre-cut corneas and reduced risks from corneal manipulation.

  13. Contrasting expressions of aggressive behavior released by lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodzka, J; Hedberg, C E; Mann, G L; Morrison, A R

    1998-06-01

    Whether damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ace) contributes to the predatorylike attack sometimes observed in rapid eye movement sleep without atonia (REM-A), created in cats by bilateral pontine lesions, was examined. Such lesions eliminate REM sleep skeletal muscle atonia and release elaborate behavior. Unilateral damage to the Ace alone increased affective defensive aggressive behavior toward humans and conspecifics without altering predatory behavior in wakefulness. Pontine lesions added at loci normally not leading to aggression induced predatorylike attacks in REM-A as well as the waking affective defense. Alterations of autonomic activity, the absence of relevant environmental stimuli in REM-A, or both may explain the state-related differences.

  14. Burden of asymptomatic malaria among a tribal population in a forested village of central India: a hidden challenge for malaria control in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, M K; Raghavendra, K; Bhatt, R M; Swain, D K; Valecha, N; Kleinschmidt, I

    2017-06-01

    Chhattisgarh in India is a malaria-endemic state with seven southern districts that contributes approximately 50-60% of the reported malaria cases in the state every year. The problem is further complicated due to asymptomatic malaria cases which are largely responsible for persistent transmission. This study was undertaken in one of the forested villages of the Keshkal subdistrict in Kondagaon district to ascertain the proportion of the population harbouring subclinical malarial infections. Community-based cross-sectional study. Mass blood surveys were undertaken of the entire population of the village in the post-monsoon seasons of 2013 and 2014. Fingerprick blood smears were prepared from individuals of all ages to detect malaria infections in their blood. Individuals with fever at the time of the survey were tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and parasitaemia in thick blood smears was confirmed by microscopy. Malaria-positive cases were treated with anti-malarials in accordance with the national drug policy. Peripheral blood smears of 134 and 159 individuals, including children, were screened for malaria infection in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Overall, the malaria slide positivity rates were 27.6% and 27.7% in 2013 and 2014, respectively, and the prevalence rates of asymptomatic malaria were 20% and 22.8%. This study showed that, for two consecutive years, the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was significantly higher among children aged ≤14 years (34.4% and 34.1% for 2013 and 2014, respectively) compared with adults (15.2% and 18.2% for 2013 and 2014, respectively; P = 0.023 and 0.04, respectively). The number of asymptomatic malaria cases, especially Plasmodium falciparum, is significant, reinforcing the underlying challenge facing the malaria elimination programme in India. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  17. Mechanisms for strain localization within Archaean craton: A structural study from the Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone, north-central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saheli; Patole, Vishal; Saha, Lopamudra; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2015-04-01

    The transformation of palaeo-continents involve breakup, dispersal and reassembly of cratonic blocks by collisional suturing that develop a network of orogenic (mobile) belts around the periphery of the stable cratons. The nature of deformation in the orogenic belt depends on the complex interaction of fracturing, plastic deformation and diffusive mass transfer. Additionally, the degree and amount of melting during regional deformation is critical as the presence of melt facilitates the rate of diffusive mass transfer and weakens the rock by reducing the effective viscosity of the deformed zone. The nature of strain localization and formation of ductile shear zones surrounding the cratonic blocks have been correlated with Proterozoic-Palaeozoic supercontinent assembly (Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana reconstruction). Although, a pre-Columbia supercontinent termed as Kenorland has been postulated, there is no evidence that supports the notion due to lack of the presence of shear zones within the Archaean cratonic blocks. In this contribution, we present the detailed structural analysis of ductile shear zones within the Bundelkhand craton. The ductlile shear zone is termed as Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone (BTZ) that extends east-west for nearly 300 km throughout the craton with a width of two-three kilometer . In the north-central India, the Bundelkhand craton is exposed over an area of 26,000 sq. The craton is bounded by Central Indian Tectonic zone in the south, the Great Boundary fault in the west and by the rocks of Lesser Himalaya in the north. A series of tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite gneiss are the oldest rocks of the Bundelkhand craton that also contains a succession of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks comprising of banded iron formation, quartzite, calc-silicate and ultramafic rocks. K-feldspar bearing granites intrude the tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite and the supracrustal rocks during the time span of 2.1 to 2.5 Ga. The TTGs near Babina, in central

  18. Design of Gravity Survey Network using Fractal Theory to Delineate Hydrocarbon bearing Jabera Structure, Vindhyan Basin, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, V. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Vedanti, N.

    2006-12-01

    A gravity survey network was designed using fractal dimension analysis to delineate a domal structure (Jabera dome) reported in southeastern part of the Vindhyan basin, Central India. This area is also regarded as a `high risk-high reward' frontier area for hydrocarbon exploration in previous studies, hence our aim was to delineate shape and lateral extent of the reported domal structure. Based on the synthetic grid, designed using the concept of fractal dimension, gravity data is collected in Jabera-Damoh area of Vindhyan basin. The collected data is random, but the data density is significant, hence the data points are sorted in a way so that they are close to the synthetic grid points of given grid interval. After sorting the data, again the fractal dimension analysis using box counting method has been carried out to avoid the aliasing in the data due to interpolation and also to know the optimum number of data points sufficient for desired quality of Bouguer anomaly maps. Optimization of number of stations takes care of time and cost involved in the survey and the detectibility limit ensures that the data collected is good enough to resolve the target body under study. The fractal dimension analysis gives clue to select these parameters. It showed that it is always preferable to have well distributed station locations instead of clustering the observation points at some geologically known feature because clustering of data points below required station spacing is not going to add much information where as equally distributed observation points add the information. The study area lies in a difficult terrain of Vindhayn basin, hence according to the accessibility, fractal dimension analysis of the real data sorted approximately at regular grid intervals on 2,3, and 4 km has been done and using the concept of optimum gridding interval Bouguer anomaly maps of the region are prepared. The preliminary depth values of the major interfaces in the area were obtained

  19. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  20. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash R; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery-related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the 'three delays' framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery-related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services) were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were unable to claim their entitlements and that the duty bearers were not

  1. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Ram Jat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery–related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Design: Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using the matic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the ‘three delays’ framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. Results: All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. Conclusions: The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery–related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were

  2. PM2.5 pollution from household solid fuel burning practices in central India: 1. Impact on indoor air quality and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matawle, Jeevan Lal; Pervez, Shamsh; Shrivastava, Anjali; Tiwari, Suresh; Pant, Pallavi; Deb, Manas Kanti; Bisht, Diwan Singh; Pervez, Yasmeen F

    2017-10-01

    PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in residential indoor environment in slums of central India during 2012-2013. In addition, a suite of chemical components including metals (Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Mo, Se, Sb, Na, Mg, K and Hg), ions (Na + , Mg 2+ , K + , Ca 2+ , F - , Cl - , NH 4 + , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) and carbon (OC and EC) were analyzed for all samples. Indoor PM 2.5 concentrations were found to be several folds higher than the 24-h national ambient air quality standard (60 µg/m 3 ) for PM 2.5 in India, and the concentrations were found to vary from season to season. Mass closure was attempted for PM 2.5 data, and close to 100 % mass was accounted for by organic matter, crustal material, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols and elemental carbon. Additionally, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks associated with exposure to indoor PM 2.5 (inhalation, dermal and ingestion) were estimated and while exposures associated with dermal contact and ingestion were found to be within the acceptable limits, risk associated with inhalation exposure was found to be high for children and adults. Elements including Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, As and Pb were present in high concentrations and contributed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for residents' health. Results from this study highlight the need for efforts to reduce air pollution exposure in slum areas.

  3. Comparison of interpupillary distance and combined mesiodistal width of maxillary central incisor teeth in two ethnic groups of Northeast India: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Jogeswar; Serin, Sangma

    2018-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements of the face can be used as a guide in selecting proper sized anterior teeth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the interpupillary distance (IPD) and the combined mesiodistal width of maxillary central incisors (MDW of MCIs) to establish their morphometric criterion and their significance in two ethnic groups of Northeast India. A total of 120 participants consisting of 60 indigenous students each from Assam and Meghalaya in the age group of 18-25 years were selected after taking their written consent. Standardized facial frontal photographs of all the participants were taken using a digital camera in such a manner that maxillary anterior teeth were visible. The photographs were uploaded onto the computer and saved in a file. Anthropometric measurements of IPD and combined MDW of MCIs in centimeters were made using both Adobe Photoshop ® 7.0 software program and manually using a digital vernier caliper on the developed photographs to a same size of 15 cm × 10 cm. Data obtained were tabulated and analyzed using Student "t"-test and Pearson correlation test. The present study reveals a positive correlation with a high degree of statistical significance between IPD and combined mesiodistal width of maxillary central incisors among all the samples irrespective of gender and ethnicity where P < 0.01. IPD can be used as a guide in determining the suitable mesiodistal dimension of the maxillary central incisors.

  4. Isolation and molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus from the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India: evidence of an East, Central, and South African genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, N; Chaaithanya, I K; Senthil, G S; Shriram, A N; Bhattacharya, D; Jeevabharathi, G S; Sudeep, A B; Pradeepkumar, N; Vijayachari, P

    2011-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. In 2006, CHIKV infection struck the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, with an attack rate of 60%. There were more than 10 cases with acute flaccid paralysis simulating the Guillian Barre Syndrome. The majority of the patients presented severe joint pain. The cause for such an explosive nature of the outbreak with increased morbidity was not known. The isolation of CHIKV was attempted and succeeded from nine subjects presenting clinical symptoms of Chikungunya fever. The cDNA of all the isolates was sequenced for partial E1 and nsP1 genes. Sequences were aligned based on the double locus sequence typing concept. The phylogenetic analysis shows that sequences of Andaman isolates grouped with the East, Central, and South African genotype of virus isolates from India, Sri Lanka, and Réunion. The genetic distance between Andaman isolates and the Réunion isolates was very small. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the origin of the isolates responsible for the first ever confirmed CHIKV outbreak in these islands to be the East, Central, and South African genotype. In this manuscript, we discuss the involvement of the East, Central, and South African strain with the Chikungunya fever outbreak in this archipelago and double locus sequence typing as a first time approach.

  5. Depth to the bottom of magnetic sources (DBMS) from aeromagnetic data of Central India using modified centroid method for fractal distribution of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, A. R.; Anand, S. P.; Rajaram, Mita; Rao, V. K.; Dimri, V. P.

    2013-09-01

    The depth to the bottom of the magnetic sources (DBMS) has been estimated from the aeromagnetic data of Central India. The conventional centroid method of DBMS estimation assumes random uniform uncorrelated distribution of sources and to overcome this limitation a modified centroid method based on scaling distribution has been proposed. Shallower values of the DBMS are found for the south western region. The DBMS values are found as low as 22 km in the south west Deccan trap covered regions and as deep as 43 km in the Chhattisgarh Basin. In most of the places DBMS are much shallower than the Moho depth, earlier found from the seismic study and may be representing the thermal/compositional/petrological boundaries. The large variation in the DBMS indicates the complex nature of the Indian crust.

  6. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 Mass and Optical Attenuation Over an Ecologically Sensitive Zone in Central India by Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalkar, J.; Raman, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Ambient PM2.5 samples (N=366) were collected over an ecologically sensitive zone (Van Vihar National Park) in Bhopal, Central India for two years (01 January, 2012 to 31 December, 2013). Samples were collected using three co-located Mini-Vol® samplers on Teflon, Nylon, and Quartz filter substrates. The aerosol was then chemically characterized for water-soluble inorganic ions, elements, and carbon fractions (elemental carbon and organic carbon) using ion chromatography, ED-XRF, and thermal-optical EC/OC analyzer, respectively. The optical attenuation (at 370 nm and 800 nm) of PM2.5 aerosols was also determined by optical transmissometry (OT-21). The application of Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a combination of PM2.5 mass, its ions, elements, carbon fractions, and optical attenuation and its outcomes will be discussed.

  7. Management of Type 1 diabetes in a limited resource context: A study of the diabetes research education and management trust model in Nagpur, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sarah Zuijdwijk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Diabetes Research Education and Management (DREAM Trust (DT is a charitable organisation that offers free insulin and healthcare to children and youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D in central India. We systematically describe DT's model of care and evaluate medical and sociodemographic factors influencing glycaemic control in this resource-poor setting. Methods: Study of DT patients diagnosed with T1D <16 years old and followed at DT ≥1 year. Participants completed an interview, retrospective chart review and prospective haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c measurements. Uni- and multi-variate linear regressions determined factors associated with HbA1c. Percentage of underweight patients (as proxy for glycaemic control was compared at presentation to DT versus time of interview. Results: A total of 102 DT patients (51% female completed the interview and chart review. 74 had HbA1c measured. Median HbA1c was 10.4% (90.2 mmol/mol. In multivariate regression, higher HbA1c was independently associated with higher insulin dose/kg (P < 0.001 and holding a below the poverty line certificate (P = 0.004. There was no association between HbA1c and age, sex, caste, religion or experience of stigma. However, the psychosocial burden of T1D (expressed as concern about others learning about the diagnosis, and worry about the future, and experience of stigma were substantial. Percentage of patients with underweight body mass index was significantly lower at the time of study vs. presentation to DT (P = 0.005. Conclusions: The DT charitable programme overcomes social status, gender inequalities and experience of social stigma to provide life-saving treatment to children with T1D in central India. Glycaemic control remains inadequate however, with children living in extreme poverty most at risk.

  8. Eye Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.

  9. Red eye: Rule out Ophthalmomyiasis too

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmomyiasis is the infestation of human eye by the larvae of certain flies. Sheep botfly commonly manifests as Ophthalmomyiasis externa when there is conjunctival involvement or rarely as Opthalmomyiasis interna when there is larval penetration into the eyeball. It appears to be more common than what has been indicated by previously published reports. We present a report of seven cases of Ophthalmomyiasis by Oestrus ovis, from central India who presented with features of conjunctivitis varying between mild to severe. The larvae were seen in bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and also entangled in lashes with discharge. Since the larvae are photophobic, it is prudent to look for them in the fornices and also in discharge. Prompt removal of the larvae from the conjunctiva helps in relieving the symptoms and also prevents serious complications. Taxonomic identification of the species is important to estimate the risk of globe penetration by the larvae.

  10. Magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy among persons with diabetes registered at employee health department of a tertiary Eye Hospital of central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Khandekar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Low coverage for eye screening and laser treatment to diabetics among the staff of an eye hospital is a matter of concern. The underlying causes of low coverage of screening, digital fundus photography as a screening tool and management should be addressed.

  11. Effect of oil spillage on ecological diversity of pneumatophore associated fauna and flora in central west coast of india

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahoo, G.; Ansari, Z.A.

