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Sample records for central himalaya uttrakhand

  1. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  2. Discovery of the chitinozoans Belonechitina capitata from the Shiala Formation of northeastern Garhwal-Kumaon Tethys Himalaya, Pithoragarh District, Uttrakhand, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.N. Sinha; Jacques Verniers

    2016-01-01

    Belonechitina capitata, a typically middle to late Ordovician chitinozoan index taxon was for the first time recovered from the northeastern Kumaon region, a part of Garhwal-Kumaon Tethys basin of the Himalaya, India. This species is of great biostratigraphic importance and has already been reported from Avalonia, Baltica and northern Gondwana. The study area was during Ordovician, part of a low-palaeolatitudinal Gondwana region. The vesicles of recovered forms are black and fragmentary. This is principally attributed to intense tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogenic movement which resulted into high thermal alteration. The chitinozoans are found along with melanosclerites.

  3. Reconstruction of Last Glacial to early Holocene monsoon variability from relict lake sediments of the Higher Central Himalaya, Uttrakhand, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juyal, N.; Pant, R.K.; Basavaiah, N.

    2009-01-01

    correspondence at the millennial scale between our data and that of continental and marine records from the Indian sub-continent suggests that Goting basin responded to periods of strengthened monsoon during the Last Glacial to early Holocene. We attribute the millennial scale monsoon variability to climatic...

  4. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750–4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change ...

  5. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

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    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

  6. Glacial lakes amplify glacier recession in the central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan; Carrivick, Jonathan; Rowan, Ann

    2016-04-01

    The high altitude and high latitude regions of the world are amongst those which react most intensely to climatic change. Across the Himalaya glacier mass balance is predominantly negative. The spatial and temporal complexity associated with this ice loss across different glacier clusters is poorly documented however, and our understanding of the processes driving change is limited. Here, we look at the spatial variability of glacier hypsometry and glacial mass loss from three catchments in the central Himalaya; the Dudh Koshi basin, Tama Koshi basin and an adjoining section of the Tibetan Plateau. ASTER and SETSM digital elevation models (2014/15), corrected for elevation dependant biases, co-registration errors and along or cross track tilts, are differenced from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data (2000) to yield surface lowering estimates. Landsat data and a hypsometric index (HI), a classification scheme used to group glaciers of similar hypsometry, are used to examine the distribution of glacier area with altitude in each catchment. Surface lowering rates of >3 m/yr can be detected on some glaciers, generally around the clean-ice/debris-cover boundary, where dark but thin surface deposits are likely to enhance ablation. More generally, surface lowering rates of around 1 m/yr are more pervasive, except around the terminus areas of most glaciers, emphasising the influence of a thick debris cover on ice melt. Surface lowering is only concentrated at glacier termini where glacial lakes have developed, where surface lowering rates are commonly greater than 2.5 m/yr. The three catchments show contrasting hypsometric distributions, which is likely to impact their future response to climatic changes. Glaciers of the Dudh Koshi basin store large volumes of ice at low elevation (HI > 1.5) in long, debris covered tongues, although their altitudinal range is greatest given the height of mountain peaks in the catchment. In contrast, glaciers of the Tama Koshi

  7. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Nie; Qiao Liu; Shiyin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire centra...

  8. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

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    N. P. Gaire

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750–4003 m a.s.l. in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr. A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89% of younger plants (A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr−1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May–August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May–August precipitation and January–April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May–August using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool

  9. Contribution of pack animals in reducing CO{sub 2} emission in Central Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooquee, N.A.; Budal, T.K.; Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Srinagar (India); Singh, S.P. [H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Srinagar (India)

    2008-07-10

    The resilience and adaptation in mountain regions have acquired important priorities in the present time, especially when climatic change has become an overriding issue and its impacts are recognized to be felt globally. The present study describes an example of how the pack animals play a vital role in transportation in remote and far-flung areas of Uttarakhand Himalaya, and also contribute in reducing CO{sub 2} emission. This article attempts to estimate the changes in the rate of CO{sub 2} emission if the present transportation of goods by pack animals is carried out by automobiles, i.e. the contribution of equines to carbon saving in the Himalaya while rendering transportation services. It also suggests an option for reducing CO{sub 2} emission by utilizing pack animals in the transportation of non essential commodities in remote and rural areas. The present study was undertaken in the six major valleys of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand to understand and quantify the contribution of pack animals in reducing CO{sub 2} emission in Indian Central Himalaya. The study has demonstrated that horses and mules provide direct and indirect services to the society and country. The direct services include communication services in far-flung and remote areas not connected with the road network, where they transport essential commodities and also human beings to the religious shrines of Kedarnath, Hem Kund, Gangotri and Yamunotri. The indirect services include reduction in CO{sub 2} emission.

  10. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal Mir, Javaid; Saxena, Neha; Singh Patiyal, Rabindar; Kumari Sahoo, Prabhati

    2015-01-01

    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that...

  11. Glacial lake expansion in the central Himalayas by Landsat images, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  12. Glacial lake expansion in the central Himalayas by Landsat images, 1990-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Nie

    Full Text Available Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  13. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed. PMID:24376778

  14. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas By Landsat Images, 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  15. Precipitation variability in central Himalayas and its relation to Northern Hemisphere temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Keqin; YAO Tandong

    2003-01-01

    A 149.8-m-long ice core was drilled at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28°23′N, 85°43′E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (δ18O), cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and anions (Cl-,SO2-4,NO3-) throughout the core. Cycles indicated by δ18O, cations and anions were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation from the core reveals a major precipitation trend for the central Himalayas with an average precipitation 750 mm per year. The trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong correlation to global temperature. Generally, as northern global temperature increases 0.1℃, the accumulation decreases about 80mm and vise versa. This may suggests that monsoon precipitation in Himalayas have decreased continuously in past decade as a response to global warming.

  16. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ∼125 km, the stable isotopic record (δ18O or δD of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER δ18O or δD record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  17. New data on Apteroloma (Coleoptera: Agyrtidae) of central Asia and the Himalayas with a new synonymy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Jan; Latella, Leonardo; Schawaller, Wolfgang

    2014-06-19

    The distribution of Apteroloma anglorossicum (Semenov, 1890), A. harmandi (Portevin, 1903) and A. sillemi Jeannel, 1935 in central Asia and along the Himalayas is summarized, and the collecting circumstances and ecology of all three species from Gilgit District, Pakistan are described in detail. Revised diagnoses of all three species are provided, habitus and important morphological structures are illustrated, and available types have been examined. Apteroloma jankovskii Semenov and Znojko in Semenov, 1932 is confirmed as junior subjective synonym of A. anglorossicum. Apteroloma heinzi Schawaller, 1991 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of A. harmandi.

  18. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  19. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dambaru Ballab Kattel; Tandong Yao

    2013-02-01

    Insufficient long-term in situ observations and complex topographic conditions pose major problems in quantifying the magnitude of climatic trends in mountainous regions such as Nepal. Presented here is three decades (1980–2009) of data on annual maximum, minimum and average temperature trends from 13 mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas. The stations are located at elevations between 1304 and 2566 m above sea level and with varied topography. Spatial analyses of the average temperature trend show warming in most of the stations. The magnitude of warming is higher for maximum temperatures, while minimum temperatures exhibit larger variability such as positive, negative or no change. These results are consistent with patterns reported in some parts of the Indian subcontinent and Upper Indus Basin, but different from conditions on the Tibetan Plateau (China), where the warming of minimum temperatures is more prominent than that of the maximum temperatures. From the temporal variations, a dramatic increase in temperature is observed in the latest decade, particularly in the average and maximum temperatures. The results from the cumulative sum chart analyses suggest that the thermal regime shifted in 1997. The dramatic enhancement of average temperature in the last decade is strongly consistent with the result of contemporary studies of the surrounding regions, where warming is attributed to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, as in the western Himalayas and the Upper Indus Basin, the mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas show variability in temperature trends, particularly for the minimum temperature. This inhomogeneous trend is likely ascribed to the differences in topography and microclimatic regime of the observed stations.

  20. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, P; Dumka, U C; Sagar, R; Satheesh, S K; Moorthy, K K; Sagar, Ram

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration was in the range 15 - 40 micro g m^(-3) (mean value 27.1 $\\pm$ 8.3 micro g m^(-3)). Interestingly, aerosol BC had a mean concentration of 1.36 $\\pm$ 0.99 micro g m^(-3), contributed to ~5.0 $\\pm$ 1.3 % to the composite aerosol mass. This large abundance of BC is found to have linkages to the human activities in the adjoining valley and to the boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, the inferred single scattering albedo lies in the range of 0.87 to 0.94 (mean value 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.03), indicatin...

  1. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari

    2015-03-01

    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that were extracted from digital images of specimens using tpsDig2 and PAST software. Allometric transformed truss measurements were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. All variables exhibited significant differences between the populations. Altogether 88% of the specimens were classified into their original populations (81.98% under a 'leave-one-out' procedure). With factor analysis measurements of the head region, the middle portion and the caudal region had high loadings on the first and second axis. The results indicated that B. bendelisis has significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the geographically isolated regions of Central Indian Himalaya. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific variation in B. bendelisis is the result of local ecological conditions.

  2. Thermo-kinematic evolution of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal: The Composite Orogenic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A. J.; Law, R. D.; Lloyd, G. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Searle, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayan orogen represents a "Composite Orogenic System" in which channel flow, wedge extrusion, and thrust stacking operate in separate "Orogenic Domains" with distinct rheologies and crustal positions. We analyze 104 samples from the metamorphic core (Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS) and bounding units of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal. Optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses provide a record of deformation microstructures and an indication of active crystal slip systems, strain geometries, and deformation temperatures. These data, combined with existing thermobarometry and geochronology data are used to construct detailed deformation temperature profiles for the GHS. The profiles define a three-stage thermokinematic evolution from midcrustal channel flow (Stage 1, >700°C to 550-650°C), to rigid wedge extrusion (Stage 2, 400-600°C) and duplexing (Stage 3, modular components of a Composite Orogenic System. These Orogenic Domains may be active at the same time at different depths/positions within the orogen. The thermokinematic evolution of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya describes the migration of the GHS through these Orogenic Domains and reflects the spatial and temporal variability in rheological boundary conditions that govern orogenic systems.

  3. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  4. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

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    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  5. Glacier variations and climate warming and drying in the central Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jiawen; QIN Dahe; KANG Shichang; HOU Shugui; PU Jianchen; JING Zhefan

    2004-01-01

    Repeat measurements of glacier terminus positions show that glaciers in the central Himalayas have been in a continuous retreat situation in the past decades. The average retreat rate is 5.5-8.7 m/a in Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) since the 1960s and 6.4 m/a in Mt. Xixiabangma since the 1980s. In recent years, the retreat rate is increasing. Ice core studies revealed that the accumulation rate of glaciers has a fluctuating decrease trend in the last century with a rapid decrease in the 1960s and a relatively steady low value afterwards. Meteorological station record indicates that the annual mean temperature has a slow increase trend but summer temperature had a larger increase in the past 30 a. All these suggest that the glacier retreat results from precipitation decrease in combination with temperature increase, and hence glacier shrinkage in this region will speed up if the climatic warming and drying continues.

  6. Five years of ozonesoundings from the central Himalayas: role of dynamical processes and biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Manish; Bhardhwaj, Piyush; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, Sethuram; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-04-01

    Higher water vapour, intense solar radiation and increasing levels of trace species over the tropical Asia are making this region more complex for understanding the physical, dynamical and chemical process over here. One of the most populated regions (The Indo-Gangetic Plain, IGP) of the world and a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources are also housing in the foothill of one of the pristine region, i.e. Himalaya. Uplifting and transport of polluted air-masses to the higher heights is a major concern in the South Asia. However, observations of vertical distribution of ozone, and other trace gases including water vapour, aerosols and meteorological parameters are very limited in South Asia. In view of this, an observational facility was setup at ARIES, Nainital (29.4N, 79.5E; 1950 m) in the central Himalayas. Regular, once in a week, balloon borne measurements of ozone, RH, temperature and GPS winds are being made since January 2011. Surface observations of different trace gases (Ozone, CO, NO, NOy, light NMHCs, SO2, CO2 and other GHGs) and aerosols are also being made at this site. Here, we present five years of ozonesoundings observations. A strong seasonal cycle in the lower tropospheric ozone with highest values during spring (~ 100 ppbv) and lowest during summer-monsoon (20-40 ppbv) is discerned. Elevated ozone levels (~120 ppbv) were observed in the middle-upper troposphere along with very high wind speed (~50 m/s) which indicates the role of dynamics in bringing ozone rich air from higher altitude. The signatures of ozone downward transport have also been noticed in TES water vapour and PV. In contrast, such influence is seen to be weaker in the eastern part of the Himalayas. A very clear enhancement (20-30 ppbv) in the lower tropospheric ozone is seen that is induced by the biomass burning. Further analysis of these observations with the help of air trajectories and satellite data will be presented.

  7. Genetic variation and structure of the people of Uttarakhand, central Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, S M S; Singh, Parminder; Singh, Harjit; Bansal, Rupinder; Bansal, I J S

    2008-08-01

    The Indian Himalayas, being semi-isolated geographically, provide ideal conditions for population genetics investigations. The main aim of this study is to genetically characterize and analyze the genetic structure of the people of Uttarakhand, a newly created North Indian hill state in the Central Himalayas, using original phenotype and allele-frequency data on a battery of seven red cell enzyme polymorphisms. For this analysis, blood samples were collected from 3,222 unrelated subjects belonging to various endogamous caste populations (Brahmin, Rajput, and Shilpkar) and tribal Bhotia inhabiting seven different districts in the Garhwal (northern) and Kumaon (southern) regions of Uttarakhand. Hemolysates were typed for isozymes of ESD, PGM1, ADA, AK1, GLO1, ACP1, and GPI using standard electrophoretic techniques. The genetic structure of these regional caste and tribal population groups was investigated with the help of different statistical measures. The present biochemical marker results show that the overall genetic constitution of the different populations of Uttarakhand is rather heterogeneous but similar to that of various caste and tribal populations of the neighboring hill state of Himachal Pradesh, situated on Uttarakhand's western border. The extent of genic differentiation observed in different contemporary populations of Garhwal was twice as high as that of Kumaon. Interestingly, in genetic distance dendrograms of both the regions and of all of Uttarakhand, all the Shilpkar groups are differentiated from the remaining groups of Brahmin, Rajput, and Bhotia. The genetic constitution of the Shilpkar (a scheduled caste population of Uttarakhand) and to a lesser extent that of the Bhotia (a scheduled tribe population of Uttarakhand) are rather different from both the Brahmin and Rajput high-caste populations, which tend to show genetic similarities between them. These observations are corroborated by the known ethnohistory of different populations of

  8. Responses of Montane Forest to Climate Variability in the Central Himalayas of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardan Mainali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes are having dramatic ecological impacts in mid- to high-latitude mountain ranges where growth conditions are limited by climatic variables such as duration of growing season, moisture, and ambient temperature. We document patterns of forest vegetative response for 5 major alpine forest communities to current climate variability in the central Himalayas of Nepal to provide a baseline for assessment of future changes, as well as offer some insight into the trajectory of these changes over time. We used mean monthly surface air temperature and rainfall and the monthly averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI to compare relative vegetation productivity among forest types and in relation to both climatic variables. Because changes in temperature and precipitation are directly manifested as changes in phenology, we examined current vegetative responses to climate variability in an effort to determine which climate variable is most critical for different alpine forest types. Our results show that correlations differ according to vegetation type and confirm that both precipitation and temperature affect monthly NDVI values, though more significant correlations were found with temperature data. The temperature response was more consistent because at the maximum increased temperatures, there was still an ongoing increase in vegetative vigor. This indicates that temperature is still the major limiting factor for plant growth at higher-elevation sites. This part of the Himalayas has abundant moisture, and some forest types are already saturated in terms of growth in relation to precipitation. Clear increases in productivity are documented on the upper treeline ecotones, and these systems are likely to continue to have increasing growth rates.

  9. Reorientation of lineation in the Central Crystalline Zone, Munsiari–Milam area of the Kumaun Greater Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Verma; A R Bhattacharya

    2015-03-01

    During large scale ductile shear deformation, linear features of the rocks tend to be reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. This is demonstrated in a crustal scale shear zone of the Himalaya, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), typically exposed in the Munsiari–Milam area of eastern Kumaun Greater Himalaya. Along the MCT, the crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalaya are thrust over the younger sedimentary belt of the Lesser Himalaya. In the study area, the scatter of lineation orientation in the vicinity of the MCT has been observed to drastically reduce within 27° in a zone of about 18 km (about 13 km in the crystalline rocks and about 5 km in the sedimentary rocks). Beyond this zone, the scatter is very high, up to 70° or more. The low scatter of lineation orientation around the MCT could be related to the strong ductile shear deformation associated with the movement along this thrust due to which the linear features got reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. Away from this zone, ductile shearing had negligible or no effect on the rocks and, therefore, the scatter of lineation remains very high.

  10. Late Quaternary tectonic landforms and fluvial aggradation in the Saryu River valley: Central Kumaun Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Luirei, Khayingshing

    2016-09-01

    The present study has been carried out with special emphasis on the aggradational landforms to explain the spatial and temporal variability in phases of aggradation/incision in response to tectonic activity during the late Quaternary in the Saryu River valley in central Kumaun Himalaya. The valley has preserved cut-and-fill terraces with thick alluvial cover, debris flow terraces, and bedrock strath terraces that provide signatures of tectonic activity and climate. Morphostratigraphy of the terraces reveals that the oldest landforms preserved south of the Main Central Thrust, the fluvial modified debris flow terraces, were developed between 30 and 45 ka. The major phase of valley fill is dated between 14 and 22 ka. The youngest phase of aggradation is dated at early and mid-Holocene (9-3 ka). Following this, several phases of accelerated incision/erosion owing to an increase in uplift rate occurred, as evident from the strath terraces. Seven major phases of bedrock incision/uplift have been estimated during 44 ka (3.34 mm/year), 35 ka (1.84 mm/year), 15 ka (0.91 mm/year), 14 ka (0.83 mm/year), 9 ka (1.75 mm/year), 7 ka (5.38 mm/year), and around 3 ka (4.4 mm/year) from the strath terraces near major thrusts. We postulate that between 9 and 3 ka the terrain witnessed relatively enhanced surface uplift (2-5 mm/year).

  11. WRF simulations of two extreme snowfall events associated with contrasting extratropical cyclones over the western and central Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Two extreme snowfall events associated with extratropical cyclones, one interacting with the western and one with the central Himalaya, are simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over 8 days. One event in January 1999 was driven by a longwave trough over west Asia, with the cyclone becoming terrain-locked in the western Himalayan notch. Another event in March 2006 was driven by a trough further south and east, f...

  12. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia to Himalayas and further inland Tibetan Plateau. The monitoring network will be continuously operated to provide basis for defining the transboundary air pollution and their impact on the environments and ecosystems over the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wang Shijin; Jiao Shitai

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974–2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  14. Distribution pattern and conservation of threatened medicinal and aromatic plants of Central Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. S. Kandari; K.S. Rao; R. K. Maikhuri; G. Kharkwal; K. Chauhan; C.P. Kala

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the distribution pattern of four rhizomatous medicinal and aromatic plant species (MAPs) viz., Angelica glauca, Pleurospermum angelicoides, Rheum emodi and Arne- bia benthamii in different forest stands in Central Himalaya. Results show that A. Glauca and P. Angelicoides had a higher (50%) frequency at Chipkoan, Garpak and Phagati forest, R. Emodi had a higher (60%) fre- quency at Rishikund, Suki and Himtoli, and A. Benthamii had a higher (70%) frequency at Suki and Khambdhar The densities of A. Glauca (0.6 plants·m) and P. Angelicoides (0.5 plants·m) were higher at Chipkoan and Garpak sites than at other micro-sites, while densities of R. Emodi (0.8 plants·m) and A. Benthamii (1.0 plants·m) were higher at Suki and Khambdhar sites. A. Glauca had highest total basal covers (TBC) (1.2 cm·m) at Chipkoan, P. Angelicoides had highest TBC (0.92 cm·m) at Lati kharak site, A. Benthamii had the highest TBC (6.48 cm·m) at Khambdhar, and R. Emodi had highest TBC (4.53 cm·m) at Rishikund. For the four studied species, A. Glauca showed a contagious distribution, P. Angelicoides and R. Emodi showed the random and A. Benthamii showed the regular type of distribution.

  15. Late miocene/pliocene origin of the inverted metamorphism of the Central Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, T.M.; Ryerson, F.J.; LeFort, P.; Yin, A. Lovera, O.M.

    1997-01-01

    The spatial association of intracontinental thrusting and inverted metamorphism, recognized in the Himalaya more than a century ago, has inspired continuing efforts to identify their causal relationship. Perhaps the best known sequence of inverted metamorphism is that found immediately beneath the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), generally thought to have been active during the Early Miocene. It has been widely assumed that the pattern of inverted metamorphism also developed at that time. Using a new approach, in situ Th-Pb dating of monazite included in garnet, we have discovered that the peak metamorphic recrystallization recorded in the footwall of the MCT fault occurred at ca. 5 Ma. The apparent inverted metamorphism resulted from activation of a broad shear zone beneath the MCT zone which juxtaposed two right-way-up metamorphic sequences. Recognition of this remarkably youthful phase of metamorphism resolves outstanding problems in Himalayan tectonics, such as why the MCT (and not the more recently initiated thrusts) marks the break in slope of the present day mountain range, and transcends others, such as the need for exceptional conditions to explain Himalayan anatexis.

  16. Current Vegetation Pattern along Glacial Landscape in Central (Garhwal) Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uday N. Gaur; G.P. Raturi; A.B. Bhatt

    2005-01-01

    Current vegetation patterns, biodiversity and adaptation of plants were studied during 1998~2001 in glacial landscape of Chaurabari situated above Kedarnath (30° 44′ N~ 79° 07′ E;3,000~ 6,000 m) in Central Himalaya. Landscape was identified into different zones on account of the vegetation status, glacial features, geomorphology and altitudes. Cold environment with heavy snowfall, frost hailstorm and dense frost characterizes the study area.Predominance of the soda rich feldspars indicates soda enrichment; orthoclase, microcline weathering and alternation would have contributed potash to the soil. The increasing severity of the environment as we ascend from timberline to snowline leads to progressive decline in the abundance and diversity of the plant species. The diversity of the higher plants decrease, while the diversity of microflora increase from alpine zone to snowline zone. Highly opulent and diverse flora with beautiful, delicate herbs occupy the alpine zone, but some specialized groups of the plants, particularly high energetic and cold resistant species reside in glacial environment. Asteraceae,Rananculaceae, Primulaceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae and Ericaceae are the pioneer angiospermic families,while Anaphalis triplinervis, A. royleana,Androsacce sarmentosa, Cotoneaster rotundifolius,Lonicera myrtillus, Cassiope fastigiata, Gaultheria trichophglla and Erigeron multiradiatus are the pioneer species, which have invaded in glacial environment. Through its nature, alpine glacial ecotone can be seen easily due to environmental and edaphic differences.

  17. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijin, Wang; Shitai, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974-2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  18. Boundary layer evolution over the central Himalayas from radio wind profiler and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra; Solanki, Raman; Ojha, Narendra; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Pozzer, Andrea; Dhaka, Surendra K.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the Local Boundary Layer (LBL) for the first time over a mountain ridge at Nainital (79.5° E, 29.4° N, 1958 m a.m.s.l.) in the central Himalayan region, using a radar wind profiler (RWP) during November 2011 to March 2012, as a part of the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). We restrict our analysis to clear-sunny days, resulting in a total of 78 days of observations. The standard criterion of the peak in the signal-to-noise ratio (S / N) profile was found to be inadequate in the characterization of mixed layer (ML) top at this site. Therefore, we implemented a criterion of S / N > 6 dB for the characterization of the ML and the resulting estimations are shown to be in agreement with radiosonde measurements over this site. The daytime average (05:00-10:00 UTC) observed boundary layer height ranges from 440 ± 197 m in November (late autumn) to 766 ± 317 m above ground level (a.g.l.) in March (early spring). The observations revealed a pronounced impact of mountain topography on the LBL dynamics during March, when strong winds (> 5.6 m s-1) lead to LBL heights of 650 m during nighttime. The measurements are further utilized to evaluate simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. WRF simulations captured the day-to-day variations up to an extent (r2 = 0.5), as well as the mean diurnal variations (within 1σ variability). The mean biases in the daytime average LBL height vary from -7 % (January) to +30 % (February) between model and observations, except during March (+76 %). Sensitivity simulations using a mixed layer model (MXL/MESSy) indicated that the springtime overestimation of LBL would lead to a minor uncertainty in simulated surface ozone concentrations. However, it would lead to a significant overestimation of the dilution of black carbon aerosols at this site. Our work fills a gap in observations of local boundary layer over this complex terrain in the Himalayas, and highlights the need for

  19. Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Cong, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xing-Liang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Zhang, Yong

    2006-12-15

    High mountains may serve as condenser for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the vegetation in remote areas has been used as a means to characterized atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants. In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Himalayan spruce needle samples from Zhangmu-Nyalam region (central-Himalayas) were analyzed and the altitudinal gradient of these pollutants was investigated. Total HCHs and DDTs concentration in needles were in the range of 1.3-2.9 ng g(-1) dry weight and 1.7-11 ng g(-1) dry weight, which were lower than concentrations reported in spruce needles from Alps, however higher than concentrations in conifer needles from mountain areas of Alberta. Total Himalayan spruce needle PAHs was below 600 ng g(-1) and fluorene, phenanthrene and acenaphthene were abundant individual compounds measured. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH in pine needles were similar with the usual values for technical HCH, implying technical HCHs might be used in this region. The high ratios of o-p'-DDT/p-p'-DDT and no p-p'-DDE measured in this study led to the suspicion that a new source of o-p'-DDT and/or p-p'-DDT existed in this region. In addition, higher ratios of low molecular weight-/high molecular weight-PAHs in this region indicated that petroleum combustion, vehicle emission and low-temperature combustion might be the major contributions of PAH source. To examine the POPs distillation, the analyte concentrations were correlated with altitude. The more volatile OCPs, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, aldrin and alpha-endosulfan positively correlated with altitude, however, less volatile OCPs (DDT and DDD) inversely related with elevation. Almost all PAHs detected in this area showed positive correlations with altitude. It is worthy to note that heavy PAHs (Benzo[k] fluoranthene and Benzo[a]anthracene) displayed positive correlation, which implied the sources of PAHs were near the sampling sites. The

  20. Characteristics of Aerosol Spectral Optical Depths over Manora Peak, Nainital $-$ A High Altitude Station in the Central Himalayas

    CERN Document Server

    Sagar, R; Dumka, U C; Moorthy, K K; Pant, P

    2003-01-01

    We present for the first time spectral behaviour of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over Manora Peak, Nainital located at an altitude of ~2 km in the central Himalayas. The observations were carried out using a Multi-Wavelength Solar Radiometer during January to December 2002. The primary features of the study are (i) larger AOD during afternoon periods compared to forenoon, attributable to change in the ray path from comparatively cleaner environment in the forenoon to polluted environment in the afternoon (ii) extremely low AODs during local winter and a remarkable increase to high values in summer (iii) a distinct change in the spectral dependencies of AODs from a relatively steeper spectra during winter to a shallower one in summer representing both transparent (meteorological aerosols) and polluted summer (urban haze aerosols) skies.The mean aerosol extinction law at Nainital during 2002 is best represented by $0.10 \\lambda^{-0.61}$.

  1. Resource Flows of Villages with Contrasting Lifestyles in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Central Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. S. Rao; S. Nautiyal; R. K. Maikhuri; K. G. Saxena

    2005-01-01

    Resource use efficiency analyses of village ecosystem are necessary for effective and efficient planning of resource utilization. This paper deals with economic and energy input-output analyses of different components of village ecosystem in representative buffer zone villages, which are practicing transhumance and settled way of lifestyles in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) of Garhwal Himalaya. While the villages practicing transhumance used various natural resources spatially segregated,the villages practicing settled way of lifestyle have to manage resources from a limited spatial area through rotation and varied extraction intensities. Forests subsidized the production activity in both type of villages and the per capita resource extractions were found to be greater in transhumance village than settled village. Though crops provided maximum energy, in terms of economic criteria, animal husbandry played important role in both settled and transhumance villages. As villages representing both the situations showed different ways of adjustments to the conservation oriented land use changes,management authority needs to address the eco-development plans fulfilling the aspirations of all people traditionally using the resources of the Reserve to reduce the conflicts and encourage their participation in the conservation of the area.

  2. Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

    2000-10-01

    Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season.

  3. Sensitivity of annual mass balance gradient and Hypsometry to the changing climate: the case of Dokriani Glacier, central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, B.

    2015-12-01

    The glacier mass balance is undelayed, unfiltered and direct method to assess the impact of climate change on the glaciers. Many studies suggest that some of the Himalayan glaciers have lost their mass at an increased rate during the past few decades. Furthermore, the mass balance gradient and hypsometric analysis are important to understand the glacier response towards climatic perturbations. Our long term in-situ monitoring on the Dokriani Glacier provides great insights to understand the variability in central Himalayan glaciers. We report the relationship between glacier hypsometry and annual mass balance gradient (12 years) to understand the glacier's response towards climate change. Dokriani Glacier in the Bhagirathi basin is a small (7 km2) NNW exposed glacier in the western part of central Himalaya, India. The study analysed the annual balance, mass balance gradient and length changes observed during first decade of 21st century (2007-2013) and compare with the previous observations of 1990s (1992-2000). A large spatial variability in the mass balance gradients of two different periods has been observed. The equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) was fluctuated between 5000 and 5100 m a.s.l. and the derived time averaged ELA (ELAn) and balance budget ELA (ELA0) were 5075 and 4965 m a.s.l respectively during 1992-2013. The observed time-averaged accumulation-area ratio (AARn) and balance budget AAR (AAR0) were 0.67 and 0.72 respectively during 1992-2013. The higher value of AAR comprises due to flat and broader accumulation area (4.50 km2) of the glacier. Although, having larger accumulation area, the glacier has faced strong mass wasting with average annual ablation of -1.82 m w.e. a-1 in the ablation zone as compare to residual average annual accumulation of 0.41 m w.e. a-1. Based on the annual mass balance series (12 years) Dokriani Glacier has continuous negative annual balances with monotonically negative cumulative mass loss of -3.86 m w.e with the average

  4. Changes in C3/C4 vegetation in the continental interior of the Central Himalayas associated with monsoonal paleoclimatic changes during the last 600 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sakai

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A continuous lacustrine sediment core obtained from the Kathmandu Valley in the Central Himalayas revealed that cyclical changes in C3/C4 vegetation corresponded to global glacial-interglacial cycles from marine isotope stages (MIS 15 to MIS 4. The C3/C4 vegetation shifts were reconstructed from significant changes in the δ13C values of bulk organic carbon. Glacial ages were characterized by significant 13C enrichment, due to the expansion of C4 plants, attributed to an intensification of aridity. Thus, the southwest (SW summer monsoon, which brings the majority of rainfall to the Central Himalayan southern slopes, would have been weaker. Marine sediment cores from the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea have demonstrated a weaker SW monsoon during glacial periods, and our results confirm that arid conditions and a weak SW monsoon prevailed in the continental interior of the Central Himalayas during glacial ages. This study provides the first continuous record for the continental interior of paleoenvironmental changes directly influenced by the Indian monsoon.

  5. Time Variability of Surface-Layer Characteristics over a Mountain Ridge in the Central Himalayas During the Spring Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Raman; Singh, Narendra; Kiran Kumar, N. V. P.; Rajeev, K.; Dhaka, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    We present the diurnal variations of surface-layer characteristics during spring (March-May 2013) observed near a mountain ridge at Nainital (29.4°N, 79.5°E, 1926 m above mean sea level), a hill station located in the southern part of the central Himalayas. During spring, this region generally witnesses fair-weather conditions and significant solar heating of the surface, providing favourable conditions for the systematic diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer. We mainly utilize the three-dimensional wind components and virtual temperature observed with sonic anemometers (sampling at 25 Hz) mounted at 12- and 27-m heights on a meteorological tower. Tilt corrections using the planar-fit method have been applied to convert the measurements to streamline-following coordinate system before estimating turbulence parameters. The airflow at this ridge site is quite different from slope flows. Notwithstanding the prevalence of strong large-scale north-westerly winds, the diurnal variation of the mountain circulation is clearly discernible with the increase of wind speed and a small but distinct change in wind direction during the afternoon period. Such an effect further modulates the surface-layer water vapour content, which increases during the daytime and results in the development of boundary-layer clouds in the evening. The sensible heat flux ( H) shows peak values around noon, with its magnitude increasing from March (222± 46 W m^{-2}) to May (353± 147 W m^{-2}). The diurnal variation of turbulent kinetic energy ( e) is insignificant during March while its mean value is enhanced by 30-50 % of the post-midnight value during the afternoon (1400-1600 IST), delayed by {≈ }2 h compared to the peak in H. This difference between the phase variations of incoming shortwave flux, H and e primarily arise due to the competing effects of turbulent eddies produced by thermals and wind shear, the latter increase significantly with time until nighttime during April

  6. The relationship between geology and rock weathering on the rock instability along Mugling-Narayanghat road corridor, Central Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Amar Deep; YOSHIDA, Kohki; Nagata, Hidehisa; Pradhan, Ananta Man Singh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted along the Mugling-Narayanghat road section and its surrounding region that is most affected by landslide and related mass-movement phenomena. The main rock types in the study area are limestone, dolomite, slate, phyllite, quartzite and amphibolites of Lesser Himalaya, sandstone, mudstone and conglomerates of Siwaliks and Holocene Deposits. Due to the important role of geology and rock weathering in the instabilities, an attempt has been made to understand the r...

  7. Monsoon Season Moisture Deficit Limits Growth in Co-Occurring Alpine Shrub (Cassiope fastigata) and Tree (Abies spectabilis) Species in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayback, S. A.; Shrestha, K. B.; Hofgaard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates changing climatological conditions in the Nepalese Himalayas including decreasing precipitation, a weakening Indian monsoon and rising temperatures. Trees and shrubs found at treeline are considered to be highly sensitive to climate, but the climatic effects on these ecotone species in the Himalayas are not well understood. Dendrochronological techniques applied to co-occurring shrubs and trees up-and down-slope of treeline extend our understanding of vegetation response at range margins and into tree-less environments. We developed tree-ring width and annual height increment chronologies for Abies spectabilis (Himalayan fir) and the first annual growth increment and annual production of leaves chronologies for Cassiope fastigata (Himalayan heather) at a high elevation site in central Nepal. C. fastigata chronologies showed moisture availability in late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the previous year are critical to stem elongation and leaf production (AGI and previous May-August SPEI-12, r = 0.790; LEAF and previous June-September SPEI-12, r = 0.708) A. spectabilis chronologies were significantly and negatively correlated with monsoon season temperature during the current year (tree-ring width and June mean temperature, r = -0.677; height-increment and Sept maximum temperature, r = -0.605). In addition to both long-term and recent declines in moisture in the Himalayas, moisture deficit may be further exacerbated at high elevation sites via run-off and higher levels of evapotranspiration resulting in growth reductions, dieback and even death of these species. These results highlight that not all mid-latitude, high elevation treelines are limited by temperature as previously thought and that severe drought stress may initiate downslope treeline retraction. Understanding the response of co-occurring tree and shrub species to climate, now and in the future, may help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms controlling local and

  8. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in the Poiqu/Bhote Koshi/Sun Koshi River Basin in the Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Raj Khanal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas have experienced several glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and the risk of GLOFs is now increasing in the context of global warming. Poiqu watershed in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, also known as the Bhote Koshi and Sun Koshi downstream in Nepal, has been identified as highly prone to GLOFs. This study explored the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes, past GLOFs and the resulting losses, risk from potential future GLOFs, and risk reduction initiatives within the watershed. A relationship was established between lake area and volume of lake water based on data from 33 lakes surveyed within the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, and the maximum possible discharge was estimated using this and other previously developed empirical equations. We recommend different strategies to reduce GLOF risk and highlight the need for a glacial lake monitoring and early-warning system. We also recommend strong regional cooperation, especially on issues related to transboundary rivers.

  9. An 800-year record of atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb in central Asia in high-altitude ice cores from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungmin; Lee, Khanghyun; Hou, Shugui; Hur, Soon Do; Ren, Jiawen; Burn, Laurie J; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

    2009-11-01

    As, Mo, Sn, and Sb have been determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) in 143 depth intervals of high-altitude ice cores from Mt. Everest, covering an 800-year time period from 1205 to 2002 AD. The results clearly demonstrate the long-term historical record of atmospheric transport and deposition of As, Mo, Sn, and Sb that has prevailed at high altitudes in the central Himalayas. Natural contributions, mainly from mineral dust, have dominated the atmospheric cycles of As, Mo, Sn, and to some extent Sb during the 700 years prior to the 20th century. Compared to those of the pre-1900 period, pronounced increases of both concentrations and crustal enrichment factors are observed since the 1970s, with the highest increase factor for Sn and the lowest for As. Such increases are attributed to anthropogenic emissions of these elements, largely from stationary fossil fuel combustion and nonferrous metals production, particularly in India. Our central Himalayan ice core record provides an explicit recognition of rising atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb pollution in response to rapid economic growth in central Asia.

  10. Spatial variability in mass loss of glaciers in the Everest region, central Himalayas, between 2000 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Rowan, Ann V.

    2017-02-01

    Region-wide averaging of Himalayan glacier mass change has masked any catchment or glacier-scale variability in glacier recession; thus the role of a number of glaciological processes in glacier wastage remains poorly understood. In this study, we quantify mass loss rates over the period 2000-2015 for 32 glaciers across the Everest region and assess how future ice loss is likely to differ depending on glacier hypsometry. The mean mass balance of all 32 glaciers in our sample was -0.52 ± 0.22 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1. The mean mass balance of nine lacustrine-terminating glaciers (-0.70 ± 0.26 m w.e. a-1) was 32 % more negative than land-terminating, debris-covered glaciers (-0.53 ± 0.21 m w.e. a-1). The mass balance of lacustrine-terminating glaciers is highly variable (-0.45 ± 0.13 to -0.91 ± 0.22 m w.e. a-1), perhaps reflecting glacial lakes at different stages of development. To assess the importance of hypsometry on glacier response to future temperature increases, we calculated current (Dudh Koshi - 0.41, Tama Koshi - 0.43, Pumqu - 0.37) and prospective future glacier accumulation area Ratios (AARs). IPCC AR5 RCP 4.5 warming (0.9-2.3 °C by 2100) could reduce AARs to 0.29 or 0.08 in the Tama Koshi catchment, 0.27 or 0.17 in the Dudh Koshi catchment and 0.29 or 0.18 in the Pumqu catchment. Our results suggest that glacial lake expansion across the Himalayas could expedite ice mass loss and the prediction of future contributions of glacial meltwater to river flow will be complicated by spatially variable glacier responses to climate change.

  11. Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya) in the last two decades (1994-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, F.; Guyennon, N.; Thakuri, S.; Viviano, G.; Romano, E.; Vuillermoz, E.; Cristofanelli, P.; Stocchi, P.; Agrillo, G.; Ma, Y.; Tartari, G.

    2014-12-01

    Studies on recent climate trends from the Himalayan range are limited, and even completely absent at high elevation. This contribution specifically explores the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya), analyzing the minimum, maximum, and mean temperature and precipitation time series reconstructed from seven stations located between 2660 and 5600m a.s.l. over the last twenty years (1994-2013). We complete this analysis with data from all the existing ground weather stations located on both sides of the mountain range (Koshi Basin) over the same period. Overall we observe that the main and more significant increase in temperature is concentrated outside of the monsoon period. At higher elevations minimum temperature (0.072 ± 0.011 °C a-1, p 0.1), while mean temperature increased by 0.044 ± 0.008 °C a-1, p flow velocity and the current stagnation condition of tongues, which in turn could have trigged melting processes under the debris glacier coverage, leading to the formation of numerous supraglacial and proglacial lakes that have characterized the region in the last decades. Without demonstrating the causes that could have led to the climate change pattern observed at high elevation, we conclude by listing the recent literature on hypotheses that accord with our observations.

  12. On-farm Conservation of Landraces of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) through Cultivation in the Kumaun Region of Indian Central Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Himalayan region is a known hot spot of crop diversity. Traditional varieties (usually called primitive cultivars or landraces), having withstood the rigors of time (including harsh climatic conditions as well as attacks of insects, pests and diseases), can still be found in crop fields in rural parts of Indian Central Himalaya (ICH). These landraces harbor many desired traits from which, for example, varieties that are tolerant/resistant to abiotic/biotic stresses could be developed. In addition to the above benefits,landraces provide a basis for food security and a more varied and interesting diet. Some landraces are also known to be of medicinal value. These, along with some lesser known hill crops, are often referred to by different names such as under exploited crops, crops for marginal lands, poor person crops, and neglected mountain crops. The Himalayan region continues to be a reservoir of a large number of landraces and cultivars whose economic and ecological potential is yet to be fully understood and/or exploited. Indians have had a history of rice cultivation since ancient times. Farmers, including tribals inhabiting the IHR, still cultivate a plethora of landraces of rice and thus directly contribute towardson-farm conservation of valuable germplasm and help in the preservation of crop diversity. The present paper looks at the on-farm conservation of rice germplasm, which is still practised in the Kumaun region of ICH.

  13. Gas exchange variability and water use efficiency of thirty landraces of rice still under cultivation in Kumaun region of the Indian Central Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, R K; Palni, L M S; Chandra, Suman; Joshi, S C

    2009-10-01

    Gas exchange characteristics of thirty landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) along with an introduced variety VL-206 (recommended high yielding variety for rainfed uplands of the Indian Central Himalaya, ICH), grown in earthen pots and kept in the open at the Institute nursery at Kosi (1150m amsl, 79°38'10″E and 29°38'15″N) were studied. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and other related parameters were found to vary considerably among landraces. Based on the comparison of Pn of landraces with that of VL-206, these were categorized into two groups: i) high (〉6.0 µmol m(-2)s(-1)), and ii) low (stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), water use efficiency (WUE), mesophyll efficiency (low Ci/gs ratio) and chlorophyll (Chl) content in comparison to landraces in the low Pn group. However, significant differences were not found in the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) between landraces belonging to the high and low Pn groups. Differences among landraces were found with regard to dark respiration; landraces with low Pn respired proportionately more of the carbon fixed than those of high Pn group. Based on the studied gas exchange characteristics Saurajubawan, Syaudhan and Taichin, local landraces of rice, may be identified as potential cultivars with high Pn and WUE.

  14. Effect of mixed-cropping and water-stress on macro-nutrients and biochemical constituents of rhizomatous medicinal plants in Central Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.S.Kandari; K.S.Rao; R.K.Maikhuri; Kusum Payal

    2012-01-01

    Plants in the alpine zone mainly depend on the reserved food materials stored in their rhizomes for the next growing season.We investigated the effect of mixed cropping (Phaseolus vulgaris L.var.Pinto)with four rhizomatous medicinal plants,i.e.,Angelica glauca,Arnebia benthamii,Rheum emodi and Pleurospermum angelicoides as well as three levels of water stress treatment under two conditions (shade net and open field) on macronutrients (NPK) and biochemicals (carbohydrates and protein).The experiment was conducted by completely randomized design (CDR).The data were analyzed with ANOVA as well as CDR.The experimental results show that in all the species shade conditions with sever water stress (SSWS) increased the level of macronutrients (NPK).However,(N) concentration was highest under shade with mixed cropping (SMIX).Under SMIX,carbohydrate content was highest than open field control conditions (CONT).This investigation results demonstrate that mixed cropping of medicinal plants with Phaseolus vulgaris could be a good livelihood option in the mountainous regions of Indian Central Himalaya.And the water-stress conditions along with mixed cropping could improve the biochemical constituents in the rhizome of these species.

  15. Understanding Earthquake Hazard & Disaster in Himalaya - A Perspective on Earthquake Forecast in Himalayan Region of South Central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, D.; Paudyal, ,; Singh, H.

    2010-12-01

    It is not only the basic understanding of the phenomenon of earthquake, its resistance offered by the designed structure, but the understanding of the socio-economic factors, engineering properties of the indigenous materials, local skill and technology transfer models are also of vital importance. It is important that the engineering aspects of mitigation should be made a part of public policy documents. Earthquakes, therefore, are and were thought of as one of the worst enemies of mankind. Due to the very nature of release of energy, damage is evident which, however, will not culminate in a disaster unless it strikes a populated area. The word mitigation may be defined as the reduction in severity of something. The Earthquake disaster mitigation, therefore, implies that such measures may be taken which help reduce severity of damage caused by earthquake to life, property and environment. While “earthquake disaster mitigation” usually refers primarily to interventions to strengthen the built environment, and “earthquake protection” is now considered to include human, social and administrative aspects of reducing earthquake effects. It should, however, be noted that reduction of earthquake hazards through prediction is considered to be the one of the effective measures, and much effort is spent on prediction strategies. While earthquake prediction does not guarantee safety and even if predicted correctly the damage to life and property on such a large scale warrants the use of other aspects of mitigation. While earthquake prediction may be of some help, mitigation remains the main focus of attention of the civil society. Present study suggests that anomalous seismic activity/ earthquake swarm existed prior to the medium size earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. The mainshocks were preceded by the quiescence period which is an indication for the occurrence of future seismic activity. In all the cases, the identified episodes of anomalous seismic activity were

  16. Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya in the last two decades (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salerno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on recent climate trends from the Himalayan range are limited, and even completely absent at high elevation. This contribution specifically explores the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya, analyzing the minimum, maximum, and mean temperature and precipitation time series reconstructed from seven stations located between 2660 and 5600m a.s.l. over the last twenty years (1994–2013. We complete this analysis with data from all the existing ground weather stations located on both sides of the mountain range (Koshi Basin over the same period. Overall we observe that the main and more significant increase in temperature is concentrated outside of the monsoon period. At higher elevations minimum temperature (0.072 ± 0.011 °C a−1, p −1, p > 0.1, while mean temperature increased by 0.044 ± 0.008 °C a−1, p −1, p p < 0.05, but the magnitude of this phenomenon is decidedly lower than the observed decrease of precipitation. (4 The lesser accumulation could be the cause behind the observed lower glacier flow velocity and the current stagnation condition of tongues, which in turn could have trigged melting processes under the debris glacier coverage, leading to the formation of numerous supraglacial and proglacial lakes that have characterized the region in the last decades. Without demonstrating the causes that could have led to the climate change pattern observed at high elevation, we conclude by listing the recent literature on hypotheses that accord with our observations.

  17. The Katmandu and Gosainkund nappes, central Nepal Himalaya (cartography, structure, metamorphism, geochemistry and radio-chronology); Les nappes de Katmandou et du Gosainkund, Himalaya du Nepal central (Etude cartographique, structurale, metamorphique, geochimique et radiochronologique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, S.M

    1998-10-01

    In central Nepal, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out to characterize and distinguish the crystalline nappes of Katmandu and Gosainkund from the Midland formations. Two principal deformations are recorded: one ductile, syn-metamorphic, marked by microstructures (stretching lineation, S-C structures, etc. ), another, post-metamorphic, recorded by an anticline, roughly EW -directed, and by NNE-SSW -directed folds. The syn-metamorphic P-T conditions show differences between Katmandu Crystalline Nappe (900-720 MPa; 700-480 deg C) and Gosainkund Crystalline Nappe (890-580 MPa; 750-590 deg C). They exhibit well preserved inverted metamorphism between the Upper Midland Formations (750 Mpa; 560 deg C) and the Gosainkund Nappe. In central Nepal, the augen gneisses and the 'Lesser Himalayan' Cambro-Ordovician granites bear similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics which suggest a common origin. However, the geological setting and age of the Proterozoic Ulleri augen gneiss rule out correlation with these formations. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses of muscovite, indicate cooling ages younger from south to north: 22 to 13 Ma in the Katmandu Nappe, 16 to 5 Ma in the Gosainkund Nappe, and 12 to 6 Ma in the Midland Formation. The principal points summarized by this study are the following: clear distinction between two nappes marked by their litho-stratigraphy and metamorphism; the ductile movement of MCT in the north of Katmandu is blocked since approximately 25 Ma; the late emplacement and late or common post metamorphic history of the two nappes; but earlier cooling history of the Katmandu nappe; the present uplift of the Katmandu region, underlined by the intense micro-seismicity, concerns indifferently the two nappes that form a single tectonic block at present; the combined uplift of the two nappes is due to the displacement on a ramp of major decollement surface. (author)

  18. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) is the main metamorphic unit of the Himalayas, stretching for over 2400 km, bounded to the South by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the North by the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) whose contemporanous activity controlled its exhumation between 23 and 17 Ma (Godin et al., 2006). Several shear zones and/or faults have been recognized within the GHS, usually regarded as out of sequence thrusts. Recent investigations, using a multitechnique approach, allowed to recognize a tectonic and metamorphic discontinuity, localized in the mid GHS, with a top-to-the SW sense of shear (Higher Himalayan Discontinuity: HHD) (Carosi et al., 2010; Montomoli et al., 2013). U-(Th)-Pb in situ monazite ages provide temporal constraint of the acitivity of the HHD from ~ 27-25 Ma to 18-17 Ma. Data on the P and T evolution testify that this shear zone affected the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the belt and different P and T conditions have been recorded in the hanging-wall and footwall of the HHD. The HHD is a regional tectonic feature running for more than 700 km, dividing the GHS in two different portions (Iaccarino et al., 2015; Montomoli et al., 2015). The occurrence of even more structurally higher contractional shear zone in the GHS (above the HHD): the Kalopani shear zone (Kali Gandaki valley, Central Nepal), active from ~ 41 to 30 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite) points out to a more complex deformation pattern in the GHS characterized by in sequence shearing. The actual proposed models of exhumation of the GHS, based exclusively on the MCT and STD activities, are not able to explain the occurrence of the HHD and other in-sequence shear zones. Any model of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the GHS should account for the occurrence of the tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities within the GHS and its consequences on the metamorphic paths and on the assembly of Himalayan belt. References Godin L., Grujic D., Law, R. D. & Searle, M. P. 2006

  19. Detection of snow melt and freezing in Himalaya using OSCAT data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajashree V Bothale; P V N Rao; C B S Dutt; V K Dadhwal

    2015-02-01

    A study of the snow cover melt and freeze using Ku band Oceansat scatterometer (OSCAT) HH polarised backscatter coefficient (0HH) for 2011 and 2012 is reported for the Himalayas, which contain the world’s largest reserve of ice and snow outside polar regions. The analysis shows spatial and temporal inter-annual variations in the onset of melt/freeze across four regions (Upper Himalaya, Western Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and Eastern Himalaya), nine elevation bands and four aspect zones. A threshold based on temperature–0HH relation and average 0HH for the months January–March was used for melt/freeze detection. When the three consecutive images (6 days) satisfied the threshold, the day of first image was selected as melt onset/freeze day. The average melt onset dates were found to be March 11 ± 11 days for Eastern Himalaya, April 3 ± 18 days for Central Himalaya, April 16 ± 27 days for Western Himalaya, and May 12 ± 18 days for Upper Himalaya. Similarly average freeze onset dates were found to be August 23 ± 27 days for Eastern Himalaya, September 08 ± 24 days for Central Himalaya, August 27 ± 11 days for Western Himalaya, and September 13 ± 11 days for Upper Himalaya. All the zones experienced the melt onset earlier by around 20 days in 2011 at elevation above 5000 m. All the zones experienced freeze earlier in 2012, with onset being 18, 19, 11, and 21 days earlier in Eastern, Central, Western, and Upper Himalaya, respectively.

  20. 喜马拉雅山中段地区气温直减率变化特征%A Study on Temperature Lapse Rate on the Northern and Southern Slopes of the Central Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟刚; 张东启; 柳景峰; 沈永平; 效存德; 刘景时; 侯典炯; 张通

    2013-01-01

    Temperature lapse rate (TLR) plays an important role in runoff modeling in the Himalayan regions where meteorological and hydrological data sets are severely scarce.Based on temperature data from 6 weather stations on both northern and southern slopes of the central Himalayas,seasonal characteristics of TLR were analyzed.Results show that monthly and diurnal TLR varied largely on both slopes,which was caused by both humidity and mountain valley breeze.As for northern slope of the central Himalayas,when Indian monsoon prevailed TLR was smaller at a range of elevations between 4 001 and 4 301 m due to humidity increasing.While at the range of elevations between 4 301 and 5 750 m,TLR was relatively higher in this period,followed by its decrease induced by mountain valley breeze after Indian monsoon prevailed.As for southern slope of the central Himalayas,humidity increased when Indian monsoon prevailed which resulted in TLR decreasing when elevations ranged from 1337 to 3 811 m.This study improved understandings of the TLR in various altitude intervals and TLR must be more carefully selected when the runoff simulation in Himalayas was conducted.%在喜马拉雅山地区的水文过程模拟中,气温直减率是一个非常重要的气象参数,其大小一定程度上决定了冰雪融水产流量.基于喜马拉雅山中段南北坡6个气象站地面实测气温数据,分析了该地区的气温直减率变化特征.结果显示,喜马拉雅山中段南北坡各海拔带的气温直减率月变化和日变幅均较大,空气湿度和山谷风是影响气温直减率变化的主要因素.对于喜马拉雅山中段北坡来说,海拔4001~4301 m的高程带受暖湿的南亚夏季风影响时,空气湿度较大,气温直减率较低;海拔4301~5750m的高程带在南亚夏季风盛行时期气温直减率相对较高,南亚夏季风结束后,由于受持续的山谷风影响,气温直减率降低.对于喜马拉雅山中段南坡来说,海拔1 337~3 811 m的

  1. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmistha De Sarkar; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande

    2013-06-01

    The existence of E–W extensional features from northeast (NE) Himalaya is poorly documented. Our investigation in the western part of Arunachal Himalaya provides evidences of active Quaternary E–W arc-parallel extensional features in the Higher and Lesser Himalayas. They are represented by arcperpendicular normal faults and arc-parallel sinistral strike-slip faults. We discuss the occurrences of these arc-parallel extensional features in terms of oblique convergence and radial expansion models. The partitioning of stress due to oblique convergence is argued based on evidences of left-lateral slip in NEHimalaya, right-lateral slip in NW-Himalaya and absence of translation in the central part. The amount of arc-parallel extension in the hinterland regions is correlated to the amount of radial shortening in the foreland. The computation of arc-parallel extension in the NE Himalayan arc is carried out by defining a small-circle centered at 88° 39′ ± 0.7′E longitude and 33° 40′ ± 0.6′N latitude having a radius of 770.7 ± 15.1 km, for the segment between 92° 01′ and 95° 16′E longitudes. The amount of arc-parallel extension estimated is ∼110 km for the NE Himalayan segment. Our result agrees closely with the 104 km extension determined based on geodetically computed extension rate and age of initiation of rifting in southern Tibet.

  2. Response of monsoon variability in Himalayas to global warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructed annual net accumulation from the Dasuopu ice core recovered in Himalayas, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in central Himalayas. The Dasuopu accumulation (DSP An) also shows a strong correlation to the Northern Hemispheric temperature. Generally, as the Northern Hemispheric temperature increases by 0.1 K, the accumulation decreases by about 90 mm and vise versa. Under the condition of global warming, especially since 1920, the Northern Hemispheric mean temperature has increased by about 0.5 K, whereas accumulation in Dasuopu ice core has decreased by about 450 mm. According to the relationship between accumulation and temperature, a scenario prediction of monsoon rainfall in central Himalayas is made.

  3. Hydroclimatic influence on particle size distribution of suspended sediments evacuated from debris-covered Chorabari Glacier, upper Mandakini catchment, central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Gokhale, Anupam Anand; Shukla, Tanuj; Dobhal, Dwarika Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Sediments released from high altitude glaciers exhibit varying evacuation patterns and transport characteristics owing to the presence of thick debris cover over the glacier. Despite the recent needs for integrated hydrometeorological studies in the Himalaya, little is known about the impacts of suspended sediment on hydropower generation, reservoir sedimentation, and abrasion of turbine components. Present study involves analysis of particle size distribution of suspended sediments to understand sediment evacuation patterns and transport characteristics in variable energy conditions during the ablation season. Peak suspended sediments were evacuated during extreme rainfall events. The estimated seasonal modern sediment erosion rate varies from 0.6 to 2.3 mm y- 1 for the study period (2009-2012). The analysis shows dominance of medium silt-sized to fine sand-sized particles having sediment size of 0.0156-0.25 mm corresponding to 70-80% without any significant seasonal variation. These transported sediments show that they are poorly sorted, coarser in nature with a nearly symmetrical to coarse skewed texture and kurtosis analysis suggesting mesokurtic distribution of sediments. The particle size fraction ranges between 4.65 and 5.23 ϕ, which is dominantly medium to coarse silty in texture. Results indicate that suspended sediments are evacuated in highly variable energy conditions through subglacial transport pathways because of increase in availability of meltwater with the progressive ablation season. Bulk geochemical characterization has been carried out to differentiate the source of suspended sediments and intensity of weathering. Chemical Index of Alterations (CIA) values of sediment flux range from 54.68 to 55.18 compared to the Upper Continental Crust (UCC) ~ 50, indicating moderate intensity of weathering. Mean seasonal (2009-2012) elemental fluxes and their contribution to the suspended sediment flux reflect that Si and Al are responsible for about 85% of

  4. Himalayas as seen from STS-66 shuttle Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    View is southeastward across China (Tibet), half of Nepal and India. The partly frozen lake near the center of the frame is Pei-Ku T'so ('Bos-tie Lake'). The central Himalaya stretches from Mount Everest on the left past Annapurna on the right. Large tributaries converge to form the Ganges River, flowing through the lowland basin south of the Himalaya. This photograph illustrates the rain shadow effect of the Himalaya Chain; wet, warm air from the Indian Ocean is driven against the mountains, lifted, and drained of water that forms ice caps, the abundant rivers, and forests of the foothills. In contrast the high plateau of Tibet is arid, composed largely of topographically-closed basins because stream flow is inadequate to form integrated drainage networks.

