WorldWideScience

Sample records for central heavy ion

  1. Central collisions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project was performed

  2. Some properties of the central heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wazir, Z; Khan, E U; Haseeb, Mahnaz Q; Ajaz, M; Khan, K H

    2009-01-01

    Some experimental results are discussed in connection with the properties of the central heavy ion collisions. These experiments indicate the regime changes and saturation at some values of the centrality. This phenomenon is considered to be a signal of the percolation cluster formation in heavy ion collisions at high energies. Keywords: heavy ion collisions, theoretical models, centrality, phase transition.

  3. Study of relativistic heavy ion central collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is devoted to the study of nuclear collisions between a target nucleus and a projectile nucleus, the latter having been accelerated at energies ranging from 100 to 2000 MeV (Mega-Electronvolts) per nucleon. The main goal of this field is the determination of nuclear matter equation of state at high densities and temperatures. This determination requires the study of central collisions only, that is collisions at small impact parameters. The detector ''Diogene'' used at the ''Saturne'' (Saclay, France) accelerator can measure simultaneously the momenta, masses and emission angles of all particles (pions, protons, deuterons ...) emitted in each collision. The pressure effects pre-dicted by the ''intra-nuclear cascade'' model are discussed. The pion (pi meson) production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is reviewed. Finally, we present the results of pion production measurements, using ''Diogene'', in collisions between alpha particles and carbon, copper, or lead target nuclei at 200, 400, 600 and 800 MeV per nucleon. The number of pions per collision is studied in relationship with the proton number. This can be explained in terms of compressional energy. The pion multiplicity distributions and the differential cross-sections are also presented

  4. Cumulants of multiplicity distributions in most central heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the statistical expectations for cumulants of (net-conserved) charge distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions, by including a simple but quantitatively more realistic geometric model, i.e. optical Glauber model. We suggest a new approach for centrality definition in studying of multiplicity fluctuations, which aim at eliminating the uncertainties between experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, as well as redoubling the statistics. We find that the stat...

  5. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Giussani, A.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Lanchais, A. L.; Marini, P.; Moroni, A.; Nannini, A.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Vannini, G.; Nucl-Ex Collaboration

    2007-11-01

    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for deeper knowledge of the structure of exotic nuclei.

  6. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, E; Bardelli, L; Barlini, S; Bini, M; Bruno, M; Cannata, F; Casini, G; Chiari, M; D'Agostino, M; De Sanctis, J; Giussani, A; Gramegna, F; Kravchuk, V L; Lanchais, A L; Marini, P; Moroni, A; Nannini, A; Olmi, A; Ordine, A; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Poggi, G; Vannini, G

    2006-01-01

    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for structure of exotic nuclei.

  7. Time evolution of the central region in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate time development of the central region in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions by using the event generator URASiMA in order to study the space-time structure in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We focus on time dependence of particle-number densities and temperature of the central region in highly relativistic head-on nucleus-nucleus collisions. (author)

  8. Two-particle interferometry for non-central heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    1998-01-01

    In non-central heavy ion collisions, identical two particle Hanbury-Brown/Twiss (HBT) correlations C(K,q) depend on the azimuthal direction of the pair momentum K. We investigate the consequences for a harmonic analysis of the corresponding HBT radius parameters. Our discussion includes both, a model- independent analysis of these parameters in the Gaussian approximation, and the study of a class of hydrodynamical models which mimic essential geometrical and dynamical properties of peripheral heavy ion collisions. Also, we discuss the additional geometrical and dynamical information contained in the harmonic coefficients of these HBT radius parameters. The leading contribution of their first and second harmonics are found to satisfy simple constraints. This allows for a minimal, azimuthally sensitive parametrization of all first and second harmonic coefficients in terms of only two additional fit parameters. We determine to what extent these parameters can be extracted from experimental data despite finite mu...

  9. Microscopic study of energy and centrality dependence of transverse collective flow in heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bravina, L. V.; Faessler, Amand; Fuchs, C.; Zabrodin, E. E.(Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia)

    2000-01-01

    The centrality dependence of directed and elliptic flow in light and heavy systems of colliding nuclei is studied within two microscopic transport models at energies from 1 AGeV to 160 A GeV. The pion directed flow has negative slope in the midrapidity range irrespective of bombarding energy and mass number of the colliding ions. In contrast, the directed flow of nucleons vanishes and even develops antiflow in the midrapidity range in (semi)peripheral collisions at energies around 11.6 A GeV ...

  10. Central collisions of heavy ions. Progress report, October 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Sun-yiu

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1992 to August 31, 1993. During this period, our AGS E802/E859/E866 experiments focused on strange particle production, and the fluctuation phenomenon associated with correlation studies in nucleus nucleus central collisions. We have designed and are implementing a new detector to replace the Target Multiplicity Array (TMA) for the E866 runs. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, we contributed to the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), and worked on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R&D project, the central core of the multiplicity-vertex detector (MVD). In the coming year, we planned to complete the New Multiplicity Array (NMA) detector for the gold projectile E866 experiment, and analyzed the data associated with this new system. We are continuing our efforts in the preparation of the PHENIX detector system.

  11. Photoproduction of vector mesons: from ultraperipheral to semi-central heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Klusek-Gawenda, M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss nuclear cross sections for $AA \\to AAV$ and $AA \\to AAVV$ reactions with one or two vector mesons in the final state. Our analysis is done in the impact parameter space equivalent photon approximation. This approach allows to consider the above processes taking into account distance between colliding nuclei. We consider both ultraperipheral and semi-central collisions. We are a first group which undertook a study of single $J/\\psi$ photoproduction for different centrality bins. We show that one can describe new ALICE experimental data by including geometrical effects of collisions in the flux factor. Next, total and differential cross section for double-scattering mechanism in the exclusive $AA \\to AAVV$ reaction in ultrarelativistic ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions is presented. In this context we consider double photoproduction and photon-photon processes. Simultaneously, we get very good agreement of our results with STAR (RHIC), CMS and ALICE (LHC) experimental data for single $\\rho^0$ and ...

  12. Study of flow as a function of centrality in heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the NA50 experiment which continues the NA38 and NA51 experiments, is to put into evidence the quark gluon plasma (QGP) in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Up to now, the J/ψ resonance production was used as a probe for the QGP formation. According to strong interaction, quark gluon plasma is supposed to reach a thermal equilibrium, at least locally. An evidence of this thermalization of the matter coming from the collision would appear in the transverse plane as an elliptic flow in the direction of the reaction plane. The analysis developed in this thesis is a study of the elliptic flow in neutral transverse energy as a function centrality in S-S, S-Cu, S-U and Pb-Pb collisions. Flow study is realized using data coming from the electromagnetic calorimeter. An elliptic flow in neutral transverse energy is observed in Pb-Pb interactions. Its maximum value is about 2% for semi-central collisions and it vanishes for central collisions. This is the expected behaviour for a thermalized medium. The same analysis has been done in S-S, S-Cu collisions which provides no evidence for the existence of an elliptic flow. Furthermore, the J/ψ production as a function of the angle between J/ψ direction and impact parameter direction could be analyzed. The results seems to show that J/ψ interaction with produced particles is small. (author)

  13. Multifragmentation and incomplete fusion in central heavy ion collisions within a schematic phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projectile-energy thresholds for nuclear multifragmentation in the collisions of 12C, 20Ne and 40Ar with 197Au have been calculated using a schematic model applicable to central collisions of intermediate energy heavy ions. The properties of the composite nucleus which remains following the incomplete fusion of the projectile and target nuclei are calculated using the master equation approach of Harp and Miller to determine the number of preequilibrium nucleons emitted and the energy and linear momentum removal by these nucleons. This nucleus is followed through an isentropic expansion phase and the probability distribution of clusters is determined using a percolation approach based on a 3-dimensional cubic lattice. The input parameters for the percolation calculation are derived from the results of the preequilibrium calculation. While the calculated thresholds in projectile energy per nucleon decrease rapidly as the projectile mass increases, the excitation energy at which multifragmentation is first predicted to occur is approximately the same for each system, i.e., 4.5 to 5 MeV/u. This result is consistent with the apparent disappearance of residual heavy products at such bombarding energies. (orig.)

  14. Multifragmentation and incomplete fusion in central heavy ion collisions within a schematic phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerruti, C.; Desbois, J.; Boisgard, R.; Ngo, C.; Natowitz, J.; Nemeth, J.

    1988-01-04

    The projectile-energy thresholds for nuclear multifragmentation in the collisions of /sup 12/C, /sup 20/Ne and /sup 40/Ar with /sup 197/Au have been calculated using a schematic model applicable to central collisions of intermediate energy heavy ions. The properties of the composite nucleus which remains following the incomplete fusion of the projectile and target nuclei are calculated using the master equation approach of Harp and Miller to determine the number of preequilibrium nucleons emitted and the energy and linear momentum removal by these nucleons. This nucleus is followed through an isentropic expansion phase and the probability distribution of clusters is determined using a percolation approach based on a 3-dimensional cubic lattice. The input parameters for the percolation calculation are derived from the results of the preequilibrium calculation. While the calculated thresholds in projectile energy per nucleon decrease rapidly as the projectile mass increases, the excitation energy at which multifragmentation is first predicted to occur is approximately the same for each system, i.e., 4.5 to 5 MeVu. This result is consistent with the apparent disappearance of residual heavy products at such bombarding energies.

  15. Thermal and transport properties in central heavy-ion reactions around a few hundred MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, X G; Veselsky, M

    2016-01-01

    Thermalization process of nuclear matter in central fireball region of heavy-ion collisions is investigated by employing an extension model of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck, namely the Van der Waals Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VdWBUU) model. Temperature ($T$) is extracted by the quantum Fermion fluctuation approach and other thermodynamic quantities, such as density ($\\rho$), entropy density ($s$), shear viscosity ($\\eta$), isospin diffusivity ($D_{I}$) and heat conductivity ($\\kappa$), are also deduced. The liquid-like and gas-like phase signs are discussed through the behavior of shear viscosity during heavy-ion collisions process with the VdWBUU model.

  16. Fragment Production in Non-central Collisions of Intermediate Energy Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Davin, B; Xu, H; Beaulieu, L; Larochelle, Y; Lefort, T; Yañez, R; Hudan, S; Caraley, A L; De Souza, R T; Liu, T X; Liu, X D; Lynch, W G; Shomin, R; Tan, W P; Tsang, M B; Molen, A V; Wagner, A; Xi Hong Fei; Gelbke, C K; Charity, R J; Sobotka, L G

    2002-01-01

    The defining characteristics of fragment emission resulting from the non-central collision of 114Cd ions with 92Mo target nuclei at E/A = 50 MeV are presented. Charge correlations and average relative velocities for mid-velocity fragment emission exhibit significant differences when compared to standard statistical decay. These differences associated with similar velocity dissipation are indicative of the influence of the entrance channel dynamics on the fragment production process.

  17. Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: antiproton production; Bose-Einstein correlations; high-transverse momentum spectra; strangeness enhancement in heavy ion collisions; search for rare negative secondaries of antiprotons and antinuclei produced in heavy ion collisions; quark matter; and time-of-flight systems test at Brookhaven AGS. (LSP)

  18. Heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international school-seminar on heavy ion physics had been organized in Dubna in may of 1993. The scientific program of reports covers the following main topics: synthesis and properties of heavy nuclei; synthesis and investigation of properties of exotic nuclei; experiments with radioactive nuclear beams; interaction between complex nuclei at low and intermediate energies. It also includes reports on laser spectroscopy and exotic nuclear beams, on some application of heavy ion beams for the problems of solid state physics, on construction of multidetector facilities and on developing of heavy ion accelerator complexes. Short communication

  19. Phenomenology of Heavy Flavors in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Isayev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Some recent experimental results obtained in collisions of heavy nuclei ($\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV) at BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are discussed. The probes of dense matter created in heavy-ion collision by quarkonia, $D$ and $B$ mesons containing heavy charm and beauty quarks are considered. The centrality, rapidity and transverse momentum dependences of the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow coefficient are presented and their possible theoretical interpretation is provided.

  20. Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

  1. Extracting the shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma from flow in ultra-central heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Luzum, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for extracting the shear viscosity over entropy density ratio (eta/s) of the quark-gluon plasma from experimental data. We argue that uncertainty due to poor knowledge of the earliest stages of a heavy-ion collision is smallest for ultra-central events. The most precise value of eta/s can thus be obtained from a global fit to p_T-integrated Fourier harmonics of azimuthal correlations. We further outline a method for quantifying the overall uncertainty in the extracted value. Only after a comprehensive and systematic accounting of all sources of uncertainty can a reliable measurement be claimed. In these proceedings we report preliminary results; full and final results will be presented in a separate publication.

  2. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonia Kabana

    2012-10-01

    We review selected highlights from the experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) exploring the QCD phase diagram. A wealth of new results appeared recently from RHIC due to major recent upgrades, like for example the $\\Upsilon$ suppression in central nucleus-nucleus collisions which has been discovered recently in both RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, we discuss RHIC results from the beam energy scan (BES) program aiming to search for a possible critical point and to map out the QCD phase diagram.

  3. Heavy ion accelerator GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents GANIL, a large national heavy ion accelerator. The broad problems of nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics and physics of condensed media which can be approached and studied with this machine are discussed first, after which the final construction project is described. The project comprises a circular injector, a separated sector cyclotron up beam stripper, and a second separated cyclotron downstream

  4. Transverse mass distributions in central heavy-ion collisions at high energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Jie; YANG De; WANG Cui-Ping; WANG Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    The transverse mass spectra of protons, pions, kaons, Lambda and Antilambda produced in cen- tral nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies are described by using one-temperature and two-temperature emission pictures. The calculated results are compared and found to be in good agreement with the experimen- tal data of the E895, E866 and E917 Collaborations measured in central Au-Au collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) energies and the NA49 Collaboration measured in central Pb-Pb collisions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies. It is demonstrated that the transverse mass distributions of protons, kaons, Lambda and Antilambda, except for Lambda hyperons produced in central Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV, can be described by using the one-temperature emission picture, and for pions, we need to use the two-temperature emission picture.

  5. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  6. Centrality and energy dependence of rapidity correlation patterns in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centrality and energy dependence of rapidity correlation patterns are studied in Au + Au collisions by using AMPT with string melting, RQMD and UrQMD models. The behaviors of the short-range correlation (SRC) and the long-range correlation (LRC) are presented clearly by two spatial-position dependent correlation patterns. For centrality dependence, UrQMD and RQMD give similar results as those in AMPT, i.e., in most central collisions, the correlation structure is flatter and the correlation range is larger, which indicates a long range rapidity correlation. A long range rapidity correlation showing up in RQMD and UrQMD implies that parton interaction is not the only source of long range rapidity correlations. For energy dependence, AMPT with string melting and RQMD show quite different results. The correlation patterns in RQMD at low collision energies and those in AMPT at high collision energies have similar structures, i.e. a convex curve, while the correlation patterns in RQMD at high collision energies and those in AMPT at low collision energies show flat structures, having no position dependence. Long range rapidity correlation presents itself at high energy and disappears at low energy in RQMD, which also indicates that long range rapidity correlations may come from some trivial effects, rather than the parton interactions. (authors)

  7. Centrality and energy dependence of rapidity correlation patterns in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Tian; XU Ming-Mei; WU Yuan-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The centrality and energy dependence of rapidity correlation patterns are studied in Au+Au collisions by using AMPT with string melting,RQMD and UrQMD models.The behaviors of the shortrange correlation(SRC)and the long-range correlation(LRC)are presented clearly by two spatial-position dependent correlation patterns.For centrality dependence.UrQMD and RQMD give similar results as those in AMPT,i.,e., in most central collisions,the correlation structure is flatter and the correlation range is larger,which indicates a long range rapidity correlation.A long range rapidity correlation showing up in RQMD and UrQMD implies that patton interaction is not the only source of long range rapidity correlations.For energy dependence,AMPT with string melting and RQMD show quite different results.The correlation patterns in RQMD at low collision energies and those in AMPT at high collision energies have similar structures,i.e.aconvex curve.while the correlation patterns in RQMD at high collision energies and those in AMPT at low collision energies show fiat structures,having no position dependence.Long range rapidity correlation presents itself at high energy and disappears at low energy in RQMD,which also indicates that long range rapidity correlations may come from some trivial effects,rather than the parton interactions.

  8. Centrality and energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in heavy ion collisions in the context of elementary reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-08-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of “wounded nucleon” scaling (Nch∝Npart) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/p¯p data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e+e- annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e+e- and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies (s>20 GeV), and pp/p¯p data can be brought to agree approximately with the e+e- data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.

  9. Heavy ion fusion III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates Heavy Ion Fusion, JSR-82-302, dated January, 1983. During the last four years, program management and direction has been changed and the overall Inertial Confinement Program has been reviewed. This report therefore concentrates on accelerator physics issues, how the program has addressed those issues during the last four years, and how it will be addressing them in the future. 8 refs., 3 figs

  10. Isospin tracing a probe of non-equilibrium in central heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Rami, F; De Schauenburg, B; Gobbi, A; Hong, B; Alard, J P; Andronic, A; Averbeck, R; Barret, V; Basrak, Z; Bastid, N; Belyaev, I; Bendarag, A; Berek, G; Caplar, R; Cindro, N; Crochet, Philippe; Devismes, A; Dupieux, P; Dzelalija, M; Eskef, M; Finck, C; Fodor, Z; Folger, H; Fraysse, L; Genoux-Lubain, A; Grigorian, Yu I; Grishkin, Yu L; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Kecskeméti, J; Kim, Y J; Koczón, P; Kirejczyk, M; Korolija, M; Kotte, R; Kowalczyk, M; Kress, T; Kutsche, R; Lebedev, A; Lee, K S; Man'ko, V I; Merlitz, H; Mohren, S; Moisa, D; Mösner, J; Neubert, W; Nyanin, A; Pelte, D; Petrovici, M; Pinkenburg, C H; Plettner, C; Reisdorf, W; Ritman, J L; Schüll, D; Seres, Z; Sikora, B; Sim, K S; Simion, V; Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Somov, A; Stockmeier, M R; Stoicea, G; Vasilev, M; Wagner, P; Wisniewski, K; Wohlfarth, D; Yang, J T; Yushmanov, I E; Zhilin, A V

    2000-01-01

    Four different combinations of $^{96}_{44}$Ru and $^{96}_{40}$Zr nuclei, both as projectile and target, were investigated at the same bombarding energy of 400$A$ MeV using a $4 \\pi$ detector. The degree of isospin mixing between projectile and target nucleons is mapped across a large portion of the phase space using two different isospin-tracer observables, the number of measured protons and the ${\\rm t}/^{3}{\\rm He}$ yield ratio. The experimental results show that the global equilibrium is not reached even in the most central collisions. Quantitative measures of stopping and mixing are extracted from the data. They are found to exhibit a quite strong sensitivity to the in-medium (n,n) cross section used in microscopic transport calculations.

  11. Systematics of central heavy ion collisions in the 1A GeV regime

    CERN Document Server

    Reisdorf, W; Averbeck, R; Benabderrahmane, M L; Hartmann, O N; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Kang, T I; Kim, Y J; Kis, M; Koczon, P; Kress, T; Leifels, Y; Merschmeyer, M; Piasecki, K; Schuettauf, A; Stockmeier, M; Barret, V; Basrak, Z; Bastid, N; Caplar, R; Crochet, P; Dupieux, P; Dzelalija, M; Fodor, Z; Gasik, P; Grishkin, Y; Hong, B; Kecskemeti, J; Kirejczyk, M; Korolija, M; Kotte, R; Lebedev, A; Lopez, X; Matulewicz, T; Neubert, W; Petrovici, M; Rami, F; Ryu, M S; Seres, Z; Sikora, B; Sim, K S; Simion, V; Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Smolyankin, V; Stoicea, G; Tyminski, Z; Wisniewski, K; Wohlfarth, D; Xiao, Z G; Xu, H S; Yushmanov, I; Zhilin, A

    2010-01-01

    Using the large acceptance apparatus FOPI, we study central collisions in the reactions (energies in A GeV are given in parentheses): 40Ca+40Ca (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 1.93), 58Ni+58Ni (0.15, 0.25, 0.4), 96Ru+96Ru (0.4, 1.0, 1.5), 96Zr+96Zr (0.4, 1.0, 1.5), 129Xe+CsI (0.15, 0.25, 0.4), 197Au+197Au (0.09, 0.12, 0.15, 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5). The observables include cluster multiplicities, longitudinal and transverse rapidity distributions and stopping, and radial flow. The data are compared to earlier data where possible and to transport model simulations.

  12. Azimuthal asymmetry of jet production as a signal of parton energy loss in semi-central heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P; Sarycheva, L I; Snigirev, A M

    2002-01-01

    The possibility for the appearance of azimuthal asymmetry of hadron jet spectra due to rescattering and energy loss of hard produced partons in dense quark-gluon matter, created initially in nuclear overlap zone in collisions with nonzero impact parameter is investigated. The methods of determination of reaction plane angle in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions using semi-hard particle flow are discussed

  13. NMR imaging and spectroscopy of the mammalian central nervous system after heavy ion radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, T.

    1984-09-01

    NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopic, and histopathologic techniques were used to study the proton relaxation time and related biochemical changes in the central nervous system after helium beam in vivo irradiation of the rodent brain. The spectroscopic observations reported in this dissertation were made possible by development of methods for measuring the NMR parameters of the rodent brain in vivo and in vitro. The methods include (1) depth selective spectroscopy using an optimization of rf pulse energy based on a priori knowledge of N-acetyl aspartate and lipid spectra of the normal brain, (2) phase-encoded proton spectroscopy of the living rodent using a surface coil, and (3) dual aqueous and organic tissue extraction technique for spectroscopy. Radiation induced increases were observed in lipid and p-choline peaks of the proton spectrum, in vivo. Proton NMR spectroscopy measurements on brain extracts (aqueous and organic solvents) were made to observe chemical changes that could not be seen in vivo. Radiation-induced changes were observed in lactate, GABA, glutamate, and p-choline peak areas of the aqueous fraction spectra. In the organic fraction, decreases were observed in peak area ratios of the terminal-methyl peaks, the N-methyl groups of choline, and at a peak at 2.84 ppM (phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine resonances) relative to TMS. With histology and Evans blue injections, blood-brain barrier alternations were seen as early as 4 days after irradiation. 83 references, 53 figures.

  14. NMR imaging and spectroscopy of the mammalian central nervous system after heavy ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopic, and histopathologic techniques were used to study the proton relaxation time and related biochemical changes in the central nervous system after helium beam in vivo irradiation of the rodent brain. The spectroscopic observations reported in this dissertation were made possible by development of methods for measuring the NMR parameters of the rodent brain in vivo and in vitro. The methods include (1) depth selective spectroscopy using an optimization of rf pulse energy based on a priori knowledge of N-acetyl aspartate and lipid spectra of the normal brain, (2) phase-encoded proton spectroscopy of the living rodent using a surface coil, and (3) dual aqueous and organic tissue extraction technique for spectroscopy. Radiation induced increases were observed in lipid and p-choline peaks of the proton spectrum, in vivo. Proton NMR spectroscopy measurements on brain extracts (aqueous and organic solvents) were made to observe chemical changes that could not be seen in vivo. Radiation-induced changes were observed in lactate, GABA, glutamate, and p-choline peak areas of the aqueous fraction spectra. In the organic fraction, decreases were observed in peak area ratios of the terminal-methyl peaks, the N-methyl groups of choline, and at a peak at 2.84 ppM (phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine resonances) relative to TMS. With histology and Evans blue injections, blood-brain barrier alternations were seen as early as 4 days after irradiation. 83 references, 53 figures

  15. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989 Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter is reported. The aim of the symposium is to evidence another aspect of heavy ions research at the interplay between atomic and solid state physics. The scope of the Symposium includes the fundamental aspects of heavy ion excitation, ionization, charge exchange, energy loss, energy dissipation and relaxation in solids, channeling and coherent effects in crystals and ion induced modifications of materials

  16. Heavy Quark Dynamics in Heavy Ion Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Collisions between heavy nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider liberate from the nuclear wavefunction of order 10,000 gluons, quarks and antiquarks. The system is dominated by gluons and up and down (anti) quarks. Heavy quarks, though having little effect on the overall equation of state, are critical as probes of the surrounding medium. We compare predictions from a scenario where the charm quarks escape the medium unaffected and fragment into hadrons in vacuum, and one where the cha...

  17. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  18. Centrality dependence of identified particles in relativistic heavy ion collisions at sqrt(s)= 7.7-62.4 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, D; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calder{ó}n~de~la~Barca~S{á}nchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chisman, O; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, H Z; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, W; Li, C; Li, Z M; Li, Y; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, R; Ma, L; Ma, Y G; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Smirnov, D; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thaeder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, F; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, G; Wang, H; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu,; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Xu, Y F; Xu, H; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Q; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I -K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J B; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2016-01-01

    Elliptic flow (v_{2}) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at sqrt{s_{NN}}= 7.7-62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at sqrt{s_{NN}}= 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies we observe a similar relative v_{2} baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v_{2} for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, shows a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with AMPT calculations and fit with a Blast Wave model.

  19. Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector; Etude complete du mouvement collectif de la matiere nucleaire dans les collisions centrales d'ions lourds avec le detecteur FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendarag, A

    1999-07-09

    In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

  20. Heavy Quark Production in Heavy Ion Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vogt

    2002-01-01

    We describe updated calculations of $Q \\bar Q$ production in $pp$ and $\\pi^- p$ interactions. We compare these results to total cross section data and discuss how the baseline cross sections extrapolate to heavy ion collider energies. We touch upon the differences between leading and next-to-leading order heavy quark production. Finally, we discuss the implications of our calculations for quarkonium production. Our discussion here focuses on bottom quarks.

  1. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report describes the participation of members of the Nevis group in different experiments during the FY93 period. There was major involvement in: BNL/AGS experiment E802/859/866; BNL RHIC experiment PHENIX; and CERN/SPS experiment NA44. The group was also involved in the small scale experiment E858/878 at BNL/AGS. For the BNL/AGS experiment data collection is now complete, and the group is involved in data analysis. Contributions to systematic procedures for measuring and maintaining the high calibration of the time-of-flight system, along with the previously developed trigger system have been significant contributions to the physics which is beginning to emerge from this heavy ion experiment. The CERN experiment has published first results on S-Pb collisions, with emphasis on two particle correlations. The group has been actively involved in data collection this year. Emphasis is being placed on proton-proton interactions in S-Pb and proton-Pb collisions. The PHENIX experiment is aimed at measuring signatures of quark-gluon plasma. The Nevis group has been actively involved in this experiment from design of the time-of-flight and trigger system, to acting as experiment spokesman

  2. Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental work is reported on the following topics: transverse energy production in 10.7-GeV/c/u Au on Au collisions; first results on delta ray production and charged particle multiplicities with the Au beam at 10.7 GeV/c/A; preliminary studies on the feasibility of flow measurement with the E814 participant calorimeter; preliminary results from the E877 telescope; and low-pt baryon distribution in Si+Al, Pb collisions at the AGS. Then the status of the Hadronic Calorimeter project of AGS Experiment E864 (ECOS--Exotic Composite Object Spectrometer) is reviewed. Next, the same is done for work of the STAR RHIC collaboration (Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) project evolution and development in FY92, SVT software results from 1992, SVT instrumentation, FY93 SVT pion test beam). The instrumentation section deals with the design and installation of a target rapidity telescope for BNL experiment 814/877 and a repair scheme for the E814/E877 participant calorimeter. Finally, the theory part addresses bosonic kinetics: thermalization of mesons and the pion pperpendicular spectrum in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and non-equilibrium properties of hadronic mixtures

  3. Nuclear interactions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible source of preheat for heavy ion driven inertial fusion targets is the production of fast precursors by nuclear interactions between the incident heavy ions and the outer parts of the target. A model has been developed which roughly describes these interactions for all beam-target combinations for all incident energies. This interaction model has been applied to a specific capsule design. The resultant preheat is an order of magnitude below the level which could impair target performance

  4. BNL heavy ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A principal attraction of heavy ion fusion is that existing accelerator technology and theory are sufficiently advanced to allow one to commence the design of a machine capable of igniting thermonuclear explosions. There are, however, a number of features which are not found in existing accelerators built for other purposes. The main thrust of the BNL Heavy Ion Fusion program has been to explore these features. Longitudinal beam bunching, very low velocity acceleration, and space charge neutralization are briefly discussed

  5. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs

  6. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  7. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  8. Heavy ion collisions and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    There are interesting parallels between the physics of heavy ion collisions and cosmology. Both systems are out-of-equilibrium and relativistic fluid dynamics plays an important role for their theoretical description. From a comparison one can draw interesting conclusions for both sides. For heavy ion physics it could be rewarding to attempt a theoretical description of fluid perturbations similar to cosmological perturbation theory. In the context of late time cosmology, it could be interesting to study dissipative properties such as shear and bulk viscosity and corresponding relaxation times in more detail. Knowledge and experience from heavy ion physics could help to constrain the microscopic properties of dark matter from observational knowledge of the cosmological fluid properties.

  9. Highly ionized, decelerated heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Acceleration-Stripping-Deceleration Method to produce highly-charged, heavy ions at moderate velocities is described. A brief survey of the method and experiments already done is given. For 3.6 MeV/u few-electron Xe projectiles (up to N-like ions) colliding with Xe atoms we describe one example for quasimolecular L-K vacancy transfer and one for distant capture processes. (orig.)

  10. Status of chemical equilibrium in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Cleymans

    2003-04-01

    Recent work on chemical equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions is reviewed. The energy dependence of thermal parameters is discussed. The centrality dependence of thermal parameters at SPS energies is presented.

  11. Timescales in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lisa, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The study of high energy collisions between heavy nuclei is a field unto itself, distinct from nuclear and particle physics. A defining aspect of heavy ion physics is the importance of a bulk, self-interacting system with a rich space-time substructure. I focus on the issue of timescales in heavy ion collisions, starting with proof from low-energy collisions that femtoscopy can, indeed, measure very long timescales. I then discuss the relativistic case, where detailed measurements over three orders of magnitude in energy reveal a timescale increase that might be due to a first-order phase transition. I discuss also consistency in evolution timescales as determined from traditional longitudinal sizes and a novel analysis using shape information.

  12. Heavy ion accelerators at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the Unilac heavy ion linear accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt is given. A schematic overall plan view of the Unilac is shown and its systems are described. List of isotopes and intensities accelerated at the Unilac is presented. The experimental possibilities at GSI should be considerably extended by a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS 18) in combination with an experimental storage ring (ESR). A prototype of the rf-accelerating system of the synchrotron has been built and tested. Prototypes for the quadrupole and dipole magnets for the ring are being constructed. The SIS 18 is desigmed for a maximum magnetic rigidity of 18Tm so that neon can be accelerated to 2 GeV/W and uranium to 1 GeV/u. The design allows also the acceleration of protons up to 4.5 GeV. The ESR permits to storage fully stripped uranium ions up to an energy of approximately R50 MeV/u

  13. Relativistic heavy ions physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nuclear collisions at energies far above 1 GeV/nucleon may provide for conditions, where the transition from highly excited hadronic matter into quark matter or quark-gluon plasma can be probed. We review current ideas about the nature of, and signals for, this transition, and we discuss the (hadronic) string model approach to the nuclear collisions dynamics. At even higher energies in the TeV/nucleon range peripheral nuclear collisions may become a laboratory for electroweak physics at the unification scale allowing, e.g., for Higgs boson production. 42 refs., 29 figs.,

  14. Recent progress in heavy ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of the progress during the last several years in the technology of sources of high charge state positive heavy ions and negative heavy ions. Subjects covered include recent results in ECR and EBIS source development and comparison of various source types for high charge state heavy ions.

