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Sample records for central france chytridiomycota

  1. Preservation of Chytridiomycota in culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon E; Porter, David; Boyle, Donna G; Hyatt, Alex D

    2007-02-01

    Methods for the preservation of fungi in the Chytridiomycota in culture collections are reviewed in this paper. The Chytridiomycota can be preserved with varying degrees of success using a number of different protocols including cryopreservation. The survival of fungi in the Chytridiomycota is sensitive to environmental factors such as lack of moisture, high temperatures, high osmotic potential, and availability of oxygen, all of which must be considered in designing preservation methods. The age of the culture at the initiation of preservation appears to be a particularly important determinant of viability. Recently, commonly used methods for preservation of other groups of fungi have been modified to improve the survival of the Chytridiomycota in culture collections. High rates of survival have been reported after cryopreservation of aerobic and anaerobic chytrids in 10 % glycerol or dimethyl sulphoxide as cryoprotectants. The rates of freezing and thawing must be carefully controlled in the methods for cryopreservation considered in this review. Further research on increasing long-term survival rates and morphological, physiological and genetic stability of Chytridiomycota at low temperatures is necessary.

  2. Host parasite interactions between freshwater phytoplankton and chytrid fungi (Chytridiomycota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibelings, B.W.; De Bruin, A.; Kagami, M.; Rijkeboer, M.; Brehm, Michaela; Van Donk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Some chytrids are host-specific parasiticfungithat may have a considerable impact on phytoplankton dynamics. The phylum Chytridiomycota contains one class, the Chytridiomycetes, and is composed of five different orders. Molecular studies now firmly place the Chytridiomycota within the fungal kingdom

  3. Host parasite interactions between freshwater phytoplankton and chytrid fungi (Chytridiomycota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibelings, B.W.; De Bruin, A.; Kagami, M.; Rijkeboer, M.; Brehm, Michaela; Van Donk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Some chytrids are host-specific parasiticfungithat may have a considerable impact on phytoplankton dynamics. The phylum Chytridiomycota contains one class, the Chytridiomycetes, and is composed of five different orders. Molecular studies now firmly place the Chytridiomycota within the fungal kingdom

  4. Lobulomycetales, a new order in the Chytridiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, D Rabern; James, Timothy Y; Meyer, Allen F; Longcore, Joyce E

    2009-04-01

    The Chytridiales, one of the four orders in the Chytridiomycetes (Chytridiomycota), is polyphyletic, but contains several well-supported clades. One of these clades is referred to as the Chytriomyces angularis clade, and the phylogenetic placement of this group within the Chytridiomycetes is uncertain. The morphology and zoospore ultrastructure of C. angularis have been studied using LM and were shown to differ from those of the type species of Chytriomyces, which is in the Chytridiaceae and is phylogenetically distinct from the C. angularis clade. In this study, chytrids with morphologies or rDNA sequences similar to C. angularis, including two isolates of the morphologically similar C. poculatus, were isolated and their phylogenetic relationships determined using molecular sequence data. Results of Bayesian and MP analyses of nuSSU and partial nuLSU rDNA sequences grouped the new isolates and the type isolate of C. angularis in a monophyletic clade within the Chytridiomycota but distinct from the Chytridiaceae. Zoospores of isolates examined using TEM had ultrastructural features similar to those of C. angularis. Genetic analyses, ultrastructural data, and morphology support the establishment of a new order Lobulomycetales, placement of C. angularis and C. poculatus in a new genus (Lobulomyces), and description of additional taxa, which we have named Clydaea vesicula and Maunachytrium keaense.

  5. Fungi from the Lower Carboniferous of central France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.N.; Galtier, J.; Axsmith, B.J. (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology)

    1994-09-01

    Chlamydospores and sporocarps (Roannaisia bivitilis gen. et sp. nov.) are described from late Visean permineralized plant material collected from the Roannais area of central France. Chlamydospores are slightly elongate and several show a short segment of the hyphal attachment. Each chlamydospore contains a thin-walled spore; mycoparasites appear to be present in some spores. Also present in the peat matrix are spherical sporocarps up to 600[mu]m in diameter. The wall is constructed of two layers of interwoven, non-septate, irregularly-branched hyphae. The sporocarp lumen contains a single, multilayered spore. The systematic affinities of both fungi are discussed.

  6. Rhizophlyctidales--a new order in Chytridiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J; Barr, Donald J S; Churchill, Perry F; Wakefield, William S; Picard, Kathryn T

    2008-09-01

    Rhizophlyctis rosea (Chytridiomycota) is an apparently ubiquitous, soil-inhabiting, cellulose-degrading chytrid that is the type for Rhizophlyctis. Previous studies have revealed multiple zoospore subtypes among morphologically indistinguishable isolates in the R. rosea complex sensu Barr. In this study we analysed zoospore ultrastructure and combined nu-rRNA gene sequences (partial LSU and complete ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of 49 isolates from globally distributed soil samples. Based on molecular monophyly and zoospore ultrastructure, this group of Rhizophlyctis rosea-like isolates is designated as a new order, the Rhizophlyctidales. Within the Rhizophlyctidales are four new families (Rhizophlyctidaceae, Sonoraphlyctidaceae, Arizonaphlyctidaceae, and Borealophlyctidaceae) and three new genera (Sonoraphlyctis, Arizonaphlyctis, and Borealophlyctis).

  7. Cladochytriales--a new order in Chytridiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozley-Standridge, Sharon E; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Porter, David; Simmons, D Rabern

    2009-04-01

    Recently, molecular and ultrastructural analyses have resulted in revised phylogenetic hypotheses in the phylum Chytridiomycota. The order Chytridiales, once considered monophyletic, has been subdivided into several new orders. However, the most recent analyses indicate that the emended Chytridiales is also polyphyletic. One monophyletic lineage in Chytridiales includes Cladochytrium, Nowakowskiella, and five other genera. Many of the chytrids in this clade have often been observed growing on decaying plant tissue and other cellulosic substrates from aquatic habitats and moist soils. In this study we analysed combined nu-rRNA gene sequences (partial SSU and LSU) of 30 isolates from North American aquatic and soil samples. Based on molecular monophyly and zoospore ultrastructure, we designate this clade as a new order, Cladochytriales, which includes four families: Cladochytriaceae, Nowakowskiellaceae, Septochytriaceae fam. nov., and Endochytriaceae.

  8. Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, E. B. Gareth; Suetrong, Satinee; Sakayaroj, Jariya; Bahkali, Ali H.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed A.; Boekhout, Teun; Pang, Ka-Lai

    2015-01-01

    This paper lists the accepted names and classification of marine fungi, updating the scheme presented in 2009. The classification includes 1,112 species (in 472 genera): Ascomycota 805 (in 352 genera), Basidiomycota 21 species (in 17 genera), Chytridiomycota and related phyla 26 species (in 13 gener

  9. France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-10

    Taxes on cigarettes in France have been increased by 15 per cent, the first of an overall rise of 30 per cent. Part of the revenue raised will help subsidise motor racing which lost its sponsors following a recent national ban on cigarette advertising. The remainder will go to the social security service.

  10. France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  12. Can soil Chytridiomycota survive and grow in different osmotic potentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Midgley, David J; Letcher, Peter M; McGee, Peter A

    2006-07-01

    Twenty isolates from soil in the orders Spizellomycetales, Blastocladiales and Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota) grew on complex solid media supplemented with 10 gl(-1) sodium chloride. In a synthetic liquid medium, 4.4 gl(-1) sodium chloride strongly inhibited growth in three of the five isolates, possibly because of the effect of the ions or osmolarity of the solution. The maximum concentration for growth in synthetic liquid medium with different osmotic potentials using polyethylene glycol (PEG) varied considerably amongst the isolates. Three patterns of growth with increasing concentrations of PEG were evident among isolates within the genus Rhizophydium. Up to the concentration where growth ceased, the dry weight of each isolate either decreased, remained constant, or in one case, increased. Most of the fungi survived when incubated at room temperature for 7d in complex liquid media supplemented with 35 gl(-1) sodium chloride or 300 gl(-1) PEG. These data indicate that soil Chytridiomycota can survive various osmotic potentials that may occur during the wetting and drying phases in soils.

  13. Some Chytridiomycota in soil recover from drying and high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Letcher, Peter M; McGee, Peter A

    2004-05-01

    Rhizophlyctis rosea was found in 44% of 59 soil samples from national parks, urban reserves and gardens, and agricultural lands of eastern New South Wales, Australia. As some of the soils are periodically dry and hot, we examined possible mechanisms that enable survival in stressful environments such as agricultural lands. Air-dried thalli of R. rosea in soil and pure cultures of R. rosea, two isolates of Allomyces anomalus, one isolate of Catenaria sp., one of Catenophlyctis sp. and one of Spizellomyces sp. recovered following incubation at 90 degrees C for two days. Powellomyces sp. recovered following incubation at 80 degrees. Sporangia of all seven fungi shrank during air-drying, and immediately returned to turgidity when rehydrated. Some sporangia of R. rosea released zoospores immediately upon rehydration. These data indicate that some Chytridiomycota have resistant structures that enable survival through periodic drying and high summer temperatures typical of soils used for cropping. Eleven Chytridiomycota isolated from soil did not survive either drying or heat. Neither habitat of the fungus nor morphological type correlated with the capacity to tolerate drying and heat.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.

  15. Nuevas citas de Blastocladiales (Chytridiomycota en ambientes contaminados de Ensenada (Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Mónica M. Steciow

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tres Chytridiomycota saprótrofos: Blastocladia incrassata, B. sparrowii y B. tenuis (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes encontrados en ambientes contaminados del partido de Ensenada, Buenos Aires, son citados y descriptos por primera vez para la Argentina

  16. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2014-01-01

    . In this article we use the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeo-stratigraphic record from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (les Roches d'Abilly site, Central France), a Bayesian analysis of the ages obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon on ultrafiltered collagen and by luminescence on quartz...... and feldspar grains, to establish a timeline for material culture and sedimentary dynamic changes during the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition. Technology, refitting studies and taphonomy of lithic artifacts recovered in the geoarchaeological field units D1 and D2 permit to characterize 3 reduction...

  17. Hypothesized evolutionary trends in zoospore ultrastructural characters in Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiales is an order of zoosporic fungi currently comprising species representing 19 genera. Although morphologically and genetically diverse, these taxa have in common a zoospore with a suite of ultrastructural characters unique among Chytridiomycota. However, multiple states have been reported for almost every character that defines the Chytridiales zoospore. Two zoospore types have been recognized, each corresponding to a family. Here we examine zoospore ultrastructure of 52 isolates in Chytridiales and assess states for six characters to hypothesize evolutionary trends, using parsimony ancestral state reconstruction for evolutionary analysis. Based on suites of character states, we describe four additional zoospore types in Chytridiales. Five of the six characters ([i] location of the nucleus, [ii] morphology of the kinetosome-associated structure, [iii] complexity of the microtubular root, [iv] microbody-lipid globule complex cisterna structure and [v] thickness of the flagellar plug) revealed ancestral and derived states. The sixth character, structure of the paracrystalline inclusion, did not resolve ancestral and derived states. In each of the lineages within Chytridiales, the evolutionary trend appears to have been from a more complex zoospore to a less complex zoospore with reduced features. As we isolate and analyze additional taxa, we discover new ultrastructural character states that assist in taxon delineation and phylogenetic interpretation. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Chytridiomycota e Oomycota da Represa do Guarapiranga, São Paulo, SP

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    Rocha Maristela da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinze táxons de Chytridiomycota e 18 de Oomycota foram isolados de amostras de água e solo na Represa do Guarapiranga, por meio de técnica de iscagem, com substratos celulósicos, queratinosos e quitinosos. Dos táxons de Chytridiomycota isolados, um pertence aos Blastocladiales, onze aos Chytridiales e três aos Spizellomycetales. Dos táxons de Oomycota, treze pertencem aos Saprolegniales e cinco aos Peronosporales. Septochytrium marilandicum Karling é citada pela primeira vez para o Brasil.

  19. Re-evaluation of lead isotopic data, southern Massif Central, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, A. J.; Macquar, J. C.; Rouvier, H.

    1993-04-01

    Three independent Pb isotope homogenizing processes operating on large volumes of rock material during limited intervals in the Phanerozoic have been used to define a unique evolutionary curve for rock and ore lead isotopic compositions of the southern Massif Central, France. The model is 126_2004_Article_BF00196336_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered}{text{ x}}_{text{t}} = 18.641{text{ }} - {text{ 9}}{text{.56(e}}^{{text{L1*t}}} - 1{text{)}} {text{y}}_{text{t}} = 15.678{text{ }} - {text{ 0}}{text{.06934(e}}^{{text{L2*t}}} - 1{text{)}} {text{ z}}_{text{t}} = 38.701{text{ }} - {text{ 30}}{text{.8(e}}^{{text{L3*t}}} - 1{text{)}} where xt, yt and zt are the calculated isotopic ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb respectively) at time t years ago and L1, L2 and L3 are the decay constants of 238U, 235U and 232Th respectively. The model gives the following ages for averages of the three sets of data used in its generation: age of mineralization for carbonate-hosted lead-zinc ore of Les Malines, ca. 150 Ma; emplacement of the Saint-Guiral-Liron granite, ca. 290 Ma; and an estimated average age of a group of Cambrian syngenetic deposits, ca. 520 Ma. These ages are in close agreement with ages determined by independent methods.

  20. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. © D. Rondelaud et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  1. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondelaud Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra. Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%, Haplometra cylindracea (5.3% and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10. The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat.

  2. Appreciation of the Swiss Franc and its Impact on Romania and other Central and Eastern European Countries

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    David Delia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The decision of the Swiss National Bank of giving up the fixed rate of 1,2 Euro/CHF on the 15th of January 2015, a rate established at its admission to the Monetary Economic Union, had consequences on Central and Eastern European countries because a great part of the credits granted were in Swiss francs. In all these countries, the national currencies depreciated and the financial market rates were reduced. Regional banks started to face difficulties regarding the management of the situation and were under the necessity of finding solutions to avoid the risk of not recovering the granted credits. The issue of the Swiss franc appreciation was treated differently by the analysed countries and took into consideration the particularities characteristic to the credits granted in this currency. The present paper aims at emphasising the impact of the Swiss franc appreciation on the Romanian banking system but also the approach of other countries in Central and Eastern Europe in this respect.

  3. Observations of fluorescent and biological aerosol at a high-altitude site in Central France

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    A. M. Gabey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total bacteria, fungal spore and yeast counts were compared with UV Light-Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF measurements of ambient aerosol at the summit of the Puy de Dôme (pdD mountain in Central France (1465 m a.s.l, which represents a background elevated site. Bacteria, fungal spores and yeast were enumerated by epifluorescence microscopy (EFM and found to number 2.2 to 23 L−1 and 0.8 to 2 L−1, respectively. Bacteria counts on two successive nights were an order of magnitude larger than in the intervening day.

    A Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS-3 was used to perform UV-LIF measurements on ambient aerosol sized 0.8 to 20 μm. Mean total number concentration was 270 L−1 (σ = 66 L−1 found predominantly in a size mode at 2 μm for most of the campaign. Total concentration (fluorescent + non-fluorescent aerosol peaked at 500 L−1 with a size mode at 1 μm because of a change in air mass origin lasting around 48 h. The WIBS-3 features two excitation and fluorescence detection wavelengths corresponding to different biological molecules. The mean fluorescent particle concentration after short-wave (280 nm; Tryptophan excitation was 12 L−1 (σ = 6 L−1, and did not vary much through the campaign. In contrast the mean concentration of particles fluorescent after long-wave (370 nm; NADH excitation was 95 L−1 (σ = 25 L−1, and a nightly rise and subsequent fall of up to 100 L−1 formed a strong diurnal cycle in the latter. The fluorescent populations exhibited size modes at 3 μm and 2 to 3 μm, respectively. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis algorithm was applied to the data and used to extract different particle factors. A cluster concentration time series representative of bacteria was identified. This was found to exhibit a diurnal cycle with a maximum peak appearing during the day.

  4. Observations of fluorescent and biological aerosol at a high-altitude site in central France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabey, A. M.; Vaitilingom, M.; Freney, E.; Boulon, J.; Sellegri, K.; Gallagher, M. W.; Crawford, I. P.; Robinson, N. H.; Stanley, W. R.; Kaye, P. H.

    2013-08-01

    Total bacteria, fungal spore and yeast counts were compared with ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) measurements of ambient aerosol at the summit of the Puy de Dôme (PdD) mountain in central France (1465 m a.s.l), which represents a background elevated site. Bacteria, fungal spores and yeast were enumerated by epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and found to number 2.2 to 23 L-1 and 0.8 to 2 L-1, respectively. Bacteria counts on two successive nights were an order of magnitude larger than in the intervening day. A wide issue bioaerosol spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS-3) was used to perform UV-LIF measurements on ambient aerosol sized 0.8 to 20 μm. Mean total number concentration was 270 L-1 (σ = 66 L-1), found predominantly in a size mode at 2 μm for most of the campaign. Total concentration (fluorescent + non-fluorescent aerosol) peaked at 500 L-1 with a size mode at 1 μm because of a change in air mass origin lasting around 48 h. The WIBS-3 features two excitation and fluorescence detection wavelengths corresponding to different biological molecules, although non-biological interferents also contribute. The mean fluorescent particle concentration after short-wave (280 nm; associated with tryptophan) excitation was 12 L-1 (σ = 6 L-1), and did not vary much throughout the campaign. In contrast, the mean concentration of particles fluorescent after long-wave (370 nm; associated with NADH) excitation was 95 L-1 (σ = 25 L-1), and a nightly rise and subsequent fall of up to 100 L-1 formed a strong diurnal cycle in the latter. The two fluorescent populations exhibited size modes at 3 μm and 2 to 3 μm, respectively. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis algorithm was applied to the data and used to extract different particle factors. A cluster concentration time series representative of bacteria was identified. This was found to exhibit a diurnal cycle with a maximum peak appearing during the day. Analysis of organic mass spectra recorded using

  5. Biomineralization of iron-phosphates in the water column of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmidis, Julie; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume; Busigny, Vincent; Lebeau, Oanez; Jézéquel, Didier; Noël, Vincent; Dublet, Gabrielle; Othmane, Guillaume

    2014-02-01

    The availabilities of iron and phosphorus have considerably impacted biological productivity in past and present natural aquatic environments, and therefore have been key regulators of climate changes over geological time scales. Microbial organisms are known to play important roles in reactions that drive Fe and P cycling at redox interfaces in Earth's surface environments. Here we study the depth variations of Fe and P speciation in Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France), a deep (bottom depth ˜92 m) and permanently stratified lake with anoxic and ferruginous conditions in the water column below ˜60 m depth. We particularly focus on the potential roles of microbes on Fe and P transformations and traces left by these processes in the sedimenting particular matter. Bulk chemical analyses, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Fe K-edge were performed to characterize the mineralogy and Fe oxidation state of solid particles at different depths in the water column and in sediments deposited at the bottom of the lake. Fe is mainly hosted by Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides and phyllosilicates in the shallower oxygenated water column of the lake (25 m). The amount of Fe in suspended matter increases with depth, and an additional amorphous Fe(II)-Fe(III)-phosphate phase is detected close to the chemocline (at 56 m depth), while vivianite (an Fe(II)-phosphate with a formula of Fe(II)3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) becomes dominant in the deeper anoxic water (67 m and 86 m depths). Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides are preserved down to these depths in the water column suggesting that Fe-reduction has little impact on the particulate Fe budget over the monimolimnion. These Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides undergo reductive dissolution at the surface of the sediments, where vivianite is the main Fe-bearing phase. These results are confirmed by imaging at the micrometer and nano-scales using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based scanning

  6. Discovery of a thyreophoran trackway in the hettangian of central france

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    Le Lœuff, Jean; Lockley, Martin; Meyer, Christian; Petit, Jean-Pierre

    1999-02-01

    Well-preserved dinosaur footprints have been excavated in the Hettangian of Corgnac-sur-l'Isle (Dordogne, France). They are attributed to a large thyreophoran dinosaur and clearly show a stegosaur-like 2-2-2 phalangeal formula for pes digits II, III and IV. Pes digit I is variably impressed. This is the first Early Jurassic thyreophoran trackway ever discovered, and the largest known ornithischian tracks of this period. It definitely shows that primitive thyreophorans were quadrupedal and suggests that phalangeal reduction preceded digital reduction in the evolution of advanced thyreophorans.

  7. A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon E; Porter, David; Powell, Martha J; Griffith, Gareth W; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2006-01-01

    Chytridiomycota (chytrids) is the only phylum of true Fungi that reproduces with motile spores (zoospores). Chytrids currently are classified into five orders based on habitat, zoospore characters and life cycles. In this paper we estimate the phylogeny of the chytrids with DNA sequences from the ribosomal RNA operon (18S+5.8S+28S subunits). To our surprise the morphologically reduced parasites Olpidium and Rozella comprise two entirely new, and separate, lineages on the fungal tree. Olpidium brassicae groups among the Zygomycota, and Rozella spp. are the earliest branch to diverge in the fungal kingdom. The phylogeny also suggests that Chytridiomycota is not monophyletic and there are four major lineages of chytrids: Rozella spp., Olpidium brassicae, the Blastocladiales and a "core chytrid clade" containing the remaining orders and families and the majority of flagellated fungi. Within the core chytrid group 11 subclades can be identified, each of which correlates well with zoospore ultrastructure or morphology. We provide a synopsis of each clade and its morphological circumscription. The Blastocladiales appears to be the sister taxon of most nonflagellated fungi. Based on molecular phylogenetic and ultrastructural characters this order is elevated to a phylum, the Blastocladiomycota.

  8. Cenozoic rejuvenation events of Massif Central topography (France): Insights from cosmogenic denudation rates and river profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, Valerio; Godard, Vincent; Bellier, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The French Massif Central is a part of the Hercynian orogenic belt that currently exhibits anomalously high topography. The Alpine orogenesis, which deeply marked Western European topography, involved only marginally the Massif Central, where Cenozoic faulting and short-wavelength crustal deformation is limited to the Oligocene rifting. For this reason the French Massif Central is a key site to study short- and long-term topographic response in a framework of slow tectonic activity. In particular the origin of the Massif Central topography is a topical issue still debated, where the role of mantle upwelling is invoked by different authors. Here we present a landscape analysis using denudation rates derived from basin-averaged cosmogenic nuclide concentrations coupled with longitudinal river profile analysis. This analysis allows us to recognize that the topography of the French Massif Central is not fully equilibrated with the present base level and in transient state. Our data highlight the coexistence of out-of-equilibrium river profiles, incised valleys, and low cosmogenically derived denudation rates ranging between 40 mm/kyr and 80 mm/kyr. Addressing this apparent inconsistency requires investigating the parameters that may govern erosion processes under conditions of reduced active tectonics. The spatial distribution of denudation rates coupled with topography analysis enabled us to trace the signal of the long-term uplift history and to propose a chronology for the uplift evolution of the French Massif Central.

  9. Stratigraphic and technological evidence from the middle palaeolithic-Châtelperronian-Aurignacian record at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d’Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Almeida, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a geoarchaeological study of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic (Châtelperronian, Aurignacian and Solutrean) occupations preserved at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter in Central France. The lithostratigraphic sequence is composed of near-surface sedimentary facies with vertical and lat...