  5. Mid-crustal deformation of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal: An atypical example of channel flow during the Himalayan orogeny

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The channel-flow model for the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) of the Himalayan orogen involves a partially molten, rheologically weak, mid-crustal layer “flowing” southward relative to the upper and lower crust during late Oligocene–Miocene. Flow was driven by topographic overburden, underthrusting, and focused erosion. We present new structural and thermobarometric analyses from the GHS in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Hima­laya, central Nepal; these data suggest that during exhumation, the GHS...

  6. The genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877 (Scorpiones, Chaerilidae in the Himalayas and description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lourenco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species is described belonging to the genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877. Chaerilus annapurna sp. n. was discovered in the high plateaux of the Himalayas in Central-Western Nepal. For comparative purposes a precise re-diagnosis is proposed for Chaerilus truncatus Karsch, 1879, originally described from an imprecise locality in Himalaya. This species has recently been discussed by several authors: nevertheless, it has sometimes been the subject of misidentification.

  7. Heterogeneous Landscapes on Steep Slopes at Low Altitudes as Hotspots of Bird Diversity in a Hilly Region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej B Basnet

    Full Text Available Understanding factors determining the distribution of species is a key requirement for protecting diversity in a specific area. The aim of this study was to explore the factors affecting diversity and distribution of species of birds on different forested hills in central Nepal. The area is rich in species of birds. Because the area is characterized by steep gradients, we were also interested in the importance of altitude in determining the diversity and species composition of the bird communities. We assessed bird diversity and species composition based on point observations along a gradient of increasing altitude in two valleys (Kathmandu and Palung in central Nepal. Data on environmental variables were also collected in order to identify the main determinants of bird diversity and species composition of the bird communities. We recorded 6522 individual birds belonging to 146 species, 77 genera and 23 families. Resident birds made up 80% (117 species of the total dataset. The study supported the original expectation that altitude is a major determinant of species richness and composition of bird communities in the area. More diverse bird communities were found also in areas with steeper slopes. This together with the positive effect of greater heterogeneity suggests that forests on steep slopes intermixed with patches of open habitats on shallow soil at large spatial scales are more important for diverse bird communities than more disturbed habitats on shallow slopes. In addition, we demonstrated that while different habitat characteristics such as presence of forests edges and shrubs play an important role in driving species composition, but they do not affect species richness. This indicates that while habitat conditions are important determinants of the distribution of specific species, the number of niches is determined by large scale characteristics, such as landscape level habitat heterogeneity and altitude. Thus, to protect bird

  8. Heterogeneous Landscapes on Steep Slopes at Low Altitudes as Hotspots of Bird Diversity in a Hilly Region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Tej B; Rokaya, Maan B; Bhattarai, Bishnu P; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors determining the distribution of species is a key requirement for protecting diversity in a specific area. The aim of this study was to explore the factors affecting diversity and distribution of species of birds on different forested hills in central Nepal. The area is rich in species of birds. Because the area is characterized by steep gradients, we were also interested in the importance of altitude in determining the diversity and species composition of the bird communities. We assessed bird diversity and species composition based on point observations along a gradient of increasing altitude in two valleys (Kathmandu and Palung) in central Nepal. Data on environmental variables were also collected in order to identify the main determinants of bird diversity and species composition of the bird communities. We recorded 6522 individual birds belonging to 146 species, 77 genera and 23 families. Resident birds made up 80% (117 species) of the total dataset. The study supported the original expectation that altitude is a major determinant of species richness and composition of bird communities in the area. More diverse bird communities were found also in areas with steeper slopes. This together with the positive effect of greater heterogeneity suggests that forests on steep slopes intermixed with patches of open habitats on shallow soil at large spatial scales are more important for diverse bird communities than more disturbed habitats on shallow slopes. In addition, we demonstrated that while different habitat characteristics such as presence of forests edges and shrubs play an important role in driving species composition, but they do not affect species richness. This indicates that while habitat conditions are important determinants of the distribution of specific species, the number of niches is determined by large scale characteristics, such as landscape level habitat heterogeneity and altitude. Thus, to protect bird diversity in the mid

  9. Linking microstructures, petrology and in situ U-(Th)-Pb geochronology to constrain P-T-t-D evolution of the Greather Himalyan Sequences in Western Nepal (Central Himalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Langone, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Last advances in forward modelling of metamorphic rocks and into the understanding of accessories minerals behaviour, suitable for geochronology (e.g. zircon and monazite), during metamorphism, bring new insights for understanding the evolution of metamorphic tectonites during orogenic cycles (Williams and Jercinovic, 2012 and reference therein). One of the best exposure of high- to medium grade- metamorphic rocks, is represented by the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Himalayan Belt, one of the most classic example of collisional orogen. Recent field work in Mugu Karnali valley, Western Nepal (Central Himalaya), identified a compressional top to the South ductile shear zone within the core of the GHS, named Magri Shear Zone (MSZ), developed in a high temperature regime as testified by quartz microstructures and syn-kinematic growth of sillimanite. In order to infer the tectono-metamorphic meaning of MSZ, a microstructural study coupled with pseudosection modelling and in situ U-(Th)-Pb monazite geochronology was performed on selected samples from different structural positions. Footwall sample constituted by (Grt + St ± Ky) micaschist shows a prograde garnet growth (cores to inner rims zoning), from ~500°C, ~0.60GPa (close to garnet-in curve) to ~580°C, ~1.2 GPa temporal constrained between 21-18 Ma, by medium Y cores to very low Y mantles monazite micro-chemical/ages domain . In this sample garnet was still growing during decompression and heating at ~640°C, ~0.75 GPa (rims), and later starts to be consumed, in conjunction with staurolite growth at 15-13 Ma, as revealed by high Y rims monazite micro-chemical/ages domain. Hanging-wall mylonitic samples have a porphyroclastic texture, with garnet preserve little memory of prograde path. Garnet near rim isoplets and matrix minerals intersect at ~700°C and ~0.70 GPa. A previous higher P stage, at ~1.10 GPa ~600°C, is testified by cores of larger white mica porhyroclasts. Prograde zoned allanite (Janots

  10. Tectonics, exhumation, and drainage evolution of the eastern Himalaya since 13 Ma from detrital geochemistry and thermochronology, Kameng River Section, Arunachal Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirouze, F.; Huyghe, P.; van der Beek, P.; Chauvel, C.; Chakraborty, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Bernet, M.

    2013-01-01

    The exhumation history of the central Himalaya is well documented, but lateral variations in exhumation remain poorly constrained. In this study, we identify sediment source areas and examine the late Neogene exhumation history of the eastern Himalaya from the synorogenic sedimentary record of its f

  11. Geomorphological evidences of post-LGM glacial advancements in the Himalaya: A study from Chorabari Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish Mehta; Zahid Majeed; D P Dobhal; Pradeep Srivastava

    2012-02-01

    Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating from the Mandakini river valley of the Garhwal Himalaya enabled identification of four major glacial events; Rambara Glacial Stage (RGS) (13 ± 2 ka), Ghindurpani Glacial Stage (GhGS) (9 ± 1 ka), Garuriya Glacial Stage (GGS) (7 ± 1 ka) and Kedarnath Glacial Stage (KGS) (5 ± 1 ka). RGS was the most extensive glaciation extending for ∼6 km down the valley from the present day snout and lowered to an altitude of 2800 m asl at Rambara covering around ∼31 km2 area of the Mandakini river valley. Compared to this, the other three glaciations (viz., GhGS, GGS and KGS) were of lower magnitudes terminating around ∼3000, ∼3300 and ∼3500 m asl, respectively. It was also observed that the mean equilibrium line altitude (ELA) during RGS was lowered to 4747 m asl compared to the present level of 5120 m asl. This implies an ELA depression of ∼373 m during the RGS which would correspond to a lowering of ∼2°C summer temperature during the RGS. The results are comparable to that of the adjacent western and central Himalaya implying a common forcing factor that we attribute to the insolation-driven monsoon precipitation in the western and central Himalaya.

  12. Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

    2015-06-01

    We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8 f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8 f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/ Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

  13. Lateral variation of seismic attenuation in Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukarasu, Ajaay; Kumar, Ajay; Mitra, Supriyo

    2017-01-01

    We use data from local earthquakes (mb ≥ 3.0) recorded by the Sikkim broad-band seismograph network to study the frequency-dependent attenuation of the crust and uppermost mantle. These events have been relocated using body wave phase data from local and regional seismograms. The decay of coda amplitudes at a range of central frequencies (1 to 12 Hz) has been measured for 74 earthquake-receiver pairs. These measurements are combined to estimate the frequency-dependent coda Q of the form Q( f) = Q0 f η. The estimated Q0 values range from 80 to 200, with an average of 123 ± 29; and η ranges from 0.92 to 1.04, with an average of 0.98 ± 0.04. To study the lateral variation of Q0 and η, we regionalized the measured Q values by combining all the earthquake-receiver path measurements through a back projection algorithm. We consider a single back-scatter model for the coda waves with elliptical sampling and parametrize the sampled area using 0.2° square grids. A nine-point spatial smoothening (similar to spatial Gaussian filter) is applied to stabilize the inversion. This is done at every frequency to observe the spatial variation of Q( f) and subsequently combined to obtain η variations. Results of our study reveal that the Sikkim Himalaya is characterized by low Q0 (80-100) compared to the foreland basin to its south (150-200) and the Nepal Himalaya to its west (140-160). The low Q and high η in Sikkim Himalaya is attributed to extrinsic scattering attenuation from structural heterogeneity and active faults within the crust, and intrinsic attenuation due to anelasticity in the hotter lithosphere beneath the actively deforming mountain belt. Similar low Q and high η values had also been observed in northwest and Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya.

  14. Climate change in the Himalayas : current state of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Mahesh R.; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Acharya, Kumud

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the potential biophysical and economic impacts of climate change in the Himalayas. Existing observations indicate that the temperature is rising at a higher rate in Nepal and Chinese regions of the Himalayas compared with rest of the Himalayas. A declining trend of monsoon in the western Indian Himalayas and an increasing trend in the eastern Indian Himalayas have been observed, whereas increasing precipitation and stream flow in many parts of Tibetan Plat...

  15. Phenotypic variation in the Snowtrout Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray, 1832) (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from the Indian Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mir, F.A.; Mir, J.I.; Chandra, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated intraspecific variation of the Snowtrout, Schizothorax richardsonii on the basis of morphometric characters. Altogether, 217 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Western and Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 14 landmarks to yield

  16. Events of abrupt change ofIndian monsoon recorded in Dasuopu ice core fromHimalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three ice cores distributed across Dasuopu glacier in Himalayas were recovered. A 400-year net annual accumulation record reconstructed from one of the cores reflects the major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. This record is related closely to the Indian monsoon precipitation. Wavelet and moving T-test were applied to the 400-year-long Dasuopu accumulation record, and significant staggered variability and abrupt change of the record on interannual to centennial time scales are identified. Finally the possible reason for abrupt change of the accumulation record is discussed.

  17. Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ménégoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

  18. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  19. Out-of-Sequence Thrust in the Higher Himalaya- a Review & Possible Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Koyi, H. A.; Talbot, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    An out-of-sequence thrust (OOST) has been established inside the Higher Himalaya by previous workers more frequently from Nepal- and Bhutan Himalaya. The OOST lies between the South Tibetan Detachment System-Upper (STDSU) and the South Tibetan Detachment System-Lower (STDSL). The thrust has been recognized as the Kakhtang Thrust in Bhutan (Grujic et al., 2002 and references therein); Khumbu Thrust (Searle, 1999), Modi Khola Shear Zone (Hodges et al., 1996), Kalopani Shear Zone (Vannay and Hodges, 1999), Toijem Shear Zone in Nepal (Carosi et al., 2007), Chaura Thrust (Jain et al., 2000)- also designated as the Sarahan Thrust (Chambers et al., 2008) in the western Indian Himalaya in Sutlej section, Zimithang Thrust in the eastern Indian Himalaya (Yin et al., 2006), as ‘physiographic transition' in Marsyandi valley, Nepal (Burbank et al., 2003). We note that considering the upper strand of the Main Central Thrust (the MCTU) as the lower boundary of the Higher Himalaya, the physiographic transition has also been referred to lie in the Lesser Himalaya.The period of activity of the OOST was 22.5-18.5 Ma (Hodges et al., 1996), 14-10 Ma (Grujic et al., 2002), 4.9-1.5 Ma (Jain et al., 2000), and from Late Pliocene to even Holocene Period (Burbank, 2005). The out-of-sequence thrusting was followed after the initiation of channel flow at ~ 15 Ma in the Higher Himalaya with a maximum delay of ~ 13 Ma. However, in the Bhutan Himalaya, the thrusting continued along with the extensional ductile shearing in the STDSU at 11-10 Ma (Hollister and Grujic, 2006). The OOST in the Higher Himalaya lies inside the zone of the top-to-SW sense of ductile shearing. The OOST, at Kakhtang, Toijem, and Chaura are ductile shear zones with a top-to-SW sense of shearing. The OOST merges with the MCT and the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) at a depth of 30 km or more and either runs 200-300 km beneath the Tibetan plateau (Grujic et al., 2002; Hollister and Grujic, 2006). The hanging wall side of the

  20. Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants, carried out between 1979 and 2006 were consulted for the present analysis. In order to cross check and verify the data, seven districts of west Nepal were visited in four field campaigns. Results In contrast to an average of 21–28% ethnobotanically/ethnomedicinally important plants reported for Nepal, the present study found that up to about 55% of the flora of the study region had medicinal value. This indicates a vast amount of undocumented knowledge about important plant species that needs to be explored and documented. The richness of medicinal plants decreased with increasing altitude but the percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increased with increasing altitude. This was due to preferences given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas and a combination of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Conclusion Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. Strengthening the wise use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the living standard of poor people.

  1. The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-06-01

    The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia.

  2. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Wang, J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

    2011-03-01

    The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5-15 W m-2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Flora of the Pan-Himalayas: General guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Editorial Committee,Flora of the Pan-Himalayas [May 2011]1.The Pan-Himalayas (the Himalayas and adjacent regions) forms a natural geographic unit,from the Wakhan Corridor and northeastern Hindu Kush eastwards to the Hengduan Mountains by way of Karakorum and the Himalayas.This region covers the northeastern corner of Afghanistan,northern Pakistan,northern India,Nepal,Bhutan,northern Myanmar,and southwest China (S Tibet,SE Qinghai,SE Gansu,W Sichuan,and NW Yunnan).

  6. Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

    2013-11-01

    India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

  7. Geophysical Characterization of the Salna Sinking Zone, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Rambhatla G.; Mondal, Suman K.

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure and communication facilities are repeatedly affected by ground deformation in Gharwal Himalaya, India; for effective remediation measures, a thorough understanding of the real reasons for these movements is needed. In this regard, we undertook an integrated geophysical and geotechnical study of the Salna sinking zone close to the Main Central Thrust in Garhwal Himalaya. Our geophysical data include eight combined electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and induced polarization imaging (IPI) profiles spanning 144-600 m, with 3-10 m electrode separation in the Wenner-Schlumberger configuration, and five micro-gravity profiles with 10-30 m station spacing covering the study region. The ERT sections clearly outline the heterogeneity in the subsurface lithology. Further, the ERT, IPI, and shaliness (shaleyness) sections infer the absence of clayey horizons and slip surfaces at depth. However, the Bouguer gravity analysis has revealed the existence of several faults in the subsurface, much beyond the reach of the majority of ERT sections. These inferred vertical to subvertical faults run parallel to the existing major lineaments and tectonic elements of the study region. The crisscross network of inferred faults has divided the entire study region into several blocks in the subsurface. Our studies stress that the sinking of the Salna village area is presently taking place along these inferred vertical to subvertical faults. The Chamoli earthquake in March 1999 probably triggered seismically induced ground movements in this region. The absence of few gravity-inferred faults in shallow ERT sections may hint at blind faults, which could serve as future source(s) for geohazards in the study region. Soil samples at two sites of study region were studied in a geotechnical laboratory. These, along with stability studies along four slope sections, have indicated the critical state of the study region. Thus, our integrated studies emphasize the crucial role of

  8. CODA Q estimates for Kumaun Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Paul; S C Gupta; Charu C Pant

    2003-12-01

    Coda (c) estimates for the Kumaun Himalaya region have been obtained in high frequency range. Local earthquakes, recorded by a digital seismic network in the region, which fall in the epicentral distances range of 10 to 80km and with a local magnitude range of 1.4 to 2.8, have been used. The coda waves of 30 sec window length, filtered at seven frequency bands centered at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 Hz, have been analysed using the single backscattering model. The values of c estimates vary from 65 to 283 at 1.5 Hz to 2119 to 3279 at 24.0 Hz which showed that c is frequency dependent and its value increases as frequency increases. A frequency-dependent c relationship, c = (92 ± 4.73) (1.07 ± .023), is obtained for the region representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves for Kumaun Himalaya region.

  9. 19th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The 19th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop (HKT19), as an annual international workshop devoted to presentations of new research findings in the Earth sciences and related disciplines from the Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet (HKT) region and discussion on the burning issues, was held in Niseko, a famous ski resort in Hokkaido,Japan. The HKT19 Organizing Committee hosted the workshop together with two 21st Century Center of Excellence Programs,namely, COE for the “Neo-Science of Natural History” (Hokkaido University, Project Leader: H. Okada), COE for “Dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Life Interactive System”,(Nagoya University, Project Leader: T.Yasunari), and the Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Hokkaido University,

  10. Atmospheric Modelling for Air Quality Study over the complex Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapipith, Vanisa; Panday, Arnico; Mukherji, Aditi; Banmali Pradhan, Bidya; Blumer, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) for the assessment of Air Quality across the Himalaya mountain ranges. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5 has been implemented over the regional domain, stretching across 4995 x 4455 km2 centred at Ichhyakamana , the ICIMOD newly setting-up mountain-peak station (1860 m) in central Nepal, and covering terrains from sea-level to the Everest (8848 m). Simulation is carried out for the winter time period, i.e. December 2012 to February 2013, when there was an intensive field campaign SusKat, where at least 7 super stations were collecting meteorology and chemical parameters on various sites. The very complex terrain requires a high horizontal resolution (1 × 1 km2), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, into 3 coarser ones (27, 9, 3 km resolution). Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, and the challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed, before moving forward with the fully coupled chemistry module (WRF-Chem), having local and regional emission databases as input. The effort aims at finding a better understanding of the atmospheric processes and air quality impact on the mountain population, as well as the impact of the long-range transport, particularly of Black Carbon aerosol deposition, to the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The higher rate of snowcap melting, and shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Better prediction will supply crucial information to form the proper mitigation and adaptation strategies for saving people lives across the Himalayas in the changing climate.

  11. Spatiotemporal variation in exhumation of the Crystallines in the NW-Himalaya, India: Constraints from fission track dating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. C.; Adlakha, Vikas; Lal, Nand; Singh, Paramjeet; Kumar, Y.

    2011-05-01

    During Himalayan orogeny, coeval thrusting along the Main Central/Munsiari Thrust (MCT/MT) and extension along the South Tibetan-Detachment System (STDS) are widely responsible for rapid exhumation of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) zone. Apatite and zircon fission-track data along the Kaliganga and Darma valleys in the Kumaon Himalaya serve to document the shallow bedrock exhumation history of the HHC. Taking into account sample location within the HHC with respect to the MCT/MT, the apatite fission track (AFT) data-sets along the Darma (1.0 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 0.3 Ma) and Kaliganga (1.4 ± 0.2 to 2.4 ± 0.3 Ma) which are sharing same structural setting and rock types and being separated by 40 km, show very similar patterns of exhumation histories since Plio-Quaternary in the Kumaon Himalaya. Data sets along Darma and Kaliganga are very similar to data set of adjacent traverse (50 km away) along the Goriganga valley studied by Patel and Carter (2009). Whole data sets within the HHC in Kumaon Himalaya provide clear evidence for Plio-Quaternary tectonic activity along the Vaikrita Thrust (VT). Precipitation in this region exerts a strong influence on erosional surface processes. Fluvial erosional unloading along the Himalaya is focused on the high mountainous region of the HHC, where the orographic barrier forces out the maximum percentage of annual rainfall. FT cooling ages reveal coincidence between rapid erosion and exhumation that is focused in a ~ 25-30 km wide sector of the HHC, rather than covering the entire orogen. Similarity of AFT age pattern and exhumation rates along all three major traverses (Goriganga, Darma and Kaliganga) indicates that the region has been experiencing constant rate of crustal uplift and erosion since long time. Comparison of fission track ages from the Kumaon Himalaya with other segments of the NW-Himalaya shows spatiotemporal variation in exhumation. It is described due to the development of local structures such as dome

  12. The Collision Timing and Subsequent Deformation Phases in the Western Himalaya during the India-Eurasia Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoutz, O.; Upadhyay, R.; Bouilhol, P.; Van Buer, N. J.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The western Himalaya differ from the central and eastern Himalaya due to the presence of the Kohistan-Ladakh paleo Island arc (KLA) that separates India from the former Eurasian margin (e.g. Karakoram). The KLA is separated from India by the Indus suture zone in the south, and in the north by the Shyok suture zone from the Karakorum. In an effort to understand the complicated collisional history in the western Himalaya we mapped ~8000 km2 in the western Himalaya in India over the last 4 years, focusing in detail on the intersection of the Shyok suture zone and the Karakoram fault. These results in combination with our previous work and published results from the western Himalaya in Pakistan, and U-Pb Zircon geochronology allows us to constrain the collisional history related to the India-Eurasia collision of this poorly studied region of the Himalayas. Our mapping indicate that the western Himalaya in India is dominated by four major fault zones: (1) the north dipping Indus suture, previously dated at 50 Ma; (2) the Shyok suture an originally south dipping fault zone of essentially unknown age; (3) a north dipping thrusts and reverse fault system likely the equivalent of the Karakoram thrust system described from northern Pakistan; and finally (4) the dextral Karakorum strike-slip fault. The continental Saltoro Molasse composed of conglomerate and sandstones is generally spatially associated in our mapping area with the Shyok suture zone and likely the western equivalent of the Purit formation described in Pakistan. The deposition of the Saltoro molasses postdated the formation of the Shyok suture zones, as serpentinized ultramafic conglomerate clasts are common in the molasse and are likely derived from the near-by ultramafics of the Shyok suture zone. However, both the Shyok suture and the Saltoro molasse are affected by the thrusting along the Karakoram thrust system and the deformation associated with movement of the Karakoram fault. These relative age

  13. Interpreting the geomorphometric indices for neotectonic implications: An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Rana; Sunil Singh; Y P Sundriyal; G S Rawat; Navin Juyal

    2016-06-01

    Tectonic process can influence the erosion and exert the first order impression on hydrographic networkof an area. Geomorphometry, a mathematical analysis of the configuration of the landforms, allows quantifyingthe degree of landform evolution and is widely used as a measure of tectonic deformation/uplift.Alaknanda valley lies in the tectonically active Garhwal Himalaya which has experienced two disastrouslarge earthquakes in the last two decades. Morphometric analyses of the valley were carried out in a fluvialerosion dominated regime and the morphometric indices were derived from the ASTER (30 m × 30 mpixel) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Arc GIS. The results of the analyses reveal two zones ofhigh deformation/uplift in the valley, viz., the zone of high deformation proximal to the Main CentralThrust (MCT) in the Inner Lesser Himalaya (ILH) and the second zone of moderate deformation/upliftin the Outer Lesser Himalaya (OLH), south of the Tons Thrust (TT). The high deformation in the ILHis ascribed to the focussed convergence and high precipitation; however, the causes for the moderatedeformation in the OLH are yet to be established.

  14. Interpreting the geomorphometric indices for neotectonic implications: An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Naresh; Singh, Sunil; Sundriyal, Y. P.; Rawat, G. S.; Juyal, Navin

    2016-06-01

    Tectonic process can influence the erosion and exert the first order impression on hydrographic network of an area. Geomorphometry, a mathematical analysis of the configuration of the landforms, allows quantifying the degree of landform evolution and is widely used as a measure of tectonic deformation/uplift. Alaknanda valley lies in the tectonically active Garhwal Himalaya which has experienced two disastrous large earthquakes in the last two decades. Morphometric analyses of the valley were carried out in a fluvial erosion dominated regime and the morphometric indices were derived from the ASTER (30 m × 30 m pixel) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Arc GIS. The results of the analyses reveal two zones of high deformation/uplift in the valley, viz., the zone of high deformation proximal to the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in the Inner Lesser Himalaya (ILH) and the second zone of moderate deformation/uplift in the Outer Lesser Himalaya (OLH), south of the Tons Thrust (TT). The high deformation in the ILH is ascribed to the focussed convergence and high precipitation; however, the causes for the moderate deformation in the OLH are yet to be established.

  15. Seismic source zoning and maximum credible earthquake prognosis of the Greater Kashmir Territory, NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2016-09-01

    We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.

  16. Three-dimensional velocity structure around Tehri region of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya: constraints on geometry of the underthrusting Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Jyotima; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, S. C.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the upper crustal velocity structure beneath the Tehri region of the Garhwal Himalaya. The investigated region is situated within the 700-km-long central seismic gap of the Himalaya that has experienced three gap-filling earthquakes since 1991 including the recent 2015 Nepal earthquake (Mw 7.8). The local tomographic inversion is based on a data set of 1365 events collected from 2008 January to 2012 December by a 12-station local network that covers an area of about 100 × 80 km around Tehri Dam. We perform a simultaneous inversion for P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. Tomograms are interpreted in the backdrop of the regional geological and tectonic framework of the region. The spatial distribution of relocated events from the 3-D velocity model has shed new light on the pattern of seismicity in the vicinity of the Main Central thrust (MCT), and has elucidated the structure of the underthrusting Indian plate. Our model exhibits a significant negative velocity anomaly up to ˜5 per cent beneath the central part of the Garhwal Inner Lesser Himalaya, and a P-wave low velocity anomaly near the Chamoli region. The seismicity zone around the Chamoli region may be attributed to the presence of fluid-filled rocks. Furthermore, an area with ˜3-4 per cent positive velocity anomaly is delineated to the northwest of the Uttarkashi thrust in the vicinity of the MCT. Significant findings of the study include: a flat-ramp-flat-type subsurface geometry of the underthrusting Indian plate below the Garhwal Himalaya, high-velocity images representing the trend and configuration of Delhi-Haridwar ridge below the Sub Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya and a seismically active zone representing geometrical asperity on the basement thrust in the vicinity of the MCT.

  17. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon. Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  18. S-P wave travel time residuals and lateral inhomogeneity in the mantle beneath Tibet and the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P.; Chen, W.-P.

    1984-01-01

    S-P wave travel time residuals were measured in earthquakes in Tibet and the Himalaya in order to study lateral inhomogeneities in the earth's mantle. Average S-P residuals, measured with respect to Jeffrey-Bullen (J-B) tables for 11 earthquakes in the Himalaya are less than +1 second. Average J-B S-P from 10 of 11 earthquakes in Tibet, however, are greater than +1 second even when corrected for local crustal thickness. The largest values, ranging between 2.5 and 4.9 seconds are for five events in central and northern Tibet, and they imply that the average velocities in the crust and upper mantle in this part of Tibet are 4 to 10 percent lower than those beneath the Himalaya. On the basis of the data, it is concluded that it is unlikely that a shield structure lies beneath north central Tibet unless the S-P residuals are due to structural variations occurring deeper than 250 km.

  19. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least

  20. A Cryosphere Monitoring Project in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumm, D.; Mool, P. K.; Shresta, A. B.; Joshi, S. P.; Bajracharya, S. R.; Kayastha, R. B.; Devkota, L. P.; Bajracharya, O. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Cryosphere Monitoring Project (CMP) has been initiated by ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) with the aim to gain more knowledge about the cryosphere in the Himalayas and to build capacities in Nepalese organisations. The CMP is carried out in collaboration with the Kathmandu University, Tribhuvan University, the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology and the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, and is sponsored by the Royal Norwegian Embassy. The CMP has a multilevel and integrative approach and consists of the following five components: (1) glacier monitoring, (2) assessment of current and future water resources at catchment and sub-basin scale, (3) multi-level remote sensing based observations for glacier and snow monitoring, (4) strengthening ICIMOD as regional knowledge hub for cryospheric information, (5) capacity building of Nepalese organisations. The glacier monitoring component includes field-based mass balance, geometry and glacier flow measurements on two clean and one debris-covered glacier and their analysis, as well as snow cover measurements. The in-situ glacier measurements promote process understanding, provide a refined temporal resolution of mass balance data and data for calibration of glacio-hydrological models. To assess current water resources, meteorological and hydrological measurements are initiated and the run-off is calculated with glacio-hydrological and snow-melt models for the catchments of the selected glaciers. Future water availability will be assessed by down-scaling regional climate model (RCM) data that is applied to the glacio-hydrological model. Remote sensing data is used to improve spatial information about the glacier distribution by refining glacier inventories, and to calculate the geodetic mass balance for the selected glaciers to complement the directly measured glacier mass balance. Additionally, the operation of a MODIS satellite receiving station is planned to obtain near real

  1. Seismic properties of naturally deformed quartzites of the Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruchika Sharma Tandon; Vikram Gupta; Koushik Sen

    2015-08-01

    The present contribution summarizes the results of a study focusing on the influence of quartz microstructures on the seismic wave velocities in the quartzites of the Garhwal Himalaya. Quartzites being monomineralic were chosen for the present study so as to nullify the effect of other mineral constituents on the seismic velocity. Samples were collected from different tectonic settings of the Higher and Lesser Himalayas which are separated from one another by the major tectonic zone ‘Main Central Thrust’ (MCT). These are mainly Pandukeshwar quartzite, Tapovan quartzite and Berinag quartzite. The samples of Berinag quartzite were collected from near the klippen and the thrust, termed as Alaknanda Thrust. The vast differences in microstructures and associated seismic wave velocities have been noted in different quartzites. It has also been observed that quartzites of the MCT zone and Alaknanda Thrust have higher seismic velocities. This is because of their coarse-grained nature of the rocks as evidenced by the strong positive relation between seismic velocities and grain area. The coarsening is either due to the operation of grain boundary migration and grain area reduction process or high aspect ratio/shape preferred orientation. The quartzites located around Nandprayag Klippen have undergone static recrystallization and exhibit the lowest seismic wave velocities.

  2. Monazite geochronology unravels the timing of crustal thickening in NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Grujic, Djordje; Parrish, Randall R.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Kronz, Andreas; Wooden, Joe; Ahmad, Talat

    2014-12-01

    Greenschist to amphibolite grade Haimanta metasediments of the NW Himalaya preserve much of the prograde metamorphic history of Eohimalayan crustal thickening, which has been erased by Oligo-/Miocene migmatization elsewhere in the Himalaya. Our zircon and monazite U/Th-Pb data unravel a multi-stage prograde metamorphic evolution. The earliest evidence of prograde Barrovian metamorphic monazite growth is ~ 41 Ma. Peak metamorphic conditions (~ 8-8.5 kbar, ~ 600-700 °C) were attained at 37-36 Ma and followed by a prolonged evolution at high temperatures with at least three distinct episodes of monazite growth, which may be related to the formation of the northern Himalayan nappes (e.g., Shikar Beh nappe, Nyimaling nappe). Rapid exhumation of the crystalline started at ~ 26 Ma and resulted in cooling through the muscovite 40Ar/39Ar closure temperature by 21.8 Ma. Although a local continuation of the South Tibetan detachment is not unambiguously identified in central Himachal Pradesh extrusion was likely facilitated by a system of several minor late Oligocene/early Miocene top-to-the-N to NE shear zones. In contrast to the crystalline of Zanskar and eastern Himachal Pradesh, extrusion was not accompanied by widespread decompression melting.

  3. Nature and Timing of Quaternary glaciation in the Himalaya: Review and Speculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Reconstructions of the extent and defining the timing of Quaternary glaciation across the Himalaya is an important step towards understanding the nature of long-term (centennial-millennial scale) climate-glacier dynamics in the high mountains of Central Asia. Recent efforts, aided by extensive programs of mapping and numerical dating, are beginning to more accurately define the extent and timing of Quaternary glaciation throughout the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. The picture that is emerging is one of complex variation in the timing and extent of glaciation within and between regions. This variation is likely controlled by regional differences in the role of the major climatic systems that influence the region over time and topographic factors. A transect across the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, including detailed studies in the Lahul Himalaya, Zanskar, Ladakh, Hunza and the Pamir, illustrates this complexity. This transect has the potential, when examined in more detail using newly developing numerical dating, and geomorphic and sedimentologic methods, to derive high-resolution records of glaciation that will help in understanding the complex relationship between climate-glacier dynamics and topography.

  4. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  5. Himalaya evolution at Paleogene-Neogene boundary unraveled by zircon age spectrum from Arabian Sea Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Han; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hanzhi

    2016-04-01

    Although virtually all the intensive orogenic activities of Himalaya occurred in Neogene, the tectonic evolution of this high mountain range in Paleogene is poorly understood. Investigations of tectonic change pattern at Paleogene-Neogene boundary are important to better understand the interaction between mountain building and climate evolution. Here we present new U-Pb ages of zircon grains from Indus Fan sediments to constrain the orogenic history of Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary. 11 samples between late Oligocene and early Miocene from ODP 117 cores are dated by the zircon U-Pb technique. We calculate relative contributions of potential sources by counting zircon grains for each sample, and the quantized results indicate Himalaya contributed sediments to the coring site, and an extremely high input from Great and Tethyan Himalaya during late Oligocene-early Miocene. Four samples in Pleistocene are also dated for comparison, which indicates that high proportion of Lesser Himalaya has contributed to the sediment in Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the high contribution of Great and Tethyan Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary might correlate with the beginning of activity of MCT and extension of STD with leucogranite intrusion along Himalaya, which give rise to the extensive Great Himalaya exhumation. Our study demonstrates that zircon U-Pb dating technique is a good tool to reconstruct erosional history of mountain building on a tectonic timescale. Key words: ODP, Himalaya, Indus Fan, zircon U-Pb dating, Paleogene-Neogene boundary

  6. Vertical Zonation of Horticultural Farming in the Alaknanda Basin of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2005-01-01

    Horticultural practice in the Himalayas has great importance not only for economic development but also for environmental restoration.In the entire Himalayan mountain system, from Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya to Assam Himalaya,the practice of horticulture is centuries old, which includes varieties of fruits along with availability of high quality and quantity. In terms of the Alaknanda Basin, which is centrally located in the Himalayan system, the practice of horticulture does not get commercial level; only it is cultivated domestically.The climatic conditions ranging from sub-tropical (low-lying river valleys) to alpine and frigid (highly elevated regions) are suited for varieties of fruit cultivation, yet the benefit of this could not be utilized by the residents who are working in the agricultural fields.Besides, less proportion of land is devoted for fruit cultivation along with domestic production of fruits. The varieties of fruit cultivated in the basin range from mango-guava-papaya, stone-net, citrus to apple at the different elevations. Along with the cultivated fruits, varieties of wild fruits are also found in the jungle. There are four climatic zones suitable for the production of various fruits as below:·Sub-tropical zone including the lower part of the Alaknanda, Pindar, Nandakini, and Mandakini rivers is suitable for mango, guava,and papaya;·Sub-temperate zone in the middle basin of the Alaknanda, Pindar, Nandakini and Mandakinirivers is a good place for citrus fruits,particularly orange and lemon;·Temperate zone occupying the Dauli, Vishnu Ganga, Upper Pinder, Nandakini and Mandakini rivers is highly productive for apple,nut and stone fruits;·Apline meadows in the highly elevated region are known as Bugyal famous for herb culture.Each of these zones has distinct physical features,environmental conditions and socio-economic identity for fruit cultivation. The present paper aims to discuss about the vertical zonation of the horticultural farming and

  7. Northward genetic penetration across the Himalayas viewed from Sherpa people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Longli; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Chen, Feng; Yao, Dali; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas have been suggested as a natural barrier for human migrations, especially the northward dispersals from the Indian Subcontinent to Tibetan Plateau. However, although the majority of Sherpa have a Tibeto-Burman origin, considerable genetic components from Indian Subcontinent have been observed in Sherpa people living in Tibet. The western Y chromosomal haplogroups R1a1a-M17, J-M304, and F*-M89 comprise almost 17% of Sherpa paternal gene pool. In the maternal side, M5c2, M21d, and U from the west also count up to 8% of Sherpa people. Those lineages with South Asian origin indicate that the Himalayas have been permeable to bidirectional gene flow.

  8. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  9. Tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks of Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Goel R.K.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of tunnelling has been going on in India for various projects such as hydroelectric power, irrigation, roads and railways. Most of these projects are located in Himalayas, far away from the urban areas. Tunnelling through weak and jointed rock masses such as the one in the Himalayas is a challenging task for the planners, designers, engineers and geologists because of high overburden, thickly vegetated surface, weak, poor and fragile rocks and highly varying geology with the presence of numerous small and big shear zones, faults, etc. Due to these reasons, various tunnelling problems have been faced in the past and are still being encountered. Failures and the problems may be regarded as challenges and opportunities for generating new knowledge base and thereby increasing self-reliance in tunnelling. The experiences of Himalayan tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks covering varying and mixed geology, understanding on tunnelling in squeezing ground conditions and applicability of TBM in Himalayas are presented. It has also been highlighted that the probe holes planning, drilling and mon-itoring shall be followed seriously to reduce the geological surprises.

  10. The Local Atmosphere and the Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Eastern Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Han; LI Peng; MA Shupo; ZHOU Libo; ZHU Jinhuan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the local atmosphere and heat transfer and to facilitate the boundary-layer parameterization of numerical simulation and prediction,an observational campaign was conducted in the Eastern Himalayas in June 2010.The local atmospheric properties and near-surface turbulent heat transfers were analyzed.The local atmosphere in this region is warmer,more humid and less windy,with weaker solar radiation and surface radiate heating than in the Middle Himalayas.The near-surface turbulent heat transfer in the Eastern Himalayas is weaker than that in the Middle Himalayas.The total heat transfer is mainly contributed by the latent heat transfer with a Bowen ratio of 0.36,which is essentially different from that in the Middle Himalayas and the other Tibetan regions.

  11. Evidence for Along-Strike Variations in the Crustal Deformation beneath the Bhutan Himalaya from Receiver Function Imaging and Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J.; Kissling, E. H.; Diehl, T.; Hetényi, G.

    2015-12-01

    In the Bhutan Himalaya seismicity and geologic surface features like the Kuru Chu Spur (an embayment of the Main Central Thrust) or the Paro window indicate along-strike variations in the collisional structure. The deeper structure of the orogenic wedge and associated deformation processes, however, are poorly understood partly due to the lack of seismic images of the crust. To better understand these differences in structure and deformation, we use data of a temporary seismic broadband network in Bhutan to image the crustal structure with receiver functions (RF). We apply an iterative 3D wave-based migration scheme including a high-frequency ray approximation, which satisfies Snell's law for dipping interfaces. With this approach we image variably dipping intra-crustal interfaces and the Moho topography across the Bhutan Himalaya, and identify lateral variations in the orogenic structure, which we interpret jointly with a new local earthquake catalog. In West Bhutan, RF imaging depicts a northward dipping Moho at ~50 km depth. The low-angle dip steepens north of ~27.6°N which matches well observations by wide-angle seismics in South Tibet and the hypocenter of a deep crustal earthquake recorded by our network. We also identify the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) at ~14 km depth in West Bhutan with a ramp-like structure north of ~27.6°N. The ramp is characterized by a negative impedance contrast in the RF signals and coincides with a concentration of seismicity. In the East, the Moho appears to be almost flat at a depth of ~50 km without clear indications of steepening towards north. Beneath the Kuru Chu Spur in East Bhutan, we observe listric-shaped structures reaching from the upper crust beneath the Lesser Himalaya down to the Moho beneath the Greater Himalaya, which we interpret as a stack of crustal material typical for an accretionary wedge. While these structures appear aseismic, a horizontal alignment of seismicity at ~12 km depth suggests an active MHT in

  12. Deforestation in eastern and central nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Shuji; Miyamoto, Shinji; Kariya, Yoshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Dated charcoal and humic materials in soil, both of which are evidence of forest fire and vegetation changes, as well as pollen analysis of soil indicate occurrence of past deforestation in the Nepal Himalayas. In Sirubari, central Nepal, human impact such as population growth and cultural change may have accelerated an environmental change during the 14-15th centuries. In Junbesi and Phaplu, the Solu area of eastern Nepal, temporary deforestation caused by hunting and grazing is evident of h...

  13. The Large-Bodied hominoids of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trachtengerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The review of available data concerning to large-bodied hominoids detected in the Himalayas is presented. They are mainly footprints (photographs by E.Shipton and M.Ward, P.Bordet, F.Smythe, and A.Woodridge and also narration of one remote observation. It is shown that on the whole these data reveal basic features of the undefined creature, most probably humanlike primate, and allow describing it as a separate species. One of its features is unusual four-toed foot with two strong toes and two small toes. A taxonomic name for this hominoid is proposed ¾ Homo pardigitatus sp. nov. ("That has paired toes".

  14. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ongoing seismicity of northeastern Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivekanand Pathak; Charu C Pant; Gopal Singh Darmwal

    2015-08-01

    The northeastern part of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India, lying between the rupture zones of 1905, Kangra and 1934, Bihar–Nepal earthquakes and known as ‘central seismic gap’ is a segment of an active fault known to produce significant earthquakes and has not slipped in an unusually long time when compared to other segments. The studied section forms a part of this seismic gap and is seismically an active segment of the Himalayan arc, as compared to the remaining part of the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya and it is evident by active geomorphological features and seismicity data. The geomorphological features of various river valley transects suggest that the region had a history of tectonic rejuvenation which is testified by the deposition of various levels of terraces and their relative uplift, shifting and ponding of river channels, uplifted potholes, triangular facets on fault planes, fault scarps, etc. Further, the seismic data of five-station digital telemetered seismic network along with two stand alone systems show the distribution of earthquakes in or along the analyzed fault transects. It is observed that the microseismic earthquakes (magnitude 1.0–3.0) frequently occur in the region and hypocenters of these earthquakes are confined to shallow depths (10–20 km), with low stress drop values (1.0–10 bar) and higher peak ground velocity (PGV). The cluster of events is observed in the region, sandwiched between the Berinag Thrust (BT) in south and Main Central Thrust (MCT) in north. The occurrences of shallow focus earthquakes and the surface deformational features in the different river valley transect indicates that the region is undergoing neotectonic rejuvenation. In absence of chronology of the deposits it is difficult to relate it with extant seismicity, but from the geomorphic and seismic observations it may be concluded that the region is still tectonically active. The information would be very important in identifying the areas of

  15. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in

  16. Variation of Seismic Coda Wave Attenuation in the Garhwal Region, Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jayant N.; Singh, Priyamvada; Sharma, Mukat L.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic coda wave attenuation ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) characteristics in the Garhwal region, northwestern Himalaya is studied using 113 short-period, vertical component seismic observations from local events with hypocentral distance less than 250 km and magnitude range between 1.0 to 4.0. They are located mainly in the vicinity of the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which are well-defined tectonic discontinuities in the Himalayas. Coda wave attenuation ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) is estimated using the single isotropic scattering method at central frequencies 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 Hz using several starting lapse times and coda window lengths for the analysis. Results show that the ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) values are frequency dependent in the considered frequency range, and they fit the frequency power law ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} left( f right) = Q0^{ - 1} f^{ - n} ). The Q 0 ( Q c at 1 Hz) estimates vary from about 50 for a 10 s lapse time and 10 s window length, to about 350 for a 60 s lapse time and 60 s window length combination. The exponent of the frequency dependence law, n ranges from 1.2 to 0.7; however, it is greater than 0.8, in general, which correlates well with the values obtained in other seismically and tectonically active and highly heterogeneous regions. The attenuation in the Garhwal region is found to be lower than the Q {c/-1} values obtained for other seismically active regions of the world; however, it is comparable to other regions of India. The spatial variation of coda attenuation indicates that the level of heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth. The variation of coda attenuation has been estimated for different lapse time and window length combinations to observe the effect with depth and it indicates that the upper lithosphere is more active seismically as compared to the lower lithosphere and the heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth.

  17. Boreal spring precipitation variability in the cold arid western Himalaya during the last millennium, regional linkages, and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Bräuning, Achim; Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalayan region, largely under the influence of mid-latitude westerlies, is the dominant regional socioeconomic driver. Current knowledge of long-term regional precipitation variability is scarce due to spatially and temporally limited weather and high-resolution proxy climate records. We developed the first boreal spring precipitation reconstruction for the western Himalaya covering the last millennium (1030-2011 C.E.). The annually resolved reconstruction is based on a large tree-ring data set of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) and neoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) from 16 ecologically homogeneous moisture stressed settings in Kinnaur, western Indian Himalaya. The precipitation reconstruction revealed persistent long-term spring droughts from the 12th to early 16th century C.E. and pluvial from the late 16th century C.E. to recent decades. The late 15th and early 16th centuries (1490-1514 C.E.) displayed the driest episode, with precipitation being ∼15% lower than the long-term mean. The early 19th century (1820-1844 C.E.) was the wettest period of the past millennium, with mean precipitation ∼13% above the long-term mean. The reconstructed boreal spring precipitation from the western Himalaya revealed large-scale consistency with hydrological records from westerly dominated regions in Central Asia, indicating synoptic-scale changes in atmospheric circulation during the major part of the Medieval and Little Ice Age periods. Protracted droughts in Central Asia could have caused severe contraction of the regional economy, as indicated by striking coherence of reconstructed drought periods and historic social upheavals and invasions of India from Central and Western Asian invaders. Vulnerability to climatic extremes underpins the need to develop a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability in regional hydroclimate in order to devise viable water resource management plans.

  18. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group of far eastern Himalaya, Kameng section, Arunashal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, Francois; Huyghe, Pascale; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    Foreland basins act as receptacles for synorogenic sediments and store materials eroded off a convergent mountain belt (DeCelles and Giles, 1996, DeCelles and Giles, 1996). Their infill records tectonic, climatic and erosional processes that govern the development of the mountain belt and the foreland basin. Consequently, studying the infill of foreland basins can give clues as to the reconstruction of the orogen tectonic growth and the interaction with global or regional climate (e.g. Molnar & England, 1990). The Himalaya, the highest range in the world, is used as a natural laboratory to test the interactions between these processes, in particular because of the effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift on the intensity and variability of the Asian monsoon (Kutzbach et al., 1993; Fluteau et al., 1999). Exhumation, erosion and climate events affecting the Himalaya are recorded in the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin deposits (e.g. DeCelles et al., 1998, 2000; Galy et al., 1999; Huyghe et al., 2001, 2005; Najman, 2005). Dating these deposits is a key element to reconstruct the Himalaya's evolution. Despite a wealth of studies in the central and western Himalayan foreland, very few studies have been carried out in the eastern part (Yin et al., 2006, Cina et al 2009). Understanding the evolution of this eastern part is essential for reconstructing the regional migration of the Himalayan deformation. In addition, the eastern Himalayan foreland potentially records the evolution of processes associated to the eastern syntaxis drainage networks (Singh and France-Lanord, 2002) and the Shillong plateau uplift (Grujic et al., 2006). Therefore, accurate dating of the sediments of the Eastern part of the Siwalik foreland basin using magnetostratigraphy is a crucial initial step for further investigations such as sedimentological and structural field studies, fission tracks, provenance and isotopic stable laboratory analysis. These investigations aim at constraining the exhumation

  19. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  20. Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Kumar, Sushil; Choubey, V M

    2008-10-01

    Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed.

  1. Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal-249199 (India)], E-mail: rcramola@gmail.com; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh [Department of Physics, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal-249199 (India); Kumar, Sushil; Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun-248001 (India)

    2008-10-15

    Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed.

  2. Glacier Changes in the Bhutanese Himalaya - Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Burgener, L. K.; Maurer, J.; Smith, R.; Cook, E.; Putnam, A. E.; Krusic, P.; Tsering, K.; Koenig, L.

    2012-12-01

    Glacierized change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for glacier area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the glacier area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust glacier melt model, our results show that glacier area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. The most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values (1980-2000), almost 10% of Bhutan's glacierized area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. New mapping of glacierized area from 2000-2010 shows a significant change in glacierized area of 4-6%. Thus the conservative steady-state area changes predicted by the model are already being realized. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1°C regional warming, glacier retreat is predicted to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's glacierized area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%.

  3. Eohimalayan NE-directed tectonism in the NW Himalaya: Implications for the kinematic evolution of the High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, Martin; Epard, Jean-Luc

    2013-04-01

    In the central parts of the Himalayas, the High Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) high-grade rocks are exhumed in the frontal part of the range, as a consequence of a tectonic extrusion controlled by combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and extension along the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). In the NW Himalaya, however, the hanging wall of the MCT in the frontal part of the range consists of low-grade metasediments, whereas the HHC high-grade rocks are exposed in a more internal part of the orogen as a large scale dome structure called the Gianbul dome. Another striking feature of the HHC in NW Indian Himalaya is the occurrence of NE-vergent folds and thrust faults that clearly contrast from the SW-directed folding and thrusting that characterize the Himalayan orogeny since the continental collision between India and Asia 55 Myr ago. Two competing interpretations have been put forward to explain the occurrence of these uncommon NE-verging structures. A first set of interpretations argues that this unusual vergence relates to local heterogeneities of the deformation during to the main SW-directed folding phase (e.g Frank et al., 1987). However, based on structural interference patterns, Steck et al. (1993) contrastingly conclude that these NE-directed structures predate the predominant SW-verging Himalayan deformation and are related to an early NE-directed Eohimalayan tectonic event associated with the emplacement of the so-called Shikar Beh nappe. New structural and geochronological data reveal that these unusual NE-verging structures result from a NE-directed propagation of crustal deformation that initiated 53 Myr ago. As such, the numerous structures showing a top-to-the NE sense of shear observed in Upper Lahul (NW India) cannot just be seen as local heterogeneities of the main SW-verging deformation but rather as evidence of a predominant Eohimalayan deformation manifested by folding and thrusting toward the NE. Although the origin of this

  4. Exploration of Csp genes from temperate and glacier soils of the Indian Himalayas and in silico analysis of encoding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Prema K; Soni, Ravindra; Khan, Mahejibin; Marla, Soma S; Goel, Reeta

    2009-04-01

    The metagenomic Csp library was constructed from the temperate and glacier soils of central Himalaya, India followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The library was further screened for low-temperature adaptation, and the positive recombinants were sorted out by determining changes in the melting temperature (Tm). A homology search of cloned sequence showed their identity with the Csp genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5, and Shewanella spp MR-4. Amino acid sequence analysis annotated the presence of conserved aromatic and basic amino acids as well as RNA binding motifs from the cold shock domain. Furthermore, a PROSITE scan showed a moderate identity of less than 60% with the known cold shock-inducible proteins (ribosomal proteins, rbfA, DEAD-box helicases), cold acclimation protein, and temperature-induced protein (SRP1/TIP1). This study highlighted the prevalence of Csp genes from cold Himalayan environments that can be explored for tailor-made crop constructions in future.

  5. Rock magnetic survey of Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan; Pakistan hokubu, Himalaya-Karakoram tai no ganseki jikigakuteki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M. [Geoscience Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Khadim, I.; Ahmad, M. [Geological Survey of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper describes results of the rock magnetic survey mainly including measurement of magnetic susceptibility conducted in the northern Pakistan from 1992 to 1997. Magnetic characteristics in Himalaya-Karakoram ranges and prospective ore deposits are also described. Magnetic susceptibility data measured in this district were summarized as a frequency map in each geological block. Granitoids in the northern part of Kohistan batholith and granitoids of Ladakh batholith showed remarkably high magnetic susceptibility values, which suggested they are magnetite-series magmatism. It has been known that magnetite-series magmatism often accompanies sulfide-forming mineral resources, which suggests high potentiality of abundant mineral resources containing Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Au. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility measurements and the above-mentioned models, accordingly, it can be pointed out that the northern part of Kohistan batholith, the distribution area of Ladakh batholith, and surrounding areas are promising targets for mineral resources exploration in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  6. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountainHow harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and wildlife? This thesis is a response to repeated calls for a better und

  7. Erodibility controls on the vertical and horizontal scalings of topography : a case study in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, V.; Steer, P.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the scaling properties of topography in actively uplifting areas is a major issue in quantitative geomorphology. Analytical formulations of non-glaciated landscape evolution clearly demonstrate that metrics such as local relief or drainage density are explicitly related to the spatial distribution of tectonic uplift, precipitation, erodibility and local slope across the landscape. However, in most regions, these parameters are seldom documented with enough resolution and precision to allow a systematic and statistically significant investigation of their relationships with both horizontal and vertical scaling properties of topography. A notable exception is the Himalaya of central Nepal, where the last 20 years of tectonic and geomorphological research have produced one of the densest regional data-set and documented major gradients in uplift and precipitation across the range [e.g. Lavé and Avouac, 2001; Bookhagen and Burbank, 2006]. The purpose of our study is to use this data in order to develop a detailed investigation of the influence of the erodibility parameter in controlling the structure and texture of the landscape. We first build on the derivation of total catchment relief of Tucker and Whipple [2002] to include the contribution of precipitation in addition to uplift, erodibility. Then, by minimizing the misfit between observed and predicted catchment relief, we assess the erodibility parameter for each second or third order catchment in our area of investigation. The resultant erodibility map (1) matches the distribution of geological units and (2) reveals a number of interesting second order patterns, such as along-strike fluctuations in the Lesser Himalayas and a significant decrease in erodibility coincident with the location of the MCT zone. This latter result possibly highlights the effect of intense schistosity and fracturation on large scale erosion efficiency [Molnar et al., 2007]. Then to assess the influence of erodibility on

  8. Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya since 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wagnon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Everest region, Nepal, ground-based monitoring programs were started on the debris-free Mera Glacier (27.7° N, 86.9° E; 5.1 km2, 6420 to 4940 m a.s.l. in 2007 and on the small Pokalde Glacier (27.9° N, 86.8° E; 0.1 km2, 5690 to 5430 m a.s.l., ∼ 25 km North of Mera Glacier in 2009. These glaciers lie on the southern flank of the central Himalaya under the direct influence of the Indian monsoon and receive more than 80% of their annual precipitation in summer (June to September. Despite a large inter-annual variability with glacier-wide mass balances ranging from −0.77± 0.40 m w.e. in 2011–2012 (Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA at ∼ 6055 m a.s.l. to + 0.46 ± 0.40 m w.e. in 2010–2011 (ELA at ∼ 5340 m a.s.l., Mera Glacier has been shrinking at a moderate mass balance rate of −0.10± 0.40 m w.e. yr−1 since 2007. Ice fluxes measured at two distinct transverse cross sections at ∼ 5350 m a.s.l. and ∼ 5520 m a.s.l. confirm that the mean state of this glacier over the last one or two decades corresponds to a limited mass loss, in agreement with remotely-sensed region-wide mass balances of the Everest area. Seasonal mass balance measurements show that ablation and accumulation are concomitant in summer which in turn is the key season controlling the annual glacier-wide mass balance. Unexpectedly, ablation occurs at all elevations in winter due to wind erosion and sublimation, with remobilized snow likely being sublimated in the atmosphere. Between 2009 and 2012, the small Pokalde Glacier lost mass more rapidly than Mera Glacier with respective mean glacier-wide mass balances of −0.72 and −0.26 ± 0.40 m w.e. yr−1. Low-elevation glaciers, such as Pokalde Glacier, have been usually preferred for in-situ observations in Nepal and more generally in the Himalayas, which may explain why compilations of ground-based mass balances are biased toward negative values compared with the regional mean under the present-day climate.

  9. Calculation of former ELA depressions in the Himalaya - a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.

    2009-04-01

    For the reconstruction of former Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELA) and ELA depressions in the Himalaya, the group of the Toe-to-Summit-Altitude-Methods (TSAM) is most suited. In this investigation the Kuhle (1986) method that is particularly tailored to the extreme high mountain relief, as well as the widely used Höfer (1879) method and Louis (1954/55) method, have been applied. Applying the relief specific correction factor FSD (Factor for snowline deviation) in the Kuhle method, it is thereby possible to simulate the shifting position of the ELA within the vertical extension of the glacier in dependence on the relief characteristics and glacial type. The results of this work, carried out along the Kali Gandaki in central Nepal, illustrate that as a rule, the Louis method results in the highest ELAs and the lowest ELA depressions, while the Höfer method yields the lowest ELAs and the highest ELA depressions. In affirmation of the literature, the Louis method tends to overestimate the ELA, since using the maximum peak height, especially for large glaciers in mountain ranges with high relief energy, leads to an overly high position of the glacier upper limit. With respect to the Höfer method, the suspicion already voiced by Höfer (1879) himself, that with the use of his method, the for the Himalaya typically high elevated, and with marginal gradient toward the valley moving ridge progressions, would lead to a too low ELA, can be affirmed. Clearly to be disputed, however, is the statement of Gross et al. (1976) that the Höfer method leads to an overestimation of the ELA. The reason for this can be found in a wrong computation of the mean ridge height above the ELA and consequently of the ELA itself within the Höfer method, based on the erroneous assumption that otherwise the ELA could not be calculated due to a circular conclusion (Gross et al. 1976). As is evidenced by this study, the Kuhle method mediates between the empiric overly high values of the Louis

  10. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W.; T. Doko; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the gl...

  11. Snow cover trend and hydrological characteristics of the Astore River basin (Western Himalayas) and its comparison to the Hunza basin (Karakoram region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif

    2015-02-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is taken from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush range. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - south latitude of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - north latitude of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal change and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This paper compares new data from the Astore River basin (mean catchment elevation, 4100 m above sea level; m asl afterwards), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images, with data from a previously-studied high-altitude basin, the Hunza (mean catchment elevation, 4650 m asl). The hydrological regime of this sub-catchment was analyzed using the hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin area. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff at southern part, but snow and glacier melt are dominant at the northern part of the catchment. Similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing) but different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and decreasing in Hunza) suggest a sub-catchment level study of the UIB to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management.