  15. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. On the Space-Time Difference of Proton and Composite Particle Emission in Central Heavy-Ion Reactions at 400 A.MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kotte, R; Plettner, C; Neubert, W; Wohlfarth, D

    1999-01-01

    Small-angle correlations of pairs of nonidentical light charged particles produced in central collisions of heavy ions in the A=100 mass region at a beam energy of 400 AMeV are investigated with the FOPI detector system at GSI Darmstadt. The difference of longitudinal correlation functions with the relative velocity parallel and anti-parallel to the center-of-mass velocity of the pair in the central source frame is studied. This method allows extracting the apparent space-time differences of the emission of the charged particles. Comparing the correlations with results of a final-state interaction model delivers quantitative estimates of these asymmetries. Time delays as short as 1 fm/c or - alternatively - source radius differences of a few tenth fm are resolved. The strong collective expansion of the participant zone introduces not only an apparent reduction of the source radius but also a modification of the emission times. After correcting for both effects a complete sequence of space-time emission points...

  17. Forward-backward multiplicity correlations caused by centrality fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ronghua; Qian, Jing; Huo, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We consider that most of the long-range forward-backward multiplicity (FB) correlations in high energy A -A collisions are caused by the centrality fluctuation, and this phenomenon interferes with the measurement of the dynamical correlations greatly. We investigate the relationship between FB correlation strength and centrality by a Monte Carlo simulation and a derivation which are tested by A MultiPhases Transport (AMPT) model in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV. We compare the FB correlation strengths of AMPT model with the results of the derivation at √{sNN} = 7.7 to 200 GeV. A comparison between the default AMPT model and string melting AMPT model with different partonic scattering sections is made. As a result, we consider that the FB correlation strengths may be dominated by the mixing of different centrality events, and the short-range correlation may be overwhelmed for the most central collisions.

  18. Pre-equilibrium decay processes in energetic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boltzmann master equation (BME) is defined for application to precompound decay in heavy ion reactions in the 10 100 MeV/nucleon regime. Predicted neutron spectra are compared with measured results for central collisions of 20Ne and 12C with 165Ho target nuclei. Comparisons are made with subthreshold π0 yields in heavy ion reactions between 35 and 84 MeV/nucleon, and with the π0 spectra. The BME is found to be an excellent tool for investigating these experimentally observed aspects of non-equilibrium heavy ion reactions. 18 refs., 8 figs

  19. Mach cones in viscous heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bouras, I.; Betz, B.; Z. Xu; Greiner, C.(Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The formation of Mach cones is studied in a full $(3+1)$-dimensional setup of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, considering a transverse and longitudinal expanding medium at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider energies. For smooth initial conditions and central collisions the jet-medium interaction is investigated using high-energy jets and various values of the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, $\\eta/s$. For small viscosities, the formation of Mach cones is proven, whereas for...

  20. Experimental results on charge fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Pant, L M; Mohanty, A K

    2016-01-01

    We present a subset of experimental results on charge fluctuation from the heavy-ion collisions to search for phase transition and location of critical point in the QCD phase diagram. Measurements from the heavy-ion experiments at the SPS and RHIC energies observe that total charge fluctuations increase from central to peripheral collisions. The net-charge fluctuations in terms of dynamical fluctuation measure $\

  1. HBT in Relativisitic Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A summary of current interferometry data in relativistic heavy ions is presented. At sqrt{s}=17GeV a sudden increase in the pion source volume is observed for central PbPb collisions. This seems to imply that the pion phase density has reached a limit. The source size of different particles decreases with mass when the transverse velocity is held constant but increases with mass when the transverse mass is held constant. The antiproton source radius is larger than the proton source radius. So...

  2. Heavy ion science: Gateway to the unknown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, D.A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab.)

    1983-05-23

    The author reviews the development of nuclear physics with heavy ions. In this connection he considers elastic scattering and the structure of nuclear molecules, dynamic symmetries in nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, supersymmetry in nuclei, the study of high spin states by heavy ion reactions, deep inelastic heavy ion reactions, the positron production in the Coulomb field of a superheavy nuclear molecule, the study of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter, anomalons, as well as applications to geophysics and technology.

  3. International cooperation in heavy-ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapidly growing research applications of heavy ions in basic biology and medicine have stimulated interest in this field in many countries. LBL, with its unique facilities and its scientific programs, is the focal point of interest. Plans are underway in several countries, including France, Japan, West Germany, and Canada, to build heavy-ion facilities, and to collaborate with our staff at LBL in heavy-ion research in physics, biology, and medicine

  4. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  5. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  6. Target input requirements for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the requirements a heavy ion accelerator must meet in order to initiate practical thermonuclear microexplosions. Particular emphasis is given to the question of maximum allowable ion energy

  7. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  8. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  9. Ultra-relativistic heavy ions and cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collisions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, E/sub /N/ greater than or equal to 1 TeV/nucleon are most interesting, since, at these energies, matter is produced at sufficiently high energy density that a quark-gluon plasma has a good chance to form. Very heavy ions are also most interesting since the matter forms in a larger volume than for light ions, and the matter is at a somewhat higher energy density. At very high energies with very heavy ions there is great flexibility in the experimental signals which might be studied, as well as the nature of the matter which is produced. The fragmentation region and central region provide different environments where a plasma might form. The former is baryon rich while the central region is high temperature with low baryon number density and is not accessible except at very high energies

  10. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  11. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  12. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Itzhak Tserruya

    2003-04-01

    The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics is reviewed with emphasis on new results and highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super proton synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and the AGS at BNL.

  13. 7th high energy heavy ion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. They deal with relativistic heavy ion reactions, the expansion and freeze-out of nuclear matter, anomalon experiments, and multifragmentation and particle correlations in heavy ion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  14. Probing QED Vacuum with Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann; Müller, Berndt; Reinhardt, Joachim; Greiner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We recall how nearly half a century ago the proposal was made to explore the structure of the quantum vacuum using slow heavy-ion collisions. Pursuing this topic we review the foundational concept of spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by observable positron emission in heavy-ion collisions and describe the related theoretical developments in strong fields QED.

  15. Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern

    2010-12-13

    Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E{sub lab}=35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s{sub NN}){sup 1/2}=62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)

  16. Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at Elab=35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (sNN)1/2=62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)

  17. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  18. Heavy Ion Acceleration in Impulsive Solar Flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德焴

    2002-01-01

    The abundance enhancements of heavy ions Ne, Mg, Si and Fe in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) eventsare explained by a plasma acceleration mechanism. In consideration of the fact that the coronal plasma is mainlycomposed of hydrogen and helium ions, we think that theion-ion hybrid wave and quasi-perpendicular wave can.be excited by the energetic electron beam in impulsive solar flares. These waves may resonantly be absorbed byheavy ions when the frequencies of these waves are close to the second-harmonic gyrofrequencies of these heavyions. This requires the coronal plasma temperature to be located in the range ofT ~ (5 - 9) × 106 K in impulsivesolar flares and makes the average ionic charge state of these heavy ions in impulsive SEP events higher than theaverage ionic charge state of these heavy ions in gradual SEP events. These pre-heated and enhanced heavy ionsin impulsive SEP events.

  19. Systematic studies of the centrality and √(sNN) dependence of the dET/dη and dNch/dη in heavy ion collisions at midrapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHENIX experiment at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) has measured transverse energy and charged particle multiplicity at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at center-of-mass energies √(sNN)=19.6,130, and 200 GeV as a function of centrality. The presented results are compared to measurements from other RHIC experiments and experiments at lower energies. The √(sNN) dependence of dET/dη and dNch/dη per pair of participants is consistent with logarithmic scaling for the most central events. The centrality dependence of dET/dη and dNch/dη is similar at all measured incident energies. At RHIC energies, the ratio of transverse energy per charged particle was found to be independent of centrality and growing slowly with √(sNN). A survey of comparisons between the data and available theoretical models is also presented

  20. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is {sup 96}Ru + {sup 96}Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  1. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Ikeda, S.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is 96Ru + 96Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  2. System size in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang-Yang; ZHAO Lin-Jie; YUAN Zhong-Sheng; ZHANG Dan-Dan; FANG Wei; XU Ming-Mei

    2011-01-01

    System size is more than a geometrical quantity in relativistic heavy ion collisions; it is closely related to evolution process,i.e.a different system size corresponds to a different evolution process,and whether QGP is produced depends on the system size.We propose that the system size should be under the same level when comparing the measurements from different colliding nuclei.The equivalence of the peripheral collisions of Au-Au and the central collisions of smaller nuclei is studied using the Monte Carlo method.Comparing the transverse overlapping area of the colliding nuclei,the number of participant nucleons and the number of nucleon-nucleon binary collisions in various colliding nuclei,we give an estimate of the correspondence in system size.This is helpful in the experimental comparison of the measurements from different colliding nuclei.

  3. Track Reconstruction in Heavy Ion Events using the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, Christof

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will collide protons at sqrt{S}=14 TeV and lead ions at sqrt{S_{NN} =5.5 TeV. The study of heavy ion collisions is an integral part of the physics program of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS). Central heavy ion events at LHC energies are expected to produce a multiplicity of 1500 to 4000 charged particles per unit of rapidity. The CMS detector features a large acceptance and high resolution silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detector layers. In this note the algorithms used for pattern recognition in the very high track density environment of heavy ion collisions will be described. Detailed studies using the full detector simulation and reconstruction are presented and achieved reconstruction efficiencies, fake rates and resolutions are discussed.

  4. CERN achievements in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giuseppe Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after a Letter of Intent by the GSI and LBL groups for the “Study of particle production and target fragmentation in central 20Ne on Pb reactions, at 12 GeV per nucleon energy of the CERN PS external beam" [1], based on the results found by the NA45/CERES, NA49, NA50, and WA97/NA57 experiments at the SPS, CERN announced compelling evidence for the formation of a new state of matter in heavyion collisions at CERN-SPS energies [2]. Some of the experiments were indeed the 2nd or 3rd generation successors of the apparatuses originally proposed by the GSI-LBL collaboration. Actually, the CERN ion program initiated at the SPS with the acceleration of oxygen ions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon only in 1986, and continued with sulphur ions at 200 GeV/nucleon up to 1993. The rest is history: lead-ion beams at 160 GeV/nucleon became available at the SPS in 1994; the LHC accelerated and collided lead beams at a center of mass energy per nucleon pair √sNN = 2.76 TeV in 2010. Heavy ion physics is definitely in the future program of CERN: ALICE will operate a major upgrade of its detectors during the second long shutdown of the LHC, in 2018-2019, and the associated physics program will span the third and fourth LHC runs, till late 2020s.

  5. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  6. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  7. Cosmology and elementary particles. Heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These school lectures were centered around two principal subjects: first tried to show how cosmology and particle physics are deeply related more and more nowadays. Second one was around heavy ion collisions and their relations with quark matter

  8. Energy straggling of heavy ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy-loss straggling of heavy ions has been studied, principally in the Born Approximation region v > zv0. Measurements were made with 5.486 MeV α particles, 5 - 48 MeV 160 ions, and 3 - 36 MeV 12C ions, incident on thin uniform Al foils. The thickness uniformity of the foils was studied with a proton microbeam and a surface profiler, and their homogeneity, purity and isotropy were investigated by electron microscope, proton backscattering, and X-ray diffraction studies. Using the Bethe theory of energy loss the charge-exchange model of energy straggling for heavy ions is confirmed. (author)

  9. Nuclear fission induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the accelerators of the 50's and 60's mostly provided beams of light ions, well suited for studying individual quantum states of low angular momentum or reactions involving the transfer of one or two nucleons, the study of fission, being an example of large-scale collective motion, has until recently been outside of the mainstream of nuclear research. This situation has changed in recent years, due to the new generation of accelerators capable of producing beams of heavy ions with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of all stable nuclei. These have made possible the study of new examples of large-scale collective motions, involving major rearrangements of nuclear matter, such as deep-inelastic collisions and heavy-ion fusion. Perhaps the most exciting development in the past few years is the discovery that dissipative effects (nuclear viscosity) play an important role in fission induced by heavy ions, contrary to earlier assumptions that the viscosity involved in fission was very weak and played only a minor role. This review will be mainly concerned with developments in heavy-ion induced fission during the last few years and have an emphasis on the very recent results on dissipative effects. Since heavy-ion bombardment usually results in compound systems with high excitation energies and angular momenta, shell effects might be expected to be small, and the subject of low energy fission, where they are important, will not be addressed. 285 refs., 58 figs

  10. The projects of heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion beams are now applied to various research and application fields, and the accelerators for heavy ions are also diversified depending on their purposes, such as tandem van de Graaff, linac, cyclotron, ring-cyclotron, synchrotron, cooler-ring, collider and their superconducting ones. The present state in these fields is outlined. Concerning the medical application of heavy ions in Japan, the facility named HIMAC is under construction now at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The original idea of the HIMAC (heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba) Project was proposed at the High LET Radiotherapy Division in the US-Japan Cooperative Cancer Research Program in 1979 in Kyoto, Japan. In 1983, the Japanese government decided to promote the ten-year strategy for cancer initiative, and the HIMAC Project also has been advanced along it. It is expected to be completed and to start the first clinical trial in 1993. The radiological effects of heavy ions on organic cells are well suitable to the medical treatment of cancer. The PIG and ECR ion sources, the RFQ and Alvarez injector linacs, the synchrotron, the beam delivery system, the treatment devices and the building are described. (K.I.)

  11. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  12. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory heavy ion fusion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Lee, E.P.; Monsler, M.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1978-12-29

    In the large fusion program at Livermore we are actively doing research in most areas of inertial confinement fusion. The areas in which we are funded for research specific to heavy ion fusion are: (1) target design; (2) energy conversion chamber design and (3) ion beam propagation in the combustion chamber. There are two main thrusts to the target design effort: (1) development of targets which are optimally suited to heavy ion fusion power production and (2) fundamental studies of the beam-target interaction.

  13. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  14. Heavy ion medical accelerator in chiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) construction project has been promoted by NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences) as one of the projects of 'Comprehensive 10 year Strategy for Cancer Control' HIMAC is the first heavy-ion accelerator dedicated to medicine in the world, and its design parameters are based on the radiological requirements. It consists of two types of ion sources, an RFQ and an Alvarez linacs, dual synchrotron rings, high energy beam transport lines, and irradiation facilities for treatment and experiments. This report mainly describes the outline of the structure and performance of each HIMAC subsystem. (J.P.N.)

  15. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Consequences of a {lambda}{sub c}/D enhancement effect on the non-photonic electron nuclear modification factor in central heavy ion collisions at RHIC energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, G. [SUBATECH, IN2P3/CNRS, Ecole des Mines, Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail: gines.martinez@subatech.in2p3.fr; Gadrat, S. [SUBATECH, IN2P3/CNRS, Ecole des Mines, Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail: sebastien.gadrat@subatech.in2p3.fr; Crochet, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)], E-mail: philippe.crochet@clermont.in2p3.fr

    2008-05-15

    The RHIC experiments have measured the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} of non-photonic electrons in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. This R{sub AA} exhibits a large suppression for p{sub t}>2 GeV/c which is commonly attributed to heavy-quark energy loss. It is expected that the heavy-quark radiative energy loss is smaller than the light quark one because of the so-called dead-cone effect. An enhancement of the charm baryon yield with respect to the charm meson yield, as it is observed for light and strange hadrons, can explain part of the suppression. This phenomenon has been put forward in a previous work. We present in this Letter a more complete study based on a detailed simulation which includes electrons from charm and bottom decay, charm and bottom quark realistic energy loss as well as a more realistic modeling of the {lambda}{sub c}/D enhancement. We show that a {lambda}{sub c}/D ratio close to unity, as observed for light and strange quarks, could explain 20-25% of the suppression of non-photonic electrons in central Au+Au collisions. This effect remains significant at relatively high non-photonic electron transverse momenta of 8-9 GeV/c.

  17. Heavy ion toroidal collective accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on HIPAC at Maxwell Laboratories have shown that almost all of the confined electrons are trapped and do not go around the torus. A toroidal electric field produces a negligible toroidal electron current. An ion accelerator where electrons are magnetically contained and their space charge contains ions is considered. A toroidal electric field of suitable magnitude can be applied so that it accelerates all of the ions but does not accelerate most of the electrons. This is possible if the magnetic moment of electrons μsub(e) > μsub(i)/Z, where μsub(i) is the ion magnetic moment and Z is the charge of the ion. Ions would be contained by the electron space-charge electric field E, for energies up to ZeER/2 approximately 100 GeV where Z = 60, E = 107 V/cm and the major radius of the torus is R = 3.3 metres. (author)

  18. CERN Heavy-Ion Facility design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the CERN Heavy-Ion Facility is described. This facility will be based on a new ion linear accelerator (Linac 3), together with improvements to the other accelerators of the CERN complex to allow them to cope with heavy ions, i.e. to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). For this reference design, the pure isotope of lead, 208Pb, is considered. The bulk of the report describes Linac 3, a purpose-built heavy-ion linac mainly designed and constructed in collaboration with several CERN member state laboratories, but also with contributions from non-member states. Modifications and improvements to existing CERN accelerators essentially concern the RF acceleration, beam control and beam monitoring (all machines), beam kickers and septa at the input and output of the PSB, and major vacuum improvements, aiming to reduce the pressure by factors of at least seven and three in the PSB and PS respectively. After injection from the Electron Cyclotron Resonance source at 2.5 keV/u the partially stripped heavy-ion beam is accelerated successively by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole and an Interdigital-H linac to 4.2 MeV/u. After stripping to 208Pb53+, the beam is again accelerated, firstly in the PSB (to 98.5 MeV/u), then in the PS (to 4.25 GeV/u). The final stage of acceleration in the SPS takes the fully stripped 208Pb82+ ions to 177 GeV/u, delivering a beam of 4.108 ions per SPS supercycle (15.2 s) to the experiments. The first physics run with lead ions is scheduled for the end of 1994. Finally, some requirements for carrying out heavy-ion physics at the Large Hadron Collider are mentioned. (orig.)

  19. Anomalous transport model study of chiral magnetic effects in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yifeng; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Using an anomalous transport model for massless quarks, we study the effect of magnetic field on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions. With initial conditions from a blast wave model and assuming that the strong magnetic field produced in non-central heavy ion collisions can last for a sufficiently long time, we obtain an appreciable electric quadrupole moment in the transverse plane of a heavy ion collision, which subsequently leads to a splitting between the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks as expected from the chiral magnetic wave formed in the produced QGP and observed in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  20. Accelerators for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses accelerators for heavy-ion fusion rather than accelerators for strategic defense systems, focusing first on generic fusion issues. The author maintains that a sensible fusion system must satisfy three conditions: the total capital cost of the system must be acceptable; the cost of electricity must also be acceptable, and there must be a reasonable way to get from where we are today to where we want to be ultimately, i.e., there must be a sensible RandD path. The author believes that inertial confinement fusion (ICF) provides a reasonable RandD path and explains why. The results of the heavy-ion experiments performed have tested only transverse beam dynamics. The author believes that heavy-ion fusion is a promising fusion option and that multistage accelerators are capable of satisfying the engineering requirements of fusion power production

  1. Specific gene mutations induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes our heavy-ion research rationale, progress, and plans for the near future. The major project involves selecting a group of maize Adh1 mutants induced by heavy ions and correlating their altered behavior with altered DNA nucleotide sequences and sequence arrangements. This research requires merging the techniques of classical genetics and recombinant DNA technology. Our secondary projects involve (1) the use of the Adh gene in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a second system with which to quantify the sort of specific gene mutants induced by heavy ions as compared to x rays, and (2) the development of a maize Adh1 pollen in situ monitor for environmental mutagens

  2. Heavy ion results from the CMS Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Evdokimov, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The first heavy ion run at the LHC occurred in November of 2010 and was followed by a second run in late 2011 that increased the available event sample by more than an order of magnitude. Heavy ion collisions at the LHC are expected to produce a partonic medium which has a higher energy density and a longer life-time than could be created at RHIC. This work gives an overview of what has been learned about the nature of the hot and dense medium created in high energy heavy ion collisions using new data from the CMS experiment. Specifically, azimuthal anisotropy at high transverse momentum, collection of nuclear modification factor measurements for different particle species and identified jets, differential jet properties, and quarkonia measurements are discussed.

  3. Heavy ions at the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Dainese, A; Armesto, N; d'Enterria, D; Jowett, J M; Lansberg, J -P; Milhano, J G; Salgado, C A; Schaumann, M; van Leeuwen, M; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonioli, P; Apolinario, L; Bass, S; Beraudo, A; Bilandzic, A; Borsanyi, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Chen, Z; Mendez, L Cunqueiro; Denicol, G S; Eskola, K J; Floerchinger, S; Fujii, H; Giubellino, P; Greiner, C; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Ko, C -M; Kotko, P; Krajczar, K; Kutak, K; Laine, M; Liu, Y; Lombardo, M P; Luzum, M; Marquet, C; Masciocchi, S; Okorokov, V; Paquet, J -F; Paukkunen, H; Petreska, E; Pierog, T; Ploskon, M; Ratti, C; Rezaeian, A H; Riegler, W; Rojo, J; Roland, C; Rossi, A; Salam, G P; Sapeta, S; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Stachel, J; Uphoff, J; van Hameren, A; Watanabe, K; Xiao, B -W; Yuan, F; Zaslavsky, D; Zhou, K; Zhuang, P

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon-nucleon collision, with integrated luminosities above 30 nb^-1 per month for Pb-Pb. This is a report by the working group on heavy-ion physics of the FCC Study. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, of gluon saturation, of photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with other fields of high-energy physics.

  4. Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H ''Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment

  5. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  6. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15\\%. %The rapidity profile of the charge is wider than the profile of the local energy density. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  7. Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  8. Jets In Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-08-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms, complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  9. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dion, Maxime; Schenke, Bjoern; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using MUSIC, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v_2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, eta/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  10. Heavy ion acceleration at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brookhaven AGS is alternating gradient synchrotron, 807 meters in circumference, which was originally designed for only protons. Using the 15 MV Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff as an injector, the AGS started to accelerate heavy ions of mass lighter than sulfur. Because of the relatively poor vacuum (∼10-8 Torr), the AGS is not able to accelerate heavier ions which could not be fully stripped of electrons at the Tandem energy. When the AGS Booster, which is under construction, is completed the operation will be extended to all species of heavy ions including gold and uranium. Because ultra-high vacuum (∼10-11 Torr) is planned, the Booster can accelerate partially stripped elements. The operational experience, the parameters, and scheme of heavy ion acceleration will be presented in detail from injection to extraction, as well as future injection into the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A future plan to improve intensity of the accelerator will also be presented. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop

  12. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Schiff, D.; Hristov, P.; Menaud, J.M.; Hrivnacova, I.; Poizat, P.; Chabratova, G.; Albin-Amiot, H.; Carminati, F.; Peters, A.; Schutz, Y.; Safarik, K.; Ollitrault, J.Y.; Hrivnacova, I.; Morsch, A.; Gheata, A.; Morsch, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Lauret, J.; Nief, J.Y.; Pereira, H.; Kaczmarek, O.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Guernane, R.; Stocco, D.; Gruwe, M.; Betev, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Rapp, B.; Masoni, A.; Stoicea, G.; Brun, R

    2005-07-01

    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop.

  13. Modelling swift heavy ion irradiation in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift heavy ions moving in metals lose most of their energy to inelastic scattering of electrons. The energy deposited in the electronic system is transferred into the atomic system via electron-ion interactions and can lead to melting and creation of new damage and also annealing of pre-existing atomic defects. Using a combination of molecular dynamics and a consistent treatment of electron energy transfer and transport we have modelled experiments performed in Fe to investigate the annealing effect and damage creation under electronic excitations. We observe both annealing and new damage creation at low and high electronic stopping, respectively. Rapid separation of interstitial atoms and vacant lattice sites is seen due to efficient transport via replacement collision sequences. Our results suggest that the role of electronic excitation can be significant in modeling of the behaviour of metals under swift heavy ion irradiation and attempts to modify metals via ion implantation.

  14. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

  15. Nonlinear QED Effects in Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2000-01-01

    Peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions uniquely probe many aspects of QED. Examples include $e^+e^-$ pair production and nuclear excitation in strong fields. After discussing these reactions, I will draw parallels between $\\gamma\\to e^+e^-$ and $\\gamma\\to q\\bar q$ and consider partly hadronic reactions. The scattered $q\\bar q$ pairs are a prolific source of vector mesons, which demonstrate many quantum effects. The two ions are a two-source interferometer, demonstrating interference...

  16. The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the Holifield facility has continued with resulting improvements in the number of ion species provided, ion energy for tandem-only operations, and utilization efficiency. The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and operated as a national user facility for research in heavy ion science. The facility operates two accelerators: an NEC pelletron tandem accelerator designed to operate at terminal potentials up to 25 MV and the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) which has been modified to serve as an energy booster for beams from the tandem accelerator. The principal experimental devices of the facility include a broad range spectrograph (ME/q2 = 225) equipped with a vertical drift chamber detector system, a 4π spin spectrometer equipped with 72 NaI detectors (Ge detectors and BGO compton-suppression units can be used in place of the NaI detectors), a time-of-flight spectrometer, a 1.6-m scattering chamber, a heavy-ion/light-ion detector (HILI) which will be used for studying inverse reactions, a split-pole spectrograph, and a velocity filter. In this report, we will discuss our recent development activities, operational experience, and future development plans

  17. Rotating quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    We study the rotational collective motion of the quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy ion collisions using the widely-adopted AMPT (A Multi-Phase Transport) model. The global angular momentum, the average vorticity carried by the quark-gluon plasma, and the locally defined vorticity fields are computed for Au+Au collisions, with detailed information of their time evolution, spatial distribution, as well as the dependence on beam energy and collision centrality.

  18. Effect of correlations on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, D K; Garg, P; Netrakanti, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlations on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distributions which have been measured for central (0\\%-5\\%) Au + Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as a Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of proto...

  19. Directed flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bozek, Piotr; Wyskiel, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    We study the generation of directed flow in the hydrodynamic expansion of the hot matter formed in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at 200GeV. The experimentally observed negative directed flow in a wide range of central pseudorapidities isreproduced assuming that the fireball is tilted away from the collision axis. The tilt of the source is consistent with a preferential emission in the forward/backward hemisphere from forward/backward participating nucleons. The model reproduces the e...

  20. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report

  1. Straggling of heavy ions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to determine the straggling in aluminium of 4He, 16O and 35Cl ions of different energies produced by the tandem Van de Graaff at Harwell. The technique consists of scattering the accelerated and collimated ions in a scattering chamber from a 0.100 mg/cm2 gold foil, allowing the scattered ions to pass through a two aperture collimator, using different aluminium foils over one of the apertures and stopping the two emergent beams in a good quality silicon surface barrier detector the output of which is connected to a 4096 channel analyser. The energy widths obtained in the case of helium ions are in fair agreement with both the Bloch and the recent Tschalar (1968) theory. The measured widths in the case of heavy ions are very large and can be explained only if account is taken of their charge distributions in foils. This study should be useful in ion implantation work. (author)

  2. Charmonia and open charm production in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Gonin, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The production of heavy flavours in heavy ion collisions has been of great interest since the prediction of Matsui and Satz regarding quarkonium suppression in the quark gluon plasma due to color screening mechanisms. The NA50 collaboration has produced the first charmonia measurements in heavy ion collisions which show evidence for strong and anomalous suppressions in central Pb-Pb collisions. For the suppression of bound state quark-antiquark pairs to be a plasma signature, the production of these quarks inside the cold nucleus should first be well known. Differences in the relative yield of heavy flavour between nucleon-nucleon an nucleon-nucleus collisions probes cold nuclear matter effects such as the modifications of the gluon distribution functions or parton energy loss. The gluon-gluon fusion represents the dominant mechanism for the production of quarkonia studied by the heavy ion experiments. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the latest results from the CERN-SPS and Fermilab fixed tar...

  3. Detectors for relativistic heavy-ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present in some detail an overview of the detectors currently used in relativistic heavy-ion research at the BNL AGS and the CERN SPS. Following that, a detailed list of RandD projects is given, including specific areas of work which need to be addressed in preparation for further experiments at the AGS and SPS for the upcoming experiments at RHIC

  4. Quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi Roberta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of quarkonium states plays a crucial role among the probes to investigate the formation of the plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP in heavy-ion collisions. A review of the charmonium and bottomonium production, mainly focussing on the latest results from the LHC experiments, is presented.

  5. Polarization phenomena in heavy ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms of heavy ion reactions are discussed from the experimental results on polarization of products 12B in 14N + 100Mo and 14N + 232Th reactions. Polarization determines the signs of deflection functions corresponding to large energy losses. (author)

  6. Positron spectroscopy after heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews the theoretical and experimental results on positron production in heavy ion collisions. After a discussion of the quasi-atomic picture, the possible observation of the axion, and the inverse Bhabha scattering, the positron spectrometer EPOS of the GSI Darmstadt is described. Thereafter the experimental results are presented. (HSI)

  7. Heavy-ion measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bold, Tomasz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC participated in Heavy-ion programme since its beginning. Utilising versatile detector capabilities a number of unique measurements have been performed. In this brief proceedings, a summary of only a fraction of ATLAS measurements is presented.

  8. Dynamics of fission and heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in a unified macroscopic-microscopic description of large-amplitude collective nuclear motion such as occurs in fission and heavy ion reactions are discussed. With the goal of finding observable quantities that depend upon the magnitude and mechanism of nuclear dissipation, one-body dissipation and two-body viscosity within the framework of a generalized Fokker-Planck equation for the time dependence of the distribution function in phase space of collective coordinates and momenta are considered. Proceeding in two separate directions, the generalized Hamilton equations of motion for the first moments of the distribution function with a new shape parametrization and other technical innovations are first solved. This yields the mean translational fission-fragment kinetic energy and mass of a third fragment that sometimes forms between the two end fragments, as well as the energy required for fusion in symmetric heavy-ion reactions and the mass transfer and capture cross section in asymmetric heavy-ion reactions. In a second direction, we specialize to an inverted-oscillator fission barrier and use Kramers' stationary solution to calculate the mean time from the saddle point to scission for a heavy-ion-induced fission reaction for which experimental information is becoming available. 25 references

  9. Metastable states of highly excited heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, D. J.; Griffin, P. M.; Sellin, I. A.; Smith, W. W.; Donnally, B.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the method used and results obtained in an experimental study of the metastable states of highly stripped heavy ions, aimed at determining the lifetimes of such states by the rates of autoionization and radiation. The significance and limitations of the results presented are discussed.

  10. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  11. Color screening in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the color screening length in a non-equilibrated gluon gas formed by interacting minijets in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We show that the screening length is too short at CERN LHC collider energy to permit the formation of independent flux-tubes or strings. The prediction for RHIC energies is somewhat ambiguous. (orig.)

  12. "Super" Cocktails for Heavy Ion Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael B; Johnson, Michael B.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Galloway, Michelle; Leitner, Daniela; Morel, James R.; Gimpel, ThomasL.; Ninemire, Brien F.; Siero, Reba; Thatcher, Raymond K.

    2007-07-21

    The 4.5 MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail at the 88-Inch Cyclotron has been expanded by incorporating beams from solid material to fill in the linear energy transfer curve. This supercocktail is available by special request and is useful when only normal incidence between the beam and the device under test is possible or desirable.