    .4 and 1.7 respectively Centrale diatoms dominated in case of sediment while pennales dominated on the pneumatophore surface In Goa, the diatom community was dominated by Nitzschia (1203 cells/1 cm2) and coscinodiscus (1876 cells/ 1 cm2

  12. The risk of cancer as a result of elevated levels of nitrate in drinking water and vegetables in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrates on the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development. Nitrate converted to nitrite under reducing conditions of gut results in the formation of N-nitrosamines which are linked to an increased gastric cancer risk. A population of 234 individuals with 78 cases of GI cancer and 156 controls residing at urban and rural settings in Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India were studied for 2 years using a case-control study. A detailed survey of 16 predictor variables using Formhub software was carried out. Nitrate concentrations in vegetables and primary drinking water supplies were measured. The logistic regression model showed that nitrate was statistically significant in predicting increasing risk of cancer when potential confounders were kept at base level (P value of 0.001 nitrate in drinking water; 0.003 for nitrate in vegetable) at P nitrate in drinking water at >45 mg/L level of nitrate was associated with a higher risk of GI cancers. Analysis suggests that nitrate concentration in drinking water was found statistically significant in predicting cancer risk with an odds ratio of 1.20.

  13. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S M; Bagde, M N; Bagde, N D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  14. Outcome of lupus nephritis in childhood onset SLE in North and Central India: single-centre experience over 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P; Abujam, B; Misra, R; Lawrence, A; Agarwal, V; Aggarwal, A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood SLE (cSLE) has a higher prevalence of lupus nephritis (LN), and there are ethnic variations in response to treatment as well as outcome of LN. There are limited data on long-term outcome of LN in cSLE from the Indian subcontinent. Retrospective analysis of case records of patients with cSLE (satisfying revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 criteria for diagnosis) and age of onset Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/ACR damage score was 0.79 ± 1.13. Actuarial ESRD-free survival at five, 10 and 15 years was 91.1%, 79% and 76.2%, and five-, 10- and 15-year renal survival was 93.8%, 87.1% and 84%, respectively. Although multiple factors individually predicted poor outcome (death/ESRD), only raised serum creatinine at onset (R square = 0.65, p ≤ 0.0001) and damage accrual (R square = 0.62, p ≤ 0.0001) remained significant on multivariate analysis. Eleven (8.2%) children died during the follow-up period, and infections were the leading cause of mortality. Long-term outcome of LN in cSLE in our cohort was better than previous reports from India. However, a high rate of major infection still remains the leading cause of mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Comparison of seropositivity of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis among Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-Donors versus voluntary cornea donors at a large eye bank in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Soham; Basak, Samar K; Biswas, Bani

    2017-11-01

    To compare the serology profile of donors from Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-donors (HCRP-D) and voluntary cornea donors (VC-D) from a large eye bank in Eastern India. This is a retrospective analysis of donor details from January 2011 to December 2016. Donor demographics, cause of death, and serology reports were compiled. Postmortem blood was tested for human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis using government-approved kits as per the National Programme for Control of Blindness Standards of Eye Banking. Donors for whom serology was not possible were excluded. A total of 4300 of 4353 donors were included of which 74.3% were hospital donors and 25.7% were voluntary donors. A total of 93 (2.2%) donors with 94 seropositive reports were noted: 79 (84.9%) from HCRP-D and 14 (15.1%) from VC-D which was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.02). Among seropositive reports, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis accounted for 12 (12.8%), 38 (40.4%), 36 (38.3%), and eight (8.5%), respectively. There was no correlation between the cause of death and seropositivity. A statistically significant decreasing trend in seroprevalence among hospital donors was observed over the years (5.3% in 2011 to 1.4% in 2016; P = 0.004). Two (0.47%) of 421 hospital donors with prior negative serology were found to be seropositive. Seropositive rates are significantly higher among hospital donors in spite of medical prescreening compared to nonscreened voluntary donors. Serology should be repeated even when prior reports are available.

  16. Comparison of seropositivity of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis among Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-Donors versus voluntary cornea donors at a large eye bank in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soham Basak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the serology profile of donors from Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-donors (HCRP-D and voluntary cornea donors (VC-D from a large eye bank in Eastern India. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of donor details from January 2011 to December 2016. Donor demographics, cause of death, and serology reports were compiled. Postmortem blood was tested for human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and syphilis using government-approved kits as per the National Programme for Control of Blindness Standards of Eye Banking. Donors for whom serology was not possible were excluded. Results: A total of 4300 of 4353 donors were included of which 74.3% were hospital donors and 25.7% were voluntary donors. A total of 93 (2.2% donors with 94 seropositive reports were noted: 79 (84.9% from HCRP-D and 14 (15.1% from VC-D which was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.02. Among seropositive reports, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis accounted for 12 (12.8%, 38 (40.4%, 36 (38.3%, and eight (8.5%, respectively. There was no correlation between the cause of death and seropositivity. A statistically significant decreasing trend in seroprevalence among hospital donors was observed over the years (5.3% in 2011 to 1.4% in 2016; P = 0.004. Two (0.47% of 421 hospital donors with prior negative serology were found to be seropositive. Conclusion: Seropositive rates are significantly higher among hospital donors in spite of medical prescreening compared to nonscreened voluntary donors. Serology should be repeated even when prior reports are available.

  17. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  18. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  19. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  20. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  1. Mortality pattern of burn patients admitted in S. G. M. Hospital Rewa: A teaching institute of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injuries rank among the most severe types of injuries suffered by the human body with an attendant high mortality and morbidity rate. In previous studies, incidence, severity and deaths due to burn were found higher in young married women in India. Study to find out mortality pattern in burn patient was not carried out in this part of country. Objective: To identify demographic and sociocultural factors, type, modes, causes and risk factors for burn injuries and their gender-wise association. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study. Data were collected from all burn patients who admitted and died while on the treatment from 2004 to 2009. A total of 586 patients were included in this study. Data were gathered from hospital records and entered in the excel sheet. Analysis of data was done by using SPSS version 17 statistical software. Results: The mean age of patients was 22.66 years (range 1 m to 80 years. Episodes of burn were 4.63 times common in female (82.25% than in male (17.75%. It was statistically significant in females of age group 21-30 years (93.93% vs. 15.33% P < 0.0001. Married females (86.80% burned more commonly than married males (13.19% P < 0.0001. Flame burn was the major cause of death (95.56%. Kerosene was the most common (69% source of flame burn. Clothes caught fire while working on Chullha were 25% cases ( P < 0.0001. Accidental (86.44% burn was the most common intention of injury. The majority of burn deaths (68% occurred within one week of the incident due to septicemia (57%. Conclusion: Factors associated with an increase in mortality were accidental burns, burn size, young age, married women, and flame burns. For planning and implementing prevention programs, the approach has to be multidisciplinary and coordinated.

  2. Perception of Medical Students about Communication Skills Laboratory (CSL) in a Rural Medical College of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagzape, Tushar Bharat; Jagzape, Arunita Tushar; Vagha, Jayant Dattatray; Chalak, Anita; Meshram, Revatdhamma Jagdish

    2015-12-01

    "The art of medicine is intricately tied to the art of communication." In traditional medical curriculum, communication is not taught formally and this leads to a gap in reliability and consistency of the teaching. Few studies have shown that much litigation against doctors is due to lack of communication and not because of lack of clinical expertise. Considering the importance of training in communication skills, it was included in the curriculum of students of DMIMS (DU), which has got probably the first communication skills lab in a medical college in India. To study the perception of medical students about usefulness of communication skills lab. This observational study was carried out at Communication Skills Lab (CSL) of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (M), Wardha, Maharasthra. Feedback was obtained with the help of a prevalidated questionnaire from 65 final MBBS students about their perception about utility of the module taught in the CSL including factors which helped and which hindered in learning. Descriptive statistics was used for the quantitative data and categorization for qualitative data. A total of 78.46% students were of the idea that CSL posting is must for all medical undergraduates. A 93.83% perceive that the module taught was very relevant and useful and were satisfied with the duration of posting (81.47%). A 78.46% students experienced improvement in their communication skills. They opined that more emphasis should be given on communication between doctor and patient (61.53%). The students found communication skills lab very useful. They desired more emphasis on communication between doctor and patient and sought more interactivity, video demonstrations to be part of the module.

  3. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...

  4. Working with women to improve child and community eye health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa Kothari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the slums and rural areas of India, visual impairment, blindness, and childhood blindness are usually more prevalent.In order to improve the eye health of children and the community in these areas, it is important to understand the influence women and mothers have over children’s eye health and the eye health of the community as a whole.

  5. A study of the spectrum of Acanthamoeba keratitis: A three-year study at a tertiary eye care referral center in South India

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    Bharathi Jayahar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Acanthamoeba keratitis and also to determine the sensitivity and specificity of smears in the detection of Acanthamoeba . Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all culture-positive cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis seen between October 1999 and August 2002 was performed. Corneal scrapes were subjected to culture and microscopy using standard protocols. Results: Out of 3183 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed corneal ulcers evaluated, 33 (1.04% were found to be due to Acanthamoeba . Twenty-four out of 33 (72.72% were less than 51 years of age ( P < 0.001. All patients were from rural areas ( P < 0.001 and 26 (78.79% of them were agricultural workers ( P = 0.031. All 33 had history of corneal injury ( P < 0.001 and 28 (84.85% patients had injury with mud ( P < 0.001. All 33 (100% patients had previous medical treatment ( P =0.009 and 10 (30.3% had used traditional eye medicines ( P =0.183. A clinical pattern of ring infiltrate was characteristic in 15 (45.45% patients. The diameter of the corneal ulcer was more than 6mm in 27 (81.82% eyes ( P < 0.001. Twenty-six (78.79% patients had visual acuity of perception of light on initial presentation ( P < 0.001 and 24 (72.73% had the same as their final visual outcome. The sensitivity of 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH preparation was found to be higher ( P < 0.001 in the detection of Acanthamoeba cysts. Conclusion: The incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis amongst the corneal ulcer patients was 1% in this setting and it was mainly due to corneal injury by mud. The KOH preparation is a sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of Acanthamoeba . Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and inappropriate antimicrobial therapy results in poor visual outcome.

  6. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

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    K.S. Seshadri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  7. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and its adverse health effects in central India: An exposure-response study

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    Neelam D Sukhsohale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some of the highest exposures to air pollutants in developing countries occur inside homes where biofuels are used for daily cooking. Inhalation of these pollutants may cause deleterious effects on health. Objectives: To assess the respiratory and other morbidities associated with use of various types of cooking fuels in rural area of Nagpur and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure (exposure index [EI] and various morbidities. Materials and Methods: A total of 760 non-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 15 years and above (mean age 32.51 ΁ 14.90 years exposed to domestic smoke from cooking fuels from an early age, working in poorly ventilated kitchen were selected and on examination presented with various health problems. Exposure was calculated as the average hours spent daily for cooking multiplied by the number of years. Symptoms were enquired by means of a standard questionnaire adopted from that of the British Medical Research Council. Lung function was assessed by the measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. PEFR less than 80% of the predicted was considered as abnormal pulmonary function. Results and Conclusions: Symptoms like eye irritation, headache, and diminution of vision were found to be significantly higher in biomass users (P < 0.05. Abnormal pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis, and cataract in biomass users was significantly higher than other fuel users (P < 0.05. Moreover an increasing trend in prevalence of symptoms/morbid conditions was observed with increase in EI. The presence of respiratory symptoms/morbid conditions was associated with lower values of both observed and percent predicted PEFR (P < 0.05 to 0.001. Thus women exposed to biofuels smoke suffer more from health problems and respiratory illnesses when compared with other fuel users.

  8. Prevalence of C-shaped canals in mandibular second and third molars in a central India population: A cone beam computed tomography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Shefali; Singh, Mahesh Pratap; Agarwal, Manish; Somasundaram, Pavithra; Rawtiya, Manjusha; Wadhwani, P K

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of C-shaped root canals in mandibular molars using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a subpopulation of Central India. CBCT scans of patients from diagnostic imaging center were selected in accordance with the criteria given by Fan et al . (2004) for C-shaped canals. A total of 238 CBCT scans fulfilled the inclusion criteria and thereby divided into two groups: Group 1: Images showing C-shaped canal configuration in mandibular second molars. Group 2: Images showing C-shaped canal configuration in mandibular third molars. The frequency and distribution of canals and their configuration along with the position of lingual/buccal grooves in the images were evaluated, and the data was analyzed. CBCT evaluation showed that 9.7% of second molars and 8% of third molars had C-shaped canals. A prominent buccal groove was seen in these teeth. The data showed a significant difference ( P = 0.038) for the presence of such anatomy on the right side for mandibular third molars. The study showed a significant prevalence of C-shaped canal configuration in the subpopulation studied.

  9. An assessment of the usefulness of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test, "Determine™ malaria pf" in evaluation of intervention measures in forest villages of central India

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    Shukla Manmohan

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria, is a major health problem in forested tribal belt of central India. Rapid and accurate methods are needed for the diagnosis of P. falciparum. We performed a blinded evaluation of the recently introduced Determine™ malaria pf test (Abbott, Laboratories, Japan compared with microscopy and splenomegaly in children in epidemic prone areas of district Mandla to assess the impact of intervention measures. Methods Children aged 2–10 yrs with and without fever were examined for spleen enlargement by medical specialist by establishing a mobile field clinic. From these children thick blood smears were prepared from finger prick and read by a technician. Simultaneously, rapid tests were performed by a field lab attendant. The figures for specificity, sensitivity and predictive values were calculated using microscopy as gold standard. Results In all 349 children were examined. The sensitivity and specificity for Determine rapid diagnostic test were 91 and 80% respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV, negative predictive values (NPV and accuracy of the test were respectively 79, 91 and 85%. On the contrary, the sensitivity and specificity of spleen in detecting malaria infection were 57 and 74 % respectively with PPV of 73%, NPV 59 % and an accuracy of 65%. Conclusions Determine™ malaria rapid diagnostic test is easier and quicker to perform and has other advantages over microscopy in not requiring prior training of personnel or quality control. Thus, highlighting the usefulness of a rapid antigen test in assessing prevailing malaria situation in remote areas.