  10. The growth response of some Chytridiomycota to temperatures commonly observed in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Letcher, Peter M; Commandeur, Zoe; Jeong, Cho Eun; McGee, Peter A

    2005-06-01

    Chytridiomycota were isolated into pure culture from cool temperate and warm semi-arid soils of eastern Australia. In pure culture these fungi responded variably to the range of temperatures commonly recorded in their environment. All members of the Blastocladiales, Spizellomycetales and Chytridiales grew in culture at temperatures up to 30 degrees C. Some isolates from the Blastocladiales and Spizellomycetales continued to grow at or above 37 degrees. Some isolates of the Chytridiales grew up to but not beyond 35 degrees. All isolates in the Chytridiales were able to resume growth at 20 degrees after brief exposure to temperatures higher than the maximum growth temperature, but were killed by exposure to higher temperatures for 7 d. Because in the natural soil habitat temperature may exceed the maximum for growth it may be a limiting factor that determines the distribution of chytrids in the soil.

  11. Access to organic and insoluble sources of phosphorus varies among soil Chytridiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, David J; Letcher, Peter M; McGee, Peter A

    2006-09-01

    The sources of minerals accessed by fungi in the Chytridiomycota (chytrid) in soil are largely unknown. The ability of ten species of soil chytrids to use various sources of phosphorus was examined in vitro. While all grew on orthophosphate, fifty per cent of isolates grew on phytic acid, and one isolate grew on DNA as the sole source of phosphorus. All isolates solubilised and utilised CaHPO(4). Most isolates utilised hydroxyapatite when NH (4) (+) was the nitrogen source. When ammonium was omitted, 50% of isolates solubilised hydroxyapatite. Many soil chytrids may utilise phosphomonoesters as the sole source of phosphorus, and access to DNA appears limited. We suggest that the capacity to use different sources of phosphorus may influence the diversity of chytrids found in Australian soils.

  12. Ultrastructural and molecular analyses of Rhizophydiales (Chytridiomycota) isolates from North America and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Peter M; Vélez, Carlos G; Barrantes, María Eugenia; Powell, Martha J; Churchill, Perry F; Wakefield, William S

    2008-07-01

    The Rhizophydiales is the most recently circumscribed order in the Chytridiomycota. Past studies focused on soil chytrids from North America and Australia to determine the range of diversity within this clade of chytrids and established three families (Rhizophydiaceae, Terramycetaceae, and Kappamycetaceae) in the new order. Although Rhizophydiales contains seemingly simple chytrids morphologically, analyses of ribosomal gene sequences and zoospore characters have demonstrated unexpected genetic and ultrastructural diversity, highlighting the need for broader habitat and geographic sampling to reveal the actual diversity within this new order. To enlarge our sampling, in this study we investigated 38 newly cultured chytrids collected from aquatic habitats in Argentina, a territory under-explored for chytrid diversity. From analyses of thallus morphology, zoospore ultrastructure, and 28S and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequences, we expand the concept of Rhizophydiales, describing seven new families (Alphamycetaceae, Angulomycetaceae, Aquamycetaceae, Globomycetaceae, Gorgonomycetaceae, Pateramycetaceae, and Protrudomycetaceae) and eight new genera (Alphamyces, Angulomyces, Aquamyces, Globomyces, Urceomyces, Gorgonomyces, Pateramyces, and Protrudomyces). Results of this study underscore that even more extensive sampling from varied habitats and geographies is needed to adequately ascertain the diversity of chytrids in the Rhizophydiales.

  13. Phylogenetic Position of Parasitic Chytrids on Diatoms: Characterization of a Novel Clade in Chytridiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Kensuke; Kagami, Maiko; Degawa, Yousuke

    2017-05-01

    Chytrids are true fungi that reproduce with posteriorly uniflagellate zoospores. In the last decade, environmental DNA surveys revealed a large number of uncultured chytrids as well as undescribed order-level novel clades in Chytridiomycota. Although many species have been morphologically described, only some DNA sequence data of parasitic chytrids are available from the database. We herein discuss five cultures of parasitic chytrids on diatoms Aulacoseira spp. and Asterionella formosa. In order to identify the chytrids examined, thallus morphologies were observed using light microscopy. We also conducted a phylogenetic analysis using 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA sequences to obtain their phylogenetic positions. Based on their morphological characteristics, two cultures parasitic on As. formosa were identified as Rhizophydium planktonicum and Zygorhizidium planktonicum. The other three cultures infecting Aulacoseira spp. (two on Aulacoseira ambigua and the other on Aulacoseira granulata) were regarded as Zygorhizidium aff. melosirae. The results of the molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that R. planktonicum belonged to the known order Chytridiales, while the two species of Zygorhizidium were placed in a novel clade that was previously reported as an undescribed clade composed of only the environmental sequences of uncultured chytrids. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  14. Cyclopsomyces plurioperculatus: a new genus and species of Lobulomycetales (Chytridiomycota, Chytridiomycetes) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Kensuke; Degawa, Yousuke

    2015-01-01

    Lobulomycetales is one of the smallest orders of Chytridiomycota, containing only four genera and five species. In a survey in Japan we isolated a chytrid from a soil sample collected in a broadleaf forest, which grouped in Lobulomycetales by BLAST query. To identify this chytrid and determine its taxonomic position, thallus development and morphology were observed by light microscopy and zoospore ultrastructure was examined using a transmission electron microscopy. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis using nuc 28S rDNA sequences. Thallus morphology was characterized by a spherical zoosporangium with multiple operculate discharge papillae, which is different from that of any other species in Lobulomycetales. This chytrid is similar to Chytriomyces multioperculatus in having multiple operculate discharge papillae, but these are distinguished by characters of the discharge papillae and rhizoidal systems. Zoospores of this chytrid had electron-dense material in the kinetosome, a unique character in the order. Our 28S phylogeny placed it in a distinct clade, sister to all described species in Lobulomycetaceae. Based on these results, we propose a new genus and species of Lobulomycetales, Cyclopsomyces plurioperculatus. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  15. Evolutionary relationships among basal fungi (Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota): Insights from molecular phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Watanabe, Makoto M; Sugiyama, Junta

    2005-10-01

    Evolutionary relationships of the two basal fungal phyla Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota are reviewed in light of recent molecular phylogenetic investigation based on rDNA (nSSU, nLSU rDNA), entire mitochondrial genomes, and nuclear protein coding gene sequences (e.g., EF-1alpha, RPB1). Accumulated molecular evidence strongly suggests that the two basal fungal phyla are not monophyletic. For example, the chytridiomycete order Blastocladiales appears to be closely related to the zygomycete order Entomophthorales. Within the Zygomycota, a monophyletic clade, consisting of the Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales, which is characterized by a shared unique septal ultrastructure, was identified. Moreover, evidence for the exclusion of zygomycete orders Amoebidiales and Eccrinales from the Fungi, and their placement at the Animal-Fungi boundary has been clearly documented. Microsporidia, a group of amitochondriate organisms currently under intensive study, is not supported as derived within the Fungi, but a fungal affinity cannot be ruled out. Taking these molecular phylogenetic studies into account, we proposed a hypothetical evolutionary framework of basal fungi.

  16. Novas citações de Chytridiomycota e Oomycota para o Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI), SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires-Zottarelli; Maristela Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Levantamento de fungos zoospóricos realizado em lagos artificiais do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI), situado na cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, resultou no isolamento de 41 táxons, sendo 36 identificados em nível específico. Vinte e três táxons pertencem ao Reino Fungi, filo Chytridiomycota, ordens Chytridiales, Monoblepharidales e Spizellomicetales e, 18 ao Reino Straminipila, filo Oomycota, ordens Saprolegniales e Peronosporales. Dentre os fungos isolados, 1...

  17. Malformacion compleja del sistema nervioso central similar a la de Arnold Chiari en un cabrito alpino francés

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Eugenia Candanosa Aranda; Mayra Sierra García; Laura Romero Romero

    2011-01-01

    Se informa de un caso con malformaciones en el sistema nervioso de un cabrito Alpino Francés nacido muerto. Los hallazgos fueron elongación del lóbulo occipital cerebral hacia caudal con herniación del vermis cerebelar en la fosa magna y el canal espinal del atlas, lisencefalia y ausencia de ventrículos laterales. Algunas de las lesiones concuerdan con la descripción de la malformación de Arnold Chiari, relacionadas con desarrollo embrionario.

  18. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  19. Novas citações de Chytridiomycota e Oomycota para o Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI, SP, Brasil New records of Chytridiomycota and Oomycota from the "Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI", SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires-Zottarelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Levantamento de fungos zoospóricos realizado em lagos artificiais do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI, situado na cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, resultou no isolamento de 41 táxons, sendo 36 identificados em nível específico. Vinte e três táxons pertencem ao Reino Fungi, filo Chytridiomycota, ordens Chytridiales, Monoblepharidales e Spizellomicetales e, 18 ao Reino Straminipila, filo Oomycota, ordens Saprolegniales e Peronosporales. Dentre os fungos isolados, 14 são mencionados pela primeira vez para o PEFI: Aphanomyces helicoides von Minden, Catenochytridium kevorkianii Sparrow, Catenochytridium sp., Chytriomyces appendiculatus Karling, C. aureus Karling, C. hyalinus Karling, C. spinosus Fay, Diplophlyctis asteroidea Dogma, D. complicata (Willoughby Dogma, Karlingia dubia Karling, Nowakowskiella hemisphaerospora Shanor, Saprolegnia australis Elliott, Septochytrium variabile Berdan e Truittella sp., os quais são descritos, comentados e ilustrados. O gênero Truitella é mencionado pela primeira vez para o Brasil.A survey of zoosporic fungi from artificial lakes of the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil, yielded the isolation of 41 taxa with 36 species. Twenty-three taxa belong to Chytridiales, Monoblepharidales and Spizellomycetales of the Phylum Chytridiomycota, Fungi Kingdom and 18 belong to Saprolegniales and Peronosporales, Phylum Oomycota, Straminipila Kingdom. Of these, 14 are first-time records for this State Park: Aphanomyces helicoides von Minden, Catenochytridium kevorkianii Sparrow, Catenochytridium sp., Chytriomyces appendiculatus Karling, C. aureus Karling, C. hyalinus Karling, C. spinosus Fay, Diplophlyctis asteroidea Dogma, D. complicata (Willoughby Dogma, Karlingia dubia Karling, Nowakowskiella hemisphaerospora Shanor, Saprolegnia australis Elliott, Septochytrium variabile Berdan and Truittella sp., which are described, commented and

  20. Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum daubneyi: changes in prevalences of natural infections in cattle and in Lymnaea truncatula from central France over the past 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mage, Christian; Bourgne, Henri; Toullieu, Jean-Marc; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out over a 10- to 12-year period to analyse the changes in prevalences of natural fasciolosis and paramphistomosis among cattle and snails in central France, and to determine the causes which had induced these changes. The prevalences of natural fasciolosis in cattle increased from 1990 to 1993 (13.6% to 25.2%) and diminished afterwards up to 1999 (at 12.6%). Those of natural paramphistomosis showed a progressive increase between 1990 and 1999 (from 5.2 to 44.7%). The prevalences of natural infections and the numbers of free rediae counted in the snails (Lymnaea truncatula) infected with F. hepatica did not show any significant variations over time. By contrast, the prevalences of natural paramphistomosis in snails significantly increased from 1989 to 1996 and remained afterwards in the same range of values (3.7-5.3%), while the number of free rediae significantly increased up to 2000 (from a mean of 6.5 to 13.8 rediae per infected snail, respectively). Three hypotheses may explain the increase of paramphistomosis in cattle and snails: a better quality of diagnosis for the detection of P. daubneyi eggs in veterinary analysis laboratories, the use of specific molecules in the treatment of cattle fasciolosis since 1993, and the lack of an effective treatment up to now against cattle paramphistomosis. Since the objective of most farmers in central France is to obtain the highest antiparasitic efficiency with a single treatment of cattle per year, it is reasonable to assume that the prevalence of bovine paramphistomosis will continue to increase in the future.

  1. An enigmatic fossil fungus from the 410 Ma Rhynie chert that resembles Macrochytrium (Chytridiomycota) and Blastocladiella (Blastocladiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N; Martin, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Litter layers in the Lower Devonian (~ 410 Ma) Rhynie chert were inhabited by a wide variety of saprotrophic fungi, however, only a few of these organisms have been described formally. A new microfungus, Trewinomyces annulifer gen. et sp. nov., occurs as tufts on decaying land plant axes from the Rhynie chert. The fungus consists of an intramatrical rhizoidal system and an erect extramatrical hypha (stalk) that bears a single, terminal sporangium. One or two successive rings often are present in the stalk immediately below the sporangium base. Overall morphology of T. annulifer resembles the extant genera Macrochytrium (Chytridiomycota) and Blastocladiella (Blastocladiomycota). However, the rhizoids are septate or pseudoseptate, a feature not known in extant zoosporic fungi, and thus render the systematic affinities of T. annulifer unresolved. Trewinomyces annulifer offers a rare view of the morphology of a distinctive Early Devonian saprotrophic microfungus. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Primer Registro para la Argentina de Rhizophlyctis rosea (Spizellomycetales, Chytridiomycota y notas sobre su frecuencia y abundancia en suelos cultivados First record for Argentina of Rhizophlyctis rosea (Spizellomycetales, Chytridiomycota and notes on its frequency and abundance in cultivated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina V. Marano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron muestras de suelo de dos lotes de frutilla en el Partido de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires, las que fueron incubadas y cebadas en laboratorio con sustratos celulósicos, queratínicos y quitínicos, con el objetivo de aislar a R. rosea (de Bary & Woronin Fisch. Todos los tipos de materiales empleados fueron positivos para esta especie. Estandarizando los sustratos adicionados, se analizó su frecuencia y abundancia y se contabilizó el número de talos que crecieron en ellos, pudiéndose obtener la densidad de talos y el número de talos por gramo de suelo (NTG. Se colectaron asimismo muestras de agua y sedimento de ambientes acuáticos, con el objetivo de registrar caracteres morfológicos provenientes de distintas cepas y realizar una descripción completa de R. rosea. Esta especie es citada por primera vez para la Argentina y en esta contribución se muestran por primera vez resultados cuantitativos de hongos zoospóricos del suelo pertenecientes al Phylum Chytridiomycota. El género Rhizophlyctis A. Fischer es también una nueva cita para el país.Soil samples from two strawberry fields in Partido de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires were collected, flooded and baited with cellulose, queratinic and chitinic substrates in order to obtain R. rosea (de Bary & Woronin A. Fisch. All kinds of materials employed, proved positive for this species. By standardizing the substrata addition, we analyzed frequency and abundance and by counting the thalli that grew on it, derivations of thallus density and thallus recovery per gram of soil (TRG were possible. Water and sediment samples from aquatic environments were also taken, with the aim of reporting morphological characters from different strains, and make a complete description of R. rosea. This species is recorded for the first time in Argentina and this contribution shows first quantitative results of soil fungi belonging to the Phylum Chytridiomycota , for our country. The genus

  3. Current decline in the number and size of Galba truncatula and Omphiscola glabra populations, intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica, on the acidic soils of Central France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, Gilles; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Field investigations on the habitats colonized by Galba truncatula or Omphiscola glabra were carried out on 162 farms of the Limousin region, Central France, to determine whether there is currently a decline in the number and size of snail populations. Seven types of snail habitats were considered here. Compared to the numbers of snail populations recorded from 1976 to 1992, the values noted from 2013 to 2016 were significantly lower, with a decline rate of 34% for G. truncatula and 23% for O. glabra. Variations in this decline rate with the type of snail habitat were also noted. The greatest decreases in the numbers of snail populations were noted for spring heads located in meadows and for road ditches, while the lowest were noted for open drainage furrows present in meadows. The distribution of these habitats according to their area did not show any significant change over time. In contrast, overwintering snails were significantly less numerous in 2013–2016 in five types of habitats for G. truncatula and in three types only for O. glabra. Several causes underlie this population decline. Among them, the current development of mechanical cleaning in open drainage systems and road ditches, that of subsurface drainage in meadows, and regular gyro-crushing of vegetation around temporary spring heads were the most important. PMID:27774956

  4. 40Ar-39Ar laser dating of ductile shear zones from central Corsica (France): Evidence of Alpine (middle to late Eocene) syn-burial shearing in Variscan granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Grande, Antonietta; Prosser, Giacomo; Cavazza, William; DeCelles, Peter G.

    2016-10-01

    The island of Corsica (France) plays a central role in any reconstruction of Western Mediterranean geodynamics and paleogeography but several key aspects of its geological evolution are still uncertain. The most debated topics include the interpretation of the Corsican orogen as the result of an east- or west-directed subduction, and the actual involvement of the Variscan basement of Corsica in the Alpine orogenic cycle. This study integrates 40Ar-39Ar laserprobe, mesostructural, microtextural, and microchemical analyses and places relevant constraints on the style, P-T conditions, and timing of Alpine-age, pervasive ductile shear zones which affected the Variscan basement complex of central Corsica, a few kilometers to the west of the present-day front of the Alpine nappes. Shear zones strike ~ NNE-SSW, dip at a high angle, and are characterized by a dominant sinistral strike-slip component. Two of the three investigated shear zones contain two texturally and chemically resolvable generations of white mica, recording a prograde (burial) evolution: (1) deformed celadonite-poor relicts are finely overgrown by (2) a celadonite-rich white mica aligned along the main foliation. White mica from a third sample of another shear zone, characterized by a significantly lower porphyroclast/matrix ratio, exhibits a nearly uniform high-celadonite content, compositionally matching the texturally younger phengite from the nearby shear zones. Mineral-textural analysis, electron microprobe data, and pseudosection modeling constrain P-T conditions attained during shearing at ~ 300 °C and minimum pressures of ~ 0.6 GPa. In-situ 40Ar-39Ar analyses of coexisting low- and high-celadonite white micas from both shear zones yielded a relatively wide range of ages, ~ 45-36 Ma. Laser step-heating experiments gave sigmoidal-shaped age profiles, with step ages in line with in-situ spot dates. By contrast, the apparently chemically homogenous high-celadonite white mica yielded concordant in

  5. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2016-01-01

    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan...

  6. 87Sr/86Sr in spinel peridotites from Borée, Massif Central, France: melt depletion and metasomatism in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Caroline; Harvey, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Radiogenic isotopes and elemental concentrations in peridotite xenoliths may be used to model the timing and degree of partial melting in the upper mantle, but this primary melt depletion signature may be overwritten by subsequent episodes of melt or fluid infiltration. Spinel peridotites from the Maar de Borée, Massif Central, France have mainly poikilitic protogranular textures and clear petrographic evidence of a melt phase apparently unrelated to host basalt infiltration. Bulk rock major and compatible trace element concentrations are consistent with varying degrees of partial melting but incompatible trace element concentrations indicate cryptic metasomatism in some samples. Lithophile trace element mass balance cannot always be reconciled by the inclusion of the chemically characterized melt phase and suggest a contribution from a trace abundance grain boundary phase1. 87Sr/86Sr values for unleached bulk rocks and clinopyroxene mineral separates are higher than those for their leached equivalents, consistent with the removal of a radiogenic grain boundary phase. While unleached bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr is sometimes indistinguishable (within error) from its constituent unleached clinopyroxene, in two samples they show distinct patterns, as do the REE trends in these two xenoliths. BO01-01 bulk-rock is LREE-enriched (La/YbN = 3.6)2, and constituent clinopyroxene shows a similar relative enrichment trend. Bulk-rock 87Sr/86Sr is 0.70342±1 while that of clinopyroxene is lower at 0.70332±2. Clinopyroxene modal abundance is 11%. BO01-03 bulk-rock is only slightly LREE-enriched (La/YbN = 1.2) and both bulk-rock and clinopyroxene show a generally flatter profile. Bulk-rock 87Sr/86Sr is 0.70285±1 while that of clinopyroxene is in this case higher at 0.70296±2. Clinopyroxene modal abundance is also higher at 15%, consistent with a greater contribution by clinopyroxene to the bulk-rock Sr-isotope budget. The results appear to be inconsistent with a simple model of single

  7. Morphologic and molecular data help adopting the insect-pathogenic nephridiophagids (Nephridiophagidae among the early diverging fungal lineages, close to the Chytridiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Radek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nephridiophagids are poorly known unicellular eukaryotes, previously of uncertain systematic position, that parasitize the Malpighian tubules of insects. Their life cycle includes merogony with multinucleate plasmodia and sporogony leading to small, uninucleate spores. We examined the phylogenetic affiliations of three species of Nephridiophaga, including one new species, Nephridiophaga maderae, from the Madeira cockroach (Leucophaea maderae. In addition to the specific host, the new species differs from those already known by the size of the spores and by the number of spores within the sporogenic plasmodium. The inferred phylogenetic analyses strongly support a placement of the nephridiophagids in the fungal kingdom near its root and with a close, but unresolved, relationship to the chytids (Chytridiomycota. We found evidence for the nephridiophagidean speciation as being strongly coupled to host speciation.

  8. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  9. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mediation role between African governments and their private creditors. 123 France in Black Africa To further complicate matters, France herself is...34La coop6ration Franco-Ivoirienne, annde 1986," Mission de Cooperation et d’Action Culturelle , Ambassade de France en C6te D’Ivoire, Abidjan, 1987, p. 8...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques, commerciales et culturelles ," Paris, 1984

  10. Nitrate pollution of groundwater in the alsatian plain (France)—A multidisciplinary study of an agricultural area: The Central Ried of the ill river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, C.; Carbiener, R.; Cloots, A. R.; Froehlicher, R.; Schenck, Ch.; Zilliox, L.

    1992-09-01

    The area studied is part of the “Ried Central” of the Ill river (Middle Alsatian plain in northeastern France). This area is located mainly in the present floodplain of the Ill. The closeness of the water table to the surface results in quasi general soil hydromorphism. The economic constraints of the last two decades led to deep changes in agricultural activities in the study area. These have essentially involved a marked extension of intensive cultivation of grain corn at the expense of grasslands. The study of the influence of this change on the parallel increase in the concentration of nitrate in groundwater is only feasible when a multidisciplinary approach is adopted. The analyses carried out in the field and in the laboratory show that nitrate reduction occurs in gleyed or peaty horizons of hydromorphic soils. The aptitude and efficiency of the permanent ambient vegetation (alluvial forests and grasslands) in retaining nitrate must be emphasized. The amount of nitrate eliminated from the aquifer by rivers fed by this aquifer is considerable. This evacuation of nitrate into the Ill is a fine example of waste and illustrates the absurdity of the economic situation responsible for excessive nitrogen fertilization of farmlands. In determining hazard zones, this study also proposes practical solutions to the problem of nitrate pollution: diminution of land area under cultivation, reintroduction of grasslands, and a more judicious use of nitrogen manure.

  11. Headwater valley response to climate and land use changes during the Little Ice Age in the Massif Central (Yzeron basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delile, Hugo; Schmitt, Laurent; Jacob-Rousseau, Nicolas; Grosprêtre, Loïc; Privolt, Grégoire; Preusser, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The geomorphological response of valley bottoms in eastern France to climatic fluctuations of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was investigated using sedimentological analysis together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating. Diachronic mapping of land use since the beginning of the nineteenth century was also carried out. Since A.D. 1500, the valley bottoms experienced three cycles of aggradation and subsequent incision, each characterized by paired periods of high and low detritic activity. While the impact of human activity on the aggradation of the alluvial plain is observed, the vertical dynamics of the valley bottom deposits seemingly were also linked to the hydroclimatic fluctuations during the LIA. The sensitivity to these fluctuations was increased by human activity at the scale of the basin. Variations of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and solar activity from the last five centuries correlate with wet and cold phases during which valley bottoms accumulated, and dry and warm phases during which the streams incised into the valley floors. This fluvial sensitivity to the meteorological conditions induced temporal variations in sedimentary supply originating from either direct input from remnants of periglacial alluvial sheets or local rocky outcrops and/or from indirect input from the erosion of alluvial and colluvial deposits. These two components, combined with the sheet runoff over the ploughlands, express the complex coupling between hillslopes and valley bottoms in the headwater catchments. This caused a cascade-shaped transit of the sediments characterized by alternating phases of storage and removal.