  13. Sigma meson in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We want to present a short theoretical prediction of the behaviour of the sigma meson in heavy ion collisions. It is considered that the sigma meson is a pion-pion correlation, resulting from the decay of the N*(1440) resonance. There will be presented some QMD simulations. (authors)

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    include carcinogenesis, late degenerative tissue effects (including damage to the central nervous system), and hereditary effects. For these studies, microbeams represent an essential tool, considering that in space each cell in the human body will not experience more than one heavy-ion traversal. Both NASA and ESA are investing important resources in ground-based space radiation research programs, to reduce risk uncertainty and to develop countermeasures. For both cancer therapy and space radiation protection a better understanding of the effects of energetic heavy ions is needed. Physics should be improved, especially the measurements of nuclear fragmentation cross-sections, and the transport calculations. Biological effects need to be studied in greater detail, and clearly only understanding the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced biological damage will reduce the uncertainty on late effects in humans. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics aims to provide the state-of-the-art of the biophysics of energetic heavy ions and to highlight the areas where more research is urgently needed for therapy and the space program. Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics Contents Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications K O Voss, C Fournier and G Taucher-Scholz Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight L Narici Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy Hirohiko Tsujii, Tadashi Kamada, Masayuki Baba, Hiroshi Tsuji, Hirotoshi Kato, Shingo Kato, Shigeru Yamada, Shigeo Yasuda, Takeshi Yanagi, Hiroyuki Kato, Ryusuke Hara, Naotaka Yamamoto and Junetsu Mizoe Heavy-ion effects: from track structure to DNA and chromosome damage F Ballarini, D Alloni, A Facoetti and A Ottolenghi Shielding experiments with high-energy heavy ions for spaceflight applications C Zeitlin, S Guetersloh, L Heilbronn, J Miller, N Elkhayari, A Empl, M LeBourgeois, B W Mayes, L Pinsky

  15. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  16. Coupled channels effects in heavy ion elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of inelastic excitation on the elastic scattering of heavy ions are considered within a coupled channels framework. Both Coulomb and nuclear excitation results are applied to /sup 18/O + /sup 184/W and other heavy ion reactions. (SDF)

  17. Heavy ions, targets, and research at HHIRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) typifies a new generation of heavy ion accelerators capable of producing high resolution beams with sufficient energy to study nuclear reactions across the periodic table. Exploiting the capabilities of the machine depends on the availability of thin foils at each stage of the experimental process. Rugged carbon foils are needed in the tandem and cyclotron to strip injected ions up to high charge states. Experimental success largely depends on the availability of a suitable target for bombardment which imposes new demands on the target maker. Many experiments use large solid angle gaseous counters with very thin foils as windows. The accelerators, experimental apparatus, and beam characteristics will be described. Target requirements demanded by different types of experiments will be discussed. These requirements have lead to the construction of specialized apparatus such as the supersonic gas jet target and the single crystal goniometer for blocking measurements

  18. Diffraction radiation from relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potylitsyna, N.A. E-mail: nata@interact.phtd.tpu.edu.ru

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the relativistic heavy ion beams at new accelerator facilities are allowed to obtain some new interesting results (see, for instance, Datz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (18) (1997) 3355; Ladyrin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 404 (1998) 129). The problem of non-destructive heavy ion beam diagnostics at these accelerators is highly pressing. The authors of the papers (Rule et al., Proceedings of the Seventh Beam Instrumentation Workshop, Argonne IL, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 390, NY, 1997; Castellano, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 394 (1997) 275) suggested to use diffraction radiation (DR) appearing when a charge moves close to a conducting surface (Bolotovskii and Voskresenskii, Sov. Phys. Usp. 9 (1966) 73) for non-destructive electron beam diagnostics. The DR characteristics are defined by both Lorentz-factor and the particle charge, and do not depend on its mass. The estimation of feasibility of using DR for relativistic ion beam diagnostics is undoubtedly interesting.

  19. Accelerator research for heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now one decade since serious consideration was first given to the use of heavy ion accelerators for inertial confinement fusion. After an initial period of wide-ranging studies, the US program settled on an induction linac method proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The ion kinetic energy is modest (30-100 MeV/amu, 5-10 GeV total) but intense beam currents of order 1 kA per beam in 10-30 beams are required on target in a short pulse of order 10-20 ns. In this review the conceptual designs are described, together with recent theory and experiments on high-current beam transport and use of multiple beams. Parallel efforts in West Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union are mentioned, and a two-year US study of heavy ion fusion electric power plants is summarized. (orig.)

  20. Experimental Verification of Heavy Ion Irradiation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengyun; Iwata, T.; Xu, Yongjun; Zheng, Yongnan; Zhou, Dongmei; Zhu, Jiazheng; Wang, Zhiqqiang; Yuan, Daqing; Du, Enpeng; Zuo, Yi

    The heavy ion irradiation simulation of neutron and/or proton irradiation has been verified experimentally by the detailed study of radiation damage in α-Al2O3 irradiated at the equivalent dose by 5.28×1015 cm-285 MeV 19F ions and by 3×1020 cm-2 En≥1MeV neutrons, respectively. The radiation damage created by irradiation was examined by a positron annihilation lifetime technique. The positron annihilation parameters of lifetime and intensity obtained for both irradiations in α-Al2O3 are all in good agreement. This demonstrates that the heavy ion irradiation can well simulate the neutron and/or proton irradiation.

  1. Transport of heavy ions through matter within ion optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis for the first time higher-order ion-optical calculations were connected with the whole phase-space changes of the heavy ions in passing through matter. With the developed programs and the newly proposed analytical methods atomic and nuclear interactions of the heavy ions within ion optical systems can be described realistically. The results of this thesis were applied to the conception of the fragment separator (FRS) and to the planning and preparation of experiments at the new GSI accelerator facility. Especially for the description of the ion-optical combination of FRS and the storage ring ESR the developed programs and methods proved to be necessary. A part of the applied theories on the atomic stopping could be confirmed in the framework of this thesis in an experiment with the high-resolving spectrometer SPEC at GANIL. The method of the isotopically pure separation of projectile fragments by means of magnetic analysis and the electronic energy loss could be also experimentally successfully tested at several energies (60-400 MeV/u). Furthermore in this thesis also application-related problems regarding a tumor therapy with heavy ions were solved. A concept for a medical separator (BMS) was developed, which separates light diagnosis beams isotopically purely and beyond improves the energy sharpness by means of an especially shaped (monoenergetic) stopper so that an in-situ range determination is possible with an accuracy of about one millimeter. (orig./HSI)

  2. Beyond the thermal model in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschin, Georg

    2016-08-01

    Deviations from thermal distribution functions of produced particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are discussed as indicators for nonequilibrium processes. The focus is on rapidity distributions of produced charged hadrons as functions of collision energy and centrality, which are used to infer the fraction of particles produced from a central fireball as compared with that from the fragmentation sources that are out of equilibrium with the rest of the system. Overall thermal equilibrium would only be reached for large times t →∞ .

  3. Beyond the thermal model in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wolschin, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Deviations from thermal distribution functions of produced particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are discussed as indicators for nonequilibrium processes. The focus is on rapidity distributions of produced charged hadrons as functions of collision energy and centrality which are used to infer the fraction of produced particles from a central fireball as compared to the one from the fragmentation sources that are out of equilibrium with the rest of the system. Overall thermal equilibrium would only be reached for large times t -> infinity.

  4. Theory of heavy ion collisions. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated clearly that macroscopic models account for many of the observed features of heavy ion collisions. During this phase of the program major steps have been taken toward a better understanding of fusion excitation function, strongly damped collisions, the emission of nucleons at intermediate energies, heavy ion collisions and pions in relativistic heavy ion collisions

  5. Pionic instabilities in high-energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of heavy ion reactions includes the determination of whether pionic instabilities can exist at the densities and excitation energies expected in heavy ion collisions, the calculation of growth rates of unstable pion modes, and the determination of the effect such instabilities would have on the dynamics in heavy ion collisions. 14 references

  6. Radiation therapy using high-energy heavy-ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical trial of the heavy-ion radiotherapy was started at June 1994 after pre-clinical experiments using 290 MeV/u carbon beam. In this paper, an irradiation system for the heavy-ion radiotherapy installed at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) and the physical characteristics of the therapeutic beam were discussed. (author)

  7. Science and art in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the more intriguing phenomena discovered in heavy-ion physics is the seeming appearance of high energy structure in the excitation spectra of inelastically scattered heavy ions. For reasons illustrated, these may well be a phenomena unique to heavy ions and their explanation perhaps unique to TDHF

  8. Heavy ion fusion physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple systems model has been used to determine the sensitivity of the cost of electricity and the total cost of a power plant to the various uncertainties expressed in the following six issues. (1) can, at reasonable cost, an accelerator be built that puts more than 1 MJ of energy into a small 6-D phase space volume. (2) Can the beam be focused over a distance of several meters onto a small target in a reaction chamber. (3) Do present calculations adequately describe ion energy deposition. (4) Do current numerical simulations adequately describe the hydrodynamic and thermonuclear behavior of targets. (5) Can targets be cheaply mass produced. (6) Can an economical, tritium-breeding reactor be built

  9. Heavy flavour production at CMS in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We review recent results relating to beauty production in heavy-ion collisions, in both the closed and open heavy flavor sectors, from the CMS experiment at the LHC. The sequential suppression of the ° states in PbPb collisions is thought to be evidence of the dissociation of quarkonia bound states in deconfined matter. Data from pPb collisions demonstrate that while cold nuclear effects appear to be subdominant in minimum bias collisions, there exists a non-trivial dependence on collision multiplicity that remains to be understood. The suppression of high p T particles in heavy-ion collisions, relative to the expectation from pp collisions, is typically interpreted in terms of energy loss of hard scattered parton in the dense nuclear medium. The flavor dependence of the energy loss may be accessed via measurements of b hadrons and b-tagged jets. Measurement of B mesons, via non-prompt J = y , at relatively low p T indicate a smaller suppression factor than D meson or inclusive charged hadrons. Data on b jet...

  10. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  11. Heavy ion results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Milosevic, Jovan

    2016-01-01

    Two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions at the LHC energies are presented as a function of centrality, charged-particle multiplicity and transverse momentum ($p_{T}$). The data were collected using the CMS detector. The Fourier coefficents in PbPb collisions are measured over an extended $p_{T}$ range up to 100 GeV/c. These $v_{n}$ measurements at high-$p_{T}$ are complementary to the $R_{AA}$ measurements. The elliptic flow of charged and strange particles and the triangular flow of charged particles in pp collisions is measured using the two-particle correlations. A clear mass ordering effect is observed for low-$p_{T}$ $v_{2}$ values. For the first time, in 13 TeV pp collisions, the $v_{2}$ is extracted from four- and six-particle correlations, and is comparable to the $v_{2}$ from two-particle correlations. This supports the collective nature of the long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions. A Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of two-particle correlati...

  12. Charged Hadron Multiplicity Distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews facts and problems concerning charge hadron production in high energy collisions. Main emphasis is laid on the qualitative and quantitative description of general characteristics and properties observed for charged hadrons produced in such high energy collisions. Various features of available experimental data, for example, the variations of charged hadron multiplicity and pseudorapidity density with the mass number of colliding nuclei, center-of-mass energies, and the collision centrality obtained from heavy-ion collider experiments, are interpreted in the context of various theoretical concepts and their implications. Finally, several important scaling features observed in the measurements mainly at RHIC and LHC experiments are highlighted in the view of these models to draw some insight regarding the particle production mechanism in heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics and charged currents in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot QCD matter produced in any heavy ion collision with a nonzero impact parameter is produced within a strong magnetic field. We study the imprint the magnetic fields produced in non-central heavy ion collisions leave on the azimuthal distributions and correlations of the produced charged hadrons. The magnetic field is time-dependent and the medium is expanding, which leads to the induction of charged currents due to the combination of Faraday and Hall effects. We find that these currents result in a charge-dependent directed flow v1 that is odd in rapidity and odd under charge exchange. It can be detected by measuring correlations between the directed flow of charged hadrons at different rapidities, 〈v1±(y1)v1±(y2)〉

  14. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jan-E Alam; K Assamagan; S Chattopadhyay; R Gavai; Sourendu Gupta; B Layek; S Mukherjee; R Ray; Pradip K Roy; A Srivastava

    2004-12-01

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5–16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III during the workshop (see also [1] for completeness). The activities of group III were focused to understand the collective behaviours of the system formed after the collisions of two nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies from the interactions of the elementary degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons, governed by non-abelian gauge theory, i.e. QCD. This was initiated by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and lattice QCD and several working group talks and discussions.

  15. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-François; Schenke, Björn; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  16. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. It is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields $|\\vec{\\bf B}|\\sim m_\\pi^2$ are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. In this contribution we give a brief overview on the status of such efforts.

  17. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  18. Heavy ion reactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the measured sufficiently precise inclusive proton and pion spectra in heavy ion collisions above 200 MeV per nucleon, an attempt is made, to answer the basic question: To what degree a complex nucleus-nucleus reactior can be described by the ouasi-free hadron-hadron reactions, via hadron-nucleus, if necessary. For this purpose the results based on the cascade model, Glauber theory and distorted wave impulse approximation are compared with the experiments. By and large the experiments are reproduced, suggesting thereby the absence of any dramatic manifestation of any exotic phenomenon. There are, however, some indications about the occurrence of some cooperative phenomenon, which suggest the need to incorporate the inclusion of scattering between ''clusters'' in the projectile and tar.oet in the theories of heavy-ion collisions. (auth.)

  19. Radiotracers from heavy-ion fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of high energy heavy-ion accelerators has introduced the new mechanism of projectile fragmentation for the production of radiotracers. Projectile fragmentation occurs when the heavy-ion projectile has a sufficient velocity to undergo a strong interaction with a target nucleus without being deflected very much from its initial trajectory. The fragmentation of 14N beams from the K 500 superconducting cyclotron at Michigan State is described, a 490 MeV 14N beam was fragmented in a beryllium foil and the reaction products are stopped in (liquid) water. The water provides an additional source of 13N through fragmentation of 16O, facilitates the conversion of 13N atoms to labeled nitrate and allows the rapid transfer of the source out of the accelerator vault. (orig.)

  20. Recent results on relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munhoz, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions is a very important tool in order to understand the strong interaction described by QCD. The formation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma and the study of its properties is a very challenging quest. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) generates ultra-relativistic Pb + Pb collisions at the TeV scale inaugurating a new era for such studies. Three experiments, ATLAS, CMS and ALICE are able to measure the products of such collisions. In special, the ALICE experiment was designed specifically for the study of heavy ion collisions. In this presentation, I'll discuss the latest results that shed light in the QGP understanding. (author)

  1. Electron spectroscopy with fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since about 1970 the spectroscopy of Auger-electrons and characteristic x-rays following energetic ion-atom collisions has received a great deal of attention. An increasing number of accelerators, capable of providing a large number of projectile ion species over a wide range of projectile energies, became available for studying ion-atom collision phenomena. Many charged particles from protons up to heavy ions like uranium can be accelerated to energies ranging over six orders of magnitude. This allows us to study systematically a great variety of effects accompanied by dynamic excitation processes of the atomic shells in either the projectile- or target-atoms. The studies yield fundamental information regarding the excitation mechanism (e.g., Coulomb and quasi-molecular excitation) and allow sensitive tests of atomic structure theories. This information in turn is valuable to other fields in physics like plasma-, astro-, or solid-state (surface) physics. It is a characteristic feature of fast heavy-ion accelerators that they can produce highly stripped ion species which have in turn the capability to highly ionize neutral target atoms or molecules in a single collision. The ionization process, mainly due to the strong electrical fields that are involved, allows us to study few-electron atoms with high atomic numbers Z. High resolution spectroscopy performed with these atoms allows a particularly good test of relativistic and QED effects. The probability of producing these few electron systems is determined by the charge state and the velocity of the projectile ions. In this contribution the possibilities of using electron spectroscopy as a tool to investigate fast ion-atom collisions is discussed and demonstrated with a few examples. 30 references

  2. Heavy Ions in 2011 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, J; Bruce, R; Carli, C; Manglunki, D; Mertens, T; Wollmann, D

    2011-01-01

    The LHC's first heavy ion run set - and tested - the operational pattern for 2011 and later years: a rapid commissioning strategy intended to ensure delivery of integrated luminosity despite the risks associated with the short time-frame. It also gave us hard data to test our understanding of the beam physics that will limit performance. The 2010 experience is fed into the commissioning plan, parameter choices and projected performance for 2011. The prospects for future stages of the LHC ion program, Pb-Pb collisions at higher energy and luminosity, hybrid collisions and other species, depend critically on the scheduling of certain hardware upgrades.

  3. Glueballs in Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Natale

    1995-01-01

    We estimate the cross-section for glueball production in peripheral heavy-ion collisions through two-photon and double-Pomeron exchange, at energies that will be available at RHIC and LHC. Glueballs will be produced at large rates, opening the possibility to study decays with very small branching ratios. In particular, we discuss the possibility of observing the subprocess $\\gamma \\gamma (PP) \\rightarrow G \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$.

  4. Microscopic Models of Heavy Ion Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Capella, A.

    2003-01-01

    An introduction to dynamical microscopic models of hadronic and nuclear interactions is presented. Special emphasis is put in the relation between multiparticle production and total cross-section contributions. In heavy ion collisions, some observables, considered as signals of the production of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), are studied. It is shown that they can only be described if final state interactions are introduced. It is argued that the cross-sections required are too small to drive th...

  5. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given

  6. Quark Recombination in Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Rainer J.(Cyclotron Institute, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3366, USA)

    2011-01-01

    Data on high energy nuclear collisions collected at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider over the past decade have provided convincing evidence that hadronization is quite different in hot nuclear environments compared to p+p collisions. In particular, the data suggest that we see traces of quark degrees of freedom in elliptic flow, with the implication that collective flow is generated on the parton level and is transfered to hadrons through a simple recombination step. In this contribution w...

  7. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.] [and others

    1995-04-01

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K{sup +}, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than {+-} 0.2% over the 1 {micro}s pulse.

  8. New structure for accelerating heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of accelerating structure is described which is particular suited to heavy ions (high wavelength, high shunt impedance, small size). Its properties are analyzed and compared to those of other structures (more particularly the lines). It is shown that a mode of operation exists of which the shunt impedance in the station mode has 80 per cent of its value for the progressive mode. Finally results are given obtained with a small experimental apparatus which uses this structure. (author)

  9. Heavy Ion Physics with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Takai, H

    2003-01-01

    I guess the first thing that comes to people's mind is why is an experiment such as ATLAS interested in heavy ion physics. What is heavy ion physics anyway? The term heavy ion physics refers to the study of collisions between large nuclei such as lead, atomic number 208. But why would someone collide something as large and extensive as lead nuclei? When two nuclei collide there is a unique opportunity to study QCD at extreme energy densities. This said why do we think ATLAS is a good detector to study this particular physics? Among many of the simultaneous collisions that takes place when two nuclei encouter, hard scattering takes place. The unique situation now is that before hadronization partons from hard scattering may feel the surrounding media serving as an ideal probe for the matter formed in these collisions. As a consequence of this, jets may be quenched and their properties, e.g. fragmentation function or cone radius, modified when compared to proton-proton collisions. This is precisely where ATL...

  10. Studies of relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the progress in our program of Relativistic Heavy Ion studies. The first phase of experiments on lepton pairs is almost complete and the results from the initial part of this program are presented in copies of three publications. It appears that the origin of lepton pairs is the annihilation of pions. The evidence for this seems to be the shape of the dilepton mass spectrum, the cross-section as a function of energy which seems to scale with pion production, and the general kinematic behavior of the lepton pairs themselves. We present progress on the development of Ring Imaging Cerenkov counters for dilepton observations in general, and a short report on a high resolution method counter proposal that could be adapted to RHIC counters in general. Publication of results on hyperon polarization with incident polarized proton beams is also presented. These results use the phenomenological approach that could be useful in understanding hyperon production in heavy ion collisions. In this connection, a proposal for studying high density nuclear matter with incident antiprotons is presented. Progress on the TPC detectors developed by the BNL group for heavy ion research is reported, along with recent analysis of polarization with incident silicon beams. Finally, the most recent results on subthreshold antiproton production is presented. These latter results are several orders of magnitude more than expected and they point to some kind of coherent hadronic phenomena even at extremely low energies

  11. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy

  12. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei

    2010-02-01

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (pT) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a performance study with full detector on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v2 and λc measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. )

  13. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice

    CERN Document Server

    Dartois, E; Boduch, P; Brunetto, R; Chabot, M; Domaracka, A; Ding, J J; Kamalou, O; Lv, X Y; Rothard, H; da Silveira, E F; Thomas, J C

    2015-01-01

    Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic ...

  14. Construction of the RCNP polarized heavy ion source, 'HISPANIOLA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the RCNP polarized heavy ion source is presented. Principle of the polarization production is based on charge and spin exchange collisions between highly stripped heavy ions and polarized Na vapor. A 2.45 GHz ECR ion source produces highly stripped heavy ions. A single mode ring dye- laser serves in producing Na polarization by means of an optical pumping. As a first step of our project, the production of polarized 3He is primarily scheduled. (author)

  15. Heavy ion acceleration using femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from ultrathin (<200 nm) gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the time history of the laser bullet is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 mkm and energy 27 Joules the calculated reflection, transmission and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80 %, 5 % and 15 %, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8 %. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon and flux . Analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the Radiation Pressure Acceleration regime and the onset of the Target Normal Sheath Acceleratio...

  16. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  17. Heavy ion facilities and heavy ion research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been heavily involved since 1956 in the construction and adaptation of particle accelerators for the acceleration of heavy ions. At the present time it has the most extensive group of accelerators with heavy-ion capability in the United States: The SuperHILAC, the 88-Inch Cyclotron, and the Bevatron/Bevalac. An extensive heavy-ion program in nuclear and particle physics, in nuclear chemistry, and in the study of biological effects of heavy-ion irradiations has been supported in the past; and the Laboratory has a strong interest in expanding both its capabilities for heavy-ion acceleration and its participation in heavy-ion science. The first heavy-ion accelerator at LBL was the HILAC, which began operation in 1957. A vigorous program of research with ion beams of masses 4 through 40 began at that time and continued until the machine was shut down for modifications in February 1971. At that time, a grant of $3 M had been received from the AEC for a total reconstruction of the HILAC, to turn it into an upgraded accelerator, the SuperHILAC. This new machine is designed for the acceleration of all ions through uranium to an energy of 8.5 MeV/u. The SuperHILAC is equipped with two injectors. The lower energy injector, a 750-kV Cockcroft-Walton machine, was put into service in late 1972 for acceleration of ions up through {sup 40}Ar. By spring of 1973, operation of the SuperHILAC with this injector exceeded the performance of the original HILAC. The second injector, a 2.5-MV Dynamitron, was originally designed for the Omnitron project and built with $1 M of Omnitron R and D funds. Commissioning of this injector began in 1973 and proceeded to the point where nanoampere beams of krypton were available for a series of research studies in May and June. The first publishable new results with beams heavier than {sup 40}Ar were obtained at that time. Debugging and injector improvement projects will continue in FY 74.

  18. Resonance propagation in heavy-ion scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijoy Kundu; B K Jain

    2001-06-01

    The formalism developed earlier by us for the propagation of a resonance in the nuclear medium in proton–nucleus collisions has been modified to the case of vector boson production in heavy-ion collisions. The formalism includes coherently the contribution to the observed di-lepton production from the decay of a vector boson inside as well as outside the nuclear medium. The medium modification of the boson is incorporated through an energy dependent optical potential. The calculated invariant mass distributions are presented for the -meson production using optical potentials estimated within the VDM and the resonance model. The shift in the invariant mass distribution is found to be small. To achieve the mass shift (of about 200 MeV towards lower mass) as indicated in the high energy heavy-ion collision experiments, an unusually strong optical potential of about -120 MeV is required. We also observe that, for not so heavy nuclear systems and/or for fast moving resonances, the shape, magnitude and peak position of the invariant mass distribution is substantially different if the contributions from the resonance decay inside and outside are summedup at the amplitude level (coherently) or at the cross section level (incoherently).

  19. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe26+ approximately 4x1010 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 1012 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 1010 from the 5x10mm2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached

  20. QCD and Heavy Ions RHIC Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the most violent heavy ion collisions available to experimental study occur at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. There, gold ions collide at psNN = 200 GeV. The early and most striking RHIC results were summarised in 2005 by its four experiments, BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR, in their so-called white papers [1, 2, 3, 4] that will be largely referenced thereafter. Beyond and after this, a wealth of data has been collected and analysed, providing additional information about the properties of the matter created at RHIC. It is categorically impossible to give a comprehensive review of these results in a 20 minutes talk or a 7 pages report. Here, I have made a selection of some of the most striking or intriguing signatures: jet quenching in Section 2, quarkonia suppressions in Section 3 and thermal photons in Section 4. A slightly longer and older version of this review can be found in [5]. Some updates are given here, as well as emphasis on new probes ...

  1. Heavy Ion results from RHIC-BNL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esumi Shinlchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from heavy ion collision experiments from RHIC at BNL are presented and discussed in terms of Quark Gluon Plasm properties, such as partonic collectivity and partonic energy loss. The experimental results with direct photons and heavy quarks have given important additional insights of the plasma on top of what has been known with light hadrons. Higher order event anisotropies and the related results have provided the geometrical, temporal and dynamical information of the plasma. The beam energy dependence of the various measurements could reveal the structure of QCD phase diagram and possibly the critical point in the diagram, where the properties of phase transition are expected to change drastically.

  2. Equilibration of matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and thermal equilibration in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at energies from AGS to SPS is studied within the microscopic transport model. Yields and energy spectra obtained for the central cell in the reaction are compared to the predictions of the thermal statistical model. It is found that kinetic, thermal, and chemical equilibration of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached for the period of 10-18 fm/c. Within this time the matter in the cell expands almost isentropically. For the bombarding energies around 40 AGeV the system crosses the critical point in the T - μB plane predicted by lattice QCD calculations. The net strangeness in the central cell is negative (though small). The characteristic kink in the T - μB diagrams corresponding to beginning of the equilibrated phase is observed for all energies. The origin of this phenomenon deserves further investigation. (author)

  3. Strangelet Search at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Abelev, B. I.

    2008-01-01

    We have searched for strangelets in a triggered sample of 61 million central (top 4percent) Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN = 200 GeV near beam rapidities at the STAR solenoidal tracker detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We have sensitivity to metastable strangelets with lifetimes of order >_0.1 ns, in contrast to limits over ten times longer in BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) studies and longer still at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Upper limits of a few ...

  4. Searching for $\\Xi_{cc}^+$ in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jiaxin; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    We study the doubly charmed baryon $\\Xi_{cc}^+$ in high energy nuclear collisions. We solve the three-body Schroedinger equation with relativistic correction and calculate the $\\Xi_{cc}^+$ yield and transverse momentum distribution via coalescence mechanism. For $\\Xi_{cc}^+$ production in central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energy, the yield is extremely enhanced, and the production cross section per binary collision is one order of magnitude larger than that in p+p collisions. This indicates that, it is most probable to discover $\\Xi_{cc}^+$ in heavy ion collisions and its discovery can be considered as a probe of the quark-luon plasma formation.

  5. A new prompt heavy-ion-induced fission mode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W Udo Schröder

    2015-08-01

    Fission instabilities induced by mechanical and thermal stresses on intermediate nuclear systems in heavy-ion reactions are poorly understood but should reveal independent evidence for the nuclear equation of state (EoS), notably the tensile strength of finite nuclei. Experimental evidence is presented in support of a new mode of prompt fission of the composite nucleus formed in central 78Kr+40Ca collisions at only a few MeV per nucleon above the interaction barrier. The new process recalls the ‘L-window for fusion’ phenomenon, which was predicted by the early reaction theory and reappears in modern DFT model calculations.

  6. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul's data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  7. Diomega production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Subrata; Ko, C. M.; Zhang, Z. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Using a multiphase transport model, we study the production of a new strange dibaryon (\\Omega\\Omega)_{0+} in dense hadronic matter formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The (multi-)strange baryons (\\Xi and \\Omega) are produced by strangeness-exchange reactions between antikaons and hyperons in the pure hadronic phase. The rescattering between the omegas at midrapidity leads to a production probability of \\simeq 3x10^{-7} (\\Omega\\Omega)_{0+} per event at the RHIC energy of \\sqrt s=130A ...

  8. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  9. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetta, E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  10. Thermodynamical Aspects in Heavy Ion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Fabbri, S.; Fuschini, E.; Geraci, E.; Guiot, B.; Vannini, G.; Verondini, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; Nannini, A.; Barlini, S.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.; Lanchais, A.; Vannucci, L.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Margagliotti, G. V.

    2005-12-01

    The excited nuclear systems formed in heavy ion collisions can be studied from a thermodynamical point of view. Charged finite systems have different behaviors with respect to infinite ones. After experimental selection of such equilibrated systems the extraction of thermodynamic coordinates is performed. Different signals compatible with a liquid-gas phase transition have been obtained. In particular a bimodal distribution of the asymmetry between the first two heaviest fragments is presented. Abnormally large fluctuations, which in thermodynamic equilibrium are associated to a negative branch of the heat capacity give indications of a first order phase transition. Perspectives for new generation experiments are indicated.

  11. Multifragmentation and dynamics in heavy ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Roy

    2001-07-01

    A midrapidity zone formed in heavy-ion collisions has been investigated through special selections of light particles and intermediate mass fragments detected in the reaction 35Cl on 12C at 43 MeV/nucleon and the reactions 58Ni on 12C, 24Mg, and 197Au at 34.5 MeV/nucleon, and of neutron energy spectra measured in the reaction 35Cl on natTa. Properties of the observables have been examined to characterize the neck-like structure formed between the two reaction partners.

  12. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetta, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  13. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units

  14. The unitary convolution approximation for heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Grande, P L

    2002-01-01

    The convolution approximation for the impact-parameter dependent energy loss is reviewed with emphasis on the determination of the stopping force for heavy projectiles. In this method, the energy loss in different impact-parameter regions is well determined and interpolated smoothly. The physical inputs of the model are the projectile-screening function (in the case of dressed ions), the electron density and oscillators strengths of the target atoms. Moreover, the convolution approximation, in the perturbative mode (called PCA), yields remarkable agreement with full semi-classical-approximation (SCA) results for bare as well as for screened ions at all impact parameters. In the unitary mode (called UCA), the method contains some higher-order effects (yielding in some cases rather good agreement with full coupled-channel calculations) and approaches the classical regime similar as the Bohr model for large perturbations (Z/v>>1). The results are then used to compare with experimental values of the non-equilibri...

  15. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  16. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C+ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr2+ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed

  17. Nuclear structure and heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of lectures is presented on experimental studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions with emphasis on the role of nuclear structure in the fusion mechanism. The experiments considered are of three types: the fusion of lighter heavy ions at subcoulomb energies is studied with in-beam γ-ray techniques; the subbarrier fusion of 16O and 40Ar with the isotopes of samarium is detected out of beam by x-radiation from delayed activity; and measurements at very high energies, again for the lighter ions, employ direct particle identification of evaporation residues. The experimental data are compared with predictions based on the fusion of two spheres with the only degree of freedom being the separation of the centers, and which interact via potentials that vary smoothly with changes in the mass and charge of the projectile and target. The data exhibit with the isotopes of samarium, a portion of these deviations can be understood in terms of the changing deformation of the target nucleus, but an additional degree of freedom such as neck formation appears necessary. The results on 10B + 16O and 12C + 14N → 26Al at high bombarding energies indicate a maximum limiting angular momentum characteristic of the compound nucleus. At lower energies the nuclear structure of the colliding ion seems to affect strongly the cross section for fusion. Measurements made at subbarrier energies for a variety of projectile-target combinations in the 1p and 2s - 1d shell also indicate that the valence nucleons can affect the energy dependence for fusion. About half the systems studied so far have structureless excitation functions which follow a standard prediction. The other half exhibit large variations from this prediction. The possible importance of neutron transfer is discussed. The two-center shell model appears as a promising approach for gaining a qualitative understanding of these phenomena. 95 references, 52 figures, 1 table

  18. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed

  19. Fragment production in central heavy-ion collisions: reconciling the dominance of dynamics with observed phase transition signals through universal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S. [and others

    2002-07-01

    Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)

  20. Towards relativistic heavy ion collisions by small steps towards the stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review lecture is given on current attempts to search for the exotic processes occurring in relativistic heavy ion collisions. From peripheral collisions the discussion proceeds to central collisions and lastly the search for the exotic, in which the tools developed for the study of peripheral and central collisions are used. 200 references

  1. Towards relativistic heavy ion collisions by small steps towards the stars. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.K.

    1979-03-01

    A review lecture is given on current attempts to search for the exotic processes occurring in relativistic heavy ion collisions. From peripheral collisions the discussion proceeds to central collisions and lastly the search for the exotic, in which the tools developed for the study of peripheral and central collisions are used. 200 references. (JFP)

  2. Charged Particle Multiplicity and Open Heavy Flavor Physics in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujiao

    modification factor RAA, which is defined as the ratio of a spectrum from heavy ion collisions to the same but scaled spectrum from nucleon-nucleon collisions. The observed RAA has little dependence on pT within the uncertainties quoted here. The results for RAA indicate a factor of about 3 suppression in the yield of muons in the most central (0-10%) collisions compared to the p+p collisions.