  12. Oligocene crustal anatexis in the Tethyan Himalaya, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-E.; Zeng, Lingsen; Gao, Jiahao; Shang, Zhen; Hou, Kejun; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies in the Xiaru and Malashan gneiss dome of the Tethyan Himalaya, southern Tibet identify that Xiaru and Paiku tourmaline-bearing leucogranite dike formed at 28-29 Ma. Together with 28 Ma Kuday garnet-bearing leucogranites, it is demonstrated that the Himalayan orogenic belt experienced a major episode of crustal melting in the Mid-Oligocene. Geochemical data indicate that three suites of leucogranite are characterized by large variations in the major and trace element compositions as well as Sr-Nd isotope systematics, which could be explained by combined fractional crystallization and relative contributions of micas and accessory phases dissolved into a crustal melt during decompressional melting of metapelitic rocks. Documentation of Oligocene partial melting of crustal rocks could indicate that the exhumation of deep crustal rocks in the Himalayan orogenic belt could have started as early as Oligocene.

  13. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amar Agarwal; K K K K Agarwal; R Bali; Chandra Prakash; Gaurav Joshi

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to understand evolution of the Lesser Himalaya, which consists of (meta) sedimentaryand crystalline rocks. Field studies, microscopic and rock magnetic investigations have beencarried out on the rocks near the South Almora Thrust (SAT) and the North Almora Thrust (NAT),which separates the Almora Crystalline Zone (ACZ) from the Lesser Himalayan sequences (LHS). Theresults show that along the South Almora Thrust, the deformation is persistent; however, near theNAT deformation pattern is complex and implies overprinting of original shear sense by a youngerdeformational event. We attribute this overprinting to late stage back-thrusting along NAT, active afterthe emplacement of ACZ. During this late stage back-thrusting, rocks of the ACZ and LHS were coupled.Back-thrusts originated below the Lesser Himalayan rocks, probably from the Main Boundary Thrust,and propagated across the sedimentary and crystalline rocks. This study provides new results frommultiple investigations, and enhances our understanding of the evolution of the ACZ.

  14. Distribution probability of large-scale landslides in central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Manita; Bhandary, Netra P.; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale landslides in the Himalaya are defined as huge, deep-seated landslide masses that occurred in the geological past. They are widely distributed in the Nepal Himalaya. The steep topography and high local relief provide high potential for such failures, whereas the dynamic geology and adverse climatic conditions play a key role in the occurrence and reactivation of such landslides. The major geoscientific problems related with such large-scale landslides are 1) difficulties in their identification and delineation, 2) sources of small-scale failures, and 3) reactivation. Only a few scientific publications have been published concerning large-scale landslides in Nepal. In this context, the identification and quantification of large-scale landslides and their potential distribution are crucial. Therefore, this study explores the distribution of large-scale landslides in the Lesser Himalaya. It provides simple guidelines to identify large-scale landslides based on their typical characteristics and using a 3D schematic diagram. Based on the spatial distribution of landslides, geomorphological/geological parameters and logistic regression, an equation of large-scale landslide distribution is also derived. The equation is validated by applying it to another area. For the new area, the area under the receiver operating curve of the landslide distribution probability in the new area is 0.699, and a distribution probability value could explain > 65% of existing landslides. Therefore, the regression equation can be applied to areas of the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal with similar geological and geomorphological conditions.

  15. An integrated tectonothermal model for the evolution of the High Himalaya in western Zanskar with constraints from thermobarometry and metamorphic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. B.; Searle, M. P.; Waters, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    We present an integrated model for the tectonothermal evolution of the High Himalaya in NW Zanskar based on detailed field mapping, petrographic and microstructural analysis, thermobarometric techniques, and metamorphic modeling. Metasedimentary lithologies in the Suru valley can be correlated with the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Tethyan shelf sediments along the north Indian continental margin in Kashmir and Ladakh, and metaigneous amphibolites correlate with Permian rift-related igneous units. Subsequent to India-Asia collision at ca. 54 Ma, crustal thickening of Indian plate rocks resulted in a polyphase deformational and metamorphic history. The large-scale structure of the area is that of kilometer-scale, SW vergent recumbent folds that have been folded by structurally lower, later domes such as the Suru Dome. Prograde M1 metamorphism reached a maximum of kyanite grade and is believed to be synkinematic to postkinematic with respect to the formation of the large folds. Thermobarometric analysis indicates that peak conditions relating to this Harrovian event between 33 and 28 Ma were 9.5-10.5 kbar and 620°-650°C. A later metamorphic event (M2) associated with doming throughout the Zanskar Himalaya and crustal anatexis in the sillimanite + K-feldspar-grade core of the High Himalaya caused reequilibration of deeper Suru Dome rocks to slightly lower pressures (4.5-7 kbar). Metamorphic modeling, involving phase diagram construction and pressure-temperature (P-T) path determination, suggests that metamorphic garnets grew under conditions of heating and burial along moderate slopes in P-T space. Rapid exhumation of the High Himalayan Crystallines between the Main Central Thrust and the Zanskar Shear Zone occurred during or immediately after peak M2 metamorphism (21.5-19.5 Ma).

  16. Seismicity of the Earth 1900–2010 Himalaya and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bethan; Jenkins, Jennifer; Turner, Rebecca; Parker, Amy; Sinclair, Alison; Davies, Sian; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Rirchard L.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2013-01-01

    Seismicity in the Himalaya region predominantly results from the collision of the India and Eurasia continental plates, which are converging at a relative rate of 40–50 mm/yr. Northward underthrusting of India beneath Eurasia generates numerous earthquakes and consequently makes this area one of the most seismically hazardous regions on Earth. The surface expression of the plate boundary is marked by the foothills of the north-south trending Sulaiman Range in the west, the Indo-Burmese Arc in the east, and the east-west trending Himalaya Front in the north of India. Along the western margin of the India plate, relative motions between India and Eurasia are accommodated by strike-slip, reverse, and oblique-slip faulting resulting in the complex Sulaiman Range fold and thrust belt, and the major translational Chaman Fault in Afghanistan. Beneath the Pamir‒Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Afghanistan, earthquakes occur to depths as great as 200 km as a result of remnant lithospheric subduction. Further north again, the Tian Shan is a seismically active intra-continental mountain belt defined by a series of east-west trending thrust faults thought to be related to the broad footprint of the India-Eurasia collision. Tectonics in northern India are dominated by motion along the Main Frontal Thrust and associated thrust faults of the India-Eurasia plate boundary, which have resulted in a series of large and devastating earthquakes in (and prior to) the 20th century. The Tibetan Plateau to the north of the main plate boundary is a broad region of uplift associated with the India-Eurasia collision, and is cut by a series of generally east-west trending strike-slip faults. These include the Kunlun, Haiyuan, and the Altyn Tagh faults, all of which are left-lateral structures, and the Kara-Koram right-lateral fault. Throughout the plateau, thrust faults accommodate the north-south compressional component of crustal shortening associated with the ongoing collision of India

  17. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhik Kundu; Abdul Matin; Malay Mukul

    2012-02-01

    The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling–Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ∼325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

  18. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  19. Timing, duration and inversion of prograde Barrovian metamorphism constrained by high resolution Lu-Hf garnet dating: A case study from the Sikkim Himalaya, NE India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anczkiewicz, Robert; Chakraborty, Sumit; Dasgupta, Somnath; Mukhopadhyay, Dilip; Kołtonik, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    We investigated Lu-Hf isotopic systematics in garnets from gradually higher grade metamorphic rocks from the first appearance of garnet at c. 500 °C to biotite dehydration melting at c. 800 °C in the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Exceptionally precise Lu-Hf ages obtained for the Barrovian metasedimentary sequence in the Lesser Himalaya (LH) correspond to the time of early garnet formation on a prograde path and show remarkable correlation with increasing metamorphic grade and decreasing structural depth. The youngest age is reported for the garnet zone (10.6±0.2 Ma) and then the ages become progressively older in the staurolite (12.8±0.3 Ma), kyanite (13.7±0.2 Ma) and sillimanite (14.6±0.1 Ma) zones. The oldest age of 16.8±0.1 Ma was recorded at the top of the sequence in the zone marking the onset of muscovite dehydration melting, directly below the Main Central Thrust (MCT). These ages provide a tight constraint on the timing and duration of the Barrovian sequence formation which lasted about 6 Ma. The age pattern is clearly inverted with respect to structural depth but shows "normal" correlation with the metamorphic grade, i.e. earlier garnet growth in higher grade rocks. The timing of the peak metamorphic conditions estimated for the garnet and kyanite zones suggests that thermal climax occurred in all zones within a relatively short time span about 10-13 Ma ago. The metamorphic inversion in the Sikkim Himalaya must therefore have occurred after the metamorphic peak was attained in all grades. Lu-Hf garnet ages in the overthrust Higher Himalaya (HH) continue to be older but do not show a clear progression. There is about 6 Ma jump to 22.6±0.1 Ma within the MCT zone and even older ages of 26-28 Ma were obtained for migmatites from the lower part of the HH. The Lu-Hf system in garnets from the HH records the time of melting at or near the thermal peak rather than dates initial garnet growth as in the LH. The age pattern obtained in this study provides precise

  20. Geoelectric structure estimated from magnetotelluric data from the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Rohit; Shahrukh, M.; Israil, M.; Gupta, Pravin K.; Varshney, S. K.; Elena, Sokolova

    2014-12-01

    Geoelectric strike and resistivity structure of the crust have been estimated from 37 magnetotelluric (MT) data sites along a profile from Roorkee to Gangotri in Uttarakhand Himalaya. Impedance decomposition schemes based on Bahr's, Groom Bailey and Phase tensor were implemented in a MATLAB code for the average strike estimation. Geoelectric strike direction varies with period as well as in different litho-tectonic units along the profile. In the period band from 1 to 100 s average geoelectric strike in the southern end of the profile (Indo-Gangetic Plains) is N79°W, which is slightly rotated to the north in the Lesser Himalayan region and becomes N68°W whereas it is N81°W in the Higher Himalayan region. However, average strike is stabilized to N77°W for the entire profile in the long period band (100-1000 s). Geoelectrical structure of the crust has been obtained along the profile by 2D inversion of MT data. Major features of 2D resistivity model are: (i) southern part of the model is a low resistivity (resistive (>1000 Om) layer below the IGP sediments is the basement rock, representing the resistivity of the top of the subducting Indian Plate; (iii) the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zones can be seen in the electrical image. However, the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) could not be resolved and (iv) a low resistivity (resistivity could be due to fluid-filled fractured rock matrix or partial melt zone. Hypocenters of many earthquakes are concentrated along the boundary of this low resistivity zone and relatively high resistivity blocks around it. The resulted model supports flat-ramp-flat geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust along which the Indian Plate is subducting.

  1. Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shada Elalem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A disproportionate share of the global economic and human losses caused by environmental shocks is borne by people in the developing nations. The mountain region of Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH in South Asia is threatened by numerous flooding events annually. An efficient disaster risk reduction often needs to rest upon location-based synoptic view of vulnerability. Resolving this deficit improves the ability to take risk reduction measures in a cost-effective way, and in doing so, strengthens the resilience of societies to flooding disasters. The central aim of this research is to identify the vulnerable locations across HKH boundary from the perspective of reported history of economic and human impacts due to occurrence of flooding disasters. A detailed analysis indicates a very high spatial heterogeneity in flooding disaster occurrence in the past 6 decades. The most recent decade reported highest number of disasters and greater spatial coverage as compared to the earlier decades. The data indicates that, in general, economic impacts of flooding disasters were notably higher in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. On the other hand, vulnerability scenarios with respect to human impacts were diverse for different countries. In terms of morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and India were detected to be most susceptible to human impacts. Although Bhutan had seen lesser number of flooding disasters, higher population living within disaster prone region make them vulnerable. In summary, complex interactions between natural and socio-economic conditions play a dominant role to define and characterize the type and magnitude of vulnerability of HKH countries to disaster occurrence and their economic and human impacts.

  2. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region.

  3. Glaciological and hydrological sensitivities in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Joseph; Immerzeel, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Glacier responses to future climate change will affect hydrology at subbasin-scales. The main goal of this study is to assess glaciological and hydrological sensitivities of sub-basins throughout the Hindu Kush - Himalaya (HKH) region. We use a simple geometrical analysis based on a full glacier inventory and digital elevation model (DEM) to estimate sub-basin equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) from assumptions of steady-state accumulation area ratios (AARs). The ELA response to an increase in temperature is expressed as a function of mean annual precipitation, derived from a range of high-altitude studies. Changes in glacier contributions to streamflow in response to increased temperatures are examined for scenarios of both static and adjusted glacier geometries. On average, glacier contributions to streamflow increase by approximately 50% for a +1K warming based on a static geometry. Large decreases (-60% on average) occur in all basins when glacier geometries are instantaneously adjusted to reflect the new ELA. Finally, we provide estimates of sub-basin glacier response times that suggest a majority of basins will experience declining glacier contributions by the year 2100.

  4. Asynchronous glaciation at Nanga Parbat, northwestern Himalaya Mountains, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William M.; Sloan, Valerie F.; Shroder, John F., Jr.; Sharma, Pankaj; Clarke, Michèle L.; Rendell, Helen M.

    2000-05-01

    We present a new glacial chronology demonstrating asynchroneity between advances of Himalayan glaciers and Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet volumes. Glaciers at Nanga Parbat expanded during the early to middle Holocene ca. 9.0 5.5 ka. No major advances at Nanga Parbat during the last global glacial stage of marine oxygen isotope stage 2 (MIS-2) between 24 and 11 ka were identified. Preliminary evidence also indicates advances between ca. 60 and 30 ka. These periods of high ice volume coincide with warm, wet regional climates dominated by a strong southwest Asian summer monsoon. The general lack of deposits dating from MIS-2 suggests that Nanga Parbat was too arid to support expanded ice during this period of low monsoon intensity. Advances during warm, wet periods are possible for the high-altitude summer accumulation glaciers typical of the Himalayas, and explain asynchronous behavior. However, the Holocene advances at Nanga Parbat appear to have been forced by an abrupt drop in temperature ca. 8.4 8.0 ka and an increase in winter precipitation ca. 7 5.5 ka. These results highlight the overall sensitivity of Himalayan glaciation to orbital forcing of monsoon intensity, and on millennial or shorter time scales, to changes in North Atlantic circulation.

  5. Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patterns in Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan mountain forest ecosystem has been degrading since the British ruled the area in the 1850s. Local understanding of the patterns and processes of degradation is desperately required to devise management strategies to halt this degradation and provide long-term sustainability. This work comprises a satellite image based study in combination with national expert validation to generate sub-district level statistics for forest cover over the Western Himalaya, Pakistan, which accounts for approximately 67% of the total forest cover of the country. The time series of forest cover maps (1990, 2000, 2010 reveal extensive deforestation in the area. Indeed, approximately 170,684 ha of forest has been lost, which amounts to 0.38% per year clear cut or severely degraded during the last 20 years. A significant increase in the rate of deforestation is observed in the second half of the study period, where much of the loss occurs at the western borders along with Afghanistan. The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive effort to map changes to forest cover in Northern Pakistan. Deforestation hotspots identified at the sub-district level provide important insight into deforestation patterns, which may facilitate the development of appropriate forest conservation and management strategies in the country.

  6. Radon in groundwater of eastern Doon valley, Outer Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M. E-mail: vchoubey1@rediffmail.com; Bartarya, S.K.; Ramola, R.C

    2003-06-01

    The radon content in water may serve as a useful tracer for several geohydrological processes. The hydrodynamic factor, presence of radium in host rocks, as well as the soil porosity and permeability control its concentration in groundwater. In order to understand the factors that control the occurrence of radon in groundwater of Doon valley in Outer Himalaya, a total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from handpumps and tubewells covering three hydrogeological units/areas in the eastern part of Doon valley. Radon variation in tubewells and handpumps varies from 25.4{+-}1.8 to 92.5{+-}3.4 Bq/l with an average of 53.5{+-}2.6 Bq/l. A significant positive correlation between radon concentration and depth of the wells was observed in the Doiwala-Dudhli and Jolleygrant areas suggesting that radon concentration increases with drilling depth in areas consisting of sediments of younger Doon gravels, whereas samples of the Ganga catchment show negative correlation. The high radon levels at shallower depths in the Ganga catchment (consisting of fluvial terraces of Ganga basin) indicate uranium-rich sediments at shallower depth.

  7. Dietzia kunjamensis sp. nov., isolated from the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayilraj, S; Suresh, K; Kroppenstedt, R M; Saini, H S

    2006-07-01

    A coral-red-pigmented actinobacterium, strain K30-10(T), was isolated from a soil sample from a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas. Chemical and phenotypic properties of strain K30-10(T) were consistent with its classification in the genus Dietzia. It showed 97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Dietzia maris MTCC 7011(T); similarities to the type strains of three other species of the genus, Dietzia natronolimnaea, Dietzia psychralcaliphila and Dietzia cinnamea, were 94.4-96.0 %. The DNA-DNA relatedness between K30-10(T) and the closely related strain D. maris MTCC 7011(T) was 59.2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain K30-10(T) was 67.0 mol%. Based on physiological and biochemical tests and genotypic differences between strain K30-10(T) and its closest phylogenetic relatives, it is proposed that this strain represents a novel species, Dietzia kunjamensis sp. nov.; the type strain is K30-10(T) (=MTCC 7007(T)=DSM 44907(T)=JCM 13325(T)).

  8. Ornithinimicrobium kibberense sp. nov., isolated from the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayilraj, S; Saha, P; Suresh, K; Saini, H S

    2006-07-01

    A buff-yellow-pigmented bacterium, strain K22-20(T), which was isolated from a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phenotypic and chemical properties of strain K22-20(T) were consistent with its classification in the genus Ornithinimicrobium. The major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c (cis-15-methyl 7-hexadecenoic acid), iso-C(15 : 0) (13-methyl tetradecanoic acid), iso-C(16 : 0) (14-methyl pentadecanoic acid) and iso-C(17 : 0) (15-methyl hexadecanoic acid). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71 mol%. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain K22-20(T) was closely related to Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum HKI 0124(T) (97.7 %). However, genomic relatedness between strain K22-20(T) and O. humiphilum MTCC 6406(T), as revealed by DNA-DNA hybridization, was 64.5 %. Based on the polyphasic data, strain K22-20(T) (=MTCC 6545(T)=DSM 17687(T)=JCM 12763(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which the name Ornithinimicrobium kibberense sp. nov. is proposed.

  9. Survey of radon and thoron in homes of Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, Rakesh Chand

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were carried out in some houses from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas of India using a LR-115 plastic track detector. The measurements were made in various residential houses of the area at a height of 2.5 m above the ground level using a twin chamber radon dosemeter, which can record the values of radon, thoron and their progeny separately. The concentrations of radon and thoron in these homes were found to vary from 11 to 191 and 1 to 156 Bq m(-3), respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and progeny varies from 0.02 to 0.90, with an average of 0.26 for the region. The resulting dose rate due to radon, thoron and their decay products was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.84 μSv h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 0.27 μSv h(-1). A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside a house is also reported. The observed dose rates due to radon, thoron and progeny were found somewhat higher but well below the international recommendations.

  10. Seismic slip deficit in the Kashmir Himalaya from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Celia; Bali, Bikram Singh; Szeliga, Walter; Bilham, Roger

    2013-11-01

    measurements in Kashmir Himalaya reveal range-normal convergence of 11 ± 1 mm/yr with dextral shear of 5 ± 1 mm/yr. The transition from a fully locked 170 km wide décollement to the unrestrained descending Indian plate occurs at ~25 km depth over an ~23 km wide transition zone. The convergence rate is consistent with the lower bounds of geological estimates for the Main Frontal Thrust, Riasi, and Balapora fault systems, on which no surface slip has been reported in the past millennium. Of the 14 damaging Kashmir earthquakes since 1123, none may have exceeded Mw = 7.6. Therefore, either a seismic moment deficit equivalent to a Mw ≈ 8.7 earthquake exists or the historical earthquake magnitudes have been underestimated. Alternatively, these earthquakes have occurred on reverse faults in the Kashmir Valley, and the décollement has been recently inactive. Although this can reconcile the inferred and theoretical moment release, it is quantitatively inconsistent with observed fault slip in Kashmir.

  11. EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

  12. Vegetational Diversity Analysis across Different Habitats in Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Singh Rawat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four forest sites varying in vegetation types were studied along an altitudinal range between 2200 and 2500 m. Maximum tree, shrub, and herb species were recorded on stream bank site (22, 25, and 54, resp.. Pteridophytes and bryophytes species richness was maximum on moist site (4 and 5, resp.. The number of climbers was greater in moist and dry habitats (7 species each. Parasitic species were restricted only on dry and stream bank habitats. Restricted tree and shrub species were greater on stream bank site and dry site, respectively. The herb and climber species were greater on moist site. The distribution and species richness pattern in this elevational range largely depend on the altitude and climatic variables. Along the entire range of Garhwal Himalaya, the overlapping among species regimes is broad; therefore, transitional communities having mixture of many species and zones are present. The present study indicates that the opening canopies increase the richness of tree, shrub, herb, and climbers.

  13. Snow cover changes in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzago, Silvia; Von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello

    2013-04-01

    Snow cover plays a key role in high-altitude environments, and changes in the snow spatial/temporal distribution and thickness affect energy, radiation and water budgets at the Earth's surface. In particular, a reduction in the snow amount has a direct effect on the availability and seasonal distribution of water resources. This is especially true in areas such as the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya (HKKH) region, which provides water to about 1.5 Billion peoples in India, Nepal, Pakistan and China. Despite its importance, knowledge on snow dynamics in the HKKH region is still incomplete, owing also to sparse and sporadic surface observations. In this work, we used simulations from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to gain information on snowpack characteristics and climatology in the HKKH region. We selected a set of GCM snow depth datasets from the CMIP5 ensemble, esploring snow abundance and distribution at monthly scale. In order to investigate how well Global Climate Models represent the snow climatology, we compared the results with the ERA-Interim reanalysis, used as an approximation to the real conditions. After exploring the average snow conditions in the last decades, we analyzed the effects of climate change in the HKKH region by using an ensemble of future snow projections obtained from different GCMs and in different climate change scenarios.

  14. Meiotic studies in some selected angiosperms from the Kashmir Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Mudassir JEELANI; Santosh KUMARI; Raghbir Chand GUPTA

    2012-01-01

    As a part of our program to explore and evaluate genetic diversity of flowering plants of the Kashmir Himalayas,meiotic studies have been carried out on 150 wild species.Of these,Caltha alba (2n =32),Delphinium roylei (2n =16),D.uncinatum (2n =16),Ranunculus palmatifidus (2n =28),and Sedum heterodontum (2n =14) have been cytologically worked out for the first time.New intraspecific diploid or polyploid cytotypes have been recorded for Alchemilla vulgaris (2n =34,96),Arabis amplexicaulis (2n =16),Impatiens amphorata (2n =14),Ⅰ.racemosa (2n =12),Ⅰ.sutcata (2n =16,12),Meconopsis latifolia (2n =14),Potentilla supina (2n =14),Saxifraga cernua (2n =16),Sium latijugam (2n =24),and Vicatia coniifolia (2n =44).Four species,Arabidopsis thaliana (2n =10),Berberis vulgaris (2n =28),Potentilla nubicola (2n =14),and P.sericea (2n =28),have been cytologically reported for the first time from India.A large number of meiotic abnormalities have been observed in most of these species,leading to a reduction in pollen fertility and production of heterogeneous-sized pollen grains.

  15. Widespread climate change in the Himalayas and associated changes in local ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Babu Shrestha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change in the Himalayas, a biodiversity hotspot, home of many sacred landscapes, and the source of eight largest rivers of Asia, is likely to impact the well-being of ~20% of humanity. However, despite the extraordinary environmental, cultural, and socio-economic importance of the Himalayas, and despite their rapidly increasing ecological degradation, not much is known about actual changes in the two most critical climatic variables: temperature and rainfall. Nor do we know how changes in these parameters might impact the ecosystems including vegetation phenology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By analyzing temperature and rainfall data, and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from remotely sensed imagery, we report significant changes in temperature, rainfall, and vegetation phenology across the Himalayas between 1982 and 2006. The average annual mean temperature during the 25 year period has increased by 1.5 °C with an average increase of 0.06 °C yr(-1. The average annual precipitation has increased by 163 mm or 6.52 mmyr(-1. Since changes in temperature and precipitation are immediately manifested as changes in phenology of local ecosystems, we examined phenological changes in all major ecoregions. The average start of the growing season (SOS seems to have advanced by 4.7 days or 0.19 days yr(-1 and the length of growing season (LOS appears to have advanced by 4.7 days or 0.19 days yr(-1, but there has been no change in the end of the growing season (EOS. There is considerable spatial and seasonal variation in changes in climate and phenological parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first time that large scale climatic and phenological changes at the landscape level have been documented for the Himalayas. The rate of warming in the Himalayas is greater than the global average, confirming that the Himalayas are among the regions most vulnerable to climate change.

  16. Phalaris canariensis L. (Poaceae: A new alien plant record for Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugufta Rasheed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct taxonomic identification assumes first and foremost priority in the scientific documentation of biodiversity. The Kashmir Himalaya, located in the north-western side of the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot, is well-known for its diverse flora which merits immediate scientific documentation. In this context, the present study reports Phalaris canariensis L. (Poaceae as a new alien plant record to the flora of Kashmir Himalaya, India. In this paper, a detailed description, photographs, and comparison of diagnostic characters with allied species are provided to scientifically validate this alien plant record for this Himalayan region.

  17. New Mycomya species from the Himalayas (Diptera, Mycetophilidae): 3. Subgenera Cesamya and Mycomyopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Rauno

    2013-11-19

    Mycomya Rondani specimens from the Himalayas, mostly Nepal and Myanmar, are revised. Altogether four species of the subgenus Cesamya Koçak & Kemal and eleven species of the subgenus Mycomyopsis Väisänen are recorded from the Himalayas and the Indian subcontinent. The paper includes a key to the Himalayan species of Mycomya of the two subgenera. The following fourteen new species are described: M. aix, M. alticola, M. banteng, M. cissa, M. ducula, M. irena, M. goral, M. jeti, M. kaa, M. naja, M. niltava, M. pitta, M. sachak, and M. sanar. The holotype of M. unipectinata Edwards from Sri Lanka was also examined and its genitalia are described.

  18. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  19. Proceedings of the 25th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Mary L.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2010-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet (HKT) Workshop has provided scientists studying the India-Asia collision system a wonderful opportunity for workshop-style discussion with colleagues working in this region. In 2010, HKT returns to North America for the first time since 1996. The 25th international workshop is held from June 7 to10 at San Francisco State University, California. The international community was invited to contribute scientific papers to the workshop, on all aspects of geoscience research in the geographic area of the Tibetan Plateau and its bounding ranges and basins, from basic mapping to geochemical and isotopic analyses to large-scale geophysical imaging experiments. In recognition of the involvement of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists in a wide range of these activities, the USGS agreed to publish the extended abstracts of the numerous components of HKT-25 as an online Open-File Report, thereby ensuring the wide availability and distribution of these abstracts, particularly in the HKT countries from which many active workers are precluded by cost from attending international meetings. In addition to the workshop characterized by contributed presentations, participants were invited to attend a pre-meeting field trip from the Coast Ranges to the Sierra Nevada, to allow the international group to consider how the tectonic elements of the Pacific margin compare to those of the Himalayan belt. Following the workshop, the National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored a workshop on the 'Future directions for NSF-sponsored geoscience research in the Himalaya/Tibet' intended to provide NSF Program Directors with a clear statement and vision of community goals for the future, including the scientific progress we can expect if NSF continues its support of projects in this geographic region, and to identify which key geoscience problems and processes are best addressed in the Himalaya and Tibet, what key datasets are needed, and

  20. Accuracy assessment of gridded precipitation datasets in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate precipitation data are vital for hydro-climatic modelling and water resources assessments. Based on mass balance calculations and Turc-Budyko analysis, this study investigates the accuracy of twelve widely used precipitation gridded datasets for sub-basins in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) in the Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) region. These datasets are: 1) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), 2) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), 3) NCEP / NCAR, 4) Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), 5) Climatic Research Unit (CRU), 6) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), 7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), 8) European Reanalysis (ERA) interim data, 9) PRINCETON, 10) European Reanalysis-40 (ERA-40), 11) Willmott and Matsuura, and 12) WATCH Forcing Data based on ERA interim (WFDEI). Precipitation accuracy and consistency was assessed by physical mass balance involving sum of annual measured flow, estimated actual evapotranspiration (average of 4 datasets), estimated glacier mass balance melt contribution (average of 4 datasets), and ground water recharge (average of 3 datasets), during 1999-2010. Mass balance assessment was complemented by Turc-Budyko non-dimensional analysis, where annual precipitation, measured flow and potential evapotranspiration (average of 5 datasets) data were used for the same period. Both analyses suggest that all tested precipitation datasets significantly underestimate precipitation in the Karakoram sub-basins. For the Hindukush and Himalayan sub-basins most datasets underestimate precipitation, except ERA-interim and ERA-40. The analysis indicates that for this large region with complicated terrain features and stark spatial precipitation gradients the reanalysis datasets have better consistency with flow measurements than datasets derived from records of only sparsely distributed climatic

  1. Citizen Science in the Himalaya: The Sherpa-Scientist Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, U. N.; Breashears, D.; Rowe, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the non-profit educational group, Black Ice Himalaya, launched in 2011 our goal has been to involve local communities in our research expeditions, in the form of a Sherpa-Scientist Initiative (SSI). This goes beyond simply helping with gear carries to research sites. It involves training the local Sherpa in equipment set-up, data collection, and analysis processes, with the goal of turning over this task to local communities and villages in the future. As the terrain continues to change - with the growth and expansion of glacial lakes, along with accumulation of pollutants on snow at higher altitudes - this training program presents an excellent opportunity for long-term data collection in sensitive alpine regions. In association with GlacierWorks and Midwest ROV LLC, skill training has included gigapan high-resolution photography, installing (and downloading) multiple time lapse cameras to track hour-by-hour glacial lake changes; lake bathymetry mapping using side-scan sonar from an unmanned towed platform; installing and managing weather stations; collecting and analyzing data from ASD field spectrometers; and collecting/filtering snow samples to look for contaminants (pollutants) affecting snow melt from 4000 - 6000 meters. A field manual documenting this work and intended to raise awareness of glacial trekking hazards has been disseminated to the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park. In 2016-17, in collaboration with Vanguard Diving and Exploration, OpenROV, and Midwest ROV LLC, efforts will include SCUBA diving into glacial lakes to collect scientific data, with continued Sherpa training on how to assemble and use portable remotely piloted submersibles to aid in the assessment of glacial lake hazards.

  2. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Yadong leucogranites, southern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Zhengbin; Zhang, Zeming; Dong, Xin; Xiang, Hua; Ding, Huixia; Tian, Zuolin; Lei, Hengcong

    2016-07-01

    The leucogranites in the Higher Himalayan Sequence (HHS) provide a probe to elucidate the crustal melting of continental collisional orogen. An integrated geochemical and geochronological study of the Yadong leucogranites, southern Himalaya, shows that these rocks have relatively high SiO2 contents of 69.77 to 75.32 wt.% and alumina saturation index (A/CNK) of 1.09-1.40, typical of peraluminous granites. They show moderately fractionated REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies, and are characterized by enriched LILE (Rb and Cs) and depleted HFSE (Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta). LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating of ten samples yields crystallization ages ranging from 21.0 to 11.7 Ma. The zircons have variable εHf(t) values of - 26.3 to - 3.5 and corresponding Hf two-stage model ages of 2.77-1.33 Ga. The present study reveals that the muscovite-biotite leucogranites (2ML) have higher TiO2, MgO, CaO, Sr, Ba and Zr contents, lower Rb/Sr ratios than the tourmaline-muscovite leucogranites (TML). Zircon and monazite saturation thermometry results show that the melt temperatures (681-784 °C) of the 2ML are 20-80 °C higher than those (663-705 °C) of the TML. Combining with previous results, we propose that the TML were derived from the muscovite-dehydration melting, whereas the 2ML dominantly resulted from the biotite-dehydration melting during the prograde metamorphism of the pelitic and felsic granulites of the HHS. Therefore, the Himalayan leucogranites were probably formed during the subduction of the Indian crust following the India and Asia collision.

  3. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of NW and central Himalayas and the adjoining region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madan Mohan Rout; Josodhir Das; Kamal; Ranjit Das

    2015-04-01

    The Himalayan region has undergone significant development and to ensure safe and secure progress in such a seismically vulnerable region there is a need for hazard assessment. For seismic hazard assessment, it is important to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the seismicity data collected from different sources. In the present study, an improved magnitude conversion technique has been used to convert different magnitude scales to moment magnitude scale. The study area and its adjoining region have been divided into 22 seismogenic zones based upon the geology, tectonics, and seismicity including source mechanism relevant to the region. Region specific attenuation equations have been used for seismic hazard assessment. Standard procedure for PSHA has been adopted for this study and peak ground motion is estimated for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years at the bed rock level. For the 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA values vary from 0.06 to 0.36 g and 0.11 to 0.65 g, respectively considering varying -value. Higher PGA values are observed in the southeast part region situated around Kaurik Fault System (KFS) and western parts of Nepal.

  4. The dynamics of supraglacial water storage in the Everest region, central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. Scott; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of supraglacial pond development in the Everest region are not well constrained at a glacier scale, despite their known importance for meltwater storage, promoting ablation, and transmitting thermal energy englacially during drainage events. Here, we use fine-resolution (~ 0.5-2 m) satellite imagery to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of 9340 supraglacial ponds across nine glaciers in the Everest region, ~ 2000-2015. Six of our nine study glaciers displayed a net increase in ponded area over their observation periods. However, large inter- and intra-annual changes in ponded area were observed of up to 17% (Khumbu Glacier), and 52% (Ama Dablam) respectively. Additionally, two of the fastest expanding lakes (Spillway and Rongbuk) partially drained over our study period. The Khumbu Glacier is developing a chain of connected ponds in the lower ablation area, which is indicative of a trajectory towards large lake development. We show that use of medium-resolution imagery (e.g. 30 m Landsat) is likely to lead to large classification omissions of supraglacial ponds, on the order of 15-88% of ponded area, and 77-99% of the total number of ponds. Fine-resolution imagery is therefore required if the full spectrum of ponds that exist on the surface of debris-covered glaciers are to be analysed.

  5. Ice cliff dynamics in the Everest region of the Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Watson, C.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2017-02-01

    The importance of ice cliffs for glacier-scale ablation on debris-covered glaciers is now widely recognised. However, a paucity of data exists to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of ice cliffs. In this study we analysed the position and geometry of 8229 ice cliffs and 5582 supraglacial ponds on 14 glaciers in the Everest region between 2000 and 2015. We observed notable ice cliff and pond spatial coincidence. On average across our study glaciers, 77% of supraglacial pond area was associated with an adjacent ice cliff, and 49% of ice cliffs featured an adjacent supraglacial pond. The spatial density of ice cliffs was not directly related to glacier velocity, but did peak within zones of active ice. Furthermore, we found that ice cliff density was glacier-specific, temporally variable, and was positively correlated with surface lowering and decreasing debris thickness for individual glaciers. Ice cliffs predominantly had a north-facing (commonly north-westerly) aspect, which was independent of glacier flow direction, thereby signifying a strong solar radiation control on cliff evolution. Independent field observations indicated that cliff morphology was related to aspect, local debris thickness, and presence of a supraglacial pond, and highlighted the importance of surface runnel formation, which acts as a preferential pathway for meltwater and debris fluxes. Overall, by coupling remote sensing and in-situ observations it has been possible to capture local and glacier-scale ice cliff dynamics across 14 glaciers, which is necessary if explicit parameterisation of ice cliffs in dynamic glacier models is to be achieved.

  6. Effects of new roads on environmental resource use in the Central Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    construction), annual increment and annual wood extraction. Results show that the new road had significant positive effects on absolute household environmental income, but negative effects on reliance as other income options became available. Wood product extraction levels remained below increment levels......Construction of roads into remote rural areas can improve livelihoods by reducing transportation costs, but may also have negative environmental impacts, such as increased deforestation. However, evidence of the effect of rural roads on household environmental income and reliance, as well as local...... level forest stand conservation is limited. This study, conducted in Mustang District in Nepal, contributes to answering the following questions: (i) what are the impacts of the establishment of rural roads on household environmental income and reliance; (ii) what are the determinants of environmental...

  7. Effects of new roads on environmental resource use in the Central Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    income and reliance, and how are they affected by road establishment; and (iii) what are the short-term impacts of the construction of a rural road on local forest conservation? Following the Poverty Environment Network (PEN) methodology, income data from 176 randomly-sampled households were collected...

  8. Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000 led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985.Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos pol

  9. New species of Amanita from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhu L; Weiß, M; Oberwinkler, F

    2004-01-01

    Four new species of Amanita, Amanita-ceae (Agaricales) are described from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent regions of southwestern China. Amanita altipes and A. parvipantherina are members of section Amanita, while A. orientifulva and A. liquii are representatives of section Vaginatae. They are compared with similar species and illustrated with line drawings.

  10. Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Decision-Making by Communities in the Kumaon Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honwad, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    This study is designed to find out how people in rural communities residing in the middle Himalayas use indigenous knowledge to support environmental decisions while addressing water and land use related concerns. The study not only serves to enrich our understanding of community decision-making, especially as connected to land use and ecological…

  11. Petrography, geochemistry and regional significance of crystalline klippen in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Islam; S K Ghosh; S Vyshnavi; Y P Sundriya

    2011-06-01

    Uphalda gneisses (UG) is a crystalline klippe located near Srinagar in Garhwal Himalaya. These gneisses are compared with Debguru porphyroids (DP) (≈ Ramgarh group) of Garhwal–Kumaun Himalaya and Baragaon mylonitic gneisses (BMG) of Himachal Himalaya. Petrographic study reveals that the deformation of UG was initiated at higher temperature (above 350°C) and continued till lowering of temperature and deformation led to the mylonitization. Geochemically, these granitic gneisses (UG, DP and BMG) exhibit similar composition. Features such as high molecular A/CNK value (< 1), presence of normative corundum and absence of normative diopside, enhanced Rb/Sr, Rb/Zr ratios, enrichment of Th and containing rounded zircons support their crustally-derived S-type granitic nature. The linear plot in major oxides is interpreted in terms of fractional crystallization processes. Mantle normalized multi-element spider diagram of UG illustrates depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti and enrichment of Th and show similarities with DP and BMG. Similarities were observed in lithology, petrographic characters and chemical composition of UG, DP, BMG and Ulleri augen gneisses (Nepal). Comparison with the rocks of Higher Himalayan crystallines (≈ Vaikrita), suggests that these rocks (UG) are not transported from Higher Himalaya as understood earlier. This study however proposes that, these gneissic bodies represent an older basement occurring as a tectonic sliver which emplaced within the cover sequence as wedges at different structural levels. This is a regional phenomena observed throughout the Lesser Himalayan region.

  12. High-resolution modeling of atmospheric dynamics in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, Emily; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude meteorological processes in the Himalaya are influenced by complex interactions between the topography and the monsoon and westerly circulation systems. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model configured with high spatial resolution to understand seasonal patte

  13. Channel Flow Model of Extrusion of the Higher Himalaya- Successes & Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2009-04-01

    strain exponent of the rock. Did the HH rocks extrude as a Newtonian fluid? (6) An increase in the extrusion rate and a decrease in the ductile shear strain from the Main Central Thrust (MCT- the lower boundary of the HH) up to the lower boundary of the STDS, and then an increase in extrusion rate and a decrease in shear strain up to the upper boundary of the STDS are expected as per the channel flow model. Such a systematic and a detailed variation of the extrusion rate and shear strain have not yet been documented from the HH. (7) The detail geological information for individual sections of the HH is not taken care by the model. For example in the Sutlej section of the western Indian Himalaya, the HH rocks are divisible into a lower lithounit of higher viscosity and an upper lithounit of lower viscosity (Fig. 2 of Caddick et al., 2007; Figs. 3.2 and 3.11 of Mukherjee, 2007). What will be the velocity profiles of a pressure gradient guided extrusion through a two-viscous media? References Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Lee, B., 2001. Himalayan tectonics explaneed by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation. Nature 414, 738-742. Caddick, M.J., Bickle, M.J., Harris, N.B.W., Holland, T.J.B., Horstwood, M.S.A., Parrish, R.R., Ahmad, T., 2007. Burial and exhumation history of a Lesser Himalayan schist: Recording the formation of an inverted metamorphic sequence in NW India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 264, 375-390. Grujic, D., Casey, M., Davidson, C., Hollister, L.S., Kündig, R., Pavlis, T., Schmid, S., 1996. Ductile extrusion of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline in Bhutan: evidence from quartz microfabrics. Tectonophysics 260, 21-43. Mukherjee, S. 2007. Geodynamics, Deformation and Mathematical Analysis of Metamorphic Belts, NW Himalaya. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. pp. 75-149.

  14. The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, D.; Armstrong, R.

    2010-04-01

    Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000-7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1) reaching the glaciers, and 2) conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions. While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert". The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on

  15. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for northwest Himalaya in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Singh; A Ganju

    2008-10-01

    Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past similar cases from historical dataset of reference observatory in each mountain range based on current situation.The searched past similar cases of each mountain range are used to draw weather forecast for that mountain range in operational weather forecasting mode, three days in advance.The developed analog weather forecast model is tested with the independent dataset of more than 717 days (542 days for Pir Panjal range in HP)of the past 4 winters (2003 –2004 to 2006 –2007).Independent test results are reasonably good and suggest that there is some possibility of forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode employing analog method over different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.Significant difference in overall accuracy of the model is found for prediction of snow day and no-snow day over different mountain ranges, when weather is predicted under snow day and no-snow day weather forecast categories respectively.In the same mountain range,signi ficant difference is also found in overall accuracy of the model for prediction of snow day and no-snow day for different areas.This can be attributed to their geographical position and topographical differences.The analog weather forecast model performs better than persistence and climatological forecast for day-1 predictions for all the mountain ranges except Karakoram range in NW-Himalaya.The developed analog weather forecast model may help as a guidance tool for forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode in different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.

  16. The Himalayas as a directional barrier to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Cadenas, Alicia M; Regueiro, Maria; Singh, Nanda B; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Underhill, Peter A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Herrera, Rene J

    2007-05-01

    indicates that the Himalayas have been permeable to dispersals from the east. These genetic patterns suggest that this cordillera has been a biased bidirectional barrier.

  17. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  18. Winter westerly disturbance dynamics and precipitation in the western Himalaya and Karakoram: a wave-tracking approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Forest; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Jones, Charles; Norris, Jesse

    2016-07-01

    Extratropical cyclones, including winter westerly disturbances (WWD) over central Asia, are fundamental features of the atmosphere that maintain energy, momentum, and moisture at global scales while intimately linking large-scale circulation to regional-scale meteorology. Within high mountain Asia, WWD are the primary contributor to regional precipitation during winter. In this work, we present a novel WWD tracking methodology, which provides an inventory of location, timing, intensity, and duration of events, allowing for a comprehensive study of the factors that relate WWD to orographic precipitation, on an individual event basis and in the aggregate. We identify the relationship between the strength of disturbances, the state of the background environment during their propagation, and precipitation totals in the Karakoram/western Himalaya. We observe significant differences in convective and mechanical instability contributions to orographic precipitation as a function of the relationship between the intensity of WWD and the background temperature and moisture fields, which exhibit strong intraseasonal variability. Precipitation is primarily orographically forced during intense WWD with strong cross-barrier winds, while weaker WWD with similar precipitation totals are observed to benefit from enhanced instability due to high moisture content and temperature at low levels, occurring primarily in the late winter/premonsoon. The contribution of these factors is observed to fluctuate on a per-case basis, indicating important influences of intraseasonal oscillations and tropical-extratropical interactions on regional precipitation.

  19. Moraine-dammed glacial lake changes during the recent 40 years in the Poiqu River Basin, Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiuJuan Zhang; ShiYin Liu; Li Liu

    2015-01-01

    Glacier retreat is not only a symbol of temperature and precipitation change, but a dominating factor of glacial lake changes in alpine regions, which are of wide concern for high risk of potential outburst floods. Of all types of glacial lakes, moraine-dammed lakes may be the most dangerous to local residents in mountain regions. Thus, we monitored the dy-namics of 12 moraine-dammed glacial lakes from 1974 to 2014 in the Poiqu River Basin of central west Himalayas, as well as their associated glaciers with a combination of remote sensing, topographic maps and digital elevation models (DEMs). Our results indicate that all monitored moraine-dammed glacial lakes have expanded by 7.46 km2 in total while the glaciers retreated by a total of 15.29 km2 correspondingly. Meteorological analysis indicates a warming and drying trend in the Nyalam region from 1974 to 2014, which accelerated glacier retreat and then augmented the supply of moraine-dammed glacial lakes from glacier melt. Lake volume and water depth changed from 1974 to 2014 which indicates that lakes Kangxico, Galongco, and Youmojanco have a high potential for outburst floods and in urgent need for continuous moni-toring or artificial excavation to release water due to the quick increase in water depths and storage capacities. Lakes Jialongco and Cirenmaco, with outburst floods in 1981 and 2002, have a high potential risk for outburst floods because of rapid lake growth and steep slope gradients surrounding them.

  20. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  1. Decrease, Increase or Stability? Glacier Response to Climate Change in the Trans-Himalayas of Ladakh, Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nüsser, Marcus

    2010-05-01

    The eastern and central parts of the Greater Himalayas display a general picture of rapidly melting glaciers, whereas the glaciers in the western Himalayas, Hindu Kush and Karakorum show a more differentiated response to climate change. It includes individual advancing glaciers and relatively stable snout positions. The Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh is possibly located at the interface between shrinking and advancing or stable glaciers. The region is characterized by cold and arid conditions (mean annual air temperature amounts 5.6 °C and precipitation 93 mm in Leh, 3545 m a.s.l.), while the influence of the monsoon is rather limited. Due to low summer precipitation and the variability of winter snow fall, glaciers largely determine the potentials and limitations of irrigated crop cultivation, forming the primary basis of subsistence agriculture and regional food security. The glaciers of Ladakh are located above 5200 m a.s.l. and according to their small size (generally less than 2 km²), their response to climate change is expected to be direct and predictable. To detect and to quantify glacier changes in different aspects of the NNW-SSE oriented Kang Yatze Massif (6401 m a.s.l.), which is sandwiched between the Zanskar and Stok Ranges, multi-temporal and multi-scale remote sensing data were used. In order to map the changes of glacier covered areas two panchromatic Corona images from 1969 were compared to a high resolution panchromatic Worldview image from 2009. The data gap of the 40 years period was filled with Spot images (1991, 2006), and several Landsat and Aster data. To identify and quantify the glacierized areas a semi-automatic thresholding approach was applied for the co-registered multi-spectral datasets. Additionally, the delineation of glaciers was manually digitized on the panchromatic images. First results for the time period between 1969 and 2009 reveal a minor decrease of almost all investigated glaciers in the Kang Yatze Massif. In order to

  2. Geoelectric structure estimated from magnetotelluric data from the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rohit Miglani; M Shahrukh; M Israil; Pravin K Gupta; S K Varshney; Sokolova Elena

    2014-12-01

    Geoelectric strike and resistivity structure of the crust have been estimated from 37 magnetotelluric (MT) data sites along a profile from Roorkee to Gangotri in Uttarakhand Himalaya. Impedance decomposition schemes based on Bahr’s, Groom Bailey and Phase tensor were implemented in a MATLAB code for the average strike estimation. Geoelectric strike direction varies with period as well as in different lithotectonic units along the profile. In the period band from 1 to 100 s average geoelectric strike in the southern end of the profile (Indo-Gangetic Plains) is N79°W, which is slightly rotated to the north in the Lesser Himalayan region and becomes N68°W whereas it is N81°W in the Higher Himalayan region. However, average strike is stabilized to N77°W for the entire profile in the long period band (100–1000 s). Geoelectrical structure of the crust has been obtained along the profile by 2D inversion of MT data. Major features of 2D resistivity model are: (i) southern part of the model is a low resistivity (> 50 m) zone at shallow depth (5–7 km) representing the loose sediments of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), whose thickness increases in the south; (ii) highly resistive (>1000 m) layer below the IGP sediments is the basement rock, representing the resistivity of the top of the subducting Indian Plate; (iii) the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zones can be seen in the electrical image. However, the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) could not be resolved and (iv) a low resistivity (> 10 m) feature in the MCT zone extending to the depth of 30 km is delineated. This low resistivity could be due to fluid-filled fractured rock matrix or partial melt zone. Hypocenters of many earthquakes are concentrated along the boundary of this low resistivity zone and relatively high resistivity blocks around it. The resulted model supports flat-ramp-flat geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust along which the Indian Plate is subducting.

  3. A New Quaternary Strand of the Karakoram Fault System, Ladakh Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, W.; Hodges, K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Tripathy, A.

    2009-12-01

    The NW-SE striking, dextral Karakoram fault system stretches for more than 1200 km from the Pamirs of Central Asia at least as far southeast as the Kailas area of Tibet. Estimates for the total lateral displacement along the fault system range from 150-1000 km, and estimated Quaternary rates of slip range from 1 to 30 mm/yr. In the Ladakh region of NW India (~ 33°28’N, 78°45’E), the fault system expresses as northern and southern strands bounding the Pangong Range. Studies of ductile deformation fabrics along these strands suggest that slip began in the Miocene, and Brown et al. (2002) documented Quaternary right-lateral slip along the northern strand at ~4 mm/yr on the basis of offset geomorphic features. The lack of documented Quaternary offset along the southern strand has led most researchers to assume that Quaternary slip on the Karakoram fault system in this region was partitioned exclusively to the northern strand. Our summer 2009 field work in the Pangong Range and adjacent Nubra Valley provides the first documentation of significant Quaternary activity along the southern strand. In the valley between the villages of Tangste (34°01’ N, 78°10’ E) and Durbuk (34°06’ N, 78°07’), the fault is visible high on the northeastern mountain side as a break in slope with offset Quaternary paleosurfaces and beheaded and offset stream channels, the largest of which have been displaced by as much as 250 m. Field mapping north of Durbuk, near the town of Tangyar (34°15’N, 77°52’E), shows that the southern strand continues northwest and cuts across the landscape as a sinuous, continuous trace with shutter ridges, offset alluvial fan surfaces, and sag ponds developed along its length. In this region, the northern and southern strands are linked by a Quaternary, E-directed thrust fault that places high-grade metamorphic rocks over poorly consolidated Quaternary alluvium. The partitioning of dextral slip between two strands of the Karakoram system

  4. Interpretation of Gravity Data using 3D Euler Deconvolution, Tilt Angle, Horizontal Tilt Angle and Source Edge Approximation of the North-West Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gopal K.

    2016-08-01

    The collision of the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate created shortening and imbrications with thrusting and faulting which influences northward tectonic movement. This plate movement has divided the Himalaya into four parts, viz. Outer Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Greater Himalaya, and Tethys Himalaya. The crystalline basement rock plays an imperative role for structural and tectonic association. The study has been carried out near Rishikesh-Badrinath neighborhood in the northwestern part of the Himalayan girdle with multifarious tectonic set up with thrusted and faulted geological setting. In this study area, 3D Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient analysis, tilt angle (TILT) and horizontal tilt angle (TDX) analysis have been carried out using gravity data to delineate the subsurface geology and heterogeneity in the northwestern part of Himalaya. The Euler depth solutions suggest the source depth of about 12 km and various derivative analyses suggest the trend of the delineation thrust-fault boundaries along with the dip and strike direction in the study area.

  5. Seismic imaging of the downwelling Indian lithosphere beneath central Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, Frederik; Ni, James

    2003-05-30

    A tomographic image of the upper mantle beneath central Tibet from INDEPTH data has revealed a subvertical high-velocity zone from approximately 100- to approximately 400-kilometers depth, located approximately south of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture. We interpret this zone to be downwelling Indian mantle lithosphere. This additional lithosphere would account for the total amount of shortening in the Himalayas and Tibet. A consequence of this downwelling would be a deficit of asthenosphere, which should be balanced by an upwelling counterflow, and thus could explain the presence of warm mantle beneath north-central Tibet.

  6. Describing earthquakes potential through mountain building processes: an example within Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin; Mary, Baptiste; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-04-01

    How to reconcile earthquake activities, for instance, the distributions of large-great event rupture areas and the partitioning of seismic-aseismic slips on the subduction interface, into geological mountain building period is critical in seismotectonics. In this paper, we try to scope this issue within a typical and special continental collisional mountain wedge within Himalayas across the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Himalaya earth- quake area. Based on the Critical Coulomb Wedge (CCW) theory, we show the possible predictions of large-great earthquake rupture locations by retrieving refined evolutionary sequences with clear boundary of coulomb wedge and creeping path inferred from interseismic deformation pattern along the megathrust-Main Himalaya Thrust (MHT). Due to the well-known thrusting architecture with constraints on the distribution of main exhumation zone and of the key evolutionary nodes, reasonable and refined (with 500 yr interval) thrusting sequences are retrieved by applying sequential limit analysis (SLA). We also use an illustration method-'G' gram to localize the relative positions of each fault within the tectonic wedge. Our model results show that at the early stage, during the initial wedge accumulation period, because of the small size of mountain wedge, there's no large earthquakes happens in this period. Whereas, in the following stage, the wedge is growing outward with occasionally out-of-sequence thrusting, four thrusting clusters (thrusting 'families') are clarified on the basis of the spatio-temporal distributions in the mountain wedge. Thrust family 4, located in the hinterland of the mountain wedge, absorbed the least amount of the total convergence, with no large earthquakes occurrence in this stage, contributing to the emplacement of the Greater Himalayan Complex. The slips absorbed by the remnant three thrust families result in large-great earthquakes rupturing in the Sub-Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, and the front of Higher Himalaya. The

  7. Glacier length, area and volume changes in the Himalaya: an overview and specific examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, T.; Bhambri, R.; Kamp, U.; Pieczonka, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Himalaya comprises one of the largest glacier-covered areas outside the polar regions. Glaciers are of special interest for several reasons. For instance, receding glaciers can cause the development of hazardous glacial lakes and glaciers contribute to the overall river runoff. The importance of the glacier melt to run off, however, varies significantly depending especially on the precipitation regime. Previous studies indicate that the vast majority of the Himalayan glaciers retreated during the recent decades with only few exemptions. Although the numbers of investigates glaciers increased in the last few years, there is still a lack of knowledge about the glacier behaviour in the different regions of the Himalaya. Existing length measurements in the Indian Himalaya show continuous retreat with an accelerating trend in recent years for most of the glaciers. The annual retreat rates vary between ~5m and more than 50m. However, several measurements are based on topographic maps or coarse satellite data and can have therefore higher uncertainties. Own reassessments for the debris-covered Gangotri Glacier situated in Garhwal Himalaya/western India based on high resolution imagery such as Corona, Hexagon, IRS PAN, LISS IV, and Cartosat-1 show an continuous retreat with an average rate of 19.9 ± 0.3 m a-1 from 1965 to 2006. This is significant but less than previously published. Similar results were revealed for the area changes in upper Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in Garhwal Himalaya. We found a lower but still significant area loss of 4.6 ± 2.8 % between 1968 and 2006. Area changes in Khumbu Himalaya/Nepal are with ~5% between 1962 and 2005 comparable. Investigations in the Greater Himalayan Range in southern Ladakh/northwest India revealed a general receding trend but with some of the larger glaciers with high altitude catchments being stable or even advancing. Preliminary results for Shyok Valley (Jammu and Kashmir) show on average stable or slightly

  8. High resolution WRF simulation of the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J.; Carvalho, L. V.; Jones, C.; Cannon, F.; Bookhagen, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalaya enhances and redistributes large-scale precipitation systems associated with winter storms, the Indian monsoon, and other relevant weather systems through the year. The resulting runoff across the Himalaya is depended on by over a billion people in south Asia for energy, agriculture, industry, and human consumption. However, the observation and understanding of regional precipitation patterns are limited on account of sparse in-situ meteorological data and complex topography. Additionally, the region's extreme elevations pose significant challenges for remotely sensed observation and global reanalyses in accurately representing precipitation. Mesoscale simulations are therefore the best available option to determine precipitation patterns and evaluate water resources in the Himalaya. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation over High Asia for a single, continuous hydrological year at high resolution (6.7 km). The output is compared to available high-elevation rain gauges along the Himalaya, as well as gridded precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and satellite cloud-mask data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to gauge the performance of the model in simulating the full annual range of precipitation systems over the Himalaya. WRF and TRMM show a similar inter-seasonal cycle of precipitation that appropriately represents climatic influences ranging from extratropical cyclones to the monsoon. Good agreement is also observed in the locations of precipitation maxima in transition months between the two regimes. WRF also compares well to daily in-situ precipitation throughout the year, with correlation coefficients generally at 0.5 and above, but decreasing for stations at increasingly high elevations. Diurnal cycles of precipitation during the monsoon are also similar between WRF and TRMM, with

  9. Land Use Changes in Himalaya and Their Impacts on Environment, Society and Economy: A Study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash TIWARI

    2008-01-01

    The traditional resource use structure in Himalaya has transformed considerably during the recent past, mainly owing to the growth of population and the resultant increased demand of natural resources in the region. This transformation in resource use practices is particularly significant in the densely populated tracts of Himalaya. As a result, cultivated land, forests, pastures and rangelands have been deteriorated and depleted steadily and significantly leading to their conversion into degraded and non-productive lands. These rapid land use changes have not only disrupted the fragile ecological equilibrium in the mountains through indiscriminate deforestation, degradation of land resources and disruption of the hydrological cycle, but also have significant and irreversible adverse impacts on the rural economy, society, livelihood and life quality of mountain communities. It has been observed that the agricultural production has declined, water sources are drying up fast due to decreased ground water recharge and a large number of villages are facing enormous deficit of critical resources, such as food, fodder, firewood and water, mainly due to unabated deforestation. As a result, the rural people, particularly the women, have to travel considerably long distances to collect fodder and firewood and to fetching water. It is therefore highly imperative to evolve a comprehensive and integrated land use framework for the conservation of the biophysical environment and sustainable development of natural resources in Himalaya. The land use policy would help local communities in making use of their natural resources scientifically and judiciously, and thus help in the conservation of the biophysical environment and in the increasing of the productivity of natural resources. The study indicates that conservation of forests and other critical natural resources through community participation, generation of alternative means of livelihood, and employment in rural areas can

  10. Land use changes in Himalaya and their impacts on environment, society and economy: A study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash

    2008-11-01

    The traditional resource use structure in Himalaya has transformed considerably during the recent past, mainly owing to the growth of population and the resultant increased demand of natural resources in the region. This transformation in resource use practices is particularly significant in the densely populated tracts of Himalaya. As a result, cultivated land, forests, pastures and rangelands have been deteriorated and depleted steadily and significantly leading to their conversion into degraded and non-productive lands. These rapid land use changes have not only disrupted the fragile ecological equilibrium in the mountains through indiscriminate deforestation, degradation of land resources and disruption of the hydrological cycle, but also have significant and irreversible adverse impacts on the rural economy, society, livelihood and life quality of mountain communities. It has been observed that the agricultural production has declined, water sources are drying up fast due to decreased ground water recharge and a large number of villages are facing enormous deficit of critical resources, such as food, fodder, firewood and water, mainly due to unabated deforestation. As a result, the rural people, particularly the women, have to travel considerably long distances to collect fodder and firewood and to fetching water. It is therefore highly imperative to evolve a comprehensive and integrated land use framework for the conservation of the biophysical environment and sustainable development of natural resources in Himalaya. The land use policy would help local communities in making use of their natural resources scientifically and judiciously, and thus help in the conservation of the biophysical environment and in the increasing of the productivity of natural resources. The study indicates that conservation of forests and other critical natural resources through community participation, generation of alternative means of livelihood, and employment in rural areas can

  11. A framework for the application of physically-oriented glacio-hydrological models in the Himalaya-Karakorum region based on a new approach of uncertainty evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.