  12. Comparative trends and seasonal variation of {sup 7}Be, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs at two altitude sites in the central part of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, L., E-mail: laureline.bourcier@ec.europa.e [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Physique, Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal - CNRS, 24 avenue des Landais, 63 177 Aubiere cedex (France); Masson, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SESURE/LERCM, Cadarache, BP 3, 13 115 saint Paul lez Durance (France); Laj, P.; Pichon, J.M. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Physique, Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal - CNRS, 24 avenue des Landais, 63 177 Aubiere cedex (France); Paulat, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SESURE/LERCM, Cadarache, BP 3, 13 115 saint Paul lez Durance (France); Freney, E.; Sellegri, K. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Physique, Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal - CNRS, 24 avenue des Landais, 63 177 Aubiere cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    The atmospheric concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 7}Be were measured over a three-year period at two research stations located less than 12 km apart and at different altitudes (puy de Dome, 1465 m a.s.l. and Opme, 660 m a.s.l., France). Seasonal trends in all radionuclides were observed at both stations, with high concentration measured during the summer and low concentrations during the winter. The {sup 210}Pb concentrations at both stations were similar to each other. Higher concentrations of both {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured at puy de Dome than at Opme. These observations can be explained by the stratospheric and upper tropospheric sources of {sup 7}Be and the long-range transportation of {sup 137}Cs at high altitudes. Air mass origins during sampling periods were classified into several groups by their route to the stations (marine, marine modified, continental and mediterranean). We observed that {sup 7}Be concentrations were constant regardless of the air mass origins, unlike {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb concentrations that increased when influenced by continental air masses. Higher {sup 7}Be concentrations were observed when air masses were arriving from the upper troposphere than from the boundary layer, the opposite was observed for {sup 137}Cs. The temporal trend in concentrations of {sup 7}Be shows good agreement with previous modelling studies suggesting that there is a good understanding of its sources and the atmospheric vertical mixing of this radionuclide. The sources and mixing of {sup 210}Pb, however, seem to be more complex than it appeared to be in previous modelling studies.

  13. Multi-Isotopic (o, H, Sr, Li) Tracing of the Fluxes Involved in the Water Status of a Peatland (la Sauvetat, Massif Central, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnès, B.; Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Clotilde, B.

    2010-12-01

    The bio-diversity (vegetation and fauna) of peatlands, like all wetlands ecosystems, are strongly fragile as they are requiring very specific wet conditions. In the past 20 years, increasing efforts were engaged to restore degraded wetlands, to create new wetlands where they have been totally lost and to manage wetlands sustainably in order to assess their multiple benefits. However, engaging specific actions to restore and preserve wetlands require an important knowledge on the water cycle in such systems. In this study, we propose to use chemical and multi-isotopic approaches combined with hydrological measurements (piezometric level and stream flow measurements) to trace the fluxes of water and dissolved element involved in the “Narces de la Sauvetat” peatland (France) and for the stream draining the area. Aims are to evaluate the water status of this ecosystem as well as the origin of dissolved elements and possible anthropogenic impacts. These approaches clearly demonstrated their effectiveness to improve the knowledge on the hydrological functioning of wetlands ecosystems. Main results are (1) at least three fluxes with distinct chemical and isotopic signatures are providing water supplies to peatland (Sr and stable isotopes), (2) water flow that comes out of the peatland through the stream is certainly negligible (Li isotopes) and 3) water within the peat land exhibits Sr and Li -isotopes values consistent with carbonate amendments inputs used in local agriculture. The outcomes of this study are that peatland ecosystem water balance is poorly affected by its outlet but are strongly controlled by groundwater replenishment. This could lead to a better adjustment of decision maker choices to maintain the water balance of the peatland, which is essential for the preservation of this fragile ecosystem. This study also opens a new field for Li isotope investigations in hydro-systems and highlights the possibility of using Li isotopes as environmental tracers.

  14. Tephrochronology of the Mont-Dore volcanic Massif (Massif Central, France): new 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Pastre, Jean-François; Nehlig, Pierre; Guillou, Hervé; Scao, Vincent; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The Mont-Dore Massif (500 km2), the youngest stratovolcano of the French Massif Central, consists of two volcanic edifices: the Guéry and the Sancy. To improve our knowledge of the oldest explosive stages of the Mont-Dore Massif, we studied 40Ar/39Ar-dated (through single-grain laser and step-heating experiments) 11 pyroclastic units from the Guéry stratovolcano. We demonstrate that the explosive history of the Guéry can be divided into four cycles of explosive eruption activity between 3.09 and 1.46 Ma (G.I to G.IV). We have also ascertained that deposits associated with the 3.1-3.0-Ma rhyolitic activity, which includes the 5-km3 "Grande Nappe" ignimbrite, are not recorded in the central part of the Mont-Dore Massif. All the pyroclastites found in the left bank of the Dordogne River belong to a later explosive phase (2.86-2.58 Ma, G.II) and were channelled down into valleys or topographic lows where they are currently nested. This later activity also gave rise to most of the volcanic products in the Perrier Plateau (30 km east of the Mont-Dore Massif); three quarters of the volcano-sedimentary sequence (up to 100 m thick) was emplaced within less than 20 ky, associated with several flank collapses in the northeastern part of the Guéry. The age of the "Fournet flora" (2.69 ± 0.01 Ma) found within an ash bed belonging to G.II suggests that temperate forests already existed in the French Massif Central before the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. The Guéry's third explosive eruption activity cycle (G.III) lasted between 2.36 and 1.91 Ma. It encompassed the Guéry Lake and Morangie pumice and ash deposits, as well as seven other important events recorded as centimetric ash beds some 60 to 100 km southeast of the Massif in the Velay region. We propose a general tephrochronology for the Mont-Dore stratovolcano covering the last 3.1 My. This chronology is based on 44 40Ar/39Ar-dated events belonging to eight explosive eruption cycles each lasting between 100 and 200

  15. Critical acidity loads in France; Charges critiques d`acidite en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, A.; Party, J.P.; Fevrier, C. [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface (UPR 06251 du CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Dambrine, E. [Centre de Recherches Forestieres, INRA, 45 - Orleans (France); Thomas, A.L.; King, D. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomique (INRA), 45 - ORDON (France); Stussi, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Based on results from several systematic forest and surface water monitoring programs, carried out in various parts of France as well as in Europe, acidity critical loads have been calculated for soils and surface waters; critical loads are presented for water and soils in crystalline mountainous regions such as Ardennes, Vosges and Massif Central; links with geochemistry, ecosystems and types of trees are discussed and perspectives are given for the calculation of acid and nitrogen critical loads on the whole France

  16. Effects of tectonics and lithology on long profiles of 16 rivers of the southern Central Massif border between the Aude and the Orb (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of longitudinal profiles of river channels and terraces in the southern Central Massif border, between the Aude and the Orb, allows the detection of anomalies caused by lithology and/or tectonic distortions. The rivers which have abnormally high slope and non-lithological knickzones indicate the main uplifted zones: the Montagne Noire and the Saint-Chinian ridge. A geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of detrital deposits was carried out as a basis for correlating the different formations, reconstructing the palaeodrainage and finding the main uplift and fluvial incision stages. During the Miocene, uplift remains limited as it is shown by the correlative fine deposits in the Languedocian piedmont. The Messinian incision (5.7-5.3 Ma) does not cross the Saint-Chinian ridge. On the other hand, fluvial incision becomes widespread in the Montagne Noire during the Upper Pliocene (3.4-2 Ma) when coarse deposits overlie either the Pliocene clay in the Orb palaeovalley or the Messinian conglomerates at the Cesse outlet. An Upper Pliocene uplift of the Montagne Noire and of the Saint-Chinian ridge is the cause of this incision and also of the diversion of the Cesse towards the Aude. Where the uplift rate was higher than incision rate, knickzones have developed like in the Avant-Monts south-side. The knickzones of lithological origin maintain a strong vertical stability during all the river incision stages. On the other hand, those of tectonic origin or base level lowering record upstream migration and their rate of retreat is controlled by the river discharge. As incision occurs only during the cold/temperate transition periods during the Quaternary, upward erosion slowly migrates (15 km since the Upper Pliocene, on the Orb) and so does not reach the riverheads.

  17. France at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  18. [Nurse anesthetist in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Yann, Douchy; De Almeida, Sylvie; Deckert, Christine; Gauss, Tobias; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Merckx, Paul; Mantz, Jean

    2006-12-01

    We present the system of nurse anesthetist (Infirmier Anesthésiste Diplômé d'Etat: IADE) in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. This French system with 70 years' history is older than the Japan Society of Anesthesiologists itself. There are 7000 nurse anesthetists in France now and the number of nurse anesthetists increases by 450-500 each year. Training to become a nurse anesthetist requires at least two years' experience as a general nurse and the general nurse must pass an examination after two years' special training in an anesthetistic nurse school to acquire the national certification. The nurse anesthetist's profession is regulated by French law. They work in a team with certified anesthesiologists. They can perform many kinds of anesthetic tasks including tracheal intubation and insertion of arterial catheter under the responsibility and supervision of certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to perform spinal, epidural, conduction and local anesthesia, although they can maintain these anesthesia and control these methods, e.g., by injecting local anesthetic agents through epidural catheter, following a specified prescription. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to insert central venous and pulmonary artery catheters, although they can manage them. They are allowed to administer inhalation anesthetic agents, and inject venous anesthetic agents, muscle relaxants, their antagonists, and opioids by their own initiatives, but the decision for the use of catecholamine and emergency drugs is reserved to certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists perform other tasks preparing and checking anesthetic agents and equipment such as anesthetic machine, monitor, and defibrillator everyday, and sometimes use autologous blood recovery systems. The relationship between the certified anesthesiologist and the nurse anesthetist is marked by mutual respect, confidence and cooperation at each step of the anesthetic

  19. Cadomian S-type granites as basement rocks of the Variscan belt (Massif Central, France): Implications for the crustal evolution of the north Gondwana margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzinié, Simon; Laurent, Oscar; Poujol, Marc; Mintrone, Michaël; Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Moyen, Jean-François; Bouilhol, Pierre; Vezinet, Adrien; Marko, Linda

    2017-08-01

    From the Neoproterozoic to the early Paleozoic, the northern Gondwana margin was sequentially shaped by the Cadomian accretionary and the Variscan collisional orogens which offers the opportunity to investigate the relative extent of crust production/reworking in both geodynamic settings. In the eastern part of the Variscan French Massif Central (FMC), the Velay Orthogneiss Formation (VOF) represents a consistent lithological unit of the pre-Variscan basement and comprises augen gneisses and leucogneisses. Such rocks constitute a unique record of the pre-Variscan magmatic history and bear critical information on the crustal evolution of the northern Gondwana margin. Here, we present whole-rock major and trace element compositions indicating that: (i) the VOF shows a remarkable geochemical homogeneity; (ii) the protolith of the augen gneisses corresponds to strongly peraluminous, ;S-type; porphyritic granites originating from partial melting of an Ediacaran sedimentary sequence; (iii) the leucogneisses are former leucogranites generated by fractionation of the magma at the origin of the porphyritic granites; and (iv) the whole suite emplaced at shallow crustal levels (< 7 km). U-Pb LA-(MC-)ICP-MS analyses on zircon yielded similar emplacement ages of c. 542 Ma and a narrow range of εHf(t) clustering around 0 for the protoliths of both augen and leucogneisses. This homogeneous Hf isotope signature, notably uncommon for S-type granites, would originate from a sequential process of: (i) inherited zircon dissolution during melting and ascent in the crust due to Zr-undersaturated conditions, (ii) isotopic homogenization of the melt by advection and elemental/isotopic diffusion, followed by (iii) early saturation upon emplacement owing to rapid cooling at shallow crustal levels. We propose that partial melting of Ediacaran sediments occurred during inversion of a Cadomian back-arc basin and was promoted by the high thermal gradient typical of thinned crust domains

  20. Programme and Abstracts. Workshop on Expert Evaluation and Control of Compound Semiconductor Materials and Technologies (1st) Held in Ecole Centrale De Lyon, France on 19 -22 May 1992. (EXAMTEC’ 92)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-22

    MADAN and V.K.TEWARY, Solar Cells, 9 (1983) 289-93. 0 Present Address : CNRS, 1 Place Aristide BRIAND, 92195 Meudon Cedex France. INFLUENCE OF THE BASE...Montpellier cedex5, France. (Fax: 67 14 37 60) 2) Institut of Semiconductor Electronics-RWTH, 5100 Aachen, Germany. 3) CLOES -SUPELEC, Universitd de Metz...LEPLEY(1), K. DMOWSKI(2) (1) CLOES /LOM, ESE, University of Metz, 2 rue E.Belin, F 57078 Metz cedex 3, FRANCE T61. 87 74 99 38 Fax 87 75 17 24 (2

  1. Control rod cluster drop time anomaly Guandong nuclear power station (Daya bay) and Electricite de France nuclear power stations (1450 MWe N4 Series); Anomalie de temps de chute des grappes de controle centrale de guang dong (daya bay) et centrales d`electricite de France (Palier N4-1450 MWE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivera, J.J.; Naury, S.; Tricot, N.; Tran Dai, P.; Gama, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The anomaly of control rod cluster drop time revealed at Guandong Nuclear Power Station in Daya Bay and in the Chooz B1 pilot unit for the N4 series, led to the replacement of the M1 type control rod cluster guide tubes with 1300 MWe PWR type guide tubes, adapted to the geometry of the Guandong reactors and the 1450 MWe reactors of the N4 series. The comparison of the drop times obtained with the 1300 MWe type control rod cluster guide 1300 MWe type control rod cluster guide tubes gave satisfactory results. These met the safety criterion for N4 series control rod cluster drop times (2.15 under hot shutdown conditions). The drop time tests which will be carried out in middle of and at the end of cycle 1 of Chooz B1 should make it possible to finally validate the solution already successfully implemented at Guandong. However, this anomaly has revealed the limits of representativeness of the experimental test loops with regard to the real reactor configuration. In view of this, it has been deemed necessary to ask Electricite de France to pursue its analysis both on the understanding of the phenomena which led to this anomaly and on the limits of the representativeness of the experimental test loops. (authors).

  2. The geology of uranium in the Saint-Sylvestre granite district (Limousin, Massif Central, France); La geologie de l'uranium dans le massif granitique de Saint-Sylvestre (Limousin - Massif Central Francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquaire, C.; Moreau, M.; Barbier, J.; Ranchin, G.; Carrat, H.G.; Coppens, R.; Senecal, J.; Koszotolanyi, C.; Dottin, H

    1969-07-01

    This report concerns the geology of uranium in Limousin, more particularly in the St-Sylvestre massif, and the related phenomena: regional geology, petrographic and geochemical zonal distribution observed in various granite massifs, uranium movement in connection with surface alteration, geochronology of uranium ore. The work is made up of six articles covering the various scientific aspects listed above. Each article is headed with an abstract. The paper comprises the following chapters: Foreword by Marcel ROUBAULT. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Outline of geological conditions in Northern Limousin and distribution of uraniferous occurrences. 2. J. BARBIER, G. RANCHIN, H. G. CARRAT and R. COPPENS Geology of the St-Sylvestre Massif and uranium geochemistry - Introduction to laboratory studies - Problems of methodology. 3. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Petrographical and geochemical zones in the St-Sylvestre granite massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central'). 4. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Uranium geochemistry in the St-Sylvestre Massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central') - Occurrences of primary geochemical uranium and replacement processes. 5. J. SENEGAL Monograph of the Brugeaud orebody. 6. R. COPPENS, Ch. KOSZTOLANYI and H. DOTTIN Geochronological study of the Brugeaud mine. 1969. (authors) [French] Ce memoire est consacre a la geologie de l'uranium dans le Limousin, plus specialement dans le massif de St-Sylvestre, et aux phenomenes qui s'y rattachent: geologie regionale, phenomenes de zonalite petrographique et geochimique dans certains massifs granitiques, mouvements de l'uranium lies a l'alteration superficielle, geochronologie du minerai d'uranium. L'ouvrage comprend six articles qui recouvrent les differents aspects scientifiques enumeres. Chacun de ces six articles est precede d'un resume. La composition du memoire st la suivante: Marcel ROUBAULT, Preface. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Esquisse geologique du

  3. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  4. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the main energy statistics of France for 2002: supplies, uses and sectoral consumption for all energies (coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, renewable energies); domestic production of primary energy (1973-2002); primary energy consumption (1973-2002); end-use energy consumption (1973-2002); general indicators (energy bill, US$ rate, prices, energy independence, GDP - 1973-2002); projections (primary energy consumption, 1973-2002); detailed data for petroleum, natural gas, electric power, and solid mineral fuels (resources, uses, prices, imports, production, domestic consumption, 1973-2002). (J.S.)

  5. Stratigraphie et sédimentologie des « calcaires à Productus » du Carbonifère inférieur de la Montagne noire (Massif central, France)Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Lower Carboniferous 'Calcaires à Productus' of the Montagne Noire (Massif Central, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poty, Édouard; Aretz, Markus; Barchy, Laurent

    The 'Calcaires à Productus' of the Montagne Noire are microbial build-ups. Two formations are defined and dated respectively as Uppermost Visean (Upper Warnantian-Brigantian) and Serpukhovian on the basis on corals. That makes these limestones out to be younger than previously stated (Lower and base of Upper Warnantian-Asbian and base of Brigantian) and indicates that the development of the olistoliths and thrusts including them, due to the Variscan orogeny, was at least as young as the Upper Serpukhovian. The Serpukhovian limestones of the Montagne Noire are correlated with the Lanet Limestone (Mouthoumet Massif, Corbières) and Ardengost Limestone (central Pyrenees). To cite this article: É. Poty et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 843-848.

  6. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays a central role in the appropriate performance of the activity. The legislative body - normally, the legislation is voted by Parliament. French Parliament is comprised of two chambers: the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly is elected for five years by way of direct universal voting. The Senate is elected by way of indirect universal voting by the electoral group. The election system is based on rules contained in the Election Code. The executive authority is divided between the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister. The President of the Republic makes the appointments for civil and military positions located at the highest state level. The Council of Ministers is responsible for appointing the positions of state councillors, prefect and public administration director. The central government is headed by the Prime Minister. Regional authorities – the regions are free territories administered by elected Councils. As far as the metropolitan part of France is concerned, there are 22 such territories, to which are added other four districts / counties which are located out of borders. The region’s Prefect represents the state and is empowered to deploy legal actions in order to protect the state’s best interest. County authorities – there are currently 96 de districts, to which four other territories located out of borders are added, as well as the territorial communities of Mayoutte and St-Pierre et Miquelon. There are

  7. Urban Sociology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  8. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  9. International Relations in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    Why is the French International Relations (IR) discipline different from the transnational-American discipline? By analysing argument structures in research articles across time, this book shows how the discipline in France is caught between the American character of the discipline and the French...

  10. Traveling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  11. Contesting views : the visual economy of France and Algeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Edward.; McGonagle, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Fifty years after Algerian independence, the legacy of France's Algerian past, and the ongoing complexities of the Franco-Algerian relationship, remain a key preoccupation in both countries. A central role in shaping understanding of their shared past and present is played by visual culture. This study investigates how relations between France and Algeria have been represented and contested through visual means since the outbreak of the Algerian War in 1954. It probes the contours of colonial...

  12. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Taxation in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  14. Terrorism in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telion, Caroline; Baker, David

    2003-01-01

    France has experienced two waves of major terrorist bombings since 1980. In the first wave (1985-1986), eight bombings occurred in Paris, killing 13 and injuring 281. In the second wave (1995-1996), six bombings occurred in Paris and Lyon, killing 10 and injuring 262. Based on lessons learned during these events, France has developed and improved a sophisticated national system for prehospital emergency response to conventional terrorist attacks based on its national emergency medical services (EMS) system, Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU). According to the national plan for the emergency medical response to mass-casualty events (White Plan), the major phases of EMS response are: (1) alert; (2) search and rescue; (3) triage of victims and provision of critical care to first priority victims; (4) regulated dispatch of victims to hospitals; and (5) psychological assistance. Following the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, a national plan for the emergency response to chemical and biological events (PIRATOX) was implemented. In 2002, the Ministries of Health and the Interior collaborated to produce a comprehensive national plan (BIOTOX) for the emergency response to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Key aspects of BIOTOX are the prehospital provision of specialized advance life support for toxic injuries and the protection of responders in contaminated environments. BIOTOX was successfully used during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in France.

  15. Utilizing alternative energy sources in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, M.

    1977-01-01

    The relative merits of various alternative-energy sources are discussed with particular reference to their suitability in the French context. The case is presented for decentralized solar power as against centralized solar-power production and some test installations in France are described. The potential for geothermal power is examined, and it is shown that the resource is essentially nonrenewable. A history of wind generation in France is presented, and power extraction from the seas is discussed, with particular reference to the Rance tidal-power scheme. While the public romance with alternative-energy schemes is accepted, it is pointed out that this may only last for as long as their implementation is on a small scale.

  16. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  17. Battle of France WWII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  18. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  19. [AIDS mortality in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G

    1986-01-01

    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  20. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  1. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  2. [Measles in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women).

  3. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  4. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  5. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  6. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  7. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  8. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  9. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, ash-free dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project from 1978-07-25 to 1978-09-12 by France (NODC Accession 0070783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, and ashfree dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project in Jul - Sep 1978 by...

  10. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  12. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  13. The "Casa" of Sevres, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltuch, Margot

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

  14. France Welcome Chinese Business Delegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the Press Communiqu(e) between China and France issued on 1st April,both sides decided to conduct high-level contact and strategic dialogue at a proper time to enhance bilateral cooperation in various fields and promote a harmonious and steady growth in Sino-France relations.Since then,the high officials from both countries experienced a frequent meet period.

  15. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  16. Comparative trends and seasonal variation of ⁷Be, ²¹⁰Pb and ¹³⁷Cs at two altitude sites in the central part of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, L; Masson, O; Laj, P; Pichon, J M; Paulat, P; Freney, E; Sellegri, K

    2011-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs, ²¹⁰Pb, and ⁷Be were measured over a three-year period at two research stations located less than 12 km apart and at different altitudes (puy de Dôme, 1465 m a.s.l. and Opme, 660 m a.s.l., France). Seasonal trends in all radionuclides were observed at both stations, with high concentration measured during the summer and low concentrations during the winter. The ²¹⁰Pb concentrations at both stations were similar to each other. Higher concentrations of both ⁷Be and ¹³⁷Cs were measured at puy de Dôme than at Opme. These observations can be explained by the stratospheric and upper tropospheric sources of ⁷Be and the long-range transportation of ¹³⁷Cs at high altitudes. Air mass origins during sampling periods were classified into several groups by their route to the stations (marine, marine modified, continental and mediterranean). We observed that ⁷Be concentrations were constant regardless of the air mass origins, unlike ¹³⁷Cs and ²¹⁰Pb concentrations that increased when influenced by continental air masses. Higher ⁷Be concentrations were observed when air masses were arriving from the upper troposphere than from the boundary layer, the opposite was observed for ¹³⁷Cs. The temporal trend in concentrations of ⁷Be shows good agreement with previous modelling studies suggesting that there is a good understanding of its sources and the atmospheric vertical mixing of this radionuclide. The sources and mixing of ²¹⁰Pb, however, seem to be more complex than it appeared to be in previous modelling studies.