  3. Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  4. Overview of the Heavy Ion Fusion Program

    CERN Document Server

    Celata, C M

    2000-01-01

    The world Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program for inertial fusion energy is looking toward the development and commissioning of several new experiments. Recent and planned upgrades of the facilities at GSI, in Russia, and in Japan greatly enhance the ability to study energy deposition in hot dense matter. Worldwide target design developments have focused on non-ignition targets for nearterm experiments and designs which, while lowering the energy required for ignition, tighten accelerator requirements. The U.S program is transitioning between scaled beam dynamics experiments and high current experiments with power-plant-driver-scale beams. Current effort is aimed at preparation for the next-step large facility, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)-- an induction linac accelerating multiple beams to a few hundred MeV, then focusing to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. The goal is to study heavy ion energy deposition, and to test all of the components and physics needed for an engineering test of a power p...

  5. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  6. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  7. Future of the ATLAS heavy ion program

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS-Collaboration, The; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the heavy ion program at the LHC is to study the properties of deconfined strongly interacting matter, often referred to as ``quark-gluon plasma'' (QGP), created in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. That matter is found to be strongly coupled with a viscosity to entropy ratio near a conjectured quantum lower bound. ATLAS foresees a rich program of studies using jets, Upsilons, measurements of global event properties and measurements in proton-nucleus collisions that will measure fundamental transport properties of the QGP, probe the nature of the interactions between constituents of the QGP, elucidate the origin of the strong coupling, and provide insight on the initial state of nuclear collisions. The heavy ion program through the third long shutdown should provide one inverse nb of 5.5~TeV Pb+Pb data. That data will provide more than an order of magnitude increase in statistics over currently available data for high-pT observables such as gamma-jet and Z-jet pairs. However, potentia...

  8. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Craig L., E-mail: clolson66@msn.com

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  9. Experimental heavy ion physics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research activities of the experimental high energy heavy ion physics group at Vanderbilt University carried out under Grant No. DE-FG05092ER40712 with the Department of Energy during the period Oct 1, 1992 to Nov 30, 1993. This research encompasses four areas of related inquiry in relativistic and high energy nuclear reactions. The preparation of the PHENIX experiment which has been approved as one of the two major experiments at RHIC to start in 1998. The RD10/RD45 Muon Identifier experiment which will provide essential input for the design of the Muon Endcap arm detector sub-system in PHENIX. The E855 Soft Photon Experiment at the AGS designed to clarify the status of a possible quark-gluon-plasma signature with presently available heavy-ion collisions. The construction CsI Ball detector project at Texas A ampersand M which is designed as part of a comprehensive detector system which will probe the nuclear equation of state in the 50 MeV/nucleon domain

  10. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  11. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  12. Production of light (anti)nuclei, (anti)hypertriton and di-$\\Lambda$ in central Au+Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, L; Chen, J H; Zhang, S; 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.064912

    2012-01-01

    A simple coalescence model is employed to investigate the production of light (anti)nuclei and (anti)hypertriton as well as di-$\\rm\\Lambda$ in the most central Au+Au collisions. The invariant yields of \\He(\\Hebar), \\hypert(\\hypertbar), and \\Hee(\\Heebar) obtained within current framework are found to be consistent with the measurements of the solenoidal tracker at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (STAR) detector. We also investigate the coalescence parameters $B_{A}$ (A = 2, 3, 4) as a function of transverse momentum for $d$(\\dbar), \\He(\\Hebar), \\hypert(\\hypertbar), and \\Hee(\\Heebar), respectively. $B_{2}$ for $d$(\\dbar) and $B_{3}$ for \\He(\\Hebar) are comparable with the STAR measurement within statistical uncertainties. The transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) integrated yields for di-$\\rm\\Lambda$ $dN_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}/dy \\sim 2.23\\times10^{-5}$, and is not strongly dependent on the parameter employed for the coalescence process. Combining the data points extracted by the PHENIX Collaboration, the coalescence...

  13. Recent progress in molecule modification with heavy ion beam irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The research into heavy ion beam biology started in the 1960s, and so far it has become an important interdisciplinary study. Heavy ion beam is more suitable for molecule modification than other sorts of radiation, for it has many superiorities such as the energy transfer effect and the mass deposition effect. Molecule modification with heavy ion beam irradiation can be applied to developing new medicines and their precursors, genetic engineering, protein engi neering, outer space radiobiology, etc. Retrospect and prospect of the research and development of molecule modifica tion with heavy ion beam irradiation are given.

  14. Open heavy-flavor production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nahrgang, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-flavor observables are valuable probes of the quark-gluon plasma, which is expected to be produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. These experiments offer the unique opportunity to study strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities in the laboratory. In this overview talk I will summarize the current theoretical status of heavy-flavor production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions and discuss open challenges.

  15. The ALICE Heavy-Ion Experiment at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated heavy-ion detector designed to exploit the physics potential of nucleus-nucleus interactions at the LHC. As a general-purpose experiment, it will allow a comprehensive study of hadrons, electrons and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei, up to the highest particle multiplicities anticipated at the LHC. The central part of ALICE, which covers (90±45)¡ (<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. The base-line design consists (from inside out) of a high-resolution inner tracking system, a cylindrical TPC, a particle identification array (TOF or RICH detectors), and a single-arm electromagnetic calorimeter. Possible upgrades under study include large-acceptance electromagnetic calorimeters and a muon identification system. We will trigger on central collisions with a zero degree calorimeter and measure multiplicity distributions over a large fraction of the available phase space.

  16. Genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation in maize and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic mutation on leaves of maize and soybean were observed to investigate genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation. Maize seeds were irradiated with N, Fe and U ions and soybean seeds were irradiated with N ions. This is a preliminary report of the experiment, 1) to examine the mutagenic effects of the heavy ion irradiation, and 2) to evaluate the genetic effects of cosmic ray exposure in a space ship outside the earth. (author)

  17. Heavy-Ion-Induced Electronic Desorption of Gas from Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Molvik, A W; Mahner, E; Kireeff Covo, M; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Krämer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2007-01-01

    During heavy-ion operation in several particle accelerators worldwide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion-induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dEe/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  18. Heavy-ion induced electronic desorption of gas from metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molvik, A W; Kollmus, H; Mahner, E; Covo, M K; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Kramer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2006-12-19

    During heavy ion operation in several particle accelerators world-wide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dE{sub e}/d/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  19. Longitudinal Decorrelation of Anisotropic Flows in Heavy-ion Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Long-Gang; Roy, Victor; Wang, Xin-Nian; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in the initial transverse energy-density distribution lead to anisotropic flows as observed in central high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Studies of longitudinal fluctuations of the anisotropic flows can shed further lights on the initial conditions and dynamical evolution of the hot quark-gluon matter in these collisions. Correlations between anisotropic flows with varying pseudo-rapidity gaps in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC are investigated using both an event-by-event (3+1)-D ideal hydrodynamical model with fluctuating initial conditions and the AMPT Monte Carlo model for high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Anisotropic flows at different pseudo-rapidities are found to become significantly decorrelated with increasing pseudo-rapidity gaps due to longitudinal fluctuations in the initial states of heavy-ion collisions. The longitudinal correlation of the elliptic flow shows a strong centrality dependence while the correlation of the triangular flow is independent of the centrality. Longitudinal fluct...

  20. Two-proton small-angle correlations in central heavy-ion collisions: A beam-energy- and system-size-dependent study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotte, R. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, IKH, PF 510119, Dresden (Germany); Alard, P.; Barret, V.; Bastid, N.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P. [IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Andronic, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Basrak, Z.; Caplar, R.; Dzelalija, M.; Gasparic, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia); Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Cordier, E.; Herrmann, N. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Fodor, Z. [Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Gobbi, A.; Hartmann, O.N.; Hildenbrand, K.D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Grishkin, Y. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hong, B. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Kecskemeti, J.; Kim, Y.J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koczon, P.; Korolija, M.; Kress, T.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Lopez, X.; Merschmeyer, M.; Moesner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, P.; Petrovici, M.; Rami, F.; Reisdorf, W.; De Schauenburg, B.; Schuettauf, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Sim, K.S.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Stoicea, G.; Tyminski, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Xiao, Z.G.; Yushmanov, Y.; Zhilin, A.

    2005-02-01

    Small-angle correlations of pairs of protons emitted in central collisions of Ca+Ca, Ru+Ru and Au+Au at beam energies from 400 to 1500 MeV per nucleon are investigated with the FOPI detector system at SIS/GSI Darmstadt. Dependences on system size and beam energy are presented which extend the experimental data basis of pp correlations in the SIS energy range substantially. The size of the proton-emitting source is estimated by comparing the experimental data with the output of a final-state interaction model which utilizes either static Gaussian sources or the one-body phase-space distribution of protons provided by the BUU transport approach. The trends in the experimental data, i.e.system size and beam energy dependences, are well reproduced by this hybrid model. However, the pp correlation function is found rather insensitive to the stiffness of the equation of state entering the transport model calculations. (orig.)

  1. Longitudinal fluid dynamics for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarov, L. M.; Mishustin, I. N.; Merdeev, A. V.; Stöcker, H.

    2007-02-01

    We developed a 1+1 dimensional hydrodynamical model for central heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. Deviations from Bjorken's scaling are taken into account by implementing finite-size profiles for the initial energy density. The calculated rapidity distributions of pions, kaons, and antiprotons in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration. The sensitivity of the results to the choice of the equation of state, the parameters of the initial state, and the freeze-out conditions were investigated. Experimental constraints on the total energy of produced particles were used to reduce the number of model parameters. The best fits of experimental data were obtained for soft equations of state and Gaussian-like initial profiles of the energy density. It was found that initial energy densities required for fitting the experimental data decrease with the increasing critical temperature of the phase transition.

  2. Causal Viscous Hydrodynamics for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Huichao

    2009-01-01

    The viscosity of the QGP is a presently hotly debated subject. Since its computation from first principles is difficult, it is desirable to try to extract it from experimental data. Viscous hydrodynamics provides a tool that can attack this problem and which may work in regions where ideal hydrodynamics begins to fail. This thesis focuses on viscous hydrodynamics for relativistic heavy ion collisions. We first review the 2nd order viscous equations obtained from different approaches, and then report on the work of the Ohio State University group on setting up the equations for causal viscous hydrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions and solving them numerically for central and noncentral Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies and above. We discuss shear and bulk viscous effects on the hydrodynamic evolution of entropy density, temperature, collective flow, and flow anisotropies, and on the hadron multiplicity, single particle spectra and elliptic flow. Viscous entropy production and its influence on the centrality...

  3. Search for QCD Hawking Radiation in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Laura; Murray, Michael

    2008-04-01

    A wide variety of measurements at RHIC, for example v2 and energy loss, suggest that the partonic matter created in heavy collisions thermalizes early. One possible mechanism for this is the creation of the QCD analogue to gravitational black holes [1]. Such objects have no memory of their creation and radiate with a characteristic temperature, T, that can depend only on their energy, charge, and angular momentum. This hypothesis is consistent with the growth of multiplicity with s in e+e- collisions and thermal temperature observed at LEP. For central heavy ion collisions the angular momentum of the system is approximately zero and the model predicts a universal dependence of the chemical freezeout temperature on the ratios of charge to transverse energy. To test this prediction against BRAHMS data, We have fitted data on π, K, p and p from central Au + Au collisions at several rapidities and energies, using the THERMUS code. The experimental dependence of the temperature on the ratio of charge to transverse energy will be compared to the Hawking radiation predictions. By comparing data sets at different energy, centrality and rapidity we can select systems with the same ratio of baryon number to energy but different rapidities. This may allow us to test for any effect of angular momentum on temperature. [1] P. Castorina, D. Kharzeev and H. Satz, Eur. Phys. J. C 52, 187 (2007)

  4. Beam loss mechanisms in relativistic heavy-ion colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Gilardoni, S; Wallén, E

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest particle accelerator ever built, is presently under commissioning at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It will collide beams of protons, and later Pb82+ ions, at ultrarelativistic energies. Because of its unprecedented energy, the operation of the LHC with heavy ions will present beam physics challenges not encountered in previous colliders. Beam loss processes that are harmless in the presently largest operational heavy-ion collider, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, risk to cause quenches of superconducting magnets in the LHC. Interactions between colliding beams of ultrarelativistic heavy ions, or between beam ions and collimators, give rise to nuclear fragmentation. The resulting isotopes could have a charge-to-mass ratio different from the main beam and therefore follow dispersive orbits until they are lost. Depending on the machine conditions and the ion species, these losses could occur in loca...

  5. Holography, Hydrodynamization and Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michal P

    2016-01-01

    In the course of the past several years holography has emerged as an ab initio tool in exploring strongly-time-dependent phenomena in gauge theories. These lecture notes overview recent developments in this area driven by phenomenological questions concerning applicability of hydrodynamics under extreme conditions occurring in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. The topics include equilibration time scales, holographic collisions and hydrodynamization from the point of view of the asymptotic character of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion. The emphasis is put on concepts rather than calculational techniques and particular attention is devoted to present these developments in the context of the most recent advances and some of the open problems.

  6. Induction linac drivers for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program of the US Dept. of Energy has for several years concentrated on developing linear induction accelerators as Inertial Fusion (IF) drivers. This accelerator technology is suitable for the IF application because it is readily capable of accelerating short, intense pulses of charged particles with good electrical efficiency. The principal technical difficulty is in injecting and transporting the intense pulses while maintaining the necessary beam quality. The approach used has been to design a system of multiple beams so that not all of the charge has to be confined in a single beam line. The beams are finally brought together in a common focus at the target. The status and future plans of the program are briefly presented and systems study results for HIF are briefly reviewed. (author)

  7. Nuclei at HERA and heavy ion physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavin, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Strikman, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Copies of 16 viewgraph sets from a workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, 17-18 November, 1995. Titles of talks: HERA: The Present; HERA: Potential with Nuclei; Review of Hadron-Lepton Nucleus Data; Fermilab E665: results in muon scattering; Interactions of Quarks and Gluons with Nuclear Matter; Rescattering in Nuclear Targets for Photoproduction and DIS; Structure Functions and Nuclear Effect at PHENIX; Probing Spin-Averaged and Spin-Dependent Parton Distributions Using the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR); Jet Quenching in eA, pA, AA; Nuclear Gluon Shadowing via Continuum Lepton Pairs; What can we learn from HERA with a colliding heavy ion beam? The limiting curve of leading particles at infinite A; Coherent Production of Vector Mesons off Light Nuclei in DIS; A Model of High Parton Densities in PQCD; Gluon Production for Weizaecker-Williams Field in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions; Summary Talk.

  8. Hadron Production in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Hans Georg; Xu, Nu

    2009-05-19

    Heavy ion collisions are an ideal tool to explore the QCD phase diagram. The goal is to study the equation of state (EOS) and to search for possible in-medium modifications of hadrons. By varying the collision energy a variety of regimes with their specific physics interest can be studied. At energies of a few GeV per nucleon, the regime where experiments were performed first at the Berkeley Bevalac and later at the Schwer-Ionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at GSI in Darmstadt, we study the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and try to identify in-medium modifications of hadrons. Towards higher energies, the regime of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the Super-Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, we expect to produce a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The physics goal is to identify the QGP and to study its properties. By varying the energy, different forms of matter are produced. At low energies we study dense nuclear matter, similar to the type of matter neutron stars are made of. As the energy is increased the main constituents of the matter will change. Baryon excitations will become more prevalent (resonance matter). Eventually we produce deconfined partonic matter that is thought to be in the core of neutron stars and that existed in the early universe. At low energies a great variety of collective effects is observed and a rather good understanding of the particle production has been achieved, especially that of the most abundantly produced pions and kaons. Many observations can be interpreted as time-ordered emission of various particle species. It is possible to determine, albeit model dependent, the equation of state of nuclear matter. We also have seen indications, that the kaon mass, especially the mass of the K{sup +}, might be modified by the medium created in heavy ion collisions. At AGS energies and above, emphasis shifts towards

  9. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Theory overview of Heavy Ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lappi, T

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses some recently active topics in the theoretical interpretation of high energy heavy ion collisions at the LHC and at RHIC. We argue that the standard paradigm for understanding the spacetime evolution of the bulk of the matter produced in the collision is provided by viscous relativistic hydrodynamics, which can be used to systematically extract properties of the QCD medium from experimental results. The initial conditions of this hydrodynamical evolution are increasingly well understood in terms of gluon saturation, and can be quantified using Classical Yang-Mills fields and QCD effective kinetic theory. Hard and electromagnetic probes of the plasma provide additional constraints. A particularly fascinating subject are high multiplicity proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, where some of the characteristics previously attributed to only nucleus-nucleus collisions have been observed.

  11. Electromagnetic probes in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hees H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their penetrating nature, electromagnetic probes, i.e., lepton-antilepton pairs (dileptons and photons are unique tools to gain insight into the nature of the hot and dense medium of strongly-interacting particles created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, including hints to the nature of the restoration of chiral symmetry of QCD. Of particular interest are the spectral properties of the electromagnetic current-correlation function of these particles within the dense and/or hot medium. The related theoretical investigations of the in-medium properties of the involved particles in both the partonic and hadronic part of the QCD phase diagram underline the importance of a proper understanding of the properties of various hadron resonances in the medium.

  12. Hydrodynamic Approaches in Relativistic Heavy Ion Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, Rafael Derradi; Kodama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation with the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to...

  13. Heavy ion physics at the VICKSI accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a selection of papers concerning work performed at VICKSI by external research groups together with the program of the scientific symposium occasionally to the opening of the tandem. The articles concern high-spin spectroscopy with OSIRIS, alpha and beta decay studies of neutron-deficient isotopes of tantalum and application for mass determination at the proton-drip line, rigid rotation versus shape coexistence in the N=Z=36 region, dissipation of linear momentum and energy in fusion-like reactions, orientation of the nuclear spin in heavy ion collisions at VICKSI energies, extreme cases of the local magnetism, and most deep implantations in semiconductor materials and structures. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  14. Hard Probes in Heavy-Ion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The aim of ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is to study collectivity and thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) by creating a transient small volume of matter with extreme density and temperature. There is experimental evidence that most of the particles created in such a collision form indeed a thermalized system characterized by collective response to pressure gradients. However, a numerically small subset of high transverse momentum ($P_T$) processes takes place independent of the bulk, with the outgoing partons subsequently propagating through the bulk medium. Understanding the modification of such 'hard probes' by the bulk medium is an important part of the efforts to determine the properties of hot and dense QCD matter. In this paper, current developments are reviewed.

  15. Bremsstrahlung Pair Production In Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, H; Hencken, K.; Trautmann, D.; Baur, G.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate production of electron- and muon-pairs by the bremsstrahlung process in hadron collisions and compare it with the dominant two-photon process. Results for the total cross section are given for proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at energies of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  16. Collective Flow and Viscosity in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinz, U.; Snellings, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We review collective flow, its anisotropies, and its event-to-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, as well as the extraction of the specific shear viscosity of quark–gluon plasma from collective flow data collected in heavy-ion collision experiments at RHIC and the LHC. We emphas

  17. Proceedings of the Budapest workshop on relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the Proceedings of the Budapest workshop on relativistic heavy ion collisions held in Budapest, 10-13 Aug, 1992. The topics include experimental heavy ion physics, Bose-Einstein correlations, intermittency, relativistic transport theory, Quark-Gluon Plasma rehadronization, astronuclear physics and cosmology. All contributions were indexed and abstracted. (author)

  18. Quarkonia at finite temperature in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saumen Datta

    2015-05-01

    The behaviour of quarkonia in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is reviewed. After a detailed discussion of the current theoretical understanding of quarkonia in a static equilibriated plasma, we discuss quarkonia yield from the fireball created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision experiments. We end with a brief discussion of the experimental results and outlook.

  19. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. High energy heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, S L; Guo, H Y; Tu, C Q; Wang, Y L; Doke, T; Kato, T; Ozaki, K; Kyan, A; Piao, Y; Murakami, T

    1999-01-01

    Bubble detectors which are commonly used as neutron detectors have been demonstrated through this study to be good detectors for registration of high energy heavy ion tracks. Large size bubble detectors made in China Institute of Atomic Energy were irradiated to heavy ions Ar and C up to 650 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u, respectively. Very clear features of stringy tracks of high energy heavy ions and their fragmentations are manifested and distinguishable. A single track created by a specific high energy heavy ion is composed of a line of bubbles, which is visible by naked eyes and retained for months without reduction in size. The creation of heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors is governed by a threshold whose essence is approximately a critical value of energy loss rate (dE/dX) sub c similar to that of etch track detectors. Ranges of heavy ions in bubble detectors are apparent and predictable by existing formulas. Identification of high energy heavy ions and the applications to heavy ion physics, cosmic rays, exot...

  1. Inertial confinement fusion driven by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion inertial confinement fusion is reviewed with emphasis on the physics of fusion targets for direct and indirect drive, on radio-frequency and induction linear accelerators as the major options for reactor drivers, and on accelerator and plasma target experiments for heavy ion fusion, now starting at the SIS/ESR accelerator in Darmstadt. (author)

  2. Indirect fusion targets for heavy ion driver scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy density physics in ICF targets, heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion are in the focus of the research at VNIIEF in collaboration with ITEP (Moscow), GSI (Darmstadt), Frankfurt and Darmstadt universities, MPQ (Garching), scientists from other European countries. The report presents the basic theoretical and experimental results related to heavy ion fusion target physics. (authors)

  3. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark Gluon Plasma, the Color Glass Condensate, the Glasma and Quarkyonic Matter. A novel effect that may be associated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts and explain how they may be seen in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  4. International school-seminar on heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports of the International school-seminar on heavy ion physics are presented. Scientific program of the school-seminar covers a wide spectrum of the today trends of investigations conducted using heavy ion beams within the energy range from several MeV/nucleon up to several GeV/nucleon

  5. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  6. Deformation effects in the heavy ion quarter-point angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of static and dynamic deformation on the heavy-ion elastic scattering quarter-point angle are discussed and analyzed in the sudden approximation. Simple expressions are derived within the Fresnel model and applications to several heavy-ion systems are presented. (Author)

  7. 9. Heavy ion beam driver and its interactions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers 15 articles whose titles are: 1) Perspectives of the GSI accelerator complex (Darmstadt, Germany) for fusion driver studies, 2) Energy loss of 6 MeV/u 56Fe ions in Z-pinch helium plasma as a function of charge state and plasma density, 3) Creation of high-energy-density matter using intense beams of energetic heavy ions, 4) Space resolved charge state distribution of fast ions inside matter, 5) Beam final transport and focusing in heavy ion beam inertial confinement fusion, 6) Beam-plasma interaction study with laser plasma induced from solid hydrogen, 7) Magnetized cylindrical targets for heavy ion fusion, 8) Beam-plasma experiments at Riken, 9) Repetitive induction module for ion acceleration, 10) Simulations of recent and future experiments on heating of rare gas solid by heavy ions, 11) Charge-changing processes of low-energy heavy ions in a dense non-hydrogenic plasma, 12) Development of high-brightness ion sources using moderate power lasers, 13) Induction beam buncher for relativistic heavy ion beams, 14) Simple calculation of surface layer thickness of various IFE reactor candidate material ablated by high fluence X-ray, and 15) Hydro processes in high temperature dense plasma under the impact of intense ion beams

  8. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate ''cocktails'' of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and has since become a powerful tool in the field of heavy ion radiation effects testing. Several different ''cocktails'' at various energies are available at the 88-Inch cyclotron for radiation effect testing, covering a broad range of linear energy transfer and penetration depth. Two standard heavy ion cocktails at 4.5 MeV/nucleon and 10 MeV/nucleon have been developed over the years containing ions from boron to bismuth. Recently, following requests for higher penetration depths, a 15MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail has been developed. Up to nine different metal and gaseous ion beams at low to very high charge states are tuned out of the ion source simultaneously and injected together into the cyclotron. It is therefore crucial to balance the ion source very carefully to provide sufficient intensities throughout the cocktail. The paper describes the set-up and tuning of the ion source for the various heavy ion cocktails

  9. Pion Transverse Momentum Spectrum, Elliptic Flow, and Interferometry in the Granular Source Model for RHIC and LHC Heavy Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We systematically investigate the pion transverse momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry in the granular source model for the heavy ion collisions of Au-Au at √(sNN)=200 GeV and Pb-Pb at √(sNN)=2.76 TeV with different centralities. The granular source model can well reproduce the experimental results of the heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We examine the parameters involved in the granular source model. The experimental data of the momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and HBT radii for the two collision energies and different centralities impose very strict constraints on the model parameters. They exhibit certain regularities for collision centrality and energy. The space-time structure and expansion velocities of the granular sources for the heavy ion collisions at the RHIC and LHC energies with different centralities are investigated

  10. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Struble, G.L.; Webb, M.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Chan, Y.D.; Dacai, A.; Harmon, A.; Leyba, J.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Hansen, O.; Levine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Trautmann, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Dichter, B.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F. (Argonne National Lab. (USA)); Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); Cebra, D.; Westfall, G.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-10-09

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50-100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: The reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicty of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. (orig.).

  11. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007). The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density) that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  12. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Galinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail, so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  13. Ultraviolet spectroscopy with highly-stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excited-state structures of highly-stripped heavy ions are important testing grounds for the effects of relativistic contributions in atomic structure calculations of high-Z systems. Spectroscopic studies of both few-electron and many-electron highly-ionized atoms have recently enhanced our experimental knowledge of such effects as fine structure, Lamb shifts, polarizabilities, and intercombination decay rates. Several examples of these studies are presented from areas of current experimental interest involving the atomic spectroscopy of fast heavy ions. The need for extending these measurements to higher-Z ions using the new generation of heavy-ion accelerators is discussed. 21 references

  14. Heavy Ion Physics at the LHC: What's new ? What's next ?

    CERN Document Server

    Schukraft, J

    2013-01-01

    Towards the end of 2010, some 25 years after the very first collisions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions at fixed target energies, and some 10 years after the start of operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the LHC opened a new era in heavy ion physics with lead on lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV. After a short reminder of the main results from lower energies, this review highlights a few selected areas where significant progress has been made during the first three years of ion operation at the LHC.

  15. Acceleration of heavy ions to very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current interest of physicists in the collisions of heavy ions closes an interesting circle in the technology of accelerator building. The first cyclic accelerator, built by R. Wideroe, was a linear accelerator designed to accelerate potassium ions. Subsequent to Wideroe's achievement, much of the art of accelerator construction has been devoted to creating energetic beams of electrons and protons. Now we find ourselves returning to the heavy ions, and Wideroe's linear accelerator structure still plays an important role in many acceleration schemes. Fortunately, while the particle physics community has concentrated on the electron and proton machines, the nuclear physicists have kept alive the interest in heavy ions. Now a host of electrostatic machines, cyclotrons, and heavy ion linear accelerators provide beams of all species of ions at energies from about 100 MeV per nucleon for light isotopes to 10 MeV per nucleon for the heaviest isotopes in support of vigorous physics programs

  16. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  17. Swift Heavy Ion Induced Modification of Aliphatic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy I...

  18. Real time visualization of single ionization tracks generated by heavy ions in gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionization track structures generated by high energy heavy ions in matter are of great importance in radiochemistry, radiology, and heavy ion radiotherapy such as conducted at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In order to investigate these structures microscopically, we have proposed a new microdosimetric instrument based upon proportional scintillation imaging chamber that can visualize the ionization track structures in detail. Having verified its capability with a prototype filled with Ar(92%)+CH4(5%)+TEA(3%) gas mixture, we have constructed a full-scale model. It is associated with a conversion volume large enough to establish the secondary electron equilibrium. The full-scale model is also associated with an advanced optical readout system that can perform two-dimensional single photon counting by selecting single heavy ion events only. The optical image obtained for C ions of 290 MeV/u from HIMAC indicates that there is a central region with an extension of 8 mm as well as a surrounded region with an extension of 35 mm. The extensions of the central and surrounded are presumably determined by the thermalization length of the secondary electrons in the gas medium and by the δ-ray range produced by the heavy ions, respectively. (author)

  19. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhof, P.; Kraft-Bermuth, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2005-05-01

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors have the potential to become powerful tools for applications in many fields of heavy ion physics. A brief overview of heavy ion physics at present and at the next generation heavy ion facilities is given with a special emphasis on the conditions for heavy ion detection and the potential advantage of cryogenic detectors for applications in heavy ion physics. Two types of calorimetric low temperature detectors for the detection of energetic heavy ions have been developed and their response to the impact of heavy ions was investigated systematically for a wide range of energies (E=0.1-360 MeV/amu) and ion species ({sup 4}He.. {sup 238}U). Excellent results with respect to energy resolution, {delta}E/E ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup -3} even for the heaviest ions, and other basic detector properties such as energy linearity with no indication of a pulse height defect, energy threshold, detection efficiency and radiation hardness have been obtained, representing a considerable improvement as compared to conventional heavy ion detectors based on ionization. With the achieved performance, calorimetric low temperature detectors bear a large potential for applications in various fields of basic and applied heavy ion research. A brief overview of a few prominent examples, such as high resolution nuclear spectroscopy, high resolution nuclear mass determination, which may be favourably used for identification of superheavy elements or in direct reaction experiments with radioactive beams, as well as background discrimination in accelerator mass spectrometry, is given, and first results are presented. For instance, the use of cryogenic detectors allowed to improve the sensitivity in trace analysis of {sup 236}U by one order of magnitude and to determine the up to date smallest isotope ratio of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U = 6.1 x 10{sup -12} in a sample of natural uranium. Besides the detection of heavy ions, the concept of cryogenic detectors also

  20. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors have the potential to become powerful tools for applications in many fields of heavy ion physics. A brief overview of heavy ion physics at present and at the next generation heavy ion facilities is given with a special emphasis on the conditions for heavy ion detection and the potential advantage of cryogenic detectors for applications in heavy ion physics. Two types of calorimetric low temperature detectors for the detection of energetic heavy ions have been developed and their response to the impact of heavy ions was investigated systematically for a wide range of energies (E=0.1-360 MeV/amu) and ion species (4He.. 238U). Excellent results with respect to energy resolution, ΔE/E ranging from 1 to 5 x 10-3 even for the heaviest ions, and other basic detector properties such as energy linearity with no indication of a pulse height defect, energy threshold, detection efficiency and radiation hardness have been obtained, representing a considerable improvement as compared to conventional heavy ion detectors based on ionization. With the achieved performance, calorimetric low temperature detectors bear a large potential for applications in various fields of basic and applied heavy ion research. A brief overview of a few prominent examples, such as high resolution nuclear spectroscopy, high resolution nuclear mass determination, which may be favourably used for identification of superheavy elements or in direct reaction experiments with radioactive beams, as well as background discrimination in accelerator mass spectrometry, is given, and first results are presented. For instance, the use of cryogenic detectors allowed to improve the sensitivity in trace analysis of 236U by one order of magnitude and to determine the up to date smallest isotope ratio of 236U/238U = 6.1 x 10-12 in a sample of natural uranium. Besides the detection of heavy ions, the concept of cryogenic detectors also provides considerable advantage for X

  1. Skyrme tensor force in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Suckling, E. B.; Fracasso, S.; Barton, M. C.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method provides a useful foundation for a fully microscopic many-body theory of low-energy heavy ion reactions. The TDHF method is also known in nuclear physics in the small-amplitude domain, where it provides a useful description of collective states, and is based on the mean-field formalism, which has been a relatively successful approximation to the nuclear many-body problem. Currently, the TDHF theory is being widely used in the study of fusion excitation functions, fission, and deep-inelastic scattering of heavy mass systems, while providing a natural foundation for many other studies. Purpose: With the advancement of computational power it is now possible to undertake TDHF calculations without any symmetry assumptions and incorporate the major strides made by the nuclear structure community in improving the energy density functionals used in these calculations. In particular, time-odd and tensor terms in these functionals are naturally present during the dynamical evolution, while being absent or minimally important for most static calculations. The parameters of these terms are determined by the requirement of Galilean invariance or local gauge invariance but their significance for the reaction dynamics have not been fully studied. This work addresses this question with emphasis on the tensor force. Method: The full version of the Skyrme force, including terms arising only from the Skyrme tensor force, is applied to the study of collisions within a completely symmetry-unrestricted TDHF implementation. Results: We examine the effect on upper fusion thresholds with and without the tensor force terms and find an effect on the fusion threshold energy of the order several MeV. Details of the distribution of the energy within terms in the energy density functional are also discussed. Conclusions: Terms in the energy density functional linked to the tensor force can play a non

  2. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented. PMID:20192366

  3. Dissipative processes in light heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deep inelastic processes in light heavy ion collisions were systematically studied in the reactions 19 F(111.4, 125, 136.9 MeV) + 12 C, 27 Al, and 27 Al(140.14 MeV) + 12 C, 27 Al using the experimental device DRACULA mounted at LNS-Catania. ΔE - E identification, continuous measurements of energy and angle, mass identification by time-of-flight and γ-multiplicity measurements have been performed for the main reaction products. The double differential cross sections, as a function of different experimental observables, show similar trends with those observed for much heavier systems. Thus, a complete dynamics, from quasielastic to complete dissipation regime, is evidenced even in the case of such light systems and microscopic models could be described. The variance of the charge distribution and the amount of energy dissipated per exchanged nucleon for light systems follow the same type of correlations as medium and heavy systems which have been explained within very simple hypotheses. The interaction time, estimated from the experimental angular distributions for different windows of total kinetic energy, varies from some units of 10-23 sec up to the order of 10-21 sec, showing the presence of fast and slow processes relative to the transit time value of ∼ 5·10-22 sec. The increasing value of the interaction time, represented as a function of the atomic number (Z) and total kinetic energy loss, shows that isotopes with atomic numbers farther from the projectile corresponding value can be populated. Thus, integrated angular distributions usually presented in the literature, becoming flatter with increasing number of transferred nucleons, reflect the necessity of a larger interaction time in order to reach products very different from the projectile. For the same degree of inelasticity of the reaction, the estimated mean lifetime is roughly the same for every atomic number value in the exit channel. This suggests a diffusion-type process. After describing

  4. Swift heavy ions for materials engineering and nanostructuring

    CERN Document Server

    Avasthi, Devesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Ion beams have been used for decades for characterizing and analyzing materials. Now energetic ion beams are providing ways to modify the materials in unprecedented ways. This book highlights the emergence of high-energy swift heavy ions as a tool for tailoring the properties of materials with nanoscale structures. Swift heavy ions interact with materials by exciting/ionizing electrons without directly moving the atoms. This opens a new horizon towards the 'so-called' soft engineering. The book discusses the ion beam technology emerging from the non-equilibrium conditions and emphasizes the power of controlled irradiation to tailor the properties of various types of materials for specific needs.