    2013-12-01

    The use of physically-oriented approaches to model glacio-hydrological processes offers the advantage that model parameters can be estimated directly from measurements or from literature, while in conceptual models parameters do not correspond to physical properties. However, in the case of remote high-elevation catchments, the lack of knowledge about local variables due to the difficult survey conditions increases the uncertainty of model parameters and, therefore, that of the model outputs. It has been demonstrated in previous work (Ragettli and Pellicciotti, WRR 2012) that data obtained locally by ad-hoc short-term field campaigns can be used efficiently to constrain model parameters. The design of field campaigns in terms of timing and location of measurements remains, however, a challenge for high-elevation catchments due to their large size, bad accessibility and geomorphological heterogeneity. Field work is particularly important in the Himalaya-Karakorum (H-K) region, where the heterogeneous response of glaciers to recent climatic changes calls for targeted data collection. This work presents a new computational method where, by means of sensitivity analysis, a priori parameters are used in a distributed glacio-hydrological model to assess the spatially and temporally variable capacity of individual parameters and model components to explain the total uncertainty of the simulated hydrological response. The method allows detailed suggestions about timing and location of field measurements, thus permitting to constraining model uncertainty through minimal field data collection. The method is applied to two catchments in the H-K: the Langtang River Basin in the Greater Himalaya (Nepal) and the Hunza River Basin in the Karokoram (Pakistan). While recent studies have reported rapid declines in glacier area from the Greater Himalaya, several central Karakoram glaciers have expanded in the late 1990s. Differences in glacier fluctuations must be mainly explained by

  12. Impacts of aerosol-monsoon interaction on rainfall and circulation over Northern India and the Himalaya Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Shi, Jainn-Jong; Matsui, T.; Chin, M.; Tan, Qian; Peters-Lidard, C.; Tao, W. K.

    2016-11-01

    The boreal summer of 2008 was unusual for the Indian monsoon, featuring exceptional heavy loading of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and northern-central India, near normal all-India rainfall, but excessive heavy rain, causing disastrous flooding in the Northern Indian Himalaya Foothills (NIHF) regions, accompanied by persistent drought conditions in central and southern India. Using the NASA Unified-physics Weather Research Forecast (NUWRF) model with fully interactive aerosol physics and dynamics, we carried out three sets of 7-day ensemble model forecast experiments: (1) control with no aerosol, (2) aerosol radiative effect only and (3) aerosol radiative and aerosol-cloud-microphysics effects, to study the impacts of aerosol-monsoon interactions on monsoon variability over the NIHF during the summer of 2008. Results show that aerosol-radiation interaction (ARI), i.e., dust aerosol transport, and dynamical feedback processes induced by aerosol-radiative heating, plays a key role in altering the large-scale monsoon circulation system, reflected by an increased north-south tropospheric temperature gradient, a northward shift of heavy monsoon rainfall, advancing the monsoon onset by 1-5 days over the HF, consistent with the EHP hypothesis (Lau et al. in Clim Dyn 26(7-8):855-864, 2006). Additionally, we found that dust aerosols, via the semi-direct effect, increase atmospheric stability, and cause the dissipation of a developing monsoon onset cyclone over northeastern India/northern Bay of Bengal. Eventually, in a matter of several days, ARI transforms the developing monsoon cyclone into meso-scale convective cells along the HF slopes. Aerosol-Cloud-microphysics Interaction (ACI) further enhances the ARI effect in invigorating the deep convection cells and speeding up the transformation processes. Results indicate that even in short-term (up to weekly) numerical forecasting of monsoon circulation and rainfall, effects of aerosol-monsoon interaction can be

  13. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties) from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  14. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hua

    Full Text Available The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  15. Spatial coincidence of rapid inferred erosion with young metamorphic massifs in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Montgomery, David R.; Hallet, Bernard

    2002-03-01

    A spatially distributed rate-of-erosion index (EI) based on models of bedrock river incision documents a strong spatial correspondence between areas of high erosion potential and young metamorphic massifs as well as structural highs throughout the Himalayas. The EI is derived from slopes and drainage areas calculated from a hydrologically corrected digital elevation model (GTOPO30) combined with precipitation data (IIASA) to generate synthetic annual stream discharges. These variables drive three generalized process models to produce EI maps that, while differing in detail, provide an internally consistent, spatially continuous index of large-scale erosion rates. The large spatial variation in potential erosion rates in the Himalayas suggested by the EI patterns contrasts with the uniform convergence of the Indian subcontinent. If these EI gradients persist through time, they support the emerging view of a positive feedback between localized, rapid erosion and upward advection of lower crust.

  16. Black Carbon Flux Across the Himalaya through the Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Mahata, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Significant increases in black carbon concentration have been observed in the recent years over the Indo-Gangetic plain, the foothills of the Himalaya, as well as the high Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau. The concentration of increased black carbon can be significantly correlated to the albedo effect and the warming of atmosphere at high altitudes due to the deposition of black carbon in the snow clad mountains. It is hypothesized that this deposition contributes to increased melting of Himalayan glaciers and snowfields. Satellite images show increasing amounts of aerosol haze over the Indo-Gangetic plains which penetrate into the Himalayan valleys. But how does it reach the high altitude of the Himalayan cryosphere? To date, mechanisms of transport upwind of the valley from the Indo-Gangetic plains up to the Himalaya have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesize that wind systems in the deep river valleys that cut across the Himalaya, such as the Arun valley and Kali Gandaki valley, serve as important pathways for pollutant transport. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.). The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we use our observations in Jomsom to present an estimate of the annual flux of black carbon from the Indo-Gangetic plains to the Tibetan Plateau through the Kali Gandaki valley. In this way, we gain insight into the significance of deep valleys and their role as pathways for pollutant transport.

  17. Oblique convergence and slip partitioning in the NW Himalaya: Implications from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bhaskar; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Bali, Bikram Singh; Chowdhury, Sonalika; Gahalaut, V. K.

    2014-10-01

    We report GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the Kashmir Himalaya. We combined these results with the published results of GPS measurements from the Karakoram fault system and suggest that in the Kashmir Himalaya, the motion between the southern Tibet and India plate is oblique with respect to the structural trend. We estimated this almost north-south oblique motion to be 17 ± 2 mm/yr, which is partitioned between dextral motion of 5 ± 2 mm/yr on the Karakoram fault system and oblique motion of 13.6 ± 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N198°E in the northwest-southeast trending Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. Thus, the partitioning of the India-Southern Tibet oblique motion is partial in the Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. However, in the neighboring Nepal Himalaya, there is no partitioning; the entire India-Southern Tibet motion of 19-20 mm/yr is arc normal and is accommodated entirely in the Himalayan frontal arc. The convergence rate in the Kashmir frontal Himalaya is about 25% less than that in the Nepal Himalayan region. However, here the Karakoram fault system accommodates about 20% of the southern Tibet and Indian plate convergence and marks the northern extent of the NW Himalayan arc sliver. The Kaurik Chango rift, a north-south oriented seismically active cross-wedge transtensional fault appears to divide the sliver in two parts causing varying translatory motion on the Karakoram fault on either side of the Kaurik Chango rift.

  18. Drymaria villosa (Caryophyllaceae new record for the flora of the Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The herb Drymaria villosa is reported first time from the Western Himalaya. This species is morphologically similar to Drymaria cordata ssp. diandra but can be distinguished by its delicate individuals, villous vestiture, orbicular to reniform leaves, auriculate oblong bifid petals, and numerous reniform seeds. The present collection of the species represents westernmost distributional limit in the Asian continent. Morphological characteristics of the species were examined, which are illustrated here. Key to differentiate it from closely allied species is also provided.

  19. Structural and Thermochronological Constraints on the Coupling Between Exhumation, Denudation and Tectonics in the Himalaya: Insights From the Ama Drime Massif, Tibet- Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, M. J.; Cottle, J. M.; Newell, D. L.; Berger, A. L.; Spotila, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Focused denudation and mid-crustal flow are coupled in many active tectonic settings, including the Himalaya where exhumation of mid-crustal rocks is accommodated by thrust faults and low-angle detachment systems during crustal shortening. New structural data demonstrates that the most recently active tectonic feature in the Mt. Everest region is the Ama Drime Massif (ADM), a trans-Himalayan antiformal structure that protrudes ~ 70 km north from the crest of the Himalaya and displaces the South Tibetan Detachment system. Previous investigations interpreted the N-S striking shear zones and fault systems that bound either side of the ADM as the Main Central thrust. Our data show that these are 100-300 m thick normal-sense shear zones that are kinematically linked to young brittle faults that offset Quaternary deposits and record active E-W extension. Geochemical tracers in hot springs along the western shear zone indicate devolatilization of crustal rocks suggesting active metamorphism and/or melting beneath the ADM. Integration of high-to low-T thermochronometric methods, including U(-Th-)Pb, Apatite Fission Track and (U-Th)/He, yield important information regarding the timing and rate of exhumation of the ADM. These data reveal that rapid exhumation of material from the mid-crust during E-W extension began in the mid-Miocene and that a high rate of uplift / denudation persisted into the Pliocene. The southern end of the ADM is centered on the Arun River gorge, which previous geomorphological instigations defined as a prime candidate for climate-tectonic coupling. We combine our results with these exiting data to propose that active exhumation of deep crustal rocks of the ADM during E-W extension is coupled with denudation in the Arun River gorge. This model provides important quantitative constraints on the dynamic feedbacks between climate and tectonics in collisional orogens as well as the evolution of trans-Himalayan rivers and antiformal structures.

  20. Comparative assessment of spatiotemporal snow cover changes and hydrological behavior of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza River basins (Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya region, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Chevallier, Pierre; Haq, Ayaz Ul; Terzago, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) mountain ranges, is the major contributor to the supply of water for irrigation in Pakistan. Improved management of downstream water resources requires studying and comparing spatiotemporal changes in the snow cover and hydrological behavior of the river basins located in the HKH region. This study explored in detail the recent changes that have occurred in the Gilgit River basin (12,656 km2; western sub-basin of UIB), which is characterized by a mean catchment elevation of 4250 m above sea level (m ASL). The basin's snow cover was monitored through the snow products provided by the MODIS satellite sensor, while analysis of its hydrological regime was supported by hydrological and climatic data recorded at different altitudes. The Gilgit basin findings were compared to those previously obtained for the lower-altitude Astore basin (mean catchment elevation = 4100 m ASL) and the higher-altitude Hunza basin (mean catchment elevation = 4650 m ASL). These three catchments were selected because of their different glacier coverage, contrasting area distribution at high altitudes and significant impact on the Upper Indus River flow. Almost 7, 5 and 33 % of the area of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza basins, respectively, are situated above 5000 m ASL, and approximately 8, 6 and 25 %, respectively, are covered by glaciers. The UIB region was found to follow a stable or slightly increasing trend in snow coverage and had a discharge dominated by snow and glacier melt in its western (Hindukush-Karakoram), southern (Western-Himalaya) and northern (Central-Karakoram) sub-basins.

  1. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints of Rivers Along Southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for Erosion of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone and the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, M. F. B.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Our detrital geochemical study of modern sand collected from tributaries of the Yarlung River in southern Tibet and the Kali Gandaki River and its tributaries in Nepal shed light on the ages and exhumation histories of source rocks within the Indus-Yarlung Suture (IYS) zone and the Himalayas. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in southern Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Apatite Fission Track (AFT) thermochronologic analyses. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Samples from rivers draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan Himalayan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Our results indicate that the ages and proportion of U-Pb zircons ages of downstream samples from tributaries of the Yarlung River directly reflect source area ages and relative area of source rock exposure in the catchment basin. Significant age components at 37 - 40 Ma, 47 - 50 Ma, 55 - 58 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma reflect episodicity in Gangdese arc magmatism. Our AFT ages show two main signals at 23-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are in agreement with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith during these time intervals. The 23 - 18 Ma signal partly overlaps with deposition of the Kailas Formation along the suture zone and may be related to exhumation due to upper plate extension in southern Tibet in response to Indian slab rollback and/or break-off events. Detrital thermochronology of four sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River and some of its tributaries in Nepal is underway and will provide constraints on the timing of erosion of the central Nepal Himalaya.

  2. Comparative assessment of spatiotemporal snow cover changes and hydrological behavior of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza River basins (Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya region, Pakistan )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Chevallier, Pierre; Haq, Ayaz Ul; Terzago, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) mountain ranges, is the major contributor to the supply of water for irrigation in Pakistan. Improved management of downstream water resources requires studying and comparing spatiotemporal changes in the snow cover and hydrological behavior of the river basins located in the HKH region. This study explored in detail the recent changes that have occurred in the Gilgit River basin (12,656 km2; western sub-basin of UIB), which is characterized by a mean catchment elevation of 4250 m above sea level (m ASL). The basin's snow cover was monitored through the snow products provided by the MODIS satellite sensor, while analysis of its hydrological regime was supported by hydrological and climatic data recorded at different altitudes. The Gilgit basin findings were compared to those previously obtained for the lower-altitude Astore basin (mean catchment elevation = 4100 m ASL) and the higher-altitude Hunza basin (mean catchment elevation = 4650 m ASL). These three catchments were selected because of their different glacier coverage, contrasting area distribution at high altitudes and significant impact on the Upper Indus River flow. Almost 7, 5 and 33 % of the area of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza basins, respectively, are situated above 5000 m ASL, and approximately 8, 6 and 25 %, respectively, are covered by glaciers. The UIB region was found to follow a stable or slightly increasing trend in snow coverage and had a discharge dominated by snow and glacier melt in its western (Hindukush-Karakoram), southern (Western-Himalaya) and northern (Central-Karakoram) sub-basins.

  3. Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western Himalaya, Indi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R R Yadav

    2009-11-01

    Tree-ring analyses from semi-arid to arid regions in western Himalaya show immense potential for developing millennia long climate records. Millennium and longer ring-width chronologies of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos), Himalayan pencil cedar (Cedrus deodara) and Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) have been developed from different sites in western Himalaya. Studies conducted so far on various conifer species indicate strong precipitation signatures in ring-width measurement series. The paucity of weather records from stations close to tree-ring sampling sites poses difficulty in calibrating tree-ring data against climate data especially precipitation for its strong spatial variability in mountain regions. However, for the existence of strong coherence in temperature, even in data from distant stations, more robust temperature reconstructions representing regional and hemispheric signatures have been developed. Tree-ring records from the region indicate multi-century warm and cool anomalies consistent with the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age anomalies. Significant relationships noted between mean premonsoon temperature over the western Himalaya and ENSO features endorse utility of climate records from western Himalayan region in understanding long-term climate variability and attribution of anthropogenic impact.

  4. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya using pattern recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula; Amita Sinvhal; Hans Raj Wason

    2016-06-01

    Seismicity in the western Himalayas is highly variable. Several historical and instrumentally recordeddevastating earthquakes originated in the western Himalayas which are part of the Alpine–Himalayanbelt. Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss interms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population andinfrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya,using pattern recognition technique. An area between latitude 29◦–36◦N and longitude 73◦–80◦E wasconsidered for this study. Pattern recognition starts with identification, selection and extraction of featuresfrom seismotectonic data. These features are then subjected to discriminant analysis and the studyarea was classified into three categories, viz., Area A: most susceptible area, Area B: moderately susceptiblearea, and Area C: least susceptible area. Results show that almost the entire states of HimachalPradesh and Uttarakhand and a portion of Jammu & Kashmir are classified as Area A, while most ofJammu & Kashmir is classified as Area B and the Indo-Gangetic plains are classified as Area C.

  5. Landslide Hazard Zonation and Risk Assessment of Ramganga Basin in Garhwal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasini Pandey, Bindhy; Roy, Nikhil

    2016-04-01

    The Himalaya being unique in its physiographic, tectonic and climatic characteristics coupled with many natural and man-made factors is inherently prone to landslides. These landslides lead to mass loss of property and lives every year in Himalayas. Hence, Landslide Hazard Zonation is important to take quick and safe mitigation measures and make strategic planning for future development. The present study tries to explore the causes of landslides in Ramganga Basin in Garhwal Himalaya, which has an established history and inherent susceptibility to massive landslides has been chosen for landslide hazard zonation and risk assessment. The satellite imageries of LANDSAT, IRS P6, ASTER along with Survey of India (SOI) topographical sheets formed the basis for deriving baseline information on various parameters like slope, aspect, relative relief, drainage density, geology/lithology and land use/land cover. The weighted parametric method will be used to determine the degree of susceptibility to landslides. Finally, a risk map will be prepared from the landslide probability values, which will be classified into no risk, very low to moderate, high, and very high to severe landslide hazard risk zones. Keywords: Landslides, Hazard Zonation, Risk Assessment

  6. Focal depths and fault plane solutions of earthquakes and active tectonics of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, J.; Armbruster, J.; Seeber, L.; Molnar, P.

    1984-01-01

    Synthetic seismograms were compared with long-period body waves for nine earthquakes with epicenters in the Himalayan arc to determine depths of foci and to improve fault plane solutions. Focal depths are shallow (10-20 km). Inferred slip vectors are locally perpendicular to the mountain range; they plunge very gently (about 10 deg) in the eastern sections of the range and more steeply (about 25 deg) in western sections. Assuming India to be a rigid plate, the radially oriented slip vectors imply that southern Tibet extends at about half the rate of underthrusting in the Himalaya and therefore probably at about 5-10 mm/yr. The shallow depths and gentle dips of the fault planes, at least for the events in the eastern half of the range, are consistent with coherent underthrusting of the Indian plate beneath, at least, the Lesser Himalaya. The steeper dips of fault planes in the western part of the arc might reflect deformation of the overriding thrust plate or simply a steepening of the main underthrusting zone beneath the Greater Himalaya.

  7. Westerly moisture transport to the middle of Himalayas revealed from the high deuterium excess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lide; YAO Tandong; J.W.C.White; YU Wusheng; WANG Ninglian

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies found extremely high d-excess in both ice core and glacial melt water in Dasuopu glacier, Xixiabangma, middle of Himalayas. These values are much higher than the global average and those measured in southwest monsoon precipitation. The d-excess variation in over one year at Nyalam station will clarify this phenomenon. Studies show that the high d-excess is related to the seasonal variation of moisture transport to this region. The d-excess values are low during the southwest monsoon active periods, when moisture originated from the humid ocean surface. The d-excess values are higher in non-monsoon months, when moisture is derived from westerly transport. Winter and spring precipitation accounts for a substantial portion of the annual precipitation, resulting in higher d-excess in the yearly precipitation in the middle of Himalayas than other parts of the southern Tibetan Plateau. This finding reveals that the precipitation in the middle of Himalayas is not purely from southwest monsoon, but a large portion from the westerly transport, which is very important for ice core study in this area.

  8. Monazite Growth from the Eocene to the Miocene: New Interpretations of the Metamorphic History of Greater Himalayan Rocks in the Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. M.; Kauffman, R.; Gonzales-Clayton, B.; Long, S. P.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Across the Himalaya, mid- to lower-crustal Greater-Himalayan (GH) rocks have been exhumed during active continent-continent collision. In the eastern Himalaya within Bhutan, GH rocks are divided into an upper and lower level by an intra-GH shear zone, the Kakthang thrust (KT). To decipher the metamorphic, melt-crystallization and exhumation history of the GH rocks exposed above and below the KT, monazite from metapelites and migmatites was dated and trace elements were analyzed by laser-ablation, split-stream ICPMS. The trace elements from the monazite were used to track when the rocks were at near-peak conditions (based on the depletion of HREE and the likely presence of garnet during monazite growth) versus likely undergoing initial exhumation and garnet breakdown (based on an increase in HREE). Samples were collected from two N-S transects that cross the KT in central and eastern Bhutan. The eastern transect reveals a progressive younging of near-peak metamorphism within the GH, with dates of ca. 23-20 Ma for the structurally-highest sample versus ca. 18-16 Ma in the structurally-lowest sample. The youngest dates from all structural levels of the eastern Bhutan metapelites are 13-15 Ma; the same analyses yield higher HREE abundances, suggesting garnet breakdown during their (re)crystallization. The migmatites yield ca. 14-16 Ma melt-crystallization ages, consistent with the GH having undergone cooling and initial exhumation to cause garnet breakdown by ca. 15 Ma. In comparison, the central Bhutan transect reveals older near-peak metamorphic ages, with garnet-stable monazite populations at ca. 48­-46 Ma within the KT zone, ca. 38-30 Ma for rocks in the middle of the upper-GH, and ca. 25-22 Ma for the structurally-highest sample. Youngest monazites from the central Bhutan transect that yield growth or recrystallization at garnet-unstable conditions range from ca. 17-26 Ma. These results suggest earlier metamorphism and exhumation of GH rocks in central Bhutan

  9. The Crustal and Mantle Velocity Structure in Central Asia from 3D Travel Time Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    convergence between the Indian and the Eurasian Plates. As a result, large scale structures such as the Himalayas , Tibet, Hindu Kush-Pamir, and Zagros...DE-AC52-08NA28751 ABSTRACT The lithospheric structure in Central Asia features large blocks such as the Indian plate, the Afghan block...Asia features large blocks such as the Indian plate, the Afghan block, the Turan plate, and the Tarim block. This geologically and tectonically

  10. Controls on channel width in an intermontane valley of the frontal zone of the northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Sukumar; Tandon, S. K.; Singh, Vimal

    2017-02-01

    Channel width is an important parameter of the hydraulic geometry of a river and can be linked to the tectonic, topographic, lithologic, and climatic controls in a particular reach. As such, variations in channel width can be the result of one or many factors acting at a specific location. For the rivers flowing in the intermontane valleys along the frontal Himalaya, active tectonics plays a major role in controlling their geometry by providing the space, energy, and sediment. Dehra Dun is an intermontane valley in the northwestern Himalaya where the rivers have their source in the Lesser Himalaya and Sub-Himalaya; they show remarkable variability in the channel width along their course. In this work, we have attempted to identify and evaluate the relative importance of various controlling factors on the channel width of these drainage systems. We selected 20 streams (six North Flank rivers - NFRs; two Main Axial rivers - MARs; twelve South Flank rivers - SFRs) flowing in the valley. In the hilly stretches, the NFRs flow over the Lesser Himalaya and the SFRs flow over the poorly consolidated upper Siwalik gravelly sediments. Channel width in the mountainous region varies generally from 5 to 30 m. The SFRs that have smaller catchments are relatively wider than the NFRs in the mountainous areas. In the Dun, the width variation is mostly between 50 and 400 m. The NFRs show widening in their middle stretches except for the Tons River, which is wide in its lower stretch. Channels widen as they cross the structural zones (i.e., the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), the Santaurgarh Thrust (ST), and the Bhauwala Thrust (BT)) as a result of the change in the gradient across the structures. Large sediment supply generated by mass wasting processes from the weak zones (i.e., fault-related zones) and uplifted surfaces make the river transport limited, resulting in the deposition of the sediments. Consequently, channel bed armoring in these gravel-bed rivers protects the channel

  11. Identification of sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on concentrations in soils from two sides of the Himalayas between China and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Gao, Jiajia; Bi, Xiang; Xu, Lan; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Romesh, Kumar Y; Giesy, John P; Kang, Shichang

    2016-05-01

    To understand distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Himalayas, 77 soil samples were collected from the northern side of the Himalayas, China (NSHC), and the southern side of the Himalayas, Nepal (SSHN), based on altitude, land use and possible trans-boundary transport of PAHs driven by wind from Nepal to the Tibetan Plateau, China. Soils from the SSHN had mean PAH concentration greater than those from the NSHC. Greater concentrations of PAHs in soils were mainly distributed near main roads and agricultural and urban areas. PAHs with 2-3 rings were the most abundant PAHs in the soils from the Himalayas. Concentrations of volatile PAHs were significantly and positively correlated with altitude. Simulations of trajectories of air masses indicated that distributions of soil PAH concentrations were associated with the cyclic patterns of the monsoon. PAH emissions from traffic and combustion of biomass or coal greatly contributed to concentrations of PAHs in soils from the Himalayas.

  12. Declining Large-Cardamom Production Systems in the Sikkim Himalayas: Climate Change Impacts, Agroeconomic Potential, and Revival Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Sharma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum is an economically valuable, ecologically adaptive, and agro-climatically suitable perennial cash crop grown under tree shade in the eastern Himalayas. In Sikkim, India, the focus of this study, large-cardamom production peaked early in the 21st century, making India the largest producer in the world, but dropped sharply after 2004; Nepal is now the largest producer. This crop is an important part of the local economy, contributing on average 29.2% of the income of households participating in this study. Farmers and extension agencies have worked to reverse its decline since 2007, and thus, there is a steady increase in production and production area. After reviewing the literature, we carried out extensive field research in 6 locations in Sikkim in 2011–2013 to investigate the causes of this decline and measures being undertaken to reverse it, using a combination of rapid rural appraisal, participatory rural appraisal, structured questionnaire, and field sampling techniques. Study participants attributed the decline in large-cardamom farming to 4 broad types of drivers: biological, socioeconomic, institutional/governance-related, and environmental/climate-change-related. Altered seasons, erratic or scanty rainfall, prolonged dry spells, temperature increase, soil moisture loss, and increasing instances of diseases and pests were prominent factors of climate change in the study region. Multistakeholder analysis revealed that development and implementation of people-centered policy that duly recognizes local knowledge, development of disease-free planting materials, training, subsidies, and improved irrigation facilities are central to improving cardamom farming and building socioeconomic and ecological resilience.

  13. Meteorological Conditions Related to the August 2010 Flood Event in Ladakh, in the West Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, A.; Nakamura, H.; Miyasaka, T.; Okumiya, K.

    2012-04-01

    Ladakh, located in northern India, experienced flooding and debris flow from 4-7 August, 2010. Ladakh is a dry high-altitude (above 3000 m) region in the west Himalayas, with less than 100 mm of annual precipitation. The Research Institute for Humanity and Nature's high-altitude project installed an automatic weather station (AWS) and small temperature and humidity sensors in Ladakh in June, 2009. These instruments recorded the meteorological conditions associated with the unprecedented disaster in Ladakh. A peculiar atmospheric circulation field and moisture transport process must have occurred during the summer of 2010 because, during this time, Ladakh experienced more precipitation than it had for at least the preceding 100 years. In the boreal summer of 2010, abnormal weather occurrences included a heat wave in Russia, flooding in Pakistan, and a hot summer in Japan. This study presents meteorological data recorded from 4-7 August, 2010, compares these data with data recorded during two other years (2009 and 2011), and investigates linkages between the data recorded in August, 2010 and the large-scale circulation field. At dawn on 6 August, 2010, Leh, the largest town in Ladakh, was devastated. The rain gauge at Leh recorded 15.5 mm of rainfall between 0:13 and 1:13. Flooding occurred in Ladakh during the nights of 4-7 August, when the rainfall was most concentrated. Recorded AWS pressure and wind data reveal a clear diurnal circulation, suggesting a plateau-scale diurnal variation. From 4-7 August, 2010, southerly and easterly winds prevailed and surface air pressure was higher than during the other two years. These changes corresponded to easterly winds turning around the south of the Tibetan High located in the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau. Moisture came into Ladakh from the south part of the Plateau. The timing of the precipitation event in Ladakh differed from that of the moisture/precipitation surge in the northern part of Pakistan. Pakistan

  14. Evolution and variability of the Asian monsoon and its potential linkage with uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Ryuji; Zheng, Hongbo; Clift, Peter D.

    2016-12-01

    Uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) and its linkage with the evolution of the Asian monsoon has been regarded as a typical example of a tectonic-climate linkage. Although this linkage remains unproven because of insufficient data, our understanding has greatly advanced in the past decade. It is thus timely to summarize our knowledge of the uplift history of the HTP, the results of relevant climate simulations, and spatiotemporal changes in the Indian and East Asian monsoons since the late Eocene. Three major pulses of the HTP uplift have become evident: (1) uplift of the southern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP) at ca. 40-35 Ma, (2) uplift of the northern TP at ca. 25-20 Ma, and (3) uplift of the northeastern to eastern TP at ca. 15-10 Ma. Modeling predictions suggest that (i) uplift of the southern and central TP should have intensified the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the Somali Jet at 40-35 Ma; (ii) uplift of the northern TP should have intensified the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), as well as the desertification of inland Asia at 25-20 Ma; and (iii) uplift of the northeastern and eastern TP should have further intensified the EASM and EAWM at 15-10 Ma. We tested these predictions by comparing them with paleoclimate data for the time intervals of interest. There are insufficient paleoclimate data to test whether the ISM and Somali Jet intensified with the uplift of the southern and central TP at 40-35 Ma, but it is possible that such uplift enhanced erosion and weathering that drew down atmospheric CO2 and resulted in global cooling. There is good evidence that the EASM and EAWM intensified, and desertification started in inland Asia at 25-20 Ma in association with the uplift of the northern TP. The impact of the uplift of the northeastern and eastern TP on the Asian monsoon at 15-10 Ma is difficult to evaluate because that interval was also a time of global cooling and Antarctic glaciation that might also

  15. Seasonal variations in the sources of natural and anthropogenic lead deposited at the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn-Nunes, Laurie; Vallelonga, Paul; Lee, Khanghyun; Hong, Sungmin; Burton, Graeme; Hou, Shugui; Moy, Andrew; Edwards, Ross; Loss, Robert; Rosman, Kevin

    2014-07-15

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been analysed at sub-annual resolution in three sections from a Himalayas. Ice core sections indicate that atmospheric chemistry prior to ~1,953 was controlled by mineral dust inputs, with no discernible volcanic or anthropogenic contributions. Eighteenth century monsoon ice core chemistry is indicative of dominant contributions from local Himalayan sources; non-monsoon ice core chemistry is linked to contributions from local (Himalayan), regional (Indian/Thar Desert) and long-range (North Africa, Central Asia) sources. Twentieth century monsoon and non-monsoon ice core data demonstrate similar seasonal sources of mineral dust, however with a transition to less-radiogenic isotopic signatures that suggests local and regional climate/environmental change. The snow pit record demonstrates natural and anthropogenic contributions during both seasons, with increased anthropogenic influence during non-monsoon times. Monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to South/South-East Asia and/or India, whereas non-monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to India and Central Asia.

  16. New Mycomya species from the Himalayas (Diptera, Mycetophilidae): 2. Subgenera Calomycomya, Cymomya, Neomycomya and Pavomya subg. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Rauno

    2013-01-01

    Myconya Rondani specimens from the Himalayas, mostly Nepal and Myanmar, are revised. Pavoniya subg. n. is described. Altogether nine species from the subgenera Calomycoinya, Cymnoniya, Neoinycoinya and Pavomya subg. n. are recorded from the Himalayas and Indian subcontinent. The paper includes a key to the subgenera of Myconiya and the Himalayan species of Mycomya of the four subgenera. The following eight new species are described: M. aonyx, M. cuon, M. kainbaitiensis, M. marmota, M. paguina, M. panthera, M. ratufa and M. wah. Mycomyafiubriata (Meigen) is recorded from Myanmar.

  17. Uncertainties in the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Heights: Insights from the Indian Himalaya and Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, Manas; Srivastava, Vinee; Jade, Sridevi; Mukul, Malay

    2017-02-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) are used with the consensus view that it has a minimum vertical accuracy of 16 m absolute error at 90% confidence (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 9.73 m) world-wide. However, vertical accuracy of the data decreases with increase in slope and elevation due to presence of large outliers and voids. Therefore, studies using SRTM data “as is”, especially in regions like the Himalaya, are not statistically meaningful. New data from ~200 high-precision static Global Position System (GPS) Independent Check Points (ICPs) in the Himalaya and Peninsular India indicate that only 1-arc X-Band data are usable “as is” in the Himalaya as it has height accuracy of 9.18 m (RMSE). In contrast, recently released (2014–2015) “as-is” 1-arc and widely used 3-arc C-Band data have a height accuracy of RMSE 23.53 m and 47.24 m and need to be corrected before use. Outlier and void filtering improves the height accuracy to RMSE 8 m, 10.14 m, 14.38 m for 1-arc X and C-Band and 3-arc C-Band data respectively. Our study indicates that the C-Band 90 m and 30 m DEMs are well-aligned and without any significant horizontal offset implying that area and length computations using both the datasets have identical values.

  18. Aerosol chemistry over a high altitude station at northeastern Himalayas, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chatterjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the sources, distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosol in order to control the atmospheric pollution over northeastern Himalayas where rising anthropogenic interferences from rapid urbanization and development is becoming an increasing concern. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An extensive aerosol sampling program was conducted in Darjeeling (altitude approximately 2200 meter above sea level (masl, latitude 27 degrees 01'N and longitude 88 degrees 15'E, a high altitude station in northeastern Himalayas, during January-December 2005. Samples were collected using a respirable dust sampler and a fine dust sampler simultaneously. Ion chromatograph was used to analyze the water soluble ionic species of aerosol. The average concentrations of fine and coarse mode aerosol were found to be 29.5+/-20.8 microg m(-3 and 19.6+/-11.1 microg m(-3 respectively. Fine mode aerosol dominated during dry seasons and coarse mode aerosol dominated during monsoon. Nitrate existed as NH(4NO(3 in fine mode aerosol during winter and as NaNO(3 in coarse mode aerosol during monsoon. Gas phase photochemical oxidation of SO(2 during premonsoon and aqueous phase oxidation during winter and postmonsoon were the major pathways for the formation of SO(4(2- in the atmosphere. Long range transport of dust aerosol from arid regions of western India was observed during premonsoon. The acidity of fine mode aerosol was higher in dry seasons compared to monsoon whereas the coarse mode acidity was higher in monsoon compared to dry seasons. Biomass burning, vehicular emissions and dust particles were the major types of aerosol from local and continental regions whereas sea salt particles were the major types of aerosol from marine source regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The year-long data presented in this paper provide substantial improvements to the heretofore poor knowledge regarding aerosol chemistry over

  19. Topography and Radiative Forcing Patterns on Glaciers in the Karakoram Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, I. D.; Bishop, M. P.; Liu, J. C.; Liang, D.

    2015-12-01

    Glaciers in the western Himalaya exhibit significant spatial variations in morphology and dynamics. Climate, topography and debris cover variations are thought to significantly affect glacier fluctuations and glacier sensitivity to climate change, although the role of topography and radiative forcing have not been adequately characterized and related to glacier fluctuations and dynamics. Consequently, we examined the glaciers in the Karakoram Himalaya, as they exhibit high spatial variability in glacier fluctuation rates and ice dynamics including flow velocity and surging. Specifically, we wanted to examine the relationships between these glacier characteristics and temporal patterns of surface irradiance over the ablation season. To accomplish this, we developed and used a rigorous GIS-based solar radiative transfer model that accounts for the direct and diffuse-skylight irradiance components. The model accounts for multiple topographic effects on the magnitude of irradiance reaching glacier surfaces. We specifically used the ASTER GDEM digital elevation model for irradiance simulations. We then examined temporal patterns of irradiance at the grid-cell level to identify the dominant patterns that were used to train a 3-layer artificial neural network. Our results demonstrate that there are unique spatial and temporal patterns associated with downwasting and surging glaciers, and that these patterns partially account for the spatial distribution of advancing and retreating glaciers. Lower-altitude terminus regions of surging glaciers exhibited relatively low surface irradiance values that decreased in magnitude with time, demonstrating that high-velocity surging glaciers facilitate relief production and exhibit steeper surface irradiance gradients with altitude. Collectively, these results demonstrate the important role that local and regional topography play in governing climate-glacier dynamics in the Himalaya.

  20. The long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols from South Asia to Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. To resolve such scientific questions, aerosol samples were collected weekly from August 2009 to July 2010 at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research(QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.). In the laboratory, major ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, water-soluble organic carbon, and organic acids were analyzed. The concentration levels of OC and EC at QOMS are comparable to those at high-elevation sites on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (Langtang and NCO-P), but 3 to 6 times lower than those at Manora Peak, India, and Godavari, Nepal. Sulfate was the most abundant anion species followed by nitrate. The dust loading, represented by Ca2+ concentration, was relatively constant throughout the year. OC, EC and other ionic species (NH+4 , K+, NO- and SO2-) exhibited a pronounced peak in the pre-monsoon period and a minimum in the monsoon season, being similar to the seasonal trends of aerosol compo-sition reported previously from the southern slope of the Himalayas. The strong correlation of OC and EC in QOMS aerosols with K+ and levoglucosan indicates that they mainly originated from biomass burning. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/ succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. The fire spots observed by MODIS and backward air-mass trajectories further demonstrate that in pre-monsoon season, agricultural and forest fires in northern India and Nepal were most likely sources of carbonaceous aerosol at QOMS. In addition to large-scale atmospheric circulation, the unique mountain/valley breeze system can also have an important effect on air-pollutant transport.With the consideration of the darkening force of

  1. The Himalaya-Tibet System: A Natural laboratory for continental collision and seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, A.; Brown, L. D.; Song, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalaya-Tibet system remains one of the best places to study continental dynamics, mountain building, and nucleation of great earthquakes. Over the past several decades, numerous research projects have used the Himalaya and Tibet as a natural laboratory to investigate the process of continental collision. Much has been learned about the orogen, including the remarkable along-strike continuity of many features: the orogen's basic geology and structure, the morphology and drainages of the Himalayan arc, and the apparent symmetry of the syntaxes at either end. At the same time, numerous focused studies have also identified considerable spatial variability in the GPS field, seismicity, crust and mantle structure, magnitude and timing of exhumation, erosion, and strain. While much has been learned and many details revealed, significant questions about the Himalaya and Tibet remain and we lack integrated 4D models that explain observed complexity. The time is right for a community initiative to systematically integrate the breadth of data available to test and refine geodynamic models to illuminate the structure and 4-D evolution of the India-Asia collision at scales that account for both first order observations and lateral heterogeneity, link deep earth and surface processes, and address the geohazards associated with the collisional zone and surrounding areas. Any such effort requires community consensus on science goals, setting priorities regarding what's needed to make significant progress, and open access data. An effort of this scale needs to address the societal impacts of hazards associated with the India-Asia collisional system and engage international collaborations across the region. The April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake serves as the most recent reminder that the Himalaya-Tibet system is capable of producing large magnitude events, impacting lives, livelihoods, and the built environment. The 1950 Mw 8.6 Assam and 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan

  2. Relation between soil-gas radon variation and different lithotectonic units, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, Vinay M.; Bist, K.S.; Saini, N.K. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Physics Department, H.N.B. Garhwal University campus, Tehri Garhwal (India)

    1999-11-01

    Measurements of radon concentration and uranium content in soil and rocks were made in the regions of the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in the Garhwal Himalaya by using radon emanometry and X-ray fluorescence method, respectively. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears, etc. The observed values were then correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. Radon concentrations were found to be controlled by lithology, structure and associated uranium mineralization. A positive linear correlation was also observed between soil-gas radon and in situ uranium in the area.

  3. Recent approach to Buchia biostratigraphy from the Tethyan Himalaya area,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Zhiqiang; Xia Zunyi

    2006-01-01

    Recent collections from six sections in Lanongla area,Tethyan Himalaya allow the establishment of four buchia assembles.In ascending they are Buchia-Buchia spitiensis,Buchia masquensis-Buchia rugasa,Buchia blanfordiana,Buchia piochii and Buchia subokensis assemblages.These Buchia assemblages first demonstrate that not only the Upper Jurassic strata but also the highest Buchia assemblage-Buchia subokensis,which appeared in Lower Cretaceous strata all over the world are present in Lanongla area.This first records the highest Buchia assemblage in Lanongla area.

  4. An Investigation of Climate Change Impact on Snow/Ice Melts Runoff in Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, M. T.; Ahmad, S. S.

    2005-12-01

    Glacial density varies across Himalayas, maximum in the Sutlej and Tista basin and moderate in Jhelum and Bhagirathi basin, while least density is in Arunachal Pradesh basin. Most of the glaciers are simple type, but some glaciers are bigger in size and composite in nature. The impact of global warming is perhaps already upon the Himalayas. They are located so near the tropic of cancer that they receive more heat than it commonly reaches Temperate and Arctic glaciers. In all these areas the orographic snowline is often a little higher than regional snowline. In the Himalayas the main source of moisture which feeds the glaciers comes from three sources as Southern monsoon, Northwestern disturbances and Local convection currents. The snowline is also lower on the northern slopes than on the southern slopes. According to the climatologists, alpine glaciers, such as those in the Himalaya are particularly sensitive indicators of climate change and the trend is expected to continue this century. Present study made by the availability of GIS, Image Processing and Digital Data Sets have made the task of runoff modeling easier on the regional and local scenario. For mapping the snow-cover on local level with high resolution remote sensing data (ASTER, LANDSAT and IRS) been used, for regional level, EOS and MODIS used, which provides good images with sufficient temporal scale. Investigation shows that spatial distributions of survival index based on relief area gradient and elongation index has least climate sensitivity of the glaciers situated in the Bhagirathi basin in Ganga headwater. In a high mountain environment the influence of certain topographic variables varying greatly. Elevation is one of the variables that have been identified as having a positive effect on snow depth and other factors those influence snow accumulation and the snowpack also computed for relational study. The variations in snow cover have a major influence on regional and continental weather

  5. 尼泊尔喜马拉雅山冰川分布特征%Characteristics of Glacier Distribution in Nepal Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷俊琦; 谢自楚; 吴立宗; MOOL K PRADEEP; BAJRACHARYA R SAMJWAL

    2012-01-01

    Based on two old glacier inventories of Nepal, Landsat images in 2009-2010 and Digital Elevation Model, a new data was obtained for glacier in Nepal Himalaya, located in southern slope of central Himalaya. With GIS and some statistics software, characteristics in spatial distribution, scale and classification of glaciers were analyzed. It shows that in horizontal orientation, glaciers' area distribution is wavelike in longitudinal orientation; in vertical space, characteristic of the most area-altitude and the most area in basins is Gankaki > Koshi > Karnali. Areal concentration has negative correlation with glacier height difference; in each sub-basin, small glaciers have the most numerical amount; medial glaciers have the most area amount. Big glaciers are critically decided by terrain and precipitation conditions, and only distribute in the eastern and central parts of Nepal. The form classification is mainly compound basins, compound basin and simple basin. Debris-coved glaciers and avalanche supplement glaciers are common.%在中段喜马拉雅山南坡的尼泊尔境内,利用尼泊尔两次编目数据、2009-2010年Landsat遥感影像及数字高程模型,得到最新尼泊尔喜马拉雅山冰川分布图.利用GIS和统计软件分析了该地区冰川的空间分布、规模、类型特征.结果如下:水平方向上,冰川面积在经度上呈波状分布;垂直方向上,最大面积高度及对应的最大面积值分布流域从大到小是Gandaki、Koshi、Karnali流域.冰川面积在垂直空间的集中性与冰川作用差呈负相关;各流域发育小型冰川的条数较多,中型冰川的面积较多.大型冰川对地势和降水条件要求高,只分布在尼泊尔中部和东部;形态类型以复式流域、复式盆地和单一盆地为主,表碛覆盖冰川和雪崩补给冰川分布普遍.

  6. Performance evaluation of a passive solar building in Western Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandel, S.S. [Passive Solar Building Research Group, State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, B-34, SDA Complex, Kasumpti, Shimla 171 009, Himachal Pradesh (India); Aggarwal, R.K. [Passive Solar Building Research Group, State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, B-34, SDA Complex, Kasumpti, Shimla 171 009, Himachal Pradesh (India); Department of Basic Sciences, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan 173 230 (India)

    2008-10-15

    Under the Passive Solar Building Programme, more than 100 buildings have been constructed in the high altitude region of the Indian State of Himachal Pradesh. A policy decision has been taken by the State that all government/semi-government buildings are to be designed and constructed as per passive solar housing technology. The evaluation studies of some of these buildings have been carried out by our group. In the present study, the thermal performance of a passive solar bank building at Shimla, has been evaluated. This solar building incorporates a heat-collecting wall and a roof-top solar air heater with an electric heating backup, sunspaces and double-glazed windows. The monitoring of the building shows that the solar passive features in the building results in comfortable living conditions. The study shows that the high cost central electric/gas/wood-fired heating systems can be replaced by a low cost solar heating system with backup heaters. This will result not only in reducing higher installation costs of these systems but also the annual running and maintenance costs. It is shown that the solar passive features save electricity required for space heating and reduce the heat losses in the building by about 35%. The strategy to be followed for the propagation of passive solar technology on large scale in this Himalayan State or in any other cold hilly region is also presented. (author)

  7. High altitude dives from 7000 to 14,200 feet in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, T K; John, M J; Dhall, A; Chatterjee, A K

    1991-07-01

    Indian Navy divers carried out no-decompression dives at altitudes of 7000 to 14,200 ft (2134-4328 m) in the Nilgiris and Himalayas from May to July 1988. Seventy-eight dives on air and 22 dives on oxygen were carried out at various altitudes. The final dives were at Lake Pangong Tso (4328 m) in Ladakh, Himalayas, to a maximum of 140 feet of sea water (fsw) [42.6 meters of sea water (msw)] equivalent ocean depth in minimum water temperature of 2 degrees C. Oxygen diving at 14,200 ft (4328 m) was not successful. Aspects considered were altitude adaptation, diminished air pressure diving, hypothermia, and remote area survival. Depths at altitude were converted to depths at sea level and were applied to the Royal Navy air tables. Altitude-related manifestations, hypoxia, hypothermia, suspected oxygen toxicity, and equipment failure were observed. It is concluded that stress is due to effects of altitude and cold on man and equipment, as well as changes in diving procedures when diving at high altitudes. Equivalent air depths when applied to Royal Navy tables could be considered a safe method for diving at altitudes.

  8. Application of regional climate models to the Indian winter monsoon over the western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A P; Yasunari, T; Wiltshire, A; Kumar, P; Mathison, C; Ridley, J; Jacob, D

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayan region is characterized by pronounced topographic heterogeneity and land use variability from west to east, with a large variation in regional climate patterns. Over the western part of the region, almost one-third of the annual precipitation is received in winter during cyclonic storms embedded in westerlies, known locally as the western disturbance. In the present paper, the regional winter climate over the western Himalayas is analyzed from simulations produced by two regional climate models (RCMs) forced with large-scale fields from ERA-Interim. The analysis was conducted by the composition of contrasting (wet and dry) winter precipitation years. The findings showed that RCMs could simulate the regional climate of the western Himalayas and represent the atmospheric circulation during extreme precipitation years in accordance with observations. The results suggest the important role of topography in moisture fluxes, transport and vertical flows. Dynamical downscaling with RCMs represented regional climates at the mountain or even event scale. However, uncertainties of precipitation scale and liquid-solid precipitation ratios within RCMs are still large for the purposes of hydrological and glaciological studies.

  9. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  10. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Kashmir Basin Fault is located in the Jammu and Kashmir region of Kashmir Basin in NW Himalaya, India. It is a classic example of an out-of-sequence thrust faulting and is tectonically active as observed from multiple geological evidences. Its geomorphology, structure and lateral extent indicate significant accommodation of stress since long, which is further supported by the absence of a large earthquake in this region. It seems this fault is actively accommodating some portion of the total India-Eurasia convergence, apart from two well-recognised active structures the Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and the Main Frontal Thrust, which are referred in Vassallo et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 411:241-252, 2015). This requires its quantification and inclusion into slip distribution scheme of NW Himalaya. Therefore, it should be explored extensively because this internal out-of-sequence thrust could serve major seismic hazard in KB, repeating a situation similar to Muzaffarabad earthquake of Northern Pakistan in 2005.

  11. Widespread expansion of glacier moraine-dammed lakes in the Chinese Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyin; Ng, Felix; Wang, Xin; Guo, Wanqin; Yao, Xiaojun; Yu, Pengchun; Xu, Junli; Ding, Yongjian

    2010-05-01

    More moraine-dammed lakes in the Himalaya may form and enlarge due to glacier retreat and increased meltwater availability under the climatic warming that has been recorded across this mountain range over the last few decades. Because of this, and because such lakes have caused major GLOF (glacial lake outburst flood) events before, international organisations have been developing lake inventories to evaluate flood risks in the Himalaya, mainly in the south. Here we present the first complete inventory of moraine-dammed lakes on the Chinese side, which shows expansion and formation dominate their behaviour from the 1970s to the 2000s. We found that while their number has remained at ≈1200, their combined area has drastically increased, and glacier retreat also helped focus this overall growth in a narrow elevation range where many large new lakes have appeared. Our discovery of a glacier-recession signal in the lakes' variation underlines the need to study the climatological and glaciological factors behind lake evolution.

  12. Vegetation dynamics at the upper elevational limit of vascular plants in Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Jiri; Dvorsky, Miroslav; Kopecky, Martin; Liancourt, Pierre; Hiiesalu, Inga; Macek, Martin; Altman, Jan; Chlumska, Zuzana; Rehakova, Klara; Capkova, Katerina; Borovec, Jakub; Mudrak, Ondrej; Wild, Jan; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-05-04

    A rapid warming in Himalayas is predicted to increase plant upper distributional limits, vegetation cover and abundance of species adapted to warmer climate. We explored these predictions in NW Himalayas, by revisiting uppermost plant populations after ten years (2003-2013), detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in permanent plots (2009-2012), and age analysis of plants growing from 5500 to 6150 m. Plant traits and microclimate variables were recorded to explain observed vegetation changes. The elevation limits of several species shifted up to 6150 m, about 150 vertical meters above the limit of continuous plant distribution. The plant age analysis corroborated the hypothesis of warming-driven uphill migration. However, the impact of warming interacts with increasing precipitation and physical disturbance. The extreme summer snowfall event in 2010 is likely responsible for substantial decrease in plant cover in both alpine and subnival vegetation and compositional shift towards species preferring wetter habitats. Simultaneous increase in summer temperature and precipitation caused rapid snow melt and, coupled with frequent night frosts, generated multiple freeze-thaw cycles detrimental to subnival plants. Our results suggest that plant species responses to ongoing climate change will not be unidirectional upward range shifts but rather multi-dimensional, species-specific and spatially variable.

  13. Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R.C. E-mail: rcramola@sancharnet.in; Negi, M.S.; Choubey, V.M

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 {mu}Sv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} and thus are within safe limits.

  14. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Benn, D. I.

    2010-12-01

    Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970) aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1) to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a-1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  15. Wintertime land surface characteristics in climatic simulations over the western Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Dimri

    2012-04-01

    Wintertime regional climate studies over the western Himalayas with ICTP-RegCM3 simulations through 22 years has shown systematic biases in precipitation and temperature fields. The model simulated precipitation shows systematically wet bias. In surface temperature simulations, positive and negative biases of 2°–4°C occurred. Experiment without (CONT) and with subBATS (SUB) shows that later scheme performs better, especially for precipitation. Apart from the role of topography and model internal variability, land surface characteristics also have profound impact on these climatic variables. Therefore, in the present study, impacts of land surface characteristics are investigated through cool/wet and warm/dry winter climate by CONT and SUB simulations to assess systematic biases. Since SUB experiment uses detailed land-use classification, systematic positive biases in temperature over higher elevation peaks are markedly reduced. The change has shown reduced excessive precipitation as well. Most of the surface characteristics show that major interplay between topography and western disturbances (WDs) takes place along the foothills rather than over the higher peaks of the western Himalayas.

  16. Observed linear trend in few surface weather elements over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH) during winter season

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dan Singh; Vikas Sharma; Vikas Juyal

    2015-04-01

    Linear trends in few surface weather variables such as air temperatures (maximum temperature, minimum temperature), snow and rainy days, snowfall and rainfall amounts, rainfall contribution to seasonal total precipitation amount, seasonal snow cover depth and snow cover days (duration) are examined from winter-time observations at 11 stations located over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH). This study indicates that snowfall tends to show a decline in this region, while the rainfall tends to increase during the winter months. Seasonal snow cover depth and seasonal snow cover days also tend to show a decline over the NWH. Decrease in seasonal snow cover depth and duration have reduced the winter period in terms of availability of seasonal snow cover over the NWH during the last 2–3 decades. Other surface weather variables also exhibited significant temporal changes in recent decades. Observed trends in temperature and precipitation over the NWH in recent decades are also supported by long data series of temperature over the western Himalayas (WH), north mountain India (NMI) rainfall data and reanalysis products.

  17. Use of objective analysis to estimate winter temperature and precipitation at different stations over western Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagdish Chandra Joshi; Ashwagosha Ganju

    2010-10-01

    Temperature and fresh snow are essential inputs in an avalanche forecasting model.Without these parameters,prediction of avalanche occurrence for a region would be very difficult.In the complex terrain of Himalaya,nonavailability of snow and meteorological data of the remote locations during snow storms in the winter is a common occurrence.In view of this persistent problem present study estimates maximum temperature,minimum temperature,ambient temperature and precipitation intensity on different regions of Indian western Himalaya by using similar parameters of the neighbouring regions.The location at which parameters are required and its neighbouring locations should all fall in the same snow climatic zone.Initial step to estimate the parameters at a location,is to shift the parameters of neighbouring regions at a reference height corresponding to the altitude of the location at which parameters are to be estimated.The parameters at this reference height are then spatially interpolated by using Barnes objective analysis.The parameters estimated on different locations are compared with the observed one and the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE)of the observed and estimated values of the parameters are discussed for the winters of 2007 –2008.

  18. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs. The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970 aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1 to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a−1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  19. A CERN flag is set to wave up in the Himalayas

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On 18 October, Hubert Reymond, from the Industrial Controls and Engineering group of the EN Department, will be leaving to Nepal with a CERN flag in his backpack. He will place it at the highest point of his trek across the Annapurna mountains in the Himalayas, Thorong La pass, at 5,416 m above sea level.   A view of the Annapurna mountains (source: www.flickr.com/minutesalone) “Is there any official CERN flag I can carry with me during my trek through Nepal?” Some days ago, the Press Office was confronted with this unusual (but see box) question from Hubert Reymond. From 18 October to 10 November, Reymond, who works as an industrial computing engineer in the EN Department, will be trekking across the 55 km-long Annapurna massif in the Himalayas, whose highest point lies at 8,091 m (making it the 10th-highest summit in the world). The area is well-known to trekkers from around the world, as it includes several world-class circuits, including the Annapurna circuit which Reym...

  20. Erosion in southern Tibet shut down at ∼10 Ma due to enhanced rock uplift within the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marissa M.; Fox, Matthew; Schmidt, Jennifer L.; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Wielicki, Matthew M.; Harrison, T. Mark; Zeitler, Peter K.; Shuster, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Exhumation of the southern Tibetan plateau margin reflects interplay between surface and lithospheric dynamics within the Himalaya–Tibet orogen. We report thermochronometric data from a 1.2-km elevation transect within granitoids of the eastern Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet, which indicate rapid exhumation exceeding 1 km/Ma from 17–16 to 12–11 Ma followed by very slow exhumation to the present. We hypothesize that these changes in exhumation occurred in response to changes in the loci and rate of rock uplift and the resulting southward shift of the main topographic and drainage divides from within the Lhasa terrane to their current positions within the Himalaya. At ∼17 Ma, steep erosive drainage networks would have flowed across the Himalaya and greater amounts of moisture would have advected into the Lhasa terrane to drive large-scale erosional exhumation. As convergence thickened and widened the Himalaya, the orographic barrier to precipitation in southern Tibet terrane would have strengthened. Previously documented midcrustal duplexing around 10 Ma generated a zone of high rock uplift within the Himalaya. We use numerical simulations as a conceptual tool to highlight how a zone of high rock uplift could have defeated transverse drainage networks, resulting in substantial drainage reorganization. When combined with a strengthening orographic barrier to precipitation, this drainage reorganization would have driven the sharp reduction in exhumation rate we observe in southern Tibet. PMID:26371325

  1. Elevational gradients in bird diversity in the Eastern Himalaya: An evaluation of distribution patterns and their underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Bhoj Kumar; Sanders, Nathan J.; Vijayan, Lalitha;

    2011-01-01

    richness, shrub density and basal area of trees) accounted for most of the variation in bird species richness. We also observed that ranges of most bird species were narrow along the elevation gradient. We find little evidence to support Rapoport's rule for the birds of Sikkim region of the Himalaya...