  17. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i map the reported cases in France, and ii produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model. Results Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central, at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9°C average, 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France. Conclusion Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France.

  18. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  19. Modalities of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in fine-grained sedimentary rocks deformed in a contraction-dominated setting - A case study of the Central Armorican Domain, Brittany, France

    OpenAIRE

    Haerinck, Tom

    2014-01-01

    An integrated rock-magnetic and mineralogical approach is performed for a case study of low-grade metasedimentary rocks from the Central Armorican Domain (CAD). The objective is twofold. Firstly, gaining a better understanding of the relation between the mineral sources of magnetic susceptibility and the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Secondly, verifying whether the magnetic fabrics have a potential as a regional strain marker. For this goal, a lithostratigraphical reference uni...

  20. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  1. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  2. New Phase Between China and France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In recent years,the economic cooperation between China and France has developed rapidly.In despite of the bilateral relationship was fluctuating last year,two countries kept on making their efforts to improve the relation.The 15th China-France Economic Seminar was held on April 8 and 9,in Beijing.The theme of this seminar is "Challenges and Opportunities:Beginning New Cooperation between China and France",after a statement concerning "France fully recognizes 'the importance and sensitivity of the Tibet issue' and that France refuses to support any form of Tibet independence"issued by China and France on April 1.

  3. Évolution géodynamique messino-pliocène en Languedoc central: le paléo-réseau hydrographique de l'Orb et de l'Hérault (sud de la France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambert, Paul; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Michaux, Jacques

    1998-03-01

    The proposed reinterpretation of the Upper Neogene geodynamics in central Languedoc is based on both new paleontological and field data. Rodents from the newly discovered fossil mammal-bearing locality of Aigues-Vives and those recently extracted from the site of Servian give the chronological frame. The cartography of the sediments linked to the Messinian erosional phase, as well as those of the Pliocene sequence synthetized the field observations. A precise plotting is given both for the river system cut during the Messinian crisis (Orb, Hérault, and some of their tributary streams) and for the Pliocene shoreline especially in the case of the rias formed at the time of the marine transgression. During the Messinian crisis, the bed of the Hérault river was incised less than the other river beds because the limestones of the immediate upper part of the area allowed a deep burying of the water table. Central Languedoc illustrates a geodynamical evolution according to Clauzon's model of the Messinian endoreic eustatism for the Mediterranean.

  4. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  5. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  6. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    criterion influencing choice. 6. The rational food consumers stand for 35% of the population. Food and food products are an important part of these consumers' lives, and are essential for achieving such basic values as self-fulfilment, recognition, social togetherness and security. This gives rise......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central life...... values. We call them the uninvolved, the moderate, the conservative, the rational and the hedonistic food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 18% of the population. These consumers are uninvolved in practically every...

  8. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    values. We call them the uninvolved, the moderate, the conservative, the rational and the hedonistic food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 18% of the population. These consumers are uninvolved in practically every......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central life...... for the French population as a whole in nearly all dimensions of food related lifestyle. This is the picture of a food consumer one would get if one only looked at the average for the whole population and did not divide it into segments: moderate interest in nearly all aspect of shopping and cooking. 5...

  9. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  10. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    OpenAIRE

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, V?ronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Maril?na; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, Fran?ois; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  11. Pyemotes ventricosus dermatitis, southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  12. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires", (2) village schools, (3) the…

  13. [Nurse home visits in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguillon, Dominique; Gracia, Pierre-Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Nurse home visits in France. More and more nurses carry out home visits, either as freelance nurses or employees of a nurse home visits service, a home hospital care structure or a nursing care centre. These home visits are both demanded by patients and encouraged by the health authorities. As a consequence, the service is expanding every year.

  14. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  15. 2035: a no nuclear France; 2035: une France sans nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2011-06-15

    The authors propose a prospective scenario: the newly elected French president decides of a 20-year program to give up nuclear energy production. First, the Fessenheim and Gravelines reactors are closed. The others are to be closed by 2035. Investments are decided for offshore wind energy production, methanation projects, housing thermal insulation. Employees of the nuclear energy sector are taken into account. The authors describe the situation in 2020: energy supply problems, 5 more years of lifetime awarded to some nuclear power stations, decision to build only positive energy buildings, mandatory housing renovation, job creation, decision to develop carbon capture and storage projects. In 2025: the dismantling of nuclear reactors is going on and its cost is assessed, always more electrical vehicles, drastic cost reduction for lithium batteries. In 2035: renewable energies represent the half of the energy mix, the dismantling activity is a success for Areva. In parallel, current figures are given for energy consumption per year and per person in France and Germany, for energy French exports and imports, for electricity cost associated with the different energy sources, for the energy mix in France, for the number of jobs in the nuclear sector. In an interview, a member of the CEA comments the Italian, German and Swiss decisions to give up nuclear energy, the possibilities of its replacement by renewable energies, and the challenges associated with such a decision in France

  16. [End of life in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  17. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  18. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  19. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays...

  20. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  1. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  2. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English in Central Mexico Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema Mora Pablo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta.

  3. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  4. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  5. Studying in France,Serving at Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    DEAR EDITOR, I am a 75-year-old retired primary school teacher. I published my new work The Work-Study Movement of Young Chinese in France (1912-1930) three years ago, expressing my fondness of history, especially China’s history. Currently, I pay more attention to the Chinese women who came to France for studies in their early years, Could you publish some precise information on their situations before and after returning to China? GABRIELLE REYGNER FRANCE

  6. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  7. The public safety and Gaz de France; La securite du public et Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of its utilities missions, Gaz de France has to assure the public safety and the continuity of the gas supply chain. To avoid accidents and help victims of accidents, Gas de France implemented a system of financial assistance but also a preventive action to verify the installations. The first part of the document presents the liabilities of Gas de France, the second part deals with the voluntarist approach of Gas de france towards the public safety. (A.L.B.)

  8. Les origines de la fabrication des antibiotiques en France

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin is introduced in France by the US Health Services Landing. Experimental work is carried dice 1943 by Rhône-Poulenc and Roussel.The firsts French productions are performed in 1945 under the aegis of the Central Pharmacy of the Armed Forces by military doctors and pharmacists of the 2nd DB directed by the physician Commander Peter Broch extracting penicillin from the urine of American soldiers treated this drug.This episode was called Pipiline.From 1947 plants are built that will all...

  9. Bank of France: The challenge of escaping politicization

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, David

    2009-01-01

    This contribution will show that Europeanization since 1993—the independence of the Bank of France in 1994 and the transfer of monetary policy powers to the European Central Bank (ECB) in 1999—had a clear and direct impact on the power and roles of the Governor and the members of the Conseil de la Politique Monétaire (MPC), but a less obvious impact on the organisation and responsibilities of the Bank itself. Independence and the 1999 transfer have also had a direct impact upon the Bank’s rol...

  10. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  11. Administrative and Judicial Cooperation in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is very little knowledge in the Netherlands of how economic private law and public law are enforced in France. In France too, however, scant information can be gleaned. There is little if any contact in the university community between criminal law and administrative law, partly because crimin

  12. Natech disasters risk management in France

    OpenAIRE

    Vallée, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    International audience; France is subjected to several types of natural phenomena (floods, earthquake, landslides, storms, forest fires...) and to attacks potentially generated by human activities (industrial facilities, nuclear power plants, transportation of dangerous goods...). The natural and technological risks are managed in France, as regards prevention, protection, intervention, in order to limit their human and economic consequences. Furthermore, an industrial accident could be trigg...

  13. Arctic interests and policy of France

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri I. Rubinsky

    2016-01-01

    The author considers scientific, economic and political activities of France for the development and exploration of the Arctic, providing security there. Along with some other non-Arctic countries, France is not ready to accept such a situation when eight members of the Arctic Council solve Arctic problems on behalf of all mankind.

  14. Elite Education and the State in France: Durable Ties and New Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Agnès; Maxwell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Employing a Weberian understanding of the centrality of a strong bureaucracy in the modern nation-state, this article examines the relationship between the state and elite education in France. Through a historical analysis and an examination of two current issues facing education--widening participation and pressures to internationalise--we…

  15. Finding One's Place in the Republic: Educating for Citizenship in a Diversifying France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Travis William

    2013-01-01

    The school, France's traditional vehicle for integrating diverse populations into a national culture and fostering civic participation, has encountered difficulties in fulfilling its central mission as demographic shifts have given rise to competing conceptions of religious, cultural, ethnic, political and national identity. For French society the…

  16. Finding One's Place in the Republic: Educating for Citizenship in a Diversifying France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Travis William

    2013-01-01

    The school, France's traditional vehicle for integrating diverse populations into a national culture and fostering civic participation, has encountered difficulties in fulfilling its central mission as demographic shifts have given rise to competing conceptions of religious, cultural, ethnic, political and national identity. For French society the…

  17. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  18. Public health implications of contamination of Franc CFA (XAF) circulating in Buea (Cameroon) with drug resistant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Gaelle, Nana; Dilonga, Henry Meriki; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa K

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in different parts of the world have implicated money as a vehicle for transmission of pathogens. Such information which is necessary to facilitate infection control strategies is lacking in many sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon. This study analyzed the Franc de la Communauté Financiere d’Afrique (Franc CFA), the currency used in Cameroon and other countries in the Central African sub-region, as a potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, ...

  19. [The occupational physician in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information.

  20. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  1. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  2. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  3. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  4. Cold wake of Hurricane Frances

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asaro, Eric A.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Niiler, P. Peter; Terrill, Eric J.

    2007-08-01

    An array of instruments air-deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances measured the three-dimensional, time dependent response of the ocean to this strong (60 ms-1) storm. Sea surface temperature cooled by up to 2.2°C with the greatest cooling occurring in a 50-km-wide band centered 60-85 km to the right of the track. The cooling was almost entirely due to vertical mixing, not air-sea heat fluxes. Currents of up to 1.6 ms-1 and thermocline displacements of up to 50 m dispersed as near-inertial internal waves. The heat in excess of 26°C, decreased behind the storm due primarily to horizontal advection of heat away from the storm track, with a small contribution from mixing across the 26°C isotherm. SST cooling under the storm core (0.4°C) produced a 16% decrease in air-sea heat flux implying an approximately 5 ms-1 reduction in peak winds

  5. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR...

  7. Register for the local elections in France

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2007-01-01

    If you are a European Union citizen residing in France and wish to vote in the forthcoming local elections you must register on the supplementary register at your town hall (mairie) before 31 December 2007. EU citizens are regarded as residing in France if their primary residence is in France or if they live there continuously. To be eligible to vote you must: be a national of one of the 26 listed States of the European Union and present a valid identification document. Residence permits are valid; be at least 18 years old by the closing date of revision of the supplementary electoral register, i.e. by the last day of February; enjoy civic rights both in France and in your State of origin. For more information: http://vosdroits.service-public.fr/particuliers/F1937.xhtml?&n=Elections&l=N4&n=Elections%20politiques&l=N47

  8. Chinese Peking Opera Troupe Visits France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Municipal Government of Marmande, France and the Festival de Sylvanes, a Chinese Peking Opera troupe, drawn mainly from the National Academy of Chinese Theatre Arts and sent by the CPAFFC,visited France from August 19 to 31 to introduce the quintessence of Chinese culture through their performances.An additional purpose was to promote exchanges between the two countries in theatrical arts and culture,thus enhancing mutual

  9. Privatizations and corporate governance in France

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, A.

    2013-01-01

    From the middle of 1993, the French government has followed an ambitious privatisation programme. Nine major state-owned enterprises have been at least partially sold; other companies some of which are amongst the largest in France, will be sold in the next few years. An analysis is undertaken of how the post-1993 privatisations have related to changes in both the mechanisms of corporate governance and the market for corporate control. Privatisation in France is found to be tactically motivat...

  10. Obesity framing for health policy development in Australia, France and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, Annabelle D; Yeatman, Heather R; Johnson, Keryn M

    2016-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is a consequence of the interaction of cultural, environmental, genetic and behavioural factors; framing the issue is central to determining appropriate solutions. This study used content and thematic framing analysis to explore portrayal of responsibility for obesity in policy documents in Australia, France and Switzerland. For Australia and France, obesity causality was a combination of individual and environmental factors, but for Switzerland, it was predominantly individual. The primary solutions for all countries were health promotion strategies and children's education. Industry groups proposed more school education while health advocates advised government intervention. Where France emphasized cultural attitudes towards taste, Australia focused on sport. The French were most keen on legislating against unhealthy foods compared with Switzerland where there was opposition towards regulation of individual's choices. To curb the increasing prevalence of obesity, allocation of responsibility needs to be considered and initiatives enacted accordingly.

  11. [Epidemiology of nephrolithiasis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudon, M

    2005-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent disease that affects about 10% of people in western countries. The prevalence of calcium oxalate stones has been constantly increasing during the past fifty years in France as well as in other industrialized countries. Stone composition varies depending to gender and age of patients and also underlines the role of other risk factors and associated pathologies such as body mass index and diabetes mellitus. The decrease in struvite frequency in female patients is the result of a significantly improved diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections by urea-splitting bacteria. In contrast, the increasing occurrence of weddellite calculi in stone forming women aged more than 50 years could be the consequence of post-menopausal therapy. A high prevalence of uric acid was found in overweight and obese stone formers and in diabetic ones as well. Another important finding was the increased occurrence with time of calcium oxalate stones formed from papillary Randall's plaques, especially in young patients. Nutritional risk factors for stone disease are well known: they include excessive consumption of animal proteins, sodium chloride and rapidly absorbed glucides, and insufficient dietary intake of fruits and potassium-rich vegetables, which provide an alkaline load. As a consequence, an excessive production of hydrogen ions may induce several urinary disorders including low urine pH, high urine calcium and uric acid excretion and low urine citrate excretion. Excess in calorie intake, high chocolate consumption inducing hyperoxaluria and low water intake are other factors, which favour excessive urine concentration of solutes. Restoring the dietary balance is the first advice to prevent stone recurrence. However, the striking increase of some types of calculi, such as calcium oxalate stones developed from Randall's plaque, should alert to peculiar lithogenetic risk factors and suggests that specific advices should be given to prevent stone

  12. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  13. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J.A.; Carrat, J.; Poughon, A.; Sanselme, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  14. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, D; Antoine, D

    2011-07-01

    A total of 5,758 tuberculosis cases were notified in France in 2008, giving a rate of nine cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The median age was 45 years and 59% of cases were male patients. Île-de-France (Paris and greater Paris area) and French Guiana had the highest notification rate in 2008 (17.9/10(5) and 22.6/10(5) respectively). The rate of tuberculosis was higher in individuals born abroad (43.2/10(5) vs. 5.0/10(5) for individuals born in France), especially those recently arrived in France. Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 72% of notified cases, 76% of which were potentially contagious (positive sputum smear, or culture). Compared to 2007, the number of notified tuberculosis cases increased by 3.3% in 2008. This increase was not accompanied by a rise of severe cases (meningitis and miliary TB); this seemed to be due partly to improvement in identification and notification of cases. However this trend could require specific monitoring in future years. A national tuberculosis control program was launched in France in 2007, aiming at reducing epidemiological disparities. Clinical and public health expertise needs to be maintained on all the territory to ensure that implemented measures can have the expected impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  15. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key.

  16. France and the Austrian Empire 1815-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between France and the Habsburg Empire during the long nineteenth century went through several phases bounded by the events crucial not just to the two countries' mutual relations but to all of Europe. The Congress of Vienna defined their mutual relations for the next thirty years. The Habsburgs and their omnipresent minister Metternich were fearful of revolutionary and liberal movements traditionally having their origins in France. And it was the revolutionary events of 1848 that brought about a change in the balance of power and their mutual relations. Metternich's retirement and, more importantly, the arrival of the Russian armies in Central Europe and the subsequent strengthening of Prussia, conferred a new importance to the role of the Habsburg Monarchy as a bulwark against the advancement of Russia and a vital counterweight to Prussia. With the defeat of Napoleon III and the creation of Germany with Alsace and Lorraine Franco-Austrian relations entered a new phase. The destiny of the two provinces alienated the Habsburgs from the French Republic, especially after the reorganization of Europe into two confronting blocs. The logic of alliances led to their being adversaries in the world conflict, although Napoleon III's geo-strategic analyses remained present almost to its very end, when Clemenceau's government gave support to the nationality principle thereby crucially contributing to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy.

  17. [The history of psychoanalytic training in France: a contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valabrega, J P

    1989-01-01

    I/A local history of analytic training in France must first of all be placed within the context of the evolution of psychoanalysis from its origin (Freud, Vienna, 1900) and as it spread from there throughout the world (the International Association, 1910) and pursued its activity through two World Wars. II/The waves of emigration of Jewish populations on the one hand, and a law of alternating expansion and rejection on the other left an important mark on this evolution. III/In France especially, and in the post-war period (in the 50s), a great number of scissions took place: a scission with the International Psychoanalytic Association to start with, and then within the renewal initiated during this period by Jacques Lacan; problems linked to analytic training having always been the cause and the main issue of these separations. IV/At present the Group whose theoretical positions we are presenting has provided the following conceptual foundations to the question of training: 1/The unification of analytic practice and formative practice within the theoretico-clinical field. 2/The redefinition of the unit formed by Transference/Counter-transference/Transferred materials as a central element in both these practices. 3/The definition and theory of the "Analyse quatrième" as the basis of the training process. 4/The definition of the interanalytic session that evolves into a habilitating session, as an authority determining the critical and collective elaboration of analytic and formative practice considered as a whole.

  18. [Pneumococcal vaccination in France among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Gérard

    2002-01-01

    Pneumococcal vaccination has for long be controversial but has today a proven efficacy and efficiency in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia, especially their most serious expressions leading to hospitalisation or death. France has an exceptional situation, as it is one of the developed country with the lowest rate of vaccination. This is the result of restrictive, maladjusted and discrepant recommendations of different commissions and committees. The gap is even more glaring with the flue vaccination program which has nearly the same medical indications. France was the first country in the world to set up a flue vaccination program for the elderly and some chronic conditions, and this program is an obvious success. For the twentieth anniversary of this program, his author propose to extend it to pneumococcal vaccination for a better prevention of what is the first cause of death from infectious disease in France with 6000 to 13000 deaths per year.

  19. The chemical industry of uranium in France; L'industrie chimique de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  20. Chinese Liyuan Opera Troupe in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoZhongwei

    2004-01-01

    The China Fujian Liyuan Opera Troupe visited France from October 16 to 21, 2003 and staged a special performance at the Theatre of the City of Paris(Theatre de la Ville de Paris) on October 20. The performance was one of the major items on the list of opera shows during the “China Culture Year” held in France. The plan to send a Chinese local opera troupe to take part in the “China Culture Year” was worked out jointly by the CPAFFC and Pierre-Jean de San Bartolome, cultural attache of the French Embassy in China.

  1. Eudora Welty in France: Questions of Obliqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Pothier

    2010-01-01

    Ten years ago the Summer 1999 issue of the Eudora Welty Newsletter opened on a section on “Welty and France”. The main article, “A Translator’s Perspective” was by Welty’s chief translator in France, Michel Gresset. Gresset lamented that Welty “had not fared as well” in France as other Southern writers like Faulkner or O’Connor, and he wondered if it was because she had not been translated by Maurice Edgar Coindreau. Michel Gresset’s article traced the history of the late and haphazard story ...

  2. Eudora Welty in France: Questions of Obliqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pothier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the Summer 1999 issue of the Eudora Welty Newsletter opened on a section on “Welty and France”. The main article, “A Translator’s Perspective” was by Welty’s chief translator in France, Michel Gresset. Gresset lamented that Welty “had not fared as well” in France as other Southern writers like Faulkner or O’Connor, and he wondered if it was because she had not been translated by Maurice Edgar Coindreau. Michel Gresset’s article traced the history of the late and haphazard story ...

  3. Eudora Welty in France: Questions of Obliqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Pothier

    2010-01-01

    Ten years ago the Summer 1999 issue of the Eudora Welty Newsletter opened on a section on “Welty and France”. The main article, “A Translator’s Perspective” was by Welty’s chief translator in France, Michel Gresset. Gresset lamented that Welty “had not fared as well” in France as other Southern writers like Faulkner or O’Connor, and he wondered if it was because she had not been translated by Maurice Edgar Coindreau. Michel Gresset’s article traced the history of the late and haphazard story ...

  4. Religion, laïcité et politique en France

    OpenAIRE

    De Gasquet, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    Cours dispensé lors de la session d'été de l'Institute of French Studies à NYU, antenne de Paris.Niveau graduate.; Master; Depuis les successives affaires du foulard jusqu'à la Manif pour tous, les questions religieuses occupent une place centrale dans les débats politiques français contemporains et contredisent les représentations de la France comme un pays laïque où la religion serait totalement reléguée dans la sphère privée. Ce cours proposera de revenir sur les spécificités de la régulat...

  5. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  6. Which sustainable energy policy in France?; Quelle politique energetique durable en France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Concurrently to the National Debate on the energies, a real debate has been proposed by seven associations of the environment protection and improvement. This debate, international, wonders on the energy choices in France. Presentations of the interveners and working documents are provided on the following topics: energy choices for the economic development, renewable energies, the possibilities and the development of the solar energy in France, the economic interest of the cogeneration, quick overview of the wind energy in France, energy production data, the transport and the greenhouse effect, the sustainable development and the energy policy and the local governments. (A.L.B.)

  7. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  8. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  9. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  10. The reception of Cambodian refugees in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, G.D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cambodian refugees’ arrival in France has helped initiate an atypical political mobilization in the process of their reception. The French political power balance, the sociocultural “mood” (zeitgeist) and the “mediatization” of the Indochinese region have impacted on their resettlement and given the

  11. Lombroso in France. A paradoxical reception

    OpenAIRE

    Renneville, Marc

    2013-01-01

    International audience; La réception paradoxale de Lombroso en France. Initialement positive voire enthousiaste, cette réception est rapidement devenue critique tout en donnant une large audience à la théorie du criminel-né

  12. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  13. Is cancer mortality increasing in France?

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, C.; Jan, P; Doyon, F

    2001-01-01

    Long-term trends in cancer mortality are reported by site. Overall, cancer mortality has been decreasing in France since 1987 in the male population and since 1968 in the female population. Improvement in treatments and diagnosis should lead to persistently declining mortality rates, unless the tobacco epidemic reverses the trend in female mortality. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

  14. France's Rich Relation: The Oc Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasco, Simon

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of Occitan, a Romance language spoken in a large portion of France, looks at the history; irregular characteristics; orthographic and morphophonemic variations across dialects; and present status, which is in danger of becoming extinct because of neglect, of the language. (MSE)

  15. Caricature freedom of expression in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present a sample of the way in France, the acclaimed birthplace and home of freedom of expression, censored, persecuted, and even imprisons those who dare to criticize the Israel lobby or their positions are not in tune with the thought “warm” right, the academic and cultural world

  16. Limits to expression on religion in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a cert

  17. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  18. Competitive development of the agricultural enterprises France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yushkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities

  19. "Bonne Route"...avec Radio France Internationale ("Have a Good Trip"...with Radio France Internationale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saivre, Denyse

    1989-01-01

    Radio France International, the Alliance Francaise, and the Hachette publishing company have collaborated to develop an instructional radio series linking the broadcasts with published instructional materials. Considerations addressed in the program's development are discussed. (MSE)

  20. Les instituts universitaires de technologie en France. (The university institutes of technology in France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Gaston

    1971-01-01

    In 1966 France passed legislation naming three types of technical training: two year postbaccalaureate, short-cycle for those without a bachelor's degree, adult education, for those already employed. (MF)

  1. Petroleum in France: the main results in 2005; Petrole en France: les principaux resultats en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This presentation takes stock on the petroleum market in France in 2005. It provides information on the petroleum consumption, the imports and exports, the prices, the production, the refineries and the stocks. (A.L.B.)