  5. Evolution of clusters in energetic heavy ion bombarded amorphous graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Akhtar, M N; Ahmad, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Carbon clusters have been generated by a novel technique of energetic heavy ion bombardment of amorphous graphite. The evolution of clusters and their subsequent fragmentation under continuing ion bombardment is revealed by detecting various clusters in the energy spectra of the direct recoils emitted as a result of collision between ions and the surface constituents.

  6. Ionization of Sodium Cluster by Heavy Ion Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Energetic ions have recently been used as an efficient means to produce highly charged cold clusters~[1]. There are two ways to obtain highly-charged clusters: low-fluence nano-second lasers irradiation and energetic highly charged ions impact. Compared to the low-density laser, heavy ions, e.g. delivered by ECR sources, have the

  7. Radiation Physics and Chemistry in Heavy-ion Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ions, such as carbon and oxygen ions, are classified as high-LET radiations, and produce a characteristic dose-depth distribution different from that of low-LET radiations such as γ-rays, xrays and electrons. Heavy ions lose less energy at the entrance to an irradiated biological system up to some depth than the low-LET radiations, while they deposit a large amount of dose within a very narrow range at a certain depth, producing the characteristic sharp peak called the Bragg peak. Therefore, by controlling the Bragg peak, it becomes possible to irradiate only the tumor region in a pin-point manner, while avoiding irradiation of the normal tissue, thus making heavyion therapy ideal for deep-seated tumor treatment. Clinical results on more than 2400 patients are very encouraging. However, very little is known about what is going on in terms of physics and chemistry inside the Bragg peak. In this paper the current status of our understanding of heavy-ion interactions and remaining problems of physics and chemistry for the heavy-ion treatment are explored, particularly in the Bragg peak region. Specially, the survey of the basic physical quantity, the mean energy required to form an ion pair (Wvalue for heavy ions of interest for radiotherapy is presented. Finally, the current clinical status of heavy-ion therapy is presented.

  8. Meson productions in heavy ion reactions in CSR energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Huan Qing

    2002-01-01

    It is important to measure meson productions in heavy ion collisions in order to understand the dynamics of heavy ion reactions and the properties of nuclear matter. The authors review the characteristic and present status of meson productions near the threshold energies in heavy ion collisions. Especially the pion and K sup + productions are discussed. The authors point out that it is meaningful and possible to carry out the experimental studies at the CSR. It is necessary to carry out timely the experimental and the relevant theoretical studies

  9. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  10. On local and global equilibrium in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sollfrank, J

    1999-01-01

    The thermal model is commonly used in two different ways for the description of hadron production in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision. One is the application of the thermal model to 4pi integrated data and the other is the thermal description of central dN/dy ratios. While the first method implicitly assumes global equilibrium the other scenario assumes Bjorken scaling within the investigated rapidity range. Both assumptions are only approximations for real physical collision systems. We study the impact of both approximations for the extraction of thermal parameters on the exemplary case of S+S collisions at SPS energies. The particle distributions are modeled by a hydrodynamical description of the relevant collision system.

  11. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  12. Effect of correlations on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effects of correlations on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distributions which have been measured for central (0%-5%) Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied by assuming individual proton and antiproton distributions as a Poisson or negative binomial distribution (NBD). In spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation, and kinematical correlations of protons and antiprotons, the measured cumulants of the net-proton distribution follow the independent-production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of the correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and antiproton distributions obtained from the hijing event generator.

  13. A radial TPC for heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Garabatos, C

    2000-01-01

    The CERES experiment at the CERN SPS has been recently upgraded with a TPC with radial drift field, the first one of its sort. Constructed during 1998, it has been successfully operated in commissioning and physics runs, with muon, proton, and heavy-ion beams. A high voltage electrode of about 0.5 m radius is surrounded by sixteen 2 m long readout chambers, placed at a radius of 1.3 m, with chevron-shaped readout pads. The field cage is enclosed by two low-mass voltage degraders at each end of the cylindrical structure. A Ne-CO/sub 2/ [80-20] gas mixture allows for a safe operation and good transport properties under drift fields ranging from 200 to 600 V/cm. A spatial resolution better than 700 microns and 350 microns in r and rdelta (phi), respectively, has been achieved in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field. Details of its construction as well as results of the operation and performance in a high multiplicity environment are presented. (0 refs).

  14. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts

  15. Dynamics in heavy ion fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamical aspects of heavy ion fussion and fission, mainly the aspect of damping which is meant as the dissipation of kinetic energy and the aspect of the effective mass of the fission motion, are discussed. Two categories of evidence of damping effects are given. One relates to the damping of the fission motion for the ground state shape and for the isomeric more elongated shape. The other relates to the damping of the fission motion from the last barrier to the scission point. The dependence of the effective mass associated with the fission motion on the deormation of nucleus is shown. As the elongation of the nucleus increases the effective mass of the fission motion varies strongly from being about forty times greater than the reduced mass in the beta-vibrational state of the ground state shape to being equal to the reduced mass in the moment of scission. Damping effects are expected to be propartional to the difference between the effective mass and the reduced mass. It is concluded that the damping in fussion reactions is relatively weak for lighter products and quite strong for superheavy products like 236U or 252Cf. (S.B.)

  16. Heavy-ion-induced fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-cross-section excitation functions were measured from near threshold to approx. 10 MeV/nucleon using heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven National Laboratory three-stage Tandem Accelerator Facility. The systems studied included 210Po formed in 12C and 18O induced reactions, 186Os formed in 9Be, 12C, 16O, and 26Mg reactions, 158Er formed in 16O, 24Mg, 32S, and 64Ni reactions. In addition the composite systems 204206, 208Po formed with 16O and 18O projectiles were studied. The measured fission excitation functions along with previous data from 4He and 11B bombardments for the 186Os and 210Po systems and recent data on the 200Pb system are compared to predictions from a statistical model using recent fission-barrier calculations from A. Sierk. Comparisons of calculated and measured fission excitation functions show good overall agreement between data and calculations and between calculations with two different level-density functions. It is concluded that the barriers from Sierk give a good description of both the mass and angular momentum dependence of fission barriers in this region

  17. CHICO, a heavy ion detector for Gammasphere

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, M W; Wu, C Y; Gray, R W; Teng, R; Long, C

    2000-01-01

    A 4 pi position-sensitive heavy-ion detector system, CHICO, has been developed primarily for use in conjunction with the 4 pi gamma-ray facility, Gammasphere. The CHICO detector comprises an array of 20 Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) covering 12 deg.

  18. High Gluon Densities in Heavy Ions Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The early stages of heavy ion collisions are dominated by high density systems of gluons that carry each a small fraction $x$ of the momenta of the colliding nucleons. A distinguishing feature of such systems is the phenomenon of "saturation" which tames the expected growth of the gluon density as the energy of the collision increases. The onset of saturation occurs at a particular transverse momentum scale, the "saturation momentum", that emerges dynamically and that marks the onset of non-linear gluon interactions. At high energy, and for large nuclei, the saturation momentum is large compared to the typical hadronic scale, making high density gluons amenable to a description with weak coupling techniques. This paper reviews some of the challenges faced in the study of such dense systems of small $x$ gluons, and of the progress made in addressing them. The focus is on conceptual issues, and the presentation is both pedagogical, and critical. Examples where high gluon density could play a visible role in hea...

  19. Swift heavy ion irradiation of polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzat, E.; Bouffard, S.; Bousquerel, A.; Devy, J.; Gaté, Chr.

    1996-08-01

    We have studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy the chemical modifications induced by swift heavy ions in polystyrene. The overall destruction yield becomes very significant at high electronic stopping power ( {dE }/{dx }) e and the radiation sensitivity of this aromatic polymer merges typical values of equivalent aliphatic polymers as polyethylene. So, the radiation resistance conferred, at low ( {dE }/{dx }) e, to polystyrene by the phenyl side group is lost at high ( {dE }/{dx }) e. The creation of different unsaturated groups is also observed. They correspond to the vibration frequencies of alkyne, allene, vinylidene, vinyl and trans-vinylene groups. Moreover, the emergence of a wide band without any structure around 1600 cm -1 reveals the presence of double bonds with different degrees of conjugation. By comparison with the modifications induced in polyethylene, we discuss the role played by the phenyl side group and we consider the multiple ionisation of the aromatic ring as one possible way to induce the observed modifications.

  20. Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubian J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the reaction mechanisms involved in heavy ion fusion. We begin with collisions of tightly bound systems, considering three energy regimes: energies above the Coulomb barrier, energies just below the barrier and deep sub-barrier energies. We show that channel coupling effects may influence the fusion process at above-barrier energies, increasing or reducing the cross section predicted by single barrier penetration model. Below the Coulomb barrier, it enhances the cross section, and this effect increases with the system’s size. It is argued that this behavior can be traced back to the increasing importance of Coulomb coupling with the charge of the collision partners. The sharp drop of the fusion cross section observed at deep sub-barrier energies is addressed and the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon are discussed. We then consider the reaction mechanisms involved in fusion reactions of weakly bound systems, paying particular attention to the calculations of complete and incomplete fusion available in the literature.

  1. RPC test with heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Time-of-Flight (ToF) wall of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment, conceptualized on the basis of high-resolution timing Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs), is intended to account for concise hadron identification at an unprecedented event rate of 10 MHz in Au+Au collisions. Comprehensive performance tests of several purpose-built multi-strip MRPC prototypes foreseen for different rate regions of the planned 120 m2 ToF wall are an essential instrument to study the response and the limitations of the current design. Such evaluation studies were carried out both under SIS-18 heavy-ion beam load at GSI in the fall of 2012 and under cosmic irradiation in the lab throughout the year 2013. Particle flux conditions of up to a few tens of kHz/cm2 as expected to impinge on the ToF wall in future CBM runs can be provided at the SIS-18 accelerator. A generic calibration scheme for MRPCs with strip read-out has been developed and will be described. Preliminary results concerning key characteristics like efficiency and timing resolution of a multi-strip MRPC demonstrator are presented, as well as an outlook to the specifications and requirements of a planned high-rate in-beam test at GSI in 2014.

  2. Track reconstruction in heavy ion collisions with the CMS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, C

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will collide protons at \\sqrtS = 14TeV and lead ions at \\sqrt$\\S_{NN}$. The study of heavy ion collisions is an integral part of the physics program of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS). Central heavy ion events at LHC energies are expected to produce a multiplicity of up to 3500 charged particles per unit of rapidity. The CMS detector features a large acceptance and high resolution silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detector layers. We describe the algorithms used for pattern recognition in the very high track density environment of heavy ion collisions. Detailed studies using the full detector simulation and reconstruction are presented and achieved reconstruction efficiencies, fake rates and resolutions are discussed.

  3. Systematics of Charged Particle Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions with the PHOBOS Detector at Rhic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    The multiplicity of charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions as a function of energy, centrality, rapidity and azimuthal angle has been measured with the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. These results contribute to our understanding of the initial state of heavy ion collisions and provide a means to compare basic features of particle production in nuclear collisions with more elementary systems.

  4. Charge transfer processes of low charge state heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some aspects of the collision processes of accelerated heavy ions in very low charge state is reviewed, and the beam loss due to such collisions is estimated. The processes included in ion-atom collisions are electron capture, the electron stripping of ions, and target ionization. The stripping cross sections decrease slowly at high energy, and are much larger than the electron capture cross sections. At low energy, the electron capture is dominant, and this process plays a principal role near ion sources and preacceleration regions. This has not been taken into account properly. In order to keep the beam loss less than 0.1 percent, it is estimated that the average vacuum of about 10-7 to 10-8 Torr is required. An empirical formula to calculate the stripping cross sections of heavy ions in low charge state in collisions is derived. The beam loss due to ion-atom collisions can be estimated. The charge transfer and stripping processes in ion-ion collisions are also discussed. The typical processes in ion-ion collisions are almost same as those in ion-atom collisions. In order to minimize the ion beam loss due to charge-changing processes, it is important to choose the heavy ions with closed shell configurations, which correspond to the slightly more ionized states than the singly ionized state. (Kato, T.)

  5. Heavy ion acceleration in the Breakout Afterburner regime

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from an ultrathin (20 nm) gold foil irradiated by sub-picosecond lasers is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations we identified two highly efficient ion acceleration schemes. By varying the laser pulse duration we observed a transition from Radiation Pressure Acceleration to the Breakout Afterburner regime akin to light ions. The underlying physics and ion acceleration regimes are similar to that of light ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the acceleration of heavy ions more challenging. Two laser systems are studied in detail: the Texas Petawatt Laser and the Trident laser, the former having pulse duration 180 fs, intermediate between very short femtosecond pulses and picosecond pulses. Both laser systems generated directional gold ions beams (~10 degrees half-angle) with fluxes in excess of 1011 ion/sr and normalized energy >10 MeV/nucleon.

  6. Triplemafios: a multicharged heavy ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle and the characteristics of the ion source 'Triplemafios' are described. We also furnish the upto date performances concerning the ion charge states, ion currents and globale emittances of the beam

  7. Applications of heavy-negative-ion sources for materials science (invited)

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Junzo

    2000-01-01

    Applications of heavy negative ions produced by sputter-type negative-ion sources for materials science are reviewed. Submilliampere and milliampere heavy-negative-ion beams can be produced by a neutral- and ionized-alkaline–metal-bombardment-type heavy-negative-ion source and rf plasma sputter-type negative-ion sources, respectively. These negative-ion beams can be applied for materials processing such as ion implantation, ion beam etching, and ion beam deposition. In negative-ion implantati...

  8. Polysiloxane based CHEMFETs for the detection of heavy metal ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, Ronny J.W.; Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1996-01-01

    The development of polysiloxane based chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs) for heavy metal ions is described. Different polar siloxane copolymers have been synthesized via an anionic copolymerization of hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, [3-(methacryloxy)propyl]pentamethylcyclotrisiloxan

  9. Electron-impact ionization of heavy atomic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General theoretical methods for the calculation of direct and indirect processes in the electron-impact ionization of heavy atomic ions are reviewed. Cross section results for Xe8+ and U89+ are presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  10. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years

  11. Heavy ion physics with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zampolli, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    ALICE is the experiment at the LHC collider at CERN dedicated to heavy ion physics. In this report, the ALICE detector will be presented, together with its expected performance as far as some selected physics topics are concerned.

  12. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samit Mandal; J Gerl; H Geissel; K Hauschild; M Hellström; Z Janas; I Kojouharov; Y Kopatch; R C Lemmon; P Mayet; Z Podolyak; P H Regan; H Schaffner; C Schlegel; J Simpson; H J Wollersheim

    2001-07-01

    Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

  13. Magnetic spectrograph for the Holifield heavy ion research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for a new generation magnetic spectrograph for the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility is discussed. The advantages of a magnetic spectrograph for heavy ion research are discussed, as well as some of the types of experiments for which such an instrument is suited. The limitations which the quality of the incident beam, target and spectrograph itself impose on high resolution heavy ion measurements are discussed. Desired features of an ideal new spectrograph are: (1) intrinsic resolving power E/ΔE greater than or equal to 3000; (2) maximum solid angle greater than or equal to 20 msr; (3) dispersion approx. 4-8m; (4) maximum energy interval approx. 30%; and (5) mass-energy product greater than or equal to 200. Various existing and proposed spectrographs are compared with the specifications for a new heavy ion magnet design

  14. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  15. Laser-driven multicharged heavy ion beam acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Y.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. The laser pulse of stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated. This is achieved by the high intensity laser field of ˜ 1021Wcm-2 interacting with the solid density target. The demonstrated iron ions with high charge to mass ratio (Q/M) is difficult to be achieved by the conventional heavy ion source technique in the accelerators.

  16. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the activities of the GSI Darmstadt (FRG) during 1985 concerning inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams. Short communications and abstracts are presented concerning a Z-pinch experiment, heavy ion pumped lasers and X-ray spectroscopy, the study of ion-ion collisions, a RFQ development and beam transport studies, accelerator theory, targets for SIS/ESR experiments, the rayleigh-Taylor instability, studies on the equation of state for matter under high pressure, as well as the development of computer codes. (HSI)

  17. Inertial-confinement fusion driven by heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental concepts, current status and future prospects of heavy-ion-driven inertial-confinement fusion are described. Target physics issues are emphasized. An account is given of experimental programs now under way, including beam/plasma interaction and accelerator physics experiments. Plans for high-intensity-beam/target research using heavy-ion beams from the synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, FRG) are presented. (orig.)

  18. Inertial confinement fusion driven by heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental concepts, current status and future prospects of heavy-ion-driven inertial confinement fusion are described. Target physics issues are emphasised. An account is given of experimental programmes now under way, including beam/plasma interaction and accelerator physics experiments. Plans for high-intensity beam/target research using heavy-ion beams from the synchrotron at GSI, Darmstadt, FRG are presented. (author)

  19. Current experimental situation in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed survey of the present experimental situation in heavy-ion physics is presented. The discussion begins by considering the simple excitation of discrete states in elastic scattering, transfer, and compound-nucleus reactions; it then turns to more drastic perturbations of the nucleus high in the continuum through fusion, fission, and deeply inelastic scattering, and concludes with the (possibly) limiting asymptotic phenomena of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. 138 figures, 5 tables, 451 references

  20. An optical dosimeter for monitoring heavy metal ions in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Regan, Fiona; Leamy, D.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Ciaccheri, L.

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an optochemical dosimeter for determining and discriminating nickel, copper, and cobalt ions in water that can be used as an early warning system for water pollution. An inexpensive fiber optic spectrophotometer monitors the sensor's spectral behavior under exposure to water solutions of heavy metal ions in the 1-10 mg/l concentration range. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method quantitatively determines the heavy metals and discriminates their type and combination.

  1. Current experimental situation in heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    A detailed survey of the present experimental situation in heavy-ion physics is presented. The discussion begins by considering the simple excitation of discrete states in elastic scattering, transfer, and compound-nucleus reactions; it then turns to more drastic perturbations of the nucleus high in the continuum through fusion, fission, and deeply inelastic scattering, and concludes with the (possibly) limiting asymptotic phenomena of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. 138 figures, 5 tables, 451 references. (RWR)

  2. Dynamic Aperture Of The Heavy Ion Collider Nica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic aperture of the heavy ion collider NICA which is under construction at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna has been studied. Both nonlinearities in the magnetic elements and beam-beam forces have been taken into account in the numerical simulations. The obtained values of the dynamic aperture and the nonlinear acceptance are close to those in other heavy ion accelerators. Key words: particle accelerators, collider, beam dynamics

  3. Investigations in atomic physics by heavy ion projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations in atomic physics by high-energy heavy ions are discussed. The main attention is paid to collision mechanisms (direct Coulomb interaction, quasi-molecular collision mechanism and other models) and the structure of highly ionized and excited atoms. Some problems of fundamental issues (Lamb shift of H-like heavy ions, the superheavy quasi-atoms and the position production in supercritical fields) are conside-- red in detail

  4. Heavy ions at the LHC: Physics perspectives and experimental program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Schukraft

    2001-08-01

    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is entering the new era of collider experiments with the start-up of RHIC at BNL and construction for detectors at LHC well under way. At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating in particular on physics topics that are different or unique compared to current facilities.

  5. Classical gluon production amplitude in heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Chirilli Giovanni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of quarks and gluons produced in the initial stages of nuclear collisions, known as the initial condition of the Quark-Gluon Plasma formation, is the fundamental building block of heavy-ion theory. I will present the scattering amplitude, beyond the leading order, of the classical gluon produced in heavy-ion collisions. The result is obtained in the framework of saturation physics and Wilson lines formalism.

  6. Classical gluon production amplitude in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirilli Giovanni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of quarks and gluons produced in the initial stages of nuclear collisions, known as the initial condition of the Quark-Gluon Plasma formation, is the fundamental building block of heavy-ion theory. I will present the scattering amplitude, beyond the leading order, of the classical gluon produced in heavy-ion collisions. The result is obtained in the framework of saturation physics and Wilson lines formalism.

  7. Classical gluon production amplitude in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilli, Giovanni Antonio

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of quarks and gluons produced in the initial stages of nuclear collisions, known as the initial condition of the Quark-Gluon Plasma formation, is the fundamental building block of heavy-ion theory. I will present the scattering amplitude, beyond the leading order, of the classical gluon produced in heavy-ion collisions. The result is obtained in the framework of saturation physics and Wilson lines formalism.

  8. CONSTRUCTION OF POLARIZED HEAVY ION SOURCE AT RCNP

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, M.; Ohshima, T.; Abe, K.; Katori, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Itahashi, T.; Ogata, H; Kondo, M.

    1990-01-01

    A recent progress in the construction of a polarized heavy ion source at RCNP, Osaka University is presented. A basic principle of the polarization is a spin and charge exchange collision between a highly stripped heavy ion and a polarized sodium atom. The first possible evidence for the 3He nuclear polarization generated through this method was experimentally demonstrated by means of the beam foil spectroscopy.

  9. Lambda-Lambda Correlation in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Morita Kenji; Furumoto Takenori; Ohnishi Akira

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Λ − Λ correlation function in relativistic heavy ion collisions to extract their interaction. Using an expanding source model for heavy ion collisions, we disentangle effects of collective expansion and those of the interaction at low relative momenta. Then, we discuss the influence of the feed-down correction for Σ0 decay and indicate the possible existence of a residual correlation at high relative momenta. Consequently, the present STAR data suggest a weakly attractive inter...

  10. Problems of quantum electrodynamics in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of heavy ion reactions in studying basic problems of very strongly bound particles is discussed. Specifically, the fusion of two heavy nuclei, e.g., u + u, to form a superheavy quasimolecule is considered theoretically, with suggestions given for possible experiments. (12 figures)

  11. String theory and relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, Joshua J.

    It has long been known that string theory describes not only quantum gravity, but also gauge theories with a high degree of supersymmetry. Said gauge theories also have a large number of colors in a regime with a large effective coupling constant that does not depend on energy scale. Supersymmetry is broken in nature, if it is present at all, however the gauge theory described by string theory shares many common features with QCD at temperatures above the quark deconfinement transition. It is generally though not entirely accepted that collisions of gold nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) produce a thermalized Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) at temperatures distinctly above the transition temperature as determined from lattice simulations. Hence, we might hope that a string theoretic description of gauge dynamics can elucidate some otherwise intractable physics of the strongly coupled plasma. Here we use string theory to calculate the outgoing energy flux from a RHIC process called "jet quenching", in which a high-momentum quark or gluon traverses a large distance in the QGP. Our setup is in the context of the highly supersymmetric string dual gauge theory, but we nevertheless find that the gross features of the resulting stress-energy tensor match reasonably well with experimental data. We will furthermore discuss the technology behind computations of the leading-order corrections to gauge theory observables that are uniquely string-induced, and we will describe a potential solution to string theory that could resolve a number of discrepancies between the traditional highly supersymmetric setup and QCD---in particular, a significant reduction in the amount of supersymmetry, and a finite effective coupling that is still greater than unity but does depend on energy scale.

  12. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning.

  13. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  14. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; McMahan, Margaret A.; Argento, David; Gimpel, Thomas; Guy, Aran; Morel, James; Siero, Christine; Thatcher, Ray; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2002-09-03

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate ''cocktails'' of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and has since become a powerful tool in the field of heavy ion radiation effects testing. Several different ''cocktails'' at various energies are available at the 88-Inch cyclotron for radiation effect testing, covering a broad range of linear energy transfer and penetration depth. Two standard heavy ion cocktails at 4.5 MeV/nucleon and 10 MeV/nucleon have been developed over the years containing ions from boron to bismuth. Recently, following requests for higher penetration depths, a 15MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail has been developed. Up to nine different metal and gaseous ion beams at low to very high charge states are tuned out of the ion source simultaneously and injected together into the cyclotron. It is therefore crucial to balance the ion source very carefully to provide sufficient intensities throughout the cocktail. The paper describes the set-up and tuning of the ion source for the various heavy ion cocktails.

  15. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  16. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports contains some articles contributed to the named conference. These concern the heavy ion fusion program of the Federal Republic of Germany, heavy ion accelerators, the HIBALL projects, storage rings for heavy ion beams, transport of heavy ion beams, and target projects for fusion applications. (HSI)

  17. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  18. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few μm. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials

  19. The QCD Pomeron in Ultraperipheral Heavy Ion Collisions: II. Heavy Quark Production

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2003-01-01

    The heavy quark production in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions is investigated, in particular we focus on the results from the coherent interactions given by the two-photon process. One addresses the heavy quark total cross sections at photon level considering the saturation model and the BFKL dynamics in the color dipole picture. The corresponding cross sections at nuclear level are presented. It is verified that the QCD dynamics implies an enhancement of the cross section in comparison ...

  20. Cern academic training programme 2011: Selected Topics in the Physics of Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 14, 15 & 16 March 2011 Selected Topics in the Physics of Heavy Ion Collisions 11:00-12:00 - Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant In these lectures, I discuss some classes of measurements accessible in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. How can these observables be measured, to what extent can they be calculated, and what do they tell us about the dense mesoscopic system created during the collision? In the first lecture, I shall focus in particular on measurements that constrain the spatio-temporal picture of the collisions and that measure centrality, orientations and extensions. In the subsequent lectures, I then discuss on how classes of measurements allow one to characterize collective phenomena, and to what extent these measurements can constrain the properties of matter produced in heavy ion collisions. Organiser: Maureen Prola-Tessaur/PH-EDU  

  1. Pion Transverse Momentum Spectrum, Elliptic Flow, and Interferometry in the Granular Source Model for RHIC and LHC Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Yang; Yan-Yu Ren; Wei-Ning Zhang

    2015-01-01

    We systematically investigate the pion transverse momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry in the granular source model for the heavy ion collisions of Au-Au at sNN=200  GeV and Pb-Pb at sNN=2.76  TeV with different centralities. The granular source model can well reproduce the experimental results of the heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We examine the parameters involved in the granul...

  2. Electromagnetic Heavy Lepton Pair Production in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sengul, M. Y.; Guclu, M. C.; Mercan, O.; Karakus, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the cross sections of electromagnetic productions of muon and tauon pair productions from the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Since the Compton wavelengths of muon and tauon are comparable to the radius of the colliding ions, nuclear form factors play important roles for calculating the cross sections. Recent measurement [1] indicates that the neutrons are differently distributed from the protons therefore this affects the cross section of the heavy lepton pair productio...

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on intermediate energy heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conference topics include experimental and theoretical considerations of the equation of state, charged pion spectroscopy of high ion reactions, studies of nucleon substructure, direct reactions, synthesis of exotic nuclei, production and identification of new isotopes, quantum effects of light particle correlations, inverse kinematic studies, giant resonance studies and bremsstrahlung as a probe of heavy ion reactions. Individual presentations are catalogued separately

  4. Nuclear Fragmentation in Clinical Heavy Ion Beams, Should We Worry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Toftegaard, Jakob;

    Particle therapy with fast ions is increasingly applied as a treatment option for localized inoperable tumour sites. One of the reasons for the increased complications of understanding heavy ion dosimetry and radiobiology stems from the mixed particle spectrum which occurs due to nuclear fragment...

  5. Topical problems of accelerator and applied heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named seminar. They deal with high-intensity linacs for heavy ions, the free-electron laser, applications of heavy-ion beams, MEQALAC, the ESR Schottky-diagnosis system, the analysis of GaAs by ion-beam methods, a light-ion synchrotron for cancer therapy, a device for the measurement of the momentum spread of ion beams, the European Hadron facility, the breakdown fields at electrons in high vacuum, a computer program for the calculation of electric quadrupoles, a focusing electrostatic mirror, storage and cooling of Ar beams, the visualization of heavy ion tracks in photographic films, the motion of ions in magnetic fields, the CERN heavy ion program, linear colliders, the beam injection from a linac into a storage ring, negative-ion sources, wake field acceleration, RFQ's, a dense electron target, the matching of a DC beam into the RFQ, electron emission and breakdown in vacuum, and 1-1.5 GeV 300 mA linear accelerator, the production of high-current positive-ion beams, high-current beam experiments at GSI, improvement of the Frankfurt EBIS, the physics of the violin, double layers, beam formation with coupled RFQ's, atomic nitrogen beam for material modification, compact superconducting synchrotron-radiation sources, industrial property rights, a RF ion source for thin film processes, beam-cavity interactions in the RFQ linac, atomic physics with crossed uranium beams, proton linacs, the interdigital H-type structure, injection of H- beams into a RFQ accelerator, the production of MOS devices by ion implantation, the application of RFQ's, the Frankfurt highly-charged ion facility, RF acceleration techniques for beam current drive in tokamaks, space-charge neutralized transport, and storage rings for synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. (HSI)

  6. Radiation physics and chemistry in heavy-ion cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, M; Krajcar Bronic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy ions, such as carbon and oxygen ions, are classified as high-LET radiations, and produce a characteristic dose-depth distribution different from that of low-LET radiations such as γ-rays, xrays and electrons. Heavy ions lose less energy at the entrance to an irradiated biological system up to some depth than the low-LET radiations, while they deposit a large amount of dose within a very narrow range at a certain depth, producing the characteristic sharp peak called the Bragg peak. There...

  7. Charge exchange between hydrogen atoms and fully stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge exchange between multicharged ions and background atomic and molecular gases represents one of the limitations to the attainment of high charge states in heavy ion sources, particularly containment sources. An attempt is made to study systematically a particularly simple but in many respects representative class of such reactions, namely charge transfer between atomic hydrogen and fully stripped heavy ions. Approximate cross sections for these processes in the low keV range of collision energies were obtained using a multistate Landau--Zener method. The energy and Z dependences of the cross sections are discussed

  8. Heavy ion beams in extended materials - Computational methods and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Townsend, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    The transport of heavy ion beams in extended materials is a problem of interest in accelerator and space shielding, radiation therapy, and astrophysical and radiobiological studies. The beam particles change their energy and direction of motion through atomic/molecular collisions and undergo occasional radical transformation in nuclear collision. In health physics applications, a heavy ion beam of initially well defined radiation quality is transformed into a complex mixture of diverse quality components after passing through a modest amount of material. This transformation of radiation quality must be understood to adequately explain the biological response of tissue to heavy ion radiation. A theoretical/experimental program to define an ion beam and its products in extended matter is described.