  10. Structure of pseudotachylyte vein systems as a key to co-seismic rupture dynamics: the case of Gavilgarh-Tan Shear Zone, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2014-04-01

    The secondary fractures associated with a major pseudotachylyte-bearing fault vein in the sheared aplitic granitoid of the Proterozoic Gavilgarh-Tan Shear Zone in central India are mapped at the outcrop scale. The fracture maps help to identify at least three different types of co-seismic ruptures, e.g., X-X', T1 and T2, which characterize sinistral-sense shearing of rocks, confined between two sinistral strike-slip faults slipping at seismic rate. From the asymmetric distribution of tensile fractures around the sinistral-sense fault vein, the direction of seismic rupture propagation is predicted to have occurred from west-southwest to east-northeast, during an ancient (Ordovician?) earthquake. Calculations of approximate co-seismic displacement on the faults and seismic moment ( M 0) of the earthquake are attempted, following the methods proposed by earlier workers. These estimates broadly agree to the findings from other studied fault zones (e.g., Gole Larghe Fault zone, Italian Alps). This study supports the proposition by some researchers that important seismological information can be extracted from tectonic pseudotachylytes of all ages, provided they are not reworked by subsequent tectonic activity.

  11. Structure, Composition and Dominance � Diversity Relations in Three Forest Types of a Part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya, India

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    Dinesh Prasad SEMWAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant diversity assessment was carried out on the basis of species richness, tree crown cover and dominance-diversity pattern in different forests of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS, Central Himalaya, India during 2006-2009. The maximum tree species richness (10 spp. was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest and minimum in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. forest (8 spp.. Maximum tree density (170 trees/ha and high importance value index (89.68 was found in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. Mixed Rhododendron arboreum Sm. forest showed high tree diversity (H=0.96, while shrub were found highest in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus forest (H=0.62 and herb diversity in Q. semecarpifolia Sm.forest (H=0.73 respectively Maximum tree crown cover (82% was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest while minimum tree crown cover (58% was observed in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. In general random distribution pattern (A/F ratio was observed in all three types of forest. Alterations of land use pattern and population pressure are found to be main cause of increase in resources exploitation and that ultimately decreases species richness and diversity. Agro-forestry, alternate use of sites for resources and providing a recovery period to the forests are some of the strategies suggested for forest conservation, management and sustainable utilization of resources by the local people.

  12. Geochemical fingerprinting of ∼2.5 Ga forearc-arc-backarc related magmatic suites in the Bastar Craton, central India

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    Asthana, Deepanker; Kumar, Sirish; Vind, Aditya Kumar; Zehra, Fatima; Kumar, Harshavardhan; Pophare, Anil M.

    2018-05-01

    The Pitepani volcanic suite of the Dongargarh Supergroup, central India comprises of a calc-alkaline suite and a tholeiitic suite, respectively. The rare earth element (REE) patterns, mantle normalized plots and relict clinopyroxene chemistry of the Pitepani calc-alkaline suite are akin to high-Mg andesites (HMA) and reveal remarkable similarity to the Cenozoic Setouchi HMA from Japan. The Pitepani HMAs are geochemically correlated with similar rocks in the Kotri-Dongargarh mobile belt (KDMB) and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton. The rationale behind lithogeochemical correlations are that sanukitic HMAs represent fore-arc volcanism over a very limited period of time, under abnormally high temperature conditions and are excellent regional and tectonic time markers. Furthermore, the tholeiitic suites that are temporally and spatially associated with the HMAs in the KDMB and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton are classified into: (a) a continental back-arc suite that are depleted in incompatible elements, and (b) a continental arc suite that are more depleted in incompatible elements, respectively. The HMA suite, the continental back-arc and continental arc suites are lithogeochemically correlated in the KDMB and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton. The three geochemically distinct Neoarchaean magmatic suites are temporally and spatially related to each other and to an active continental margin. The identification of three active continental margin magmatic suites for the first time, provides a robust conceptual framework to unravel the Neoarchaean geodynamic evolution of the Bastar Craton. We propose an active continental margin along the Neoarchaen KDMB with eastward subduction coupled with slab roll back or preferably, ridge-subduction along the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) to account for the three distinct magmatic suites and the Neoarchean geodynamic evolution of the Bastar Craton.

  13. Hedotettix angulatus sp. nov. (Orthoptera: Tetrigoidea:Tetrigidae, Tetriginae) a new pygmy grasshopper species from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Shi, Jian-Ping; Chandra, Kailash

    2016-10-06

    Hedotettix angulatus sp. nov. is described from Chhattisgarh, India. The new species is similar to Hedotettix grossus Hancock, 1915, it differs from the latter by (i) anterior margin of vertex angulate, (ii) ovipositor robust, length of upper valves 2.2 times its width, (iii) antennal grooves situated above the lower margin of the compound eyes, (iv) median carina of vertex strong and extended up to the posterior end of depression, (v) facial carinae are all most parallel, (vi) frontal costa bifurcation starts in about ¼ of the compound eye height, (vii) anterior margin of middle carina of pronotum depressed. A key to known species of the genus Hedotettix from the Indian subcontinent is provided. Type specimens are deposited in the Central Entomological Laboratory (CEL) of the Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

  14. Rainfall-runoff-soil and nutrient loss relationships for plot size areas of bhetagad watershed in Central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothyari, B. P.; Verma, P. K.; Joshi, B. K.; Kothyari, U. C.

    2004-06-01

    The Bhetagad watershed in Kumaon Hills of Central Himalaya represents for hydro-meteorological conditions of the middle mountains over the Hindu Kush Himalayas. This study was conducted to assess the runoff, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different prominent land uses in the Bhetagad watershed of Central Himalayas. Four experimental natural plots each of 20 m length and 5 m width were delineated on four most common land covers viz, pine forests, tea plantation, rainfed agricultural and degraded lands. Monthly values of runoff, soil loss and nutrient loss, for four successive years (1998-2001), from these land uses were quantified following standard methodologies. The annual runoff in these plots ranged between 51 and 3593 m 3/ha while the annual soil loss varied between 0.06 and 5.47 tonnes/ha during the entire study period. The loss of organic matter was found to be maximum in plot having pine forest followed by plot having tea plantation as the land cover. Annual loss of total N (6.24 kg/ha), total P (3.88 kg/ha) and total K (5.98 kg/ha),per unit loss of soil (tonnes/ha), was maximum from the plot having rainfed agricultural crop as the land cover. The loss of total N ranged between 0.30 and 21.27 kg/ha, total P ranged between 0.14 and 9.42 kg/ha, total K ranged from 0.12 to 11.31 kg/ha whereas organic matter loss varied between 3.65 and 255.16 kg/ha, from different experimental plots. The findings will lead towards devising better conservation/management options for mountain land use systems.

  15. The Effect of Ocular Surface Regularity on Contrast Sensitivity and Straylight in Dry Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Shizuka; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Chikako; Asonuma, Sanae; Ogawa, Mai; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Oshika, Tetsuro; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between visual function and ocular surface regularity in dry eye.Methods: We enrolled 52 eyes of 52 dry eye patients (34 dry eyes with superficial punctate keratopathy [SPK] in the central corneal region [central SPK] and 18 dry eyes without central SPK) and 20 eyes of 20 normal control subjects. All eyes had a best-corrected distance visual acuity better than 20/20. We measured two indices of contrast sensitivity function under photopic conditions: con...

  16. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central vision A tear in the retina A blockage of the small veins that carry ... Since parts of the retina are burned, you may develop: Mild loss ... vision If not treated, diabetic retinopathy can cause permanent ...

  17. Magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy among persons with diabetes registered at employee health department of a tertiary Eye Hospital of central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Hassan, Arif; Al Dhibi, Hassan; Al Bahlal, Abdullah; Al-Futais, Muneera

    2015-01-01

    Background: To estimate the magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes registered at the employee health department of King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH). Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted in 2013–14 at KKESH. The case record review extracted demographic, profile of diabetes, diabetic complications, and different blood indices to determine the status of potential risk factors. Ocular profile, especially DR was also noted. Results: Our cohort had 94 staff with diabetes. Eye examination was carried out in 51 (54.8%) of them. The rate of DR was 52% (95% confidence interval (CI) 28–66). Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) (proliferative DR and/or diabetic macular edema) was present in 40% of those examined. Good glycemic control was noted in 42% of participants. Duration of diabetes was associated with DR (P = 0.04). Good glycemic control was negatively associated to DR (odds ratio = 0.2 [95% CI 0.04–0.6]). The coverage of eye screening was 55% only. Laser treatment was given to 80% of STDR cases. The lens opacity and glaucoma rate was 15% and 8.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Low coverage for eye screening and laser treatment to diabetics among the staff of an eye hospital is a matter of concern. The underlying causes of low coverage of screening, digital fundus photography as a screening tool and management should be addressed. PMID:26903721

  18. Magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy among persons with diabetes registered at employee health department of a tertiary Eye Hospital of central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Hassan, Arif; Al Dhibi, Hassan; Al Bahlal, Abdullah; Al-Futais, Muneera

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes registered at the employee health department of King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH). A retrospective review of medical records was conducted in 2013-14 at KKESH. The case record review extracted demographic, profile of diabetes, diabetic complications, and different blood indices to determine the status of potential risk factors. Ocular profile, especially DR was also noted. Our cohort had 94 staff with diabetes. Eye examination was carried out in 51 (54.8%) of them. The rate of DR was 52% (95% confidence interval (CI) 28-66). Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) (proliferative DR and/or diabetic macular edema) was present in 40% of those examined. Good glycemic control was noted in 42% of participants. Duration of diabetes was associated with DR (P = 0.04). Good glycemic control was negatively associated to DR (odds ratio = 0.2 [95% CI 0.04-0.6]). The coverage of eye screening was 55% only. Laser treatment was given to 80% of STDR cases. The lens opacity and glaucoma rate was 15% and 8.3%, respectively. Low coverage for eye screening and laser treatment to diabetics among the staff of an eye hospital is a matter of concern. The underlying causes of low coverage of screening, digital fundus photography as a screening tool and management should be addressed.

  19. Varicella zoster virus infection of the central nervous system – 10 year experience from a tertiary hospital in South India

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    Ronald Albert Benton Carey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Varicella zoster virus is an exclusively human neurotrophic virus. The primary infection with the virus causes varicella. The virus remains latent in nervous tissue and upon secondary activation causes a variety of syndromes involving the central nervous system (CNS including meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we looked at the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcomes of patients who were admitted with varicella zoster of the CNS from 2005 to 2014. Results: There were 17 patients. Fever was present in 13 patients, seizures in 9 patients and headache and vomiting in 4 patients each. A generalized varicella rash was present in 8 out of 17 patients. A single dermatomal herpes zoster was present in seven patients. Two patients had no rash. Varicella zoster polymerase chain reaction (PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was done in 5 patients of which 4 were positive and 1 was negative. Nine patients had diabetes with an average glycated hemoglobin of 8.6%. Total number of deaths was five. Conclusions: Patients with diabetes who develop varicella or herpes zoster may be at risk for CNS complications. The diagnosis of varicella encephalitis has to rest on a combination of clinical findings and CSF PCR, as neither the rash nor the PCR is sensitive enough to diagnose all the cases with varicella encephalitis.

  20. An investigation into the energy use in relation to yield of traditional crops in central Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Saradhi, P. Pardha; Rao, K.S.; Saxena, K.G.; Maikhuri, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Agrobiodiversity and agroecosystem management have changed in central Himalaya due to increasing emphasis on market economy and the motive 'maximization of profit'. Such changes have benefited local people in economic terms, but at the same time increased their vulnerability to environmental and economic risks. The present study addressed the issue of how the ecological functions that are provided by agrobiodiversity translate into tangible benefits for the society. Important characteristics of agrodiversity management are the use of bullocks for draught power, human energy as labour, crop residues as animal feed and animal waste mixed with forest litter as organic input to restore soil fertility levels. The present analysis of resource input-output energy currency in traditional crop production indicated that inputs into different crop systems were significantly higher during kharif season compared to rabi season both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. The maximum input for crop during rabi season (second crop season) was about 31% of that of kharif season (first crop season after fallow) under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions the rabi season input was about 63% of kharif season input. Under rainfed conditions, paddy sole cropping required maximum inputs (231.31 GJ/ha) as compared to mustard sole cropping (11.79 GJ/ha). The present investigation revealed that the total energy inputs and outputs are higher for irrigated agriculture as compared to rainfed system, the difference in inputs is about 5 fold and outputs is about 2 fold. The output-input ratio showed that irrigated systems have higher values as compared to rainfed systems. -- Highlights: → Agriculture continues to be biggest employment provider in the region. → Ecological functions that are provided by agrobiodiversity translate into tangible benefits for the society. → Analysis of resource input-output energy currency in traditional crop production. → Improvements in crop

  1. Geophysical and Seawater intrusion models to distinguish Modern and Palaeo salinity in the Central Godvari Delta, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagudu, S.; Nandan, M. J.; Durgaprasad, M.; Gurunadha Rao, V. V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Central Godavari Delta is located in the East coast of Andhra Pradesh along Bay of Bengal. Ample surface water is made available for irrigation and aqua culture through well distributed canals drawn from Godavari River since last 150 years. Groundwater in the area is highly saline though the groundwater levels are very shallow ranging from 1 to 3 m below ground level. Integrated Electrical Resistivity Tomograms (ERT), hydrochemical (pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, F-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, HCO3- and CO3-), isotopic (Br- and δ18O ) and density dependant solute tranport (SEAWAT) modelling studies have been carried out for four years (2006, 2007, 2014 and 2015) to identify the salinity sources and to understand the possible extent of seawater intrusion. The integration of all these data sets revealed that coarse grained sands exhibits resistivity of 4-20 Ωm forming the surface layer, clay layer exhibits Na2++ K+) and (Ca2++Mg2+), (Na+-Cl- ) vs. Ca2++Mg2+-HCO3--SO42-)) and ionic ratios ( Na2+/Cl-, SO42-/Cl-, Mg2+/Ca2+, Mg2+/Cl- and Cl-/Br) and δ18O does not reflect any modern seawater signatures. These models indicated that salinity in the shallow wells is due to dissolution of evaporitic minerals and ion exchange processes. In the pumping wells the salinity is due to upconing of entrapped sea water that belongs to Palaeo origin and wells located near the coast and mudflats is due to physical mixing of marine water. The estimated regional groundwater balance using SEAWAT model indicate significant amount of submarine groundwater discharge as outfall to the Bay of Bengal. Assuming observed hydrological conditions, no considerable advance in seawater intrusion would be expected into the delta region.

  2. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  3. Evaluation Of Prescription Pattern And Medication Adherence Of Antihypertensive Drugs In Stage 1 Essential Hypertensive Patients At Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Of Central India.