  2. The Future of the CEMAC CFA Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Agbor Agbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 currency boards have come into existence at some point since the mid-19th century, but to date only about 15 of them still exist, among which is the CFA franc monetary zone. The future sustainability of the CFA franc zone, to which the CEMAC CFA franc belongs, is increasingly questioned in the light of increasing asymmetries in exposure to external shocks, differential speeds of adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks, differential impacts in economic fundamentals, and low levels of intra-regional trade and financial flows between CEMAC and WAEMU. For the CEMAC bloc of countries in particular, the future sustainability of the fixed exchange regime depends crucially on continued oil exports, which currently represent about 90percent of export revenues and 40 percent of GDP. Should oil reserves deplete in the near future or oil prices decline significantly, a substantial source of foreign reserves would be lost, thereby exposing the regime to collapse. Even without resource depletion, continued volatility in global financial markets is increasing the risks of collapse of the fixed exchange regime as oil and commodity price swings ignite currency speculation as well as render reserves much more volatile. Against this backdrop, the present study examines the stakes facing the CEMAC CFA franc, discusses the exit options from the currency board and makes recommendations towards a sustainable monetary policy framework for CEMAC countries going forward. The analysis points to the imperative of pursuing a full monetary union with a single CEMAC franc pegged to the U.S. dollar and further suggest that, like the experience of the eurozone, the CEMAC monetary arrangement can be best implemented only by complying with the principle of political union.

  3. Satellite remote sensing of hailstorms in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Pablo; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía

    2016-12-01

    Hailstorms are meteorological phenomena of great interest to the scientific community, owing to their socioeconomic impact, which is mainly on agricultural production. With its global coverage and high spatial and temporal resolution, satellite remote sensing can contribute to monitoring of such events through the development of appropriate techniques. This paper presents an extensive validation in the south of France of a hail detection tool (HDT) developed for the Middle Ebro Valley (MEV). The HDT is based on consecutive application of two filters, a convection mask (CM) and hail mask (HM), using spectral channels of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The south of France is an ideal area for studying hailstorms, because there is a robust database of hail falls recorded by an extensive network of hailpads managed by the Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fleáux Atmosphériques (ANELFA). The results show noticeably poorer performance of the HDT in France relative to that in the MEV, with probability of detection (POD) 60.4% and false alarm rate (FAR) 26.6%. For this reason, a new tool to suit the characteristics of hailstorms in France has been developed. The France Hail Detection Tool (FHDT) was developed using logistic regression from channels of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor of the MSG. The FHDT was validated, resulting in POD 69.3% and FAR 15.4%, thus improving hail detection in the study area as compared with the previous tool. The new tool was tested in a case study with satisfactory results, supporting its future practical application.

  4. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  5. Fourth High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation Held in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang; Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    To substantiate the Medium and Long-Term Plan for ChinaFrance Relations and build a strong people-to-people and cultural exchange mechanism,the Fourth High Level China-France Forumon Local Government Cooperation was held in Strasburg from November 6 to 7,2014.The Forum,jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development,the French National Committee of Local Government Co-

  6. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  7. 78 FR 75579 - Low Enriched Uranium From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium from France would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Low Enriched Uranium from France: Investigation No. 731-TA-909 (Second Review). By order of...

  8. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  9. The Post-traditional Chef in Traditional France: Negotiating the Gastronational myth in Le chef en France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    narrative. The paper will explore an example of this tendency, namely the French show Le Chef en France (2012)hosted by France celebrity chef number one: Cyril Lignac. The analysis will focus on how the show tries to reconstruct a myth of France as a unique culture united by specific French attitude towards...

  10. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  11. Complete Genome and Phylogeny of Puumala Hantavirus Isolates Circulating in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Couteaudier, Mathilde; Sauvage, Frank; Pons, Jean-Baptiste; Murri, Séverine; Plyusnina, Angelina; Pontier, Dominique; Cosson, Jean-François; Plyusnin, Alexander; Marianneau, Philippe; Tordo, Noël

    2015-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) is the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. NE incidence presents a high spatial variation throughout France, while the geographical distribution of the wild reservoir of PUUV, the bank vole, is rather continuous. A missing piece of the puzzle is the current distribution and the genetic variation of PUUV in France, which has been overlooked until now and remains poorly understood. During a population survey, from 2008 to 2011, bank voles were trapped in eight different forests of France located in areas known to be endemic for NE or in area from where no NE case has been reported until now. Bank voles were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig)G ELISA serology and two seropositive animals for each of three different areas (Ardennes, Jura and Orleans) were then subjected to laboratory analyses in order to sequence the whole S, M and L segments of PUUV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that French PUUV isolates globally belong to the central European (CE) lineage although isolates from Ardennes are clearly distinct from those in Jura and Orleans, suggesting a different evolutionary history and origin of PUUV introduction in France. Sequence analyses revealed specific amino acid signatures along the N protein, including in PUUV from the Orleans region from where NE in humans has never been reported. The relevance of these mutations in term of pathophysiology is discussed. PMID:26506370

  12. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Malausa

    Full Text Available Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  13. Diphtheria: a zoonotic disease in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmarin, Isabelle; Guiso, Nicole; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Patey, Olivier; Patrick, A D Grimont; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2009-06-24

    Thanks to vaccination, diphtheria has almost disappeared in France. The case definition, used for mandatory notification, was expanded in 2003 to include toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium ulcerans. We describe the epidemiology of diphtheria in France from 1990 to 2008. No cases occurred between 1990 and 2001. Since 2002, 19 cases have been reported: 4 cases due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae related to exposure in endemic countries, and 15 cases due to other corynebacteria, including 4 cases of pseudomembranous pharyngitis, mainly related to contact with domestic animals. High vaccination coverage in the population and sensitive surveillance need to be maintained. Moreover, control measures need to be adapted to the non-C. diphtheriae toxigenic species.

  14. Acerca de Juana Francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Orgaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la desigual visibilidad de Juana Francés frente al resto de compañeros de su generación, el artículo considera algunos de los factores que provocaron esta injusta situación. Así mismo se aborda un recorrido por la intensa y variada trayectoria creativa de la artista que incluye sus etapas más significativas analizadas.Taking into account the poor visibility of Juana Francés compared to tfie rest of tier generation colleagues, ttie article reflects on some of tfie causes ttiat provoked this unfair situation. In addition to that, tfie article explores the intense and diverse artistic career including her most significant stages.

  15. La production des huiles essentielles en France

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Xavier; Monge, Romain; Chailan, Claude

    2012-01-01

    National audience; The essential oil production in France : species, economy, enhancing.; L'huile essentielle ou essence végétale se définit comme étant un liquide hydrophobe des composés odoriférants volatils secrété par une plante. Ce mélange complexe de diverses molécules (alcools, terpènes, cétones, etc...) est obtenu par distillation à la vapeur d'eau ; en France, ces productions originales sont partie prenante d'une filière dont l'aval est constitué par l'industrie du parfum, de la cosm...

  16. Privatizations and corporate governance in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GOLDSTEIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available From the middle of 1993, the French government has followed an ambitious privatisation programme. Nine major state-owned enterprises have been at least partially sold; other companies some of which are amongst the largest in France, will be sold in the next few years. An analysis is undertaken of how the post-1993 privatisations have related to changes in both the mechanisms of corporate governance and the market for corporate control. Privatisation in France is found to be tactically motivated rather than being spurred by efficiency. Privatisation opened more political than economic opportunities, and corporate governance stayed in stable entities to protect managers from take-over threats. However, a move that will allow organisational competition between Anglo-Saxon and German-Japanese mechanisms may further improve governance of large French corporations.

  17. Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Arrondel; Majdi Debbich; Frédérique Savignac

    2013-01-01

    How are people financially literate in France? We address this question using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c) approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification, inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depe...

  18. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesson Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  19. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  20. Shielding design for PWR in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, G.; Charransol; Le Dieu de Ville, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T.

    1983-05-01

    Shielding calculation scheme used in France for PWR is presented here for 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants built by EDF the French utility giving electricity. Neutron dose rate at areas accessible by personnel during the reactor operation is calculated and compared with the measurements which were carried out in 900 MWe units up to now. Measurements on the first French 1300 MWe reactor are foreseen at the end of 1983.

  1. Pingyao Traditional Cultural Exhibition Mounted in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni; Yuan

    2014-01-01

    <正>On the initiative of Provins,a commune in the Nord Department of Northern France and a friendship city of Pingyao in Shanxi Province,an exhibition of Pingyao traditional cultural and art works was staged from June 14 to 17.On display in the ancient SaintQuiriace Collegiate Church were 40 artworks characteristic of the traditional folk art of North China including old photos of Pingyao,calligraphic works,paintings,paper-cut,embroidery and shadow puppets.

  2. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  3. France: Nukes Stuck between NATO and EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Between U.S., UK And French Nuclear Policies And Doctrines, Paris: Chercheur associe au CERI , 2007; Bruno Tertrais, “France,” In Governing the Bomb, by...Policies And Doctrines, Paris: Chercheur associe au CERI , 2007; Bruno Tertrais, “The Last to Disarm? The Future of France’s Nuclear Weapons...2007. ———. A Comparison Between U.S., UK And French Nuclear Policies And Doctrines. Paris: Chercheur associe au CERI , 2007. Tertrais, Bruno

  4. Frances Keesler Graham (1918-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    Frances Keesler Graham, noted psychophysiologist and developmental researcher, died on April 16, 2013. Fran was born in Canastota, New York, on August 1, 1918. Fran's high-quality research, her success in obtaining 39 years of uninterrupted funding, and the very high regard in which she was held among her colleagues led to numerous awards and honors. Fran was demanding but equally willing to provide extensive assistance to students willing to work hard.

  5. [Suicide in France, a situational analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facy, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    The fall in the number of suicides in France in no way diminishes the urgent need to act and reinforce the efforts, initiatives and resources to fight against this human tragedy. Public policies are starting to show results. The action of the French national suicide watch, associations, health professionals as well as the perspectives of the French national mental health council should amplify this movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Hospital planning in France and the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenstetter, C

    1980-01-01

    This article on hospital planning programs in France and North-Rhine Westfalia (a state in the Federal Republic of Germany), assembles information on the formal building blocks of inter-organizational relations in the formulation and implementation process. Because these planning programs are embedded in past social policy developments and institution-building, it is necessary to first compare the two countries' compulsory health insurance schemes. This is followed by a general profile of each health care system. A third section examines the formulation and implementation of the countries' hospital planning programs and participation patterns. Based on this comparison, inferences are drawn that are relevant to policy and research. The analysis yields three major conclusions. First, despite abundant legal and administrative controls at the disposal of central health bureaucracies, the capability of the national leadership to influence the hospital system through innovative planning is limited by jurisdictional, institutional, functional and territorial fragmentation, and differentiation of control and public responsibility in health. However, the diverse goal orientations of participants may provide the necessary tension to allow for some change in otherwise highly structured political and administrative systems. Second, despite differences in historical, political and administrative developments, the decision making systems for health care policies in France and the Federal Republic, with the exception of health insurance, are strikingly similar to the fragmented decision making system in the United States. Third, the effect of government-mandated participation is empirically uncertain. Opening up the circle of participants seems to have reinforced alliances between public bureaucracies and corporate vested interests. Hospital planning continues to be carried out for rather than with the consumer and citizen. Hospital planning which is a mixture of goal and process

  7. A paradox in physics education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  8. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF PONDS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN SMALL RIVERS OF BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid AZAROUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ponds on dissolved oxygen in small rivers of Berry (France. Water temperature and oxygen saturation are two major indicators of water quality in surface hydrology. Geographical and cartographic studies about ponds of Central France did no exist until now. During two years, we measured dissolved oxygen using a hand oximeter upstream and downstream of three ponds in the headwaters of the Loire basin. Our results show that oxygen saturation depends on equipments located before and behind the dam, and upstream and downstream: spillways, outlets with a monk, diversion channel, artificial reoxygenation weirs and so on. In some cases (low water quality upstream, existence of weir, relative and absolute saturation of dissolved oxygen increases downstream of ponds.

  10. Managing medical technology: lessons for the United States from Quebec and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, P V

    2000-01-01

    Important modifications to technology assessment, diffusion, adoption, and utilization must take place if the United States is to better employ medical technology and save resources so as to assure access for the uninsured and underinsured. The United States can learn from other health systems that are more successful in achieving these goals. The author selects for comparison the health systems of France and Quebec. The discussion focuses on the differences between the three systems in the management of medical technology on a range of policy-relevant dimensions, including health system structure, attitudes about planning versus market competition, government regulation, the balance between decentralization and centralization, the needs of the individual and those of the society, linkages between technology assessment and policy-making, and the importance of medical technology assessment for medical practice. Seven specific recommendations are made for better managing medical technology in the United States, drawing on what can be observed from the experiences of Quebec and France.

  11. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  12. General presentation of the biomass in France; Presentation generale de la biomasse en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  13. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  14. Decision no. 2011-DC-0213 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering Electricite de France (EDF) company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0213 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a Electricite de France (EDF) de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to Electricite de France (EDF) company, operator of the French NPPs. (J.S.)

  15. Artisanat et gentrification rurale en France méridionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Perrenoud

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une enquête de terrain menée depuis 2006 dans une zone rurale du Sud-Ouest de la France. Dans et autour du village médiéval de N., se sont produites depuis une quinzaine d'années des mutations socio-économiques importantes dont on verra dans quelle mesure on peut les identifier comme relevant d'un processus de gentrification rurale. En menant observations et entretiens semi-directifs auprès de différentes populations de travailleurs indépendants tels que les artisans du bâtiment, les métiers d'art ou les métiers de bouche, on montre les rapports entre l'inflexion du contexte économique, social et culturel et l'évolution des marchés locaux du travail. Dans ce paysage recomposé on montre en particulier le rôle central des enfants de « néo-ruraux », aujourd'hui trentenaires, installés comme charpentiers, potiers ou maraichers mais parfaitement équipés en capital culturel et social et à même de marier dans leur travail les registres de la création et de la production, de l'art et du métier, de la modernité et de l'authenticité.Rural handicrafts and gentrification in South of FranceThis paper presents a field study which started in 2006 in a rural area of South-West of France. In and around a medieval village (N. important socio-economical mutations have occured for about fifteen years and this paper will show how one can think of it as a process of rural gentrification. After many observations and interviews with several free lance workers like building contractors, creative craftsmen or people in the food business, we will discuss the relationship between mutations of the economical, social and cultural context and the local labor markets. In this new landscape, we stress especially the role of "back-tolanders" children, who are now in their thirties, have become carpenters, potters or vegetables growers but whose cultural and social capital perfectly fits into the local new deal, allowing them

  16. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  17. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoureux, S

    2016-12-01

    Conduct a synthesis of existing knowledge about the frequency of induced abortion or termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies, the exposure factors of unplanned pregnancies and abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality. Consultation of The Medline database, and national and international reports on abortions in France and in developed countries. Voluntary termination of pregnancy is an induced abortion, opted for non-medical reasons, which in France can be performed before 14 weeks of gestation. Abortion is a common procedure, with rare complications, amounting to about 220,000 procedures per year in France with a stable rate over decades. Similarly to births, women aged 20 to 24 are most affected. The possibility of an abortion exists for all women; this potential event, however, is not equal for each and varies by age of women, socio-professional situations, geographical origins, marital status and past or present domestic and sexual violence. The French historical analysis shows that for 50 years the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate is associated with a decrease in the frequency of unplanned pregnancies. It is therefore possible that the prevention of unplanned pregnancy through early uptake of contraception and contraception options by women is related to a woman's lifestyle. Nonetheless, the number of abortion remains stable since its decriminalization despite the large increase in medicalized contraceptive prevalence rate. Good knowledge of the epidemiology of voluntary termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies is a prerequisite to better adopt prevention and case management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

  19. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  20. La France mesurée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique PELLETIER

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available À la cartographie de cabinet se substitua à la fin du XVIIe et au XVIIIe siècle une cartographie de terrain dont la précision et la cohésion sont la conséquence de l'établissement d'un canevas géométrique couvrant tout le territoire français. La première carte de France, celle de Cassini, plus géométrique que topographique, est l'illustration, voire la caricature, des nouvelles méthodes.

  1. FRANCES FARMER TENDRÁ SU VENGANZA EN SEATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Guiral, Juncal

    2012-01-01

    Frances Farmer fue una actriz valiente y comprometida. Siempre observó su carrera artística desde su propia condición de mujer, atea y comunista. Su rechazo al mundo hollywoodiense de los años treinta y cuarenta, unido a las difíciles relaciones familiares, provocó en ella una reacción que la sociedad de ese momento atajó amparándose en el mundo legal. Acusada de maltrato y de violar la libertad condicional su vida acabó bajo la tutela materna. A partir de ese momento, Farmer se p...

  2. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.

  3. Energy statistical data in France april 2007; Statistiques energetiques France avril 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The monthly situation analysis in France at April 2007 is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  4. La France a ta porte: Negocier les apprentissages (France at Your Doorstep: Negotiating Learning Experiences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Acosta, Asuncion; Serna, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    A second-language teaching strategy in which students are active in the selection of a unit theme and objective is discussed. In this approach, the teacher assumes the role of monitor in student development of the unit. A sample unit on language for daily living in France illustrates the process. (MSE)

  5. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport environnement 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  6. 2003 energy situation of France; Bilan energetique de la France en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This short document summarizes the key data of the 2003 energy status of France: real and climate-corrected total primary energy consumption, end-use energy consumption (demand per energy source and per sector of use), power supply and demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. (J.S.)

  7. 2004 energy accounting in France; Bilan energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France pour 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  9. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  10. The international development of Electricite de France; Le developpement international d'Electricite de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 2001, Electricite de France (EdF) has pursued and increased its international development with a portfolio of participations in foreign electricity companies (Germany, Italy, UK, Brazil, Argentina etc..) that reached 6 billions of euros. This development has been tainted with poor results in South America and has led to some hostile reactions from the Italian and Spanish governments. (J.S.)

  11. The action of France; L'action de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  12. The private vehicles in France: data and references; Les vehicules particuliers en France: donnees et references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catania, S.

    2004-03-01

    Each year the ADEME establishes and actualizes data bases from data provided by the UTAC and the Auxiliary Association of the Automobile. These data concern the emissions and consumptions of private vehicles approved and sold in France. The last part deals with the technological evolutions of vehicles concerning the fuel consumption decrease. (A.L.B.)

  13. Provisional energy accounting of France in 2000; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France en 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the economy and energy context of France in year 2000. The year 2000 has been a satisfying year concerning the energy mastership. In the same time of a petroleum consumption decrease, the electrical power production from nuclear source reached an historical record. Many tables and graphs illustrate this analysis. (A.L.B.)

  14. 2004 energy bill of the France; Facture energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  15. Electricity in France in 2007: a statistical analysis; L'electricite en France en 2007: une analyse statistique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the evolution of electricity generation and consumption in France over the last years and up to 2007. The production data are analyzed by source type (nuclear, renewable, fossil fuels). The consumption is analyzed by end-use sector and also by class of voltage. Finally, the status of power trades between France and other European countries, and the energy independence ratio of France are presented. (J.S.)

  16. Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in the cfa franc zone after the cfa franc devaluation of January 1994

    OpenAIRE

    Kuikeu, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    In cfa franc zone, the exchange rate was devalued, in January 1994, in order to deal with the major macroeconomic imbalances that have affected the members during the 1980 decade. Thus, the aim of this paper is to assess the degree of over/undervaluation (namely real exchange rate misalignment) of the currency in the cfa franc zone since the cfa franc devaluation of January 1994.

  17. [Pediatric renal transplantation in France. Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc

    2011-12-01

    Pediatric nephrology is a relatively recent medical speciality. The first French center opened in January 1969 at the Hospital des Enfants-Malades. In 2008, according to the Réseau Épidémiologie et Information en Néphrologie (REIN), the annual incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) was of 7,8 children/million children below the age of 20, which equals a prevalence of 49 pediatric ESRD patients/million inhabitants. The frequency of causative factors of ESRD varies according to the geographic and ethnic origin of the patients. Many challenges still lay ahead of ESRD management. The children's physical, psychological and social development has to be well taken care of until adulthood and the transition from pediatric to adult unit has to be handled with special care. The set up of pediatric nephrology departments helped to the access of patients to renal replacement therapy, in particular the pediatric priority for kidney donors below 30 years of age. In the 2000s period, the annual rate of pediatric renal transplantation was 70 to 75 grafts per year in France, half of which performed in the Paris area. This article presents the historical background of pediatric nephrology and pediatric renal transplantation in France.

  18. Next step, the Tour de France?

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour de France, the Annecy-Semnoz time-trial, has already been won – by a CERN staff member!     In keeping with tradition, the organisers of the Tour de France organise another race, the Étape du Tour, which is open to the general public and follows the actual route of an official stage of the Tour proper. This year, the chosen venue was Annecy and its neighbouring mountain, Le Semnoz, which played host to 11,000 cycling enthusiasts from all parts. This penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour will be raced by the professionals on 20 July. The public race was won by Nicolas Roux, an experienced cyclist and member of CERN’s GS-IS Group, who devoured the 128-km course in just 4 hours and 15 minutes, nine seconds ahead of cycling champion Julien Absalon. “I just managed to overhaul Julien Absalon 500 m before the finishing line,” Nicolas recounts. “It was a fantastic race!” Come rain o...

  19. [Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

    2013-11-01

    To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did.

  20. Acute anaphylactoid reactions during hemodialysis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forêt, M; Kuentz, F; Meftahi, H; Milongo, R; Hachache, T; Elsener, M; Dechelette, E; Cordonnier, D

    1987-04-01

    A retrospective survey of anaphylactoid reactions during dialysis in France was conducted. In 52 of 112 hemodialysis units surveyed 111 patients who had suffered one or more anaphylactoid reactions during dialysis were identified. According to the Hamilton/Adkinson classification, in 31 patients reactions were minor, in 54 patients moderate, and in 26 patients severe. Four patients died of their reactions. A preponderance of reactions (75 and 11%) occurred with cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber and plate dialyzers, respectively. Severe dialyzer reactions were found to occur more frequently after the long (weekend) interdialytic interval. In an in vitro study, six brands of cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber dialyzers were rinsed with water and the eluates analyzed by size exclusion chromatography for contaminant particles. Substantial variation in the amount of extractable material was found between dialyzers of different brands, despite the fact that all dialyzers used membranes from the same manufacturer. Previous data by others has suggested that this extractable material is a derivative of cellulose. Results of our epidemiologic survey in France are similar to those previously reported in the United States and suggest an increased incidence of dialyzer reactions with ethylene oxide-sterilized cuprammonium cellulose dialyzers. The presence of cellulose-derived particles in the rinsing fluid of such dialyzers and the possible increased incidence of reactions after the long (weekend) interdialytic interval suggest that allergy to cellulose-derived particles eluted from cellulosic dialyzers may contribute to dialyzer hypersensitivity reactions.