  9. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  10. Ultra-relativistic heavy ions and the CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of ultra-relativistic heavy ions at an accelerator such as the CBA provides a unique glimpse of matter as it may have appeared in the early universe. This hot dense matter very probably appears as a quark-gluon plasma which expands and cools into hadronic matter. The CBA would provide data at the very highest energies, and produce matter at the highest energy densities. The possibility of using a cyclotron to inject very heavy ions into the AGS and then into the CBA would also allow the production of quark-gluon matter at higher energy densities than would light ions, and would make the matter in a larger volume where surface effects are minimized. At the highest energies with very heavy ions, there is great flexibility in the experimental signals which might be studied, as well as the nature of the matter which is produced. Some of the possibilities are discussed

  11. Inertial Fusion Driven By Intense Heavy-Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  12. Summary of Progress in US Heavy Ion Fusion Science Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Construction of the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX-II), a new high- current, moderate-kinetic-energy accelerator facility at LBNL, is being completed in the spring of 2012. The machine will produce a nanosecond Li+ ion beam bunch at ∼ 2 MeV energy for volumetric heating of thin foils. Extensive simulations using the Warp code led to a physics design with specialized acceleration voltage waveforms that can achieve > 500-fold longitudinal beam compression. Planned experiments on NDCX-II to study warm dense matter include: measuring equation of state and phase transitions, conductivity, opacity and shock generation. Theoretically, we have: 1. Studied transverse and longitudinal beam compression on two-stream interactions of an intense ion beam in plasma. 2. Studied transverse gradients and profile shapes on beam-plasma instabilities. 3. Identified a class of self-consistent periodic kinetic “equilibria” for intense beams in alterna- ting-gradient focusing systems, and extended nonlinear perturbative particle simulations to such focusing systems. 4. Investigated nonlinear effects of beam-plasma instabilities on beam current neutralization. 5. Proposed a Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for droplet formation in expanding warm dense matter. 6. Carried out theoretical studies of using a beam “wobbler” (periodic deflector) as a beam smoothing technique. Using HYDRA simulations to design the novel Heavy Ion Fusion X-target, it was found that, by adding an aluminum pusher and radial tamping, the fusion gain can be increased from 50 to 300, and the stagnation fuel density doubled to 100 g/cm3 at peak compression, with a ρr „ 2 g/cm2. The X-target has a simple cylindrical metal case filled with DT fuel and a conical insert with an “X” shaped cross-section. Using multiple heavy ion beams to illuminate the target axially from only one side, the fuel can be compressed and ignited at the X-vertex. The simulations showed negligible

  13. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/p-barp and e+e- data. ch>/part/2> in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √s in a similar way as Nch in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions

  15. Simulating Electron Cloud Effects in Heavy-Ion Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Lund, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Azevedo, T.; Vay, J. -L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Stray electrons can be introduced in heavy ion fusion accelerators as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary- electron emission. We summarize here results from several studies of electron-cloud accumulation and effects: (1) Calculation of the electron cloud produced by electron desorption from computed beamion loss; the importance of ion scattering is shown; (2) Simulation of the eect of specified electron clou...

  16. Developing high brightness beams for heavy ion driven inertial fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.A.; Anders, A; Bieniosek, F.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Grote, D. P.; Henestroza, E.; Leung, K.N.; Molvik, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers require large currents and bright beams. In this paper we review the two different approaches for building HIF injectors and the corresponding ion source requirements. The traditional approach uses large aperture, low current density ion sources, resulting in a very large injector system. A more recent conceptual approach merges high current density mini-beamlets into a large current beam in order to significantly reduce the size of the injector. Experimen...

  17. L X-ray emission induced by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, M.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Semaniak, J.; Fijał-Kirejczyk, I.; Jaskóła, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.

    2015-11-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is usually applied using typically 1 MeV to 3 MeV protons or helium ions, for which the ion-atom interaction is dominated by the single ionization process. For heavier ions the multiple ionization plays an increasingly important role and this process can influence substantially both the X-ray spectra and atomic decay rates. Additionally, the subshell coupling effects are important for the L- and M-shells ionized by heavy ions. Here we discuss the main features of the X-ray emission induced by heavy ions which are important for PIXE applications, namely, the effects of X-ray line shifts and broadening, vacancy rearrangement and change of the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields in multiple ionized atoms. These effects are illustrated here by the results of the measurements of L X-ray emission from heavy atoms bombarded by 6 MeV to 36 MeV Si ions, which were reported earlier. The strong L-subshell coupling effects are observed, in particular L2-subshell, which can be accounted for within the coupling subshell model (CSM) developed within the semiclassical approximation. Finally, the prospects to use heavy ions in PIXE analysis are discussed.

  18. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  19. Electron-ion merged-beam experiments at heavy-ion storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, the electron-ion merged-beams technique has extensively been exploited at heavy-ion storage rings equipped with electron coolers for spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions as well as for measuring absolute cross sections and rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination and electron-impact ionization of multiply charged atoms ions. Some recent results are highlighted and future perspectives are pointed out, in particular, in view of novel experimental possibi...

  20. Energy reflection coefficient of backscattered heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy-dependent albedo problem, i.e., the energy-dependent leakage spectrum for a half-space of material irradiated by a monoenergetic beam of ions is investigated in this paper. For this purpose the flux decomposition procedure is applied. It is based on separation of the ion flux into terms that are exactly analytically solved and those calculated by the ordinary DPN approximation. Slowing down of particles is described by elastic scattering and various models for dealing with the anisotropy of ion scattering. The ion energy reflection coefficient is computed and compared to the values obtained by the exact and variational methods as well as DPN flux approximation

  1. Unusual heavy ion injection events observed by Freja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ion injection events (registered in the C+/N+/O+ mass channel into the ionosphere at 1700km height are surveyed using the Swedish-German Freja satellite data. Heavy ion injections from the inner magnetosphere are mostly found in the nightside sector with a few exceptions that occur on the dayside. We report on these exceptional cases, particularly two specific events which seem to have a different generation/transport mechanism of heavy ions from the majority of cases: 1 mono-energetic heavy ion injection near local noon with oxygen first and protons later; and 2 a multiple heavy ion dispersion event at 9 MLT. Both events are unique without any similar events in terms of dispersion pattern during the more than 2 years of the entire Freja operation, and these events are found during the main phase of major magnetic storms (peak Dst is -144nT and -105nT. The first event is probably of dayside origin but the exact mechanism to make both energy filter and mass filter is unknown. The second event can be traced back to one localized energization of dense oxygen with strong pitch-angle anisotropy within 1000km distance from the spacecraft.

  2. Outline of heavy ion beam accelerator for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion inertial fusion program has become more promising through the intense works on high energy, heavy ion accelerators during past four years. The heavy iron method is superior to the methods with other particle beam, because the peak current requirement is reduced drastically to several kA. The driver efficiency is expected to be 20% or more in the heavy ion method, and the absorption efficiency in the pellets is three times as high as that of laser fusion method. In Japan, Institute of Plasma Physics of Nagoya University and Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University participate mainly in the design of reactor and pellet systems, while National Laboratory for High Energy Physics and Institute for Nuclear Study of University of Tokyo have studied on heavy ion accelerators. In this paper, the outline of the accelerator system is described on the basis of the typical parameters of pellet design. The determination of beam parameters, the beam lines in reactors, current multiplication, the main parameters of the storage ring, the ion source and the linear accelerator are explained. In the present design concept, an RFQ linac is proposed in low velocity region. The focus action is independent of the beam velocity, and it has the capture efficiency as high as about 90%. (Kako, I.)

  3. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression π of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy

  4. Anti-biofilm activity of Fe heavy ion irradiated polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R. P.; Hareesh, K.; Bankar, A.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-10-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) polymers were investigated before and after high energy heavy ion irradiation for anti-bacterial properties. These PC films were irradiated by Fe heavy ions with two energies, viz, 60 and 120 MeV, at different fluences in the range from 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. UV-Visible spectroscopic results showed optical band gap decreased with increase in ion fluences due to chain scission mainly at carbonyl group of PC which is also corroborated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic results. X-ray diffractogram results showed decrease in crystallinity of PC after irradiation which leads to decrease in molecular weight. This is confirmed by rheological studies and also by differential scanning calorimetric results. The irradiated PC samples showed modification in their surfaces prevents biofilm formation of human pathogen, Salmonella typhi.

  5. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Prokhorov, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., 238U92+ ) and partially stripped (e.g., 238U28+ ) ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil) and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers). Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions) was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad-x.

  6. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  7. Heavy ion acceleration by nonlinear magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion dynamics in perpendicular nonlinear magnetosonic waves in a plasma containing two ion species is studied through theory and simulation using a one dimension, electromagnetic particle code with full ion and electron dynamics; in the simulations the density of heavier ions was set to be 10% of that of lighter ions. As in a single-ion-species plasma, some of the light ions can be accelerated by the longitudinal electric field formed in a wave. It is found that the bulk of heavy ions are accelerated by the transverse electric field. For a large-amplitude wave, the maximum speed of heavy ions is about the wave propagation speed, which exceeds the Alfven speed. Theoretical estimates of maximum speeds are given for small- and large- amplitude waves. They are in good agreement with the simulation results. (author)

  8. Synthesis and Characteristics of A Novel Heavy Metal Ions Chelator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuannian; SONG Yejing; HAN Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide-urea-sulfanilamide(PUS) was prepared as a novel heavy metal ions chelator and successfully used to simultaneously remove heavy metals from wastewater effluents.The effects of reaction parameters (sodium hydroxide,material ratio,temprature and contact time) were monitored to specify the best synthesis conditions.PUS was chemically characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis).The simultaneous chelation performance of PUS towards selected heavy metals ions,Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+,Cd2+ was discussed,showing that Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+ could be better chelated.It is indicated that the synthesized PUS is a potential remediation material when used for the treatment of wastewater containing metal ions.

  9. Photoproduction of top in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, S R; Vogt, R; Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim; Vogt, Ramona

    2001-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, top quarks can be produced by photon-gluon fusion when a photon from the Weizs\\"acker-Williams virtual photon field of one nucleus interacts with a gluon in the other nucleus. Photoproduction with heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the first accessible non-hadronic top production channel. We calculate the $t \\bar t$ photoproduction cross sections, pair mass and top quark rapidity distributions in peripheral heavy ion collisions. The cross sections are sensitive to the top quark charge and the large-$Q^2$ gluon distribution in the nucleus. We find a cross section of 94 pb in calcium-calcium collisions, leading to 490 pairs in a one month LHC run. We also find $p$Pb and $p$Ca cross sections of 5.8 and 3.4 pb respectively, resulting in 15 and 88 $t\\bar t$ pairs per month.

  10. Materials science symposium 'heavy ion science in tandem energy region'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facility of the JAERI tandem accelerator and its booster has been contributing to obtain plenty of fruitful results in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic and solid state physics and materials science, taking an advantage of its prominent performances of heavy ion acceleration. The previous meeting held in 1999 also offered an opportunity to scientists from all over the heavy ion science fields, including nuclear physics, solid state physics and cross-field physics to have active discussions. This meeting included oral presentations with a new plan and with a new scope of fields expected from now on, as an occasion for opening the 21st century in heavy ion science. The 50 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Neutron production from heavy ion interaction: some very empirical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years there has been increasing interest in the use of heavy ion accelerators for research in nuclear physics, radiobiology, medicine and space science. Neutrons of energy up to that of the primary accelerated heavy ion may be produced by interaction with matter. The knowledge of the yield and energy spectrum of these neutrons is of fundamental importance in all the fields of application of heavy ions. Very little is known from the theoretical as well as experimental point of view about the production of these neutrons. The theory associated with neutron production is summarized and the scarce experimental results accumulated up to now are reported. (7 figures, 5 tables) (auth)

  12. Carbon stripper foils for high current heavy ion operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the proposed new heavy ion linac'at'GSI the installation of a carbon foil stripper section is under discussion. High duty factor as well as high current (but low duty factor) heavy ion beams were used for machine experiments. Long term tests were performed to check the carbon foil durability. Relevant beam parameters have been measured in three measurement campaigns. After beam testing stripper foils were analyzed with different offline methods. Additionally promising results of high current beam irradiation of rotating target wheels will be presented. In the transfer line to the SIS 18 the heavy ion beam is stripped to higher charge states in a thick carbon foil. The stripper foil is loaded with 3 % of the beam power. To avoid evaporation in a single beam pulse, the beam is rapidly swept over its width. Experiences collected during the last decade of foil stripper operation at GSI will be presented. (author)

  13. Probing the hardest branching of jets in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Yang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We present the first calculation of the momentum sharing and angular separation distributions between the leading subjets inside a reconstructed jet in heavy ion collisions. These observables are directly sensitive to the hardest branching in the process of jet formation and are, therefore, ideal for studying the early stage of the in-medium parton shower evolution. The modification of the momentum sharing and angular separation distributions in lead-lead relative to proton-proton collisions is evaluated using the leading-order medium-induced splitting functions obtained in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluon interactions. Qualitative and in most cases quantitative agreement between theory and preliminary CMS measurements suggests that the parton shower in heavy ion collisions can be dramatically modified early in the branching history. We propose a new measurement which will illuminate the angular distribution of the hardest branching within jets in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Strangeness production in heavy ion collisions at SPS and RHIC within two-source statistical model

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhong-Dao; Faessler, Amand; Fuchs, C.; Zabrodin, E.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental data on hadron yields and ratios in central Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions at SPS and RHIC energies, respectively, are analysed within a two-source statistical model of an ideal hadron gas. These two sources represent the expanding system of colliding heavy ions, where the hot central fireball is embedded in a larger but cooler fireball. The volume of the central source increases with rising bombarding energy. Results of the two-source model fit to RHIC experimental data at midra...

  15. Laser spectroscopy on the heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presented report the perspectives of the study of the electric charge and current space distributions in the nuclei by laser spectroscopy methods on the beams of the fast multiple charged ions are discussed. The calculations of both the level energies and widths in the H-like and He-like ions and of the isotopic shifts and hyperfine splitting in the optical spectra of these ions are performed. The project of the experimental set-up for these measurements is considered. (author)

  16. An Experimental Review on Heavy-Flavor v2 in Heavy-Ion Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade now, the primary purpose of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC has been to study the properties of QCD matter under extreme conditions—high temperature and high density. The heavy-ion experiments at both RHIC and LHC have recorded a wealth of data in p+p, p+Pb, d+Au, Cu+Cu, Cu+Au, Au+Au, Pb+Pb, and U+U collisions at energies ranging from sNN=7.7 GeV to 7 TeV. Heavy quarks are considered good probe to study the QCD matter created in relativistic collisions due to their very large mass and other unique properties. A precise measurement of various properties of heavy-flavor hadrons provides an insight into the fundamental properties of the hot and dense medium created in these nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as transport coefficient and thermalization and hadronization mechanisms. The main focus of this paper is to present a review on the measurements of azimuthal anisotropy of heavy-flavor hadrons and to outline the scientific opportunities in this sector due to future detector upgrade. We will mainly discuss the elliptic flow of open charmed meson (D-meson, J/ψ, and leptons from heavy-flavor decay at RHIC and LHC energy.

  17. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  18. Heavy ion observation with MIDORI satellite: trapped ACR

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, T; Yamagiwa, I; Kato, C; Goka, T; Matsumoto, H

    1999-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Telescope (HIT) on board the Japanese earth observation satellite MIDORI (ADEOS) has observed energetic heavy ions at the circular sun-synchronous orbit with an altitude of 800 km and an inclination of 98 deg. . Geomagnetically trapped oxygen and nitrogen at L=2 are clearly observed which is similar to the results of SAMPEX. Their geographical distribution at a long belt from the southern tip of South America to that of Africa is also very close to the SAMPEX observation. The adiabaticity parameter epsilon sub m sub a sub x can be deduced as <=0.1.

  19. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  20. Electrons with continuous energy distribution from energetic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties and origin of continuous electron spectrum emitted in high energy heavy ion collisions are reviewed. The basic processes causing the characteristic regions of the continuous spectrum are described. The contribution of electrons ejected from the target and from the projectile are investigated in detail in the cases of light and heavy projectiles. The recently recognized mechanisms, electron-capture-to-continuum (ECC) and electron-loss-to-continuum (ELC), leading to a cusp in forward direction, and their theoretical interpretations are discussed. The importance of data from ion-atom collisions in the field of atomic physics and in applications are briefly summarized. (D.Gy)

  1. Hydrodynamics in heavy-ion collisions: recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, Amaresh

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the collective behaviour of the QCD matter produced in high energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We briefly review the latest developments in the hydrodynamical modeling of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Essential ingredients of the model such as the hydrodynamic evolution equations, dissipation, initial conditions, equation of state, and freeze-out process are reviewed. We discuss observable quantities such as particle spectra and anisotropic flow as well as the event-by-event fluctuations of these quantities. We also discuss the extraction of transport coefficients of the hot and dense QCD matter from the experimental data of collective flow.

  2. Systematics of quasi-elastic processes induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to delineate the areas in the systematics of quasi-elastic processes induced by heavy ions that are well described theoretically from the specific features that seem not to be understood. One- and two-particle transfer reactions are considered. A general systematic seen in transfer angular distribution data and theory, some successes and failures of the DWBA and coupled-channels theories in describing heavy-ion-reaction data, and the specific example 232Th(40Ar,K) and implications for deep inelastic reactions with even heavier projectiles such as Kr and Xe are considered

  3. Perturbed stationary state approach to nuclear heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to treat the nuclear heavy ion collision at low energy, the perturbed stationary state method developed in the atomic collision is extended so as to include the coupling between the internal state and the angular part of the relative motion. It is shown that this method provides a simple interpretation for the molecular resonances observed in the scatterings of 12C + 12C, 12C + 16O and 16O + 16O, and for the induced rotation mechanism during the collision between heavy ions. Also given is the detailed study for the applicability of the perturbation treatment of this method. (author)

  4. The relativistic heavy ion collider project at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility will provide collision energies of 100 GeV/nucleon per beam for heavy ions as massive as gold. RHIC will use the existing Brookhaven AGS and Tandem Van de Graaff as injector. The new accelerator facility, which is a nuclear physics initiative, will utilize the existing facilities of the partially completed CBA project. This report discusses the physics motivation for such a facility, the status of the machine design, R and D work and preparations for experiments at RHIC

  5. Complexified boost invariance and holographic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S

    2015-01-01

    At strong coupling holographic studies have shown that heavy ion collisions do not obey normal boost invariance. Here we study a modified boost invariance through a complex shift in time, and show that this leads to surprisingly good agreement with numerical holographic computations. When including perturbations the agreement becomes even better, both in the hydrodynamic and the far-from-equilibrium regime. One of the main advantages is an analytic formulation of the stress-energy tensor of the longitudinal dynamics of holographic heavy ion collisions.

  6. Imaging of granular sources in high energy heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Huo, Lei; Zhang, Jing-Bo

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the source imaging for a granular pion-emitting source model in high energy heavy ion collisions. The two-pion source functions of the granular sources exhibit a two-tiered structure. Using a parametrized formula of granular two-pion source function, we examine the two-tiered structure of the source functions for the imaging data of Au+Au collisions at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We find that the imaging technique introduce...

  7. Lambda-Lambda Correlation in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate Λ − Λ correlation function in relativistic heavy ion collisions to extract their interaction. Using an expanding source model for heavy ion collisions, we disentangle effects of collective expansion and those of the interaction at low relative momenta. Then, we discuss the influence of the feed-down correction for Σ0 decay and indicate the possible existence of a residual correlation at high relative momenta. Consequently, the present STAR data suggest a weakly attractive interaction for the ΛΛ pairs which is represented by the scattering length, 1/a0 < −0.8 fm−1.

  8. Funny hills in pion spectra from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of some of the systematic features of the pion spectra in heavy-ions reactions is given. A discussion of the hills and valleys in heavy ion pion spectra that show up at the lower pion energies is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) three kinds of funny hills; (2) π-/+ ratios near center of mass; (3) new Monte Carlo studies of charged pion spectra; and (4) pion orbiting about fireballs and Bose-Einstein behavior as explanation for the mid-rapidity P/sub perpendicular to/ approx. = 0.4 to 0.5 m/sub π/c hill

  9. Heavy Ion Injection Into Synchrotrons, Based On Electron String Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E E; Syresin, E M

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of heavy ions injection into synchrotrons is discussed on the base of two novel ion sources, which are under development JINR during last decade: 1) the electron string ion source (ESIS), which is a modified version of a conventional electron beam ion source (EBIS), working in a reflex mode of operation, and 2) the tubular electron string ion source (TESIS). The Electron String Ion Source "Krion-2" (VBLHE, JINR, Dubna) with an applied confining magnetic field of 3 T was used for injection into the superconducting JINR synchrotron - Nuclotron and during this runs the source provided a high pulse intensity of the highly charged ion beams: Ar16+

  10. Arc-Discharge Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature multiple beamlet approach to an injector system was recently proposed in order to reduce the size, cost, and power requirements of the injector. The beamlets of very high current density are needed to meet the brightness requirement. Besides vacuum arc ion sources, cold-cathode gas ion sources are candidates for this application. Vacuum-arc metal ion sources and vacuum-arc-like gas ion sources are discussed. Experiments are presented that focus on the short-pulse plasma composition and ion charge state distribution. Mg and Sr have been identified as the most promising metals leading to mono-species beams when 20 μs arc pulses are used. It is shown that the efficient production of gas ions requires the presence of a magnetic field

  11. Heavy ion event generator HYDJET++ (HYDrodynamics plus JETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.; Arsene, I.; Tywoniuk, K.

    2009-05-01

    nucleon pair at other heavy ion experimental facilities. As one moves from very high to moderately high energies, the contribution of the hard part of the event becomes smaller, while the soft part turns into just a multi-parameter fit to the data. Restrictions: HYDJET++ is only applicable for symmetric AA collisions of heavy ( A≳40) ions at high energies (c.m.s. energy √{s}≳10 GeV per nucleon pair). The results obtained for very peripheral collisions (with the impact parameter of the order of two nucleus radii, b˜2R) and very forward rapidities may be not adequate. Additional comments: Accessibility http://cern.ch/lokhtin/hydjet++ Running time: The generation of 100 central (0-5%) Au+Au events at √{s}=200A GeV (Pb+Pb events at √{s}=5500A GeV) with default input parameters takes about 7 (85) minutes on a PC 64 bit Intel Core Duo CPU @ 3 GHz with 8 GB of RAM memory under Red Hat Enterprise. References: [1] I.P. Lokhtin, A.M. Snigirev, Eur. Phys. J. C 46 (2006) 211. [2] N.S. Amelin, R. Lednicky, T.A. Pocheptsov, I.P. Lokhtin, L.V. Malinina, A.M. Snigirev, Iu.A. Karpenko, Yu.M. Sinyukov, Phys. Rev. C 74 (2006) 064901. [3] N.S. Amelin, I. Arsene, L. Bravina, Iu.A. Karpenko, R. Lednicky, I.P. Lokhtin, L.V. Malinina, A.M. Snigirev, Yu.M. Sinyukov, Phys. Rev. C 77 (2008) 014903.

  12. Parametric thermal analysis of 75 MHz heavy ion RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ECR based Heavy Ion Accelerator comprising of a superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source, normal conducting RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) and superconducting Niobium resonators is being developed at BARC under XII plan. A state-of-the-art 18 GHz superconducting ECR ion source (PK-ISIS) jointly configured with Pantechnik, France is operational at Van-de-Graaff, BARC. The electromagnetic design of the improved version of 75 MHz heavy ion RFQ has been reported earlier. The previous thermal study of 51 cm RFQ model showed large temperature variation axially along the vane tip. A new coolant flow scheme has been worked out to optimize the axial temperature gradient. In this paper the thermal analysis including parametric study of coolant flow rates and inlet temperature variation will be presented. (author)

  13. Elliptic and Triangular flow in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Haque, Md Rihan; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow and their corresponding eccentricity fluctuations for asymmetric (Au+Ag, Au+Cu and Au+Si) collisions at \\sqrt_NN = 200 GeV. These are compared to the corresponding results from symmetric (Au+Au and Cu+Cu) collisions at the same energy. The study which is carried out using a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model shows that triangularity (\\epsilon_3), fluctuations in triangularity and v3 do not show much variation for the different colliding ion sizes studied. However the eccentricity (\\epsilon_2), fluctuations in eccentricity and v2 shows a strong dependence on colliding ion size for a given number of participating nucleons. Our study thus indicates that asymmetric heavy-ion collisions could be used to constrain models dealing with flow fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions.

  14. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear systems formed in heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj K Sharma; Gurvinder Kaur

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical description of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclei formed in heavy-ion collisions is worked out using the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), with reference to various effects such as deformation and orientation, temperature, angular momentum etc. Based on the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), DCM has been applied to understand the decay mechanism of a large number of nuclei formed in low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Various features related to the dynamics of competing decay modes of nuclear systems are explored by addressing the experimental data of a number of reactions in light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy mass regions. The DCM, being a non-statistical description for the decay of a compound nucleus, treats light particles (LPs) or equivalently evaporation residues (ERs), intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) and fission fragments on equal footing and hence, provides an alternative to the available statistical model approaches to address fusion–fission and related phenomena.

  15. Heavy Quarkonium Dissociation Cross Sections in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.-Y. Wong; Eric Swanson; Ted Barnes

    2001-12-01

    Many of the hadron-hadron cross sections required for the study of the dynamics of matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be calculated using the quark-interchange model. Here we evaluate the low-energy dissociation cross sections of J/{psi}, {psi}', {chi}, {Upsilon}, and {Upsilon}' in collision with {pi}, {rho}, and K, which are important for the interpretation of heavy-quarkonium suppression as a signature for the quark gluon plasma. These comover dissociation processes also contribute to heavy-quarkonium suppression, and must be understood and incorporated in simulations of heavy-ion collisions before QGP formation can be established through this signature.

  16. Freeze-Out Parameters in Heavy-Ion Collisions at AGS, SPS, RHIC, and LHC Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the chemical and kinetic freeze-out conditions in high energy heavy-ion collisions for AGS, SPS, RHIC, and LHC energies. Chemical freeze-out parameters are obtained using produced particle yields in central collisions while the corresponding kinetic freeze-out parameters are obtained using transverse momentum distributions of produced particles. For chemical freeze-out, different freeze-out scenarios are discussed such as single and double/flavor dependent freeze-out surfaces. Kinetic freeze-out parameters are obtained by doing hydrodynamic inspired blast wave fit to the transverse momentum distributions. The beam energy and centrality dependence of transverse energy per charged particle multiplicity are studied to address the constant energy per particle freeze-out criteria in heavy-ion collisions

  17. Jet results in heavy ion collisions with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsa, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic collisions of heavy ions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced, and jets propagating through this medium are known to suffer energy loss. This results in several distinct effects seen in central heavy ion collisions: the yield of inclusive jets measured via the nuclear modification factor is observed to be strongly suppressed; the yield of events with highly asymmetric dijet pairs is observed to be increased; the jet fragmentation is modified. In proton-lead collisions, the production of hard processes is expected to be modified via a modification of nuclear parton distribution functions. While the theory predicts rather small effects to be observed, the data show interesting unexpected features: the nuclear modification factor exhibits a strong centrality dependence; charged particle spectra show an enhancement at large transverse momenta with respect to the proton-proton reference. In this talk, we will summarize the most recent results by ATLAS involving ...

  18. Neutron dose equivalent rate for heavy ion bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGui-Sheng; ZhangTian-Mei; 等

    1998-01-01

    The fluence rate distribution of neutrons in the reactionsof 50MeV/u 18O-ion on thick Be,Cu and Au targets have been measured with an activation method of threshold detectors andthe neutron dose equivalent rate distributions at 1m from the tqrgets in intermediate energy heavy ion target area are obtained by using the conversion factors from neutron fluence rate to neutron doseequivalent rate.

  19. Heavy ion beam transmission in the AGOR cyclotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Ayanangsha

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the TRImP program initiated at the KVI in 2002, the AGOR cyclotron was used to accelerate low energy heavy ion beams up to a beam intensity (>=10^12 particles per second). Typical beam ions are: 206Pb accelerated to 8 MeV/amu and 20Ne accelerated to 25 MeV/amu. In the course of b

  20. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators

  1. Range and etching behaviour of swift heavy ions in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwant; Singh, Mohan; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh; Singh, Ravinder

    Aliphatic (CR-39) and aromatic (Lexan polycarbonate) polymers have been irradiated with a variety of heavy ions such as 58Ni, 93Nb, 132Xe, 139La, 197Au, 208Pb, 209Bi, and 238U having energy ranges of 5.60-8.00 MeV/n in order to study the range and etching kinetics of heavy ion tracksE The ion fluence (range ˜104-105 ions/cm2) was kept low to avoid the overlapping of etched tracks. The measured values of maximum etched track length were corrected due to bulk etching and over etching to obtain the actual range. The experimental results of range profiles were compared with those obtained by the most used procedures employed in obtaining range and stopping power. The range values of present ions have been computed using the semiempirical codes (SRIM-98, SRIM-2003.26, and LISE++:0-[Hub90]) in order to check their accuracy. The merits and demerits of the adopted formulations have been highlighted in the present work. It is observed that the range of heavy ions is greater in aromatic polymers (Lexan polycarbonate) as compared to the aliphatic polymers (CR-39) irradiated with similar ions having same incident energies. The SRIM-98 and SRIM2003.26 codes don't show any significant trend in deviations, however, LISE++:0-[Hub90] code provides overall good agreement with the experimental values. The ratio of track etch rate (along projectile trajectory) to the bulk etch rate has also been studied as a function of energy loss of heavy ions in these polymers.

  2. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions.

  3. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  4. Event-by-event generation of vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Wei-Tian

    2016-01-01

    In a noncentral heavy-ion collision, the two colliding nuclei have finite angular momentum in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane. After the collision, a fraction of the total angular momentum is retained in the produced hot quark-gluon matter and is manifested in the form of fluid shear. Such fluid shear creates finite flow vorticity. We study some features of such generated vorticity, including its strength, beam energy dependence, centrality dependence, and spatial distribution.

  5. Production of gluons in the classical field model for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lappi, T

    2003-01-01

    The initial stages of relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied numerically in the framework of a 2+1 dimensional classical Yang-Mills theory. We calculate the energy and number densities and momentum spectra of the produced gluons. The model is also applied to non central collisions. The numerical results are discussed in the light of RHIC measurements of energy and multiplicity and other theoretical calculations. Some problems of the present approach are pointed out.

  6. Size of the thermal source in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bozek, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of the size of the thermal source on the centrality in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied. The interaction region consists of a well defined thermalized core, and of an outer mantle where the production scales with the number of participants. The thermal source builds up in the region with the largest density of participants in the transverse plane. Particle production in the thermalized core is enhanced in comparison to the wounded nucleon model. The change of t...

  7. Baryon production and net-proton distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C. B.; X Wang

    2011-01-01

    The higher order moments of the net-baryon distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions are useful probes for the QCD critical point and fluctuations. We study the net-proton distributions and their moments in a simple model which considers the baryon stopping and pair production effects in the processes. It is shown that a single emission source model can explain the experimental data well. Centrality and energy dependence of the distributions and higher moments is discussed.

  8. An experimental review on heavy flavor $v_{2}$ in heavy-ion collision

    CERN Document Server

    Nasim, Md; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2016-01-01

    For over a decade now, the primary purpose of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been to study the properties of QCD matter under extreme conditions -high temperature and high density. The heavy-ion experiments at both RHIC and LHC have recorded a wealth of data in p+p, p+Pb, d+Au, Cu+Cu, Cu+Au, Au+Au, Pb+Pb and U+U collisions at energies ranging from $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV to 7 TeV. Heavy quarks are considered good probe to study the QCD matter created in relativistic collisions due to their very large mass and other unique properties. A precise measurement of various properties of heavy flavor hadrons provides an insight into the fundamental properties of the hot and dense medium created in these nuclei-nuclei collisions, such as transport coefficient and thermalization and hadronization mechanisms. The main focus of this paper is to present a review on the measurements of azimuthal anisotropy of heavy flavor hadrons and...