  2. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.

    2006-01-01

    he high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carni

  3. The Tethyan Himalayan detrital record shows that India-Asia terminal collision occurred by 54 Ma in the Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Y.; Jenks, D.; Godin, L.; Boudagher-Fadel, M.; Millar, I.; Garzanti, E.; Horstwood, M.; Bracciali, L.

    2017-02-01

    The Himalayan orogen is a type example of continent-continent collision. Knowledge of the timing of India-Asia collision is critical to the calculation of the amount of convergence that must have been accommodated and thus to models of crustal deformation. Sedimentary rocks on the Indian plate near the suture zone can be used to constrain the time of collision by determining first evidence of Asian-derived material deposited on the Indian plate. However, in the Himalaya, for this approach to be applied successfully, it is necessary to be able to distinguish between Asian detritus and detritus from oceanic island arcs that may have collided with India prior to India-Asia collision. Zircons from the Indian plate, Asian plate and Kohistan-Ladakh Island arc can be distinguished based on their U-Pb ages combined with Hf signatures. We undertook a provenance study of the youngest detrital sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalaya of the Indian plate, in the Western Himalaya. We show that zircons of Asian affinity were deposited on the Indian plate at 54 Ma. We thus constrain terminal India-Asia collision, when both sutures north and south of the Kohistan-Ladakh Island arc were closed, to have occurred in the Western Himalaya by 54 Ma.

  4. Spatial-temporal variation of glacier over koshi basin, Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Yang, X.; Yao, T.

    2011-12-01

    Glacial change is a sensitive indicator of climate change and glacier meltwaters are vital water resource for more than 1/6 people in South and Central Asia. Due to the large extent and difficult accessibility of high mountainous terrain, there are few ground-based glacial observations. In the last decade, multi-temporal satellite imagery and older aerial photography have been used extensively to quantify glacier parameters such as glacier area, length, elevation, hypsography, and ice volume in mountainous areas throughout the world. In this study, a glacier inventory for Koshi Basin was generated for the year 1976, 1992, 2000 and 2009 using automated interpretation with remote sensing, GIS techniques and manual adjustments based on topographic maps, Landsat TM/ETM+, and SRTM DEM data. The area change of about ~3,407km2 was identified. During the past two decades, the average retreat rate of these glaciers was ~5.8% while the retreat rate from 2000 to 2009 was ~14.23%. Moreover, heavily debris-covered glaciers exist in this region. Some of them even extend several kilometers upstream from their terminus such as Kong Bu Re Bu Sang glacier. From 1992 to 2000, the decrease in total glacier area is ~30km2 while the debris coverage increased ~20km2. These increases generally occur near the boundary between clean ice and debris-covered glacier, while the glacial fronts are remarkably stable. In order to identify the effect of debris-covered glaciers, the variations of glacier area, length and elevation were calculated with and without debris-covered glaciers, respectively. Results show although the terminuses of glacial front were stagnant, the increase in debris-covered glacier contributes to the clean ice's length decrease and elevation increase, and thereby affects glacier's response to climate change. So we suggest that in the area where debris-covered glaciers are common, the clean ice and debris-covered area should be separated and the debris-covered part should

  5. Transport of sediments in Himalaya-Karakorum and its influence on hydropower plants; Sedimenttransportprozesse im Himalaya-Karakorum und ihre Bedeutung fuer Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palt, S.M.

    2001-07-01

    In the present study the sediment transport processes in alpine mountain areas and their impact on hydropower development projects are investigated. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the transport process system, which is characterized by high magnitude-low frequency - events, to ensure an appropriate layout of high head hydropower projects in mountain regions. The sediment transport in large areas in the macro scale is triggered by natural hazards, such as earthquakes, rock slides, earth movements, debris flows, glacial lake outbursts and floods. The basic principle of complex transport processes in this scale is described and explained on the example of the Himalaya-Karakorum-region. The sediment transport process in the smaller scale, so called meso scale, is investigated by means of extensive field measurements at river reaches of 16 different mountain rivers of a 80000 km{sup 2} large project area. The measurements include topographic survey works and measurements of discharge, bed load and suspended load. Since the conditions of mountain rivers in terms of size of bed material as well as available flow velocities can be considered as extreme, an appropriate bed load sampler named B-69 was developed, constructed and used in the field. Moreover the hydraulic as well as the sedimentological efficiency of the sampler was tested in the laboratory tests. Due to the nice performance of the bed load sampler B-69 at high flow velocities it might be useful for flood conditions in gravel-bed rivers in other parts of the world as well. Based on the results of the study the parameter of the river slope can be considered as the most important one for the characteristics of the morphology, the flow conditions, the bed stability as well as the bed load transport in steep mountain rivers. With increasing slope morphological structures in the longitudinal direction will develop from flat bed conditions. The so called step-pool-systems consist

  6. Impact of initial and boundary conditions on regional winter climate over the Western Himalayas: A fixed domain size experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, P.; Dimri, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    The Western Himalayas during winter receives precipitation due to the eastward moving low pressure synoptic weather systems, called Western Disturbances (WDs) in Indian meteorological parlance. The complex Himalayan topography, sparse observational data, less understanding of physical processes, etc. form many interesting research questions over this region. One of the important research goals is to study the change in the winter (Dec., Jan. and Feb. - DJF) climate over the Himalayas. In the presented study with modelling efforts having varying initial and boundary conditions (ICBC) with same model physics option is attempted to provide a comment on important physical processes pertaining to precipitation and temperature fields. A 22 year (1980-2001) simulation with Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) forced with National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis 1 (NNRP1), NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 2 (NNRP2) and European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40 Year reanalysis (ERA40) as three different ICBC is carried out. The present study focuses on the winter climatology of the main meteorological parameters viz., temperature, precipitation and snow depth and interannual variability of winter seasonal precipitation. The model shows overestimation of seasonal average precipitation and underestimation of seasonal average temperature fields over the Western Himalayas in all the three model simulations. The interannual variability of precipitation and temperature over this region is nicely captured by the model. The model simulation with NNRP2 as the ICBC shows more realistic results. In addition the ensemble mean of the three simulations has shown improved results and is closer to the abovementioned simulation. Precipitation bias explained in terms of the higher vertical integrated moisture flux and transport shows strong convergence zone over and along the southern rim of the Indian Himalayas. The

  7. A review of definitions of the Himalayan Main Central Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aaron J.

    2016-11-01

    Most workers regard the Main Central Thrust (MCT) as one of the key high strain zones in the Himalaya because it accommodated at least 90 km of shortening, because that shortening exhumed and buried hanging wall and footwall rocks, and due to geometric and kinematic connections between the Main Central Thrust and the structurally overlying South Tibet Detachment. Geologists currently employ three unrelated definitions of the MCT: metamorphic-rheological, age of motion-structural, or protolith boundary-structural. These disparate definitions generate map and cross-section MCT positions that vary by up to 5 km of structural distance. The lack of consensus and consequent shifting locations impede advances in our understanding of the tectonic development of the orogen. Here, I review pros and cons of the three MCT definitions in current use. None of these definitions is flawless. The metamorphic-rheological and age of motion-structural definitions routinely fail throughout the orogen, whereas the protolith boundary-structural definition may fail only in rare cases, all limited to sectors of the eastern Himalaya. Accordingly, a definition based on high strain zone geometry and kinematics combined with identification of a protolith boundary is the best working definition of the MCT.

  8. Seasonal variations in the sources of natural and anthropogenic lead deposited at the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn-Nunes, Laurie, E-mail: L.Nunes@curtin.edu.au [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Vallelonga, Paul [Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Lee, Khanghyun [Environmental Measurement and Analysis Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, Kyungseo-dong, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungmin [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Burton, Graeme [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Hou, Shugui [Key Laboratory of Coast and Island development of Ministry of Education, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Moy, Andrew [Department of the Environment, Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston 7050, Tasmania (Australia); Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 80, Hobart 7001, Tasmania (Australia); Edwards, Ross; Loss, Robert; Rosman, Kevin [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been analysed at sub-annual resolution in three sections from a < 110 m ice core dated to the 18th and 20th centuries, as well as snow pit samples dated to 2004/2005, recovered from the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas. Ice core sections indicate that atmospheric chemistry prior to ∼ 1953 was controlled by mineral dust inputs, with no discernible volcanic or anthropogenic contributions. Eighteenth century monsoon ice core chemistry is indicative of dominant contributions from local Himalayan sources; non-monsoon ice core chemistry is linked to contributions from local (Himalayan), regional (Indian/Thar Desert) and long-range (North Africa, Central Asia) sources. Twentieth century monsoon and non-monsoon ice core data demonstrate similar seasonal sources of mineral dust, however with a transition to less-radiogenic isotopic signatures that suggests local and regional climate/environmental change. The snow pit record demonstrates natural and anthropogenic contributions during both seasons, with increased anthropogenic influence during non-monsoon times. Monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to South/South-East Asia and/or India, whereas non-monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to India and Central Asia. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes in ice and snow show seasonality in Mt Everest atmospheric chemistry. • Local (Himalayan) mineral dust inputs are present year round. • Regional and long-range mineral dust inputs are evident during non-monsoon times. • Snow samples indicate increased anthropogenic inputs during non-monsoon times. • Anthropogenic inputs are linked with Indian, South Asian and Central Asian sources.

  9. Seasonal variations in species diversity, dry matter and net primary productivity of herb layer of Quercus leucotrichophora-Pinus roxburghii mixed forest in Kumaun Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukesh Joshi; Y.S.Rawat; J.Ram

    2012-01-01

    Plant biomass,species diversity and net primary productivity are presented for herb layer of banj oak (Quercus leucotrichophora A.Camus)-chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) mixed forest in Kumaun,central Himalaya,India.The species diversity declined from a maximum (3.56) in September to a minimum (2.11) in December.The monthly live shoots biomass exhibited a single peak growth pattern with highest live shoot biomass of 185 g·m-2 in August.The seasonal pattern showed that the maximum above-ground production (131 g·m-2) occurred during the rainy season and the minimum (1 g·m-2) during winter season.The below-ground production was maximum during winter season (84 g·m-2) and minimum during summer season (34 g·m-2).The annual net shoot production was 171 g·m-2 and total below-ground production was 165 g·m-2.Of the total input 61% was channeled to above-ground parts and 39% to below-ground parts.Transfer of live shoots to dead shoots compartments and that of dead shoots to litter compartments was 61% and 66%,respectively.The total dry matter disappearance was 61% of the total input within annual cycle.The herb layer showed a net accumulation of organic matter,indicating the seral nature of the community.

  10. Post-emplacement kinematics and exhumation history of the Almora klippe of the Kumaun-Garhwal Himalaya, NW India: revealed by fission track thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Paramjeet; Patel, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    Tectonically transported crystalline thrust sheet over the Lesser Himalayan meta-sedimentary zone along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) is represented by Almora, Baijnath, Askot and Chiplakot crystalline klippen. The Almora-Dadeldhura klippe in the Kumaun-Garhwal and western Nepal Himalaya is the witness and largest representative of these crystalline klippen, south of MCT. Here, we investigate the post-emplacement kinematics and exhumation history of the Almora klippe. The newly derived zircon fission track (ZFT) ages combined with published apatite fission track (AFT), 40Ar-39Ar ages from the Almora-Dadeldhura klippe and Ramgarh thrust sheet to quantify the temporal variation in cooling ages and exhumation rates. Using 1-D numerical modelling approach, we calculate the transient exhumation rates with respect to different time intervals. New ZFT cooling ages along 50-km-long orogeny perpendicular transect across the Almora klippe range between 13.4 ± 0.6 and 21.4 ± 0.9 Ma. Published AFT ages and 40Ar-39Ar ages from the Almora-Dadeldhura klippe range 3.7 ± 0.8-13.2 ± 2.7 and 18.20-25.69 Ma, respectively. AFT ages reported from Ramgarh thrust sheet range 6.3 ± 0.8-7.2 ± 1.0 Ma in Kumaun region and 10.3 ± 0.5-14.4 ± 2.2 Ma in western Nepal. The linear age trend along with youngest ZFT age ( 14 Ma) close to the North Almora Thrust (NAT) in its hanging wall suggests rapid uplift close to the NAT due to its reactivation as back thrust. The transient exhumation rates of Almora klippe agree that the erosion rate was rapid (0.58 mma-1) close to the NAT in its hanging wall and relatively slow (0.31 mma-1) close to the SAT in its hanging wall during 15-11 Ma. We interpret that the fission track ages and transient exhumation rate pattern of crystalline klippen show a dynamic coupling between tectonic and erosion processes in the Kumaun-Garhwal Himalaya. However, the tectonic processes play the major role in controlling the exhumation pattern.

  11. Estimation of source parameters and scaling relations for moderate size earthquakes in North-West Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Dinesh; Chopra, Sumer

    2016-10-01

    The scaling relation and self similarity of earthquake process have been investigated by estimating the source parameters of 34 moderate size earthquakes (mb 3.4-5.8) occurred in the NW Himalaya. The spectral analysis of body waves of 217 accelerograms recorded at 48 sites have been carried out using in the present analysis. The Brune's ω-2 model has been adopted for this purpose. The average ratio of the P-wave corner frequency, fc(P), to the S-wave corner frequency, fc(S), has been found to be 1.39 with fc(P) > fc(S) for 90% of the events analyzed here. This implies the shift in the corner frequency in agreement with many other similar studies done for different regions. The static stress drop values for all the events analyzed here lie in the range 10-100 bars average stress drop value of the order of 43 ± 19 bars for the region. This suggests the likely estimate of the dynamic stress drop, which is 2-3 times the static stress drop, is in the range of about 80-120 bars. This suggests the relatively high seismic hazard in the NW Himalaya as high frequency strong ground motions are governed by the stress drop. The estimated values of stress drop do not show significant variation with seismic moment for the range 5 × 1014-2 × 1017 N m. This observation along with the cube root scaling of corner frequencies suggests the self similarity of the moderate size earthquakes in the region. The scaling relation between seismic moment and corner frequency Mo fc3 = 3.47 ×1016Nm /s3 estimated in the present study can be utilized to estimate the source dimension given the seismic moment of the earthquake for the hazard assessment. The present study puts the constrains on the important parameters stress drop and source dimension required for the synthesis of strong ground motion from the future expected earthquakes in the region. Therefore, the present study is useful for the seismic hazard and risk related studies for NW Himalaya.

  12. The State of Food (InSecurity in the Trans-Himalaya, Upper-Mustang, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishikesh Pandey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is a global issue, with higher prevalence of hunger in developing countries. Low crop yield and food production - due to difficult topography and traditional farming methods - combined with lower income; fluctuations in prices and supply, and low quality of food have been causing food insecurity in Nepal. This research examines food (insecurity situation in Upper-Mustang, Nepal. The results are derived from the data collected through face–to-face interviews with the heads of 66 households, in-depth interviews conducted with 22 key informants, and discussions with the group of local people in different (6 places. The household food system was studied from livelihood perspectives and food (insecurity was assessed in relation to self-sufficiency or production sufficiency, access, utilization, and stability of food. Households in the Trans-Himalaya acquire food from multiple sources such as farming and livestock ranching, buy food from the market, and also receive food aid for the sake of survival during the food crisis. Food security situation in terms of self-production in Upper-Mustang is at worst stage that many households are facing severe to chronic food insecurity. Studied households access marketed food, though the price they pay is very high. The worrisome issue is that there is no significant improvement in food security situation over time in the Trans-Himalaya. Study found that not the household size but dependency ratio in the household increases food insecurity. On the other hand, quality of farmland in terms of cropping intensity and availability of irrigation rather than the farm-plot size contribute for food security. The issue of food security is still a valid development policy goal for Nepal in general and for the Trans-Himalaya in particular. Accordingly, food security interventions are important. Yet, policy for interventions should look into all components of food systems, particularly providing irrigation

  13. Towards an improved inventory of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veh, Georg; Walz, Ariane; Korup, Oliver; Roessner, Sigrid

    2016-04-01

    The retreat of glaciers in the Himalayas and the associated release of meltwater have prompted the formation and growth of thousands of glacial lakes in the last decades. More than 2,200 of these lakes have developed in unconsolidated moraine material. These lakes can drain in a single event, producing potentially destructive glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Only 44 GLOFs in the Himalayas have been documented in more detail since the 1930s, and evidence for a change, let alone an increase, in the frequency of these flood events remains elusive. The rare occurrence of GLOFs is counterintuitive to our hypothesis that an increasing amount of glacial lakes has to be consistent with a rising amount of outburst floods. Censoring bias affects the GLOF record, such that mostly larger floods with commensurate impact have been registered. Existing glacial lake inventories are also of limited help for the identification of GLOFs, as they were created in irregular time steps using different methodological approach and covering different regional extents. We discuss the key requirements for generating a more continuous, close to yearly time series of glacial lake evolution for the Himalayan mountain range using remote sensing data. To this end, we use sudden changes in glacial lake areas as the key diagnostic of dam breaks and outburst floods, employing the full archive of cloud-free Landsat data (L5, L7 and L8) from 1988 to 2015. SRTM and ALOS World 3D topographic data further improve the automatic detection of glacial lakes in an alpine landscape that is often difficult to access otherwise. Our workflow comprises expert-based classification of water bodies using thresholds and masks from different spectral indices and band ratios. A first evaluation of our mapping approach suggests that GLOFs reported during the study period could be tracked independently by a significant reduction of lake size between two subsequent Landsat scenes. This finding supports the feasibility

  14. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Polesello, Stefano; Sacchi, Elisa

    2014-07-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 ma.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH4(+) and Ca(2+), whereas the main anion was HCO3(-), which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). Data analysis suggested that Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO3(-) were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH4(+) was derived from gaseous NH3 scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from -1.9 to -23.2‰ in δ(18)O, and from -0.8 to -174‰ in δ(2)H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha(-1) y(-1)) was considerably lower than the levels that were measured in other high-altitude environments. Nevertheless, the NO3(-) concentrations in the surface waters

  15. Changing glacial lakes and associated outburst floods risks in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Indian Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, S.; Singh, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Glacial lakes and associated outburst floods (GLOFs) have increased in the Himalayan region due to climate change during the last century that has led to huge losses to society. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to map glacial lakes, their increasing extent, and associated damage potential in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Indian Himalaya. The glacial lakes were mapped on Landsat TM (3 November, 2009 and 6 November 2010) and Landsat MSS satellite images (15 November 1976 and 26 October 1979) to assess their changing area. Potential GLOFs sites have been identified and studied for their damage potentials using site characteristics and past occurrence of GLOFs. A total of 35 lakes were mapped, of which 14 lakes are located at more than 4500 m. The size and damage potentials of lakes have increased. Some lakes grew so much that they merged to form a big lake. All of these are potential GLOFs and can cause severe damage to society.

  16. Catastrophic mass movement of 1998 monsoons at Malpa in Kali Valley, Kumaun Himalaya (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S. K.; Bartarya, S. K.; Rautela, Piyoosh; Mahajan, A. K.

    2000-11-01

    A devastating landslide on 18 August 1998 near Malpa Village in Kali Valley of Higher Kumaun Himalaya killed 221 persons. The landslide was a complex rock fall-debris flow. The mass movement generated around one million cubic metres of debris and partially blocked the Kali River, Malpa Gad (a tributary of Kali) being blocked completely. The rock mass failed primarily due to the near vertical slopes hanging over the valley along joints, the formation of structural wedges along the free face, the sheared rock mass due to the close proximity of major tectonic planes, and the enhanced pore-water pressure due to prolonged heavy precipitation in the preceding days. The mesoscopic shear zone, exhibiting ramp and flat structure in quartzites, shows a southward thrust movement that might have generated shear stress in the rocks. The slide clearly demonstrates the distressed state of the rock mass in the Himalayan region due to the ongoing northward drift of the Indian plate.

  17. The Himalayas and a Survey of Determining the Height of Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to this article describes the Himalayan mountain range, while the next chapter outlines its formation. The article then goes on to describe the early use of trigonometric networks in Europe and India, and the important achievements of Sir George Everest. When his successor, A. S. Waugh, extended the trigonometric network to the foot of the Himalayas, he determined the height of the highest peak of Mt. Everest trigonometrically, by measuring vertical angles only in the direction of Mt. Everest. Later, it became possible to determine the height of the highest peak in the world more precisely, using modern surveying means. The peak was named Mt. Everest in 1865, at the proposal of A. S. Waugh. It is known by other names by the indigenousl populations in China and Nepal. Finally, the earliest attempts to climb Mt. Everest are described.

  18. Underplating in the Himalaya-Tibet collision zone revealed by the Hi-CLIMB experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nábelek, John; Hetényi, György; Vergne, Jérôme; Sapkota, Soma; Kafle, Basant; Jiang, Mei; Su, Heping; Chen, John; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2009-09-11

    We studied the formation of the Himalayan mountain range and the Tibetan Plateau by investigating their lithospheric structure. Using an 800-kilometer-long, densely spaced seismic array, we have constructed an image of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Himalayas and the southern Tibetan Plateau. The image reveals in a continuous fashion the Main Himalayan thrust fault as it extends from a shallow depth under Nepal to the mid-crust under southern Tibet. Indian crust can be traced to 31 degrees N. The crust/mantle interface beneath Tibet is anisotropic, indicating shearing during its formation. The dipping mantle fabric suggests that the Indian mantle is subducting in a diffuse fashion along several evolving subparallel structures.

  19. Permafrost in the Himalayas: specific characteristics, evolution vs. climate change and impacts on potential natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change, yet assessing the potential impacts of these changes is not easy because of the complexity and diversity of mountain systems. The Himalayan permafrost belt presents three main specificities: (1) it develops in a geodynamically active mountain, which means that the controlling factors are not only temperature but also seismo-tectonic activity; (2) due to the steepness of the southern flank of the Greater Himalaya and potential large scale rock failures, permafrost evidence manifests itself best in the inner valleys and on the northern, arid side of the Himalayas (elevations >4000m); (3) the east-west strike of the mountain range creates large spatial discontinuity in the "cold" belt, mostly related to precipitation nature and availability. Only limited studies have been carried to date, and there is no permanent "field laboratory", nor continuous records but a few local studies. Based on preliminary observations in the Nepal Himalayas (mostly in Mustang and Dolpo districts), and Indian Ladakh, we present the main features indicating the existence of permafrost (either continuous or discontinuous). Rock-glaciers are quite well represented, though their presence may be interpreted as a combined result from both ground ice and large rock collapse. The precise altitudinal zonation of permafrost belt (specifying potential permafrost, probable permafrost, observed permafrost belts) still requires careful investigations in selected areas. Several questions arise when considering the evolution of permafrost in a context of climate change, with its impacts on the development of potential natural hazards that may affect the mountain population. Firstly, permafrost degradation (ground ice melting) is a cause of mountain slope destabilization. When the steep catchments are developed in frost/water sensitive bedrock (shales and marls) and extend to high elevations (as observed in Mustang or Dolpo), it would supply more

  20. 10-year record of atmospheric composition in the high Himalayas: source, transport and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasoni, Paolo; Laj, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Maione, Michela; Putero, Davide; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Gobbi, Gianpaolo; Sellegri, Karine; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Arduini, Jgor

    2016-04-01

    South Asia represents a global "hot-spot" for air-quality and climate impacts. Since the end of the 20th Century, field experiments and satellite observations identified a thick layer of atmospheric pollutants extending from the Indian Ocean up to the atmosphere of the Himalayas. Since large amount of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) - like atmospheric aerosol (in particular, the light-absorbing aerosol) and ozone - characterize this region, severe implications were recognized for population health, ecosystem integrity as well as regional climate impacts, especially for what concerns hydrological cycle, monsoon regimes and cryosphere. Since 2006, the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95N, 86.82 E, 5079 m a.s.l.), a global station of the WMO/GAW programme has been active in the eastern Nepal Himalaya, not far from the Mt. Everest. NCO-P is located away from large direct anthropogenic pollution sources. The closest major urban area is Kathmandu (200 km south-west from the measurement site). As being located along the Khumbu valley, the observations are representative of synoptic-scale and mountain thermal circulation, providing direct information about the vertical transport of pollutants/climate-altering compounds to the Himalayas and to the free troposphere. In the framework of international programmes (GAW/WMO, UNEP-ABC, AERONET) the following continuous measurement programmes have been carried out at NCO-P: surface ozone, aerosol size distribution (from 10 nm to 25 micron), total particle number, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, equivalent BC, PM1-PM10, AOD by sun-photometry, global solar radiation (SW and LW), meteorology. Long-term sampling programmes for the off-line determination of halogenated gases and aerosol chemistry have been also activated. The atmospheric observation records at NCO-P, now representing the longest time series available for the high Himalayas, provided the first direct evidences about the systematic

  1. Paleoseismic evidence of a giant medieval earthquake in the eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajeeb Lochan; Singh, I.; Pandey, A.; Rao, P. S.; Sahoo, H. K.; Jayangondaperumal, R.

    2016-06-01

    We present here the results of a paleoseismic investigation carried across a ~10 m high fault scarp at Panijhora village, West Bengal in northeastern India. Accelerator Mass Spectrometer analyzed 14C radiocarbon age constraints from six detrital charcoal samples ranging between 1688 B.C. and A.D. 1152 are consistent with the great medieval earthquake of A.D. 1255 that is interpreted to have produced a minimum observed fault slip of ~5 m in the trench exposure. Recalibration of radiocarbon ages from previous studies at Harmutty, Nameri, and Marha in the eastern Himalaya using Bayesian statistical analyses further substantiates the possibility that the A.D. 1255 earthquake might have ruptured the Himalayan front over a length of ~800 km from ~85.87° to 93.76°E longitudes.

  2. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-08

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  3. Middle Miocene pedological record of monsoonal climate from NW Himalaya (Jammu & Kashmir State), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjoo, R. K.; Shaker, Som

    2007-03-01

    The Lower Siwalik Subgroup represented by the Dodenal (Kamlial Formation) and Ramnagar Members (Chinji Formation) is well exposed at Ramnagar, District Udhampur, Jammu & Kashmir State. The Ramnagar Member consists of an alternating sequence of silt and mudstone formed under crevasse-splay and flood-plain environments of deposition. Argillisol and gleysol soils are developed on the Ramnagar Member deposits. Argillisols formed under well-drained conditions at high levels, whereas gleysols formed under poorly drained conditions at low levels of the palaeo-landscape. Geochemical and micromorphological studies of the Ramnagar Member palaeosols suggest formation under wet and humid climatic conditions. Early uplift of the Tibetan Plateau/Himalaya resulted in a contemporaneous change in precipitation and monsoonal climate conditions within the Indian region beginning in Middle Miocene.

  4. Modeling the Current and Future Distribution of Treeline Species in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, P. K.; Cairns, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the current distribution of treeline species is important for predicting their future distribution in the landscape. Many studies have indicated that treeline will advance with climate change. Treeline advance will result in a loss of alpine biodiversity because the advancing treeline will fragment alpine ecosystems. A species distribution modeling approach using predicted climate data can increase our understanding of how treeline species will expand their range in the future. We used the Maxent model to predict the current and future distributions of three dominant treeline species, Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis, and Pinus wallichiana, of the Nepal Himalaya. The Maxent model predicted that the distribution of treeline species will change significantly under future climate change scenarios. The range of these treeline species will expand northward or upslope in response to future climate change. The model also indicated that temperature-related climatic variables are the most important determinants of the distribution of treeline species.

  5. The effects of disturbance on forest structure and diversity at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munesh KUMA; Chandra Mohan SHARMA; Govind Singh RAJWAR

    2009-01-01

    The effects of disturbance on forest structure and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in the temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical regions of Garhwal Himalaya were assessed. Each region was further categorized into undisturbed (UD), mildly disturbed (MD), and highly disturbed (HD) sites on the basis of magnitude of disturbance in these forests. On UD sites of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions, Quercus leucotrichophora, Anogeissus latifolia and Holoptelea integrifolia were the dominant tree species respectively. The highest values of tree density (1028 ind*hm-2) and total basal cover at breast height (31.70 m2 *hm-2) were recorded for UD site of temperate region, whereas maximum species diversity (3.128) and equitability (14.09) values were observed for HD site of tropical region. The structure and composition of the forests were greatly affected by the degree of disturbance.

  6. Radon measurements in soil and water and its relation with geology, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India)

    1998-12-31

    Radon concentrations were measured in soil and spring water in the Garhwal Himalaya using radon emanometer. The measurements were made in the Berinag, Bhatwari and Munsiari Formations. The main rock types in the area are sheared granitic gneiss, porphyritic gneiss, chlorite schist, mica schist, mylonite, slate, phyllite, quartzite and metabasic. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.2 kBq/m{sup 3} to 56.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in soil and 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l in water. The results suggest that the radon emanation is controlled not only by uranium content of the rock and soil but also by structural zones (thrust, fault, etc.) which help in the easy migration of radon from the deeper parts of the earth crust. (author)

  7. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koulakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity anomalies: thinner crust patterns correspond to lower gravity values and vice versa. There is also some correlation with magnetic field: higher magnetic values correspond to the major areas of thicker crust. We propose that elevated magnetic values can be associated with more rigid segments of the incoming Indian crust which cause more compression in the thrust zone and leads to stronger crustal thickening.

  8. Crustal Decoupling in Collisional Orogenesis: Examples from the East Greenland Caledonides and Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2016-06-01

    Mature orogenic systems built by continent-continent collision feature orogenic plateaus flanked by accretionary wedges. Thermal-mechanical models of these systems predict the development of a thermally weakened orogenic infrastructure that is capable of lateral flow toward the orogenic foreland. Such flow, if it occurs, strongly influences the evolutionary pathway of a wedge. Although the architecture of a wedge features numerous large-displacement faults, three are preeminent in mature orogens: one that marks the base of the wedge and two others that mark the base and top, respectively, of the weakened infrastructure. These structures represent major decoupling horizons separating domains with distinctive deformational and thermal histories. Reviews of the geology of orogenic wedges in two mature orogenic systems—the Cenozoic Himalaya and the Paleozoic East Greenland Caledonides—show how this simple conceptual model provides a valuable context for studies of how collisional orogenic systems develop and how they interact with the surrounding lithosphere.

  9. Prenanthes violaefolia Decne. (Asteraceae)-a new report from Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaiz Ahmad Lone; Ajay Kumar Bhardwaj; Kunwar Wajahat Shah

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To enumerate the diversity of important medicinal plants used traditionally by the local populace in biodiversity rich and temperate Himalayan ranges of Bandipora district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods:Methods used to explore the plants with medicinal value and to record associated ethnomedicinal knowledge included semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and walk-in-the-woods with local knowledgeable persons, traditional practitioners called“Bhoeris”and tribals (Gujjars and Bakkerwals). Results:During plant exploration in this floristically rich Himalayan region, a very interesting and less-known species of the genus Prenanthes L., (Asteraceae) was recorded. On examination, the species was identified as Prenanthes violaefolia Decne., which represents a first report from Kashmir Himalaya, India. Conclusions: Prenanthes violaefolia could serve as an important source of new potent compounds provided that it is subjected to thorough phytochemical and pharmacological investigations.

  10. Prenanthes violaefolia Decne.(Asteraceae)-a new report from Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaiz; Ahmad; Lone; Ajay; Kumar; Bhardwaj; Kunwar; Wajahat; Shah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To enumerate the diversity of important medicinal plants used traditionally by the local populace in biodiversity rich and temperate Himalayan ranges of Bandipora district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods: Methods used to explore the plants with medicinal value and to record associated ethnomedicinal knowledge included semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and walk-in-the-woods with local knowledgeable persons, traditional practitioners called "Bhoeris" and tribals(Gujjars and Bakkerwals). Results: During plant exploration in this floristically rich Himalayan region, a very interesting and less-known species of the genus Prenanthes L.,(Asteraceae) was recorded. On examination, the species was identified as Prenanthes violaefolia Decne., which represents a first report from Kashmir Himalaya, India. Conclusions: Prenanthes violaefolia could serve as an important source of new potent compounds provided that it is subjected to thorough phytochemical and pharmacological investigations.

  11. Ethnomycological studies of some wild medicinal and edible mushrooms in the Kashmir Himalayas (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Shauket Ahmed; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Bhat, Mohmmad Yaqoub

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of mushrooms has a very long tradition in Asian countries because of their use as a valuable tonic, food, and in herbal medicines. A study was carried out to document the indigenous uses of various mushrooms growing in the Kashmir Himalayas. After consulting local herbal healers (Hakims) and people from tribal communities inhabiting inaccessible hinterlands of the region regarding the use of mushrooms growing in their locality, it was found that 35 species of mushrooms belonging to different ecological and taxonomical groups were used for their nutritional and medicinal values. These mushrooms were used for their activities against a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple skin diseases to present-day complex diseases such as diabetes and tumors.

  12. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS in Tibet, China slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near

  13. Meiotic Studies in Some Species of Tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae from Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghbir Chand Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n=10 and Lactuca lessertiana (2n=2x=16. Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n=2x=10 and 2n=6x=54, Tragopogon dubius (2n=2x=14 and 2n=4x=28, and T. gracilis (2n=2x=14. The chromosome report of 2n=2x=10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability.

  14. Meiotic studies in some species of tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae) from Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Goyal, Henna; Singh, Vijay; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n = 10) and Lactuca lessertiana (2n = 2x = 16). Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n = 2x = 10 and 2n = 6x = 54), Tragopogon dubius (2n = 2x = 14 and 2n = 4x = 28), and T. gracilis (2n = 2x = 14). The chromosome report of 2n = 2x = 10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability.

  15. Seismic Character of Moho Beneath the NW Himalaya and Ladakh Inferred from Regional Earthquakes Travel Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanna, Nagaraju; Prakasam, K. S.; Gupta, Sandeep

    2017-03-01

    We study the uppermost mantle velocities and dip of Indian Moho beneath the NW Himalaya and Ladakh using 42 regional waveform data recorded on 15 seismographs along a 600 km-long profile. We use the two-way travel time and interstation velocity methods. The apparent Pn and Sn velocities beneath the NW Himalaya are 8.08 ± 0.04 and 4.64 ± 0.07 km/s for earthquakes occurring south of the profile (downdip, western Indian shield) and 8.70 ± 0.13 and 4.76 ± 0.12 km/s for earthquakes from north (updip, western Tibet). Similarly, these velocities beneath Ladakh are 7.18 ± 0.07 and 4.32 ± 0.05 km/s for earthquakes due south (downdip, north Indian shield) and 8.50 ± 0.10 and 4.39 ± 0.12 km/s for earthquakes due north (updip, western Tibet). These velocity variations constrain the Moho dip at 2.4 ± 0.14º beneath the NW Himalaya and 6.6 ± 0.54º beneath Ladakh. Considering the varying dips along the profile, we observe that the true Pn (8.37 ± 0.07 km/s) and Sn (4.70 ± 0.1 km/s) velocities are higher for the NW Himalaya than for Ladakh (7.73 ± 0.08 and 4.33 ± 0.09 km/s). The large variation in interstation Pn velocity is observed between the station pairs near the Indus Zangpo Suture zone due to steep dipping ( 7.1º to 6.26º) of the Indian Moho. In the Himalaya region, the interstation and average values of the velocities and Moho dip are comparable, whereas a variation is observed in different segments of the Ladakh region. The results show that the Indian Moho is underthrusting at a shallow angle ( 2.5º) beneath the Himalaya, steepens abruptly ( 6.6º) further north of the Southern Tibetan Detachment and continues at a shallow angle ( 3.8º) beneath Ladakh.

  16. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives

  17. Holocene extreme hydrological events and their climatic implications: evidence from the middle Satluj valley, western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhra; Shukla, Anil; Marh, Bhupinder; Bartarya, Sukesh; Juyal, Navin

    2016-04-01

    Extreme hydrological events and associated climatic processes are investigated and inferred through palaeoflood deposits preserved in the middle Satluj valley, India. Satluj River is the largest tributary of the Indus River having third largest catchment area in the Himalaya. Both Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the mid-latitude westerlies contribute to the hydrological budget of the river. The steep southern orographic front prevents the northward penetration of ISM, while the mid-latitude westerlies bring moisture in form of winter snow to the orogenic interiors. It has been observed that the floods in the Himalaya are intimately associated with the variability in the above climate systems. The optical chronology indicates that floods were clustered around three time domains. The oldest flood phase-1 is dated to ˜14-12 ka which climatically occurred during the initiation of the ISM after the Last Glacial Maximum. The second phase-2 is dated between 8-5 ka and is attributed to the moderate ISM. Whereas, the youngest phase-3 is assigned the Little Ice Age (LIA) and were associated with the variability in the mid-latitude westerlies. Geochemical analyses suggest that floods were generated in higher Himalayan crystalline (HHC) zone, as the extreme precipitation destabilised the precipitous slopes creating Landslide induced Lake Outbursts Floods (LLOFs). Further, the average interval between floods has decreased since 14 ka from 500 years, to 250 years and 100 years during respective flood phases. The southern slopes of Himalaya are influenced by both the monsoon and mid-latitude westerlies and any abrupt changes in the circulation pattern were found to associate with heavy rainfall events in this region. Although an interaction between the westerlies and the monsoon is implicated for extreme floods in the western Himalaya. However, exact mechanism of these interactions is still illusive except for the observational based studies which state that extreme floods

  18. Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wulf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sediment flux through Himalayan rivers directly impacts water quality and is important for sustaining agriculture as well as maintaining drinking-water and hydropower generation. Despite the recent increase in demand for these resources, little is known about the triggers and sources of extreme sediment flux events, which lower water quality and account for extensive hydropower reservoir filling and turbine abrasion. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily data during the past decade (2001–2009 from four sites along the Sutlej River and from four of its main tributaries. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall and snow cover, air temperature and earthquake records, and field observations, we infer climatic and geologic controls of peak suspended sediment concentration (SSC events. Our study identifies three key findings: First, peak SSC events (≥ 99th SSC percentile coincide frequently (57–80% with heavy rainstorms and account for about 30% of the suspended sediment flux in the semi-arid to arid interior of the orogen. Second, we observe an increase of suspended sediment flux from the Tibetan Plateau to the Himalayan Front at mean annual timescales. This sediment-flux gradient suggests that averaged, modern erosion in the western Himalaya is most pronounced at frontal regions, which are characterized by high monsoonal rainfall and thick soil cover. Third, in seven of eight catchments, we find an anticlockwise hysteresis loop of annual sediment flux variations with respect to river discharge, which appears to be related to enhanced glacial sediment evacuation during late summer. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of unconsolidated sediments in the high-elevation sector that can easily be mobilized by hydrometeorological events and higher glacial-meltwater contributions. In future climate change scenarios, including continuous glacial retreat and

  19. Climatic control on extreme sediment transfer from Dokriani Glacier during monsoon, Garhwal Himalaya (India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Kumar; Akshaya Verma; Dwarika Prasad Dobhal; Manish Mehta; Kapil Kesarwani

    2014-02-01

    In the Himalayas, most of the glaciers are covered by thick debris, especially in the ablation zone. Supraglacial debris cover might play an important role for sediment budget of the glaciated area or for the ablation of ice masses mantled in debris. During summer season, proglacial meltwater carries considerable amount of suspended sediment. The deglaciated area provides a ready source of sediment during Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The heavy sediment load from the glaciers affects the hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. Therefore, to understand the sediment delivery from glaciated basins, characteristics and variation of the suspended sediment concentrations in the proglacial meltwater stream, Dokriani Glacier, have been monitored during the ablation season (May– September). Suspended sediment samples were collected near the snout of Dokriani Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, in 2010 and 2011. Results show that mean monthly suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were 1499, 2303, 3845 and 1649 mg/l for the months June, July, August, and September, respectively, indicating highest concentration in August followed by July. Over the period of recording, daily mean suspended concentration in the melt stream varied from 13–9798.2 mg/l, which is very high, caused due to a flash flood event during the monitoring period. The mean daily suspended sediment concentration was computed to be 2196 mg/l. The suspended sediment concentration begins to increase with discharge from May and reduces in September. Present study provides TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) derived and field based hydro-meteorological insight about severe rainstorms during the years 2010 and 2011 in the study area, which transported large amounts of sediment.

  20. A Survey of Obstetric Healthcare Utilization in the Rural Western Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Erica C; Uniyal, V P; Lanham, Michael; Heisler, Michele; Quasin, Shazia; Bisht, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To determine the socio-economic factors affecting access to antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum healthcare in the rural Western Indian Himalayas over the past 20 years. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 197 women in Chamoli District, Uttarakhand from October 2011 to May 2012. Participants who gave birth within the past 20 years were included in the final analysis (n = 158). Stratified odds ratios and analysis of variance were calculated. Results Among women who delivered in the prior 7 years, there was a nine-fold increase (95 % CI 4-20.8) in institutionalized births compared to women who delivered 8-20 years before the study. Among women who delivered 7 years prior to the study, low income increased the risk of home delivery (OR 3.07, 95 % CI 1.15-8.54). Low caste (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.04-7.72) and low level of education (OR 3.93 95 % CI 1.41-11.81) decreased the use of antepartum medications (vitamins and vaccines). Remote location among all participants was a risk factor for not seeking care for obstetric morbidities (OR 0.44 95 % CI 0.2-0.95). Conclusions The incidence of institutionalized delivery has increased over the past decade in rural Uttarakhand. Income, caste, education, and remote location correlated with poor access to antepartum and intrapartum healthcare. These correlations have increased in statistical significance over the past 20 years, except for location. This indicates that the Western Himalayas face similar challenges to obstetric service utilization as the north Indian plains and that several of these inequalities in healthcare access have become more pronounced in recent years.

  1. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Nepal Himalaya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Babu Shrestha

    Full Text Available Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0 in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070 using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2 area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  2. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  3. Fluid–rock interaction across the South Tibetan Detachment, Garhwal Himalaya (India): Mineralogical and geochemical evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anubhooti Saxena; Himanshu K Sachan; Pulok K Mukherjee; Dilip K Mukhopadhya

    2012-02-01

    The Malari Leucogranite in the Garhwal Himalaya is cut across by a continental-scale normal fault system called the South Tibetan Detachment (STD). A mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusion study of samples from the fault zone of the Malari Granite was performed to reveal the imprints of fluid–rock interaction. Fluid inclusion assemblages observed in the alteration zone indicate the presence of NaCl-dominated aqueous fluids with varied salinity of 6 –16 wt.% of NaCl equivalent. Mineralogical changes include the alteration of feldspar to muscovite and muscovite to chlorite. This alteration took place at temperatures of 275°–335°C and pressures between 1.9 and 4.2 kbars as revealed by the application of chlorite thermometry, fluid isochores, and presence of K-feldspar+muscovite+chlorite+quartz mineral assemblage. Geochemical mass-balance estimates predict 32% volume loss during alteration. An estimated fluid/rock ratio of 82 is based on loss of silica during alteration, and reveals presence of a moderately low amount of fluid at the time of faulting. Results of fluid inclusion and alteration mineralogy indicate that the Malari Leucogranites were exhumed due to normal faulting along the STD and erosion from mid-crustal levels. Most of the leucogranites in the Himalayas occur along the STD and possibly a regional-scale fluid flow all along the STD might have caused similar alteration of leucogranites along this tectonic break. Regional fluid flow was probably concentrated along the STD and channelized through mesoscopic fractures, microcracks and grain boundaries.

  4. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region.

  5. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2) = 0.67, P = 0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle.

  6. Projected hydrologic changes in monsoon-dominated Himalaya Mountain basins with changing climate and deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; White, Joseph D.; Alexander, Sara E.

    2015-06-01

    In mountain headwaters, climate and land use changes affect short and long term site water budgets with resultant impacts on landslide risk, hydropower generation, and sustainable agriculture. To project hydrologic change associated with climate and land use changes in the Himalaya Mountains, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) calibrated for the Tamor and Seti River basins located at eastern and western margins of Nepal. Future climate change was modeled using averaged temperature and precipitation for 2080 derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B and A2) of 16 global circulation models (GCMs). Land use change was modeled spatially and included expansion of (1) agricultural land, (2) grassland, and (3) human settlement area that were produced by considering existing land use with projected changes associated with viability of elevation and slope characteristics of the basins capable of supporting different land use type. From these simulations, higher annual stream discharge was found for all GCM-derived scenarios compared to a baseline simulation with maximum increases of 13 and 8% in SRES-A2 and SRES-A1B for the Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. On seasonal basis, we assessed higher precipitation during monsoon season in all scenarios that corresponded with higher stream discharge of 72 and 68% for Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. This effect appears to be geographically important with higher influence in the eastern Tamor basin potentially due to longer and stronger monsoonal period of that region. However, we projected minimal changes in stream discharge for the land use scenarios potentially due to higher water transmission to groundwater reservoirs associated with fractures of the Himalaya Mountains rather than changes in surface runoff. However, when combined the effects of climate and land use changes, discharge was moderately increased indicating counteracting mechanisms of hydrologic yield in these mountains

  7. Changing in glacier and snow cover of Karakorum and Western Himalaya and impacts on hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinsheng

    2015-04-01

    Glacierized river basins with insufficient summer precipitation (rain) but abundant in snow- and glacier-melt water, are highly suspected by reduction and seasonal alteration in the annual stream-flows owing to climate change. However, the glacio-hydrological observations and investigations to address the linkage between stream-flow fluctuations and glacier storage changes are still very weak, which also a consequent of controversies like 'Karakorum Anomaly' among the scientists concerning the behavior of glaciers in the changing climate. Therefore an investigation to determine the implications of climatic variability over the hydrological regimes of Karakorum and Western Himalayan basins is carried out by employing long term in-situ hydro-meteorological and as well as Remote sensing data. The study reveals that both the basins receives significant winter precipitation therefore the snow cover area reaches to 85% and 58% in Astore and Hunza basins respectively. The predominant contribution from snow and glacier melt to runoff was also estimated as 73% and 83% in Astore and Hunza basin respectively. Similarly, the observed persistent summer cooling and increased precipitation resulted in slightly positive glacier mass storage change of ~8.4-9.5mmyr-1 during the period of 1966-2010 in Hunza basin (Karakoram), whereas stability was observed in Astore basin's (Western Himalaya) glacier storage area at least since 1995. Although previous projections on the feedback of global climate change over glacierized basins suggested short-term increases followed by a sharp decrease in the stream-flows due to the persistent shrinkage of glacier cover area, however, our overall analysis revealed that phenomenon is yet to occurred in both the studied catchments from Karakoram and Western Himalaya, and the current behavior of climatic indicators seems to prolonged its occurrence at least for upcoming few decades particularly in these hydrological regimes.

  8. Quantifying ice loss in the eastern Himalayas since 1974 using declassified spy satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Joshua M.; Rupper, Summer B.; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2016-09-01

    Himalayan glaciers are important natural resources and climate indicators for densely populated regions in Asia. Remote sensing methods are vital for evaluating glacier response to changing climate over the vast and rugged Himalayan region, yet many platforms capable of glacier mass balance quantification are somewhat temporally limited due to typical glacier response times. We here rely on declassified spy satellite imagery and ASTER data to quantify surface lowering, ice volume change, and geodetic mass balance during 1974-2006 for glaciers in the eastern Himalayas, centered on the Bhutan-China border. The wide range of glacier types allows for the first mass balance comparison between clean, debris, and lake-terminating (calving) glaciers in the region. Measured glaciers show significant ice loss, with an estimated mean annual geodetic mass balance of -0.13 ± 0.06 m w.e. yr-1 (meters of water equivalent per year) for 10 clean-ice glaciers, -0.19 ± 0.11 m w.e. yr-1 for 5 debris-covered glaciers, -0.28 ± 0.10 m w.e. yr-1 for 6 calving glaciers, and -0.17 ± 0.05 m w.e. yr-1 for all glaciers combined. Contrasting hypsometries along with melt pond, ice cliff, and englacial conduit mechanisms result in statistically similar mass balance values for both clean-ice and debris-covered glacier groups. Calving glaciers comprise 18 % (66 km2) of the glacierized area yet have contributed 30 % (-0.7 km3) to the total ice volume loss, highlighting the growing relevance of proglacial lake formation and associated calving for the future ice mass budget of the Himalayas as the number and size of glacial lakes increase.

  9. Climatic Slow-down of the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya Glaciers Over the Last 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehecq, A.; Gourmelen, N.; Trouvé, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming over the 20th century has caused drastic changes in mountain glaciers globally, and of the Himalayan glaciers in particular. The stakes are high; glaciers and ice caps are the largest contributor to the increase in the mass of the world's oceans, and the Himalayas play a key role in the hydrology of the region, impacting on the economy, food safety and flood risk. Partial monitoring of the Himalayan glaciers has revealed a contrasted picture; while many of the Himalayan glaciers are retreating, in some cases locally stable or advancing glaciers in this region have also been observed. Several studies based on field measurements or remote sensing have shown a dominant slow-down of mountain glaciers globally in response to these changes. But they are restricted to a few glaciers or small regions and none has analysed the dynamic response of glaciers to climate changes at regional scales. Here we present a region-wide analysis of annual glacier flow velocity covering the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region obtained from the analysis of the entire archive of Landsat data. Over 90% of the ice-covered regions, as defined by the Randolph Glacier Inventory, are measured, with precision on the retrieved velocity of the order of 4 m/yr. The change in velocities over the last 25 years will be analysed with reference to regional glacier mass balance and topographic caracteristics. We show that the first order temporal evolution of glacier flow mirrors the pattern of glacier mass balance. We observe a general decrease of ice velocity in regions of known ice mass loss, and a more complex patterns consisting of mixed acceleration and decrease of ice velocity in regions that are known to be affected by stable mass balance and surge-like behavior.

  10. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  11. Analysis of soil moisture variation by forest cover structure in lower western Himalayas, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.v.Tyagi; Nuzhat Qazi; S.P.Rai; M.P.Singh

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture affects various hydrological processes,including evapotranspiration,infiltration,and runoff.Forested areas in the lower western Himalaya in India constitute the headwater catchments for many hill streams and have experienced degradation in forest cover due to grazing,deforestation and other human activities.This change in forest cover is likely to alter the soil moisture regime and,consequently,flow regimes in streams.The effect of change in forest cover on soil moisture regimes of this dry region has not been studied through long term field observations.We monitored soil matric potentials in two small watersheds in the lower western Himalaya of India.The watersheds consisted of homogeneous land covers of moderately dense oak forest and moderately degraded mixed oak forest.Observations were recorded at three sites at three depths in each watershed at fortnightly intervals for a period of three years.The soil moisture contents derived from soil potential measurements were analyzed to understand the spatial,temporal and profile variations under the two structures of forest cover.The analysis revealed large variations in soil moisture storage at different sites and depths and also during different seasons in each watershed.Mean soil moisture storage during monsoon,winter and summer seasons was higher under dense forest than under degraded forest.Highest soil moisture content occurred at shallow soil profiles,decreasing with depth in both watersheds.A high positive correlation was found between tree density and soil moisture content.Mean soil moisture content over the entire study period was higher under dense forest than under degraded forest.This indicated a potential for soil water storage under well managed oak forest.Because soil water storage is vital for sustenance of low flows,attention is needed on the management of oak forests in the Himalayan region.

  12. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  13. Re-description of Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia from lakes in the Khumbu Region, Nepalese Himalayas, with the erection of a new species, Daphnia himalaya, and a note on an intersex individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinora Carolina PEÑALVA-ARANA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We present here a detailed description of Ctenodaphnia-type Daphnia specimens collected from lakes in the Nepalese Himalayas between 1994 and 2004, including mature females and adult males. The specimens examined share certain diagnostic traits with Daphnia tibetana (Sars 1903, and others with Daphnia fusca (Gurney 1906. A re-appraisal of their previous synonymy with D. fusca and a comparison with all published descriptions of similar species from the region indicate that they represent a new species named here as Daphnia himalaya. The chance discovery of a sex intergrade of the same species allowed a description of the secondary sexual characteristics in this interesting and rare intermediate state to be reported, and its possible ecological implications to be discussed, as well.

  14. Extended T-index models for glacier surface melting: a case study from Chorabari Glacier, Central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoti, Indira; Kesarwani, Kapil; Mehta, Manish; Dobhal, D. P.

    2016-10-01

    Two enhanced temperature-index (T-index) models are proposed by incorporating meteorological parameters viz. relative humidity, wind speed and net radiation. The models are an attempt to explore different climatic variables other than temperature affecting glacier surface melting. Weather data were recorded at Chorabari Glacier using an automatic weather station during the summers of 2010 (July 10 to September 10) and 2012 (June 10 to October 25). The modelled surface melt is validated against the measured point surface melting at the snout. Performance of the developed models is evaluated by comparing with basic temperature-index model and is quantified through different efficiency criteria. The results suggest that proposed models yield considerable improvement in surface melt simulation . Consequently, the study reveals that glacier surface melt depends not only on temperature but also on weather parameters viz. relative humidity, wind speed and net radiation play a significant role in glacier surface melting. This approach provides a major improvement on basic temperature-index method and offers an alternative to energy balance model.

  15. Carbon sequestration in Chir-Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) forests un-der various disturbance levels in Kumaun Central Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harshit Pant; Ashish Tewari

    2014-01-01

    We studied variations in tree biomass and carbon sequestra-tion rates of Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii. Sarg.) forest in three categories of forest disturbance, protected, moderately disturbed, and highly dis-turbed. In the first year, total biomass was 14.7 t⋅ha-1 in highly disturbed site, 94.46 t⋅ha-1 in moderately disturbed forest, and 112.0 t⋅ha-1 in pro-tected forest. The soil organic carbon in the top 20 cm of soil ranged from 0.63 to 1.2%. The total rate of carbon sequestration was 0.60 (t/ha)·a-1on the highly disturbed site, 1.03 (t/ha)·a-1 on the moderately disturbed site, and 4.3 (t/ha)·a-1 on the protected site.

  16. Effect of A Nitrogen-Fixing Actinorhizal Shrub on Herbaceous Vegetation in A Mixed Conifer Forest of Central Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bargali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effect of a nitrogen-fixing shrub Coriaria nepalensis Wall on herb species composition, diversity and biomass. The effect was measured in terms of species richness, diversity and biomass of herb species in three sites varying in Coriaria density viz. site 1 (low Coriaria density; 20 ha-1, site-2 (medium Coriaria density; 120 ha-1 and site-3 (high Coriaria density 190 ha-1. Species richness was minimum at Site-1 (16 species, and maximum at site-2 (27 species. G. aparine dominated site-1 and Arthraxon sp dominated site-2 and 3. The individual herb density ranged between 0.40 - 42.40 m-2, and total herb density ranged between 138- 170.4 m-2 and was maximum at site-2. Value for species richness (27 and Shannon Index (3.72 was highest for medium Coriaria density site and lowest for low Coriaria density site. Simpson Index ranged between 0.11 and 0.14 and was lowest for site-2(medium Coriaria density indicating that at this the dominance was shared by many species. Along the gradient of Coriaria density, maximum biomass was recorded at site-3 with highest Coriaria density and lowest at site-2 with medium Coriaria density. This may be due to the symbiotic nitrogen fixing ability of Coriaria that improve the habitat quality. The facilitative effect of C. nepalensis in terms of soil amelioration and herb growth can be used to regenerate degraded forest ecosystems.

  17. Chemical Characteristics of Stream Draining from Dudu Glacier: An Alpine Meltwater Stream in Ganga Headwater, Garhwal Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The EC (electrical conductivity), pH and concentrations of major anions, cations and dissolved silica were determined in the stream meltwater draining from the glacier. Stream meltwater samples were sampled during June and October 1997 from Dudu glacier, Bhagirathi valley, Garhwal Himalaya. This study is an attempt to reveal the hydrochemical processes operating in the glacialized regime of Garhwal Himalaya. The results show that the abundance order of cations and anions in the meltwater is c(Ca2+)>c(Na+)>c(Mg2+)>c(K+) and c(SO2-4)>c(HCO-3)>c(NO-3)>c(Cl-). The rock weathering is the most important mechanism controlling the water chemistry in the basin. Pyrite oxidation and carbonation are the main hydrogen ion supply reactions contributing to the chemical weathering in the basin. There is a distinct difference between the solute concentrations in samples collected during June and October.

  18. Orogen-parallel extension in Himalaya: Is it the indicator of collapse or the product in process of compressive uplift?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Extensional structures developed extensively in Himalaya with their strikes perpendicular to that of the orogenic belt. The studies of such structures in Qusum, Burang, Lhozhag, Nyalam and Yadong show that they represent an orogen-parallel extension. The basins produced by the extension experienced orogen-perpendicular compression during their formation. The ages of the extension rang from 16 to 13 Ma and coincide with the intensive compressive stage in Southeastern Asia. Therefore, the extension is syn-shortening and the dominate tectonic movement in Himalaya was compression and uplift during the extension. The extension was the partition of compressive deformation rather than the indicator for the collapse and falling of the Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. Casey; A. Kääb; D. I. Benn

    2012-01-01

    Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for ...

  20. Myrmechis bakhimensis D.Maity,N.Pradhan & G. G. Maiti, a new species of Orchidaceae from Sikkim Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debabrata MAITY; Neelima PRADHAN; Gaurgopal MAITI

    2007-01-01

    Myrmechis bakhimensis D.Maity,N.Pradhan & G.G.Maiti(Orchidaceae),a new species from Sikkim Himalaya,is described and illustrated.The new species most closely resembles M.japonica(Reichb.) Rolfe and M.chinensis Rolfe with similar shape and size of lamina and the"T"-shaped epichile.but differs by the perfectly glabrous and eciliate floral bract,5-nerved dorsal sepal,and emarginate,mucronate epichile.

  1. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, M.; Steck, A.; Carter, A.; Cosca, M.; Epard, J.-L.; Hunziker, J.