  1. Commercial applications of food ionization in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Pierre-Louis [Ionisos S.A. (France)

    1994-12-31

    Due to the long history of nuclear energy in France, French public is not frightened by nuclear applications in its everyday life. The first industrial initiative on food ionization dates back to 1956. In 1980, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Ionization concluded that food ionization up to a certain maximum dose presented neither toxicological nor nutritional hazard. This opened the new era for the industrial development. But in 1988, a draft directive to harmonize national legislations was issued by the Commission of European Communities. This stopped many industrial initiatives due to uncertainty. It is estimated that nearly 14,000 tons of various food items have been ionized in France in 1991. About 40% are spices, followed by dry fruit, vegetables, and deboned poultry meat. Most of the present applications are intended to eliminate microorganisms. In 1992, 8 industrial facilities were in operation, mostly using gamma sources. Local research associations were founded to promote food ionization. Food ionization development in the past 30 years has been rapid and important, but the future of this process depends on the European harmonization of legislations. (K.I.).

  2. Proposal of resolution to create an inquiry commission on the french nuclear power plants reliability in case or earthquakes and on the safety, information and warning procedures in case of incidents; Proposition de resolution tendant a creer une commission d'enquete sur la fiabilite des centrales nucleaires en France en cas de seisme et sur les procedures de securisation, d'information et d'alerte en cas d'incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This short paper presents the reasons of the creation of parliamentary inquiry commission of 30 members, on the reliability of the nuclear power plants in France in case of earthquakes and on the safety, information and warning procedures in case of accidents. (A.L.B.)

  3. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Irasema Mora Pablo; M. Martha Lengeling; Buenaventura Rubio Zenil; Troy Crawford; Douglas Goodwin

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning ...

  4. Simulating past droughts and associated building damages in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Corti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts can induce important building damages due to shrinking and swelling of soils, leading to costs as large as for floods in some regions. Previous studies have focused on damage data analysis, geological or constructional aspects. Here, a study investigating the climatic aspects of soil subsidence damage is presented for the first time. We develop a simple model to examine if the meteorology has a considerable impact on the interannual variability of damages from soil subsidence in France. We find that the model is capable of reproducing yearly drought-induced building damages for the time period 1989–2002, thus suggesting a strong meteorological influence. Furthermore, our results reveal a doubling of damages in these years compared to 1961–1990, mainly as a consequence of increasing temperatures. This indicates a link to climate change. We also apply the model to the extreme summer of 2003, which caused a further increase in damage by a factor four, according to a preliminary damage estimate. The simulation result for that year shows strong damage underestimation, pointing to additional sources of vulnerability. Damage data suggest a higher sensitivity to soil subsidence of regions first affected by drought in the 2003 summer, possibly due to a lack of preparedness and adaptation. This is of strong concern in the context of climate change, as densely populated regions in Central Europe and North America are expected to become newly affected by drought in the future.

  5. Childhood cancer survival in France, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Brigitte; Goujon, Stéphanie; Guissou, Sandra; Guyot-Goubin, Aurélie; Desmée, Solène; Désandes, Emmanuel; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the latest survival data for French childhood cancer patients at the national level. Data from the two French National Registries of Childhood Cancer (Haematopoietic Malignancies and Solid Tumours) were used to describe survival outcomes for 15,479 children diagnosed with cancer between 2000 and 2008 in mainland France. The overall survival was 91.7% at 1 year, 86.9% at 2 years and 81.6% at 5 years. Relative survival did not differ from overall survival even for infants. Survival was lower among infants for lymphoblastic leukaemia and astrocytoma, but higher for neuroblastoma. For all cancers considered together, 5-year survival increased from 79.5% in the first (2000-2002) diagnostic period to 83.2% in the last (2006-2008) period. The improvement was significant for leukaemia, both myeloid and lymphoid, central nervous system tumours (ependymoma) and neuroblastoma. The results remained valid in the multivariate analysis, and, for all cancers combined, the risk of death decreased by 20% between 2000-2002 and 2006-2008. The figures are consistent with various international estimates and are the result of progress in treatment regimens and collaborative clinical trials. The challenge for the French registries is now to study the long-term follow-up of survivors to estimate the incidence of long-term morbidities and adverse effects of treatments.

  6. NATIONAL DOSE REGISTER IN FRANCE WITHIN THE NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM SISERI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanff, P; Crescini, D; Roy, H; Billarand, Y; Rannou, A

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, France has developed an electronic dose register at national level called SISERI. Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety is in charge of the management of this information system. Besides the main purpose of being a central register of any doses measured for the individual dosimetric monitoring of all exposed workers, SISERI has been developed so as to constitute a tool for occupational physicians and radiation protection officers allowing access in real-time to the results of the individual monitoring. The SISERI information system centralises, verifies and keeps the records of all personal dosimetric results of the 370 000 workers annually monitored in France. Moreover, since the publication of a new order in 2013, employers shall declare any new workers in SISERI before the beginning of their occupation and they shall upload data concerning in particular the activity field/sector and the occupation of each worker. The enforcement of this new order is going to enrich the individual dosimetric information stored in SISERI. Thus, it is expected that more precise and accurate statistics on occupational exposure to ionising radiation in France will be established in the next few years.

  7. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  8. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  9. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  10. Chinese Ancient Coins Academic Exchange Delegation Visits France and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>To further strengthen nongovernmental cultural exchanges,a Chinese delegation visited France and Austria from September 23 to 30for academic exchange on ancient coin.They had fruitful exchanges with coin experts of the two countries at the invitation of the France-China Culture and Art Exchange Centre and the Austria-China Friendship Association for Culture and Art Exchange.

  11. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  12. Absence of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Damiani, Céline; Totet, Anne; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Nevez, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Archival Pneumocystis jirovecii specimens from 84 patients monitored at Rennes University Hospital (Rennes, France) were assayed at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus. No patient was infected with mutants. The results provide additional data showing that P. jirovecii infections involving DHPS mutants do not represent a public health issue in Brittany, western France.

  13. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  14. Les agences d’urbanisme en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Verdeil

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Si les agences d’urbanisme françaises ont, pour certaines, près de quarante ans d’existence, elles restent pourtant relativement méconnues. Le présent article, qui leur est consacré, vise à livrer en la matière plusieurs pistes de réflexion susceptibles d’être saisies par des chercheurs de différentes disciplines. Revendiquant son caractère exploratoire et programmatique, cet article collectif ne restreint donc pas son propos à une série de problématiques spécifiques (sociologie politique de l’expertise, l’histoire ou l’anthropologie des métiers et professions de l’urbanisme, monographies locales des diverses productions urbaines des agences, etc.. Il plaide plutôt pour une capitalisation des travaux qui prennent ou prendraient les agences d’urbanisme pour objet, tout en avançant à cette occasion quelques résultats de recherches menées récemment. Prolongeant le colloque organisé sur ce thème à Lille en février 2007, il entend ainsi contribuer à interroger de nouveau le statut et la reconnaissance accordés, en France, aux études urbaines.This article, which is devoted to those forty year old but poorly understood organisations, the planning agencies (“agences d’urbanisme” in France, is intended to be programmatic and exploratory in character. Its purpose is, therefore, to present a series of reflections on the subject that might be taken up by researchers in different disciplines. The intention is not to limit its remarks to a narrowly defined series of problems such as the political sociology of expertise, the history or anthropology of the planning profession or even the local histories of urban policy implementation in the particular areas where agencies are located. Like the conference organised in Lille in February 2007, this article, which was one of the products of the conference, takes up the opportunity to investigate again the status and recognition granted to urban studies in France

  15. Sistemas de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa en Belgica, Paises Bajos y Francia (Educational Documentation and Information Systems in Belgium, Holland, and France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Etchelouz, Nelly Yvis

    This booklet describes the working and organization of the information and documentation systems in Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. The discussion begins with a look at the Belgium educational system and how information services operate within that system. The central library, specialized services, and specialized information centers are all…

  16. The Impact of Migration on National Identity in a Globalized World: A Comparison of Civic Education Curricula in England, France and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Laura; Faas, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which citizens of migrant origin are included within discourses of national identity in civic education curricula in England, France and Ireland. We explore how much space is given to citizens of migrant origin in discourses of national identity in civic education curricula and how they fit with central values…

  17. Cinéma en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel VIGOUROUX

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Le cinéma est l’objet de bases de données exhaustives sur les équipements et les fréquentations. Les données sur les salles permettent d’identifier le phénomène de concentration de propriété et d’exploitation. La perspective dynamique peut être observée sur 45 ans. À l’échelle régionale, on peut apprécier le dynamisme du cinéma en haute montagne alpine et la différence de réseaux sur le territoire (France de l’Ouest.

  18. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  19. FRANCE at CERN - Visit of Firms

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Eighteen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each department secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. The list of exhibitors is given below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHERE ...

  20. FRANCE AT CERN - VISIT OF FIRMS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Seventeen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. You will find below the list of exhibitors. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHE...

  1. Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Arrondel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We study financial literacy in France using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification and inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depending on the political opinion of the respondents. Finally we show that these differences in financial knowledge are correlated with differences in the propensity to plan: people who score higher on the financial literacy questions are more likely to be engaged in the preparation of a clearly defined financial plan.

  2. Situation in France: a step forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Delaunay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The presentation will look at four key issues: The new tobacco control provisions in French Health Law (January 2016, including plain packaging and health warnings; obligation for the tobacconists to control the age of buyers, to make effective the prohibition to sales to minors; prohibition of smoking in a car with a child under 18 years; increasing the share reimbursed by French Social Security system for nicotine replacement therapies; prohibition of tobacco advertising in tobacconists shops. The weaknesses in the law and the priorities of the French Coalition against tobacco, such as the increase tobacco taxes and prices; class action for the tobacco victims; Tobacco Prevention Fund; Ensure enforcement of the law Tobacco lobbying in France: French tobacconists; Ministry of Economy; the tobacco industry… Tackling tobacco: a pre-requisite to save the sustainability of our health system (health and social costs.

  3. Case management in France: an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, M

    1996-01-01

    Case management is currently an important issue in France. Because neither service providers nor consumers pay for case management in this country, a cost-benefit analysis is often required by the organizations that do pay. Given the context of French social policy and the current focus on justifying case management through cost-benefit analysis, we have developed a way to evaluate its costs. This article presents the limitations of standard economic choice theory, provides a methodology based on the principles of limited rationality, and gives the results of an evaluation of four case management programs. The article provides a method to measure case management costs and efficiency, as well as the willingness of consumers to pay for services.

  4. Comparing Exceptionalism in France and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Devienne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges the current scholarship on the history of the death penalty and its abolition by adopting a transatlantic framework and debunking the popular contemporary conception of the “Barbaric Americans” against the “civilised” anti-death penalty French. The article focuses on the short period in the 1970s during which American executions were halted by the Supreme Court, while France was still putting prisoners to death in cases that were widely debated in public opinion. By observing the French media’s reactions to the two major decisions taken by the Supreme Court in the 1970s and their direct consequences, this essay analyzes not only the French gaze on American practices but also how these American decisions were manipulated by the journalists to stoke the French debate about abolition.

  5. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France; Repere sur les stocks strategiques petroliers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  6. Charbonnages de France group. Annual report 99; Groupe Charbonnages de France. Rapport annuel 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 1999 annual report of the French national collieries 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF) presents the turnover and financial data of the group, the situation of coal mining in France, the management of manpower, the rehabilitation of abandoned mine and plant sites, the impact of power market deregulation on the activities of the coal-fired power plants and cogeneration units of the national society of electric and thermal power (SNET) and of the SIDEC company, and the management of the real estate patrimony of the group in mining regions. Some conference texts written by engineers of the group are added at the end of the document and present the competences of CDF in environmental engineering (valorization of coal fly ash, cleansing of polluted sites, phyto-remediation) and development of biomass energy. (J.S.)

  7. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge; La France, l'Allemagne et l'enjeu nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkish, F

    2004-11-15

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  8. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  9. The renewable energies in France 1970-2005; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document provides statistical data on the renewable energies situation in France (metropolitan and overseas department) from 1970 to 2005. It concerns 1- the electric power production from renewable energies as the hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy and biomass and 2- the thermal power production from renewable energies as the wood energy, domestic wastes, heat pumps, geothermal energy, crops residues, biogas, thermal solar and biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  10. A survey of renewable energies in France; Panorama des energies renouvelables en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [Syndicat des energies renouvelables, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    One of the goals set by the Grenelle agreement was to reach a ratio of 23% for the part of renewable energies in the final energies consumed in France by 2020. In 2005 this ratio was 10 per cent. In this article the situation in 2010 for wind energy, solar energy, biomass, wood heating and geothermal energy are reported. It appears that the results are promising but the reduction of fiscal incentives might jeopardize the objective for 2020. (A.C.)

  11. Hydro energy at Electricite De France; L'energie hydraulique a Electricite De France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    Hopeful the hydroelectric power, the France holds the first place of the renewable energies producers at the European Union. This document presents measures taken by EDF to reach this quality level and conciliate the hydroelectricity production with other uses of water. In this framework, the first part presents the operating advantages and the social impact of the hydroelectricity, the second part deals with the water management and the last part deals with the safety downstream from the dam. (A.L.B.)

  12. Tables of energy consumptions in France; Tableaux des consommations d`energie en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  13. The history of tidal power in France; Histoire de l`energie maremotrice en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banal, M.

    1997-12-31

    The first known use of tidal power in France concerns the tidal mills in general use during the Middle Age along the French coasts. The first research studies of tidal power plants started at the end of the first world war but it is only in 1940 with the stimulus of Robert Gibrat that was created the Research Society for the use of Tides and the Rance plant project. In 1946, Electricite de France (EdF) started again the studies of this company for a greater size project in the Chausey archipelago which was abandoned for the benefit of the Rance project in the 1960`s. The start up of the plant took place in 1967 but the other projects were abandoned during the 1980`s. This short paper recalls the historical aspects of the development of tidal power in France and focusses on the research and development studies and on the economical, political and legal factors that led to retain the Rance project among others proposed. (J.S.).

  14. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  15. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  16. Centralized Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

      With the complexities surrounding the choice of decentralized vs. centralized labs, as well as the most optimal use of biomarkers in clinical trials, choosing the right lab or CRO partner is paramount...

  17. Should stay the Mali in Zone franc area ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sidibe, Tidiani

    2015-01-01

    The debate on the relevance of monetary cooperation agreements with France was back in the saddle by former Malian Prime Minister Moussa MARA July 23, 2015 during a radio broadcast; and Chadian President Idriss Deby Itno during the 55th anniversary of his country's 2015 Tuesday, August 11 The latter threw a big spanner in the franc zone, arguing that currency allows us to develop. Also, some harsh criticism, consider that the CFA franc, pegged to a strong euro hampers the competitiveness of o...

  18. First occurrence of cylindrospermopsin in freshwater in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brient, Luc; Lengronne, Marion; Bormans, Myriam; Fastner, Jutta

    2009-08-01

    Eleven waterbodies in Western France dominated by cyanobacteria of the genera Aphanizomenon and Anabaena were analyzed in September 2006 for microcystins (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). CYN was detected for the first time in France in four of them in the presence of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and in the presence of Anabaena planctonica in the other. The intracellular concentrations of CYN measured by LC-MS/MS ranged between 1.55 and 1.95 microg/L. The occurrence of CYN represents an additional health hazard to MC especially because Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is the third most common species in freshwaters in France. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  20. A New Accumulation Model of Coal Seams in France Extensional Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper, based on the sedimentary features of the coal seams in the typical extensional (faulted) coal basins between two inland mountainous areas of the Central Massif (France) deals with the accumulation mechanism and the corresponding sedimentary-tectonic conditions of these thick coalbeds, and proposes a new coal accumulation model for the inland lacustrine-basin thick coalbeds. The presence of a great number of gravity-flow sediments such as detrital flow, diluted slurry flow or turbidity-current sediments in the coal seams, and that of the contemporaneous gravity slump and deformation structure in the coal seam itself bath indicate that thelacustrine environment in the accumulation of the thick coalbeds was characterized by the relatively deep flood and violent sedimentation. This model can not only interpret reasonably the accumulation mecha nism of the thick coalbeds developed in the fault basins in the Central Massif, France, but also show its features distinctively from those of the accumulation model of the traditional thick coalbeds.

  1. Periodicities of hail precipitation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Hierro, Rodrigo; Wu, Xueke; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool appropriated for studying multiscale and non-stationary processes that occur in finite spatial and temporal domains. Its development began with Morlet and, since then, the wavelet transform (WT) has had better applications in Geophysics. However, the characterization of hail precipitation is not exempt from difficulty, since it deals with phenomenon on a small scale, with elevated spatial and temporal variation. The extreme variability of the frequency and distribution of hail is attributed, among other things, to the same process of its formation. The conditions that influence hail formation span from air masses climatology to lower-scale factors such as orography, wind fields, concentration of ice nuclei or temperature. This last factor is important both from a point of view of convective activity as well as its influence in the height of the freezing point. Thus, it would be possible to do comparative analysis between time series of temperature and diverse hail variables; or, rather, to try to establish a relationship between periodicities found and phenomenon such as ENSO (El Niño, Southern Oscillation) or NAO (North-Atlantic Oscillation). France is one of the European countries that is most affected by hail precipitation. Previous climatic studies have been done with the objective of characterizing the long-term variability of distinct variables of this hydrometeor that is present in the time series. These measurements are obtained using networks of hailpads distributed in French territory and managed by ANELFA. Berthet et al. (2011) observed the annual hail frequency in France, finding successions of three years with high values followed by three years of low values; this being calculated as the number of hailfalls per year divided by the number of hailpad stations that were in use during said year. In the present paper, a wavelet analysis was carried out with the objective of detecting the possible existence of

  2. The post-mining context at Decazeville-Firmi concession (Aveyron, France): analysis of impacts resulting from the cessation of pumping at the central shaft. Survey of various scenarios related to the water level of the pit lake in the Grande Decouverte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojean, R. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Institut des Geosciences, Centre de Geologie de l' Ingenieur, UMLV, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Franco, N. [Charbonnages de France, Dir. Technique Nationale, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France); Lazarewicz, J.C. [Charbonnages de France, Dir. Technique Nationale, 13 - Meyreuil (France); Blachere, A.; Lefort, D. [Bureau d' Etudes CESAME, 42 - Fraisses (France); Sorgi, C. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the frame of the Survey related to the cessation of mine workings in Decazeville-Firmi concession, various impacts resulting from the cessation of pumping at the Central Shaft were assessed. Mainly these impacts are related to groundwater behaviour in the abandoned underground coal mines, hydro-chemistry of waters discharged to the environment, ground stability concerns and coal gas emanations. This analysis allowed the choice of the most appropriate elevation of the pit lake level in the Grande Decouverte, with the necessity to continue the pumping. Two main objectives were reached. The elected elevation is high enough to result in a permanent chemical stratification, which allows the pumping of the superficial waters and its discharge to natural watercourses without any treatment. The elected elevation is low enough to avoid any problem of inflow of water or ground stability at some particular places which might have been threatened by the rising of the piezometric level of the mining aquifer. Lastly, the elected elevation of the pit lake allows a quality scenery design around the pit lake. (authors)

  3. A new family and four new genera in Rhizophydiales (Chytridiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J; Davis, William J

    2015-01-01

    Many chytrid phylogenies contain lineages representing a lone taxon or a few organisms. One such lineage in recent molecular phylogenies of Rhizophydiales contained two marine chytrids, Rhizophydium littoreum and Rhizophydium aestuarii. To better understand the relationship between these organisms, we increased sampling such that the R. littoreum/R. aestuarii lineage included 10 strains of interest. To place this lineage in Rhizophydiales, we constructed a molecular phylogeny from partial nuc 28S rDNA D1-D3 domains (28S) of these and 80 additional strains in Rhizophydiales and examined thallus morphology and zoospore ultrastructure of our strains of interest. We also analyzed sequences of the nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS) of our 10 strains of interest to assess sequence similarity and phylogenetic placement of strains within the lineage. The 10 strains grouped together in three well supported clades: (i) Rhizophydium littoreum+Phlyctochytrium mangrovei, (ii) three strains of Rhizophydium aestuarii and (iii) five previously unidentified strains. Light microscopic observations revealed four distinct thallus morphologies, and zoospore ultrastructural analyses revealed four distinct constellations of ultrastructural features. On the bases of morphological, ultrastructural and molecular evidence we place these strains in the new family Halomycetaceae and four new genera (Halomyces, Paludomyces, Ulkenomyces, Paranamyces) in Rhizophydiales. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  5. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  6. Magnitude M w in metropolitan France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Michel; Denieul, Marylin; Sèbe, Olivier; Delouis, Bertrand; Cansi, Yves; Schlupp, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    The recent seismicity catalogue of metropolitan France Sismicité Instrumentale de l'Hexagone (SI-Hex) covers the period 1962-2009. It is the outcome of a multipartner project conducted between 2010 and 2013. In this catalogue, moment magnitudes (M w) are mainly determined from short-period velocimetric records, the same records as those used by the Laboratoire de Détection Géophysique (LDG) for issuing local magnitudes (M L) since 1962. Two distinct procedures are used, whether M L-LDG is larger or smaller than 4. For M L-LDG >4, M w is computed by fitting the coda-wave amplitude on the raw records. Station corrections and regional properties of coda-wave attenuation are taken into account in the computations. For M L-LDG ≤4, M w is converted from M L-LDG through linear regression rules. In the smallest magnitude range M L-LDG French networks or LDG duration magnitude (M D) are first converted into M L-LDG before applying the conversion rules. This paper shows how the different sources of information and the different magnitude ranges are combined in order to determine an unbiased set of M w for the whole 38,027 events of the catalogue.

  7. Cystic fibrosis mortality trends in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Gil; Cazes, Marie-Hélène; Parant, Alain; Gaimard, Maryse; Travers, Cécile; Le Roux, Evelyne; Ravilly, Sophie; Rault, Gilles

    2007-05-01

    In 1992 France set up a national cystic fibrosis observatory (Observatoire national de la mucoviscidose, ONM) to monitor the state of health of patients on an annual basis. Using the ONM data, this study estimates the main indicators for life expectancy and assesses the total number of cystic fibrosis patients. The data for the years 1994 to 2003 are divided into 3-year periods. Life tables are drawn up for these periods, from which mean and median lengths of life are determined. Using the most recent life table, the number of births in 2003 and the incidence of the disease, the total population of patients can be estimated, assuming a stationary population. In 2001-2003, life expectancy at birth of patients registered with the ONM was 39.1 years and median length of life was 36.4 years. These results, substantially better than those of 1994-1996, are linked to improved conditions of patient inclusion in the ONM database, to improvements in their healthcare, but also to the limitations of the life tables. Based on the 2003 data, the total theoretical number of patients is 6490, and coverage by the ONM database is thus 63.2%. These provisional results demonstrate the need to convert the ONM observatory into a registry providing exhaustive coverage of all patients.

  8. del profesorado de francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Boixareu Vilaplana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo parte de la inadecuación existente entre la formación universitaria –tanto la de las Escuelas universitarias del profesorado de E.G.B. como la de las Facultades de Filología– y la actividad docente a la que se incorporarán nuestros alumnos. La formación del profesorado de idiomas debe descansar sobre tres ejes: • la competencia lingüística del alumno, en una doble exigencia de capacidad comunicativa y de corrección, así como una base sólida de sistematización lingüística; • la competencia cultural acerca de los países en los que se habla el francés; • la “aplicabilidad” de tales competencias: el saber hacer pedagógico o puesta en ejercicio de la labor docente. En los tres casos, ello supone introducir modificaciones importantes en la formación inicial actual.