  9. Heavy ion contributions to organ dose equivalent for the 1977 galactic cosmic ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Norbury, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Estimates of organ dose equivalents for the skin, eye lens, blood forming organs, central nervous system, and heart of female astronauts from exposures to the 1977 solar minimum galactic cosmic radiation spectrum for various shielding geometries involving simple spheres and locations within the Space Transportation System (space shuttle) and the International Space Station (ISS) are made using the HZETRN 2010 space radiation transport code. The dose equivalent contributions are broken down by charge groups in order to better understand the sources of the exposures to these organs. For thin shields, contributions from ions heavier than alpha particles comprise at least half of the organ dose equivalent. For thick shields, such as the ISS locations, heavy ions contribute less than 30% and in some cases less than 10% of the organ dose equivalent. Secondary neutron production contributions in thick shields also tend to be as large, or larger, than the heavy ion contributions to the organ dose equivalents.

  10. Final Progress Report - Heavy Ion Accelerator Theory and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Irving

    2009-10-31

    The use of a beam of heavy ions to heat a target for the study of warm dense matter physics, high energy density physics, and ultimately to ignite an inertial fusion pellet, requires the achievement of beam intensities somewhat greater than have traditionally been obtained using conventional accelerator technology. The research program described here has substantially contributed to understanding the basic nonlinear intense-beam physics that is central to the attainment of the requisite intensities. Since it is very difficult to reverse intensity dilution, avoiding excessive dilution over the entire beam lifetime is necessary for achieving the required beam intensities on target. The central emphasis in this research has therefore been on understanding the nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for intensity dilution and which generally occur when intense space-charge-dominated beams are not in detailed equilibrium with the external forces used to confine them. This is an important area of study because such lack of detailed equilibrium can be an unavoidable consequence of the beam manipulations such as acceleration, bunching, and focusing necessary to attain sufficient intensity on target. The primary tool employed in this effort has been the use of simulation, particularly the WARP code, in concert with experiment, to identify the nonlinear dynamical characteristics that are important in practical high intensity accelerators. This research has gradually made a transition from the study of idealized systems and comparisons with theory, to study the fundamental scaling of intensity dilution in intense beams, and more recently to explicit identification of the mechanisms relevant to actual experiments. This work consists of two categories; work in direct support beam physics directly applicable to NDCX and a larger effort to further the general understanding of space-charge-dominated beam physics.

  11. An integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2009-04-22

    In this thesis the first fully integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to relativistic heavy ion reactions has been developed. After a short introduction that motivates the study of heavy ion reactions as the tool to get insights about the QCD phase diagram, the most important theoretical approaches to describe the system are reviewed. The hadron-string transport approach that this work is based on is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. Predictions for the charged particle multiplicities at LHC energies are made. The next step is the development of a new framework to calculate the baryon number density in a transport approach. Time evolutions of the net baryon number and the quark density have been calculated at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. Studies of phase diagram trajectories using hydrodynamics are performed. The hybrid approach that has been developed as the main part of this thesis is based on the UrQMD transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The full (3+1) dimensional ideal relativistic one fluid dynamics evolution is solved using the SHASTA algorithm. Three different equations of state have been used, namely a hadron gas equation of state without a QGP phase transition, a chiral EoS and a bag model EoS including a strong first order phase transition. For the freeze-out transition from hydrodynamics to the cascade calculation two different set-ups are employed. The parameter dependences of the model are investigated and the time evolution of different quantities is explored. The hybrid model calculation is able to reproduce the experimentally measured integrated as well as transverse momentum dependent v{sub 2} values for charged particles. The multiplicity and mean transverse mass excitation function is calculated for pions, protons and kaons in the energy range from E{sub lab}=2-160 A GeV. The HBT correlation of the negatively charged pion source

  12. Heavy ion bombardment of silicates and nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several silicates, including α-quartz, zirconium silicate, thorium silicate, LiAlSiO4, a silicate glass and several nitrides, α and β Si3N4, AlN, ZrN as well as Si2N2O and ThO2, have been irradiated by 1019 to 1021 Krypton (3 MeV) ions/m2. The damaged powders of original particle size less than 5 μm, have been examined by x-ray diffraction and electron microscope methods. The silicates and Si2N2O become non-crystalline by 10 x 1019 ions/m2. The particles change shape, extending and bloating under prolonged irradiations of the order of 100 x 1019 ions/m2. Silicate glass also undergoes this irradiation creep process. The nitrides and ThO2 behave quite differently and even at fluences of 200 x 1019 x ions/m-2 the powders remain crystalline, retaining relatively sharp edges to the particles without exhibiting irradiation creep. This difference in behavior can be related to the nature of the framework crystal structures, flexible for the silicates with variable bond angles, rigid for the nitrides with fixed bond angles. This may explain the behavior of radioactive minerals not found in a metamict condition. (author)

  13. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2010-01-01

     MeV for a lead ion (γ≡E/Mc2 is the Lorentz factor of the projectile of energy E and mass M). The maximum exceeds the bremsstrahlung from a hypothetical structureless, pointlike particle of the same charge and mass as the incoming nucleus, but rapid depletion follows on the high-energy side of the peak...

  14. Formation of energetic heavy ion tracks in polyimide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslandes, Alec, E-mail: acd@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC 2234, NSW (Australia); Murugaraj, Pandiyan; Mainwaring, David E. [Faculty of Life and Social Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn 3122, VIC (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail; Cohen, David D.; Siegele, Rainer [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Ion tracks formed in polyimide via irradiation with high energy heavy ions. •Complementary techniques track the changes in composition of polyimide during irradiation. •Ion beam analysis aids the identification of signals from residual gas analysis. •A multi-step process of polyimide modification is observed and modelled. •The multi-step process is related to ion track density and overlap. -- Abstract: Polyimide thin films have been irradiated with a high energy beam of heavy ions to a fluence of approximately 4 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Proton backscattering spectroscopy was used to measure the composition of the films, which showed that oxygen was the element that exhibited the most rapid loss from the film. The gases evolved from the film during polymer modification were monitored using a quadrupole mass spectrometer for residual gas analysis (RGA). The fluence dependence of RGA signals were indicative of multi-step processes of gas release, whereby the passage of an ion through a region of pristine film changes the local molecular structure to one that will more readily form volatile species when subsequent ions pass.

  15. Intranuclear cascade calculation of high-energy heavy-ion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have extended the intranuclear cascade model of Chen et al. to high-energy reactions between two heavy ions. The results of the calculations are compared with experimental results for the inclusive proton and pion cross sections, two-particle correlations, particle multiplicity distributions, and spallation cross section distributions from light (12C + 12C) to heavy (40Ar + 238U) projectile-target systems in the laboratory bombarding energy range E/A = 250--1000 MeV. The comparison shows that the model is fairly successful in reproducing the various aspects of high-energy reactions between heavy ions. The discrepancies between the calculations and the experimental results are probably due to shortcomings of the present calculation, particularly the neglect of interactions between cascade particles, and do not provide strong evidence for cooperative phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. We also show that the assumption that high particle multiplicities are indicative of central (small impact parameter) collisions is well founded for heavy projectile-target systems

  16. Subthreshold photons in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, G

    1998-01-01

    In the present talk, I discuss about the properties of the energetic photons produced in heavy-ion reactions. I show that they are sensitive to the maximum density reached in the first stage of the nuclear reaction. Then, the existence of a thermal contribution to the photon differential cross-secti

  17. $\\eta$ Production in Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, Alec J.; Reeves, Daniel H.

    1995-01-01

    We estimate the impact parameter dependence of the production cross section for $\\eta_c$ and $\\eta_b$ mesons in peripheral heavy-ion collisions collisions. Total and elastic $\\gamma\\gamma$ cross sections are calculated in an equivalent photon approximation.

  18. Theory of heavy ion collision physics in hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.

  19. Annual Report 2002 of Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of Warsaw University Heavy Ion Laboratory is the overview of the Laboratory and assembly of scientific activities of the team especially in the range of instrumental development, experiments and experimental set-ups and experiments using outside facilities of Warsaw Cyclotron

  20. Soft electromagnetic radiations from relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photons and dileptons have long been considered as excellent probes of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) expected to be formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. To evaluate soft photons and dileptons from quark matter as well as soft photon approximation (SPA) is applied. The estimations of soft electromagnetic radiations that exists in the literature have certain discrepancies and efforts were made to correct them

  1. A detection system for energetic light heavy ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, C.P.M. van; Jelmersma, R.; Brink, A. van den; Kamermans, R.

    1984-01-01

    A light heavy ion detection system which consists of a gas-filled ionization chamber (IC) connected to a scattering chamber via a time-of-flight (TOF) system has been constructed. The entrance window of the IC has an area of 14 × 40 cm2, the active depth is 115 cm. Filled with CF4 at a pressure of 3

  2. Physics Opportunities in Ultraperipheral Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, G.

    2001-01-01

    Due to coherence, there are strong electromagnetic fields of short duration in very peripheral heavy ion collisions. They give rise to photon-photon and photon-nucleus collisions with high flux. Photon-photon and photon-hadron physics at various invariant mass scales are discussed.

  3. Heavy-ion reaction mechanisms studied with the spin spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data and statistical-model calculations for xn and αxn products of the reaction 20Ne + 146Nd at 136 MeV are shown to be in generally good agreement, indicating that equilibrium processes are dominant. Preliminary results on the heavy-ion ejectiles from 19F + 159Tb are presented

  4. Collective flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Bhalerao

    2003-11-01

    A brief introduction is given to the field of collective flow, currently being investigated experimentally at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is followed by an outline of the work that I have been doing in this field, in collaboration with Nicolas Borghini and Jean-Yves Ollitrault.

  5. Heavy ion physics challenges at Bevalac/SIS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses where the future of higher energy heavy ion acceleration may lead in terms of understanding the nucleus. The discussion concerns obstacles to formulating an equation of state for nuclear matter at high temperature and density. Implications of this research for astrophysical problems is also presented

  6. Experimental Investigation of DNA Damage Induced by Heavy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    DNA is considered the critical target for radiobiological effects. It is highly important to study DNAdamage induced by ionizing radiation. Especially DNA double strand breaks have been identified as themost initial damage. In this experiment, DNA double strand breaks induced by heavy ions wereinvestigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  7. Intranuclear cascade description of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microscopic theory of heavy ion reactions based on the intranuclear cascade model is briefly discussed in an attempt to study the compression of nuclear matter. Double differential cross sections of 20Ne + 238U are shown as functions of impact parameter and bombarding energy for energies between 100 and 900 MeV/nucleon

  8. Reconstruction of the Proton Source in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Polleri, Alberto; Mattiello, Raffaele; Mishustin, Igor; Bondorf, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    We describe a direct method to reconstruct the transverse proton source formed in a relativistic heavy ion collision, making use of experimentally measured proton and deuteron spectra and assuming that deuterons are formed via two-nucleon coalescence. We show that an ambiguity with respect to the source temperature still persists and we indicate a possible solution to the problem.

  9. What is the temperature in heavy ion collisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Biro, T. S.; Purcsel, G.; Muller, B.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the Tsallis distribution as the source of the apparent slope of one-particle spectra in heavy-ion collisions and investigate the equation of state of this special quark matter in the framework of non-extensive thermodynamics.

  10. Coherent Pion Pairs from Heavy-Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Scott; Haglin, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The degree to which a nucleus can act as a source for coherent pion pairs is investigated for intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions. Creation through both isovector and isoscalar channels is considered. Two experimental signals are proposed for evidence of two-pion coherent production, two-pion enhancement and the focusing of outgoing pions along the beam axis.

  11. Direct hadron production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pokrovsky, Yu. E.

    1997-01-01

    Hadrons emitted by the pre-surface layer of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) before phase transition into hadronic gas are considered as possible source of direct information about QGP. It is shown that these hadrons dominate at soft p_t if QGP is created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions.

  12. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  13. Electromagnetic excitation of 136Xe in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the experimental program at the accelerator facilities SIS/ESR at the Society for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt a detector system for relativistic neutrons was developed, constructed, and applied in first experiments. An essential research aim is the study of collective states after electromagnetic excitation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In peripheral collisions high-energy virtual photons are exchanged. This leads to the excitation of giant resonances, especially of the giant dipole and quadrupole resonance. An essential decay channel of giant resonances in heavy nuclei is the emission of neutrons, followed by the emission of γ radiation below the particle threshold. These decay channels were studied with the detector system developed by the LAND collaboration. A first experiment on the electromagnetic excitation was performed with a 136Xe beam at an energy of 700 MeV/u and Pb respectively C targets. (orig./HSI)

  14. Radiation damage in UO2 by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimens of sintered UO2, a high melting point ceramic with the fluorite structure, were irradiated with heavy ions (129Xe, 238U) with different fluences (5 x 1010 to 7 x 1013 ions/cm2) and energies (173 MeV for Xe ions to 2.713 GeV for U ions). The influence of the electronic energy loss on the mechanisms of damage formation was studied in the range of 29 to 60 keV/nm. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was performed to identify and characterize the damage induced by these ions. Tracks produced by U ions of 2713 and 1300 MeV and by Xe ions of 173 MeV were observed. The radii of the observed tracks were calculated using a thermal-spike model, taking into account the thermodynamic parameters of the material and the energy and velocity of the incoming ions. The TRIM code was used to determine the displacement profile and the energy distribution along the ion paths. Good agreement with the experimental results was found. The dependence of damage formation on the ion dose was also studied. For instance, defect clusters and loops were produced in UO2 irradiated with 129Xe of 173 MeV (dE/dx∝29 keV/nm) between 7 x 1010 and 7 x 1013 ions/cm2. (orig.)

  15. Heavy ion measurement by chemical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In testing the applicability of the threshold system polyvinyl alcohol/methyl orange/chloral hydrate/sodium tetraborate to the quantitative detection of single particles, the chemical detector was irradiated with 4He, 12C, 18O, 22He ions of different LET. Detectors with 4 different borax concentrations (chloral hydrate concentration kept constant) have been irradiated. The dose causing the colour change increased linearly with the borax concentration. For equal borax concentrations this dose increases with increasing LET due to the decreasing G value of the HCl. The fluence ranges measurable with the various detector compositions are given. 4He and 18O ion ranges have been determined. The measured depth dose curves have been corrected because the dose is LET-dependent. The experimentally determined ranges are in good agreement with values calculated for the detector material

  16. Dynamics of electrons and heavy ions in Mercury's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation of Mercury magnetosphere processes employs simple models for the adiabatic acceleration and convection of equatorially mirroring charged particles, as well as the current sheet acceleration effect and the acceleration of such exospheric ions as that of Na(+) by both electric and magnetic magnetospheric fields near Mercury's surface. The large gyroradii of such heavy ions as those of Na allow surface reimpact as well as magnetopause-interception losses to occur; gyromotion-derived kinetic energy could in the case of the latter process account for the loss of as many as half of the planet's exospheric ions. 27 references

  17. Dynamics of neutralizing electrons during the focusing of intense heavy ions beams inside a HIF reactor chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A. F.; Maynard, G.; Vay, J.-L.; Lenglet, A.

    2006-06-01

    The efficiency of a Heavy Ion Fusion reactor heavily depends on the maximum value for the density of energy (DoE) that can be deposited by the ion beams. In order to reduce the final radius, and thus to increase the DoE inside the target, the beam spatial charge has to be neutralized. Therefore the dynamics of the neutralizing electrons (DNE) play a central role in optimizing the DoE deposited in solid targets by high current of high energy heavy ion beams. We present results on some aspects of the DNE, which was performed using the Monte-Carlo 2D1/2 PIC code BPIC.

  18. Structure of very heavy few-electron ions - new results from the heavy ion storage ring, ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy ion synchrotron/storage ring facility at GSI, SIS/ESR, provides intense beams of cooled, highly-charged ions up to naked uranium (U92+). By electron capture during ion-atom collisions in the gas target of the ESR or by recombination at ion-electron encounters in the ''electron cooler'' excited states are populated. The detailed structure of very heavy one-, two- and three-electron ions is studied. The different mechanisms leading to the excited states are described, as well as the new experimental tools now available for a detailed spectroscopy of these interesting systems. Special emphasis is given to X-ray transitions to the groundstates in H- and He-like systems. For the heaviest species the groundstate Lambshift can now be probed on an accuracy level of better than 10% using solid-state X-ray detectors. Applying dispersive X-ray analyzing techniques, this accuracy will certainly be improved in future. However, utilizing the dielectronic resonances for a spectroscopy, the structure in Li-like heavy ions can already be probed now on the sub eV level. (orig.)

  19. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report summarizes research activities carried out in 1988 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation of heavy ion beams and the investigation of hot dense plasmas produced by these beams. Its initial motivation and its long-term goal is the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion by intense heavy ion beams. Two outstanding events deserve to be mentioned explicity, the Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Conference held in Darmstadt and organized by GSI end of June and the first heavy ion beam injected into the new SIS facility in November. The former event attracted more than hundred scientists for three days to the 4th Conference in this field. This symposium showed the impressive progress since the last conference in Washington two years ago. In particular the first beams in MBE-4 at LBL and results of beam plasma interaction experiments at GSI open new directions for future investigations. The ideas for non-Lionvillean injection into storage rings presented by Carlo Rubbia will bring the discussion of driver scenarios into a new stage. The latter event is a milestone for both machine and target experiments. It characterizes the beginning of the commissioning phase for the new SIS/ESR facility which will be ready for experiments at the end of this year. The commissioning of SIS is on schedule and first experiments can start at the beginning of 1990. A status report of the accelerator project is included. Theoretical activities were continued as in previous years, many of them providing guide lines for future experiments, in particular for the radiation transport aspects and for beam-plasma interaction. (orig.)

  20. Response of Alanine Dosemeter to Heavy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiWenjian; SuXu; YangYingjie; YuanJianlei; DangBingrong; WangXiao; MaQiufeng; ZhouLibin; HaoJifang; MaoShuhong

    2003-01-01

    The amino acid L-α-alanine has been investigated for use as a radiation detector in low and high LET radiation fields[1]. The radiatioa detector is cheap and easy to handle. The radiation inducing free radicals are stable at normal laboratory conditions for doses below 104 Gy over a long period of time, which makes the detector useful for intercomparison and documentation purposes. The dosimetric features of alanine-based electron spin resonance (ESR) detectors in high energy electron beams used in radiotherapy were considered[2]. The 5 mm long alanine detectors were found to be the most suitable for carrying out in vivo dosimetry on patients undergoing electron beam radiotherapy. However, data concerning dosimetry of the alanine dosemeter to heavy charged particles are lacking, especially in China.

  1. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe+11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar+6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar+8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1+ in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N+6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  2. Heavy-ion performance of the LHC and future colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)696614; Stahl, Achim; Jowett, John M

    2015-10-09

    In 2008 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments started operation at the European Centre of Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva with the main aim of finding or excluding the Higgs boson. Only four years later, on the 4th of July 2012, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle was proven and first published by the two main experiments ATLAS and CMS. Even though proton–proton collisions are the main operation mode of the LHC, it also acts as an heavy-ion collider. Here, the term “heavy-ion collisions” refers to the collision between fully stripped nuclei. While the major hardware system of the LHC is compatible with heavy-ion operation, the beam dynamics and performance limits of ion beams are quite different from those of protons. Because of the higher mass and charge of the ions, beam dynamic effects like intra-beam scattering and radiation damping are stronger. Also the electromagnetic cross-sections in the collisions are larger, leading to significantly faster intensity decay and thus shorter l...

  3. Systematics of heavy-ion charge-exchange straggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-10-01

    The dependence of heavy-ion charge-exchange straggling on the beam energy has been studied theoretically for several ion-target combinations. Our previous work addressed ions up to krypton, while the present study focuses on heavier ions, especially uranium. Particular attention has been paid to a multiple-peak structure which has been predicted theoretically in our previous work. For high-Z1 and high-Z2 systems, exemplified by U in Au, we identify three maxima in the energy dependence of charge-exchange straggling, while the overall magnitude is comparable with that of collisional straggling. Conversely, for U in C, charge-exchange straggling dominates, but only two peaks lie in the energy range where we presently are able to produce credible predictions. For U-Al we find good agreement with experiment in the energy range around the high-energy maximum. The position of the high-energy peak - which is related to processes in the projectile K shell - is found to scale as Z12 , in contrast to the semi-empirical Z13/2 dependence proposed by Yang et al. Measurements for heavy ions in heavy targets are suggested in order to reconcile a major discrepancy between the present calculations and the frequently-used formula by Yang et al.

  4. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  5. Open charm physics with Heavy Ions: theoretical overview

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The peculiar role of heavy-flavour observables in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is discussed. Produced in the early stage, $c$ and $b$ quarks cross the hot medium arising from the collision, interacting strongly with the latter, until they hadronize. Depending on the strength of the interaction heavy quarks may or not approach kinetic equilibrium with the plasma, tending in the first case to follow the collective flow of the expanding fireball. The presence of a hot deconfined medium may also affect heavy-quark hadronization, being possible for them to recombine with the surrounding light thermal partons, so that the final heavy-flavour hadrons inherit part of the flow of the medium. Here we show how it is possible to develop a complete transport setup allowing one to describe heavy-flavour production in high-energy nuclear collisions, displaying some major results one can obtain. Information coming from recent lattice-QCD simulations concerning both the heavy-flavour transport coefficients in the hot QCD...

  6. Propagation of heavy baryons in heavy-ion collisions. II: observables and predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Santosh K; Tolos, Laura; Scardina, Francesco; Greco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy baryons ($\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$) in the hadronic phase created in the latter stage of the heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies have been evaluated recently. In this work we compute some experimental observables, such as the nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ and the elliptic flow $v_2$ of heavy baryons at RHIC and LHC energies, highlighting the role of the hadronic phase contribution to these observables, which are going to be measured at Run 3 of LHC. For the time evolution of the heavy quarks in the QGP and heavy baryons in the hadronic phase we use the Langevin dynamics. For the hadronization of the heavy quarks to heavy baryons we employ Peterson fragmentation functions. We observe a strong suppression of both the $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$. We find that the hadronic medium has a significant impact on the heavy-baryon elliptic flow whereas the impact of hadronic medium rescattering is almost unnoticeable on the nuclear suppression factor. The la...

  7. Development of heavy-ion radiotherapy technology with HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Since 1994, HIMAC has carried out clinical studies and treatments for more than 9000 cancer patients with carbon-ion beams. During the first decade of the HIMAC study, a single beam-wobbling method, adopted as the HIMAC beam-delivery technique, was improved for treatments of moving tumors and for obtaining more conformal dose distribution. During the second decade, a pencil-beam 3D scanning method has been developed toward an “adaptive cancer treatment” for treatments of both static and moving tumors. A new treatment research facility was constructed with HIMAC in order to verify the developed 3D scanning technology through a clinical study that has been successfully conducted since 2011. As the next stage, a compact heavy-ion rotating gantry with a superconducting technology has been developed for the more accurate and shorter-course treatments. The twenty-year development of the heavy-ion radiotherapy technologies including accelerator technologies with HIMAC is reviewed.

  8. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  9. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  10. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Peter A., E-mail: paseidl@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States); Barnard, John J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US (United States); Faltens, Andris [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States); Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US (United States); Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  11. New heavy-ion accelerator facility at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funds were obtained to establish a new national heavy-ion facility to be located at Oak Ridge. The principal component of this facility is a 25-MW tandem designed specifically for good heavy-ion acceleration, which will provide high quality beams of medium weight ions for nuclear research by itself. The tandem beams will also be injected into ORIC for additional energy gain, so that usable beams for nuclear physics research can be extended to about A = 160. A notable feature of the tandem is that it will be of the ''folded'' type, in which both the negative and positive accelerating tubes are contained in the same column. The accelerator system, the experimental lay-out, and the time schedule for the project are discussed

  12. Chemical Property in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, M.

    K-/K+ and bar{p}/p ratios measured in 158 A\\cdotGeV Pb + Pb collisions are shown as a function of centrality and transverse momentum (Pt). Little significant centrality dependence in neither K-/K+ nor bar{p}/p ratios are observed and they are almost constant as a function of Pt. The chemical freeze-out temperature Tch and the chemical potentials for both light and strange quarks (μq, μs) are extracted by comparing the present data with simple model predictions. The μq, μs and Tch from the NA44 are compared with those obtained from similar analysis of SPS S + A and AGS Si + A data. The chemical freeze-out temperature Tch in CERN energy is higher than thermal freeze-out temperature Tfo which is extracted from transverse momentum distribution of charged hadrons. In AGS energy Tch is close to Tfo.

  13. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d' Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise

  14. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at ∼ 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' (1) was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that each

  15. Chemical effects of heavy ion beams on organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Hitoshi E-mail: koizumih@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Ichikawa, Tsuneki; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Namba, Hideki

    2003-05-01

    Effects of ion beam irradiation on {alpha}-alanine, adipic acid and polydimethylsiloxane were examined. Stable radicals were generated in the radiolysis of solids of {alpha}-alanine and adipic acid by {gamma}-ray, 220 MeV C ions, 350 MeV Ne ions and 175 MeV Ar ions. The G-value decreases in this order. The G-value for adipic acid decreases more than that for {alpha}-alanine. The decreases in the G-value are ascribed to high local dose in the ion tracks. Effective G-value of the radicals for {gamma}-irradiations decreases at high doses. The local dose in the ion tracks exceeds those doses, and the G-values for the ion irradiation are hence smaller than the G-value for {gamma}-irradiations. The difference in the dependence of the G-values for {alpha}-alanine and adipic acid on the ion beams is due to difference in the dose-yield relationship for radical formation. The high local dose in the ion tracks exceeds the gelation dose of some of polymers. Formation of gel strings of polydimethylsiloxanes generated in heavy ion tracks was observed by atomic force microscopy.

  16. Dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamical effects in the initial phase of fusion reactions are studied following the evolution of two colliding 100Mo ions. The role of elastic forces associated with the Fermi-surface deformation is shown by comparing the results obtained with and without taking the memory effects into account. The Bass barrier separating fused and scattered configurations and the lower bound for the extra push energy are estimated. Examples of cases are shown in which the excitation energy and deformation dependence of the friction parameter are fictitious and simulate the effects of collective motion related with the Fermi-surface deformations

  17. Fluorocarbon stripping of low beta heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state distributions were measured for Kr, Xe, Ho and Pb ions at energies from 25 to 160 keV/amu passing through a high molecular weight fluorocarbon vapor, as well as air and carbon foil strippers. Measured charge state distributions are given which show that the fluorocarbon distributions are intermediate between those of air and foil strippers, becoming closer to foil values as velocity is decreased. At all energies substantial asymmetry in the fluorocarbon distributions towards higher charge states were observed. These favorable distributions, coupled with very high beam handling capability, low maintenance and indefinite lifetime clearly indicate the value of fluorocarbon stripping for many accelerator applications. 5 refs

  18. Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Geithner, Oksana

    2006-01-01

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio ( ) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variabl...

  19. High Baryon Densities in Heavy Ion Collisions at Energies Attainable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In very high energy collisions nuclei are practically tranparent to each other but produce very hot, nearly baryon-free, matter in the so-called central rapidity region. The energy in the central rapidity region comes from the kinetic energy of the colliding nuclei. We calculate the energy and rapidity loss of the nuclei using the color glass condensate model. This model also predicts the excitation energy of the nuclear fragments. Using a space-time picture of the collision we calculate the baryon and energy densities of the receding baryonic fireballs. For central collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energy attainable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, for example, we find baryon densities more than ten times that of atomic nuclei over a large volume.

  20. Chiral electric field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yang; Yang, Chun-Bin; Cai, Xu; Feng, Sheng-Qin

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that electric fields may lead to chiral separation in quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This is called the chiral electric separation effect. The strong electromagnetic field and the QCD vacuum can both be completely produced in off-central nuclear-nuclear collision. We use the Woods-Saxon nucleon distribution to calculate the electric field distributions of off-central collisions. The chiral electric field spatial distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy regions are systematically studied in this paper. The dependence of the electric field produced by the thermal quark in the central position with different impact parameters on the proper time with different collision energies in the RHIC and LHC energy regions are studied in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375069, 11435054, 11075061, 11221504) and Key Laboratory Foundation of Quark and Lepton Physics (Hua-Zhong Normal University)(QLPL2014P01)

  1. Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geithner, O.

    2006-07-26

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio (s{sub w,air}) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, the influence of fragments and I-values on s{sub w,air} for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of s{sub w,air} deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)

  2. Determination of Some Heavy-metal-ions Using a Sulfur Ion Modified BZ Oscillating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua CHEN; Wu YANG; Hong Xia DAI; Xiao Xia WEI; Jie QU; Jin Zhang GAO

    2006-01-01

    A highly sensitive method is developed for the determination of trace amounts of some heavy metal ions in aqueous solution based on the classical Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) oscillating chemical system. Introducing of S2- ion makes the new oscillating system Ce(SO4)2 - KBrO3-CH2(COOH)2 - Na2S - H2SO4 have to a high sensitivity for some heavy metal ions such as Ag+,pb2+, Hg2+, Cd2+, Cu2+and Bi3+ with detection limits down to 10-12 mol. L-1.

  3. Heavy ions: Results from the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan K Nayak

    2012-10-01

    On November 8, 2010 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN collided the first stable beams of heavy ions (Pb on Pb) at the centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV/nucleon. The LHC worked exceedingly well during its one month of operation with heavy ions, delivering about 10 −1 of data, with peak luminosity reaching to $L_{O} = 2 × 10^{25}$ cm-2 s-1 towards the end of the run. Three experiments, ALICE, ATLAS and CMS, recorded their first heavy-ion data, which were analysed in a record time. The results of the multiplicity, flow, fluctuations and Bose–Einstein correlations indicate that the fireball formed in nuclear collisions at the LHC is hotter, lives longer, and expands to a larger size at freeze-out as compared to lower energies. We give an overview of these as well as new results on quarkonia and heavy flavour suppression, and jet energy loss.

  4. Collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves as a possible source of energetic heavy ions in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providakes, Jason; Seyler, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for the source of energetic heavy ions (NO/+/, O2/+/, and O/+/) found in the magnetosphere. Simulations using a multispecies particle simulation code for resistive current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron waves show transverse and parallel bulk heating of bottomside ionospheric heavy ion populations. The dominant mechanism for the transverse bulk heating is resonant ion heating by wave-particle ion trapping. Using a linear kinetic dispersion relation for a magnetized, collisional, homogenous, and multiion plasma, it is found that collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves near the NO(+), O2(+), and O(+) gyrofrequencies are unstable to field-aligned currents of 50 microA/sq m for a typical bottomside ionosphere.

  5. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  6. The production of Higgs bosons in high-energetic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this diploma thesis was to produce the Higgs boson in high-energetic, peripheral heavy-ion collisions by purely electromagnetic processes. In order to take only peripheral collisions into consideration and to avoid the strong hadronic background of central collisions the equivalent-photon method for the case of the Higgs boson was extended concerning an impact-parameter study. By this it was possible to exclude the contribution of central collisions by cut in the impact parameter at b=2R, in order to determine thus the production rate for purely peripheral collisions. (orig./HSI)

  7. Transport model analysis of particle correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at femtometer scales

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qingfeng; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst

    2006-01-01

    The pion source as seen through HBT correlations at RHIC energies is investigated within the UrQMD approach. We find that the calculated transverse momentum, centrality, and system size dependence of the Pratt-HBT radii $R_L$ and $R_S$ are reasonably well in line with experimental data. The predicted $R_O$ values in central heavy ion collisions are larger as compared to experimental data. The corresponding quantity $\\sqrt{R_O^{2}-R_S^{2}}$ of the pion emission source is somewhat larger than e...

  8. An Experimental Review on Elliptic Flow of Strange and Multistrange Hadrons in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusu Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strange hadrons, especially multistrange hadrons, are good probes for the early partonic stage of heavy ion collisions due to their small hadronic cross sections. In this paper, I give a brief review on the elliptic flow measurements of strange and multistrange hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC.