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    Chetan S. Urade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives- To study the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs and analyze the medication adherence to antihypertensive drugs at rural tertiary care teaching hospital.Materials and Methods- Prospective, observational, 12 weeks, questionnaire based study, conducted in rural tertiary care teaching hospital of central India. 214 antihypertensive prescriptions were analyzed by Morisky medication adherence scale. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel and Graph pad prism 6.0.Results- 28.03% patients were not aware about the medicines taken, 29.90% patients were unacquainted about dose and route of administration whereas 32.71% patients were unfamiliar about frequency of administration of medicines. 53.27% patients were unaware about precautions to be taken while consuming medicines.  58.68% & 12.67% patients consumed amlodipine & atenolol respectively. In 16.43% patients, atenolol + amlodipine combination therapy was prescribed.  Amongst 214 patients 12, 58 & 144 showed high, medium & low adherence respectively.  No significant difference was found on gender basis at any level of adherence.Conclusion- In this study, physicians given preference to amlodipine than other antihypertensive drugs. However, thiazide is a first line drug in stage 1 hypertension, recommended by JNC VII guideline. This indicates that there is need of creating awareness about current management of hypertension to clinicians by organizing various workshops. We observed only 5.60% patients showed high adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Therefore educational strategies must be carried out for physicians focusing on causes for nonadherence to antihypertensive medications. Also raising patient trust in their physicians may improve patient motivation to prescribed medication. 

  4. Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India

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    Nanda Nutan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at sibling species level for their biology in terms of resting and feeding behavior and malaria transmission potential. Methods Indoor resting vector mosquitoes collected during 2010–2011 were identified to sibling species by cytotaxonomy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies were done at sibling species level by counter current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA respectively. Results Analysis of sibling species composition revealed predominance of An. fluviatilis species S in the study area, which was found to be highly anthropophagic and rested in human dwellings whereas the sympatric species T was primarily zoophagic. Incrimination studies showed high sporozoite rate in species S, thereby confirming its vectorial efficiency. An. culicifacies was encountered in low numbers and comprised species B and C in almost equal proportion. Both these species were found to be exclusively zoophagic. Conclusion The observations made strongly suggest that species S of Fluviatilis Complex is the principal vector of malaria in certain forest areas of district Bastar, Chhattisgarh state and should be the target species for vector control operation. Vector control strategies based on biological characteristics of Fluviatilis S will lead to substantial decline in malaria incidence in such areas.

  5. Record of continental to marine transition from the Mesoproterozoic Ampani basin, Central India: An exercise of process-based sedimentology in a structurally deformed basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Saha, Subhojit; Das, Kaushik

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Ampani Group of rocks, a structurally deformed sedimentary package hosted within the Bastar Craton in central India, was studied for process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analyses. Outcrop mapping on 1:1500 scale, deconvolution of deformation pattern, and process-based facies analyses have led to the identification of fifteen facies types, clubbed under four facies associations. A range of paleoenvironmental settings varying from continental fluvial to distal marine shelf is inferred. Deductive paleohydrology revealed poorly-efficient 'dirty river' character for the Ampani River system with low water discharge. However, at times of catastrophic sheet floods release of sediments trapped at the river mouth in form of hyperpycnal underflows triggered formation of river mouth delta. Reworking of delta front sediment in wave-dominated coastline resulted development of beach-foreshore and shoreface (proximal to distal). Variation in the relative proportion of bar and interbar products within the shoreface successions exposed at different studied sections is interpreted as signature of relative bathymetric variation. The pro-deltaic Ampani shelf was storm infested. Tectonic perturbance in the basin hinterland in course of Ampani sedimentation is inferred from occurrence of a disparately thick lobate high-density flow deposit towards the top of shoreface succession and increase in feldspar content upward within the shoreface succession. Addition of detritus from a ∼1600 Ma Mesoproterozoic provenance in upper part of shoreface also strengthen the contention. Deconvolution of deformation pattern and delineation of environmental products ranging between continental and deep marine allowed us to infer the Ampani sediment package as fining-upward in character evolved in a transgressive mode.

  6. Clinico-radiological profile and outcome of dengue patients with central nervous system manifestations: A case series in an Eastern India tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souren Pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Dengue, an acute viral disease, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has a variable clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. However, neurological complications, in general, are unusual but have been observed more frequently in the recent past, and some studies highlighted varied neurological complications during the course of illness. Although dengue is classically considered a nonneurotropic virus, there is increasing evidence for dengue viral neurotropism. In this study, we have evaluated clinico-radiological profile and outcome of nine serologically confirmed dengue patients having varied manifestations of central nervous system (CNS involvement. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive patients presented with neurological complications with positive serology for dengue infection (IgM positivity in Department of Medicine, in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India from August 2013 to October 2014 were included in the study. These patients were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including complete hemogram, coagulation profile, liver function test, serum electrolytes, and routine CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid study with the exclusion of other common neuroinvasive pathogens. Results: Out of 9 patients with neurological complications associated with confirmed dengue infection, 2 (22% patients had dengue encephalopathy, 5 (56% patients have dengue encephalitis, 1 (11% patient had dengue meningitis, and 1 (11% patient had postdengue immune-mediated CNS involvement. Conclusion: This case series reaffirms the occurrence of varied CNS manifestations in dengue virus infection and underlines the importance of inclusion of dengue in the differential diagnosis of acute encephalitis syndrome.

  7. Magnetic Data Interpretation for the Source-Edge Locations in Parts of the Tectonically Active Transition Zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    The study has been carried out in the transition zone of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) which is seismically active with various geological complexities, upwarp movement of the mantle material into the crust through fault, fractures lamination and upwelling. NSL is one of the most prominent lineaments in central India after the Himalaya in the Indian geology. The area of investigation extends from longitude 80.25°E to 81.50°E and latitude 23.50°N to 24.37°N in the central part of the Indian continent. Different types of subsurface geological formations viz. alluvial, Gondwana, Deccan traps, Vindhyan, Mahakoshal, Granite and Gneisses groups exist in this area with varying geological ages. In this study area tectonic movement and crustal variation have been taken place during the past time and which might be reason for the variation of magnetic field. Magnetic anomaly suggests that the area has been highly disturbed which causes the Narmada-Son lineament trending in the ENE-WSW direction. Magnetic anomaly variation has been taken place due to the lithological variations subject to the changes in the geological contacts like thrusts and faults in this area. Shallow and deeper sources have been distinguished using frequency domain analysis by applying different filters. To enhance the magnetic data, various types of derivatives to identify the source-edge locations of the causative source bodies. The present study carried out the interpretation using total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative, horizontal tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative map to get source-edge locations. The results derived from various derivatives of magnetic data have been compared with the basement depth solutions calculated from 3D Euler deconvolution. It is suggested that total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative are the most useful tools for identifying the multiple source edge locations of the causative bodies in this tectonically active

  8. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments of Central India studied by NAA and ICP-MS. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Summary of progress of work done: Chhattisgarh (CG) is a newly born natural resourced, industrialized and rice producing state of Central India. It is situated between 17 - 24 deg. N latitudes and 80 - 84 deg. longitudes at altitudes of > 300 meters from sea level. The total area is ∼ 1.3x10 5 km 2 (4.1% of the country) with inhabitants of ∼ 20 millions in 16 districts. The state is based on the igneous and metamorphic rocks with huge deposition of minerals of iron, manganese, copper, aluminum, calcium, etc., and fossil fuel i.e. coal. The iron ore is deposited in 3 districts of souther CL In northern CG (i.e. Bilaspur, Korba, Raigarh, Koriya, Ambikapur) coal is heavily deposited. Other minerals and dolomite are deposited in central CQ The soil is red to red-yellow in color with low silica and high iron and aluminum contents. The area of forest is ∼ 40% (5.0x10 4 km 2 ) of the state. The state is situated at the highest summer temperature profiles, probably due to emission of huge amount of green house-gases by sources such as forest vegetation, rice field, combustion of fossil fuel, biomass burning, etc. After 1960 a rapid industrialization and urbanization of this region started due to abundance of the vast natural resourced materials. Most of the heavy metal industries, cement plants, thermal power plants of the country are in operation in this part of the country. The amount of coal consumed by various sources is estimated to be 10 million tons/year. Another geographical feature is that most of the acidic sulfate soil occurs in Ci Agriculturally a sufficient amount of fertilizers is used to enhance crop and vegetable yields, which results with an increase in nitrate level in surface and ground water. The state is very sensitive to the environmental threat of the country due to geographical, geological and metrological reasons. The investigation carried out in our laboratory revealed that the concentration of many trace elements i.e. Mn, Ni, Cu

  9. Significance of relic carbonate deposits along the central and southwestern margin of India for late Quaternary environmental and sea level changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Montaggioni, L.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.; Rao, K.M.; Rajagopalan, G.

    Environmental and sea level indicators were investigated using dredge samples from late Quaternary carbonate deposits along the shelf break between Goa and Cape Comorin, India. Geomorphic features in the area were identified from sonar profiles...

  10. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  11. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  12. Assessment of fine-scale resource selection and spatially explicit habitat suitability modelling for a re-introduced tiger (Panthera tigris population in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mriganka Shekhar Sarkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals’ ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris, which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies. Although landscape level policies and conservation strategies are increasingly promoted for tiger conservation, specific management interventions require knowledge of the habitat correlates at fine scale. Methods We studied nine radio-collared individuals of a successfully reintroduced tiger population in Panna Tiger Reserve, central India, focussing on the species-habitat relationship at fine scales. With 16 eco-geographical variables, we performed Manly’s selection ratio and K-select analyses to define population-level and individual-level variation in resource selection, respectively. We analysed the data obtained during the exploratory period of six tigers and during the settled period of eight tigers separately, and compared the consequent results. We further used the settled period characteristics to model and map habitat suitability based on the Mahalanobis D2 method and the Boyce index. Results There was a clear difference in habitat selection by tigers between the exploratory and the settled period. During the exploratory period, tigers selected dense canopy and bamboo forests, but also spent time near villages and relocated village sites. However, settled tigers predominantly selected bamboo forests in complex terrain, riverine forests and teak-mixed forest, and totally avoided human settlements and agriculture areas. There were individual variations in habitat selection between exploratory

  13. Assessment of fine-scale resource selection and spatially explicit habitat suitability modelling for a re-introduced tiger (Panthera tigris) population in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mriganka Shekhar; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh; Johnson, Jeyaraj A; Sen, Subharanjan; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals' ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger ( Panthera tigris ), which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies. Although landscape level policies and conservation strategies are increasingly promoted for tiger conservation, specific management interventions require knowledge of the habitat correlates at fine scale. We studied nine radio-collared individuals of a successfully reintroduced tiger population in Panna Tiger Reserve, central India, focussing on the species-habitat relationship at fine scales. With 16 eco-geographical variables, we performed Manly's selection ratio and K-select analyses to define population-level and individual-level variation in resource selection, respectively. We analysed the data obtained during the exploratory period of six tigers and during the settled period of eight tigers separately, and compared the consequent results. We further used the settled period characteristics to model and map habitat suitability based on the Mahalanobis D 2 method and the Boyce index. There was a clear difference in habitat selection by tigers between the exploratory and the settled period. During the exploratory period, tigers selected dense canopy and bamboo forests, but also spent time near villages and relocated village sites. However, settled tigers predominantly selected bamboo forests in complex terrain, riverine forests and teak-mixed forest, and totally avoided human settlements and agriculture areas. There were individual variations in habitat selection between exploratory and settled periods. Based on threshold limits

  14. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, Ashok K; Chand, Sunil K; Bharti, Praveen K; Singh, Mrigendra P; Nanda, Nutan; Singh, Om P; Sodagiri, Kranti; Udhyakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA. A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap). Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively) followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax) and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax) respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season. An. culicifacies species C (59%) was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%), B (8.7%), E (6.7%) and A (1.5%). Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99%) and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis

  15. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India.In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA.A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap. Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season.An. culicifacies species C (59% was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%, B (8.7%, E (6.7% and A (1.5%. Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99% and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An

  16. A large-scale investigation of the quality of groundwater in six major districts of Central India during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Peeyush

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the groundwater quality in six major districts of Madhya Pradesh in central India, namely, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Dhar, Jhabua, Mandla, and Seoni during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign, and discusses improvements made in the supplied water quality between the years 2011 and 2017. Groundwater is the main source of water for a combined rural population of over 7 million in these districts. Its contamination could have a huge impact on public health. We analyzed the data collected from a large-scale water sampling campaign carried out by the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), Government of Madhya Pradesh between 2010 and 2011 during which all rural tube wells and dug wells were sampled in these six districts. Eight hundred thirty-one dug wells and 47,606 tube wells were sampled in total and were analyzed for turbidity, hardness, iron, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulfate ion concentrations. Our study found water in 21 out of the 228 dug wells in Chhindwara district unfit for drinking due to fluoride contamination while all dug wells in Balaghat had fluoride within the permissible limit. Twenty-six of the 56 dug wells and 4825 of the 9390 tube wells in Dhar district exceeded the permissible limit for nitrate while 100% dug wells in Balaghat, Seoni, and Chhindwara had low levels of nitrate. Twenty-four of the 228 dug wells and 1669 of 6790 tube wells in Chhindwara had high iron concentration. The median pH value in both dug wells and tube wells varied between 6 and 8 in all six districts. Still, a significant number of tube wells exceeded a pH of 8.5 especially in Mandla and Seoni districts. In conclusion, this study shows that parts of inhabited rural Madhya Pradesh were potentially exposed to contaminated subsurface water during 2010-2011. The analysis has been correlated with rural health survey results wherever available to estimate the visible impact. We next highlight that the quality of drinking water has enormously improved

  17. First measurements of ambient aerosol over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India: Relationships between PM2.5 mass, its optical properties, and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Raman, Ramya; Kumar, Samresh

    2016-04-15

    PM2.5 mass and its optical properties were measured over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India between January and December, 2012. Meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and barometric pressure were also monitored. During the study period, the PM2.5 (fine PM) concentration ranged between 3.2μgm(-3) and 193.9μgm(-3) with a median concentration of 31.4μgm(-3). The attenuation coefficients, βATN at 370nm, 550nm, and 880nm had median values of 104.5Mm(-1), 79.2Mm(-1), and 59.8Mm(-1), respectively. Further, the dry scattering coefficient, βSCAT at 550nm had a median value of 17.1Mm(-1) while the absorption coefficient βABS at 550nm had a median value of 61.2Mm(-1). The relationship between fine PM mass and attenuation coefficients showed pronounced seasonality. Scattering, absorption, and attenuation coefficient at different wavelengths were all well correlated with fine PM mass only during the post-monsoon season (October, November, and December). The highest correlation (r(2)=0.81) was between fine PM mass and βSCAT at 550nm during post-monsoon season. During this season, the mass scattering efficiency (σSCAT) was 1.44m(2)g(-1). Thus, monitoring optical properties all year round, as a surrogate for fine PM mass was found unsuitable for the study location. In order to assess the relationships between fine PM mass and its optical properties and meteorological parameters, multiple linear regression (MLR) models were fitted for each season, with fine PM mass as the dependent variable. Such a model fitted for the post-monsoon season explained over 88% of the variability in fine PM mass. However, the MLR models were able to explain only 31 and 32% of the variability in fine PM during pre-monsoon (March, April, and May) and monsoon (June, July, August, and September) seasons, respectively. During the winter (January and February) season, the MLR model explained 54% of the PM2.5 variability. Copyright

  18. Comparative evaluation of bivalent malaria rapid diagnostic tests versus traditional methods in field with special reference to heat stability testing in Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in areas where both Plasmodium falciparum and P.vivax are co-endemic. Bivalent Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs showed promise as diagnostic tools for P.falciparum and P.vivax. To assist national malaria control programme in the selection of RDTs, commercially available seven malaria RDTs were evaluated in terms of their performance with special reference to heat stability.This study was undertaken in four forested districts of central India (July, 2011- March, 2012. All RDTs were tested simultaneously in field along with microscopy as gold standard. These RDTs were stored in their original packing at 25°C before transport to the field or they were stored at 35°C and 45°C upto 100 days for testing the performance of RDTs at high temperature. In all 2841 patients with fever were screened for malaria of which 26% were positive for P.falciparum, and 17% for P.vivax. The highest sensitivity of any RDT for P.falciparum was 98% (95% CI; 95.9-98.8 and lowest sensitivity was 76% (95% CI; 71.7-79.6. For P.vivax highest and lowest sensitivity for any RDT was 80% (95% CI; 94.9 - 83.9 and 20% (95% CI; 15.6-24.5 respectively. Heat stability experiments showed that most RDTs for P.falciparum showed high sensitivity at 45°C upto 90 days. While for P.vivax only two RDTs maintained good sensitivity upto day 90 when compared with RDTs kept at room temperature. Agreement between observers was excellent for positive and negative readings for both P.falciparum and P.vivax (Kappa >0.6-0.9.This is first field evaluation of RDTs regarding their temperature stability. Although RDTs are useful as diagnostic tool for P.falciparum and P.vivax even at high temperature, the quality of RDTs should be regulated and monitored more closely.