  9. Sexology as a profession in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giami, Alain; de Colomby, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    A national survey of sexologists was carried out in France in 1998-1999, among the individuals listed in the professional directories and the telephone book as "sexologists." It described the sociodemographic characteristics of sexologists, their initial profession and training in sexology, sex therapy and psychotherapeutic techniques, and how they practice sexology. A total of 959 individuals were identified and surveyed. The response rate was 63%. Two thirds of the sexologists were physicians and 60% were men. French sexologists appeared to be segmented into three subgroups: (1) one-third were general practitioners, trained in sexology and psychotherapeutic approaches, recognized themselves as sexologists, and devoted 40% of their professional activity to sexology. Men were about two thirds of this group; (2) one-third were nonphysicians (including psychologists and other health professionals, such as social workers and nurses), recognized themselves as sex therapists and devoted one third of their time to sexology. Men and women were equally represented in this group; (3) one-third were specialists, with less training in sexology and psychotherapeutic techniques, and did not generally recognize themselves as sexologists. They devoted a lesser part of their time to sexology and had academic and hospital practice. Men comprised more than 75% of this group. This study raised the issue of the diversity of primary professions involved in the field of sexology and showed that sexology is a secondary professional choice for the majority of sexologists.

  10. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  11. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  12. The CQI/TQM journey in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguerez, G

    1997-01-01

    In France interest in continuous quality improvement (CQI) and other quality improvement (QI) approaches is recent and experience modest, but the pace of change should quicken now that the government has required that all hospitals be accredited within the next five years. In addition, in the face of increasing competition, hospitals, public and private, may find a quality strategy to be critical in helping them survive. In fall 1994 the National Agency for the Promotion of Medical Evaluation (ANDEM) was mandated by the Ministry of Health to set up a national demonstration project based on quality assurance and CQI methodologies. The program was designed to identify the key success factors for implementing such programs within hospitals. The program involves 28 18-month CQI projects, which deal with prevention of nosocomial infection, patient safety in anesthesia, medical records, blood transfusion safety, drug dispensing safety, and control of violence in psychiatric settings. Participating hospitals are required to analyze the variation in the involved processes and attempt to reduce variation through cross-departmental quality management programs. The general method for each team's management of the project closely follows the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle. Preliminary experience suggests that the participating hospitals have benefited from following the same model and sharing of accounts of their progress. Representatives of the 28 teams met in fall 1995 and June 1996, and future meetings are planned. Most of the teams have collected quantitative data about the current processes and have started to pilot test process changes.

  13. Airborne microorganisms in Lascaux Cave (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Martin-Sanchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lascaux Cave in France contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings. The importance of the paintings, one of the finest examples of European rock art paintings, was recognized shortly after their discovery in 1940. In the 60’s of the past century the cave received a huge number of visitors and suffered a microbial crisis due to the impact of massive tourism and the previous adaptation works carried out to facilitate visits. In 1963, the cave was closed due to the damage produced by visitors’ breath, lighting and algal growth on the paintings. In 2001, an outbreak of the fungus Fusarium solani covered the walls and sediments. Later, black stains, produced by the growth of the fungus Ochroconis lascauxensis, appeared on the walls. In 2006, the extensive black stains constituted the third major microbial crisis. In an attempt to know the dispersion of microorganisms inside the cave, aerobiological and microclimate studies were carried out in two different seasons, when a climate system for preventing condensation of water vapor on the walls was active (September 2010 or inactive (February 2010. The data showed that in September the convection currents created by the climate system evacuated the airborne microorganisms whereas in February they remained in suspension which explained the high concentrations of bacteria and fungi found in the air. This double aerobiological and microclimate study inLascauxCave can help to understand the dispersion of microorganisms and to adopt measures for a correct cave management.

  14. Ad Orientem: the Orientation of Gothic Cathedrals of France

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Here the orientation of the Gothic cathedrals in France is discussed and investigated using the satellite maps. Except a few of them, these buildings have the apse facing the rising sun, according to a practice adopted during the middle age.

  15. The Solar Orientation of the Gothic Cathedrals of France

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Here the orientation of the Gothic cathedrals in France is discussed and investigated using the satellite maps. Except a few of them, these buildings have the apse facing the rising sun, according to a practice adopted during the middle ages

  16. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed.

  17. History as Passport: Frances FitzGerald and Her Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, William

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to get at some of the assumptions and definitions behind "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald and, in addition, to investigate some of the conceptions of history held by critics who reviewed the book. (DB)

  18. New determinations of geothermal heat flow in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaux, M.G. (Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie, Paris); Bienfait, G.; Bottinga, Y.

    1978-03-28

    A brief analysis of geothermal heat flow determinations obtained in France during the past few years is presented. General trends were compared with older measurements and new data published in Europe.

  19. Gaz de France. 2006 reference document; Gaz de France. Document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents the relevant informations relative to the annual consolidated financial statements of the group according to IFRS and French standards for the year 2005 (selected financial information, business overview, liquidity and capital resources, profit forecasts or estimates, compensation and benefits, issuer assets etc..). It includes also some complementary information about the activities of the group, its estate property, plants and equipments, its R and D and patenting activities, its management and administration, its 2005 and 2006 contracts etc.. (J.S.)

  20. Status of the methanization sector in France; Etat des lieux de la filiere methanisation en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This report aims at describing the status of methanization installations, either operating or under construction, on the French national territory, all sectors included (industry, agriculture, sewage treatment, municipal wastes). In a first part, the authors propose a definition of methanization, a presentation of the various implementation techniques, a presentation of the different sectors using methanization (industry, agriculture and breeding, sewage treatment plants, household wastes), and a presentation of a survey. Then, they comment and discuss more precisely the different sectors, their history, their geographical distribution in France, their technologies, their effluents, their production, their economic data, their perspectives

  1. The environment in France. Synthesis edition 2006; L'environnement en France. Synthese edition 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    This document takes stock on the environment in France and the evolution from the most recent data and information. It offers analysis on all the domains of the environment. The nature and the territories are examined among the evolutions of our society and impacts of the economical activities and households. The impacts on the biodiversity, the climate and the human being are also presented. Finally it examines the human, enterprises and public actors actions. Published every four years, this document answers the national and international obligations to inform the public in the environment domain. (A.L.B.)

  2. The nuclear future in France; Le futur du nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-12-15

    After having outlined some important facts in the world concerning energy production (phasing out nuclear by many countries, share of nuclear energy, development of wind and solar energy, possibility of meeting electricity demand with 80% of renewable energies) and in France (nuclear plants, debate about nuclear, slow development of renewable energies), the author briefly assesses the cost of two scenarios: a reduction of nuclear energy from 450 to 300 TWh/year by 2025, and a reduction of nuclear energy from 300 to 0 TWh/year between 2025 and 2040

  3. 1996 petroleum exploration and production in France; 1996 recherche et production petrolieres en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A detailed analysis and data compilations on petroleum exploration and production activities in France in 1996, are presented. Acreage evolution is decreasing despite a growth of new exploration licenses; a significant rise in the activity of seismic surveying has occurred, while exploration drilling activity (onshore only), equivalent to the previous year, led to two oil discoveries, and the investments in exploration showed a decrease of 28 percent compared to 1995. Production is declining for oil as well as natural gas (15 and 12 percent decrease resp.), while production investments dropped very sharply showing a reduction of 48 percent

  4. The refining sector in France; Le secteur du raffinage en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-10-01

    Xerfi has published in July 2003 a new study titled 'the petroleum refining (analysis of the market - 2004 estimates - the opposing forces)' carried out by Stephanie Rousseau on the direction of Gaelle Josse, responsible person of the chemistry pole of the Xerfi institute. This study analyzes particularly the future renewal prospects of the petroleum products demand in France from the end of the year 2003 and especially in 2004 as well as the acceleration of the investments at the approach of the date 2005 and the carrying out of the structure reorganizing operations in this sector. (O.M.)

  5. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport Annuel 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual report of the Charbonnages de France (CdF) group presents the financial results of the group for 1998: coal market, CdF's financial results (turnover, exploitation result, financial result, debt); power production (Snet, Cerchar, Surschiste, Sidec, and CdF Ingenierie activities); coal industry activities (coal mines, coke factories, coal products, environment); progressive ceasing of coal extraction (safety, manpower, reduction of working time, training, management of abandoned sites, rehabilitation, cleansing); management of industrialization and patrimony. (J.S.)

  6. Tendencies concerning the energy for 2030 in France; Scenario energetique tendanciel a 2030 pour la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This scenario is the reference scenario compatible with the ''Business As Usual'' of the IAEA. In this tendencies, the France should not be concerned by a major economic, social and political crisis. The construction of the Europe and the globalization will continue as the technological innovation concerning the energy (The EPR reactor is included in the scenario). The document presents the main hypothesis, the final energy consumption, the energy independence, the production and the consumption of the primary energy, the carbon dioxide emissions and some possible variations of the scenario. (A.L.B.)

  7. France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organized by the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem, the “France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1917” conference was the first concrete outcome of the Gallia Palestina project. This encounter demonstrated that beyond apparently well-known points, the unexplored areas of analysis remain enormous. This observation was made possible through the contributions of speakers, participants and the public from France, Israel and the Palestinian autonomous area. This diversity multiplied pers...

  8. Terrorism and tourism in France: The limitations of dark tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Seraphin, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this viewpoint article is to discuss whether or not dark tourism can be developed around the sites of recent terrorist attacks in France.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on a literature review of key terms: dark tourism; tourism; terrorism.\\ud \\ud Findings: The article observes that dark tourism is not popular in France and dark tourism activities are unlikely to develop anywhere nearer the places where the recent terrorist attacks happened. Fr...

  9. Fortieth Anniversary of Diplomatic Ties Between China and France Marked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>On January 16, 2004 the CPAFFC held a reception to mark the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and France. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and French Ambassador to China Jean-Pierre Lafon spoke on the occasion.In his speech CPAFFC President Chen Haosu said, forty years ago, Chairman Mao Zedong and General Charles de Gaulle with their great foresight decided to establish the diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level between China and France,

  10. Earthquake foci in metropolitan France and the lesser Antilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, J.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J. (Institut de Physique du Globe, Univ. Paris-6 (France)); Frechet, J. (Universite Scientifique et Medical de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France))

    A selection of local mechanism for metropolitan France and the lesser Antilles is presented. The data has been chosen on the basis of its quality and only mechanisms for which the faults planes would be determined with a precision of less than 20/sup 0/ are presented. The data concerns four principal regions: The Jura-Rhein graben, the Alps, the Pyrenees and the lesser Antilles. Finally a brief review of the neotectonic environment of the earthquakes in metropolitan France is presented.

  11. Research on VHDL in France, Italy and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Borrione, D.

    1996-01-01

    International audience; Research on VHDL in France, Italy and Switzerland This presentation is an overview of the research on and around VHDL in France, Italy and French speaking Switzerland. The teams covered by this survey are well known in Europe, for their participation in the VHDL User's Groups, and for their publications. The period covered is 1991-1995, although some groups have started their VHDL activities several years before.

  12. The Model of France Pavilion for 2010 Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Amodel of the France Pavilion for the Expo 2010 was unveiled at Beijing's Ullens Center of Contemporary Art on February 20, 2009. H.E.Mr. Herve LADSOUS, the ambassador of France, Jose Freches, president of COFRES and Jacques Ferrier, the designer of the pavilion, attended the conference and presented the progress of the construction of the model and the plan before the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai.

  13. NEW RECORDS OF CHIRONOMIDAE (DIPTERA) FROM CONTINENTAL FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Moubayed-Breil

    2009-01-01

    AbstractMaterial recently collected in Continental Francehas allowed me to generate a list of 83 taxa ofchironomids, including 37 new records to thefauna of France. According to published data onthe chironomid fauna of France 718 chironomidspecies are hitherto known from the Frenchterritories. The nomenclature and taxonomy ofthe species listed are based on the last version ofthe Chironomidae data in Fauna Europaea, onrecent revisions of genera and other recentpublications relevant to taxonomy...

  14. A brief history of genome research and bioinformatics in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, A

    2000-01-01

    The development of in silico genomics has progressed slowly in France for a number of political reasons. Two administrative organizations, the Groupement de Recherche sur les Génomes (GREG) and the Groupement de Recherche 1029 (GDR 1029) of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) have been established. These organizations have created the dynamics that hopefully will place France (which coordinated consortia that completed several of the first large microbial genomes) among the developed nations that support Large-Scale Biology.

  15. THE RELATION BETWEEN TERRITORIAL COLECTIVITIES IN FRANCE AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. THOUGHTS ON THE CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA BARBOIU-GILIA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available France, one of the founding members of the European Union, is a unitary state from the administrativeterritorial point of view, based on deep centralism. Having territorial collectivities with highly complex structure (communes, departments, regions, sui-generis collectivities and overseas collectivities, France committed itself to cooperation not only between its own administrative structures, but also to cross-border cooperation within the European Union. After showing reluctance to external actions underwent by territorial collectivities, France ended up with acknowledging this right of its territorial collectivities within the «decentralized cooperation», expressly brought under regulation by the Law of 6 February 1992. According to the law, there is no need for any ratification on behalf of the State to allow cooperation between territorial collectivities, within the boundaries of their competence. The Law of 1992 thus authorized the territorial collectivities to close agreements with other collectivities from abroad. Furthermore, the Law of 4 February 1995 allowed several treaties with the border states to be signed, thus creating the SAAR-LOR-LUX region (an European cross-border region that made way for cooperation between Germany, France and Luxembourg. The French legislation also allowed several European districts to be created, acting as local groups for cross-border cooperation, created on the initiative of territorial collectivities. The aim of our study is to identify the main relationship between territorial collectivities in France and EU and to analyze the cooperation instruments used by the French collectivities in order to foster the cross-border cooperation.

  16. Statistics 2004 of the gas industry in France; Statistiques 2004 de l'industrie gaziere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This document provides a analysis and statistical data on the natural gas consumption and supplies in France, the market organization, the employment of the natural gas industry, the transport, production and storage. (A.L.B.)

  17. Presentation of the second electric interconnection Jersey-France; Presentation de la seconde interconnexion electrique Jersey - France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the new legal frame and the missions of the Group RTE since the law of july 2000. An example of realization, the electric interconnection between Jersey and France, is also detailed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Gaz de France and the sustainable development in 2005; Gaz de France et le developpement durable en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This booklet provides information on the Gaz de France group involvement in the sustainable development: the stakes, the approach, the energy challenge answers, the security and the solidarity and the active part in the territories development. (A.L.B.)

  19. The valorization of packings in France; La valorisation des emballages en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    With the reinforcement of environmental policies, programs for the prevention and the valorization of packing wastes were developed in France and Europe. The 94/62/CE European directive relative to packings and packing wastes was established in order to incite the member states to valorize their packing wastes and to harmonize the initiatives within the European Communities. This documents presents the French solution retained to optimize the management of packing wastes according to the existing facilities and know-how. The French regulation makes a distinction between the domestic and industrial wastes: the producer, importer or distributor of domestic packings must contribute to their elimination, while the industrialists are responsible for the valorization of their packing wastes. After a presentation of the 1997 key results of the production, recycling and valorization of domestic and industrial packing wastes in France, the different processing files are analyzed: accounting of wastes according to the materials, particular case of composite packings, calculation of recycling and valorization ratios, the case of metal, paper-cardboard, plastic, glass, and wood packings. A list of the main information sources used in this inquiry is given. (J.S.)

  20. Gaz de France and market regulation; Gaz de France et la regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, J.F.; Balard, Th. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-10-01

    Following an overview of the specific features of the European gas sector (characterised by highly concentrated production and increasing levels of production outside Europe and over long distances), the article describes the lead up to the opening of the market place in France. Following the application of the first directive in 2000, Gaz de France has carried out various measures, the aim of which was to achieve immediate efficiency (with the organizational separation of the transport and trading divisions, the separation of activities from an accounting viewpoint and the publication of a transparent TPA tariff as opposed to a discriminatory one). This opening of the gas sector has seen the start of a gradual process based on this experience. In addition to these initial measures, the opening of the gas markets has been subject to a regulatory framework as from January 2003, and the task of regulating the French gas sector has been given to the CRE (Commission de regulation de l'electricite). Thanks to the ongoing dialogue initiated by the latter with all key players in the market, progress has been achieved in various fields related to regulation. Even if this process is not complete, the French example demonstrates that the combined actions of the regulator and the market operators working together in a constructive manner and in stages, makes it possible to successfully introduce a genuinely open market. (authors)

  1. [History of clinical pharmacology in France: adaptation, evaluation, defense and illustration of drug in France 1978-1981].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastruc, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This text illustrates some unknown aspects of the history and beginnings of clinical pharmacology in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s From the current situation, development and objectives of clinical pharmacology are recalled as well as obstacles necessary to overcome to change the paradigm in the field of drug evaluation and appropriate use in France. The text recalls this important moment where French medicine and medical pharmacology entered the modern era.

  2. Technical results of the power sector in France 2001; Resultats techniques du secteur electrique en France 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Provisional detailed results of power flows in France in 2002, with the operating context and international comparisons. This booklet presents provisional results, expressed in rounded values because of some estimated values. Data come from measures made by RTE, completed by various actors of the power system and by estimations made by RTE: general results France; operation outlook; energy flows; exchanges with foreign countries; French consumption; French generation; network operation; access to the transmission network; development over the past 15 years; international comparisons; terminology.

  3. History of infrared optronics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  4. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  5. Metal music and mental health in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recours, Robin; Aussaguel, François; Trujillo, Nick

    2009-09-01

    Although numerous authors have associated metal music with social problems such as suicide, self-destruction and Satanism, few studies have been undertaken to examine the mental health of fans of heavy metal music. This study attempts to determine if there is a link between mental health and the enjoyment of this type of music in France. The researchers surveyed 333 fans of metal music. Their mental health was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a widely used instrument that measures anxiety and depression. The scores of the sample of metal music fans were then compared to the scores that reveal possible, probable, or severe mental disorders. Qualifying variables included age, gender, status, education, motivation and participation in metal music culture. The results indicated that fans of metal music are mainly young adults (median age = 22.67, SD = 5.29) and tend to be male (87.85 percent). As a whole, metal music fans have levels of anxiety and depression that are similar to and lower than levels in the general population. Specifically, music fans surveyed showed pathological symptoms. Subjects that scored higher levels of anxiety and depression were those that had literary and/or arts backgrounds rather than scientific backgrounds, that wrote metal music lyrics, that consumed alcohol and that engaged in the body modification practice of scarification. This study suggests that opponents of metal music should re-examine the basis for their criticism. More scholarly research is needed to better understand the effects of metal music on fans and on society.

  6. The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.

    2006-12-01

    The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.

  7. Association of angiitis of central nervous system, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and Alzheimer’s disease: Report of an autopsy case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Annweiler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cédric Annweiler1, Marc Paccalin2, Gilles Berrut3, Caroline Hommet4, Christian Lavigne1, Jean-Paul Saint-André5, Olivier Beauchet11Department of Geriatrics and Internal Medicine, Angers University Hospital, France; 2Department of Geriatrics, Poitiers University Hospital, France; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nantes University Hospital, France; 4Department of Geriatrics, Tours University Hospital, France; 5Department of Anatomopatholgy, Angers University Hospital, FranceAbstract: The association of angiitis of central nervous system (ACNS with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA suggests a physiopathological relationship between these two affections. Few cases are reported in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We describe here a clinicopathological case associating ACNS, CAA, and AD. We discuss the aetiology of ACNS and its relationship with cerebral deposition of beta A4 amyloid protein (βA4.Keywords: cerebral angiopathy, Alzheimer’s disease

  8. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  9. [Use of antihypertensive drugs in France and relationship with cardiovascular disease. FLAHS 2009-2010 surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, X; Laroche, P; Hanon, O; Pannier, B; Postel-Vinay, N; Mourad, J-J

    2012-06-01

    Describe how antihypertensive drugs are prescribed in France in 2009 and 2010 and assess the effect of the presence of cardiovascular disease on the characteristics of the treatment. The French League Against Hypertension Surveys (FLAHS) are conducted among a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years and older living in France. For the 2009 and 2010 surveys, a sample of 2292 subjects who declared to take one or more antihypertensive drug has been studied. In addition to the details of antihypertensive medications taken the day of the survey, the personal history for cardiovascular diseases was compiled. Of the 2292 prescriptions with at least one antihypertensive prescription frequencies are: ARB (43%), diuretics (43%), beta-blockers (34%), CCB (26%), ACEI (26%), spironolactone (8%), central and alpha (7%), DRI (1%). The prescription is performed as monotherapy (42%), bitherapy (37%), triple therapy (16%) and quadruple or more (5%). When triple therapy is prescribed, there is an association ACEI or ARB or DRI+Diu+BB in 46%, and an association ACEI or ARB or DRI+Diu+AC in 30%. Cardiovascular disease is present or past reported by 24% of hypertensive patients: coronary artery disease (13%), heart failure (6%), arrhythmias (5%), stroke (4%), PAD (4%). The use of BB is more common in hypertensive patients who have coronary artery disease, heart failure and arrhythmia. ACE inhibitors are more common in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure or stroke. CCB are more frequent in cases of coronary artery disease or PAD. The ARB are less frequent in patients with coronary artery disease. The ARB, diuretics and beta-blockers are the most prescribed antihypertensives in France in 2009 to 2010. Cardiovascular diseases declared in 24% of hypertensives led to a preferential prescription of an ACE inhibitor or BB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermoluminescence dating: study of a possible chronological correlation between the maar of la Vestide-du-Pal and a tephra layer from la Baume-Moula-Guercy (Ardeche, France); Datation par thermoluminescence: etude d'une correlation chronologique possible entre le maar de la Vestide-du-Pal et un niveau de tephra de La Baume-Moula-Guercy (Ardeche, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzelle, S.; Pilleyre, Th.; Montret, M.; Fain, J.; Miallier, D. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France); Camus, G.; Goer de Herve, A. de [Universite Blaise Pascal, Centre de Recherches volcanologiques, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Defleur, A. [Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine secteur nord, Lab. d' anthropologie, UMR 6569, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2000-04-01

    The origin of an ash level sampled in the archaeological site 'La Baume-Moula-Guercy' (Soyons, Ardeche, France), was previouslyattributed to the maar 'La Vestide-du Pal' (Bas-Vivarais, Massif Central, France). In order to test this assumption by means of absolute chronology, thermoluminescence dating was applied to both sites. The results, 72{+-}12 ka for La Baume-Moula and 49{+-} 7 ka for La Vestide-du-Pal were not in agreement. The initial assumption must then be questioned. (authors)

  11. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  12. Adaptation to climate change in France; L'adaptation au changement climatique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This report first comments some data and facts illustrating climate change. It discusses its various impacts (extreme meteorological events, dramatic impacts on ecosystems with the possible disappearance of some vegetal and animal species, crisis regarding food resources, health risks, population migrations notably because of sea level rise), and briefly evokes these impacts in France. It outlines the need for adaptation and describes the different adaptation principles: reduction of vulnerability, and anticipation of changes and of their impacts. It comments how adaptation and mitigation are two complementary approaches. It presents the French State strategy with its national adaptation strategy, its national adaptation plan, the mandatory elaboration of regional schemes for climate, air and energy, and the action of local communities

  13. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France; Les acteurs de l'hydrogene en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  14. Les formations à la logistique en France (Logistic studies in France)

    OpenAIRE

    Joël Moulhade

    2005-01-01

    la logistique est l’art et la manière de mettre à disposition un produit donné au bon moment, au bon endroit, au moindre coût et avec la meilleure qualité. Le métier est prometteur… Dans un premier temps, nous précisons le concept de logistique et nous définissons les différentes dénominations et les champs d’action. Dans un deuxième temps, nous situons l’importance de la place de la logistique en France. Dans un troisième temps, nous présentons les différentes formations à la logistique de f...