    2011-01-01

    New fission track and Ar/Ar geochronological data provide time constraints on the exhumation history of the Himalayan nappes in the Mandi (Beas valley) - Tso Morari transect of the NW Indian Himalaya. Results from this and previous studies suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappes were emplaced by detachment from the underthrusted upper Indian crust by 55. Ma and metamorphosed by ca. 48-40. Ma. The nappe stack was subsequently exhumed to shallow upper crustal depths (Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Micha; Steck, Albrecht; Carter, Andrew; Cosca, Michael; Epard, Jean-Luc; Hunziker, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    New fission track and Ar/Ar geochronological data provide time constraints on the exhumation history of the Himalayan nappes in the Mandi (Beas valley) — Tso Morari transect of the NW Indian Himalaya. Results from this and previous studies suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappes were emplaced by detachment from the underthrusted upper Indian crust by 55 Ma and metamorphosed by ca. 48–40 Ma. The nappe stack was subsequently exhumed to shallow upper crustal depths (

  3. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  4. Temporal and spatial variations in erosion rate in the Sikkim Himalaya as a function of climate and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahami, Rachel; Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Carcaillet, Julien

    2014-05-01

    The Tista River is a major tributary of the Brahmaputra drainage system (Eastern Himalaya). Its headwaters are located in the glaciated northernmost parts of the Sikkim and its catchment area amounts to more than 12,000 km2 including a depositional megafan (extending mostly in Bangladesh and West Bengal-India). The Tista has recently incised its megafan at the topographic front of the mountain range by about 30 meters. Neither the timing of deposition/incision of the megafan sediments, nor the erosion rates of the source areas as well as their potential relationships, have been investigated in detail. Comparing these data is essential to distinguish between a climatic and/or tectonic control of the evolution of the Sikkim Himalaya and piedmont. To constrain erosion rates in the hinterland at different temporal scales (respectively millenial and geological timescales), we report cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and thermochronological (apatite fission-tracks) data on modern river sands. Results were mapped to evidence spatial variations of erosion/exhumation rates in the Tista catchment. Cosmogenic nuclides were also used to date the onset of incision of the megafan and relate it to potential changes in hinterland erosion. In addition, isotope geochemistry (ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr) performed on modern river sands and Late-Quaternary megafan sediments allows characterizing the isotopic signature of the different source areas and constraining variations in provenance of the Tista megafan deposits through time in response to changing climatic conditions. Results show that the Tista fan deposits are mainly sourced from the High Himalayan Crystalline domain with excursions more influenced by the Lesser Himalaya domain. These data provide a new comprehensive view on modern erosion and long-term exhumation of the Sikkim Himalaya. This study of a "closed system" will help our knowledge and understanding of erosional processes and sediment fluxes in mountainous environments as a

  5. A new orthoclad species of Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazra, N.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The adults and pupa of a new species, Rheocricotopus rarispina are described from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India. The species is distinguished by the few spines on the thoracic horn, anal lobe without fringe and bristle-like L setae and presence of ovoid humeral pit, nine squamal setae, structure of anal point and triangular and subterminal crista dorsalis in the adult male. With this new species, the number of Indian species of the genus rises to six.

  6. 5. New types of stone tools found in Soanian Regime of the NW sub-Himalayas of India

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    A.S. Soni,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though Northwestern sub-Himalayas are as yet known only for the Soanian tools but many new tool types have now been found by us from a large part of this region when it was vigilantly explored. It is for the first time that in addition to the conventionally known Soanians, many new tool types like pitted cobbles, edge-ground flakes, Hoabinhian tools, cutting tools on large flakes, finely made chisels, hand adzes and some other tools with typical functions were recovered from several sites occurring in an approximately 40x6 Kilometer area of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh region of the sub-Himalayas. All such tool types have also been found from the sites dated from mid to late mid-Holocene times. These tool were being used along with chopper/chopping tool and flakes etc., and they seem to represent some expedient technology that was employed by different societal communities who gathered in the sub-Himalayas during mid-Holocene dry phase/s.

  7. Earthquake hazard in northeast India – A seismic microzonation approach with typical case studies from Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Kumar Nath; Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Abhishek Raj

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive analytical as well as numerical treatment of seismological, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical concepts has been implemented through microzonation projects in the northeast Indian provinces of Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city, representing cases of contrasting geological backgrounds – a hilly terrain and a predominantly alluvial basin respectively. The estimated maximum earthquakes in the underlying seismic source zones, demarcated in the broad northeast Indian region, implicates scenario earthquakes of 8.3 and 8.7 to the respective study regions for deterministic seismic hazard assessments. The microzonation approach as undertaken in the present analyses involves multi-criteria seismic hazard evaluation through thematic integration of contributing factors. The geomorphological themes for Sikkim Himalaya include surface geology, soil cover, slope, rock outcrop and landslide integrated to achieve geological hazard distribution. Seismological themes, namely surface consistent peak ground acceleration and predominant frequency were, thereafter, overlaid on and added with the geological hazard distribution to obtain the seismic hazard microzonation map of the Sikkim Himalaya. On the other hand, the microzonation study of Guwahati city accounts for eight themes – geological and geomorphological, basement or bedrock, landuse, landslide, factor of safety for soil stability, shear wave velocity, predominant frequency, and surface consistent peak ground acceleration. The five broad qualitative hazard classifications – `low’, `moderate’, `high’, `moderate high’ and `very high’ could be applied in both the cases, albeit with different implications to peak ground acceleration variations. These developed hazard maps offer better representation of the local specific seismic hazard variation in the terrain.

  8. The rise of the Himalaya enforced the diversification of SE Asian ferns by altering the monsoon regimes

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    Wang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of high mountain chains is widely seen as one of the factors driving rapid diversification of land plants and the formation of biodiversity hotspots. Supporting evidence was reported for the impact of the rapid rise of the Andean mountains but this hypothesis has so far been less explored for the impact of the “roof of the world”. The formation of the Himalaya, and especially the rise of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau in the recent 20 million years, altered the monsoon regimes that dominate the current climates of South East Asia. Here, we infer the hypothesis that the rise of Himalaya had a strong impact on the plant diversity in the biodiversity hotspot of the Southwest Chinese Mountains. Results Our analyses of the diversification pattern of the derived fern genus Lepisorus recovered evidence for changes in plant diversity that correlated with the strengthening of South East Asian monsoon. Southwest China or Southwest China and Japan was recovered as the putative area of origin of Lepisorus and enhancing monsoon regime were found to shape the early diversification of the genus as well as subsequent radiations during the late Miocene and Pliocene. Conclusions We report new evidence for a coincidence of plant diversification and changes of the climate caused by the uplift of the Himalaya. These results are discussed in the context of the impact of incomplete taxon sampling, uncertainty of divergence time estimates, and limitations of current methods used to assess diversification rates.

  9. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

    2009-10-01

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M>or=2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250km distance from the monitoring stations.

  10. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, Surinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)], E-mail: surinder_s1951@yahoo.co.in; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil [Department of Geology, Government College, Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh (India)

    2009-10-15

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M{>=}2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250 km distance from the monitoring stations.

  11. Large landslides lie low: Vertical domains of denudation processes in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Large bedrock landslides (defined here as affecting >0.1 km2 in planform area) are thought to substantially contribute to denuding active mountain belts, and limiting the growth of topographic relief produced by concurrent tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. While most research on large landslides has focused on tectonically active, humid mountain belts with varying degrees of rainstorm and earthquake activity, lesser attention has been devoted to arid mountain belts. Especially in the Himalaya, where high denudation rates are commonly associated with high landslide activity, previous work has largely ignored landslide processes in the arid compartments of the orogen. This was motivation for us to compile a landslide inventory covering the arid Himalaya-Karakoram of NW India and N Pakistan within the Indus catchment. Our data set contains 493 rock-slope failures that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km3. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these volumetrically significant landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We find that large bedrock landslides in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram region preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This trend holds true for both the study area and parts thereof. The largest and highest-lying landslides occur in the Karakoram mountains, where local relief exceeds 6 km, and >90% of the landslide areas lie below the region's median elevation. Our analysis reveals a hitherto unrecognized vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport by

  12. Central Makran Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A spectacular view of the Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 65.5E) looking north with the Arabian Sea and the city of Karachi in the foreground. In the center, the Indian sub-continent moving slowly north into the Asian continent has caused the folded sedimentary Makran Range to bend from east-west to north-south as well as the uplift forming The Great Himalaya Range and the high Tibetan Plateau to the north.

  13. The Brahmaputra tale of tectonics and erosion: Early Miocene river capture in the Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracciali, Laura; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall R.; Akhter, Syed H.; Millar, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Himalayan orogen provides a type example on which a number of models of the causes and consequences of crustal deformation are based and it has been suggested that it is the site of a variety of feedbacks between tectonics and erosion. Within the broader orogen, fluvial drainages partly reflect surface uplift, different climatic zones and a response to crustal deformation. In the eastern Himalaya, the unusual drainage configuration of the Yarlung Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River has been interpreted either as antecedent drainage distorted by the India-Asia collision (and as such applied as a passive strain marker of lateral extrusion), latest Neogene tectonically-induced river capture, or glacial damming-induced river diversion events. Here we apply a multi-technique approach to the Neogene paleo-Brahmaputra deposits of the Surma Basin (Bengal Basin, Bangladesh) to test the long-debated occurrence and timing of river capture of the Yarlung Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra River. We provide U-Pb detrital zircon and rutile, isotopic (Sr-Nd and Hf) and petrographic evidence consistent with river capture of the Yarlung Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra River in the Early Miocene. We document influx of Cretaceous-Paleogene zircons in Early Miocene sediments of the paleo-Brahmaputra River that we interpret as first influx of material from the Asian plate (Transhimalayan arc) indicative of Yarlung Tsangpo contribution. Prior to capture, the predominantly Precambrian-Paleozoic zircons indicate that only the Indian plate was drained. Contemporaneous with Transhimalayan influx reflecting the river capture, we record arrival of detrital material affected by Cenozoic metamorphism, as indicated by rutiles and zircons with Cenozoic U-Pb ages and an increase in metamorphic grade of detritus as recorded by petrography. We interpret this as due to a progressively increasing contribution from the erosion of the metamorphosed core of the orogen. Whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic data from the same samples

  14. Preliminary assessment of active rock slope instabilities in the high Himalaya of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Benedetta; Manconi, Andrea; Leith, Kerry; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The small kingdom of Bhutan, nested between India and Tibet (between 88° and 92° east and 26° and 28° north), is characterised by markedly different landscapes and climatic zones. V-shaped, forest-covered valleys in the south, affected by the monsoonal rains, give gradually way to steep, barren slopes of U-shaped valleys in the drier north, host of the highest peaks, a large number of glaciers and glacial lakes. A transition zone of vegetated, elevated plateaus collects the towns in which most of the population lives. Landslides in the high Himalaya of Bhutan have not been extensively studied despite the primary and secondary hazards related to them. The regulations and restrictions to travel to and within Bhutan imposed by the government, as well as the extremely rugged terrain hinder the accessibility to remote slopes and valleys, both of which have resulted in lack of data and investigations. In this work, we aim at producing an inventory of large rock slope instabilities (> 1 million m3) across the high Himalaya of Bhutan, identifying types of failure, assessing the activity and analysing the distribution of landslides in combination with predisposing and preparatory factors, such as lithology, tectonic structures, hypsometry, deglaciation, fluvial erosive power and climate. At this stage, we rely on the information retrieved through satellite remote sensing data, i.e. medium and high resolution DEMs, optical images and space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An initial inventory was compiled based on the identification of geomorphological features associated with slope instabilities using the available Google Earth images. Moreover, we assessed the SAR data coverage and the expected geometrical distortions by assuming different sensors (ERS, Envisat, and ALOS Palsar-1). As we are mainly interested in detecting the surface deformation related to large unstable slopes by applying Differential SAR, we also computed the percentage of potentially

  15. Atmospheric Modelling of Aerosols Long-Range Transport over the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapipith, V.; Adhikary, B.; Bhave, P.; Panday, A. K.; Mukherji, A.

    2014-12-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) Headquarters in Kathmandu, Nepal, for the assessment of air quality in the Hindukush Himalaya region. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model version 3.6 is being implemented over a regional domain stretching across 4995 x 4455 km centred at Kathmandu, where an intensive field campaign, Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) took place from December 2012 to February 2013. Seven stations around the valley collected data on meteorology and chemical parameters. WRF-Chem simulation are carried out for the winter time period at high horizontal resolution (1 km × 1 km), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, inside three coarser domains. Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, focusing on aerosols. The challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed. The effort aims for a better understanding of atmospheric processes and aerosol impacts, as well as the impact of long-range transport, particularly of black carbon aerosol upon the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers and snowfields, and the shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Based on physically adjusted schemes, the WRF meteorological model performs well with Pearson correlation coefficients higher than 0.8 for temperature and solar radiation, although it has a tendency to overestimate wind speed. The WRF with chemistry is then used with local and regional emission databases, in combination and after comparison with the global inventory, as input for describing the long-range transport of aerosols. Improved aerosol prediction will allow us to provide crucial information needed for mitigation and adaptation strategies that save people's lives across the Himalaya. The regional

  16. Progress in the Study of Deep Profiles of Tibet and the Himalayas (INDEPTH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenjin; ZHAO Xun; SHI Danian; LIU Kui; JIANG Wan; WU Zhenhan; XIONG Jiayu; ZHENG Yukun

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces 8 major discoveries and new understandings with regard to the deep structure and tectonics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau obtained in Project INDEPTH, They are mainly as follows. (1) The upper crust, lower crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the blocks of the plateau form a "sandwich" structure with a relatively rigid-brittle upper crust, a visco-plastic lower crust and a relatively rigid-ductile mantle lithosphere. This structure is completely different from that of monotonous, cold and more rigid oceanic plates. (2) In the process of north-directed collision-compression of the Indian subcontinent, the upper crust was attached to the foreland in the form of a gigantic foreland accretionary wedge. The interior of the accretionary wedge thickened in such tectonic manners as large-scale thrusting, backthrusting and folding, and magmatic masses and partially molten masses participated in the crustal thickening. Between the upper crust and lower crust lies a large detachment (e.g. the Main Himalayan Thrust in southern Tibet, 5-8 km thick) or a very thick shear-schistose zone (e.g. the Main Qiangtang Thrust-MQT in northern Tibet, up to 20 km thick), which causes the decoupling of the upper crust and lower crust and separation of tectonic activities. (3)During the collision-compression, the Indian mantle lithosphere was delaminated into two layers from where the crust thickened most rapidly (beneath the High Himalayas). The upper layer extends to 34.5°N and the lower layer to 33.5°.They have been underthrust to depths of 250-300 km into the asthenosphere. Meanwhile the Asian lithosphere (possibly the Qaidam terrane) has also been subducted southwards. Very thick mantle lithosphere does not exist beneath the plateau.(4) The oceanic lithosphere, in light of its lithology and dynamic behaviour, might be close to those of the continental lithosphere and its front might enter the asthenosphere before the continental lithosphere. (5) A 150-200 km

  17. Deriving supraglacial debris thickness using satellite data on the Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lene; Schauwecker, Simone; Brock, Ben; Immerzeel, Walter; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Glaciers with debris-covered ablation zones are widely present in mountain ranges such as the Alps, the Himalayas and the Andes. An expansion of rock debris-covered areas has been documented in recent decades. It is therefore increasingly important to take the effect of debris cover into account in glacio-hydrological modelling. Debris thickness is a key control on a glacier's energy balance and it governs the melt rate beneath debris, hence the estimation of debris extent and thickness is crucial to predict melt. Data on debris thickness are scarce on most glaciers and thus simplified assumptions are commonly used. In this study we test a new, recently developed physically based method to produce debris thickness maps from satellite imagery. The model is based on a solution of the energy balance equation at the debris surface to reconstruct debris thickness as a residual in each satellite pixel. This approach requires ASTER thermal images and reanalysis meteorological data and has the potential to map distribution of debris thickness without the need for detailed field data. In a previous study we tested the model for glaciers with different characteristics and in different climatic regions of the world. The validation of debris thickness, however, is problematic due to data scarcity, the inhomogeneous debris distribution and the resolution of the ASTER product (90 m). The standard application of the model seems to work for glaciers for which debris characteristics such as the effective conductivity are known and reanalysis data are representative. In this study we additionally test the approach with a recently collected data set over the Lirung glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas, where initial application of the remote sensing method using reanalysis data led to a significant underestimation of debris thickness. Extensive field data were collected from May to October 2012 consisting of data from an AWS, spatially distributed air and surface temperature, effective

  18. Upper crustal stress and seismotectonics of the Garhwal Himalaya using small-to-moderate earthquakes: Implications to the local structures and free fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, R. Arun; Paul, Ajay; Singh, Sandeep

    2017-03-01

    The work presents new focal-mechanism data of small-to-moderate (3.0 ⩾ ML ⩽ 5.0) upper crustal earthquakes for the Garhwal Himalaya from a local seismic network installed in July 2007. Majority of the epicenters of these earthquakes are located close to the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zone. We retrieved Moment Tensor (MT) solutions of 26 earthquakes by waveform inversion. The MT results and 11 small-to-moderate earthquakes from the published records are used for stress inversions. The MT solutions reveal dominatingly thrust mechanisms with few strike slip earthquakes near Chamoli. The seismic cross sections illustrate that, these earthquakes are located around the Mid-Crustal-Ramp (MCR) in the detachment. The optimally oriented faults from stress inversions suggest that, the seismogenic fault in this region is similar to a fault plane having dip angle between 12 and 25 degrees, which is compatible with the dip angle of the MCR (∼16°) in this region. P-axes and the maximum horizontal compressive stress are NE-SW oriented; the direction of the relative motion of Indian plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. The Friction Coefficient estimated from stress inversions show that the Chamoli region having low friction in comparison to the overall values. The free fluids trapped beneath the detachment are penetrating into the local faults, hence, decreasing the frictional strength and altering the prevailing stress conditions of the surroundings. The present study reveals that the MCR structure is seismogenically active and producing the small-moderate earthquakes in the region, while the MCT is probably dormant at present.

  19. High-resolution modeling of the influences of absorbing aerosols on rainfall over northern India and the Himalaya foothills during boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Lau, W. K.; Tao, W.; Shi, J. J.; Tan, Q.; Chin, M.; Matsui, T.; Kemp, E. M.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    High elevation and steep topography of Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas foothills regions are important components of the South Asian summer monsoon system. Strong orographic forcing combined with abundant moisture from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and aerosols stacked up against the southern slope of the Tibetan Plateau produce complex physical and dynamical effects on monsoon rainfall and circulation. In this work, we use the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (Nu-WRF) model to study the effect of aerosol radiative forcing on the short-term predictability (1-7 days) of the South Asian monsoon rainfall system. Two sets of 7-day forecasting experiments were conducted with and without aerosol radiative forcing. Each set consists of 34 7-day forcasts with initial conditions from daily reanalysis and GEOS-5 aerosol distribution (only for aerosol run) from June 11- July 14, 2008. Nu-WRF, without aerosol forcing captures the horizontal distribution of 7-day mean precipitation reasonably well, but it tends to over-estimates rainfall over the central India. The biases are especially larger in the upwind side of the western Ghats and northeast India and Bangladesh. Preliminary results show that inclusion of aerosol radiative forcing and interaction with dynamics reduces rainfall over the Indo-Gangetic plain where aerosol loadinng is high, but enhances rainfall downstream of the prevailing monsoon flow in the southern slope of Tibetan Plateau, especially over the northeast India and foothills regions, consistent with the EHP hypothesis. Effect of aerosol radiative forcing is small during the first two days of forecasts. Rainfall anomalies generated by atmospheric feedback induced by aerosol radiative forcing becomes statistically significant and large enough to be separable from growing model biases after three days of simulation. The results indicate the inclusion of aerosol radiative forcing may improve short-term (4-7 day) forecasting skill in

  20. Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Ghimire

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface- and sub-soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i a nearly undisturbed natural broad-leaved forest; (ii a mature, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year−1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year−1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature broad-leaved forest would (ultimately have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 m year−1 each. The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

  1. Seasonal dynamics of ichthyodiversity in a hill stream of the Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal, india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Acharjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small torrential spring-fed hill-stream Relli in the Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal was studied from March 2007 to February 2009 to assess seasonal dynamics and diversity of fish populations.  The study revealed that the stream sustained 25 rheophilic cold water fish species from 15 genera and five families having ornamental, food and sport value.  Seven omnivorous species were abundantly found, and the array of juveniles and sub adults suggests this stream is used as a breeding and nursery ground for some species.  The stream harboured fish with unique modifications such as adhesive structures.  Analysis of monthly data indicate that abundance and diversity indices increased slightly during April–May and sharply during October–November, indicating significant seasonal variations with the low diversity observed during monsoon months reflecting environmental stresses.  Evenness was high in all sampling sites, and inversely related to the dominance index of ichthyofauna.  The density and diversity of fish assemblages along the gradient of the stream may be interrupted due to anthropogenic disturbances.  Our study provides baseline data which may be helpful for conservation and management of fish species, and in formulating fishery policy. 

  2. Geospatial tools for assessing land degradation in Budgam district, Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehnaz Rashid; Mahjoor Ahmad Lone; Shakil Ahmad Romshoo

    2011-06-01

    Land degradation reduces the ability of the land to perform many biophysical and chemical functions. The main aim of this study was to determine the status of land degradation in the Budgam area of Kashmir Himalaya using remote sensing and geographic information system. The satellite data together with other geospatial datasets were used to quantify different categories of land degradation. The results were validated in the field and an accuracy of 85% was observed. Land use/land cover of the study area was determined in order to know the effect of land use on the rate of land degradation. Normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) and slope of the area were determined using LANDSAT-enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data, advanced space-borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, and digital elevation model along with other secondary data were analysed to create various thematic maps, viz., land use/land cover, geology, NDVI and slopes used in modelling land degradation in the Kashmir Himalayan region. The vegetation condition, elevation and land use/land cover information of the area were integrated to assess the land degradation scenario in the area using the ArcGIS ‘Spatial Analyst Module’. The results reveal that about 13.19% of the study area has undergone moderate to high degradation, whereas about 44.12% of the area has undergone slight degradation.

  3. Estimation of snow cover distribution in Beas basin, Indian Himalaya using satellite data and ground measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Negi; A V Kulkarni; B S Semwal

    2009-10-01

    In the present paper,a methodology has been developed for the mapping of snow cover in Beas basin,Indian Himalaya using AWiFS (IRS-P6)satellite data.The complexities in the mapping of snow cover in the study area are snow under vegetation,contaminated snow and patchy snow. To overcome these problems,field measurements using spectroradiometer were carried out and reflectance/snow indices trend were studied.By evaluation and validation of different topographic correction models,it was observed that,the normalized difference snow index (NDSI)values remain constant with the variations in slope and aspect and thus NDSI can take care of topography effects.Different snow cover mapping methods using snow indices are compared to find the suitable mapping technique.The proposed methodology for snow cover mapping uses the NDSI (estimated using planetary re flectance),NIR band reflectance and forest/vegetation cover information.The satellite estimated snow or non-snow pixel information using proposed methodology was validated with the snow cover information collected at three observatory locations and it was found that the algorithm classify all the sample points correctly,once that pixel is cloud free.The snow cover distribution was estimated using one year (2004 –05)cloud free satellite data and good correlation was observed between increase/decrease areal extent of seasonal snow cover and ground observed fresh snowfall and standing snow data.

  4. An assessment of the FlowCapt acoustic sensor for measuring snowdrift in the Indian Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Das; P Datt; A Acharya

    2012-12-01

    Wind caused snow drifting plays a dominant role in the redistribution of snow mass that restructures a snowpack. Strong wind activity at the mountain tops results in uneven distribution of snow with erosion on windward side and deposition on leeward areas. Such snowdrift events are responsible for the formation of cornices, increase in the loading of avalanche release zones on the leeward side and consequent increase in the level of avalanche hazard. In this paper, we present the results of snowdrift measurement using an acoustic snow-drift meter, the FlowCapt, built by IAV Engineering, which was used during winter seasons of 2007–2010 at a field research station of Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) in the western Himalayas. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of the instrument in measuring snowdrift in the Himalayan weather conditions. Results proved the utility of the instrument as a useful tool to study drifting snow in remote areas. However, in the absence of conventional snow gauges for validation, the quality of the absolute snow flux data could not be ascertained.

  5. Conservation status affects elevational gradient in bird diversity in the Himalaya: A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar Paudel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding diversity patterns along altitudinal gradients, and their underlying causes are important for conserving biodiversity. Previous studies have focused on climatic, energetic, and geographic variables (e.g., mid-domain effects, with less attention paid to human-induced habitat modifications. We used published data of bird distributions along an elevational gradient (0–4900 m in the Nepalese Himalaya and interpolated species presence between elevational limits. The relationship between species richness and environmental variables was analyzed using generalized linear models. A low plateau relationship between bird richness and elevation was observed, with a main peak at intermediate elevations (2800 m. Across the total gradient, interpolated bird species richness had a unimodal relationship to maximum monthly precipitation and a linear response to seasonal variation in temperature, proportion of forest cover, and proportion of protected area. In lower elevations (0–2800 m, interpolated species richness had a positive and linear response to the proportion of Ramsar sites and a unimodal response to habitat heterogeneity. At higher elevations (2900–4900 m, interpolated bird richness had a positive linear response to monthly variation in temperature and a negative linear response to proportion forest cover. We conclude that factors related to human management are important drivers of elevational gradients in bird species richness.

  6. Biodiversity research trends and gap analysis from a transboundary landscape, Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratikshya Kandel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kangchenjunga landscape, a transboundary complex shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal, is one of the biologically richest regions in the Eastern Himalayas. Owing to the remarkable biodiversity, the three countries came together to enhance regional cooperation in conservation and development in 2012. To start a strategic conservation intervention, the status of our knowledge base on biodiversity of the landscape is the most important stepping stone. In this paper, we traced the history of biodiversity research in the Kangchenjunga landscape, and present the research trends over time and subject interests. Meanwhile, we also identified key research and knowledge gaps and future priorities. For this, we analyzed 500 peer-reviewed journal articles (until 2014 relating to biodiversity, which were retrieved from the web platform ‘Google Scholar’ and other peer-reviewed journals. The review showed that the landscape received attention from the scientific community as early as the 1840s, and grew progressively after the 1980s. Research on fauna (especially mammals and flora (especially angiosperms is most notable, but with major gaps in systematic research of their ecology, whereas invertebrates other than butterflies appear to be neglected. There is a need for systematic research with long-term monitoring that would allow us to understand changes occurring within the landscape.

  7. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Matin; Sweety Mazumdar

    2009-08-01

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  8. Diversity and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazir A. Pala; A. K. Negi; Yogesh Gokhale; Jahangeer A. Bhat; N. P. Todaria

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition,phytosociological and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat (community forest) in Chamoli district of Garhwal Himalaya.A total of 52 plant species of 46 genera and 26families were recorded,which included 12 trees,18 shrubs and 22 herb species.Quercus leucotrichophora was dominant tree species in sapling and seedling layers,followed by Lyonia ovalifolia and Rhododendron arboreum.Out of 12 tree species,7 species in seedling stage and 8 species in sapling stage were recorded in the study area.The 44.41% species in the study area showed good regeneration status,16.66% species were fairly regenerating,and 8.33% species showed poor regeneration status,while 33% species were not regenerating.Number of individuals from lower girth classes (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm) showed decreasing trend with the increase in size of girth class.Shannon index (H) for trees,shrubs and herbs was recorded as 1.82,2.24 and 2.41 respectively.Simpsons index (CD) was recorded as 0.21,0.12and 0.12 for trees,shrubs and herbs respectively.The forest should be divided into compartments for better management purpose and each compartment should be closed for five years to assist regeneration and enrichment planting may also be carried out for sustainable management.

  9. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-α-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  10. Gender and climate change in the Indian Hindu-Kush Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, M. V.; Badola, R.

    2014-11-01

    Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the Western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, seasonal pastoral migration, male out-migration, and localized natural resource extraction. Particularly under conditions of heavy male outmigration, but throughout the region, mountain women play a key role in providing labor and knowledge related to the management of local natural resources, yet often lack authority in related political and economic decision-making processes. This gap has important implications for addressing the impacts of climate change: while warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios throughout the region, mountain women increasingly face new challenges in their roles as household managers that have not adequately been emphasized in larger scale planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation. These challenges are complex in nature, and are shaped not only by gender issues but also interacting factors such as class, caste, ethnicity, and age (among others). In this paper, we review the main arguments behind the discursive gender/climate change nexus, discuss the implications for gendered vulnerabilities and transformation of adaptive capacities in the region, and suggest ways that researchers and policymakers seeking to promote "climate justice" can benefit from the incorporation of gender-based perspectives and frameworks.

  11. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature.

  12. Gender and climate change in the Indian Hindu-Kush Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ogra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the Western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, seasonal pastoral migration, male out-migration, and localized natural resource extraction. Particularly under conditions of heavy male outmigration, but throughout the region, mountain women play a key role in providing labor and knowledge related to the management of local natural resources, yet often lack authority in related political and economic decision-making processes. This gap has important implications for addressing the impacts of climate change: while warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios throughout the region, mountain women increasingly face new challenges in their roles as household managers that have not adequately been emphasized in larger scale planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation. These challenges are complex in nature, and are shaped not only by gender issues but also interacting factors such as class, caste, ethnicity, and age (among others. In this paper, we review the main arguments behind the discursive gender/climate change nexus, discuss the implications for gendered vulnerabilities and transformation of adaptive capacities in the region, and suggest ways that researchers and policymakers seeking to promote "climate justice" can benefit from the incorporation of gender-based perspectives and frameworks.

  13. Fluvial trace fossils in the Middle Siwalik (Sarmatian-Pontian) of Darjeeling Himalayas, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Chakraborty; Stephen T Hasiotis; Bhaskar Ghosh; Harendra Nath Bhattacharya

    2013-08-01

    Trace fossils that record animal and plant activity are described for the first time from the Middle Siwalik, Neogene deposits of Darjeeling Himalaya. Sedimentary facies association attests to a channel–interchannel floodplain fluviatile setting. The intimate association of the burrows with phytoliths, rhizoliths, leaf compressions and coal lenses suggest that the tracemakers dominated a floodplain habitat. Point bar deposits host a low diversity Planolites-Naktodemasis-Macanopsis-Cylindricum equilibrium ichnocoenosis in the heterolithic fine sandstone-siltstone-shale facies that alternates with dense, monospecific colonization of Planolites as opportunistic pioneers relocating under stressed condition. Interlayered floodplain deposits in the fluvial successions preserve enigmatic large diameter, vertical tubes within thin to thick-bedded, dark silty shale facies. These tubes bear mixed characters assignable to both crayfish burrows and large-diameter rhizoliths. Further work on these tubes is necessary to make more accurate interpretations of those structures. Shallow to moderate burrow depths; intermittent, short-lived colonization events and preservation of rhizoliths and rhizohalos under fluctuating moisture content indicate short-term fluctuations of a relatively high water table (close to the paleosurface) in an imperfectly drained proximal floodplain setting. Ichnotaxa distribution and their inferred ethology provide significant faunal data that may put constraints on the reconstruction of Middle Siwalik depositional environment.

  14. Multifractal analysis of earthquakes in Kumaun Himalaya and its surrounding region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N S Roy; S K Mondal

    2012-08-01

    Himalayan seismicity is related to continuing northward convergence of Indian plate against Eurasian plate. Earthquakes in this region are mainly caused due to release of elastic strain energy. The Himalayan region can be attributed to highly complex geodynamic process and therefore is best suited for multifractal seismicity analysis. Fractal analysis of earthquakes (mb ≥ 3.5) occurred during 1973–2008 led to the detection of a clustering pattern in the narrow time span. This clustering was identified in three windows of 50 events each having low spatial correlation fractal dimension () value 0.836, 0.946 and 0.285 which were mainly during the span of 1998 to 2005. This clustering may be considered as an indication of a highly stressed region. The Guttenberg Richter -value was determined for the same subsets considered for the estimation. Based on the fractal clustering pattern of events, we conclude that the clustered events are indicative of a highly stressed region of weak zone from where the rupture propagation eventually may nucleate as a strong earthquake. Multifractal analysis gave some understanding of the heterogeneity of fractal structure of the seismicity and existence of complex interconnected structure of the Himalayan thrust systems. The present analysis indicates an impending strong earthquake, which might help in better hazard mitigation for the Kumaun Himalaya and its surrounding region.

  15. Natural Resource Conditions and Economic Development in the Uttaranchal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2005-01-01

    Uttaranchal is bestowed with numerous rivers, huge forest resources ranging from tropical to temperate, tourists' places, pilgrimages and feasible climatic conditions for growing fruits, vegetables,food grains, livestock rearing, tea garden practices, etc.The economic development, on the other hand, could not take place partly due to lack of modern technology with innovation in agricultural system and also unwillingness of the people towards using it.Furthermore, due to its harsh climatic conditions,rigorous terrain and distinct identity, as a part of Uttar Pradesh state, the development could not take place and today the state is believed to be one of the poorer states. Infrastructurally, this region is lagged behind due to its inaccessibility. The ideal geographical and agrarian conditions might be used evenly for the developmental processes. Ecologically,the whole region is fragile. The diverse socio-economic activities, harsh traditional beliefs and hard working potentials further change the entire scenario of the state. Only the need of the hours is to frame and implementation of the rational policies and planning for sustainable development of the state.What had appeared during the past, pertaining to the economic development, needs radical changes in policies, planning and beliefs. This paper aims to evaluate the present conditions of resources as a form of natural vegetation, agricultural crops, horticultural farming, herbs, tea garden practices, livestock rearing,hydropower projects and economic development of the Uttaranchal Himalaya.

  16. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  17. Glaciological and hydrological sensitivities to climate change in the Hindu-Kush Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J. M.; Immerzeel, W.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of climate change on glaciers will affect the timing and magnitude of water availability from high-altitude catchments in the Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH) region. In this study, we quantify the current sensitivity of glacier systems to climatic change and the associated sub-basin hydrological sensitivity throughout the HKH region using glacier inventory data and high-resolution dynamically downscaled climate fields. We first estimate the glaciological sensitivity, or change in glacierized area with change in equilibrium line altitude (ELA), for each sub-basin using a glacier inventory and SRTM DEM. We assign a climatic sensitivity of the ELA to temperature changes (dELA/dT) based on published values for tropical and sub-tropical glaciers and a high-resolution annual precipitation field. To assess the change in glacier meltwater contribution as a result of warming, we first estimate baseline glacier meltwater contributions using a mass balance gradient and estimated current ELA. Future climate warming scenarios of +1K and +2K are then used to examine the change in glacier meltwater contributions based on the increased ELA and ablation area. Finally, we calculate a glacier significance index that examines the relative importance of melt within each sub-basin, and discuss regional variations in glacier sensitivity and significance.

  18. Cytomorphological investigations in Oxyria digyna Hill. from the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Umer; Saggoo, M I S

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, detailed cytomorphological investigations in Oxyria digyna Hill. from Kashmir Himalaya-India have been reported for the first time. All the of 14 investigated populations of O. digyna are diploid based on x = 7. Out of these in two populations 0-2B chromosomes have been recorded for the first time while 6 populations differed significantly in their meiotic characteristics. Meiotic abnormalities during male meiosis observed include inter PMC chromatin transfer (cytomixis). Non-synchronous disjunction of some bivalents, laggards and bridges at anaphases and telophases. Consequent to these meiotic anomalies, microsporogenesis in meiocytes is abnormal resulting in to dyads, triads and polyads with or without micronuclei. The overall effect is seen in reduced pollen fertility. Unreduced pollen grains were observed in some populations, which differed significantly in their size compared to the normal (reduced) pollen grains. It is observed that a smaller frequency of pollen grains differed morphologically in Aharbal and Yosmarg populations. The remaining eight populations showed regular meiotic course, normal microsporogenesis and high percentage of pollen fertility (95.09-99.09%).

  19. Geospatial tools for assessing land degradation in Budgam district, Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Land degradation reduces the ability of the land to perform many biophysical and chemical functions. The main aim of this study was to determine the status of land degradation in the Budgam area of Kashmir Himalaya using remote sensing and geographic information system. The satellite data together with other geospatial datasets were used to quantify different categories of land degradation. The results were validated in the field and an accuracy of 85% was observed. Land use/land cover of the study area was determined in order to know the effect of land use on the rate of land degradation. Normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) and slope of the area were determined using LANDSAT-enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data, advanced space borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, and digital elevation model along with other secondary data were analysed to create various thematic maps, viz., land use/land cover, geology, NDVI and slopes used in modelling land degradation in the Kashmir Himalayan region. The vegetation condition, elevation and land use/land cover information of the area were integrated to assess the land degradation scenario in the area using the ArcGIS `Spatial Analyst Module'. The results reveal that about 13.19% of the study area has undergone moderate to high degradation, whereas about 44.12% of the area has undergone slight degradation.

  20. Aquifer response to regional climate variability in a part of Kashmir Himalaya in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, Gh

    2008-12-01

    Forty major perennial springs, under different lithological controls, in a part of Kashmir Himalaya in India were studied to understand the response of spring discharges to regional climate variability. The average monthly spring discharge is high in Triassic Limestone-controlled springs (karst springs) and low in alluvium- and Karewa-controlled springs. In general, the measured monthly spring discharges show an inverse relation with the monthly precipitation data. However, a direct correlation exists between the spring discharges and the degree of snow/ice melt. The results suggest that the creation of a low and continuous (but stable) recharge from the Triassic Limestone and Panjal Trap aquifers, due to blockage of groundwater flow between strata with contrasting hydraulic conductivity, attenuates the discharge and gives rise to small fluctuations in the alluvium- and Karewa-controlled springs. The average monthly discharge of the karst and alluvial springs showed an overall decreasing trend for two and a half decades, with the lowest discharge recorded in 2001. The study revealed that the regional/global warming and below-normal precipitation in the period of snow accumulation (PSA) has triggered the receding of glaciers and attenuation of spring discharges.

  1. High Altitude Landscape Evolution in the Himalaya - Creating the 9000ers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.; Davies, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes of the High Himalaya are broadly characterised by glacial valleys and steep, tall bedrock hillslopes, with the highest peaks represented by glacial horns surrounded by cirques. Himalayan glaciers are noteworthy for the high contribution of avalanching snow to their mass balance, and the thickness of surface debris derived from periglacial hillslopes. However, many glaciers here also do not conform to the typical case of ice accumulating in a cirque and spilling out to form a valley glacier. These exceptions include "beheaded" glaciers lacking cirques at their heads (e.g., the Barun Glacier), and "reconstituted" glaciers whose upper and lower portions are separated by bare rock slopes (e.g., the Langshisha and Yebokangal glaciers). In extreme cases these features can combine to form isolated, low-relief, ice-covered surfaces far above the rest of the glacial valley network (e.g., the Sakyetang Glacier, >6,600m, above the Kazhen Glacier, 6,000m will be frozen to the bed and move very slowly. Thus subglacial erosion rates will also be very low, and outpaced by both rock uplift and rockwall retreat. Given ongoing tectonic uplift, these low-relief surfaces will continue to rise to higher elevations, raising the possibility that remnants of low-relief surfaces may end up as high as, or even higher than, current glacial horns.

  2. Litter Production, Decomposition, and Nutrient Release in Subalpine Forest Communities of the Northwest Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Bisht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production, decomposition, and release of nutrients from leaf and nonleaf litter were investigated in four subalpine forests of North-West Himalaya, India. Total annual litter fall in four communities varied from 2950.00 to 4040.00 kg ha−1 and was found significant (CD0.05 = 118.2. Decomposition of leaf litter varied from 1.82–3.5% during autumn-winter to 36.14–45.51 during summer rainy season in all stands and percent of mass loss was significantly varied in stands (CD6.00. Similarly, decomposition in nonleaf litter was varied from 0.3–1.1% during autumn-winter to 19.59–30.05% during summer rainy season and was significantly varied irrespective of seasons. However, percent decomposition of leaf litter and the values of decay constant (k were at par in all stands. Total standing state of nutrients in fresh litter as well as release of total nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in due course of decomposition (12 months was also varying significantly. The rate of nonleaf litter decomposition was significantly positively correlated with air temperature (r=0.63–0.74 in all communities. The significant correlation (r=0.85 was observed only in Rhododendron-Sorbus forest community (PRS. Study indicates that the air temperature is a major determinant for nonleaf litter decomposition in this region.

  3. Stochastic landslide vulnerability modeling in space and time in a part of the northern Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Iswar; Kumar, Gaurav; Stein, Alfred; Bagchi, Arunabha; Dadhwal, Vinay K

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the quantitative vulnerability analysis to landslides as not many attempts have been made to assess it comprehensively. This study assesses the spatio-temporal vulnerability of elements at risk to landslides in a stochastic framework. The study includes buildings, persons inside buildings, and traffic as elements at risk to landslides. Building vulnerability is the expected damage and depends on the position of a building with respect to the landslide hazard at a given time. Population and vehicle vulnerability are the expected death toll in a building and vehicle damage in space and time respectively. The study was carried out in a road corridor in the Indian Himalayas that is highly susceptible to landslides. Results showed that 26% of the buildings fall in the high and very high vulnerability categories. Population vulnerability inside buildings showed a value >0.75 during 0800 to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours in more buildings that other times of the day. It was also observed in the study region that the vulnerability of vehicle is above 0.6 in half of the road stretches during 0800 hours to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours due to high traffic density on the road section. From this study, we conclude that the vulnerability of an element at risk to landslide is a space and time event, and can be quantified using stochastic modeling. Therefore, the stochastic vulnerability modeling forms the basis for a quantitative landslide risk analysis and assessment.

  4. Great earthquake surface ruptures along backthrust of the Janauri anticline, NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayangondaperumal, R.; Kumahara, Y.; Thakur, V. C.; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, Pradeep; Dubey, Shubhanshu; Joevivek, V.; Dubey, Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Results of a paleoseismic trenching investigation on a backthrust in the northern margin of Janauri hill, at Mehandpur (31°18‧11.37″N, 76°18‧31.47″E), Sub-Himalayan range of the Himachal Himalaya are presented. The active backthrust revealed the last event took place after 0.8 ± 0.03 ka ago (i.e. post CE 1200). The age of the last earthquake with a minimum fault slip ∼1 m along F1 fault and presence of single colluvium on the back thrust nearly matches with an earthquake event previously documented on the Bhatpur forethrust of the Himalayan frontal thrust system. Uplifted and truncated fluvial terraces due to displacement on the backthrust are preserved along several north flowing river valley sections in the northern limb of Janauri anticline. The long-term vertical uplift rate calculated through dividing difference between current elevation and elevation of current river grade is 1.08 ± 0.08 mm/yr. Field evidence shows fore and backthrusts are active and they form simultaneously, but displacements are episodic suggesting the backthrust develops either due to locking of forethrust or to accommodate a large amount of fault slip due to magnitude of earthquake event along the forethrust. Further, the backthrust may be used as an indirect method of inferring the age of the last event that took place along the forethrust.

  5. Mountain Commons: Changing Space and Status at Community Levels in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narpat S. JODHA

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the imperatives of nature-society interaction in the Himalayas as seen through CPR (Common Property Resources). It specifically looks at the process and factors that characterize the dynamics of the above interactions,with particular reference to the changing status and governance of CPRs at community levels. The paper puts together the synthesis of observations and inferences of different studies by ICIMOD and others in mountain regions, particularly in different parts of Nepal, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, China and Pakistan. Rural CPRs (providing sustenance supplies and services)as an important component of a community's natural resource base, manifest the institutional arrangements evolved by the communities to facilitate their adaptations to nature.The above process can be more clearly illustrated with reference to specific characteristics of mountain areas,called mountain specificities.However, over time, the situation of CPRs in terms of their extent and status, governance and management as well as contributions to community sustenance, has changed. The paper attempts to indicate potential lead lines for searching options for rehabilitation of CPRs, based on a closer understanding of the factors contributing to their decline.

  6. Assessment of the Relative Largest Earthquake Hazard Level in the NW Himalaya and its Adjacent Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapanos, Theodoros M.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Olasoglou, Efthalia M.; Singh, Mayshree

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the level of the largest earthquake hazard is assessed in 28 seismic zones of the NW Himalaya and its vicinity, which is a highly seismically active region of the world. Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (hereafter as GIII) is adopted for the evaluation of the largest earthquake magnitudes in these seismic zones. Instead of taking in account any type of Mmax, in the present study we consider the ω value which is the largest earthquake magnitude that a region can experience according to the GIII statistics. A function of the form Θ(ω, RP6.0) is providing in this way a relatively largest earthquake hazard scale defined by the letter K(K index). The return periods for the ω values (earthquake magnitudes) 6 or larger (RP6.0) are also calculated. According to this index, the investigated seismic zones are classified into five groups and it is shown that seismic zones 3 (Quetta of Pakistan), 11 (Hindukush), 15 (northern Pamirs), and 23 (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh of India) correspond to a "very high" K index which is 6.

  7. Crustal rheology of the Himalaya and Southern Tibet inferred from magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, M.J.; Jones, A.G.; Wei, W.; Marquis, G.; Gokarn, S.G.; Spratt, J.E.; Bedrosian, P.; Booker, J.; Leshou, C.; Clarke, G.; Shenghui, L.; Chanhong, L.; Ming, D.; Sheng, J.; Solon, K.; Handong, T.; Ledo, J.; Roberts, B.

    2005-01-01

    The Cenozoic collision between the Indian and Asian continents formed the Tibetan plateau, beginning about 70 million years ago. Since this time, at least 1,400 km of convergence has been accommodated by a combination of underthrusting of Indian and Asian lithosphere, crustal shortening, horizontal extrusion and lithospheric delamination. Rocks exposed in the Himalaya show evidence of crustal melting and are thought to have been exhumed by rapid erosion and climatically forced crustal flow. Magnetotelluric data can be used to image subsurface electrical resistivity, a parameter sensitive to the presence of interconnected fluids in the host rock matrix, even at low volume fractions. Here we present magnetotelluric data from the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen from 77??E to 92??E, which show that low resistivity, interpreted as a partially molten layer, is present along at least 1,000 km of the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The inferred low viscosity of this layer is consistent with the development of climatically forced crustal flow in Southern Tibet. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Earthquake precursory research in western Himalaya based on the multi-parametric geophysical observatory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Rawat, Gautam; Choubey, Vinay; Hazarika, Devajit

    2013-08-01

    The opening of cracks and influx of fluids in the dilatancy zone of impending earthquake is expected to induce short-term changes in physical/chemical/hydrological properties during earthquake build-up cycle, which should be reflected in time-varying geophysical fields. With this rationale, eleven geophysical parameters are being recorded in continuous mode at the Multi-Parametric Geophysical Observatory (MPGO), in Ghuttu, Garhwal Himalaya, for earthquake precursory research. The critical analysis of various geophysical time series indicates anomalous behavior at few occasions; however, the data is also influenced by many external forces. These external influences are the major deterrent for the isolation of precursory signals. The recent work is focused on the data adoptive techniques to estimate and eliminate effects of solar-terrestrial and hydrological/environmental factors for delimiting the data to identify short-term precursors. Although any significant earthquake is not reported close to the observatory, some weak precursory signals and coseismic changes have been identified in few parameters related to the occurrence of moderate and strong earthquakes.

  9. Seasonal and daily variation of radon at 10 m depth in borehole, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, V M; Arora, B R; Barbosa, S M; Kumar, Naresh; Kamra, Leena

    2011-07-01

    Mostly accepted and widely reported radon (Rn(222)) measurements, a tool for earthquake precursor research, is a part of multi-parametric geophysical observation in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya for earthquake related studies. Radon is being recorded continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Three years high resolution 15 min data at 10 m depth shows a complex trend and has a strong seasonal effect along with some diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day recurring trends. A well-defined seasonal pattern is prominent with a high emanation in summer and low values in winter accounting for about a 30% decrease in count values in winter when the atmospheric temperature is very low at this station located 1.90 km above mean sea level. Diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day trends in this time-series are mainly observed during April-May and October-November. This is the period of spring and autumn when there is a high contrast in day-night atmospheric temperature. Hence the high fluctuation in Rn concentration is mainly caused by the temperature contrast between the air-column inside the borehole and the atmosphere above the earth's surface.

  10. Seasonal and daily variation of radon at 10 m depth in borehole, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M., E-mail: vchoubey@wihg.res.i [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Arora, B.R. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Barbosa, S.M. [University of Lisbon, IDL, Campo Grande, Edificio C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Kumar, Naresh; Kamra, Leena [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Mostly accepted and widely reported radon (Rn{sup 222}) measurements, a tool for earthquake precursor research, is a part of multi-parametric geophysical observation in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya for earthquake related studies. Radon is being recorded continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Three years high resolution 15 min data at 10 m depth shows a complex trend and has a strong seasonal effect along with some diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day recurring trends. A well-defined seasonal pattern is prominent with a high emanation in summer and low values in winter accounting for about a 30% decrease in count values in winter when the atmospheric temperature is very low at this station located 1.90 km above mean sea level. Diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day trends in this time-series are mainly observed during April-May and October-November. This is the period of spring and autumn when there is a high contrast in day-night atmospheric temperature. Hence the high fluctuation in Rn concentration is mainly caused by the temperature contrast between the air-column inside the borehole and the atmosphere above the earth's surface.

  11. Rb-Sr age of Gaik granite, Ladakh Batholith, northwest Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, J.R.; Gopalan, K. (Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India)); Sharma, K.K.; Gupta, K.R.; Choubey, V.M. (Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India))

    1982-03-01

    The Gaik Granite is a part of Ladakh batholith outcropping between Gaik and Kiari in NW Himalaya. This is a pink porphyritic granite rich in biotite and poor in hornblende. Rb-Sr analyses have been made on six whole-rock samples of the Gaik Granite. Though the samples are poorly enriched in radiogenic Sr, they define a reliable isochron corresponding to an age of 235+-13(2sigma) m.y. and initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio of 0.7081+-0.0004 (2sigma), Biotite, plagioclase and potash feldspar fractions separated from two of the samples have yielded a much younger mineral isochron at 30+-1.5 m.y. indicating a nearly complete redistribution of Sr isotopes between mineral phases at a time much later than the primary emplacement of the granite. The present results show that at least some components of the Ladakh batholith are of Permo-Triassic aqe. These rocks were isotopically re-equilibrated on a mineral scale during Upper Oligocene in response to the Himalayan orogeny.

  12. Review article: Inferring permafrost and permafrost thaw in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Stephan; Fleiner, Renate; Guegan, Emilie; Panday, Prajjwal; Schmid, Marc-Olivier; Stumm, Dorothea; Wester, Philippus; Zhang, Yinsheng; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The cryosphere reacts sensitively to climate change, as evidenced by the widespread retreat of mountain glaciers. Subsurface ice contained in permafrost is similarly affected by climate change, causing persistent impacts on natural and human systems. In contrast to glaciers, permafrost is not observable spatially and therefore its presence and possible changes are frequently overlooked. Correspondingly, little is known about permafrost in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region, despite permafrost area exceeding that of glaciers in nearly all countries. Based on evidence and insight gained mostly in other permafrost areas globally, this review provides a synopsis on what is known or can be inferred about permafrost in the mountains of the HKH region. Given the extreme nature of the environment concerned, it is to be expected that the diversity of conditions and phenomena encountered in permafrost exceed what has previously been described and investigated. We further argue that climate change in concert with increasing development will bring about diverse permafrost-related impacts on vegetation, water quality, geohazards, and livelihoods. To better anticipate and mitigate these effects, a deepened understanding of high-elevation permafrost in subtropical latitudes as well as the pathways interconnecting environmental changes and human livelihoods are needed.

  13. An environmental record of changes in sedimentary organic matter from Lake Sattal in Kumaun Himalayas, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Preetam [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Routh, Joyanto [Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: joyanto.routh@geo.su.se; Chakrapani, Govind J. [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-04-01

    Sattal a small mountainous lake in the Kumaun Himalayas has been impacted by various cultural activities in recent years. We explored the effects of human-induced changes in this lake by using various geochemical proxies. Shifts in TOC and N flux, C/N ratio, stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N), n-alkane, and pigment concentrations in sediments indicate a steady increase in primary productivity over the last few decades. The trophic status of the lake has changed from mesotrophic to eutrophic condition. The C/N, CPI, and TAR based ratios in sediments indicate accumulation of algal matter derived primarily from in situ production, with limited input of terrestrial organic matter from the watershed. The low (between 0.1 and 1 per mille ) {delta}{sup 15}N values imply N{sub 2}-fixation by cyanobacteria, and the decrease in {delta}{sup 13}C values up-core represent the effect of sewage input and land based runoff, or possible contribution from microbial biomass. The pigments change from non-N{sub 2} fixing cyanobacterial species to the N{sub 2}-fixing community, and are consistent with the proxy-based productivity shifts inferred in the lake. The deeper sediments are affected by post-diagenetic changes causing an increase in {delta}{sup 13}C (and possibly {delta}{sup 15}N) due to mineralization of organic C and N.

  14. Decentralisation and Water Resources Management in the Indian Himalayas: The Contribution of New Institutional Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on decentralisation offers a polarised view on the dynamic power relations involved in water resources management. Drawing New Institutionalism as applied in the social and ecological sciences, the paper argues that decentralisation represents a complex adaptive process that involves a combination of natural and a political endeavour by actors and agents to draw on existing structures to negotiate and renegotiate the existing unequal power relations to (mismanage water. Examining a Village in the Indian Himalayas as a case study, the paper demonstrates the significance of New Institutionalism for a comprehensive understanding of the decentralisation as a process, with an intention to identify the opportunities and barriers presented by institutional factors on water resources management. The paper reveals the contemporary top-down decentralised reforms though has helped actors to voice their concern and empowered the agents to remain adaptive, these have not ensured resource use efficiency, addressed poverty and promoted greater participation of the actors. Facilitating these will require a strengthening the role of statutory public organisations to regulate water distribution, build capacity of actors and offer diverse forums to facilitate informed water-related decisions for a sustainable future.

  15. Biodiversity Conservation through Traditional Beliefs System: A Case Study from Kumaon Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh SINGH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservation in the Indian Himalayan of Kumaon region, and to this, systematic field surveys were conducted during 2007-2010 covering all four seasons viz., summer, rainy, winter and spring. A total of 64 species in 58 genera under 47 families were identified, of which 35 species are flowering plants and 29 species are non-flowering plants. The dominant family was Parmeliaceae of lichen which recorded the maximum 6 species. 35 plant species under 32 genera and 23 families are used as an ethno-medicinal and the information about the ethno-medicinal plants was gathered from knowledgeable elderly local peoples of the area. Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Origanum vulgare, Berberis asiatica, etc. are highly exploited species and need to be conserved.

  16. Genetic insights into the origins of Tibeto-Burman populations in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Mirabal, Sheyla; Cadenas, Alicia M; Lacau, Harlette; Simms, Tanya M; Morlote, Diana; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Herrera, Rene J

    2009-04-01

    The Himalayan mountain range has played a dual role in shaping the genetic landscape of the region by (1) delineating east-west migrations including the Silk Road and (2) restricting human dispersals, especially from the Indian subcontinent into the Tibetan plateau. In this study, 15 hypervariable autosomal STR loci were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships of three populations from Nepal (Kathmandu, Newar and Tamang) and a general collection from Tibet. These Himalayan groups were compared to geographically targeted worldwide populations as well as Tibeto-Burman (TB) speaking groups from Northeast India. Our results suggest a Northeast Asian origin for the Himalayan populations with subsequent gene flow from South Asia into the Kathmandu valley and the Newar population, corroborating a previous Y-chromosome study. In contrast, Tamang and Tibet exhibit limited genetic contributions from South Asia, possibly due to the orographic obstacle presented by the Himalayan massif. The TB groups from Northeast India are genetically distinct compared to their counterparts from the Himalayas probably resulting from prolonged isolation and/or founder effects.

  17. HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE OF MILITARY PERSONNEL IN COLD CLIMATIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE WESTERN HIMALAYAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswal, R; Sivadas, P; Mishra, S S

    2001-10-01

    Indian Armed Forces are constrained to deploy a large number of troops in the western Himalayas in the interest of national security and territorial integrity. The region represents extremely rugged, arid and cold climatic conditions. The altitude ranges from 8000 to 23000 feet with winter temperatures ranging from -35°C to - 55°C in some regions. Low environmental humidity, hypo-baric hypoxia and high solar ultra-violet radiation with its attendant problems further compound the hardships faced by the troops in these climatic conditions. The role of the Armed Forces medical personnel is extremely challenging, as they have to ensure maintenance of health and physical fitness of the troops to ensure optimal performance during peace and during operations. These considerations include nutrition, physical fitness programmes suitable for the terrain and climatic conditions, protection against cold and hypoxia induced health problems, clothing and shelter taking into consideration the ergonomic factors, human waste disposal and prompt medical attention and evacuation in case of illness. An overview of the effects of cold hypoxic environment on health and performance of Indian troops, measures employed by the Armed Forces to maintain health of troops including psychological factors and the incidence of various cold induced health problems during peace time compared to operational period over the last 10 years is presented in this paper.

  18. Morphology and Food Plants of Cuckoo Bees (Apidae: Hymenoptera From Indian Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat H. Raina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuckoo bees belong to the genus Bombus (Apidae: Hymenoptera under sub genus Psythrus Lepeletier and is widely distributed subgenus from the oriental region represented by 17 valid species. This subgenus is represented by eight valid species from Indian Himalayas viz. B. ferganicus B. novus, B. morawatizianus, B. cornutus, B. branickii, B. skorikovi, B. tibetanus and B. turneri. Due emphasis has been laid on their altitudional distribution, food plants, taxonomy, synonymy, and illustrations. Being their parasitic nature these species lack worker caste and has negligible role in pollination ecology although they have got preference to forage on different host plants. The species were observed feeding sluggishly on flower heads of Rosa weibbiana, Cirsium spp. and Trifoium spp. Many new food plants of these species have been recorded for the first time from the area under study. During the present studies six species of the cuckoo bees were collected and identified and one species viz. B. turneri which could not found during the present study were procured on exchanged from BMNH, London.