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  1. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Traditionally, India has had an extremely poor collection of direct taxes, not least due to ...... Economic Impact of Mobile in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, Serbia, ...... in India owes its origin to Gandhian principles, philosophy and practices.

  2. Changing environmental conditions in recent past — Reading through the study of geochemical characteristics, magnetic parameters and sedimentation rate of mudflats, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.T.; Nayak, G.N.; Fernandes, L.L.; Borole, D.V.; Basavaiah, N.

    ), +91 982 ak@unigoa.ac.in (G.N. Nayak). rights reserved.nt past — Reading through agnetic parameters and t coast of India a, D.V. Borole c, N. Basavaiah d matology, Palaeoecology ev ie r .com/ locate /pa laeorine sedimentation is usually a reasonably...

  3. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusany; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Shibu, Deepu; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan Edathurthy; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-04-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy.

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusany; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Shibu, Deepu; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan Edathurthy; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy

  5. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye can be caused by a work-related accident. It can also be caused by common household ... hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and ... A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  6. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  7. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...

  8. Eye Care Professionals' Perspectives on Eye Donation and an Eye Donation Registry for Research: A Single-Institution, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew M; Allingham, R Rand; Stamer, W Daniel; Muir, Kelly W

    2016-06-01

    A centralized eye donation registry for research could help to bridge the gap between patients interested in donating their eyes to science and scientists who conduct research on human eye tissue. Previous research has demonstrated patient and family support for such a registry. In this study, we assessed the views that eye care professionals have toward an eye donation registry for research. Surveys were distributed to all 46 clinical faculty members of the Duke University Eye Center. In addition to collecting demographic information, the surveys assessed clinicians' experience with discussing eye donation with patients, described the proposed eye donation registry for research and asked how the registry would affect the clinicians' practice. A total of 21 eye care professionals returned the survey. Thirty-three percent reported discussing eye donation with patients, and 43% reported that a patient has asked about donating their eyes for research on their disease. Eighty-six percent of eye care professionals reported that a centralized registry would improve the way they work with patients who express a desire to donate their eyes for research. The majority of eye care professionals at our academic institution indicated that an eye donation registry for research would improve how they work with patients who are interested in donating their eyes for research on their disease. Future research should examine how best to communicate this registry to ophthalmic patients.

  9. AcT-2: a novel myotropic and antimicrobial type 2 tryptophyllin from the skin secretion of the Central American red-eyed leaf frog, Agalychnis callidryas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lilin; Lyu, Peng; Zhou, Mei; Zhang, Huiling; Wan, Yuantai; Li, Bin; Li, Renjie; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Tryptophyllins are a diverse family of amphibian peptides originally found in extracts of phyllomedusine frog skin by chemical means. Their biological activities remain obscure. Here we describe the isolation and preliminary pharmacological characterization of a novel type 2 tryptophyllin, named AcT-2, from the skin secretion of the red-eyed leaf frog, Agalychnis callidryas. The peptide was initially identified during smooth muscle pharmacological screening of skin secretion HPLC fractions and the unique primary structure--GMRPPWF-NH2--was established by both Edman degradation and electrospray MS/MS fragmentation sequencing. A. cDNA encoding the biosynthetic precursor of AcT-2 was successfully cloned from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library by means of RACE PCR and this contained an open-reading frame consisting of 62 amino acid residues with a single AcT-2 encoding sequence located towards the C-terminus. A synthetic replicate of AcT-2 was found to relax arterial smooth muscle (EC50 = 5.1 nM) and to contract rat urinary bladder smooth muscle (EC50 = 9.3 μ M). The peptide could also inhibit the growth of the microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, (MIC = 256 mg/L) Escherichia coli (MIC = 512 mg/L), and Candida albicans (128 mg/L). AcT-2 is thus the first amphibian skin tryptophyllin found to possess both myotropic and antimicrobial activities.

  10. AcT-2: A Novel Myotropic and Antimicrobial Type 2 Tryptophyllin from the Skin Secretion of the Central American Red-Eyed Leaf Frog, Agalychnis callidryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilin Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophyllins are a diverse family of amphibian peptides originally found in extracts of phyllomedusine frog skin by chemical means. Their biological activities remain obscure. Here we describe the isolation and preliminary pharmacological characterization of a novel type 2 tryptophyllin, named AcT-2, from the skin secretion of the red-eyed leaf frog, Agalychnis callidryas. The peptide was initially identified during smooth muscle pharmacological screening of skin secretion HPLC fractions and the unique primary structure—GMRPPWF-NH2—was established by both Edman degradation and electrospray MS/MS fragmentation sequencing. A. cDNA encoding the biosynthetic precursor of AcT-2 was successfully cloned from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library by means of RACE PCR and this contained an open-reading frame consisting of 62 amino acid residues with a single AcT-2 encoding sequence located towards the C-terminus. A synthetic replicate of AcT-2 was found to relax arterial smooth muscle (EC50 = 5.1 nM and to contract rat urinary bladder smooth muscle (EC50 = 9.3 μM. The peptide could also inhibit the growth of the microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, (MIC = 256 mg/L Escherichia coli (MIC = 512 mg/L, and Candida albicans (128 mg/L. AcT-2 is thus the first amphibian skin tryptophyllin found to possess both myotropic and antimicrobial activities.

  11. Delay in presentation to the hospital and factors affecting it in breast cancer patients attending tertiary care center in Central India

    OpenAIRE

    N A Thakur; A Y Humne; L B Godale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Despite lower incidence of breast cancer in India, the total number of cases and the net mortality is high. To reduce this increasing load of mortality due to breast cancer we need to lay emphasis on early detection and increased use of systemic therapy. Early detection itself depends on early presentation to a health facility; thus, it is important to identify factors affecting delay in a presentation to hospital.Aim And Objectives: To study the clinico-social profile of breast...

  12. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  14. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  16. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  17. The prediction of spherical aberration with schematic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1996-07-01

    Many model eyes have been proposed; they differ in optical characteristics and therefore have different aberrations and image quality. In predicting the visual performance of the eye, we are most concerned with the central foveal vision. Spherical aberration is the only on-axis monochromatic aberration and can be used as a criterion to assess the degree of resemblance of eye models to the human eye. We reviewed and compiled experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye, calculated the spherical aberration of several different categories of model eyes and compared the calculated results to the experimental data. Results show an over-estimation of spherical aberration by all models, the finite schematic eyes predicting values of spherical aberration closest to the experimental data. Current model eyes do not predict the average experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye. A new model eye satisfying this assessment criterion is required for investigations of the visual performance of the eye.

  18. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  2. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to compare coral bank and seafloor seepage area-related characterization along the central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; VishnuVardhan, Y.; Haris, K.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Fernandes, W.A.; Kurian, J.

    ], [9]. In the western continental margin off Malpe, Karnataka coast, India, two living coral banks were identified using an EM 1002 multibeam echo sounder (MBES), namely, 1) the Gaveshani bank [10] and 2) an unnamed coral bank [11]. The other important.... MATERIALS AND METHODS The MBES data system for the present study was used to acquire a dataset during a survey (in 2006) onboard coastal research vessel (CRV) Sagar Sukti. The EM 1002 system operates at a frequency of 95 kHz and acquires the bathymetry 1545...

  3. Mineralogical sources of groundwater fluoride in Archaen bedrock/regolith aquifers: Mass balances from southern India and north-central Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Hallett

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: An estimate of weathering duration for the in situ regolith in Andhra Pradesh, 250–380 Ka, is close to a previous estimate for southern India. Partial or total destruction of the primary F-bearing bedrock minerals and consistent depletion of F in the remnant minerals result in a much reduced total F content in the regolith. Leaching experiments and field relationships, however, indicate a greater potential for F mobilisation to groundwater from the regolith than the bedrock. Schemes for managed aquifer recharge should beware the risk of mobilising additional F to groundwater.

  4. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  5. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  6. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  7. Drainage morphometric analysis for assessing form and processes of the watersheds of Pachamalai hills and its adjoinings, Central Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, A.; Jawahar Raj, N.

    2018-03-01

    The present study attempts to understand the form and geomorphic/hydrologic processes of the 20 watersheds of the Pachamalai hills and its adjoinings located in Tamil Nadu State of southern India from the analysis of its drainage morphometric characteristics. Survey of India's topographic sheets of 1:50,000 is the data source from which stream networks and watersheds of the study area were demarcated followed by the analysis of their morphometric characteristics using ArcGIS software. The results of the analysis formed the basis for deducing the form and processes of the watersheds of the study area. The form of the watersheds inferred from the analysis includes shape, length, slope steepness and length, degree of branching of streams, dissection and elongation of watersheds. The geomorphic/hydrologic processes inferred include denudation rate, potential energy, intensity of erosion, mean annual run off, mean discharge, discharge rate, rock resistivity and infiltration potential, amount of sediment transported, mean annual rainfall, rainfall intensity, lagtime, flash flood potential, flood discharge per unit area, sediment yield and speed of the water flow in the streams. The understanding of variations of form and processes mentioned can be used towards prioritizing the watersheds for development, management and conservation planning.

  8. 'Before reaching the last mile'- Knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers related to tuberculosis directly observed therapy among ASHA workers in Central India: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akash Ranjan; Pakhare, Abhijit; Kokane, Arun M; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Chauhan, Ashish; Singh, Abhishek; Gangwar, Arti; Thakur, Prahlad Singh

    2017-12-01

    Community-based direct observed treatment (DOT) providers are an important bridge for the national tuberculosis programme in India to reach the unreached. The present study has explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers perceived by the community-based DOT providers. Mixed-methods study design was used among 41 community-based DOT providers (Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHAs)) working in 67 villages from a primary health center in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional quantitative component assessed the knowledge and practices and three focus-group discussions explored the attitude and perceived barriers related to DOT provision. 'Adequate knowledge' and 'satisfactory practice' related to DOT provision was seen in 14 (34%) and 13 (32%) ASHAs respectively. Only two (5%) received any amount of honorarium for completion of DOT in last 3years. The focus-group discussions revealed unfavourable attitude; inadequate training and supervision, non-payment of honorarium, issues related to assured services after referral and patient related factors as the barriers to satisfactory practice of DOT. Study revealed inadequate knowledge and unsatisfactory practice related to DOT provision among ASHAs. Innovations addressing the perceived barriers to improve practice of DOT provision by ASHAs are urgently required. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aerosol Optical Depth Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liji Mary; Ravishankara, A. R.; Kodros, John K.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Chaliyakunnel, Sreelekha; Millet, Dylan B.

    2018-04-01

    Tropospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) over India was simulated by Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem, a global 3-D chemical-transport model, using SMOG (Speciated Multi-pOllutant Generator from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and GEOS-Chem (GC) (current inventories used in the GEOS-Chem model) inventories for 2012. The simulated AODs were 80% (SMOG) and 60% (GC) of those measured by the satellites (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer). There is no strong seasonal variation in AOD over India. The peak AOD values are observed/simulated during summer. The simulated AOD using SMOG inventory has particulate black and organic carbon AOD higher by a factor 5 and 3, respectively, compared to GC inventory. The model underpredicted coarse-mode AOD but agreed for fine-mode AOD with Aerosol Robotic Network data. It captured dust only over Western India, which is a desert, and not elsewhere, probably due to inaccurate dust transport and/or noninclusion of other dust sources. The calculated AOD, after dust correction, showed the general features in its observed spatial variation. Highest AOD values were observed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain followed by Central and Southern India with lowest values in Northern India. Transport of aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central India into Eastern India, where emissions are low, is significant. The major contributors to total AOD over India are inorganic aerosol (41-64%), organic carbon (14-26%), and dust (7-32%). AOD over most regions of India is a factor of 5 or higher than over the United States.