  9. Reaction mechanisms for the synthesis of the heaviest elements from heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review paper concerns fusion reactions with light heavy-ions, cold fusion, transfer reactions using light heavy-ions or heavy ions. In two appendices, methods for the separation and detection of nuclides in the domain of heaviest elements are described and a comment on the discovery of the element 104 is given. 51 figs., 10 tabs., 335 refs

  10. Heavy-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in an adiabatic multi-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, M.A.; Rahman, M.M.; Mamun, A.A., E-mail: armanplasma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossen, M.R. [Department of Natural Sciences, Daffodil International University, Dhanmondi, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-08-15

    The standard reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-deVries (K-dV) and Burgers (BG) equations to investigate the basic properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in a plasma system which is supposed to be composed of nonthermal electrons, Boltzmann distributed light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. The HIA solitary and shock structures are found to exist with either positive or negative potential. It is found that the effects of adiabaticity of inertial heavy ions, nonthermality of electrons, and number densities of plasma components significantly modify the basic properties of the HIA solitary and shock waves. The implications of our results may be helpful in understanding the electrostatic perturbations in various laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments. (author)

  11. Energy loss by heavy ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of various energy loss formulations has been made by comparing the calculated stopping power values with the corresponding experimental values for projectiles 6≤Z ≤92 in targets 4≤Z≤79 in the energy region - 0.5-400 MeV/n. The merits and demerits of these formulations are highlighted. Stopping power calculations using Huberet et al formulation have been extended successfully beyond its recommended range of validity i.e. 2.5 - 500 MeV/n down to energies 0.5 MeV/n for projectiles Z ≤ 29 in polymeric SSNTD materials. Finally, the outlines of our novel approach for the evaluation of two basic input parameters for stopping power calculations i.e. effective charge as a function of ion speed and mean ionization potential for the target, without resorting to any empirical parametrization has been described. (author)

  12. Proof-of-Concept Experiments for Negative Ion Driver Beams for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative halogen ion beams have recently been proposed as heavy ion fusion drivers. They would avoid the problem of electron accumulation in positive ion beams, and could be efficiently photo-detached to neutrals if desired. Initial experiments using chlorine produced a current density of 45 mA/cm2 of 99.5% atomic negative Cl with an e/Cl- ratio as low as 7:1 and good emittance

  13. Dosimetry for radiobiological experiments using energetic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of the Bevalac facility of energetic heavy ions with range greater than the size of small mammals makes possible the determination of the biological effects of relatively well defined high LET, whole body irradiation. With the increasing application of high-energy heavy ions in radiobiology there is a corresponding need to develop reliable techniques of both relative and absolute absorbed dose measurement. This paper describes dosimetry studies by the Health Physics Department of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with activation detectors, ionization chambers, nuclear emulsion, thermoluminescent dosimeters and X-ray film. The application of these techniques to an experiment designed to study the leukemogenic effect of the whole-body irradiation of mice by 250 MeV/amu carbon ions is briefly described. Values of absorbed dose in tissue, obtained during this experiment, with a nitrogen filled ionization chamber and 7LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters are compared and shown to be in good agreement. As a result of this work a value for the average energy to produce an ion pair (W) in nitrogen by 250 MeV/amu 6+C ions of 37 +- eV was determined. Values of the efficiency of 7LiF relative to 60Co γ-rays for ions with dE/dx in the range 110-260 MeV g-1 cm2 are reported

  14. Energy loss of heavy ions at high velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slowing down of heavy ions by electronic stopping at high velocity is discussed. The ions are nearly fully stripped and have a well defined charge with relatively small fluctuations. Owing to the large charge of the ions, the classical Bohr formula applies instead of the Bethe formula, which is based on a quantum perturbation calculation. It is essential to include the Barkas effect in the description since it becomes quite large for heavy ions, especially in high-Z materials. In Lindhard's treatment the Barkas correction is viewed as an effect of dynamic screening of the ion potential in the initial phase of a collision with an electron, which reduces the relative velocity and therefore enhances the cross section. With inclusion of this enhancement factor for all impact parameters, as evaluated by Jackson and McCarthy for distant collisions, the description reproduces within a few percent measurements for ∼ 15 MeV/u Br on Si, Ni, and Au and for 10 MeV/u Kr on Al, Ni, and Au. The procedure is shown also to apply at lower velocities near the stopping maximum, albeit with less accuracy. The straggling in energy loss has been analyzed for a measurement on Si and it is well described by a combination of about equal contributions from fluctuations in the number of violent collisions with single electrons (Bohr straggling) and from fluctuations in ion charge state. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pakarinen, Janne [Inst. for Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol, (Belgium); Gan, Jian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Severin, Daniel [GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, Christina [GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Allen, Todd R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Energy Physics Dept.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  16. Mass and charge distribution in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical model based on the independent particle picture is used to calculate mass and charge distributions in deep inelastic heavy-ion collisions. Different assumptions on volume and charge equilibrations are compared with measured variances of charge distributions. One combination of assumptions is clearly favoured by experiment, and gives a reasonable description of the variance versus energy loss curves up to energy losses of about 200 MeV in the heavy systems Kr+Ho and Xe+Bi, and up to about 60 MeV for the light system Ar+Ca

  17. Hydrodynamic analysis of heavy ion collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2008-01-01

    Current status of dynamical modeling of relativistic heavy ion collisions and hydrodynamic description of the quark gluon plasma is reported. We find the hadronic rescattering effect plays an important role in interpretation of mass splitting pattern in the differential elliptic flow data observed at RHIC. To demonstrate this, we predict the elliptic flow parameter for phi mesons to directly observe the flow just after hadronisation. We also discuss recent applications of outputs from hydrodynamic calculations to J/psi suppression, thermal photon radiation and heavy quark diffusion.

  18. Kinetic energy distributions of fragment ions in collisions of energetic heavy ions with C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass distributions of fragment ions of C60 produced in collisions with energetic heavy ions have been measured by means of time-of-flight (TOF) method. From the peak profile analysis, initial kinetic energy distributions (KED) of fragment ions were obtained. KED were investigated for three different projectiles. For all fragment ions except for C1+, KED peaked at a few eV kinetic energies. KED of C1+ was found to have a double-peak structure, indicating that the C1+ ions were produced through two different mechanisms. Also, it was found that the mean kinetic energies had strong correlation with electronic stopping cross-section. (author)

  19. Ions ejected from the surface: sputtering induced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Alzaher, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Ion irradiation of solids leads to a deposition of its energy along the ion path. The energy deposited creates damage in the target as well as leads to the sputtering of neutral and charged particles. In this work we studied the damage induced by slow and swift ions in matter. We studied also the sputtering of secondary ions induced by swift heavy ion irradiation. We have measured the damage cross section of the surface of the Titanium (Insulator surface) and of the graphite (Conductor surfac...

  20. KX radiation of quasi-molecules in heavy ion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of investigation is the KX radiation of quasimolecules produced at collision of heavy ions with atoms. In collision, electron may change their states adiabatically and form, at sufficiently small distances R between nuclei, quasimolecular states, which transform, in the limiting case of R → 0, to the states of a quasiatom with an atomic number of Z = Z1 + Z2, where Z1 and Z2 are the atomic numbers of the heavy ion and atom. The discussion is restricted to collision experiments of Z = Z1 + Z2 > 50. The obtained and published data on the systems Ni+Ni, Nb+Nb, Zr+Nb, La+La, La+Xe, Pb+Pb, and Bi+Bi are analyzed. At a sufficiently high ion energy, one observes an asymmetry of a quasimolecular spectrum, the asymmetry having maximum in the range of the characteristic KX energy of a quasiatom. Data on the absolute yield Y(Ksub(α)) of individual high-energy components of X-rays excited on collision of heavy ions are presented. A considerable drop in yield Y(Ksub(α)) with increasing Z is noted

  1. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Qi Nian Sheng; Prasad, R R; Krishnan, M S; Anders, A; Kwan, J; Brown, I

    2001-01-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, approx 0.5 A current beams, approx 20 mu s pulse widths and approx 10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modifie...

  2. Energy loss of heavy ions in strongly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the energy loss of heavy ions in strongly coupled plasmas, by performing molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. These studies are of interest in heavy-ion-driven inertial confinement fusion, as well as for electron cooling. We consider the non-linear behavior for strong target-ion coupling parameters, i.e. ZΓ3/2>or∼1, in non-ideal plasmas with Γ>or∼0.1 (Z is the charge number of the ion and Γ is the plasma parameter of the target). The new features that we found from our simulation results can be summarized as follows. (1) For strong ion-target coupling, the energy loss of the ions at low velocities scales with Z as Z1.5, in agreement with recent experimental and other theoretical results. This clearly deviates from the Z2 ln(const./Z) scaling of the conventional weak coupling theories. (2) The change in the Z scaling has its origin in a non-linear screening that occurs for strong coupling and is associated with an increase in the (static) screening length above the Debye-Hueckel result of the linear theory. (3) The non-linear screening is accompanied by electrons trapped by the ion into high Rydberg states, through multi-particle collisions. Compared with the case of linear coupling, this trapping causes an enhanced electron density around the ion. (4) The transient time dependence of the stopping power after switching on the ion-target interaction has characteristic time-scales that are a fraction of the plasma period. (orig.)

  3. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  4. Study of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions at LHC using ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Štefko, Pavol

    2015-01-01

    Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most extreme states of matter which exists only in extraordinary conditions of heavy-ion collisions that can be achieved at particle accelerators. Interactions between the partons and the hot, dense QGP are expected to cause the loss of the jet energy, which is phenomenon called jet quenching. In this talk we provide an introduction to the problematics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and we show how the jet quenching can be used to analyze the properties of QGP. We also present some “work in progress” results of the jet analysis done on the data taken by the ATLAS detector during the 2011 heavy-ion run at the LHC. Jets are studied as a function of collision centrality and dijet energy imbalance. Dijets are observed to be increasingly asymmetric with increasing centrality. The study of charged particles indicates an increase of yields of low- p T tracks in events with strongly quenched jets

  5. Beam energy dependence of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sumit; Nayak, Tapan K.; Datta, Kaustuv

    2016-06-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN probe matter at extreme conditions of temperature and energy density. Most of the global properties of the collisions can be extracted from the measurements of charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity (η ) distributions. We have shown that the available experimental data on beam energy and centrality dependence of η distributions in heavy-ion (Au +Au or Pb +Pb ) collisions from √{sNN}=7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV are reasonably well described by the AMPT model, which is used for further exploration. The nature of the η distributions has been described by a double Gaussian function using a set of fit parameters, which exhibit a regular pattern as a function of beam energy. By extrapolating the parameters to a higher energy of √{sNN}=5.02 TeV, we have obtained the charged-particle multiplicity densities, η distributions, and energy densities for various centralities. Incidentally, these results match well with some of the recently published data by the ALICE Collaboration.

  6. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement

  7. Studies of Heavy-Ion Reactions and Transuranic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Wolf

    2016-07-28

    Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei performed by the University of Rochester Nuclear Science Research Group have been successful in furthering experimental systematics and theoretical understanding of the behavior of nuclear systems excited to their limits of stability. The theoretical results explain specifically the “boiling” and “vaporization” of atomic nuclei but are more generally applicable to isolated, quantal many-particle systems which, under thermal or mechanical stresses, all disintegrate by evaporation, via surface cluster emission, or via fission-like processes Accompanying experimental investigations by the group have demonstrated several new types of dynamical instability of nuclei: In central, “head-on” collisions, target nuclei exhibit limited ability to stop energetic projectile nuclei and to dissipate the imparted linear momentum. Substantial matter overlap (“neck”) between projectile and target nuclei, which is observed at elevated collision energies, can be stretched considerably and break at several places simultaneously. These results provide new testing grounds for microscopic theory of the cohesion of nuclear matter. This property has remained elusive, even though the elementary nucleon-nucleon forces are well known since some time Technical R&D has resulted in a detailed characterization of a novel plastic material, which can now be used in the design of sensitive diagnostic systems for various types of radio-activity. Innovative application o powerful laser systems has produced intense, controllable sources of exotic particle radioactivity for nuclear investigations Several students have received their Ph.D. degree in experimental nuclear science for their work on basic nuclear research or R&D projects.

  8. Studies of Heavy-Ion Reactions and Transuranic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, W. Udo [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Physics

    2016-07-28

    Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei performed by the University of Rochester Nuclear Science Research Group have been successful in furthering experimental systematics and theoretical understanding of the behavior of nuclear systems excited to their limits of stability. The theoretical results explain specifically the “boiling” and “vaporization” of atomic nuclei but are more generally applicable to isolated, quantal many-particle systems which, under thermal or mechanical stresses, all disintegrate by evaporation, via surface cluster emission, or via fission-like processes. Accompanying experimental investigations by the group have demonstrated several new types of dynamical instability of nuclei: In central, “head-on” collisions, target nuclei exhibit limited ability to stop energetic projectile nuclei and to dissipate the imparted linear momentum. Substantial matter overlap (“neck”) between projectile and target nuclei, which is observed at elevated collision energies, can be stretched considerably and break at several places simultaneously. These results provide new testing grounds for microscopic theory of the cohesion of nuclear matter. This property has remained elusive, even though the elementary nucleon-nucleon forces are well known since some time. Technical R&D has resulted in a detailed characterization of a novel plastic material, which can now be used in the design of sensitive diagnostic systems for various types of radio-activity. Innovative application of powerful laser systems has produced intense, controllable sources of exotic particle radioactivity for nuclear investigations. Several students have received their Ph.D. degree in experimental nuclear science for their work on basic nuclear research or R&D projects.

  9. Intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity for heavy-ion storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Sanjari, M. S.; Hülsmann, P.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Nolden, F.; Piotrowski, J.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th.; Walker, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    A heavy-ion storage ring can be adapted for use as an isochronous mass spectrometer if the ion velocity matches the transition energy of the ring. Due to the variety of stored ion species, the isochronous condition cannot be fulfilled for all the ions. In order to eliminate the measurement uncertainty stemming from the velocity spread, an intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity is proposed. In this paper we first briefly discuss the correction method for the anisochronism effect in the measurement with the cavity. Then we introduce a novel design, which is operated in the monopole mode and offset from the central beam orbit to one side. The geometrical parameters were optimized by analytic and numerical means in accordance with the beam dynamics of the future collector ring at FAIR. Afterwards, the electromagnetic properties of scaled prototypes were measured on a test bench. The results were in good agreement with the predictions.

  10. Formation of energetic heavy ion tracks in polyimide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, Alec; Murugaraj, Pandiyan; Mainwaring, David E.; Ionescu, Mihail; Cohen, David D.; Siegele, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Polyimide thin films have been irradiated with a high energy beam of heavy ions to a fluence of approximately 4 × 1013 ions/cm2. Proton backscattering spectroscopy was used to measure the composition of the films, which showed that oxygen was the element that exhibited the most rapid loss from the film. The gases evolved from the film during polymer modification were monitored using a quadrupole mass spectrometer for residual gas analysis (RGA). The fluence dependence of RGA signals were indicative of multi-step processes of gas release, whereby the passage of an ion through a region of pristine film changes the local molecular structure to one that will more readily form volatile species when subsequent ions pass.

  11. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb+1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  12. Formation of charge states of heavy ions in SEP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavykh, J. Y.; Kocharov, L.

    2007-12-01

    One can divide the formation of charge states of heavy ions in SEP events into two stages - formation of charge states during ion acceleration and their transformation due to coronal and interplanetary propagation. At the first stage the charge states of ions are formed as a result of competition of ionization and recombination processes, with possible charge-dependent acceleration. If ions were moving with a constant speed through a plasma for infinitely long time, the ionic charge of energetic ions would asymptotically reach an upper limit, the equilibrium mean charge, so that the mean charge of accelerated ions is between its thermal and equilibrium value. Coronal and interplanetary propagation can modify the charge spectra; coronal propagation by additional stripping after acceleration in a sufficiently dense environment, interplanetary propagation due to adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind by shifting the charge spectra towards lower energies. The absolute value of this shift depends on the mean free path of energetic ions in interplanetary space that can be derived from the observed intensity-time profiles and anisotropies. In this paper we review recent achievements in the modeling of the charge-consistent acceleration and transport of solar ions as applied to the ionic charge states of iron.

  13. Production of heavy ion beams for atomic physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory for research in atomic physics of ions has been set up around a 2 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator designed and built indegenously. Mass analysed negatively charged heavy ion beams from a directly extracted duoplasmatron ion source are injected through various ion-optical elements into the accelerating tube. A gas stripper at the high voltage dome changes the negative ions into positive ions which are subsequently accelerated. The high energy end of the accelerator consists of quadrupole focussing magnets and an analysing magnet. A pair of insulated tantalum slits provide corona feedback and stabilize the energy of the accelerator. A beam resolution of 5 keV at 1 MeV proton energy has been measured. A number of experiments are presently being planned to utilize the accelerator in the field of basic research in atomic physics. These include beam-foil spectroscopic measurements involving detection of decay photon/electrons, ion-induced X-ray emission, analytical applications and radiation damage studies. Electron spectrometers which are in the stage of testing include cylindrical mirror analyser and parallel plate analyser. On the accelerator front, efforts are underway to develop a new sputter ion source and computer automation for improving stability and reliability. The salient features of the accelerator and the instrumentation developed for carrying out experiments in atomic physics are reported. (author). 14 refs., 17 figs

  14. Soft vs Hard: Particle Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Pareek, Pooja; Behera, Nirbhay K; Sahoo, Raghunath; Nandi, Basanta K

    2015-01-01

    The centrality dependence of pseudorapidity density of charged particles and transverse energy is studied for a wide range of collision energies for heavy-ion collisions at midrapidity. A two-component model approach has been adopted to quantify the soft and hard components of particle production, coming from nucleon participants and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, respectively. Within experimental uncertainties, the hard component contributing to the particle production has been found to be nearly independent of collisions energy from RHIC to LHC. The suppression of high-$p_{\\rm T}$ hadrons and jets in the medium created in heavy-ion collisions seem to play a role in the nearly independent collision energy behavior of hard components in particle production. We also use MC event generators, like HIJING and AMPT to study the possible effects of the suppression of high $p_{T}$ partons inside the medium and the effect of the threshold momentum for minijets, contributing to hard scattering processes.

  15. Two components in charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylinkin, A. A.; Chernyavskaya, N. S.; Rostovtsev, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions are considered in terms of a recently introduced Two Component parameterization combining exponential ("soft") and power-law ("hard") functional forms. The charged hadron densities calculated separately for them are plotted versus number of participating nucleons, Npart. The obtained dependences are discussed and the possible link between the two component parameterization introduced by the authors and the two component model historically used for the case of heavy-ion collisions is established. Next, the variations of the parameters of the introduced approach with the center of mass energy and centrality are studied using the available data from RHIC and LHC experiments. The spectra shapes are found to show universal dependences on Npart for all investigated collision energies.

  16. Heavy quark production at an Electron-Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chudakov, E; Hyde, Ch; Furletov, S; Furletova, Yu; Nguyen, D; Stratmann, M; Strikman, M; Weiss, C

    2016-01-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) with center-of-mass energies sqrt(s_{eN}) ~ 20-100 GeV and luminosity L ~ 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} would offer new opportunities to study heavy quark production in high-energy electron or photon scattering on protons and nuclei. We report about an R&D project exploring the feasibility of direct measurements of nuclear gluon densities at large x (gluonic EMC effect, antishadowing) using open charm production at EIC. We describe the charm production rates and angle-momentum distributions at large x and discuss methods of charm reconstruction using next-generation detector capabilities (pi/K identification, vertex reconstruction). The results can be used also for other physics applications of heavy quark production at EIC (fragmentation functions, jets, heavy quark propagation in nuclei).

  17. Molecular mechanism of mutagenesis and interaction of incident ions with organism implanted by heavy ions beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a new mutagenesis technique, low energy heavy ion implantation started in China for the study of interaction effect between incident ions and organism, and great achievements have been obtained in crop breeding. The article reviewed the main biological effects induced by heavy ion implantation, including physiology, biochemistry and genetics effects, on levels of cell and chromosome, gene expression, DNA methylation, DNA damage and reparation etc. It compared the differences in mutagenesis for organism by high energy and low energy ion implantation, as well as γ ray radiation. Future investigation topics were proposed, the emphasis of researches in future was pointed out, i.e., the molecular mechanism and effects of gene differential expression of organism treated by ion implantation. (authors)

  18. Application of Wigner-transformations in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main features of inelastic heavy ion reactions is the excitation of collective surface vibrations. It is discussed a model, based on Wigner transformations and classical dynamics, that gives a semiclassical description of the excitation of surface vibrations due to the Coulomb and nuclear interaction in heavy ion collisions. The treatment consists of three stages, viz. the preparation of classical initial conditions compatible with the quantal ground state of surface vibrations, the dynamical evolution of the system governed by Liouville's equation (i.e. classical mechanics) and finally the interpretation of final results after the interaction in terms of excitation probabilities, elastic and inelastic cross sections etc. The first and the last stage are exact and based on the Wigner transformations while the time evolution described by classical mechanics is an approximation. Application examples are given. (author)

  19. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  20. Mars heavy ion precipitating flux as measured by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, F.

    2015-12-01

    Mars' atmospheric escape induced by heavy planetary ions accelerated by the solar wind and reimpacting Mars' atmosphere has been suggested to occur. The sputtering of Mars' atmosphere has been even suggested to lead to a significant cumulated loss along Mars' history. Up to now, only a limited number of observations have been possible. ASPERA-3/Mars Express observed such precipitation only during extreme solar conditions events suggesting that sputtering might be not as intense as theoretically predicted. Based on MAVEN first six months of observations, we here show that precipitation of heavy ions also occur during quiet solar conditions and that the average precipitating flux during this period is significant and globally in good agreement with predictions. From these measured precipitating flux, we propose a first estimate of the atmospheric escape induced by sputtering. Up to 8.8×105 O/cm2/s was lost by Mars' atmosphere between November 2014 and April 2015.

  1. Longitudinal beam dynamics for heavy ion fusion using WARPrz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WARPrz is a 2.5 dimensional, cylindrically symmetric, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code. It is part of the WARP family of codes which has been developed to study heavy ion fusion driver issues. WARPrz is being used to study the longitudinal dynamics of heavy ion beams including a longitudinal instability that is driven by the impedance of the LINAC accelerating modules. This instability is of concern because it can enhance longitudinal momentum spread; chromatic abhoration in the lens system restricts the amount of momentum spread allowed in the beam in the final focusing system. The impedance of the modules is modeled by a continuum of resistors and capacitors in parallel in WARPrz. We discuss simulations of this instability including the effect of finite temperature and reflection of perturbations off the beam ends. We also discuss intermittency of axial confining fields (''ears'' fields) as a seed for this instability

  2. Spiraling Beam Illumination Uniformity on Heavy Ion Fusion Target

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, T; Noguchi, K; Koseki, S; Barada, D; Ma, Y Y; Ogoyski, A I; Barnard, J J; Logan, B G

    2012-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. So far the wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs illumination nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100MHz-1GHz. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates successfully with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  3. Uniform fuel target implosion in heavy ion inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, S.; Karino, T.; Kondo, S.; Iinuma, T.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    For a steady operation of a fusion power plant the target implosion should be robust against the implosion non-uniformities. In this paper the non-uniformity mitigation mechanisms in the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination are discussed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to the radiation energy smoothing for the HIB illumination non-uniformity. The large density-gradient scale, which is typically ∼500μm in HIF targets, also contributes to a reduction of the Rayleigh- Taylor instability growth rate. In HIF a wobbling HIBs illumination would also reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth and to realize a uniform implosion.

  4. The Decoherence Time in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, B; Muller, Berndt; Schafer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the decoherence time of the ground state wave function of a nucleus in a high energy heavy ion collision. We define this time as the decay time of the ratio Tr D^2 / (Tr D)^2 of traces of the density matrix D. We find that this time is smaller or equal to 1/Q_s, where the saturation scale Q_s is defined within the color glass condensate model of parton saturation. Our result supports the notion that the extremely rapid entropy production deduced for the early stage of heavy ion collisions at collider energies is to a large extent caused by the decoherence of the initial-state wave functions.

  5. Theoretical aspects of high-energy heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    1987-01-01

    An elementary introduction is given to the subject of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies. It begins with a discussion on the relevant kinematic variables to establish the language for these collisions. It examines the question of particle production and the characteristics of the loss of baryon energy in an inelastic nucleon-nucleon collision. The geometrical aspect of a nucleus-nucleus collision is then described in terms of the Glauber multiple-collision model. As the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collision has not yet reached a stage whereby the dynamics can be examined from a fundamental theory, various phenomenological models have been proposed. The assumptions used in various models are described. Future use of relativistic heavy-ion collisions to study the quark-gluon plasma is briefly discussed.

  6. Pseudorapidity correlations in heavy ion collisions from viscous fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Akihiko; Schenke, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate by explicit calculations in 3+1 dimensional viscous relativistic fluid dynamics how two-particle pseudorapidity correlation functions in heavy ion collisions at the LHC and RHIC depend on the number of particle producing sources and the transport properties of the produced medium. In particular, we present results for the Legendre coefficients of the two-particle pseudorapidity correlation function, an,m, in Pb+Pb collisions at 2760 GeV and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV from viscous hydrodynamics with three dimensionally fluctuating initial conditions. Our results suggest that the an,m provide important constraints on initial state fluctuations in heavy ion collisions.

  7. Particle-production mechanism in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bush, B W; Brian W Bush

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the production of particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions through the mechanism of massive bremsstrahlung, in which massive mesons are emitted during rapid nucleon acceleration. This mechanism is described within the framework of classical hadrodynamics for extended nucleons, corresponding to nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This new theory provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to relativistic heavy-ion collisions that includes automatically spacetime nonlocality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. Inclusion of the finite nucleon size cures the difficulties with preacceleration and runaway solutions that have plagued the classical theory of self-interacting point particles. For the soft reactions that dominate nucleon-nucleon collisions, a significant fraction of the incident center-of-mass energy is radiated through massive bremsstrahlung. In the present version of the theory, this rad...

  8. Kaon production in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, C

    2006-01-01

    The article reviews the physics related to kaon and antikaon production in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies. Chiral dynamics predicts substantial modifications of the kaon properties in a dense nuclear environment. The status of the theoretical predictions as well as experimental evidences for medium effects such as repulsive/attractive mass shifts for $K^+/K^-$ are reviewed. In the vicinity of the thresholds, and even more pronounced below threshold, the production of strangeness is a highly collective process. Starting from elementary reaction channels the phenomenology of $K^+$ and $K^-$ production, i.e. freeze-out densities, time scales etc. as derived from experiment and theoretical transport calculations is presented. Below threshold kaon production shows a high sensitivity on the nuclear compression reached in heavy ion reactions. This allows to put constraints on the nuclear equation-of-state which are finally discussed.

  9. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  10. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high space-charge intensity (line charge density ∼ 0.2 (micro)C/m) over long pulse durations (>4 ms) in alternating gradient electrostatic and magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing--at driver-relevant scale--transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and beam steering, matching, image charges, halo, electron cloud effects, and longitudinal bunch control. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through the first ten electrostatic transport quadrupoles, measured with beam-imaging and phase-space diagnostics. The latest additions to the experiment include measurements of the secondary ion, electron and atom coefficients due to halo ions scraping the wall, and four magnetic quadrupoles to explore similar issues in magnetic channels

  11. Design of a dedicated heavy ion accelerator for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, R.; Alonso, J.; Elioff, T.

    1983-03-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility for radiotherapy is being designed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Performance requirements have been established. Ions from helium to argon can be accelerated to a maximum energy of 800 MeV/nucleon with intensities in the range 10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 9/ particles per second. The accelerator subsystems consist of a linac injector, a synchrotron, and a beam-delivery system. Specifications have been developed for many of the technical components, and some details of the technical design are presented.

  12. Simulation of induced radioactivity for Heavy Ion Medical Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Jun-Kui, Xu; Wu-Yuan, Li; Wang, Mao; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xi-Meng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yan; Chong, Xu

    2013-01-01

    For radiation protection and environmental impact assessment purpose, the radioactivity induced by carbon ion of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) was studied. Radionuclides in accelerator component, cooling water and air at target area which are induced from primary beam and secondary particles are simulated by FLUKA Monte Carlo code. It is found that radioactivity in cooling water and air is not very important at the required beam intensity and energy which is needed for treatment, radionuclides in accelerator component may cause some problem for maintenance work, suitable cooling time is needed after the machine are shut down.

  13. The potential of He stripping in heavy ion AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Alfimov, V.; Christl, M.; Lachner, J.; Schulze-König, T.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of helium as a stripper gas for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of heavy ions is presented. At ion stripping energies of about 500 keV and below we observe a significant increase of the mean charge state when using helium instead of other gases. Moreover, scattering losses are reduced with helium because of its lower mass compared to other commonly used stripper gases. Thus, highly efficient AMS measurements for 41Ca, 129I and 236U with transmissions through the accelerator in the range of 40-50% are now possible.

  14. The potential of He stripping in heavy ion AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of helium as a stripper gas for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of heavy ions is presented. At ion stripping energies of about 500 keV and below we observe a significant increase of the mean charge state when using helium instead of other gases. Moreover, scattering losses are reduced with helium because of its lower mass compared to other commonly used stripper gases. Thus, highly efficient AMS measurements for 41Ca, 129I and 236U with transmissions through the accelerator in the range of 40–50% are now possible.

  15. Pion Transverse Momentum Spectrum, Elliptic Flow, and Interferometry in the Granular Source Model for RHIC and LHC Heavy Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We systematically investigate the pion transverse momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT interferometry in the granular source model for the heavy ion collisions of Au-Au at sNN=200 GeV and Pb-Pb at sNN=2.76 TeV with different centralities. The granular source model can well reproduce the experimental results of the heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. We examine the parameters involved in the granular source model. The experimental data of the momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and HBT radii for the two collision energies and different centralities impose very strict constraints on the model parameters. They exhibit certain regularities for collision centrality and energy. The space-time structure and expansion velocities of the granular sources for the heavy ion collisions at the RHIC and LHC energies with different centralities are investigated.

  16. Transverse Flow of Kaons in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉明; 储自力; FUCHS Christian; FAESSLER Amand; 肖武; 华大平; 阎玉鹏

    2002-01-01

    The transverse flow of positively charged kaons from heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energy is investigatedwithin the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the experi-mental data are only consistent with those including the kaon mean-field potential from the chiral Lagrangian.This indicates that the transverse flow pattern of kaons is a useful probe of the kaon potential in a nuclearmedium.

  17. Cross Section Fluctuations and Chaoticity in Heavy-Ion Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rapisarda, A.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section fluctuations in nuclear scattering are briefly reviewed in order to show the main important features. Then chaotic scattering is introduced by means of a very simple model. It is shown that chaoticity produces the same kind of irregular fluctuations observed in light heavy--ion collisions. The transition from order to chaos allows a new general framework for a deeper understanding of reaction mechanisms.

  18. Double meson production in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2003-01-01

    The double meson production in ultraperipheral heavy ions collisions is addressed, focusing on the particular case of rho-J/Psi from two-photon reactions. The cross section at photon level is obtained using distinct parameterizations for the gluon distribution on the light meson. The resulting estimates for the nuclear case are presented and discussed. As a by product, we estimate the double rho production cross section using the Pomeron-exchange factorization relations.

  19. Simultaneous Projectile-Target Excitation in Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Benesh, C. J.; Friar, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the lowest-order contribution to the cross section for simultaneous excitation of projectile and target nuclei in relativistic heavy ion collisions. This process is, to leading order, non-classical and adds incoherently to the well-studied semi-classical Weizs\\"acker-Williams cross section. While the leading contribution to the cross section is down by only $1/Z_P$ from the semiclassical process, and consequently of potential importance for understanding data from light projectil...

  20. Reaction Cross Section in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Previously a compact formula for total reaction cross section for heavy-ion collisions as a function of energy was obtained by treating the angular momentum $l$ as a continuous variable. The accuracy of the continuum approximation is assessed and corrections are evaluated. The accuracy of the compact equation can be improved by a simple modification, if a higher accuracy is required. Simple rules to determine the barrier heights and the penetration probability for the $l$ partial wave from ex...