  19. Agrococcus lahaulensis sp. nov., isolated from a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayilraj, S; Suresh, K; Schumann, P; Kroppenstedt, R M; Saini, H S

    2006-08-01

    The taxonomic position of a lemon-yellow-pigmented actinobacterium, strain K22-21(T), isolated from a soil sample from Lahaul-Spiti Valley in the Indian Himalayas, was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain had phenotypic and chemical properties that were consistent with its classification in the genus Agrococcus. Alignment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain K22-21(T) with sequences from Agrococcus jenensis DSM 9580(T), Agrococcus baldri DSM 14215(T) and Agrococcus citreus DSM 12453(T) revealed similarities of 98.5, 96.8 and 96.6 %, respectively. However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain K22-21(T) and A. jenensis was 55.1 %. The novel strain could be distinguished from type strains of the three species of the genus Agrococcus using DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data. Based on these differences, strain K22-21(T) (=MTCC 7154(T)=DSM 17612(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of Agrococcus, for which the name Agrococcus lahaulensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  20. Kocuria himachalensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayilraj, S; Kroppenstedt, R M; Suresh, K; Saini, H S

    2006-08-01

    A reddish orange bacterium, strain K07-05(T), was isolated from soil during a study of the bacterial diversity of a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas and was studied by using a polyphasic approach. The organism had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with its classification in the genus Kocuria. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain K07-05(T) was closely related to Kocuria rosea DSM 20447(T) and Kocuria polaris MTCC 3702(T) (98.1 and 97.8 % sequence similarity, respectively), whereas the sequence similarity values with respect to the other Kocuria species with validly published names were between 96.4 and 94.2 %. However, the genomic relatedness, as shown by DNA-DNA hybridization, of strain K07-05(T) and K. polaris MTCC 3702(T) is 49.5 % and that with K. rosea MTCC 2522(T) is 24.0 %. The DNA G+C content of the strain is 75.3 mol%. The above data in combination with the phenotypic distinctiveness of K07-05(T) clearly indicate that the strain represents a novel species, for which the name Kocuria himachalensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K07-05(T) (=MTCC 7020(T)=DSM 44905(T)=JCM 13326(T)).

  1. Actinoalloteichus spitiensis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, A K; Mayilraj, S; Kudo, Takuji; Krishnamurthi, S; Prasad, G S; Vohra, R M

    2005-11-01

    An actinobacterial strain, RMV-1378T, isolated from a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas, was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The strain formed branching, non-fragmenting vegetative hyphae and did not produce diffusible pigments. Neither aerial mycelium nor spore formation was observed. The G+C content of the DNA was 72.0 mol%. The strain had chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Actinoalloteichus and was closely related (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) to Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus, currently the only Actinoalloteichus species with a validly published name. However, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed 51.9 % relatedness with the type strain of A. cyanogriseus. On the basis of the above data and the physiological and biochemical distinctiveness of RMV-1378T (=MTCC 6194T=JCM 12472T=DSM 44848T), this strain should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of Actinoalloteichus, for which the name Actinoalloteichus spitiensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  2. Rhodobacter changlensis sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, phototrophic alphaproteobacterium from the Himalayas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, P; Srinivas, T N R; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2007-11-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, oval to rod-shaped, psychrotolerant, phototrophic, purple non-sulfur bacterium (designated strain JA139T) was isolated from a snow sample from Changla Pass in the Indian Himalayas. Strain JA139T had vesicular-type intracytoplasmic membrane structures and contained bacteriochlorophyll a and most probably spheroidene-like carotenoids. Biotin, niacin and thiamine were required for growth of strain JA139T. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain clustered with species of the genus Rhodobacter but was distinctly separate from all recognized members of the family Rhodobacteraceae. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic differences observed between strain JA139T and recognized Rhodobacter species, strain JA139T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus, for which the name Rhodobacter changlensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA139T (=DSM 18774T=CCUG 53722T=JCM 14338T).

  3. Plant Species Diversity along an Altitudinal Gradient of Bhabha Valley in Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Chawla; S. Rajkumar; K.N. Singh; Brij Lal; R.D. Singh; A. K. Thukral

    2008-01-01

    The present study highlights the rich species diversity of higher plants in the Bhabha Valley of western Himalaya in India. The analysis of species diversity revealed that a total of 313 species of higher plants inhabit the valley with a charactersfic of moist alpine shrub vegetation. The herbaceous life forms dominate and increase with increasing altitude. The major representations are from the families Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae, suggesting thereby the alpine meadow nature of the study area. The effect of altitude on species diversity displays a hump-shaped curve which may be attributed to increase in habitat diversity at the median ranges and relatively less habitat diversity at higher altitudes. The anthropogenic pressure at lower altitudes results in low plant diversity towards the bottom of the valley with most of the species being exotic in nature. Though the plant diversity is less at higher altitudinal ranges, the uniqueness is relatively high with high species replacement rates. More than 90% of variability in the species diversity could be explained using appropriate quantitative and statistical analysis along the altitudinal gradient. The valley harbours 18 threatened and 41 endemic species, most of which occur at higher altitudinal gradients due to habitat specificity.

  4. Crustal Structure of the Pakistan Himalayas from Ambient Noise and Seismic Rayleigh Wave Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.

    2007-05-01

    The western Himalayan syntaxi is a unique feature resulted from the India-Asia collision and its formation remains poorly understood. To image crustal structure in the western syntaxi, we analyze Rayleigh waves from ambient seismic noise and earthquake data recorded during the Pakistan Broadband Seismic Experiment. The Pakistan experiment included 9 broadband stations with an aperture of ~200 km and operated from September to December in 1992. We compute cross-correlations of ambient noise data on an hourly base and stack all the cross-correlations for 70 days to produce the estimated Green functions. Power spectrum analysis shows that the dominant energy is from 0.15 to 0.25 Hz and from 0.05 to 0.07 Hz, consistent with the well-know background seismic noise. A phase with large amplitude appears at near zero time on almost all stacked cross- correlations and its origin is not clear to us at this moment. Rayleigh waves can be clearly observed for station pairs at the distance of 80 km and larger but are contaminated by the near zero time phase at shorter station spacing. Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods of 4 to 15 s will be produced from the ambient noise data. Using regional and teleseismic earthquakes, we expect to obtain Rayleigh wave dispersions at periods from 15 to 50 s. The phase velocities from both datasets will be inverted for crustal thickness and shear-wave structure beneath the Pakistan Himalayas.

  5. ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND IMPACT OF DISTURBANCE IN AN ALPINE PASTURE OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ DHAULAKHANDI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The alpine area in Garhwal Himalaya is highly fragile and is known for its beautiful flora and fauna. The study area was located just below the Gangotri glacier which is the origin of Bhagirathi, a holy river of India. Pilgrimage, tourism, adventure activities and mules are the factors responsible for causing disturbance in this area. There is a remarkable variation in the values of diversity, species richness, dominance, density IVI and biomass production at Bhojbasa Protected (BP and Bhojbasa Disturbed (BD sites. The value of liveshoot biomass was highest in August (444 g m-2 on BP and 80 g m-2 on BD sites. Belowground biomass was also recorded highest for BP site and lowest for BD site. The ANP value at BP site was 363 g m-2 y-1 and 26 g m-2 y-1 at BD site.This area has shown decrease in diversity and productivity, and heavy soil erosion that indicate the consequence of increasing human activities due to pilgrimage, tourism and camping and frequent movement of mules carrying goods. Therefore, this area requires strict measures for biodiversity conservation and disaster mitigation.

  6. Atmospheric water budget over the western Himalayas in a regional climate model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Dimri

    2012-08-01

    During winter months (December, January, February – DJF), the western Himalayas (WH) receive precipitation from eastward moving extratropical cyclones, called western disturbances (WDs) in Indian parlance. Winter precipitation–moisture convergence–evaporation (P–C–E) cycle is analyzed for a period of 22 years (1981–2002: 1980(D)–1981(J, F) to 2001(D)–2002(J, F)) with observed and modelled (RegCM3) climatological estimates over WH. Remarkable model skills have been observed in depicting the hydrological cycle over WH. Although precipitation biases exist, similar spatial precipitation with well marked two maxima is simulated by the model. As season advances, temporal distribution shows higher precipitation in simulation than the observed. However, P–C–E cycle shows similar peaks of moisture convergence and evaporation in daily climatologies though with varying maxima/minima. In the first half of winter, evaporation over WH is mainly driven by ground surface and 2 m air temperature. Lowest temperatures during mid-winter correspond to lowest evaporation to precipitation ratio as well.

  7. Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Study on the nature of genetic divergence in rice from assam and North East Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, S; Siddiq, E A; Arunachalam, V; Swaminathan, M S

    1973-01-01

    A representative group of 190 rice types collected from North-East India along with four standard varieties, three of which were indicas and one japonica, was studied to understand the nature of genetic divergence. Preliminary grouping was done by canonical analysis and the resultant 42 groups were further classified using the D(2) statistic.The final grouping resulted in nine divergent clusters. The three indica standards were found in three different clusters indicating the wide available variability among them. The japonica standard formed a separate group by itself. A majority of the North-East Indian types formed clusters with indicas, whereas some were intermediate and still others were closer to japonica or indica, thus indicating a series of intergrades bridging indica and japonica.Height followed by leaf area was found to be important for primary and 100-grain weight, followed by amylose content for secondary differentiation. It appears that natural selection as well as human selection might have operated for characters differentiating rice types in Assam and North Eastern Himalayas. Geographical distance was not found to be related to genetic divergence. The study suggests that O. sativa contains innumerable but divergent forms, and its classification into definite varietal groups on an arbitrary basis such as isolation barrier, sexual affinity or geographic distribution would be far from reality.

  9. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over the Western Himalayas (WH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dan; Juyal, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation in solid form, i.e., snow, during winter season over the Western Himalayas (WH) leads to the build-up of seasonal snow cover. Seasonal snow cover build-up (snow cover depth and duration) largely depends on atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation, radiation, wind, etc. Integrated (combined) influence of atmospheric variables on seasonal snow cover gets reflected in terms of spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover build-up pattern. Hence spatial and temporal variability of seasonal snow cover build-up can serve as a good indicator of climate change in high altitude mountainous regions like the WH. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and percentiles (25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th) of consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration show decline over the WH in the recent past 2-3 decades. Consistent seasonal snow cover is found to melt early and snow cover build-up pattern is found to show changes over the WH. Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build-up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH.

  10. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over the Western Himalayas (WH)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dan Singh; Vikas Juyal; Vikas Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation in solid form, i.e., snow, during winter season over theWestern Himalayas (WH) leads to the build-up of seasonal snow cover. Seasonal snow cover build-up (snow cover depth and duration) largely depends on atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation, radiation, wind, etc. Integrated(combined) influence of atmospheric variables on seasonal snow cover gets reflected in terms of spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover build-up pattern. Hence spatial and temporal variability of seasonal snow cover build-up can serve as a good indicator of climate change in high altitude mountainousregions like the WH. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and percentiles (25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th) of consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration show decline over the WH in the recent past 2–3 decades. Consistent seasonal snow cover is found to melt early and snow cover build-up pattern is found to show changes over the WH. Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover buildup pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate changeand winter weather patterns are changing in the WH.

  11. Recruitment of hornbill-dispersed trees in hunted and logged forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Pia; Howe, Henry F

    2009-06-01

    Hunting of hornbills by tribal communities is widespread in logged foothill forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya. We investigated whether the decline of hornbills has affected the dispersal and recruitment of 3 large-seeded tree species. We hypothesized that 2 low-fecundity tree species, Chisocheton paniculatus and Dysoxylum binectariferum (Meliaceae) bearing arillate fruits, are more dispersal limited than a prolifically fruiting drupaceous tree Polyalthia simiarum (Annonaceae), which has potential dispersers other than hornbills. We estimated the abundance of large avian frugivores during the fruiting season along transects in 2 protected and 2 disturbed forests. We compared recruitment of the tree species near (Aceros undulatus), and Oriental Pied Hornbills (Anthracoceros albirostris) were significantly lower in disturbed forests, but sites did not differ in abundances of the Mountain Imperial Pigeon (Ducula badia). Overall, tree species showed more severely depressed recruitment of seedlings (77% fewer) and juveniles (69% fewer) in disturbed than in protected forests. In disturbed forests, 93% fewer seedlings of C. paniculatus were beyond parental crowns, and a high number of all seedlings (42%) accumulated directly under reproductive adults. In contrast, D. binectariferum and P. simiarum were recruitment rather than dispersal limited, with fewer dispersed seedlings surviving in disturbed than in protected forests. Results are consistent with the idea that disturbance disrupts mutualisms between hornbills and some large-seeded food plants, with the caveat that role redundancy within even small and specialized disperser assemblages renders other tree species less vulnerable to loss of regular dispersal agents.

  12. Soil quality index as affected by different cropping systems in northwestern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, J A; Bhat, A G; Kirmai, N A; Wani, J A; Lone, Aabid H; Ganie, Mumtaz A; Dar, G I H

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of soils under different crop cafeterias. Our objective was to develop the soil quality index for evaluating the soil quality indicators under different cropping systems in northwest Himalaya-India. Composite soil samples were taken from the study area from different cropping systems which include T1 (forest soil control), T2 (rice-oilseed, lower belts), T3 (rice-oilseed, higher belts), T4 (rice-oats), T5 (rice-fallow), T6 (maize-oats), T7 (maize-peas), T8 (apple), T9 (apple-beans), and T10 (apple-maize). Physical, chemical, and biological soil indicators were determined, and it was found that soil enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling were significantly higher in forest soils, which were reflected in higher levels of available pool of nutrients. Carbon stocks were found significantly higher in forest soil which was translated in improved soil physical condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce multidimensionality of data followed by scoring by homothetic transformation of the selected indicators. Pearson's interclass correlation was performed to avoid redundancy, and highly correlated variables were not retained. Inclusion of legumes in the apple orchard floor recorded highest soil quality rating across the treatments. Cereal-based cropping systems were found in lower soil quality rating; however, the incorporation of peas in the system improved soil health.

  13. A new remote hazard and risk assessment framework for glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, David R.; McKinney, Daene C.; Lala, Jonathan M.; Byers, Alton C.; Watson, C. Scott

    2016-08-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) pose a significant threat to downstream communities and infrastructure due to their potential to rapidly unleash stored lake water. The most common triggers of these GLOFs are mass movement entering the lake and/or the self-destruction of the terminal moraine due to hydrostatic pressures or a buried ice core. This study initially uses previous qualitative and quantitative assessments to understand the hazards associated with eight glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya that are widely considered to be highly dangerous. The previous assessments yield conflicting classifications with respect to each glacial lake, which spurred the development of a new holistic, reproducible, and objective approach based solely on remotely sensed data. This remote hazard assessment analyzes mass movement entering the lake, the stability of the moraine, and lake growth in conjunction with a geometric GLOF to determine the downstream impacts such that the present and future risk associated with each glacial lake may be quantified. The new approach is developed within a hazard, risk, and management action framework with the aim that this remote assessment may guide future field campaigns, modeling efforts, and ultimately risk-mitigation strategies. The remote assessment was found to provide valuable information regarding the hazards faced by each glacial lake and results were discussed within the context of the current state of knowledge to help guide future efforts.

  14. Status and distribution of endemic and threatened birds of the Eastern Himalaya in Sikkim, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Acharya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their restricted distribution range and dwindling population endemic and threatened species need considerable attention from ecologists. Sikkim is a part of the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area that represents high concentrations of globally threatened species. This study collected information on endemic and threatened birds of Sikkim using point count method. The number of species and their density at five elevation zones were calculated. Out of 10 species endemic to Sikkim, five were recorded during the present study. These species were restricted to one to three habitats but densities varied among the habitats. Similarly, out of 17 threatened and 10 near-threatened species of birds that occur in Sikkim, we could observe only three species. The results show that these birds are rare or their occurrence is doubtful in recent years. The principal threat to birds in the state appears to be loss of breeding habitat. Species-specific studies focusing on population status, habitat requirements and assessment of threats are necessary for the execution of conservation measures.

  15. Variability of radon and thoron equilibrium factors in indoor environment of Garhwal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mukesh; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Kandari, Tushar; Gusain, G S; Mishra, Rosaline; Ramola, R C

    2016-01-01

    The measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been carried out in the dwellings of Uttarkashi and Tehri districts of Garhwal Himalaya, India using LR-115 detector based pin-hole dosimeter and DRPS/DTPS techniques. The equilibrium factors for radon, thoron and their progeny were calculated by using the values measured with these techniques. The average values of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny have been found to be 0.44, 0.39, 0.39 and 0.28 for rainy, autumn, winter and summer seasons, respectively. For thoron and its progeny, the average values of equilibrium factor have been found to be 0.04, 0.04, 0.04 and 0.03 for rainy, autumn, winter and summer seasons, respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny has been found to be dependent on the seasonal changes. However, the equilibrium factor for thoron and progeny has been found to be same for rainy, autumn and winter seasons but slightly different for summer season. The annual average equilibrium factors for radon and thoron have been found to vary from 0.23 to 0.80 with an average of 0.42 and from 0.01 to 0.29 with an average of 0.07, respectively. The detailed discussion of the measurement techniques and the explanation for the results obtained is given in the paper.

  16. A review of therapeutic potential ofAjuga bracteosa:A critically endangered plant from Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubashir Hussain; Yamin Bibi; Naveed Iqbal Raja; Muhammad Iqbal; Sumaira Aslam; Nida Tahir; Muhammad Imran; Anam Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift for the humanity to treat various ailments and to spend a prosperous healthy life. There are almost 300 species ofAjuga. Among them,Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth (A. bracteosa) is an important medicinal plant of Himalaya regions. Its medicinal potential is due to the presence of various pharmacologically active compounds such as neo-clerodane diterpenoids, flavonol glycosides, iridoid glycosides, ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide and phytoecdysones. The aim of this review article was to gather information aboutA. bracteosa which is currently scattered in form of various publications. This review article tried to attract the attention from people for therapeutic potential ofA. bracteosa. The present review comprises upto date information of botanical aspects, active ingredients, traditional uses, and pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic activity, antiarthritic activity, antioxidant activity andin vitro production of secondary metabolites for pharmaceuticals. Due to remarkable medicinal potential and commercialization, this species is indexed into critically endangered category and it is facing extremely high risk of extinction. Conservation practices and management techniques should be carried out to protect this important species from extinction. Recent biotechnological approaches will be quite helpful for its conservation.

  17. Export of Dissolved Organic Matter, Nutrients and Carbon from Himalayan River System in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical weathering is a vital ecosystem process and plays a central role in regulation of global carbon cycles. Weathering from Himalayan landscape supply high amount of major ions, nutrients and suspended sediments to the oceans. Surface water samples were collected from sixteen stations at different altitude along the Langtnag-Narayani Himalayan river system in central Nepal on a monthly basis for one year. This study aims to investigate spatiotemporal variations of dissolved organic matter, nutrients and carbonic species and to evaluate their controlling factors within the basin. The fluxes of these species appeared several fold higher at low elevation than at mid mountains and high elevation Himalaya sites. Seasonality appeared to exert major control on concentrations and fluxes of major solutes along the drainage network. The highest export rate of chemical species corresponded to the monsoon season, followed by the ones corresponding to post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. Carbonate has major control on the flux of major solutes within the basin. The export rate of dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen were about three and seventeen times higher respectively at the Narayani basin than its headwater at Langtang basin within the high Himalaya. Nitrate and phosphate export rates in the Narayani basin were 5.07 and 0.34 tons km-2 yr-1 respectively which is several fold higher than the rates in the high Himalaya probably due to input from agricultural activities. The export of dissolved inorganic carbon from the Narayani basin was 101.87 tons km-2 yr-1 of which bicarbonate appeared to be the dominant fraction (94.9%) followed by carbonic acid (4.7%) and carbonate (0.4%). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) resulted under-saturated in the high elevation Himalayan basin and supersaturated at the low elevation Narayani basin. The concentration of pCO2 is considered to be an important factor for regulating weathering rates of any landscape.

  18. Consensus on the Eocene Latitude of Lhasa and the Age of the Tethyan Himalaya-Asia Collision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Kapp, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The accretion of the Tethyan Himalaya to the Asian plate from 56-46 Ma is generally considered to reflect the collision between India and Asia. Paleomagnetism can be used to independently constrain this collision age by determining when paleolatitudes of the Tethyan Himalaya and the southernmost Asian terranes start to overlap. Previous paleomagnetic-based reconstructions, however, have produced ages that range from 70 to 30 Ma, even though India and Asia converged by 1000s of kilometers in this time period. Here we present a compilation of volcanic-based paleomagnetic data from six published studies of the upper Linzizong Formation (LZF, 56-47 Ma) near Lhasa, which yield a paleomagnetically-based age for the Tethyan Himalaya-Asia collision in excellent agreement with the geological record of this collision. The mean paleomagnetic pole from 89 tilt-corrected site mean directions is at λ=78.5°N, φ=249.7°E (K=21.0, A95=3.4°, S=17.9°). Although these data pass a regional fold test and a reversals test at high confidence, the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) is higher than can be explained by secular variation, suggesting these data may not accurately characterize the time-averaged behavior of the geomagnetic field. To test if this high dispersion is caused by the inclusion of poorly-constrained site mean directions, we apply data quality filters commonly used by the geomagnetic field community. This approach reduces the LZF data to 52 site mean directions of high comparable quality. The mean paleomagnetic pole calculated from these filtered data is at λ=80.1°N, φ=248.6°E (K=26.8, A95=3.9°, S=15.7°). The filtered VPG dispersion represents secular variation and we conclude that this paleopole more accurately characterizes the time-averaged behavior of the geomagnetic field than any previous individual study of the LZF. Paleolatitudes calculated from this LZF pole and inclination-shallowing-corrected marine limestones from the Tethyan Himalaya

  19. DNA barcoding of Rhododendron (Ericaceae), the largest Chinese plant genus in biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jun; Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains encompass two global biodiversity hotspots with high levels of biodiversity and endemism. This area is one of the diversification centres of the genus Rhododendron, which is recognized as one of the most taxonomically challenging plant taxa due to recent adaptive radiations and rampant hybridization. In this study, four DNA barcodes were evaluated on 531 samples representing 173 species of seven sections of four subgenera in Rhododendron, with a high sampling density from the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains employing three analytical methods. The varied approaches (nj, pwg and blast) had different species identification powers with blast performing best. With the pwg analysis, the discrimination rates for single barcodes varied from 12.21% to 25.19% with ITS barcodes showed the highest discrimination ability (both 41.98%) among all possible combinations. As a single barcode, psbA-trnH performed best with a relatively high performance (25.19%). Overall, the three-marker combination of ITS + psbA-trnH + matK was found to be the best DNA barcode for identifying Rhododendron species. The relatively low discriminative efficiency of DNA barcoding in this genus (~42%) may possibly be attributable to too low sequence divergences as a result of a long generation time of Rhododendron and complex speciation patterns involving recent radiations and hybridizations. Taking the morphology, distribution range and habitat of the species into account, DNA barcoding provided additional information for species identification and delivered a preliminary assessment of biodiversity for the large genus Rhododendron in the biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

  20. Enhanced Surface Warming and Accelerated Snow Melt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau Induced by Absorbing Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lee, Woo-Seop

    2010-01-01

    Numerical experiments with the NASA finite-volume general circulation model show that heating of the atmosphere by dust and black carbon can lead to widespread enhanced warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and accelerated snow melt in the western TP and Himalayas. During the boreal spring, a thick aerosol layer, composed mainly of dust transported from adjacent deserts and black carbon from local emissions, builds up over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, against the foothills of the Himalaya and the TP. The aerosol layer, which extends from the surface to high elevation (approx.5 km), heats the mid-troposphere by absorbing solar radiation. The heating produces an atmospheric dynamical feedback the so-called elevated-heat-pump (EHP) effect, which increases moisture, cloudiness, and deep convection over northern India, as well as enhancing the rate of snow melt in the Himalayas and TP. The accelerated melting of snow is mostly confined to the western TP, first slowly in early April and then rapidly from early to mid-May. The snow cover remains reduced from mid-May through early June. The accelerated snow melt is accompanied by similar phases of enhanced warming of the atmosphere-land system of the TP, with the atmospheric warming leading the surface warming by several days. Surface energy balance analysis shows that the short-wave and long-wave surface radiative fluxes strongly offset each other, and are largely regulated by the changes in cloudiness and moisture over the TP. The slow melting phase in April is initiated by an effective transfer of sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere to land. The rapid melting phase in May is due to an evaporation-snow-land feedback coupled to an increase in atmospheric moisture over the TP induced by the EHP effect.

  1. Clockwise rotation of the Brahmaputra Valley relative to India: Tectonic convergence in the eastern Himalaya, Naga Hills, and Shillong Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernant, P.; Bilham, R.; Szeliga, W.; Drupka, D.; Kalita, S.; Bhattacharyya, A. K.; Gaur, V. K.; Pelgay, P.; Cattin, R.; Berthet, T.

    2014-08-01

    GPS data reveal that the Brahmaputra Valley has broken from the Indian Plate and rotates clockwise relative to India about a point a few hundred kilometers west of the Shillong Plateau. The GPS velocity vectors define two distinct blocks separated by the Kopili fault upon which 2-3 mm/yr of dextral slip is observed: the Shillong block between longitudes 89 and 93°E rotating clockwise at 1.15°/Myr and the Assam block from 93.5°E to 97°E rotating at ≈1.13°/Myr. These two blocks are more than 120 km wide in a north-south sense, but they extend locally a similar distance beneath the Himalaya and Tibet. A result of these rotations is that convergence across the Himalaya east of Sikkim decreases in velocity eastward from 18 to ≈12 mm/yr and convergence between the Shillong Plateau and Bangladesh across the Dauki fault increases from 3 mm/yr in the west to >8 mm/yr in the east. This fast convergence rate is inconsistent with inferred geological uplift rates on the plateau (if a 45°N dip is assumed for the Dauki fault) unless clockwise rotation of the Shillong block has increased substantially in the past 4-8 Myr. Such acceleration is consistent with the reported recent slowing in the convergence rate across the Bhutan Himalaya. The current slip potential near Bhutan, based on present-day convergence rates and assuming no great earthquake since 1713 A.D., is now ~5.4 m, similar to the slip reported from alluvial terraces that offsets across the Main Himalayan Thrust and sufficient to sustain a Mw ≥ 8.0 earthquake in this area.

  2. New Constraints on the Geometry and Kinematics of Active Faults in the Hinterland of the Northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, K. D.; Sandiford, M.; Rajendran, C. C. P.; Fink, D.; Kohn, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    The geometry and kinematics of the active, and potentially seismogenic, fault structures within the hinterland of the Himalaya have proven challenging to constrain in the past, primarily because active faults in this region tend to be buried beneath the subsurface and active seismicity often does not align with surficially mapped fault traces. Here we present a series of complementary datasets, including results from low temperature thermochronology, basin-wide erosion rates from 10Be concentrations, and topographic and longitudinal profile analyses, that place constraints on the spatial distribution of fault-related rock uplift and erosion across a ~400-km long region of the lower and high Himalaya of northwest India. Results from our analyses reveal that hillslope morphology and channel steepness are relatively invariant parallel to strike but vary significantly across strike, with the most prominent and abrupt variations occurring at the physiographic transition between the lower and high Himalaya (PT2), near the axial trace of the ramp-flat transition in the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). The cross-strike changes in geomorphology observed across the PT2 correlate with an order of magnitude northward increase in basin-wide erosion rates (~0.06-0.8 mm/a) and a corresponding decrease in apatite (~5-2 Ma) and zircon (U-Th)/He (~10-2 Ma) cooling ages. Combined with published geophysical and seismicity data, we interpret these results to reflect spatial variations in rock uplift and exhumation induced by a segment of the MHT ramp-flat system that is at least ~400 km long and ~125 km wide. The relatively young (U-Th)/He ages (flat transition preliminarily suggest that the kinematics of this system are best explained by a model which incorporates an accreting duplex on the MHT ramp but additional forthcoming analyses, including thermal modeling, will confirm if this hypothesis is robust.

  3. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in Nepal Himalaya have been reported to be related with the temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya. GLOF has increased the vulnerability of community and fragile ecosystem in the mountain valleys. This study has analyzed the potential impacts from GLOF in the highland of eastern Nepal and the potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to cope with such impacts. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, and prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS applications in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 m, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questionnaire survey and key informants' interviews in the community in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community are the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts. Modern ICTs has high potential to reduce the risk of climate related hazards in the remote area by information dissemination and awareness.

  4. Correlation between geology and radon levels in groundwater, soil and indoor air in Bhilangana Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Dept. of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal Univ. Campus, Tehri Garhwal (India)

    1997-11-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in soil, air and groundwater in Bhilangana Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India by using an LR-115 plastic track detector and radon emanometer. Radon concentrations were found to vary from 1 KBq/m{sup 3} to 57 KBq/m{sup 3} in soil, 5 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l in water and 95 Bq/m{sup 3} to 208 Bq/m{sup 3} in air. The recorded values are quite high due to associated uranium mineralization in the area. Radon concentration was also found to depend on the tectonic structure and geology of the area. (orig.)

  5. Sr–Nd isotope composition of the Bay of Bengal sediments: Impact of climate on erosion in the Himalaya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, G.R.; Singh, S.K.; Bhushan, R.; Ramaswamy, V.

    ). This is consistent with the important role that climate has on the present-day erosion over the Himalaya, with most of sediments delivered to the BoB by rivers during the southwest monsoon (Islam et al., 1999; Goodbred, 2003). In contrast, some of the studies...-178. http://www.gemswater.org/atlas-gwq/table3-e.html Islam, M. R., Begum, S. F., Yamaguchi, Y. and Ogawa, K. (1999) The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in Bangladesh: Basin denudation and sedimentation, Hydrol. Proc., 13, 2907-2923. Kessarkar, P. M...

  6. The Internal and External Dimensions of Security in the Himalayas -From non-alignment to multi-alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Thapa, Manish

    This contribution offers a critical perspective of the internal and external dimensions of security and conflicts in the Himalayas. The two main actors are India and China while Pakistan plays a role in the Kashmir conflict. With the recent rapprochement between the BJP-government led by Narendra...... Modi and the Communist party led by Xi Jinping the two countries are attempting to keep a global and regional geo-economic momentum while the US appears to be more inclined to return to a more traditional geo-political state of affairs....

  7. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of early 21st century glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääb, A.; Nuth, C.; Treichler, D.; Berthier, E.

    2014-11-01

    We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003-2008. The strongest thinning (mass change reaches -22 ± 3 Gt yr-1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments over the study area we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river runoff from a few percent to far over 10%. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. To the very east and west of our study area, this penetration seems to be of larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed.

  8. Butterfly Species Diversity of Bir-Billing Area of Dhauladhar Range of Western Himalayas in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Chandel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study of butterfly species diversity was carried out in the Bir-Biling area of Dhauladhar Range of the Western Himalayas in Northern India. The study was done since April 2012 to March 2013, throughout the year during the routine field visits to Bir-Billing. A total of 50 butterfly species were recorded from the study areas which belonge to five families i.e. Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae and 39 genera. The Nymphalidae family was the most dominant family in the study area having 32 species and followed by Lycaenidae family with 7 species.

  9. Reconstruction of the Ice Age Glaciation in the Southern Slopes of Mt. Everest, Cho Oyu, Lhotse and Makalu (Himalaya) (Part 1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2006-01-01

    In the Khumbu- and Khumbakarna Himalaya an ice stream network and valley glacier system has been reconstructed for the last glacial 18 Ka BP, Stage o) with glaciogeomorphological and sedimentological methods. It was a part of the glacier system of the Himalaya and has communicated across transfluence passes with the neighbouring ice stream networks toward the W and E. The ice stream network has also received inflow from the N, from a Tibetan ice stream network, by the Kyetrak-Nangpa-Bote Koshi Drangka (Valley) in the W, by the W-Rongbuk glacier valley into the Ngozumpa Drangka (Valley), by the Central Rongbuk glacier valley into the Khumbu Drangka (Valley) and by the antecedent Arun Nadi transverse-valley in the E of the investigation area.The ice thickness of the valley glacier sections, the surface of which was situated above the snow-line,amounted to 1000~1450 m. The most extended parent valley glaciers have been measured approx. 70 km in length (Dudh Koshi glacier), 67 km (BarunArun glacier) and 80 km (Arun glacier). The tongue end of the Arun glacier has flowed down to c. 500 m and that of the Dudh Koshi glacier to c. 900 m asl. At heights of the catchment areas of 8481 (or 8475) m (Makalu), i.e., 8848 (or 8872) m (Mt. Everest,Sagarmatha, Chogolungma) this is a vertical distance of the Ice Age glaciation of c. 8000 m. The steep faces 6000~7000 m-high surfaces of the ice stream network were located 2000~5000 m above the ELA.Accordingly, their temperatures were so low, that their rock surfaces were free of flank ice and ice balconies. From the maximum past glacier extension up to the current glacier margins, 13 (altogether 14)glacier stages have been differentiated and in part 14C-dated. They were four glacier stages of the late glacial period, three of the neoglacial period and six of the historical period. By means of 130 medium-sized valley glaciers the corresponding ELA-depressions have been calculated in comparison with the current courses of the

  10. Variation of biomass and carbon pools with forest type in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-02-01

    An accurate characterization of tree, understory, deadwood, floor litter, and soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in temperate forest ecosystems is important to estimate their contribution to global carbon (C) stocks. However, this information on temperate forests of the Himalayas is lacking and fragmented. In this study, we measured C stocks of tree (aboveground and belowground biomass), understory (shrubs and herbaceous), deadwood (standing and fallen trees and stumps), floor litter, and soil from 111 plots of 50 m × 50 m each, in seven forest types: Populus deltoides (PD), Juglans regia (JR), Cedrus deodara (CD), Pinus wallichiana (PW), mixed coniferous (MC), Abies pindrow (AP), and Betula utilis (BU) in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India. The main objective of the present study is to quantify the ecosystem C pool in these seven forest types. The results showed that the tree biomass ranged from 100.8 Mg ha(-1) in BU forest to 294.8 Mg ha(-1) for the AP forest. The understory biomass ranged from 0.16 Mg ha(-1) in PD forest to 2.36 Mg ha(-1) in PW forest. Deadwood biomass ranged from 1.5 Mg ha(-1) in PD forest to 14.9 Mg ha(-1) for the AP forest, whereas forest floor litter ranged from 2.5 Mg ha(-1) in BU and JR forests to 3.1 Mg ha(-1) in MC forest. The total ecosystem carbon stocks varied from 112.5 to 205.7 Mg C ha(-1) across all the forest types. The C stocks of tree, understory, deadwood, litter, and soil ranged from 45.4 to 135.6, 0.08 to 1.18, 0.7 to 6.8, 1.1 to 1.4, and 39.1-91.4 Mg ha(-1), respectively, which accounted for 61.3, 0.2, 1.4, 0.8, and 36.3 % of the total carbon stock. BU forest accounted 65 % from soil C and 35 % from biomass, whereas PD forest contributed only 26 % from soil C and 74 % from biomass. Of the total C stock in the 0-30-cm soil, about 55 % was stored in the upper 0-10 cm. Soil C stocks in BU forest were significantly higher than those in other forests. The variability of C pools of different ecosystem components is

  11. Regional flood-frequency reconstruction for Kullu district, Western Indian Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Cánovas, J. A.; Trappmann, D.; Shekhar, M.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Stoffel, M.

    2017-03-01

    Floods are a major threat in many valleys of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Yet, the lack of reliable data on past events renders the implementation of appropriate adaptation policies a difficult task, and therefore also hampers the mitigation of future disasters. In an attempt to overcome these shortcomings, we combine reconstructed paleoflood events based on tree-ring analyses with existing systematic records, so as to derive a regional flood frequency. Analysis was realized with tree-ring records and through the dating of growth disturbances in riparian trees of major rivers in Kullu district (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Himalayas). To this end, we combined field-based observations, tree-ring analyses, hydraulic modelling and statistical approaches. Results suggest that the occurrence of floods in Kullu district is recurrent, with a marked seasonality and a cyclic natural variability in flood frequency at multi-decadal scales, as well as distinct spatial representativeness. The inclusion of peak discharge data of past, previously ungauged, flood events derived from tree-ring records has a significant and positive impact on the flood frequency assessment. Flood hazards and associated risks have been clearly underestimated in the region and based on the systematic records alone. We also demonstrate that a regional flood frequency approach is suitable to optimize the information gathered from tree rings and that flood frequency can thus be analyzed for larger regions. The approach used in this paper can be implemented in the other, poorly gauged region and thus contribute to climate change adaptation policies in undocumented environments such as the Indian Himalayan Region.

  12. Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Hölscher, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, forests degraded by logging, and regrowth forests. First, an approximate map indicating these forest types was established and then 15 study plots per forest type were randomly selected. We found a total of 59 medicinal plant species consisting of herbs and ferns, most of which occurred in the old-growth forest. Species number was lowest in forest degraded by logging and intermediate in regrowth forest. The most valuable economic species, including six Himalayan endemics, occurred almost exclusively in old-growth forest. Species composition and abundance of forest degraded by logging differed markedly from that of old-growth forest, while regrowth forest was more similar to old-growth forest. The density of medicinal plants positively correlated with tree canopy cover in old-growth forest and negatively in degraded forest, which indicates that species adapted to open conditions dominate in logged forest. Thus, old-growth forests are important as refuge for vulnerable endemics. Forest degraded by logging has the lowest diversity of relatively common medicinal plants. Forest regrowth may foster the reappearance of certain medicinal species valuable to local livelihoods and as such promote acceptance of forest expansion and medicinal plants conservation in the region. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12231-012-9213-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  13. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

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    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  14. Patterns of plant diversity in seven temperate forest types of Western Himalaya, India

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    Javid Ahmad Dar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biodiversity patterns were analyzed in seven temperate forest types [Populus deltoides (PD, Juglans regia, Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, mixed coniferous, Abies pindrow (AP and Betula utilis (BU] of Kashmir Himalaya. A total of 177 plant species (158 genera, 66 families were recorded. Most of the species are herbs (82.5%, while shrubs account for 9.6% and trees represent 7.9%. Species richness ranged from 24 (PD to 96 (AP. Shannon, Simpson, and Fisher α indices varied: 0.17–1.06, 0.46–1.22, and 2.01–2.82 for trees; 0.36–0.94, 0.43–0.75, and 0.08–0.35 for shrubs; and 0.35–1.41, 0.27–0.95, and 5.61–39.98 for herbs, respectively. A total of five species were endemic. The total stems and basal area of trees were 35,794 stems (stand mean 330 stems/ha and 481.1 m2 (stand mean 40.2 m2/ha, respectively. The mean density and basal area ranged from 103 stems/ha (BU to 1,201 stems/ha (PD, and from 19.4 m2/ha (BU to 51.9 m2/ha (AP, respectively. Tree density decreased with increase in diameter class. A positive relationship was obtained between elevation and species richness and between elevation and evenness (R2 = 0.37 and 0.19, respectively. Tree and shrub communities were homogenous in nature across the seven forest types, while herbs showed heterogeneous distribution pattern.

  15. Climate change and socio-ecological transformation in high mountains: an empirical study of Garhwal Himalaya

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    Sati Vishwambhar Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions are highly vulnerable to climate change, as they are ecologically fragile, tectonically and seismically active, and geologically sensitive. The main objectives of this study are to examine socio-ecological transformations and to illustrate the major driving forces - climate change, education and waves of modern civilization - in the Garhwal Himalaya. Data on socio-ecological systems and their patterns of change were accumulated from primary and secondary sources and through participatory rural appraisal. We present a case study where household level surveys were conducted in two villages. A total of 37 households were surveyed. Additionally, marginal farmers and extension workers were interviewed. Questions on population, migration, cropping pattern and livestock were answered by the head of the surveyed households. Population size was decreasing due to out-migration. The whole Garhwal region experienced 15.3% out-migration, while migration from the two villages was observed at 50% during the period 1990-2014. Similarly, changes in land use and cropping patterns and in the livestock population were observed. There was a decrease in the extent of land under cereals (24% and fruits (79%, a decrease in fruit production (75%, and a decrease in the number of livestock (76%. Climate change was observed as a major driver of the decrease in production and productivity of cereals and fruits, leading to land abandonment. Education, on the other hand, was a major driver of out-migration. Further, extreme events through climate change happened more frequently and changed the landscape. This study reveals that an increase in infrastructural facilities to create jobs and sustainable land management can control out-migration and can enhance land capability.

  16. Forest structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient in Dhanaulti of Garhwal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S.; Rajwar, G.S.; Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H) and equitabiltiy (EC) decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD) and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. (Author)

  17. Seasonal emanation of radon at Ghuttu, northwest Himalaya: Differentiation of atmospheric temperature and pressure influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamra, Leena

    2015-11-01

    Continuous monitoring of radon along with meteorological parameters has been carried out in a seismically active area of Garhwal region, northwest Himalaya, within the frame work of earthquake precursory research. Radon measurements are carried out by using a gamma ray detector installed in the air column at a depth of 10m in a 68m deep borehole. The analysis of long time series for 2006-2012 shows strong seasonal variability masked by diurnal and multi-day variations. Isolation of a seasonal cycle by minimising short-time by 31 day running average shows a strong seasonal variation with unambiguous dependence on atmospheric temperature and pressure. The seasonal characteristics of radon concentrations are positively correlated to atmospheric temperature (R=0.95) and negatively correlated to atmospheric pressure (R=-0.82). The temperature and pressure variation in their annual progressions are negatively correlated. The calculations of partial correlation coefficient permit us to conclude that atmospheric temperature plays a dominant role in controlling the variability of radon in borehole, 71% of the variability in radon arises from the variation in atmospheric temperature and about 6% of the variability is contributed by atmospheric pressure. The influence of pressure variations in an annual cycle appears to be a pseudo-effect, resulting from the negative correlation between temperature and pressure variations. Incorporation of these results explains the varying and even contradictory claims regarding the influence of the pressure variability on radon changes in the published literature. Temperature dependence, facilitated by the temperature gradient in the borehole, controls the transportation of radon from the deep interior to the surface.

  18. Litter Fall and Its Decomposition in Sapium sebiferum Roxb.: An Invasive Tree Species in Western Himalaya

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    Vikrant Jaryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that high litter fall and its rapid decomposition are key traits of invasive species, litter fall and its decay in Sapium sebiferum Roxb. were studied in Palampur. For this, litter traps of dimension 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 were placed in under-canopy and canopy gap of the species. Litter fall was monitored monthly and segregated into different components. For litter decay studies, litter bags of dimension 25 × 20 cm2 with a mesh size 2 mm were used and the same were analyzed on a fortnightly basis. Litter fall in both under-canopy and canopy gap was highest in November (1.16 Mg ha−1 y−1 in under-canopy and 0.38 Mg ha−1 y−1 in canopy gap and lowest during March. Litter production in under-canopy and canopy gap was 4.04 Mg ha−1 y−1 and 1.87 Mg ha−1 y−1, respectively. These values are comparable to sal forest (1.7 t C ha−1 y−1, chir pine-mixed forest (2.1 t C ha−1 y−1, and mixed oak-conifer forest (2.8 t C ha−1 y−1 of the Western Himalaya. The decay rate, 0.46% day−1 in under-canopy and 0.48% day−1 in canopy gap, was also fast. Owing to this the species may be able to modify the habitats to its advantage, as has been reported elsewhere.

  19. Climate-driven sediment aggradation and incision since the late Pleistocene in the NW Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus C.; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Wittmann, Hella; Bookhagen, Bodo; Scherler, Dirk; Jain, Vikrant; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-09-01

    Deciphering the response of sediment routing systems to climatic forcing is fundamental for understanding the impacts of climate change on landscape evolution. In the Kangra Basin (northwest Sub-Himalaya, India), upper Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fills and fluvial terraces record periodic fluctuations of sediment supply and transport capacity on timescales of 103 to 105 yr. To evaluate the potential influence of climate change on these fluctuations, we compare the timing of aggradation and incision phases recorded within remnant alluvial fans and terraces with climate archives. New surface-exposure dating of six terrace levels with in-situ cosmogenic 10Be indicates the onset of incision phases. Two terrace surfaces from the highest level (T1) sculpted into the oldest preserved alluvial fan (AF1) date back to 53.4 ± 3.2 ka and 43.0 ± 2.7 ka (1σ). T2 surfaces sculpted into the remnants of AF1 have exposure ages of 18.6 ± 1.2 ka and 15.3 ± 0.9 ka, while terraces sculpted into the upper Pleistocene-Holocene fan (AF2) provide ages of 9.3 ± 0.4 ka (T3), 7.1 ± 0.4 ka (T4), 5.2 ± 0.4 ka (T5) and 3.6 ± 0.2 ka (T6). Together with previously published OSL ages yielding the timing of aggradation, we find a correlation between variations in sediment transport with oxygen-isotope records from regions affected by the Indian Summer Monsoon. During periods of increased monsoon intensity and post-Last Glacial Maximum glacial retreat, aggradation occurred in the Kangra Basin, likely due to high sediment flux, whereas periods of weakened monsoon intensity or lower sediment supply coincide with incision.

  20. Population structure and dynamics of Magnaporthe grisea in the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; Nelson, R J; Zeigler, R S

    1999-07-01

    The population genetics of Magnaporthe grisea, the rice blast pathogen, were analyzed in a center of rice diversity (the Uttar Pradesh hills of the Indian Himalayas) using multilocus and single-, or low-copy, DNA markers. Based on DNA fingerprinting with the multilocus probe MGR586 and single-locus probes, 157 haplotypes clustered into 56 lineages (at >/=70% MGR586 band similarity, each with unique single-locus profiles) and high diversity indices were detected among 458 isolates collected from 29 sites during 1992-1995. Most valleys sampled had distinct populations (73% of the lineages were site specific) with some containing one or a few lineages, confirming the importance of clonal propagation, and others were very diverse. Widely distributed lineages suggested that migration occurs across the region and into the Indo-Gangetic plains. Repeated sampling at one site, Matli, (170 isolates, 1992-1995) yielded 19 lineages and diversity significantly greater than that reported from similar samples from Colombia and the Philippines. Analysis of allelic associations using pairwise comparisons and multilocus variance analysis failed to reject the hypothesis of gametic phase equilibrium. The Matli population shifted from highly diverse in 1992 to almost complete dominance by one lineage in 1995. Such population dynamics are consistent with recombination followed by differential survival of clonal descendants of recombinant progeny. At another site, Ranichauri, population (n = 84) composition changed from 2 to 11 lineages over 2 yr and yielded additional evidence for equilibrium. Sexually fertile and hermaphrodite isolates of both mating types were recovered from rice in both Matli and Ranichauri. We demonstrate that Himalayan M. grisea populations are diverse and dynamic and conclude that the structure of some populations may be affected to some extent by sexual recombination.

  1. Comparison of aerosol properties from the Indian Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic plains

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    T. Raatikainen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gual Pahari is a polluted semi-urban background measurement site at the Indo-Gangetic plains close to New Delhi and Mukteshwar is a relatively clean background measurement site at the foothills of the Himalayas about 270 km NE from Gual Pahari and about 2 km above the nearby plains. Two years long data sets including aerosol and meteorological parameters as well as modeled backward trajectories and boundary layer heights were compared. The purpose was to see how aerosol concentrations vary between clean and polluted sites not very far from each other. Specifically, we were exploring the effect of boundary layer evolution on aerosol concentrations. The measurements showed that especially during the coldest winter months, aerosol concentrations are significantly lower in Mukteshwar. On the other hand, the difference is smaller and also the concentration trends are quite similar from April to October. With the exception of the monsoon season, when rains are affecting on aerosol concentrations, clear but practically opposite diurnal cycles are observed. When the lowest daily aerosol concentrations are seen during afternoon hours in Gual Pahari, there is a peak in Mukteshwar aerosol concentrations. In addition to local sources and long-range transport of dust, boundary layer dynamics can explain the observed differences and similarities. When mixing of air masses is limited during the relatively cool winter months, aerosol pollutions are accumulated to the plains, but Mukteshwar is above the pollution layer. When mixing increases in the spring, aerosol concentrations are increased in Mukteshwar and decreased in Gual Pahari. The effect of mixing is also clear in the diurnal concentration cycles. When daytime mixing decreases aerosol concentrations in Gual Pahari, those are increased in Mukteshwar.

  2. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad

    2016-11-17

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time period of 19 years (1995–2013), along with precipitation and temperature data over 52 years (1961–2013) from 12 different climate stations in the catchment. Additionally, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing product MOD10A2 was utilized to analyze the change in snow cover dynamics during 2000–2013. The Pearson and Kendall rank correlation tests were used to scrutinize snow cover trends and correlation between temperature, precipitation, snow cover area (SCA) and streamflows records. Basin-wide trend analysis showed a slightly increasing tendency in temperature (τ = 0.098) and precipitation (τ = 0.094), during the years 1961–2013. The changes in streamflow indicated a positive (r > 0.12) relationship with respect to temperature but variable trends (r = −0.45–0.41) with respect to precipitation during both the winter and monsoon seasons. This indicates that temperature has a significant impact on the hydrological regime of the basin. MODIS data-based investigations suggested an expansion in SCA during 2000–2013. The changes in SCA of high-altitude zones (>2000 m a.s.l.) depicted a stronger positive correlation with climate variables and streamflow compared with those obtained for low-altitude regions (<2000 m a.s.l.). Overall, these results signify that high-altitude areas contribute to the streamflow largely in the form of snow- and glacier-melt during the early summer season. The streamflow is then further augmented by monsoon rainfall in the low-elevation regions during late summer.

  3. Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya

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    H. Wulf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment flux through Himalayan rivers directly impacts water quality and is important for sustaining agriculture as well as maintaining drinking-water and hydropower generation. Despite the recent increase in demand for these resources, little is known about the triggers and sources of extreme sediment flux events, which lower water quality and account for extensive hydropower reservoir filling and turbine abrasion. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily data during the past decade (2001–2009 from four sites along the Sutlej River and from four of its main tributaries. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall and snow cover, air temperature, earthquake records, and Schmidt hammer rock strength measurements, we infer climatic and geologic controls of peak suspended sediment concentration (SSC events. Our study identifies three key findings: First, peak SSC events (≥99th SSC percentile coincide frequently (57–80% with heavy rainstorms and account for about 30% of the suspended sediment flux in the semi-arid to arid interior of the orogen. Second, we observe an increase of suspended sediment flux from the Tibetan Plateau to the Himalayan front at mean annual timescales. This sediment-flux gradient suggests that averaged, modern erosion in the western Himalaya is most pronounced at frontal regions, which are characterized by high monsoonal rainfall and thick soil cover. Third, in seven of eight catchments we find an anticlockwise hysteresis loop of annual sediment flux, which appears to be related to enhanced glacial sediment evacuation during late summer. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of unconsolidated sediments in the high-elevation sector that can easily be mobilized by hydrometeorological events and higher glacial-meltwater contributions.

  4. Structures, kinematics, thermochronology and tectonic evolution of the Ramba gneiss dome in the northern Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Guo; Jinjiang Zhang; Bo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The Ramba gneiss dome, one of the north Himalayan gneiss domes, is composed of three tectono-lithologic units separated by an upper and a lower detachment fault. Low-grade metamorphic Tethyan Himalayan sedimentary sequence formed the upper unit above the brittle upper detachment fault. Mylonitic gneiss and a leucogranite pluton made up the lower unit beneath the ductile lower detach-ment fault. Mylonitic middle-grade garnet-, staurolite- and andalusite-schist constituted the middle unit between the two faults, which may be that the basal part of the upper unit experienced detachment shear. The Ramba dome underwent three episodes of deformationin its tectonic evolution. The first episode was a top-down-to-north-northwest sliding possibly related to the activity of the south Tibetan detachment system (STDS). The second episode was the dominant deformation related to a east-west extension, which resulted in a unique top-down-to-east kinematics and the major tectonic features of the dome. The third episode was a collapse sliding toward the outsides of the dome. The Ramba gneiss dome is possibly a result of the east-west extension and magmatic diapir. The lower detachment fault is probably the main detachment fault separating the sedimentary sequence from the crystalline basement during the east-west extension in the dominant deformation episode. The diapir of the leucogranite pluton formed the doming shape of the Ramba gneiss dome. This pluton intruded in the core of the dome in a late stage of the dominant deformation, and its Ar-Ar cooling ages are about 6 Myr. This indicates that the dominant deformation of the dome happened at the same time of the east-west extension represented by the north-south trending riffs throughout the northern Himalaya and southern Tibet. Therefore, the formation of the Ramba gneiss dome should be related to this east-west extension.

  5. Hydrological modelling improvements required in basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; McRobie, Allan; Booij, Martijn

    2016-04-01

    Millions of people rely on river water originating from basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas (HKH), where snow- and ice-melt are significant flow components. One such basin is the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), where snow- and ice-melt can contribute more than 80% of total flow. Containing some of the world's largest alpine glaciers, this basin may be highly susceptible to global warming and climate change, and reliable predictions of future water availability are vital for resource planning for downstream food and energy needs in a changing climate, but depend on significantly improved hydrological modelling. However, a critical assessment of available hydro-climatic data and hydrological modelling in the HKH region has identified five major failings in many published hydro-climatic studies, even those appearing in reputable international journals. The main weaknesses of these studies are: i) incorrect basin areas; ii) under-estimated precipitation; iii) incorrectly-defined glacier boundaries; iv) under-estimated snow-cover data; and v) use of biased melt factors for snow and ice during the summer months. This paper illustrates these limitations, which have either resulted in modelled flows being under-estimates of measured flows, leading to an implied severe water scarcity; or have led to the use of unrealistically high degree-day factors and over-estimates of glacier melt contributions, implying unrealistic melt rates. These effects vary amongst sub-basins. Forecasts obtained from these models cannot be used reliably in policy making or water resource development, and need revision. Detailed critical analysis and improvement of existing hydrological modelling may be equally necessary in other mountain regions across the world.

  6. The influence of tropical forcing on extreme winter precipitation in the western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Forest; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Jones, Charles; Hoell, Andrew; Norris, Jesse; Kiladis, George N.; Tahir, Adnan A.

    2017-02-01

    Within the Karakoram and western Himalaya (KH), snowfall from winter westerly disturbances (WD) maintains the region's snowpack and glaciers, which melt seasonally to sustain water resources for downstream populations. WD activity and subsequent precipitation are influenced by global atmospheric variability and tropical-extratropical interactions. On interannual time-scales, El Niño related changes in tropical diabatic heating induce a Rossby wave response over southwest Asia that is linked with enhanced dynamical forcing of WD and available moisture. Consequently, extreme orographic precipitation events are more frequent during El Niño than La Niña or neutral conditions. A similar spatial pattern of tropical diabatic heating is produced by the MJO at intraseasonal scales. In comparison to El Niño, the Rossby wave response to MJO activity is less spatially uniform over southwest Asia and varies on shorter time-scales. This study finds that the MJO's relationship with WD and KH precipitation is more complex than that of ENSO. Phases of the MJO propagation cycle that favor the dynamical enhancement of WD simultaneously suppress available moisture over southwest Asia, and vice versa. As a result, extreme precipitation events in the KH occur with similar frequency in most phases of the MJO, however, there is a transition in the relative importance of dynamical forcing and moisture in WD to orographic precipitation in the KH as the MJO evolves. These findings give insight into the dynamics and predictability of extreme precipitation events in the KH through their relationship with global atmospheric variability, and are an important consideration in evaluating Asia's water resources.

  7. Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01° N, 88.15° E, 2200 m a.s.l. in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011–June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC was 376.3 ± 857.2 μg m−3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72% followed by other substituted aromatics (22% and halocarbon (6% compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%, ethylbenzene (~9% and xylenes (~6%. TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF model indicated that major fraction of (~60% TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18% and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

  8. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  9. Atmospheric Mercury Depositional Chronology Reconstructed from Lake Sediments and Ice Core in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Wang, Feiyue; Zhang, Qianggong; Zhang, Yulan; Li, Chaoliu; Wang, Long; Chen, Pengfei; Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Li, Qing; Sillanpää, Mika; Hou, Juzhi; Xu, Baiqing; Guo, Junming

    2016-03-15

    Alpine lake sediments and glacier ice cores retrieved from high mountain regions can provide long-term records of atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). In this study, eight lake sediment cores and one glacier ice core were collected from high elevations across the Himalaya-Tibet region to investigate the chronology of atmospheric Hg deposition. Consistent with modeling results, the sediment core records showed higher Hg accumulation rates in the southern slopes of the Himalayas than those in the northern slopes in the recent decades (post-World War II). Despite much lower Hg accumulation rates obtained from the glacier ice core, the temporal trend in the Hg accumulation rates matched very well with that observed from the sediment cores. The combination of the lake sediments and glacier ice core allowed us to reconstruct the longest, high-resolution atmospheric Hg deposition chronology in High Asia. The chronology showed that the Hg deposition rate was low between the 1500s and early 1800, rising at the onset of the Industrial Revolution, followed by a dramatic increase after World War II. The increasing trend continues to the present-day in most of the records, reflecting the continuous increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions from South Asia.

  10. Denudational slope processes and slope response to global climate changes and other disturbances: insights from the Nepal Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Hillslope geomorphology results from a large range of denudational processes mainly controlled by relief, structure, lithology, climate, land-cover and land use. In most areas of the world, the "critical zone" concept is a good integrator of denudation that operates on a long-term scale. However, in large and high mountain areas, short-time scale factors often play a significant role in the denudational pattern, accelerating and/or delaying the transfer of denudation products and fluxes, and creating specific, spatially limited disturbances. We focus on the Nepal Himalayas, where the wide altitudinal range of bio-climatic zones and the intense geodynamic activity create a complex mosaic of landforms, as expressed by the present geomorphology of mountain slopes. On the basis of examples selected in the different Himalayan mountain belts (Siwaliks hills, middle mountains, High Himalaya), we illustrate different types of slopes and disturbances induced by active tectonics, climate extremes, and climate warming trends. Special attention is paid to recent events, such as landslide damming, triggered by either intense rainfalls (Kali Gandaki and Sun Kosi valleys) or the last April-May 2015 Gorkha seismic sequence (southern Khumbu). Lastly, references to older, larger events show that despite the highly dynamic environment, landforms caused by large magnitude disturbances may persist in the landscape in the long term.