  10. Diabetic retinopathy in a remote Indigenous primary healthcare population: a Central Australian diabetic retinopathy screening study in the Telehealth Eye and Associated Medical Services Network project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, L; Jenkins, A; Keech, A; Ryan, C; Brown, A; Boffa, J; Bursell, S

    2018-05-01

    To determine diabetic retinopathy prevalence and severity among remote Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional diabetic retinopathy screening study of Indigenous adults with Type 2 diabetes was conducted by locally trained non-ophthalmic retinal imagers in a remote Aboriginal community-controlled primary healthcare clinic in Central Australia and certified non-ophthalmic graders in a retinal grading centre in Melbourne, Australia. The main outcome measure was prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Among 301 participants (33% male), gradable image rates were 78.7% (n = 237) for diabetic retinopathy and 83.1% (n = 250) for diabetic macular oedema, and 77.7% (n = 234) were gradable for both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. For the gradable subset, the median (range) age was 48 (19-86) years and known diabetes duration 9.0 (0-24) years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 47% (n = 110) and for diabetic macular oedema it was 14.4% (n = 36). In the fully gradable imaging studies, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy prevalence was 16.2% (n = 38): 14.1% (n = 33) for clinically significant macular oedema, 1.3% (n = 3) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.9% (n = 2) for both. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy had been treated in 78% of detected cases. A novel telemedicine diabetic retinopathy screening service detected a higher prevalence of 'any' diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a remote primary care setting than reported in earlier surveys among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Whether the observed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was attributable to greater detection, increasing diabetic retinopathy prevalence, local factors, or a combination of these requires further investigation and, potentially, specific primary care guidelines for diabetic retinopathy management in remote Australia. Clinical Trials registration number: Australia and

  11. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Howes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, held in place only by the "Chicken's Neck" or Siliguri Corridor - bears no relation to the way in which this region was imagined by the British East India Company (EIC in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Having obtained revenuefarming rights and judicial duties over the North-Eastern Frontier, as it was then known, through a 1765 diwani grant from the Great Mughal in Delhi, the EIC aspired first and foremost to revive the administration of revenue in the region, adding a monopoly in territory to their existing monopolies in the eastern trade. Given these primarily commercial interests, it should come as no surprise that the EIC's map-makers, their eyes fixed on the web of lucrative trade routes crisscrossing the region, homed in on the North-Eastern Frontier as the central point in "a synoptic vision that connected Bengal to China" (72. ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  14. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  16. Use of Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) Drugs in India: Central Regulatory Approval and Sales of FDCs Containing Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Metformin, or Psychotropic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Patricia; Roderick, Peter; Mahajan, Rushikesh; Kadam, Abhay; Pollock, Allyson M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, an Indian parliamentary committee reported that manufacturing licenses for large numbers of fixed dose combination (FDC) drugs had been issued by state authorities without prior approval of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) in violation of rules, and considered that some ambiguity until 1 May 2002 about states’ powers might have contributed. To our knowledge, no systematic enquiry has been undertaken to determine if evidence existed to support these findings. We investigated CDSCO approvals for and availability of oral FDC drugs in four therapeutic areas: analgesia (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), diabetes (metformin), depression/anxiety (anti-depressants/benzodiazepines), and psychosis (anti-psychotics). Methods and Findings This was an ecologic study with a time-trend analysis of FDC sales volumes (2007–2012) and a cross-sectional examination of 2011–2012 data to establish the numbers of formulations on the market with and without a record of CDSCO approval (“approved” and “unapproved”), their branded products, and sales volumes. Data from the CDSCO on approved FDC formulations were compared with sales data from PharmaTrac, a database of national drug sales. We determined the proportions of FDC sales volumes (2011–2012) arising from centrally approved and unapproved formulations and from formulations including drugs banned/restricted internationally. We also determined the proportions of centrally approved and unapproved formulations marketed before and after 1 May 2002, when amendments were made to the drug rules. FDC approvals in India, the United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US) were compared. For NSAID FDCs, 124 formulations were marketed, of which 34 (27%) were centrally approved and 90 (73%) were unapproved; metformin: 25 formulations, 20 (80%) approved, five (20%) unapproved; anti-depressants/benzodiazepines: 16 formulations, three (19%) approved, 13 (81%) unapproved

  17. Military Strategy Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  18. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  19. Development of zij literature in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghori, S. A. Khan

    Muslim astronomy, or to be more precise, Graeco-Arabic astronomy in Medieval India had its origin in West-Central Asia whence it passed to this country. Valuable contributions were made to it by Arabic and Persian knowing scholars. Hence in order to evaluate these contributions it is essential to know the nature, origin and development of this system, to examine important zijes prepared in West-Central Asia and to understand how they influenced the preparation of their counterparts in India.

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  2. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  6. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  7. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  8. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included

  9. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas emission under different soil nutrient management practices in soybean-wheat system of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, Sangeeta; Lenka, Narendra Kumar; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Singh, B; Raghuwanshi, Jyothi

    2017-02-01

    Soil nutrient management is a key component contributing to the greenhouse gas (GHG) flux and mitigation potential of agricultural production systems. However, the effect of soil nutrient management practices on GHG flux and global warming potential (GWP) is less understood in agricultural soils of India. The present study was conducted to compare three nutrient management systems practiced for nine consecutive years in a soybean-wheat cropping system in the Vertisols of India, in terms of GHG flux and GWP. The treatments were composed of 100% organic (ONM), 100% inorganic (NPK), and integrated nutrient management (INM) with 50% organic + 50% inorganic inputs. The gas samples for GHGs (CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O) were collected by static chamber method at about 15-day interval during 2012-13 growing season. The change in soil organic carbon (SOC) content was estimated in terms of the changes in SOC stock in the 0-15 cm soil over the 9-year period covering 2004 to 2013. There was a net uptake of CH 4 in all the treatments in both soybean and wheat crop seasons. The cumulative N 2 O and CO 2 emissions were in the order of INM > ONM > NPK with significant difference between treatments (p < 0.05) in both the crop seasons. The annual GWP, expressed in terms of CH 4 and N 2 O emission, also followed the same trend and was estimated to be 1126, 1002, and 896 kg CO 2 eq ha -1  year -1 under INM, ONM, and NPK treatments, respectively. However, the change in SOC stock was significantly higher under ONM (1250 kg ha -1  year -1 ) followed by INM (417 kg ha -1  year -1 ) and least under NPK (198 kg ha -1  year -1 ) treatment. The wheat equivalent yield was similar under ONM and INM treatments and was significantly lower under NPK treatment. Thus, the GWP per unit grain yield was lower under ONM followed by NPK and INM treatments and varied from 250, 261, and 307 kg CO 2 eq Mg -1 grain yield under ONM, NPK, and INM treatments, respectively.

  10. Covering one eye in fixation-disparity measurement causes slight movement of fellow eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsz, H. J.; Bour, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    In the subjective measurement of fixation disparity (FD), the subject fuses contours presented in the peripheral macular areas of both eyes (fusion lock). The position of the eyes relative to each other is monitored by means of two haploscopically seen vertical lines presented in the central macular

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of an inexpensive rapid on site malaria diagnostic test (ParaHIT f) among ethnic tribal population in areas of high, low and no transmission in central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, AK; Shukla, MM; Chand, SK; Bharti, Praveen Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Background Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. Rapid detection of the malaria parasite and early treatment of infection still remain the most important goals of disease management. Therefore, performance characteristics of the new indigenous ParaHIT f test (Span diagnostic Ltd, Surat, India) was determined among ethnic tribal population in four districts of different transmission potential in central India to assess whether this rapid diagnostic test (RDT) could be widely applied as a diagnostic tool to control malaria. Beyond diagnosis, the logical utilization of RDTs is to monitor treatment outcome. Methods A finger prick blood sample was collected from each clinically suspected case of malaria to prepare blood smear and for testing with the RDT after taking informed consent. The blood smears were read by an experienced technician blinded to the RDT results and clinical status of the subjects. The figures for specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and predictive values were calculated using microscopy as gold standard. Results The prevalence of malaria infection estimated by RDT in parallel with microscopy provide evidence of the type of high, low or no transmission in the study area. Analysis revealed (pooled data of all four epidemiological settings) that overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the RDT were >90% in areas of different endemicity. While, RDT is useful to confirm the diagnosis of new symptomatic cases of suspected P. falciparum infection, the persistence of parasite antigen leading to false positives even after clearance of asexual parasitaemia has limited its utility as a prognostic tool. Conclusion The study showed that the ParaHIT f test was easy to use, reliable and cheap. Thus this RDT is an appropriate test for the use in the field by paramedical staff when laboratory facilities are not available and thus likely to contribute greatly to an effective control of malaria in resource poor countries. PMID

  12. Desire for Children and Fear of Side Effects – A Basic Barrier for Acceptance of Contraceptive Services in Rural Area of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhari SG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to UN projection India’s population will reach 1.53 billion by the year 2050 and will be the highest population in the world. The success of the present RCH-II programme relies on the acceptance of contraceptive methods in reproductive age group. Objective: To determine the prevalence, type of contraceptive used and reasons for not accepting contraceptives in rural Maharashtra. Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out in field practice area of a rural tertiary health care hospital in Wardha district of Maharashtra, India. Married women in the reproductive age group of 15 to 49 years were the study participants. Results: Out of total 378 women respondents 223(58.99% were contraceptive acceptors. 62.78% women accepted permanent method of contraception. Among the temporary methods most commonly accepted was Cupper-T by 20.62% women. Commonest reason for not accepting contraceptives was desire of children in 30.32% women followed by fear of side effects in 18.06%. Conclusion: Many factors like desire for children; especially a male child, fear of side effects of contraceptives, breastfeeding, attended the menopause…etc converge to shape a woman’s attitudes about the use of and the need for contraception.

  13. Prevalence of α(+)-Thalassemia in the Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste Populations of Damoh District in Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mendi P S S; Gupta, Rasik B; Yadav, Rajiv; Sharma, Ravendra K; Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the allelic frequency of α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal) in Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe populations of the Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Random blood samples of Scheduled tribe (267) and Scheduled caste (168), considering the family as a sampling unit, were analyzed for the presence of the -α(3.7) (rightward) (NG_000006.1: g.34164_37967del3804) and -α(4.2) (leftward) (AF221717) deletions. α(+)-Thal was significantly higher in the Scheduled tribals (77.9%) as compared to the scheduled caste population (9.0%). About 58.0% scheduled tribals carried at least one chromosome with the -α(3.7) deletion and 20.0% scheduled tribals carried the -α(4.2) deletion. Frequency for the -α(3.7) allele was 0.487 in the scheduled tribal populations in comparison to 0.021 in scheduled castes. Allelic frequency for -α(4.2) was 0.103 and 0.024, respectively, in the above communities. No Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for α-thal gene (p population, indicating the presence of selection pressures in favor of α-thal mutation and adaptation.

  14. Food Habits of Spotted Owlet Athene brama (Temminck, 1821 in the Campus of Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur: an Ecological representation of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Paunikar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on food habits of the Spotted Owlet, Athene brama (Temminck, 1821 in Tropical Forest Research Institute campus, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India was conducted in June 2011 to May 2012 by analyzing their regurgitated pellets. The insect order Coleoptera with three dung beetle species, Onitis philemon, Onitis virens, Onitis brahma and two orders and five species of small mammals, Mus booduga, Vandeleuria oleracea, Millardia meltada, Suncus etruscus and Suncus murinus were recorded from the pellets. The other insect taxa found in the pellets include Carabidae and Hydrophilidae beetles and Earwigs in the order Dermaptera. This is for the first time food habits of the spotted owlets, being reported from the state of Madhya Pradesh, which further provides identifying key characters of the dung beetles along with illustrations, obtained from the pellet materials. The study on the feeding habits of the owlet species is very important not only for its significance in conservation but also for their predatory potential, as they are the main predators of insects and non insect pests (rodents of forestry and agricultural importance.

  15. Hemovigilance Program-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A centralized hemovigilance program to assure patient safety and to promote public health has been launched for the first time in India on Dec 10, 2012 in 60 medical colleges in the first phase along with a well-structured program for monitoring adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion and blood product administration. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB will be the National Coordinating Centre for Hemovigilance. This program will be implemented under overall ambit of Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI, which is being coordinated by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC. All medical colleges of the country will be enrolled in this program by the year 2016 in order to have a National Centre of Excellence for Hemovigilance at NIB, which will act as a global knowledge platform.

  16. Fighting corrosion in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, K S; Rangaswamy, N S

    1979-03-01

    A survey covers the cost of corrosion in India; methods of preventing corrosion in industrial plants; some case histories, including the prevention of corrosion in pipes through which fuels are pumped to storage and the stress-corrosion cracking of evaporators in fertilizer plants; estimates of the increase in demand in 1979-89 for anticorrosion products and processes developed by the Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI) at Karaikudi, India; industries that may face corrosion problems requiring assistance from CECRI, including the light and heavy engineering structural, and transport industries and the chemical industry; and some areas identified for major efforts, including the establishment of a Corrosion Advisory Board with regional centers and the expansion of the Tropical Corrosion Testing Station at Mandapam Camp, Tamil Nadu.

  17. Workers Education Programme in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansarkar, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    The philosophy of Workers Education in India is that strong and enlightened trade unions could be of great value in the rapid industrialization of the country. The Central Board for Workers Education has devised a number of training programs, the most important of which are training of education officers, worker-teachers training, and training…

  18. All projects related to india | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, India ... INFORMATION CENTRES, MANAGEMENT TRAINING, INFORMATION ... over minor variants of existing products, both in developed and developing countries. ... Region: Canada, North and Central America, Europe, United Kingdom, India, Pakistan, South Asia, ...

  19. Lithuania eyeing Swedish, Central European grid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Leedu valitsus kordas, et ühendab Leedu elektrivõrgu Rootsi, Poola ja Tsehhi süsteemidega. Ka Soome elektrivõrk ühendatakse Balti riikidega. Tabel: Millistest allikatest tuleb Baltimaade elektrienergia

  20. A study to assess the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS reporting to an ART Center of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Gunjan; Dixit, Sanjay; Yesikar, Veena; Sharma, Shiv S

    2013-01-01

    Effectively addressing the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and providing them with adequate care and support services are an essential intervention necessary to address the problem of HIV. The current study analyzed the needs of PLHA, the support received and the support required, to help frame comprehensive and focused programs for HIV infected individuals. The study was cross-sectional in design, incorporating quantitative analysis techniques and was conducted at the Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) Center of MGM Medical College Indore, India, from February 2009 to January 2010. A semistructured interview schedule was used to interview 420 respondents currently on ART and the data was analyzed using SPSS software. Males and females constituted 69 and 31% of the study participants, respectively. The major support received by the respondents was care and help from families and friends, free ART, medicines for opportunistic infections (OI) and monthly health check-up at the ART Center. Other support received included nutritional supplements, traveling allowance to travel to the ART Center for availing the monthly dose of ART and educational help for children. The major support required was regular availability of medicines for various OI and associated diseases at ART centers, free laboratory investigations at hospitals, educational help for children, employment opportunities, development of a vaccine, facility of households, availability of second line ART drugs at ART centers, decentralization of ART centers, strengthening of existing PLHA networks and support groups, and better and effective counseling services. Coordinated efforts by governmental, non-governmental sources and PLHA themselves will result in the development of a comprehensive package of care and support for PLHA, to cater to their needs and requirements.

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice about breast cancer and breast self-examination among women seeking out-patient care in a teaching hospital in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Rao; Gupta, D; Narang, R; Singh, P

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Early detection of BC and early treatment increases the chance of survival. According to Breast Health Global Initiative guidelines for low and middle income countries, diagnosing BCs early by promoting breast self-awareness; clinical breast examination (CBE) and resource adapted mammographic screening will reduce BC mortality. There is a paucity of data on the knowledge and awareness of BC and self-breast examination in India. We designed this hospital based cross sectional descriptive study to evaluate the current status of knowledge, awareness and practices related to BC and breast self-examination in the female rural population attending a teaching hospital. We did a random sampling to identify and enroll 360 women and their female relatives. We excluded a participant from the study if she had already undergone a screening mammography or had had a BC. The data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire in vernacular language. Our study population included 360 women with a mean age of 45.81 (±10.9) years. Only 5 (1.38%) females had a family history of BC. A whopping 81% of women did not have any knowledge about BC. All the women thought that CBE by doctors was the only way for screening BC. We concluded that with the results of this study, it is imperative to increase awareness about BC and its detection methods in the community through health education campaigns. We should have major policy changes to increase future screening programs and health education programs which would have an overall positive impact on reducing the disease burden.

  2. Delay in presentation to the hospital and factors affecting it in breast cancer patients attending tertiary care center in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, N A; Humne, A Y; Godale, L B

    2015-01-01

    Despite lower incidence of breast cancer in India, the total number of cases and the net mortality is high. To reduce this increasing load of mortality due to breast cancer we need to lay emphasis on early detection and increased use of systemic therapy. Early detection itself depends on early presentation to a health facility; thus, it is important to identify factors affecting delay in a presentation to hospital. To study the clinico-social profile of breast carcinoma patients attending a tertiary care hospital and to study the time lag since detection of lump by women and presentation to the hospital and factors affecting them. A total of 120 primary breast cancer patients visiting a tertiary care hospital over a period of 7 months (August 2010 to February 2011) were taken up for study. A detailed retrospective analysis of patients was done according to planned proforma. Maximum study subjects were in the age group of 41-50 years. Right and left breasts were equally affected. The most common histo-pathological type of breast carcinoma observed was invasive ductal carcinoma (NOS) in 105 (87.50%) cases. Majority of the cases were in stage III or stage II. The median time lag self-detection of lump in the breast by women and presentation to the hospital was 6 months. Women living in a rural area, those with lower socio-economic status and those with older age tend to assess health-care late. Carcinoma of the breast is a common cancer affecting young to middle age group with invasive ductal carcinoma being the most common histological type. Delay in presentation and late stage presentation is a major concern. Hence, proper awareness and screening programmers are needed to identify, inform and educate these categories of women.

  3. Population and Public Health Implications of Child Health and Reproductive Outcomes Among Carrier Couples of Sickle Cell Disorders in Madhya Pradesh, Central India

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    Ranbir S. Balgir, PhD;

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease is a major genetic and public health challenge in India. Adequate studies on clinico-hematological aspects of disorders are available, however there are few studies on the public health and reproductive outcomes among sickle cell carrier couples. Methods: A total of 383 couples including their offspring with at least one case of sickle cell disorder referred to a testing center from a tertiary hospital from March 2010 to February 2013 were consecutively studied as matched case controls. Results: Out of 383 couples, 200 were found normal and 183 had different sickle cell disorders. Carrier couples of sickle cell disease had significantly higher fertility (mean number of conceptions, i.e. 3.153 versus 1.480 and higher below 10 year mortality (11% versus 2.7% and lower surviving offspring (877.4 versus 970.6 than of controls. Neonatal and infant mortality was doubled (34.3 versus 14.7 and three-fold higher (44.1 versus 14.7, respectively in carriers of disease per 1000 live-births compared to controls. Couples of AS/SS genotype showed high neonatal, infant, below 10 year mortality (214.3 each and low surviving offspring (785.7 per 1000 live-births. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Sickle cell carrier couples are increasing in both trait and disease offspring (surviving: 56.7% against 43.3% normals. This increased production of carrier and disease offspring leads to increased morbidity, neonatal/infant and childhood mortality, and adversely affects the survival fitness.

  4. Statistical evaluation of rainfall time series in concurrence with agriculture and water resources of Ken River basin, Central India (1901-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Deo, Ravinesh C.; Ambade, Balram

    2017-12-01

    Trend analysis of long-term rainfall records can be used to facilitate better agriculture water management decision and climate risk studies. The main objective of this study was to identify the existing trends in the long-term rainfall time series over the period 1901-2010 utilizing 12 hydrological stations located at the Ken River basin (KRB) in Madhya Pradesh, India. To investigate the different trends, the rainfall time series data were divided into annual and seasonal (i.e., pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter season) sub-sets, and a statistical analysis of data using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall (MK) test and the Sen's slope approach was applied to identify the nature of the existing trends in rainfall series for the Ken River basin. The obtained results were further interpolated with the aid of the Quantum Geographic Information System (GIS) approach employing the inverse distance weighted approach. The results showed that the monsoon and the winter season exhibited a negative trend in rainfall changes over the period of study, and this was true for all stations, although the changes during the pre- and the post-monsoon seasons were less significant. The outcomes of this research study also suggest significant decreases in the seasonal and annual trends of rainfall amounts in the study period. These findings showing a clear signature of climate change impacts on KRB region potentially have implications in terms of climate risk management strategies to be developed during major growing and harvesting seasons and also to aid in the appropriate water resource management strategies that must be implemented in decision-making process.

  5. India and the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jasjit

    1996-01-01

    In trying to understand the Indian position with regard to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament (CD), it is necessary to note that this is a position for which extensive widespread consensus exists in the country. Two factors have been responsible for the evolution of this consensus. One concerns some core fundamental issues where nuclear disarmament is central to the Indian position; and the second relates to the technical and operational aspects of the treaty in terms of its comprehensiveness and verification means and methods. India's position that it will not sign the treaty in its present form is based on what it sees as central issues related to both aspects, although the issue of binding commitments to nuclear disarmament is more central. 15 refs

  6. India's population in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visaria, L; Visaria, P

    1995-10-01

    This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  8. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global shortage of donor corneas [2]. At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro [3] and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy [4]. Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue (CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP (4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation [5]. This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol [5]. This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of 'Eye for eyes' in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global

  9. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... It is telling that in a famous paper authored by the Nobel Prize winner, Robert ..... Examples are the steam engine, railroad, electricity, electronics, the ...... According to Gartner's Senior Research Analyst 'India's domestic IT services .... in new areas such as engineering services and product development.

  10. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Here Veena Jha surveys the history of philanthropic giving in India going back to the ...... claim that ICTs produced benefits go beyond those pertaining to investors and owners. ...... Anti-migration policies include restricted access to public services by below poverty ...... Which medicines and vaccinations are not available?

  11. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in healthy Turkish eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıcı, Ceyhun; Arslan, Osman Sevki; Dikkaya, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes. Methods. Specular microscopy was performed in 252 eyes of 126 healthy volunteers (M : F, 42 : 84). Parameters studied included mean endothelial cell density (MCD), mean cell area (MCA), coefficient of variation (CV) in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and central corneal thickness (CCT). Results. The mean age of volunteers was 44.3 ± 13.5 (range, 20 to 70) years. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD (P Filipino eyes and higher than that described in Indian, Thai, and Iranian eyes.

  12. NON-GENETIC EFFECT ON BODY WEIGHT AND BODY MEASUREMENT OF INDIGENOUS GOATS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF GROWTH IN NORTH CENTRAL PLATEAU CLIMATIC ZONE OF ODISHA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ray

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of season of birth, type of birth, sex and parity on body weight of indigenous goats under field condition in north central plateau agro-climatic zone of Odisha was studied. Data from 622 kids revealed that the overall body weights were 1.02± 0.01, 4.27± 0.03, 7.29± 0.05, 9.42± 0.08 and 12.09± 0.12 kg at birth, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and 12 month of age, respectively. Multiple births in the population were 72.3%. Significant difference was observed between male and female goats with respect to body weight in all stages of growth.Multiple births had significant effect on body weights of kids till 6 month of age. Season of birth had significant effect on body weight of kids only at birth and 3 month of age but parity did not show any significant effect on body weight at any studied stages.

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of picro-dolerite dykes from the central Deccan Traps flood basaltic province, India, and their geodynamic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Ashish; Viljoen, K. S.; Rathod, A.

    2018-04-01

    Constituent mineral compositions and whole rock major element geochemistry of picro-dolerite dykes from the central part of the Deccan flood basalt province are presented and discussed. The dykes are characterized by an MgO content of about 13 wt%, coupled with 13-16 modal percents of olivine. A high whole rock molar Mg# value of 71 and the presence of magnesian olivine phenocrysts ( Fo78) are consistent with a primitive (i.e. unevolved) geochemistry. The nature and composition of clinopyroxene (augite and pigeonite), plagioclase feldspar (labradorite) and Fe-Ti oxides (mostly ilmenite and magnetite) are also discussed, with implications drawn with respect to the geodynamics. High MgO magmas and rocks such as picrites are generally considered to be indicative of plume magmatism, formed by high degrees of partial melting in, e.g. the high-temperature region of a plume head. Recent age data is consistent with a model in which the Deccan LIP picritic magmatism is associated with the main phase of Deccan Trap activity at 66 Ma, as a result of a syn- to post rifting phase associated with the impact of the Rèunion mantle plume. It is speculated that the differentiation of primary olivine basaltic magma of picritic composition, may have been the mechanism for the generation of alkalic basalts which occurs in the Deccan Trap basaltic sequence.

  14. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  15. Dry eyes : a commonly missed eye condition

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Mario;

    2014-01-01

    Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  18. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  19. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

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    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  20. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... much as it does on your eyes. ... of Health | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  1. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  2. Preventing Eye Injuries

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    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  3. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of ... layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships ... Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on ...

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  12. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  18. Immunology of the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła

    2018-01-01

    The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...

  19. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  1. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  2. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  3. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  4. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  5. Evaluation of the effects of mulch on optimum sowing date and irrigation management of zero till wheat in central Punjab, India using APSIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwinder-Singh; Humphreys, E; Gaydon, D S; Eberbach, P L

    2016-10-01

    Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions. Therefore, a simulation study was conducted using the APSIM model and 40 years of weather data to evaluate the effects of mulch, sowing date and irrigation management and their interactions on wheat grain yield, irrigation requirement (I) and water productivity with respect to irrigation (WP I ) and evapotranspiration (WP ET ). The results suggest that the optimum wheat sowing date in central Punjab depends on both soil type and the presence or absence of mulch. On the sandy loam, with irrigation scheduled at 50% soil water deficit (SWD), the optimum sowing date was late October to early November for maximising yield, WP I and WP ET . On the clay loam, the optimum date was about one week later. The effect of mulch on yield varied with seasonal conditions and sowing date. With irrigation at 50% SWD, mulching of wheat sown at the optimum time increased average yield by up to 0.5 t ha -1 . The beneficial effect of mulch on yield increased to averages of 1.2-1.3 t ha -1 as sowing was advanced to 15 October. With irrigation at 50% SWD and 7 November sowing, mulch reduced the number of irrigations by one in almost 50% of years, a reduction of about 50 mm on the sandy loam and 60 mm on the clay loam. The reduction in irrigation amount was mainly due to reduced soil evaporation. Mulch reduced irrigation requirement by more as sowing was delayed, more so on the sandy loam than the clay

  6. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Injuries First Aid for Eye Scratches Protective Eyewear Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care Eye Injuries ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  7. Anterior eye protection with orbital neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of adequate doses of radiation to tumors involving the orbit and surrounding facial structures and sinuses is often complicated by the need to protect the sensitive ocular components, the lens and cornea. A technique has been devised that uses four photon beam fields and an optional electron field to treat the contents of both orbits and adjacent sinuses with effective, reproducible protection of cornea and lens. Essential features include: alignment of the corneal surfaces with the central plane of rotation of the treatment machine, use of a narrow eye block across the entire beam to shield a strip equal to the width of the cornea, positioned symmetrically across the central plane of rotation, fine alignment of the eye block with both corneal surfaces by altering pedestal angle, treatment with paired, wedged, anterior oblique fields to encompass desired orbital and sinus volumes with additional blocking placed as needed, and complementary, lateral strip fields using collimators set to eye block thickness to equalize dose in the posterior orbit shielded by the strip eye block. A similar anterior electron beam strip field may be added to boost the medial orbit and ethmoid regions covered by the eye block. Bite block head immobilization and easy, direct daily visualization of block position assures eye protection for each treatment and provides substantial reduction in dose to the cornea, lens and iris. Additional blocking may be incorporated to provide partial lacrimal and parotid sparing

  8. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  9. Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Asymmetric Keratoconic Eyes and Normal Eyes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Catalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the characteristics of asymmetric keratoconic eyes and normal eyes by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT corneal mapping. Methods. Retrospective corneal and epithelial thickness OCT data for 74 patients were compared in three groups of eyes: keratoconic (n=22 and normal fellow eyes (n=22 in patients with asymmetric keratoconus and normal eyes (n=104 in healthy subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC of receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves for each variable were compared across groups to indicate their discrimination capacity. Results. Three variables were found to differ significantly between fellow eyes and normal eyes (all p<0.05: minimum corneal thickness, thinnest corneal point, and central corneal thickness. These variables combined showed a high discrimination power to differentiate fellow eyes from normal eyes indicated by an AUC of 0.840 (95% CI: 0.762–0.918. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that topographically normal fellow eyes in patients with very asymmetric keratoconus differ from the eyes of healthy individuals in terms of their corneal epithelial and pachymetry maps. This type of information could be useful for an early diagnosis of keratoconus in topographically normal eyes.

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the frontal eye fields during saccadic eye movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi; Takagi, Mineo; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Miyauchi, Satoru.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated activity-induced signal intensity changes in the human cerebral cortex during horizontal saccadic eye movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast method. Compared with central fixation, significant signal increases were observed bilaterally in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 8) during saccadic conditions. The location of the activated area was consistent with that of previously reported frontal eye fields (FEF). These results suggest that fMRI has potential merit for the study of cortical control of eye movements in humans. (author)

  11. Eyes of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Deniz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency, a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous “intelligence”. Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV, i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.