  11. Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm for prediction of maximum and minimum temperature over Indian Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Joshi; Tankeshwar Kumar; Sunita Srivastava; Divya Sachdeva

    2017-02-01

    Maximum and minimum temperatures are used in avalanche forecasting models for snow avalanche hazard mitigation over Himalaya. The present work is a part of development of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based avalanche forecasting system for Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of the Himalaya. In this work, HMMs have been developed for forecasting of maximum and minimum temperatures for Kanzalwan in Pir-Panjal range and Drass in Great Himalayan range with a lead time of two days. The HMMs have been developed using meteorological variables collected from these stations during the past 20 winters from 1992 to 2012. The meteorological variables have been used to define observations and states of the models and to compute model parameters (initial state, state transition and observation probabilities). The model parameters have been used in the Forward and the Viterbi algorithms to generate temperature forecasts. To improve the model forecasts, the model parameters have been optimised using Baum–Welch algorithm. The models have been compared with persistence forecast by root mean square errors (RMSE) analysis using independent data of two winters (2012–13, 2013–14). The HMM for maximum temperature has shown a 4–12% and 17–19% improvement in the forecast over persistence forecast, for day-1 and day-2, respectively. For minimum temperature, it has shown 6–38% and 5–12% improvement for day-1 and day-2, respectively.

  12. Variations in pollinator density and impacts on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. crop yield in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash S. Gaira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb., a perennial cash crop, cultivated under an agroforestry system in the eastern Himalaya of India, is well recognized as a pollination-dependent crop. Observations on pollinator abundance in Mamlay watershed of Sikkim Himalaya were collected during the blooming season to evaluate the pollinator abundance across sites and time frames, and impact of pollinator abundance on crop yield from 2010 to 2012. The results revealed that the bumblebees and honeybees are most frequent visitors of large cardamom flowers. The abundance of honeybees, however, varied between sites for the years 2010–2012, while that of bumblebees varied for the years 2011 and 2012. The abundance of honeybees resulted in a variation within time frames for 2010 and 2011, while that of bumblebees varied for 2010 and 2012 (p<0.01. The density of pollinators correlated positively with the number of flowers of the target crop. The impact of pollinator abundance revealed that the increasing bumblebee visitation resulted in a higher yield of the crop (i.e. 17–41 g/plant and the increasing abundance of all bees (21–41 g/plant was significant (p<0.03. Therefore, the study concluded that the large cardamom yield is sensitive to pollinator abundance and there is a need for adopting the best pollinator conservation and management practices toward sustaining the yield of large cardamom.

  13. Multi-decadal mass loss of glaciers in the Everest area (Nepal Himalaya) derived from stereo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Benn, D. I.

    2011-04-01

    Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as changing runoff distribution, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated. Here, we present a time series of mass changes for ten glaciers covering an area of about 50 km2 south and west of Mt. Everest, Nepal, using stereo Corona spy imagery (years 1962 and 1970), aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1). This is the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya. We reveal that the glaciers have been significantly losing mass since at least 1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss for 1970-2007 is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a-1, however, not higher than the global average. Comparisons of the recent DTMs with earlier time periods indicate an accelerated mass loss. This is, however, hardly statistically significant due to high uncertainty, especially of the lower resolution ASTER DTM. The characteristics of surface lowering can be explained by spatial variations of glacier velocity, the thickness of the debris-cover, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  14. InSAR and GPS measurements of crustal deformation due to seasonal loading of Tehri reservoir in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Yadav, Rajeev K.; Sreejith, K. M.; Gahalaut, Kalpna; Bürgmann, Roland; Agrawal, Ritesh; Sati, S. P.; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    We report unique observations of crustal deformation caused by the seasonal water level changes of Tehri reservoir in the Garhwal region of NW Himalaya from GPS measurements and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis. All GPS sites along the Himalaya are strongly influenced by seasonal hydrological and atmospheric loading. However, the GPS site KUNR located near the reservoir additionally exhibits anomalous variations due to seasonal water loading and unloading by the reservoir. Our InSAR analysis confirms that the seasonal filling of the reservoir causes measurable subsidence in its neighbourhood. In addition to the elastic deformation caused by the seasonal reservoir loading and the negligible poroelastic deformation caused by associated fluid pressure changes, there is an unaccounted for biannual deformation in the east component of the GPS time series which we suspect to be caused by altered hydrological conditions due to the reservoir operations. Understanding crustal deformation processes due to such anthropogenic sources helps in separating deformation caused by tectonic, hydrological and atmospheric effects from that caused by these activities.

  15. On the patterns of abundance and diversity of macrolichens of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hans Raj Negi

    2000-12-01

    A total of 3211 colonies of macrolichens, from twelve 50 m × 10 m plots distributed across four macrohabitat (vegetation) types between 1500 m–3700 m in the Chopta-Tunganath landscape of the Garhwal Himalaya, yielded 13 families with 15 genera and 85 species. Lobaria retigera stood out as a broad-niched generalist species with moderate levels of abundance in all the three major microhabitats, viz. rock, soil and wood across 83% of all the plots sampled, whereas Umbilicaria indica emerged as an abundantly occurring specialist confined to rock substrates. Heterodermia incana and Leptogium javanicum appeared to be rare members of the community as they were encountered only once during the field survey. Woody microhabitats turned out to be richer than rock and soil substrates for macrolichens. Amongst the macrohabitats, middle altitude (2500–2800 m) Quercus forest was richest in species and genera followed by high altitude (2900–3200 m) Rhododendron forest, higher altitude grasslands (3300–3700 m) and then the lower elevation (1500 m) Quercus forest. Species, genus and family level alpha- as well as beta-diversities were significantly correlated with each other, implying that higher taxonomic ranks such as genera may be used as surrogates for species thus facilitating cost- and time-effective periodic monitoring of the biodiversity of macrolichens. Dynamics of the diversity of lichen communities in relation to various forms of environmental disturbance including livestock grazing and tourism as dominant land use activities in the higher Himalaya need further research.

  16. Multi-decadal mass loss of glaciers in the Everest area (Nepal Himalaya derived from stereo imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as changing runoff distribution, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs. The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs allow glacier mass balance to be calculated. Here, we present a time series of mass changes for ten glaciers covering an area of about 50 km2 south and west of Mt. Everest, Nepal, using stereo Corona spy imagery (years 1962 and 1970, aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1. This is the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya. We reveal that the glaciers have been significantly losing mass since at least 1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss for 1970–2007 is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a−1, however, not higher than the global average. Comparisons of the recent DTMs with earlier time periods indicate an accelerated mass loss. This is, however, hardly statistically significant due to high uncertainty, especially of the lower resolution ASTER DTM. The characteristics of surface lowering can be explained by spatial variations of glacier velocity, the thickness of the debris-cover, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  17. Glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas--from an area-wide glacial lake inventory to on-site and modeling based risk assessment of critical glacial lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Glacial lake hazards and glacial lake distributions are investigated in many glaciated regions of the world, but comparably little attention has been given to these topics in the Indian Himalayas. In this study we present a first area-wide glacial lake inventory, including a qualitative classification at 251 glacial lakes >0.01 km(2). Lakes were detected in the five states spanning the Indian Himalayas, and lake distribution pattern and lake characteristics were found to differ significantly between regions. Three glacial lakes, from different geographic and climatic regions within the Indian Himalayas were then selected for a detailed risk assessment. Lake outburst probability, potential outburst magnitudes and associated damage were evaluated on the basis of high-resolution satellite imagery, field assessments and through the use of a dynamic model. The glacial lakes analyzed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were found to present moderate risks to downstream villages, whereas the lake in Sikkim severely threatens downstream locations. At the study site in Sikkim, a dam breach could trigger drainage of ca. 16×10(6)m(3) water and generate maximum lake discharge of nearly 7000 m(3) s(-). The identification of critical glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas and the detailed risk assessments at three specific sites allow prioritizing further investigations and help in the definition of risk reduction actions.

  18. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring syatem for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    The variations in the local climate, environment and altitude as well as fast snow cover build up and rapid changes in snow characteristics with passage of winter are major contributing factors to make snow avalanches as one of the threatening problems in the North West Himalaya. For sustainable development of these mountainous areas, a number of multi-purpose projects are being planned. In recent times, the danger of natural and man-made hazards is increasing and the availability of water is fluctuating; and thus, making the project implementation difficult. To overcome these difficulties to a great extent, an integrated monitoring system is required for short term as well as long term assessment of snowcover variation and avalanche hazard. In order to monitor the spatial extent of snow cover, satellite data can be employed on an operational basis. Spectral settings as well as the temporal and spatial resolution make time series NOAA-AVHHR and MODIS sensor data well suited for operational snow cover monitoring at regional or continental scale; Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS, WiFS and AWiFS sensor data suitable for studies at larger scale; and microwave data for extraction of snow wetness information.. In the present paper, an attempt is made to study the trends of changes in snow characteristics and related avalanche phenomenon using time series multi-temporal, multi-resolution satellite data with respect to different ranges in Western Himalaya, namely Pir Panjal range, Great Himalaya range, Zanskar range, Ladakh range and Great Karakoram range. The operational processing of these data included geocoding, calibration, terrain normalization, classification, statistical post classification and derivation of snow cover statistics. The calibration and normalization of imageries allowed the application of physically based classification thresholds possible for albedo, brightness temperature and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) parameters

  19. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring system for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    The variations in the local climate, environment and altitude as well as fast snow cover build up and rapid changes in snow characteristics with passage of winter are major contributing factors to make snow avalanches as one of the threatening problems in the North West Himalaya. For sustainable development of these mountainous areas, a number of multi-purpose projects are being planned. In recent times, the danger of natural and man-made hazards is increasing and the availability of water is fluctuating; and thus, making the project implementation difficult. To overcome these difficulties to a great extent, an integrated monitoring system is required for short term as well as long term assessment of snowcover variation and avalanche hazard. In order to monitor the spatial extent of snow cover, satellite data can be employed on an operational basis. Spectral settings as well as the temporal and spatial resolution make time series NOAA-AVHHR and MODIS sensor data well suited for operational snow cover monitoring at regional or continental scale; Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS, WiFS and AWiFS sensor data suitable for studies at larger scale; and microwave data for extraction of snow wetness information.. In the present paper, an attempt is made to study the trends of changes in snow characteristics and related avalanche phenomenon using time series multi-temporal, multi-resolution satellite data with respect to different ranges in Western Himalaya, namely Pir Panjal range, Great Himalaya range, Zanskar range, Ladakh range and Great Karakoram range. The operational processing of these data included geocoding, calibration, terrain normalization, classification, statistical post classification and derivation of snow cover statistics. The calibration and normalization of imageries allowed the application of physically based classification thresholds possible for albedo, brightness temperature and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) parameters

  20. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  1. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  2. Thermal supplementing soil nutrients through biocomposting of night-soil in the northwestern Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinam, Santaram S; Rawat, Yashwant S; Kuniyal, Jagdish C; Vishvakarma, S C R; Pandey, Dinesh C

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the prime activities of the hill people residing in the northwestern Indian Himalaya. However, poor soil fertility in these areas is a big hurdle to sustainable farming. The effects of washout of topsoil and its nutrients, year after year, due to the abundance of snowfall, avalanches, landslides and erosion further add to the woes of the farmers. In the cold and harsh climatic conditions of the region, with grass and vegetation cover being scanty, it is not possible to maintain large herds of cattle for the adequate production of farmyard manure. Faced with this situation, the locals have relied heavily on obtaining organic manure derived from composting of human excreta. In earlier times the dire necessity of the farmers helped them overcome the revulsion associated with the practice of handling human excreta, but now with the advent of modernisation and the easy availability of chemical fertilisers, the people are distancing themselves from this age-old practice. More and more people are opting for modern toilets and leaving behind the traditional toilets that made possible the harvesting of manure from night-soil. As a result, this primitive practice is on the verge of extinction. This eco-friendly practice, that has sustained the land for so many generations, needs to be continued and strengthened as the long-term consequences of excessive and indiscriminant use of chemical fertilisers are becoming too obvious to ignore. Traditional knowledge needs to be combined with modern scientific know-how to make this practice safer and more acceptable. If the composting operation is managed properly, the handling will be less loathsome and the concerns of health and hygiene too will stand addressed. The present study attempts a detailed profile of the practice of 'supplementing soil nutrients through biocomposting of night-soil' in the cold desert region of Lahaul Valley. Four villages running from the northwestern part to the southeastern part of

  3. Decline in snowfall in response to temperature in Satluj basin, western Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Riyaz Ahmad Mir; Sanjay K Jain; Arun K Saraf; Ajanta Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Snow is an essential resource present in the Himalaya. Therefore, monitoring of the snowfall changes over a time period is important for hydrological and climatological purposes. In this study, variability of snowfall from 1976–2008 were analysed and compared with variability in temperature (max and min) from 1984–2008 using simple linear regression analysis and Mann–Kendall test in the Satluj Basin. The annual, seasonal, and monthly analyses of average values of snowfall and temperature (max and min) have been carried out. The study also consists an analysis of average values of annual snowfall and temperature over six elevation zones (<1500 to >4000 m amsl). During the study, it was observed that the snowfall exhibited declining trends in the basin. The snowfall trends are more sensitive to the climate change below an elevation of 4000 m amsl. Over the elevation zones of 3000–3500 and 4000–4500 m amsl, positive trends of mean annual values of snowfall were observed that may be due to higher precipitation as snowfall at these higher elevations. Although, both negative and positive snowfall trends were statistically insignificant, however, if this decreasing trend in snowfall continues, it may result in significant however, changes in future. Furthermore, the min is also increasing with statistically significant positive trend at 95% confidence level for November, winter season, annually as well as for the elevation zones of 2500–3000, 3000–3500, and 3500–4000 m amsl. There are dominantly increasing trends in max with negative trends for February, June–September, monsoon season, and for elevation zone <1500 m amls. It is important to state that in the present basin, during the months of winter season, most of the precipitation is produced as snowfall by the westerly weather disturbances. Thus, the declining nature in snowfall is concurrent with the positive trends in temperature particularly min, therefore, reflecting that the positive trends in

  4. Economics, energy, and environmental assessment of diversified crop rotations in sub-Himalayas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Meena, Roshan Lal; Sharma, N K; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Dileep

    2016-02-01

    carbon inputs particularly in sub-Himalayas of India.

  5. Study of seismicity in the NW Himalaya and adjoining regions using IMS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Shanker, D.

    2016-08-01

    The Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) has been used in order to investigate the seismicity of the Northwest Himalaya and its neighboring region for the time period June 1999 to March 2015 within the geographical coordinates 25-40° N latitude and 65-85° E longitude. We have used a very precisely located earthquake dataset recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) Network containing 7,583 events with body wave magnitudes from 2.5 to 6.3. The study area has been subdivided into six regions based on the Flinn-Engdahl (F-E) seismic and geographical regionalization scheme, which was used as the region classifications of the International Data Center catalog. The examined region includes NW India, Pakistan, Nepal, Xizang, Kashmir, and Hindukush. For each region, Magnitudes of completeness (Mc) and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameters (a and b values) have been estimated. The Gutenberg-Richter analysis is preceded by an overview of the seismotectonics of the study area. The obtained Mc values vary from 3.5 to 3.9. The lower value of Mc was found mainly in Xizang region whereas the higher Mc threshold is evident in Pakistan region. However, the b values vary from 1.19 to 1.48. The lowest b value is recorded in Xizang region, which is mostly related to the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) fault, whereas the highest b values are recorded in NW India and Kashmir regions, which are mostly related to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault. The REB for the selected period has been compared to the most renowned bulletin of global seismicity, namely that issued by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A study of 4,821 events recorded by USGS in the study region indicates that about 36 % of seismic events were missed and the catalog is considered as complete for events with magnitudes ≥4.0. However, both a and b values are obviously higher than those of IMS catalog. The a

  6. Integrative stratigraphy during extreme environmental changes and biotic recovery time: The Early Triassic in Indian Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Algeo, Thomas; Bhargava, Om

    2014-05-01

    The understanding of extreme environmental changes as major extinction events, perturbations of global biogeochemical cycles or rapid climate shifts is based on a precise timing of the different events. But especially in such moving environments exact correlations are difficult to establish what underlines the necessity of an integrated stratigraphy by using all tools at disposition. A Lower Triassic section at Mud in the Spiti Valley (Western Himalaya, India) is a candidate section for the GSSP of the Induan-Olenekian Boundary (IOB). The succession was deposited in a deep-shelf setting on the southern margin of the Neotethys Ocean. The section contains abundant fossils allowing a very precise regional biostratigraphy and displays no signs of sedimentary breaks. Analysis of pelagic faunas proves a significant, two-step radiation phase in ammonoids and conodonts close to the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These diversifications are coupled with a short-termed positive δ13Ccarb excursion of global evidence. The Spiti δ13Ccarb excursion displays, however, different amplitude and biostratigraphic position than in other relevant sections for this time interval. In this study, we analyzed δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, and δ15Norg as well as major, trace, and REE concentrations for a 16-m-thick interval spanning the mid-Griesbachian to early Spathian substages, to better constrains the chain of events. Prior to the first radiation step, high difference gradient between the δ13Ccarb values of tempestite beds with shallow carbonate and carbonate originated in deeper water is interpreted as a sign of a stratified water column. This effect disappears with the onset of better oxygenated conditions at the time of the ammonoid-conodont radiation, which correspond as well to δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg and δ15Norg positive excursions. A decrease in Mo and U concentrations occurring at the same point suggests a shift toward locally less reducing conditions. The second step coincided with the

  7. Changes in Agricultural Biodiversity: Implications for Sustainable Livelihood in the Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.G. Saxena; R.K. Maikhuri; K.S. Rao

    2005-01-01

    Himalayan mountain system is distinguished globally for a rich biodiversity and for its role in regulating the climate of the South Asia.Traditional crop-livestock mixed farming in the Himalaya is highly dependent on forests for fodder and manure prepared from forest leaf litter and livestock excreta. Apart from sustaining farm production, forests provide a variety of other tangible and intangible benefits, which are critical for sustainable livelihood of not only 115 million mountain people, but also many more people living in the adjoining plains. Extension of agricultural landuse coupled with replacement of traditional staple food crops by cash crops and of multipurpose agroforestry trees by fruit trees are widespread changes. Cultivation of Fagopyrum esculentum,Fagopyrum tataricum, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica and Pisum arvense has been almost abandoned. Increasing stress on cash crops is driven by a socio-cultural change from subsistence to market economy facilitated by improvement in accessibility and supply of staple food grains at subsidized price by the government. Farmers have gained substantial economic benefits from cash crops. However, loss of agrobiodiversity implies more risks to local livelihood in the events of downfall in market price/demand of cash crops, termination of supply of staple food grains at subsidized price, pest outbreaks in a cash crop dominated homogeneous landscape and abnormal climate years. Indigenous innovations enabling improvement in farm economy by conserving and/enhancing agrobiodiversity do exist, but are highly localized. The changes in agrobiodiversity are such that soil loss and run-off from the croplands have dramatically increased together with increase in local pressure on forests. As farm productivity is maintained with forest-based inputs, continued depletion of forest resources will result in poor economic returns from agriculture to local people,apart from loss of global benefits from Himalayan forests

  8. Snow/ice melt precipitation runoff modelling of glaciers in the Bhutan himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, T.; Leber, D.; Haeusler, H.; Brauner, M.; Wangda, D.

    2003-04-01

    quality of the simulation model. This encourages for testing it in other Himalayan regions. Furthermore such a model could act as a low-cost, data-driven early warning system for the glaciated regions in the Himalayas, when meteorological data reaches dangerous threshold values, which may precede a glacial lake outburst.

  9. A Multi-analytical Approach for the Characterization of Marbles from Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, M.; Iqbal, Y.; Riaz, M.; Ubic, R.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The KP province of Pakistan hosts widespread deposits of thermo-metamorphic marbles that were extensively used as a building and ornamental stones since the time of earliest flourishing civilization in this region known as Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC). The macroscopic characteristics of 22 marble varieties collected from three different areas of Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan), its chemical, mineralogical, petrographic features, temperature conditions of metamorphic re-crystallization, and the main physical properties are presented in order to provide a solid basis for possible studies on the provenance and distribution of building stones from this region. The results provide a set of diagnostic parameters that allow discriminating the investigated marbles and quarries. Studied marbles overlap in major phase assemblage, but the accessory mineral content, chemistry, the maximum grain size (MGS) and other petrographic characteristics are particularly useful in the distinction between them. On the basis of macroscopic features, the studied marbles can be classifies into four groups: (i) white (ii) grey-to-brown veined, (iii) brown-reddish to yellowish and (iv) dark-grey to blackish veined marbles. The results show that the investigated marbles are highly heterogeneous in both their geochemical parameters and minero-petrographic features. Microscopically, the white, grey-to-brown and dark-grey to blackish marbles display homeoblastic/granoblastic texture, and the brown-reddish to yellowish marbles display a heteroblastic texture with traces of slightly deformed polysynthetic twining planes. Minero-petrography, XRD, SEM and EPMA revealed that the investigated marbles chiefly consist of calcite along with dolomite, quartz, muscovite, pyrite, K-feldspar, Mg, Ti and Fe-oxides as subordinates. The magnesium content of calcite coexisting with dolomite was estimated by both XRD and EPMA/EDS, indicating the metamorphic temperature of re-crystallization from 414

  10. Glacier-induced Hazards in the Trans-Himalaya of Ladakh (NW-India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Dame, Juliane; Nüsser, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers are important water resources for irrigated crop cultivation in the semi-arid Trans-Himalaya of Ladakh (NW-India). Due to global warming, many glaciers of South Asia have retreated over the last century and further ice loss will threaten local livelihoods in the long run. In the short term, an increase of flood events caused by melting glaciers and permafrost is expected for the Himalayan region. Beside large catastrophic events, small outburst floods are 'more' regularly reported for various parts of the region. This also holds true for the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh, where small glaciers exist at high altitudes. Caused by glacier retreat, a number of proglacial lakes have been formed, most of them dammed by ice filled moraines. The potential risk of these lakes is shown by recent reports on glacial lake outburst flood in the villages Nidder in October 2010 and Gya in August 2014. The 2014 flood destroyed several agricultural terraces, a new concrete bridge and two houses. Own remote sensing analyses shows the increase of a moraine dammed proglacial lake in the upper catchment area, which grew from about 0.03 to 0.08 km2 between 1969 and 2014. Because of the relatively stable altitude of the lake level, one can assume that the flood was caused by a piping process, initiated by melted ice bodies in the moraine. Already in the 1990s a small GLOF was observed in the village, which destroyed some fields. As in 2014, the lake was not completely spilled and a short-term decrease of the lake area is detectable in remote sensing data. Thus, further GLOF-events can be expected for the future. Beside physical risk factors, population growth and new infrastructure development along the streams and valleys increases potential damages of floods. Therefore, investigations are required to estimate the risks of these small glacial lakes and the potential flood effected area for the case study of Gya as well as for the whole region of Ladakh. Remote sensing data are

  11. Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Gaddi goats. This high level of polymorphism can be utilized to plan future association studies to exploit the uniqueness and adaptability of indigenous Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas. Most studied microsatellite markers had desired neutrality, thus proving to be good candidates for genetic characterization and diversity analysis in Gaddi breed of goats also.

  12. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  13. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  14. Historical telecommunication in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas: An ancient early warning system for glacier lake outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    Mountain societies are in a crucial transition phase in terms of the management of natural hazards. Advances in geographic technologies, such as a variety of remote-sensing tools and mobile communication systems, have drastically changed the way of early warning methods in difficult accessible high mountain environments compared to those of ancient times. In order to implement new natural hazard policies, it is essential to unravel the traditional ways of disaster management which is presented here by a case study from the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas. In the rugged relief of the Himalaya Region, the exchange of information was a labor-intensive and time-consuming task for remote high mountain villages before the infrastructural development and the introduction of modern communication systems. Therefore, early warning of natural hazards with long run-out distances seems to have been rather impossible. However, in the present study a historical optical long-distance and fast operating communication system over horizontal distances of several hundred kilometers was discovered during field investigations in the Hindukush-Karakoram and the transmission paths reconstructed in the following years. The so called Puberanch-system relied on a chain of fire signals as used by ancient societies in other mountain and coastal environments in the world. It was originally in use for the alert against war attacks from hostile neighboring communities. Later on, it served as an early warning system for glacier lake outbursts, which have been in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century one of the most devastating natural hazards in the region. Remarkable is the fact that fire posts were located in extremely harsh environments at altitudes above 4000 m requiring a highly sophisticated supply system of fire wood and food. Interviews with local inhabitants, the evaluation of historical travel records and international newspapers proved, that the system has been

  15. Spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility in parts of Garhwal Himalaya, India, using the weight of evidence modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Pardeep Kumar; Ray, P K Champati; Patel, Ramesh Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Garhwal Himalaya in northern India has emerged as one of the most prominent hot spots of landslide occurrences in the Himalaya mainly due to geological causes related to mountain building processes, steep topography and frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation events. As this region has many pilgrimage and tourist centres, it is visited by hundreds of thousands of people every year, and in the recent past, there has been rapid development to provide adequate roads and building infrastructure. Additionally, attempts are also made to harness hydropower by constructing tunnels, dams and reservoirs and thus altering vulnerable slopes at many places. As a result, the overall risk due to landslide hazards has increased many folds and, therefore, an attempt was made to assess landslide susceptibility using 'Weights of Evidence (WofE)', a well-known bivariate statistical modelling technique implemented in a much improved way using remote sensing and Geographic Information System. This methodology has dual advantage as it demonstrates how to derive critical parameters related to geology, geomorphology, slope, land use and most importantly temporal landslide distribution in one of the data scarce region of the world. Secondly, it allows to experiment with various combination of parameters to assess their cumulative effect on landslides. In total, 15 parameters related to geology, geomorphology, terrain, hydrology and anthropogenic factors and 2 different landslide inventories (prior to 2007 and 2008-2011) were prepared from high-resolution Indian remote sensing satellite data (Cartosat-1 and Resourcesat-1) and were validated by field investigation. Several combinations of parameters were carried out using WofE modelling, and finally using best combination of eight parameters, 76.5 % of overall landslides were predicted in 24 % of the total area susceptible to landslide occurrences. The study has highlighted that using such methodology landslide susceptibility assessment

  16. Missing (in-situ) snow cover data hampers climate change and runoff studies in the Greater Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Mario [Meteodat GmbH, Technoparkstrasse 1, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Salzmann, Nadine [Department of Geosciences, Geography, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: markus.stoffel@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Chemin de Drize 7, CH-1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Dendrolab.ch, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1+3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Kulkarni, Anil V. [Divecha Center for Climate Change, Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayas are presently holding the largest ice masses outside the polar regions and thus (temporarily) store important freshwater resources. In contrast to the contemplation of glaciers, the role of runoff from snow cover has received comparably little attention in the past, although (i) its contribution is thought to be at least equally or even more important than that of ice melt in many Himalayan catchments and (ii) climate change is expected to have widespread and significant consequences on snowmelt runoff. Here, we show that change assessment of snowmelt runoff and its timing is not as straightforward as often postulated, mainly as larger partial pressure of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and other greenhouse gases might increase net long-wave input for snowmelt quite significantly in a future atmosphere. In addition, changes in the short-wave energy balance – such as the pollution of the snow cover through black carbon – or the sensible or latent heat contribution to snowmelt are likely to alter future snowmelt and runoff characteristics as well. For the assessment of snow cover extent and depletion, but also for its monitoring over the extremely large areas of the Himalayas, remote sensing has been used in the past and is likely to become even more important in the future. However, for the calibration and validation of remotely-sensed data, and even more so in light of possible changes in snow-cover energy balance, we strongly call for more in-situ measurements across the Himalayas, in particular for daily data on new snow and snow cover water equivalent, or the respective energy balance components. Moreover, data should be made accessible to the scientific community, so that the latter can more accurately estimate climate change impacts on Himalayan snow cover and possible consequences thereof on runoff. - Highlights: • Remotely sensed snow-cover data need to be validated by in-situ measurements. • More in-situ snow measurement programs are

  17. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of early 21st century glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kääb

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003–2008. The strongest thinning (−1 is observed for the East Nyainqêntanglha Shan. Conversely, glaciers of the West Kunlun Shan are slightly gaining volume, and Pamir and Karakoram seem to be on the western edge of an anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches −22 ± 3 Gt yr−1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments over the study area we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river runoff from a few percent to far over 10%. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. To the very east and west of our study area, this penetration seems to be of larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed.

  18. Modelling glacier-bed overdeepenings and possible future lakes for the glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsbauer, A.; Frey, H.; Haeberli, W.

    2016-01-01

    Surface digital elevation models (DEMs) and slope-related estimates of glacier thickness enable modelling of glacier-bed topographies over large ice-covered areas. Due to the erosive power of glaciers, such bed topographies can contain numerous overdeepenings, which when exposed following glacier...... stress as a function of elevation range for each glacier. The modelled ice thicknesses are uncertain (±30%), but spatial patterns of ice thickness and bed elevation primarily depend on surface slopes as derived from the DEM and, hence, are more robust. About 16 000 overdeepenings larger than 104m2 were...... retreat may fill with water and form new lakes. In this study, the bed overdeepenings for ∼28000 glaciers (40 775km2) of the Himalaya-Karakoram region are modelled using GlabTop2 (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2), in which ice thickness is inferred from surface slope by parameterizing basal shear...

  19. Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Munesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Himalayan zones, with dense forest vegetation, cover a fifth part of India and store a third part of the country reserves of soil organic carbon (SOC. However, the details of altitudinal distribution of these carbon stocks, which are vulnerable to forest management and climate change impacts, are not well known. Results This article reports the results of measuring the stocks of SOC along altitudinal gradients. The study was carried out in the coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests of Garhwal Himalaya. The stocks of SOC were found to be decreasing with altitude: from 185.6 to 160.8 t C ha-1 and from 141.6 to 124.8 t C ha-1 in temperature (Quercus leucotrichophora and subtropical (Pinus roxburghii forests, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study lead to conclusion that the ability of soil to stabilize soil organic matter depends negatively on altitude and call for comprehensive theoretical explanation

  20. Plant diversity at Chilapatta Reserve Forest of Terai Duars in sub-humid tropical foothills of Indian Eastern Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gopal Shukla; Rajib Biswas; A. P. Das; Sumit Chakravarty

    2014-01-01

    From March 2007 to March 2009 we quantified plant diversity at Chilapatta Reserve Forest in Terai Duars in the Indian eastern Himala-yas. We sampled stratified random nested quadrats. Species richness was 311, representing 167 genera and 81 families. The species diversity index and concentration of dominance of the forest were 2.20 and 0.0072, respectively. Shannon-Wiener index and evenness indices were 4.77 and 1.44, respectively. The Importance Value Index (IVI) of species ranged from 0.13 to 37.94. The estimated diversity indices indicated heterogene-ity of the forest in its composition, structure, function and dynamics. Rich forest plant diversity supports the need for continued conservation of tropical forests.

  1. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region.

  2. Geological investigations at a high altitude, remote coal mine on the Northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan frontier, Karakoram Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Laurance J. [Chartered Geologist, Halcrow Group Ltd., Deanway Technology Centre, Wilmslow Road, Handforth, Cheshire, SK9 3FB (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-03

    The Northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan frontier is located one of the most remote, inaccessible, and inhospitable part of the Himalayan orogenic belt. In this region, two of the world's largest and most distinct mountain belts intersect; the Karakoram Himalaya (mainly in Pakistan) and the Hindu Kush (mainly in Afghanistan). Located at high altitude, in a remote part of Northwest Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan, tribal villagers began excavating a series of audits into the steep mountain slopes, beneath glaciers, to extract valuable coal and carbonaceous shale resources. These were discovered in 1996, by the villagers, whilst hunting, and may represent some of the highest mine workings in the world. Small-scale mining operations subsequently developed using rudimentary mining methods and the mine became known as the Reshit or Pamir Coal Mine.The coal deposits are sedimentary, highly disturbed and tectonised, having been subjected to multiple phases of orogenic crustal deformation. The coal occurs as discrete lenses, several tens of metres in their lateral dimension, between steeply dipping, overturned and thrusted limestone beds of Jurassic age. The coal provided a vital, alternative source of fuel for the villagers since the local, traditional fuel supply was wood, which had become severely depleted, and imports of kerosene from neighbouring China and Afghanistan were too expensive. The mining operations experienced severe problems. These included several collapses of mine entrances, the failure of the adits to intersect the coal-bearing zones, the potential threat of geological hazards, mining-induced hazards and harsh high-altitude operating conditions, particularly during the winter months. International aid was provided to assist the villagers and a geological investigation was commissioned to investigate the problems at the mine. The geology of Karakoram Himalaya is relatively poorly understood. Until recently the region was restricted to

  3. Retraction: Characterization of cellulolytic activities of newly isolated Thelephora sowerbyi from North-Western Himalayas on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Goel, Gunjan; Bansal, Saurabh; Mahajan, Rishi; Sharma, B M; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of cellulolytic activities of newly isolated Thelephora sowerbyi from North-Western Himalayas on different lignocellulosic substrate J. Basic Microbiol. 2015, 55, 1-11 - DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201500107 The above article from the Journal of Basic Microbiology, published online on 08 June 2015 in Wiley Online Library as Early View (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jobm.201500107/pdf), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Editor-in-Chief and Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA. The retraction has been agreed because the microorganism studied in the described experiments has been identified as the fungus Cotylidia pannosa (Gene Accession No. KT008117) instead of Thelephora sowerbyi. The culture has been identified on the basis of the sequence of the amplified ITS region of the microorganism which was submitted by the authors to the NCBI database.

  4. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi, ethnic fermented vegetable products of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Buddhiman; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Gundruk is a fermented leafy vegetable and khalpi is a fermented cucumber product, prepared and consumed in the Himalayas. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi was studied. Significant increase in population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was found during first few days of gundruk and khlapi fermentation, respectively. Gundruk fermentation was initiated by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and finally dominated by Lb. plantarum. Similarly in khalpi fermentation, heterofermentative LAB such as Leuconostoc fallax, Lb. brevis and P. pentosaceus initiated the fermentation and finally completed by Lb. plantarum. Attempts were made to produce gundruk and khalpi using mixed starter culture of LAB previously isolated from respective products. Both the products prepared under lab condition had scored higher sensory-rankings comparable to market products.

  5. Extreme Uplift and Erosion Rates in Eastern Himalayas (Siang-Brahmaputra Basin) Revealed by Detrital (U-Th)/He Termochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibari, B.; Pik, R.; France-Lanord, C.; Carignan, J.; Lave, J.

    2005-12-01

    The distribution of erosion intensity in a major mountain range such as the Himalaya is a fundamental clue to investigate the interaction between climatic, tectonic and erosion processes that govern the morphology and evolution of an orogen. At the first order, the sediment flux measured on the two major rivers - Ganga and Brahmaputra - suggest higher mean denudation rates for the Eastern Himalaya than Western Himalaya (Galy and France-Lanord, 2001). However, the distribution of erosion in the Brahmaputra basin is not uniform and the Namche Barwa area, drained by the Siang-Tsangpo, appears to supply up to 50 % of the total sediment flux of the Brahmaputra (Singh and France-Lanord, 2002). In order to further constrain the relationships between such localized erosion and the associated exhumation rate of basement, we measured (U-Th)/He ages in detrital zircons from river sediments in the Brahmaputra basin. This thermochronological system (Z-He) is particularly interesting for detrital material because: (i) zircon is preserved during weathering and erosion processes, (ii) its closure temperature (150-180°C, Reiners et al., 2004) corresponds to a depth which is close to the surface but deep enough to avoid perturbations by topography variations, and (iii) the error associated to single grain measurement (8-10 %) allows a good definition of population ages. Z-He ages from the Brahmaputra river in Bangladesh range from 0.4 to 77 Ma. 40 % of the zircon population exhibit Z-He ages between 0.4 and 1 Ma defining the major distribution peak centred at 0.5 Ma. These very young ages correspond to extreme denudation rates of 5 to 7 mm/yr. Dispersed Z-He ages from 12 to 77 Ma do not define any population groups, whereas the remaining 40 % of the zircons have ages distributed between 2.5 and 7 Ma, which correspond to the pool of ages recorded by preliminary Z-He ages on the other Himalayan rivers of the basin. Therefore, such very high denudation rates (5-7 mm/yr) seems to

  6. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of 2003-2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääb, A.; Treichler, D.; Nuth, C.; Berthier, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003-2008. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. This penetration seems to be of potentially larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed. The most negative rate of region-wide glacier elevation change (mass-gain anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches -24 ± 2 Gt yr-1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments, we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river run-off from a few percent to greater than 10%.

  7. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2000-07-01

    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  8. Multi-Decadal Comparison between Clean-Ice and Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J. M.; Rupper, S.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are important natural resources and climatic indicators. Many of these glaciers have debris-covered ablation zones, while others are mostly clean ice. Regarding glacier dynamics, it is expected that debris-covered glaciers will respond differently to atmospheric warming compared to clean ice glaciers. In the Bhutanese Himalaya, there are (1) north flowing clean-ice glaciers with high velocities, likely with large amounts of basal sliding, and (2) south flowing debris-covered glaciers with slow velocities, thermokarst features, and influenced more by the Indian Summer Monsoon. This region, therefore, is ideal for comparing the dynamical response of clean-ice versus debris-covered glaciers to climatic change. In particular, previous studies have suggested the north flowing glaciers are likely adjusting more dynamically (i.e. retreating) in response to climate variations, while the south flowing glaciers are likely experiencing downwasting, with stagnant termini locations. We test this hypothesis by assessing glacier changes over three decades in the Bhutan region using a newly-developed workflow to extract DEMs and orthorectified imagery from both 1976 historical spy satellite images and 2006 ASTER images. DEM differencing for both debris-covered and clean glaciers allows for quantification of glacier surface elevation changes, while orthorectified imagery allows for measuring changes in glacier termini. The same stereo-matching, denoising, and georeferencing methodology is used on both datasets to ensure consistency, while the three decade timespan allows for a better signal to noise ratio compared to studies performed on shorter timescales. The results of these analyses highlight the similarities and differences in the decadal response of clean-ice and debris-covered glaciers to climatic change, and provide insights into the complex dynamics of debris-covered glaciers in the monsoonal Himalayas.

  9. Heterogeneous glacial lake changes and links of lake expansions to the rapid thinning of adjacent glacier termini in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Wang, Jida; Ke, Linghong; Madson, Austin; Nie, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Glacier mass loss in the Himalayas has far-reaching implications for the alteration of regional hydrologic regimes, an increased risk of glacial lake outburst, downstream water resource abundance, and contributions to sea level rise. However, the mass losses of Himalayan glaciers are not well understood towing to the scarcity of observations and the heterogeneous responses of Himalayan glaciers to climate change and local factors (e.g., glacier surge, interacting with proglacial lakes). In particular, there is a lack of understanding on the unique interactions between moraine-dammed glacial lakes and their effects on debris cover on valley glacier termini. In this study, we examined the temporal evolution of 151 large glacial lakes across the Himalayas and then classified these glacial lakes into three categories: proglacial lakes in contact with full or partial debris-covered glaciers (debris-contact lakes), ice cliff-contact lakes, and non-glacier-contact lakes. The results show that debris-contact lakes experienced a dramatic areal increase of 36.5% over the years 2000 to 2014, while the latter two categories of lakes remained generally stable. The majority of lake expansions occurred at the glacier front without marked lake level rises. This suggests that the rapid expansion of these debris-contact lakes can be largely attributed to the thinning of debris-covered ice as caused by the melting of glacial fronts and the subsequent glacial retreat. We reconstructed the height variations of glacier fronts in contact with 57 different proglacial lakes during the years 2000 to 2014. These reconstructed surface elevation changes of debris-covered, lake-contact glacier fronts reveal significant thinning trends with considerable lowering rates that range from 1.0 to 9.7 m/y. Our study reveals that a substantial average ice thinning of 3.9 m/y occurred at the glacier fronts that are in contact with glacial lakes.

  10. Attenuation characteristics in eastern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau: An understanding of the physical state of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sagar; Singh, Chandrani; Biswas, Rahul; Mukhopadhyay, Sagarika; Sahu, Himanshu

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation characteristics of the crust in the eastern Himalaya and the southern Tibetan Plateau are investigated using high quality data recorded by Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT) during 2001-2003. The present study aims to provide an attenuation model that can address the physical mechanism governing the attenuation characteristics in the underlying medium. We have studied the Coda wave attenuation (Qc) in the single isotropic scattering model hypothesis, S wave attenuation (Qs) by using the coda normalization method and intrinsic (Qi-1) and scattering (Qsc-1) quality factors by the multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering in a 3-D half space within the frequency range 2-12 Hz. All the values of Q exhibit frequency dependent nature for a seismically active area. At all the frequencies intrinsic absorption is predominant compared to scattering attenuation and seismic albedo (B0) are found to be lower than 0.5. The observed discrepancies between the observed and theoretical models can be corroborated by the depth-dependent velocity and attenuation structure as well as the assumption of a uniform distribution of scatterers. Our results correlate well with the existing geo-tectonic model of the area, which may suggest the possible existence of trapped fluids in the crust or its thermal nature. Surprisingly the underlying cause of high attenuation in the crust of eastern Himalaya and southern Tibet makes this region distinct from its adjacent western Himalayan segment. The results are comparable with the other regions reported globally.

  11. Jurassic carbonate microfacies, sea-level changes and the Toarcian anoxic event in the Tethys Himalaya (South Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhong; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Detailed microfacies analysis of carbonate rocks from the Tingri and Nyalam areas of South Tibet allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of sedimentary environments during the Early to Middle Jurassic. Based on texture, sedimentary structure, grain composition and fossil content of about 500 thin sections, 17 microfacies overall were identified, and three evolutionary stages were defined. Stage 1 (Rhaetian?-lower Sinemurian Zhamure Formation) was characterized by siliciclastic and mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentation on a barrier shore environment, stage 2 (upper Sinemurian-Pliensbachian Pupuga Formation) by high-energy grainstones with rich benthic faunas thriving on a carbonate platform, and stage 3 (Toarcian-lower Bajocian Nieniexiongla Formation) by low-energy mudstones intercalated with frequent storm layers on a carbonate ramp. Besides, Carbon isotope analyses (δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) were performed on the late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian interval, and the organic matter recorded a pronounced stepped negative excursion -4.5‰ corresponding to characteristics of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event globally, which began just below the stage 2-stage 3 facies shifting boundary. The comparison between the Tethys Himalaya (South Tibet) and the tropical/subtropical zones of the Western Tethys and Panthalassa was carried out to discuss the factors controlling sedimentary evolution. The change from stage 1 to stage 2 was possibly induced by sea-level rise, when the Tibetan Tethys Himalaya was located at tropical/subtropical latitudes in suitable climatic and ecological conditions for carbonate sedimentation. The abrupt change from stage 2 to stage 3 is interpreted as a consequence of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event, accompanied by obvious carbon-isotope negative excursion and sea-level rise. The failed recovery from the carbonate crisis in the early Bajocian, with continuing deposition on a low-energy carbonate ramp, is ascribed to the tectonic

  12. Holocene internal shortening within the northwest Sub-Himalaya: Out-of-sequence faulting of the Jwalamukhi Thrust, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus C.; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Wittmann, Hella; Bookhagen, Bodo; Scherler, Dirk; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-11-01

    The southernmost thrust of the Himalayan orogenic wedge that separates the foreland from the orogen, the Main Frontal Thrust, is thought to accommodate most of the ongoing crustal shortening in the Sub-Himalaya. Steepened longitudinal river profile segments, terrace offsets, and back-tilted fluvial terraces within the Kangra reentrant of the NW Sub-Himalaya suggest Holocene activity of the Jwalamukhi Thrust (JMT) and other thrust faults that may be associated with strain partitioning along the toe of the Himalayan wedge. To assess the shortening accommodated by the JMT, we combine morphometric terrain analyses with in situ 10Be-based surface-exposure dating of the deformed terraces. Incision into upper Pleistocene sediments within the Kangra Basin created two late Pleistocene terrace levels (T1 and T2). Subsequent early Holocene aggradation shortly before 10 ka was followed by episodic reincision, which created four cut-and-fill terrace levels, the oldest of which (T3) was formed at 10.1 ± 0.9 ka. A vertical offset of 44 ± 5 m of terrace T3 across the JMT indicates a shortening rate of 5.6 ± 0.8 to 7.5 ± 1.1 mm a-1 over the last 10 ka. This result suggests that thrusting along the JMT accommodates 40-60% of the total Sub-Himalayan shortening in the Kangra reentrant over the Holocene. We speculate that this out-of-sequence shortening may have been triggered or at least enhanced by late Pleistocene and Holocene erosion of sediments from the Kangra Basin.

  13. Modeling the impact of black carbon on snowpack properties at an high altitude site in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Ménégoz, Martin; Gallée, Hubert; Lim, Saehee; Zanatta, Marco; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Cozic, Julie; Laj, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Stocchi, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Light absorbing aerosols in the snow can modify the snow albedo. As a result, the seasonal snowpack can melt earlier compared to the unaffected snow leading to a warming effect on the atmosphere. Several global model studies have indicated that the long-range transport of light absorbing aerosols into the Himalayas and the subsequent deposition to the snow have contributed to a temperature rise in these regions. Due to its strong light absorbing properties, black carbon (BC) may play an important role in this process. To evaluate the possible impact of BC on snow albedo we determined BC concentrations in a range of fresh and older snow samples collected between 2009 and 2012 in the vicinity of the Pyramid station, Nepal at an altitude of more than 5000 m. BC concentrations in the snow were obtained after nebulizing the melted samples using a single particle soot photometer. The observed seasonal cycle in BC concentrations in the snow corresponds to observed seasonal cycles in atmospheric BC detected at the Pyramid station. Older snow showed somewhat higher concentrations compared to fresh snow samples indicating the influence of dry deposition of BC. In order to study in detail the impact of black carbon on snow properties, we upgraded the existing one-dimensional physical snowpack model CROCUS to account for the influence of black carbon on the absorption of radiation by the snow. A radiative transfer scheme was implemented into the snowpack model taking into account the solar zenith angle, the snow water equivalent and grain size, the soil albedo, and the concentration of black carbon in the snow. The upgraded model was applied to a high altitude site in the Himalayas using observed BC concentrations and meteorological data recorded at Pyramid station. First results of the simulations will be presented.

  14. Water–rock interaction on the development of granite gneissic weathered profiles in Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vyshnavi; R Islam

    2015-07-01

    The development and sustainability of weathered profiles are very difficult in the Himalaya due to its complex lithology, tectonic history and fast erosion. Despite this, two weathered profiles namely WPa (weathered profile a) and WPb (weathered profile b) which have sustained erosion are developed on porphyry granite gneiss and granite gneissic lithology in Alaknanda valley of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya. Systematic sampling of these two weathered profiles was done from bottom to top and they were chemically analysed to understand the elemental mobility in each profile. Major, trace and rare earth element studies show dissimilar behaviour with the advancement of weathering. In WPa profile, the CIA value of LAR (LAR) is 50 which reveals that the rock has not suffered any alteration but in WPb profile, the CIA value of LAR is 64 which indicates significant amount of chemical alteration. A–CN–K projection also exhibits similar behaviour. Further, the relative mobility of all the major and trace elements show variable elemental distribution in both the profiles. Enrichment of Mg, Fe, Ti, Al, Co, Ni, Zr, LREE and depletion of Na, K, P, Ca, Si, LILE and HFSE are observed in WPa profile; while the depletion of Na, K, Ca, P, Si, HREE and enhancement of Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc, Co, Zr, LREE are noticed in WPb profile. The rare earth elements also show a dissimilar mobilization pattern in both the profiles due to their strong dependency on lithology, and corresponding climate and tectonic interaction. Contrasting elemental mobility in both the profiles depict the major role in disparity of lithological characters and subsequent development of fractures produced by the major thrust system (Ramgarh thrust) which made an easy passage for rain water, thus causing the development of a chemically altered profile in the Lesser Himalayan region. Further, the present study infers the climate and tectonic milieu which is responsible for the development of such weathered profiles in

  15. Water-rock interaction on the development of granite gneissic weathered profiles in Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshnavi, S.; Islam, R.

    2015-07-01

    The development and sustainability of weathered profiles are very difficult in the Himalaya due to its complex lithology, tectonic history and fast erosion. Despite this, two weathered profiles namely WPa (weathered profile a) and WPb (weathered profile b) which have sustained erosion are developed on porphyry granite gneiss and granite gneissic lithology in Alaknanda valley of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya. Systematic sampling of these two weathered profiles was done from bottom to top and they were chemically analysed to understand the elemental mobility in each profile. Major, trace and rare earth element studies show dissimilar behaviour with the advancement of weathering. In WPa profile, the CIA value of LAR (LAR) is 50 which reveals that the rock has not suffered any alteration but in WPb profile, the CIA value of LAR is 64 which indicates significant amount of chemical alteration. A-CN-K projection also exhibits similar behaviour. Further, the relative mobility of all the major and trace elements show variable elemental distribution in both the profiles. Enrichment of Mg, Fe, Ti, Al, Co, Ni, Zr, LREE and depletion of Na, K, P, Ca, Si, LILE and HFSE are observed in WPa profile; while the depletion of Na, K, Ca, P, Si, HREE and enhancement of Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc, Co, Zr, LREE are noticed in WPb profile. The rare earth elements also show a dissimilar mobilization pattern in both the profiles due to their strong dependency on lithology, and corresponding climate and tectonic interaction. Contrasting elemental mobility in both the profiles depict the major role in disparity of lithological characters and subsequent development of fractures produced by the major thrust system (Ramgarh thrust) which made an easy passage for rain water, thus causing the development of a chemically altered profile in the Lesser Himalayan region. Further, the present study infers the climate and tectonic milieu which is responsible for the development of such weathered profiles in Himalayan

  16. Hillslope-channel coupling in the Nepal Himalayas and threat to man-made structures: The middle Kali Gandaki valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M.; Cossart, E.; Arnaud-Fassetta, G.

    2010-12-01

    In mountain areas, the confinement of valleys favours landslide interaction with rivers, causing channel changes or short-lived dams and lakes that may threaten trails, roads and human settlements. Their impacts may occur successively in space and time, and they affect randomly the functioning of the sediment fluxes. The present study focuses on the interaction patterns between unstable mountain slopes and the Kali Gandaki River, in the Nepal Himalayas. In this valley, the deepest on earth, a road linking the Myagdi and Mustang districts has been under construction for the past 5 years, either cutting into the bedrock or crossing areas affected episodically by debris slides, earth flows, debris flows and rock slides. On the basis of the geomorphic evolution observed over the last three decades, we assess the potential threats that now arise following completion of the road. We mapped three areas of recurrent mass wasting features characteristic of the most frequent situations encountered in this valley. We analyzed the combination of the hydro-geomorphic processes involved. With the use of a DEM, we assessed the volume and spatial impact of temporary river dams on infrastructure located along the valley floor. We estimated hydraulic parameters to document the geomorphic efficiency of river flooding after dam breaching. We reconstructed the spatial extent of (1) areas threatened by backwater flooding upstream of the dams and (2) areas threatened by the collapse of the dams. We describe the current geomorphic and sedimentary adjustments still at work along the valley sides. Our findings confirm that in the High Himalaya, medium scale landslides (10 5-6 m 3) play a major role in the overall process of denudation and sediment transfer. They highly influence the transient nature of bedload transport in the channel. In reducing the residence time of sediments in temporary, spatially limited traps of the valley bottom, they enhance the vulnerability of land and people

  17. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  18. Diet and environment of a mid-Pliocene fauna from southwestern Himalaya: Paleo-elevation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Yingfeng; Khawaja, Sofia; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Xiaoming; Li, Qiang; Tseng, Zhijie J.; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Deng, Tao; Xie, Guangpu

    2013-08-01

    A mid-Pliocene fauna (4.2-3.1 Ma) was recently uncovered in the Zanda (Zhada) Basin in the southwestern Himalaya, at an elevation of about 4200 m above sea level. These fossil materials provide a unique window for examining the linkage among tectonic, climatic and biotic changes. Here we report the results from isotopic analyses of this fauna and of modern herbivores and waters as well as paleo-temperature estimates from the Zanda Basin. The δ13C values of enamel samples from modern wild Tibetan asses, and domesticated horses, cows and goats in the area are -9.4±1.8‰, which indicate a diet comprising predominantly of C3 plants and are consistent with the current dominance of C3 vegetation in the region. The enamel-δ13C values of the fossil horses, rhinos, deer, and bovids are -9.6±0.8‰, indicating that these ancient mammals, like modern herbivores in the area, also fed primarily on C3 vegetation and lived in an environment dominated by C3 plants. The lack of significant C4 plants in the basin suggests that the area had reached high elevations (>2.5 km) by at least the mid-Pliocene. Taking into account the changes in the δ13C of atmospheric CO2 in the past, the enamel-δ13C values suggest that the average modern-equivalent δ13C value of C3 vegetation in the Zanda Basin in the mid-Pliocene was ∼1-2‰ lower than that of the C3 biomass in the basin today. This would imply a reduction in annual precipitation by about 200-400 mm in the area since then (assuming that the modern C3 δ13C-precipitation relationship applied to the past). Consistent with this inference from the δ13C data, the enamel-δ18O data show a significant shift to higher values after the mid-Pliocene, which also suggests a shift in climate to much drier conditions after ∼4-3 Ma. Paleo-temperature estimates derived from a fossil bone-based oxygen isotope temperature proxy as well as the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer for the mid-Pliocene Zanda Basin are higher than the present

  19. Probing orographic controls in the Himalayas during the monsoon using satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Barros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The linkages between the space-time variability of observed clouds, rainfall, large-circulation patterns and topography in northern India and the Himalayas were investigated using remote sensing data. The research purpose was to test the hypothesis that cloudiness patterns are dynamic tracers of rainstorms, and therefore their temporal and spatial evolution can be used as a proxy of the spatial and temporal organization of precipitation and precipitation processes in the Himalayan range during the monsoon. The results suggest that the space-time distribution of precipitation, the spatial variability of the diurnal cycle of convective activity, and the terrain (landform and altitudinal gradients are intertwined at spatial scales ranging from the order of a few kms (1–5km up to the continental-scale. Furthermore, this relationship is equally strong in the time domain with respect to the onset and intra-seasonal variability of the monsoon. Infrared and microwave imagery of cloud fields were analyzed to characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of mesoscale convective weather systems and short-lived convection in Northern India, the Himalayan range, and in the Tibetan Plateau during three monsoon seasons (1999, 2000 and 2001. The life cycle of convective systems suggests landform and orographic controls consistent with a convergence zone constrained to the valley of the Ganges and the Himalayan range, bounded in the west by the Aravalli range and the Garhwal mountains and in the East by the Khasi Hills and the Bay of Bengal, which we call the Northern India Convergence Zone (NICZ. The NICZ exhibits strong night-time activity along the south-facing slopes of the Himalayan range, which is characterized by the development of short-lived convection (1–3h aligned with protruding ridges between 1:00 and 3:00 AM. The intra-annual and inter-annual variability of convective activity in the NICZ were assessed with respect to large-scale synoptic

  20. Characterization of glacier debris cover via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. Casey; A. Kääb; D. I. Benn

    2011-01-01

    Field spectrometry and physical samples of debris, snow and ice were collected from the ablation zones of Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers of the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal in November and December 2009. Field acquired spectral reflectances and mineral and chemical composition of samples were used as ground truth for comparison with satellite optical remote sensing data. Supraglacial debris was characterized by several optical remote sensing methods, including hyperspectral reflectance analys...

  1. Complete genome sequence of a low-temperature active and alkaline-stable endoglucanase-producing Paenibacillus sp. strain IHB B 3084 from the Indian Trans-Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Hena; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Rana, Aditi; Kaushal, Kanishak; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Gulati, Arvind

    2016-07-20

    A genome of 5.88Mb with 46.83% G+C content is reported for an endoglucanase-producing bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain IHB B 3084 isolated from the cold environments of the Indian Trans-Himalayas. The psychrotrophic bacterium produces low-temperature active and alkaline-stable endoglucanases of industrial importance. The genomic data has provided insight into genomic basis of cellulase production and survival of the bacterium in the cold environments.

  2. Paleoproterozoic granitic gneisses of the Dinggye and LhagoiKangri areas from the higher and northern Himalaya,Tibet:Geochronology and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Granitic gneisses have been widely found in crystalline rocks in the Dinggye area of the Higher Himalaya (HHM) and the LhagoiKangri area of the North Himalaya (NHM), Tibet. In the HHM, the gneisses intruded in the granulite-amphibolite facies metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, known as Nyalam group. In the NHM, the gneisses intruded in the amphibolite facies metamorphosed ones, known as LhagoiKangri group. These granitic gneisses are peraluminous monzonitic granites in terms of their mineral assemblage, and are considered as being derived from metamorphosed sedimentary rocks by anatexis based on the transitional relationship of the gneisses with their migmatitized wall rocks. Zircons are similar in crystal shape and interior structure from both gneisses. Most of them are euhedral or subhedral elongated prism-shaped transparent crystals, with fine oscillatory zoning, showing the magmatic genesis. Some of them are short prism-shaped and with relict core inherited from magma source and oscillatory zoning mantle crystallized from magma. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zicons shows that both the granitic gneisses in the HHM and NHM are Paleoproterozoic (1811.6±2.9 Ma and 1811.7±7.2 Ma, respectively). These ages are similar to those (1815 to 2120 Ma) from granitic gneiss which is widely distributed in the Lesser Himalaya (LHM). The ages of inherited zircons (>2493.9±7.0 Ma, 2095.8± 8.8 Ma, 1874±29 Ma) exhibit the possible presence of several thermal events in Paleoproterozoic. All of the ages suggest the same India basement beneath the different units in Himalaya area, and do not support the idea that the HHM and NHM are accretionary terranes in Pan-Africa orogenic event. The fact that the basement in HHM is as old as or even younger than LHM is inconsistent with the presently prevalent orogenic models such as either extrusion of low-viscosity