  12. Eyes of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Oscar; Vallez, Noelia; Espinosa-Aranda, Jose L; Rico-Saavedra, Jose M; Parra-Patino, Javier; Bueno, Gloria; Moloney, David; Dehghani, Alireza; Dunne, Aubrey; Pagani, Alain; Krauss, Stephan; Reiser, Ruben; Waeny, Martin; Sorci, Matteo; Llewellynn, Tim; Fedorczak, Christian; Larmoire, Thierry; Herbst, Marco; Seirafi, Andre; Seirafi, Kasra

    2017-05-21

    Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some "classic" features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency), a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous "intelligence". Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV), i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT) platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus eye infections in two Indian hospitals: emergence of ST772 as a major clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadig S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Savitha Nadig1, Nithya Velusamy2, Prajna Lalitha2, Sarita Kar3, Savitri Sharma3, Gayathri Arakere11Society for Innovation and Development, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka, 2Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, 3LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, IndiaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing a variety of eye infections from two major eye care hospitals in India.Methods: Twenty-four isolates from Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, and nine isolates from LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India, representing severe to nonsevere eye infections like microbial keratitis to lacrimal sac abscess, were characterized. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, accessory gene regulator typing, staphylococcal protein A typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis were used, along with determination of the presence of Panton–Valentine leucocidin toxin and endotoxin gene cluster among each sequence type.Results: The majority of eye infections, both severe and nonsevere, were caused by sequence type (ST772, positive for the Panton–Valentine leucocidin gene, and carrying methicillin-resistant staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V cassette (22/33, 67%. Some of the other sequence types that caused severe eye infections were ST1 (9%, 5 (3%, 72 (6%, 88 (3%, 121 (3%, and 672 (3%. This is the first report of the presence of ST1 and 88 in India.Conclusion: Although the number of isolates included in this study was small, most of the eye infections were caused by community-associated S. aureus where patients had no history of hospitalization or treatment in the past year. In the case of six severe infections, patients were admitted for surgeries and there is probability of hospital infection. In addition, only methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V were

  14. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  15. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  16. Formal and Informal Employment Growth in Manufacturing (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Rodriguez, Mr. Edgard. Financement total. CAD$ 257,300. Pays. Asie du sud, Asie centrale, Extrême-Orient, Bangladesh, Inde. Chargé(e) de projet. Dr. Sandip Sarkar. Institution. Institute for Human Development. Pays d' institution. India. Extrants. Documents. Employment problem in India ...

  17. Online Bullying among High-School Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Ragan, Moira A.; Selvaraj, Priscilla R.; Shultz, Benjamin J.

    2017-01-01

    Six hundred and forty high-school students (Grades 7-12) from a large central government school in South India participated in this exploratory study of online bullying (cyberbullying) in India. Participants responded to the Survey on Social Use of Information and Communications Technology (SSUICT; Bhat and Ragan 2013). Findings indicated that…

  18. Eye Size, Fovea, and Foraging Ecology in Accipitriform Raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potier, Simon; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Bonadonna, Francesco; Duriez, Olivier; Isard, Pierre-François; Dulaurent, Thomas; Mentek, Marielle; Kelber, Almut

    2017-01-01

    Birds with larger eyes are predicted to have higher spatial resolution because of their larger retinal image. Raptors are well known for their acute vision, mediated by their deep central fovea. Because foraging strategies may demand specific visual adaptations, eye size and fovea may differ between species with different foraging ecology. We tested whether predators (actively hunting mobile prey) and carrion eaters (eating dead prey) from the order Accipitriformes differ in eye size, foveal depth, and retinal thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and comparative phylogenetic methods. We found that (1) all studied predators (except one) had a central and a temporal fovea, but all carrion eaters had only the central fovea; (2) eye size scaled with body mass both in predators and carrion eaters; (3) predators had larger eyes relative to body mass and a thicker retina at the edge of the fovea than carrion eaters, but there was no difference in the depth of the central fovea between the groups. Finally, we found that (4) larger eyes generally had a deeper central fovea. These results suggest that the visual system of raptors within the order Accipitriformes may be highly adapted to the foraging strategy, except for the foveal depth, which seems mostly dependent upon the eye size. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. FDI Climate in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Varun

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...

  20. Burning Eye Syndrome: Do Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms Underlie Chronic Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalangara, Jerry P; Galor, Anat; Levitt, Roy C; Felix, Elizabeth R; Alegret, Ramon; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye is a multi-factorial disorder that manifests with painful ocular symptoms and visual disturbances, which can only be partly attributed to tear dysfunction. This disorder may also involve neuroplasticity in response to neuronal injury. This review will emphasize the key characteristics of dry eye pain and its pathologic mechanisms, making the argument that a subset of dry eye represents a neuropathic pain disorder of the eye, more appropriately called "burning eye syndrome." A literature review was conducted using a PubMed search focusing on dry eye, corneal nociception, and neuropathic pain. Articles were reviewed and those discussing clinical course, pathophysiology, and neuronal regulation of chronic ocular pain as related to dry eye were summarized. We found that there is a discordance between ocular pain and dryness on the ocular surface. Although tear dysfunction may be one of the initial insults, its persistence may be associated with repeated ocular sensory nerve injury leading to an acute-to-chronic pain transition associated with neuropathologic changes (peripheral and central sensitization), neuronal dysfunction, and spontaneous ocular pain. Dry eye is becoming a major health concern due to its increasing incidence, significant morbidity, and economic burden. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of dry eye may be better represented as a chronic neuropathic pain disorder due to its features of dysesthesia, spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. Future therapies targeted at the underlying neuroplasticity may yield improved efficacy for patients with this subset of dry eye, which we term "burning eye syndrome." © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. (Late Cretaceous), Narmada Basin, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    67

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... The study is based on the fresh collections from three ... and south forming an intervening graben (Kumar et. al. 1999 .... morphologically highly variable ammonite Placenticeras mintoi (Vredenberg), Jaitly and Ajane .... The authors thank to the Department of Geology for providing facilities of research work.

  2. A case-study from central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    est type 3C/C2), southern tropical moist deciduous forest: (forest .... Figure 2. Grassland and tree extent in Ronda as seen on temporal datasets as listed further: (a) 1962 (data source: Corona); .... in the west (eds) Vavra M, Laycock W A and Pieper R D. (Denver: ... eastern Arizona; In: The desert grassland (eds) McClaran.

  3. Holocene aridification of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  5. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  6. LASIK eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  8. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  10. Strengthening Resilience in Tsunami-affected Communities (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . During the December 2004 tsunami in South Asia, it was reported that mangrove wetlands and other thick coastal vegetation served to ... India, Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia ... M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation.

  11. All projects related to India | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Sri Lanka, China, India ... in the area of poverty, economic development and environmental change in seven countries ... Collaboration on the Issue of Violence against Women in Meghalaya.

  12. All projects related to india | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, ... small and off-farm enterprises, especially those operated by women, in South Asia. ... Asymmetric Demography and Global Financial Governance. Project.

  13. All projects related to India | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South ... currently attempting to balance rapid economic growth, technological growth and ... Globalization of Innovation : Manifestation, Determinants and Implications for ...

  14. All projects related to india | Page 18 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC REFORM, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, ECONOMIC LEGISLATION, SOCIAL ... Program: Employment and Growth ... Region: Argentina, South America, India, Kenya, Mexico, North and Central America, North of Sahara, South ...

  15. An evaluation of medical tourism in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhvinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is a fast growing multibillion-dollar industry around the world and it entails trade in services of two major industries i.e. medicine and tourism. India is currently promoting medical tourism aggressively. The present study presents an overview of medical tourism in India and presents a SWOT analysis and concludes with some valuable suggestions to develop India as a global Medical Tourism destination. The research is descriptive in nature and the data used includes interviews and discussions with various stakeholders as well as a literature review based on secondary sources. The research reveals that the key competitive advantages of India in the medical tourism arena arises from the following: low cost advantage, strong reputation in the advanced healthcare segment (cardiovascular surgery, organ transplants, eye surgery etc. and the diversity of the many and unique tourist destinations available in the country. The key concerns facing the industry include: absence of government initiatives, the lack of a coordinated effort to promote the industry, the lack of an accreditation mechanism for hospitals and the lack of uniform pricing policies and standards across hospitals throughout India.

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ...

  17. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  18. XI. THE WATERING EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cause a watering eye; this condition is.called epiphora. Clearly, then, in investigating ... blockage is a common disease in the middle age-groups seen in hospital .... a dry eye, and this is so much worse than a wet one that the procedure is only ...

  19. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  1. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  2. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  3. LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the front of your eye — to improve vision. Normally, images are clearly focused on the retina in the back of your eye because the ... sharply, light rays focus in front of the retina and blur distant vision. You can see objects that are close fairly ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film is made of three ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ...

  8. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ...

  12. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  17. Apoptosis in the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chahory , Sabine; Torriglia , Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. Cells die during apoptosis in a controlled, regulated fashion. This form of cell death is very important in eye development as well as in eye pathology. We review in this chapter our current knowledge in this topic.

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ...

  19. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Breast Cancer to Avoid Chemo Could a Blood Test Spot Lung Cancer Early? Experimental Drug Shows 'Modest' Benefit ... often done when bulging affects only one eye. Blood tests to measure how well the thyroid is working are done when ... When bulging leads to severe dry eyes, lubrication with artificial tears is needed to ...

  20. Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinhan; Hong, Jiaxu; Wang, Fei; Deng, Sophie X; Yang, Yujing; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Yujin; Xu, Jianjiang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the features of corneal epithelial thickness topography with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in dry eye patients. In this cross-sectional study, 100 symptomatic dry eye patients and 35 normal subjects were enrolled. All participants answered the ocular surface disease index questionnaire and were subjected to OCT, corneal fluorescein staining, tear breakup time, Schirmer 1 test without anesthetic (S1t), and meibomian morphology. Several epithelium statistics for each eye, including central, superior, inferior, minimum, maximum, minimum - maximum, and map standard deviation, were averaged. Correlations of epithelial thickness with the symptoms of dry eye were calculated. The mean (±SD) central, superior, and inferior corneal epithelial thickness was 53.57 (±3.31) μm, 52.00 (±3.39) μm, and 53.03 (±3.67) μm in normal eyes and 52.71 (±2.83) μm, 50.58 (±3.44) μm, and 52.53 (±3.36) μm in dry eyes, respectively. The superior corneal epithelium was thinner in dry eye patients compared with normal subjects (p = 0.037), whereas central and inferior epithelium were not statistically different. In the dry eye group, patients with higher severity grades had thinner superior (p = 0.017) and minimum (p dry eye corneal epithelium was thinner than normal eyes in the superior region. In more severe dry eye disease patients, the superior and minimum epithelium was much thinner, with a greater range of map standard deviation.

  1. Microsecond yellow laser for subfoveal leaks in central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambiya V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vikas Ambiya, Abhilash Goud, Annie Mathai, Padmaja Kumari Rani, Jay Chhablani Srimati Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Center, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Purpose: To evaluate the role of navigated yellow microsecond laser in treating subfoveal leaks in nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Methods: This prospective study included ten eyes of ten consecutive patients with nonresolving CSC with subfoveal leaks. All eyes were treated with 577 nm navigated yellow microsecond laser (5% duty cycle. Key inclusion criteria include a vision loss for a duration of minimum 3 months duration due to focal subfoveal leak on fluorescein angiography. Key exclusion criteria include prior treatment for CSC and any signs of chronic CSC. Comprehensive examination, in addition to low-contrast visual acuity assessment, microperimetry, autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus fluorescein angiography, was done at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rescue laser was performed as per predefined criteria at 3 months. Results: The average best-corrected visual acuity improved from 73.3±16.1 letters to 75.8±14.0 (P=0.69 at 3 months and 76.9±13.0 (P=0.59 at 6 months, but was not statistically significant. Low-contrast visual acuity assessment (logMAR improved from 0.41±0.32 to 0.35±0.42 (P=0.50 at 3 months and 0.28±0.33 (P=0.18 at 6 months. Average retinal sensitivity significantly improved from baseline 18.93±7.19 dB to 22.49±6.67 dB (P=0.01 at 3 months and 21.46±8.47 dB (P=0.04 at 6 months. Rescue laser was required only in one eye at 3 months; however, laser was required in three eyes at 6 months. Conclusion: Microsecond laser is a safe and effective modality for treating cases of nonresolving CSC with subfoveal leaks. Keywords: CSC, central serous chorioretinopathy, Navilas®, navigated laser, microsecond yellow laser

  2. India : tous les projets | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ ... Sujet: INDIGENOUS POPULATION, BIODIVERSITY, FOREST PRODUCTS, FOREST UTILIZATION, FOREST MANAGEMENT, FOREST CONSERVATION. Région: India, Central Asia, Far East ...

  3. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  4. Aquaporins in the Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The major part of the eye consists of water . Continuous movement of water and ions between the ocular compartments and to the systemic circulation is pivotal for many physiological functions in the eye. The movement of water facilitates removal of the many metabolic products of corneal-, ciliary...... pressure. In the retina, water is transported into the vitreous body and across the retinal pigment epithelium to regulate the extracellular environment and the hydration of the retina. Aquaporins (AQPs ) take part in the water transport throughout the eye....

  5. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  7. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  8. AIDS in India: emerging from initial chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-01-01

    India's response to AIDS has ranged from a 3-phase official surveillance program begun by the India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1985, to legislation criticized as "bigoted and superficial", to conflicting messages, panic and confusion. The ICMR has determined that HIV is transmitted mainly by heterosexual contacts in India. In the media the Director-General of the ICMR was cited as recommending that sex with foreign visitors be banned, as a way to contain the HIV epidemic. Media also reported that defective ELISA screening kits were imported into India that infection control in some hospitals is sub-optimal, that the blood and blood products supply is grossly contaminated with HIV and that certain commercial blood donors were infected from giving blood. All foreign students currently must be HIV-negative to get a visa. It is a major problem to plan an AIDS education campaign with India's large illiterate population and dozens of languages. An AIDS network is emerging incorporating ICMR, the All India Institute of Medical Science, the Central Health Education Bureau, Mother Teresa's order, and a newly formed gay awareness group with the newsletter "Bombay Dost."

  9. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  10. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-01-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future

  11. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M; Harper, Daniel E; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; P dry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; P dry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye.

  12. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M.; Harper, Daniel E.; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E.; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Results Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; Pdry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; Pdry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Conclusions Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye. PMID:28050051

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... It sends electrical impulses through the optic nerve to the brain. Watch ...

  14. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the diagrams below to ... part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  17. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables ... Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages from the retina to ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  19. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical ... System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear ...

  20. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50% of the individuals with TSC have normal intelligence, and inasmuch as these individuals may become parents, ... of vision may be difficult or impossible. Since growth and change of TSC lesions in the eye ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center ... Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation ...

  2. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for ...

  3. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  4. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  6. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... the NEI Website search NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L ... (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ...

  7. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Please ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treated? Jan 28, 2016 Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., Scientific Director David ...

  11. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs ... Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and ...

  12. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part of the federal government’s National Institutes of ... Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI ...

  13. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ... for the media Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & ...

  16. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the ...

  17. Using Eye Makeup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful chemicals. Before applying makeup, be sure your face and eyelids are very clean. Always apply makeup outside the lash line, away from the eye, to avoid blocking the oil glands of the upper or lower ...

  18. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

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    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

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    Full Text Available ... part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area ... FOH-vee-uh) is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP- ...