  15. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report - Environment; Charbonnages de France. Rapport annuel 1998 - Environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This 1998 annual report of the Charbonnages de France group presents the environmental actions carried out by the group after the Kyoto summit for the reduction of greenhouse gases and the preservation of fossil resources: the goals of the group and its environmental strategy; the use of waste products (bagasse-coal-fueled power plants, recovery of methane from coal mines, valorization of coal washing wastes, valorization of fly-ashes in cement industry); the reduction of pollutant emissions (development of supercritical, combined and hybrid cycles, fluidized bed boilers, reduction of pollutants during the dismantling of shutdown installations); water preservation (processing of acid mine waters, purification of waters from coke factories, cleansing of abandoned sites); sites rehabilitation (backfilling of abandoned mines, soil cleansing of dismantled coal processing facilities, reinforcing of abandoned cavities, prevention of erosion of spoil heaps etc..); improvement of landscapes (rehabilitation, revegetation); research and innovation (hydrological and geological impact studies, soil cleansing processes, phyto-remediation..). (J.S.)

  16. Change to mobile telephony coverage and billing in France

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Following recent discussions with the French and Swiss authorities, it has become clear that it is not permitted for a mobile telephony provider from one host state to transmit signals from the territory of the other. As a result, the Swisscom transmitters in France will be turned off on 29 August. From that date, coverage in France will be provided by Orange France. Users with a private subscription will be pleased to note that they will again have the ability to identify calls as private as from 18 July.   In order to ensure that you can still be contacted by your colleagues, please make sure that you have enabled roaming for voice calls. Instructions for common phone models are available at https://cern.ch/gsm-france/content/instructions. If you make use of data services, you will also need to enable data roaming to, for example, access your email whilst in France, but note that use of data services will be charged. Special arrangements have been put in place by Swisscom to ensure that k...

  17. Construction of a policy arena: the case of public health in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Henri; Nathanson, Constance A

    2012-02-01

    In this article we examine the transformation over the past two decades of public health as a policy arena in France from a backwater of little interest to politicians, bureaucrats, the media, and the public into a central preoccupation of the state. Recent dramatic health crises (the scandal over HIV-contaminated blood, mad cow disease, etc.) have substantially raised the political profile of (and corresponding state investment in) public health in France, offering opportunities and incentives for political actors not traditionally associated with public health to enter the field and challenging more traditional actors to galvanize themselves and compete for this newly attractive policy terrain. We use the occasion of the passage of a public health law in 2004, labeled by its proponents as the "first" public health law in one hundred years, to show how, in a context of national struggle to contain both risks and costs, "public health" -- chameleonlike -- has taken on various meanings and forms to serve highly conflicting political interests.

  18. Quando prolixidade é arte: entendendo os romances francófonos africanos de Ahmadou Kourouma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foara Das Gupta Adhikari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A ficção de Ahmadou Kourouma, escritor africano da Costa do Marfim, tem constituído um desafio para os críticos, sobretudo pelo intenso uso do registro, do léxico e do ritmo africanos com o escopo de criar um novo idioma francês através do malinkê, língua materna do autor. Embora a linguagem seja central para o entendimento da literatura francófona, a abordagem crítica tradicional tem dado pouca ênfase a esses romances de um ponto de vista linguístico. Propondo que a crítica literária limitada à reflexão isolada de parâmetros contextuais ou textuais ignora a dimensão criativa da arte no romance, este trabalho busca adotar a poética do dialogismo de Bakhtin na leitura do romance Alá e as crianças-soldados, de Kourouma, para compreender o princípio (de linha dialógica que anima e articula todo o trabalho.

  19. [How can institutional structures make clinical research in France more operational?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck-Brentano, C; Brouard, R

    The laws regulating the practice of clinical research in France, in particular the law of 20 December 1988, the so-called Huriet's law, constitute a major advance for medical progress. However, their implementation by administrative offices generates practical difficulties which impair the development of applied research in human beings. Beyond the laws themselves, it appears that our institutions are unprepared to optimize the conduct of such research. This round table sought to list the existing problems and to propose constructive solutions or objectives to be reached to optimize clinical research in France, with a view to improving French participation in international collaborative programmes, notably European ones. Evaluation of projects and practices, financial support and accounting, and some aspects of existing laws have been identified as the major sources of our difficulties. Harmonization and clarification of our procedures as well as improvement of training should be our primary objectives to achieve a higher level of medical, scientific, financial and administrative quality in the conduct of clinical research. Creation of a referential Web site, designed and updated by a central public organization, is an imperative step towards reaching these objectives.

  20. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  1. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  2. L'espace des francs-maçons

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    À l’heure où l’on commémore avec faste les 275 ans de la franc-maçonnerie en France, ce livre est né d’un constat inquiétant et d’un espoir. Longtemps pionnière dans l’observation des formes de sociabilité, l’histoire de la franc-maçonnerie peine aujourd’hui à trouver un second souffle. Elle est même menacée de marginalisation universitaire et scientifique. Paradoxalement, la situation n’a sans doute jamais été aussi propice à une relance de la recherche : l’ouverture des fonds maçonniques de...

  3. [Child victims of house fires in France. Mortality, morbidity, prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, B; Lareng, L; Julien, H; Lavaud, J; Wassermann, D; Latarjet, J

    1993-10-01

    Children injuries by house fires in France are the cause of a severe mortality (sixty deaths in average each year) and of a morbidity for the survival due to smoke toxicity (oxygen deprivation and inhalation of toxic gases--CO and HCN) and to thermal burns. Epidemiological studies show that young children (0 to 4) are specially concerned by this threat and that the deaths occurred more often in some part of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region). A special strategy for this prevention should be applied in France, the same available in USA, Sweden and UK, including information on the behavior one should have with children: never leave them alone and escape with them as soon as possible out of the smoke. The usefulness of smoke detectors should be confirmed by French administration and recommended to the public, since they have had effective results in other countries.

  4. Cord blood banking in France: reorganising the national network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gregory; Mills, Antonia

    2010-06-01

    Paradoxically, France is one of the leading exporters of cord blood units worldwide, but ranks only 17th in terms of cord blood units per inhabitant, and imports 64% of cord blood grafts to meet national transplantation demands. With three operational banks in 2008, the French allogeneic cord blood network is now entering an important phase of development with the creation of seven new banks collecting from local clusters of maternities. Although the French network of public banks is demonstrating a strong commitment to reorganise and scale up its activities, the revision of France's bioethics law in 2010 has sparked a debate concerning the legalisation of commercial autologous banking. The paper discusses key elements for a comprehensive national plan that would strengthen the allogeneic banking network through which France could meet its national medical needs and guarantee equal access to healthcare. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Islamic Finance In France: Current State, Challenges And Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its small share of the global financial market, Islamic finance is considered as one of this sector’s fastest growing components over the last few decades and has gained further momentum in the wake of the global financial crisis. Given the France’s position as one of the leading international financial markets, it is surprising that part of this growth has not taken place in La Place de Paris. France, the western European country with the largest Muslim population, has not make much progress in developing Islamic finance in the domestic market like her neighbors UK. The paper examines the development of and possible prospects for Islamic finance in France. As well as, this study discuss the breakthroughs, issues and challenges facing this sector in France.

  6. Images of Italian Mathematics in France from Risorgimento to Fascism

    CERN Document Server

    Jouve, Guillaume; Mazliak, Laurent; Tazzioli, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    The contributions in this proceedings volume offer a new perspective on the mathematical ties between France and Italy, and reveal how mathematical developments in these two countries affected one another. The focus is above all on the Peninsula’s influence on French mathematicians, counterbalancing the historically predominant perception that French mathematics was a model for Italian mathematicians. In the process, the book details a subtle network of relations between the two countries, where mathematical exchanges fit into the changing and evolving framework of Italian political and academic structures. It reconsiders the issue of nationalities in all of its complexity, an aspect often neglected in research on the history of mathematics. The works in this volume are selected contributions from a conference held in Lille and Lens (France) in November 2013 on Images of Italian Mathematics in France from Risorgimento to Fascism. The authors include respected historians of mathematics, philosophers of scien...

  7. Former Prime Minister of France, Laurent Fabius, Visited CEIBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The year of 2005 not only celebrates the China-France culture year, but it 2005,also China-France Culture Year also,marks the 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relationships between China and Europe. On a one-week visit, Mr.Laurent Fabius, former Prime Minister of France and Minister of the Economy, Finance and Industry, has recently come came to CEIBS(the China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) to give a series of lecturesfor a one-week visit and research as a prelude to celebrate the anniversary. These lectures were given at CEIBS over four consecutive days from February 21 to 24 on "History of the European Integration" "EU's Economy", "EU and China" and "EU's Future".

  8. Former Prime Minister of France, Laurent Fabius, Visited CEIBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The year of 2005 not only celebrates the China-France culture year, but it 2005,also China-France Culture Year also,marks the 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relationships between China and Europe. On a one-week visit, Mr.Laurent Fabius, former Prime Minister of France and Minister of the Economy, Finance and Industry, has recently come came to CEIBS(the China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) to give a series of lecturesfor a one-week visit and research as a prelude to celebrate the anniversary. These lectures were given at CEIBS over four consecutive days from February 21 to 24 on "History of the European Integration" "EU's Economy", "EU and China" and "EU's Future".……

  9. The Tour de France: an updated physiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalla, Alfredo; Earnest, Conrad P; Marroyo, José A; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    From its initial inception in 1903 as a race premised on a publicity stunt to sell newspapers, the Tour de France had grown and evolved over time to become one of the most difficult and heralded sporting events in the world. Though sporting science and the Tour paralleled each other, it was not until the midlate 1980s, and especially the midlate 1990s (with the use of heart-rate monitors) that the 2 began to unify and grow together. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize what is currently known of the physiological demands of the Tour de France, as well as of the main physiological profile of Tour de France competitors.

  10. Spatial distribution of Lindane concentration in topsoil across France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, T G; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D; Jolivet, C C; Villanneau, E J; Marchant, B P; Caria, G; Barriuso, E; Bispo, A; Briand, O

    2013-01-15

    Lindane [γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)] is an organochlorine pesticide with toxic effects on humans. It is bioaccumulative and can remain in soils for long periods, and although its use for crop spraying was banned in France in 1998, it is possible that residues from before this time remain in the soil. The RMQS soil monitoring network consists of soil samples from 2200 sites on a 16 km regular grid across France, collected between 2002 and 2009. We use 726 measurements of the Lindane concentration in these samples to (i) investigate the main explanatory factors for its spatial distribution across France, and (ii) map this distribution. Geostatistics provides an appropriate framework to analyze our spatial dataset, though two issues regarding the data are worth special consideration: first, the harmonization of two subsets of the data (which were analyzed using different measurement processes), and second, the large proportion of data from one of these subsets that fell below a limit of quantification. We deal with these issues using recent methodological developments in geostatistics. Results demonstrate the importance of land use and rainfall for explaining part of the variability of Lindane across France: land use due to the past direct input of Lindane on cropland and its subsequent persistence in the soil, and rainfall due to the re-deposition of volatilized Lindane. Maps show the concentrations to be generally largest in the north and northwest of France, areas of more intensive agricultural land. We also compare levels to some contamination thresholds taken from the literature, and present maps showing the probability of Lindane concentrations exceeding these thresholds across France. These maps could be used as guidelines for deciding which areas require further sampling before some possible remediation strategy could be applied.

  11. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  12. del francés a hispanohablantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Murillo Puyal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la enseñanza-aprendizaje de las lenguas extranjeras, la exigencia, generalmente admitida hoy, de conceder a la oralidad por lo menos la misma importancia que a la escritura no se debe a consideraciones de índole socio-económica o socio-cultural –según la creencia más extendida–, sino que se fundamenta en la primacía y prioridad de las manifestaciones fónicas en la actuación audio-fonatoria –esto es, en el hablar–; viene determinada por la misma naturaleza de las lenguas –que es fónica– y remite, por consiguiente, al plano de la epistemología lingüística. El profesor de idiomas –y obviamente el profesor de francés– debe, por lo tanto, basarse en ese axioma para determinar las técnicas y estrategias didácticas que vaya a aplicar, así como para adoptar variables y parámetros que le permitan caracterizar no sólo la materia fónica resultante del proceso de percepción y producción de habla, sino ese mismo proceso, que es donde la intervención pedagógica puede y debe incidir. Esto es, debe tomar en cuenta la insoslayable presencia del “ser comunicante”. Al aplicar únicamente la “lógica de la física” y no permitir realizar esa caracterización, los enfoques “tradicionales” –articulatorio y/o acústico y/o fonológico– no resultan operativos. La metodología verbo-tonal permite superar el carácter reductor y sesgado de dichos enfoques. En efecto, frente a la “lógica de la física”, se inscribe en la “lógica de lo viviente”: las variables y parámetros que adopta permiten determinar el “sistema de errores” (efectivos o latentes sin exigir ni presuponer conductas fonatorias predeterminadas; antes bien inducen a que el aprendiente consiga resultados aceptables utilizando sus propias aptitudes y facultades personales (que, por lo demás, no pueden ser conocidas a priori. La metodología verbo-tonal puede por lo tanto contribuir eficazmente a la formación del ciudadano europeo pluriling

  13. Change of mobile network coverage in France from 29 August

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    The change of mobile network coverage on the French part of the CERN site will take effect on 29 August and not on 11 July as previously announced.    From 29 August, the Swisscom transmitters in France will be deactivated and Orange France will thenceforth provide coverage on the French part of the CERN site.  This switch will result in changes to billing. You should also ensure that you can still be contacted by your colleagues when you are on the French part of the CERN site. Please consult the information and instructions in this official communication.

  14. France at CERN, from 19 to 22 June 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    L. to r.: Mr Jean-Claude Brisson, DAPNIA, French Delegate to the Finance Committee; Mrs Florence Cousquer, CFME/ACTIM; H. E. Mr Philippe Petit, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations in Geneva; Prof. Claude Détraz, Research Director for Fixed Target & Future Programmes; Mr Alexandre Defay, Technical Adviser to the French Minister for Research; Mr Bernard Frois, Director, Department for Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources, French Ministry for Research and Prof. Jean-Jacques Aubert, Director of IN2P3,on the occasion of the inauguration of the industrial exhibition France at CERN.

  15. Reading American Fat in France : Obesity and Food Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Knowlton – Le Roux

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the least flattering images that America is now associated with in France and in other European countries is a ballooning stomach. Pictures of overweight American children and adults are regularly used in French TV news, shows and in the print media. Every campaign against obesity in the land of gourmandise cites the latest statistics on the overweight population in the United States. “Obésité: la France sur la voie des Etats-Unis,” warned Le Monde in the headline of its two-page sprea...

  16. Prescription of asthma medications before and during pregnancy in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beau, Anna-Belle; Didier, Alain; Hurault-Delarue, Caroline;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Asthma affects between 3 to 8% of pregnant women. Previous studies have suggested that women's prescriptions for asthma medication change during pregnancy. The aim was to describe the prescription of asthma medications before and during pregnancy in France. METHODS: Women from the EFEM......OBJECTIVE: Asthma affects between 3 to 8% of pregnant women. Previous studies have suggested that women's prescriptions for asthma medication change during pregnancy. The aim was to describe the prescription of asthma medications before and during pregnancy in France. METHODS: Women from...

  17. Intense Souci d’Identit Nationale de la France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春颖

    2010-01-01

    <正>La France,nous l’ avons vu,est un pays qui attache un prix particulier a son identite nationale.Ce souci de maintenir sa propre identite nationale remonte au XVI~e siecle.A cette epoque - la,la France a tout fait pour resister au pouvoir assimilateur de l’ Empire romain.Elle s’ est efforcee de se debarrasser de la theocratie religieuse la retenant en son pouvoir mondain.Des lors, profitant des differentes oppositions entre pays voisins,elle a essaye de sauvegarder sa securite nationale par le biais d’ une expansion graduelle vers l’ Est.

  18. Aendringer i blodprofiler under Tour de France 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, Jakob; Belhage, Bo; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    sports federations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the Tour de France 2007, 7 riders were randomly tested on 3 different occasions; the day before the prologue, and 12 and 19 days after the prologue. Blood was drawn into 3 mL EDTA covered tubes and kept at 4 degrees Celsius. They were analyzed within 24.......5% and 12.1% lower on day 19 compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: We observed significant decreases in [Hb] and Hct in 7 riders during Tour de France 2007. Whether or not this is due to decrease in hemoglobin mass or hemodilution, or the latter solely, increases in [Hb] and Hct during prolonged stage racing...

  19. [Probable flora: an expression mean of ecological gradients in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbolino, Emmanuel; De Ruffray, Patrice; Brisse, Henry; Grandjouan, Gilles

    2013-02-01

    The application of the criterion of fidelity of plants to plants over four millions botanical observations in France is considered to characterize the ecology of 215,000 phytosociological surveys. Among those discriminant plants, some are missing of the surveys, but they can have a certain probability of occurrence: these plants are called "probable plants" and they represent the "probable flora" of a territory. The study of their geographical distribution shows ecological gradients of flora across France in a better way than only considering the botanical observations. In fact, this method mitigates the discontinuities of taxa observations whose absence may be due to historical and/or anthropogenic factors.

  20. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2014-01-01

    Transformation in technological patterns associated with the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition between 50 and 40 ka in Western Europe and their relationship with the Neanderthal and Anatomically Modern Human populations and behaviors are issues that continue to stimulate heated debate...

  1. The geology of the upper Salat and Pallaresa Valleys, Central Pyrenees, France/Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, J.

    1960-01-01

    A sequence of more than 4000 m of marine sediments, mainly unfossiliferous and apparently without any unconformities, range in age from probable Cambrian to pre-Hercynian Carboniferous. The lower formations are of neritic facies and there is no indication of a Pyrenean basin before the Devonian, the

  2. Unusual snail species involved in the transmission of Fasciola hepatica in watercress beds in central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyfuss G.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four freshwater pulmonate species (Lymnaea ovata, L. stagnalis, Physa acuta, Planorbis leucostomawere living in several watercress beds known for their relationships with human cases of fasciolosis, whereas L. truncatula was never found. The aims of these studies were to determine the prevalence of natural infections with Fasciola hepatica in snails and to verify if these species might ensure the full larval development of this trematode (with cercarial shedding] when they were experimentally subjected to F. hepatica only, or to co-infections with an other trematode species. Investigations were so carried out in six snail populations living in watercress beds (including three for P. acuta and in four others originating from three brooks or a pond (as controls. Snails naturally infected with F. hepatica were found in two watercress beds inhabited by L. ovata (prevalence of infection: 1.4 % and P. leucostoma (0.1 %, respectively. The L. ovata from the watercress bed could be infected at a higher size than those from the control population and the prevalence of this infection was greater in the bed population. Similar findings were noted for L. stagnalis. Despite single or dual infections, the results obtained with the four populations of P. acuta were unsuccessful. In contrast, the co-infections of young P. leucostoma with Paramphistomum daubneyi and F. hepatica resulted in the shedding of some F. hepatica cercariae. According to the authors, the occurrence of fasciolosis in these watercress beds would be the consequence of frequent natural encounters between parasite and snails (L. ovata, L. stagnalis, or of co-infections with P. daubneyi and F. hepatica (P. leucostoma. In watercress beds only colonized by P. acuta, a lymnaeid species would have ensured the larval development of F. hepatica but it would have been eliminated by P. acuta, as this last species was known to be invasive and could colonize open drainage ditches on siliceous soil.

  3. Jedburgh Operations: Support to the French Resistance in Central France from June through September 1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    Unclassifier NSN 7540-01-2805500 ordrd Or. /98 IRev 2 89 , ..........~ . " ......... .. ""- Z . ............-..... .-...... ...... -.. GLNLIAL IN 1tCULI IONS...and overcome any encounter with speed and firepower.1 s The resistance in the team’s area of Geerations grew from a few poorly armed groups to a force

  4. Discovery of Unusual Minerals in Paleolithic Black Pigments from Lascaux (France) and Ekain (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmin, E.; /Marne la Vallee U.; Farges, F.; /Marne l Vallee U. /Museum Nat. Hist., Paris /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Vignaud, C.; /Unknown; Susini, J.; /ESRF,; Menu, M.; /unknown; Brown, G.E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-13

    Analyses of archaeological materials aim to rediscover the know-how of Prehistoric people by determining the nature of the painting matter, its preparation mode, and the geographic origin of its raw materials. This study deals with identification of manganese oxides in black pigments by micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) based on previous TEM (transmission electron microscopy) studies. Complex mixtures of the manganese oxides studied are present in some of mankind's oldest known paintings, namely those from the caves of Lascaux (Dordogne, France) and Ekain (Basque country, Spain). Scarce manganese oxide minerals, including groutite, hausmannite, and manganite, were found for the first time in Paleolithic art at these archaeological sites. Because there are no known deposits of such minerals in these areas, more distant origins and trade routes are inferred. The closest known Mn-rich geological province for Lascaux is the central Pyrenees, which is {approx} 250 km from the Dordogne area.

  5. Public health implications of contamination of Franc CFA (XAF) circulating in Buea (Cameroon) with drug resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Gaelle, Nana; Dilonga, Henry Meriki; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa K

    2014-01-08

    Studies in different parts of the world have implicated money as a vehicle for transmission of pathogens. Such information which is necessary to facilitate infection control strategies is lacking in many sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon. This study analyzed the Franc de la Communauté Financiere d'Afrique (Franc CFA), the currency used in Cameroon and other countries in the Central African sub-region, as a potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, particularly drug-resistant strains, to generate findings which could create awareness on currency contamination and serve as a guide when formulating health policies on currency. Two hundred and thirteen currency samples representing various denominations of notes and coins randomly collected from diverse sources in Buea, Cameroon were analyzed for bacteria and fungi. The sensitivity of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested using the disc diffusion method. The relationship between contamination and physical state, source or denomination of currency was assessed using the χ2 test. All statistics were discussed at 0.05 significance level. Two hundred (93.9%) samples were contaminated with notes (96.6%) showing higher contamination than coins (88.2%). Uncirculated (mint) samples showed no contamination. There was a significant difference (PCFA franc circulating in Buea could serve as a vehicle for transmission of drug resistant pathogenic or potential organisms and contamination could be due to currency usage and handling as mint notes were not contaminated. Hygiene practices during or after handling currency is greatly encouraged to prevent infection.

  6. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report - France 2010; Rapport d'activites Hydrogene et Piles a combustible - France 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The report gathers the main outstanding facts which occurred in France in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in 2010. After having noticed some initiatives (the Grenelle II law, an investment package, the new role of the CEA, the new role of the IFP), the report presents several projects and programs regarding hydrogen: ANR programs, creation of a national structure (the HyPaC platform), regional initiatives and local actions, colloquiums and meetings in France and in the world, research projects (photo-synthesis as a new electric energy source), a technical-economic investigation (HyFrance3), demonstrator projects (the Althytude project by GDF and Suez, the Plathee hybrid locomotive by the SNCF, the H2E project, the Zero CO{sub 2} sailing boat, and the Myrte project), educational applications, activity in small and medium-sized enterprises (CETH, SAGIM, HYCAN, McPhy, N-GHY).

  7. France @ CERN | Come and meet 37 French companies at the 2014 “France @ CERN” Event | 1-3 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The 13th “France @ CERN” event will take place from 1 December to 3 December 2014. Thanks to Ubifrance, the French agency for international business development, 37 French firms will have the opportunity to showcase their know-how at CERN.   These companies are looking forward to meeting you during the B2B sessions which will be held on Tuesday, 2 December (afternoon) and on Wednesday, 3 December (afternoon) in buildings 500 and 61 or at your convenience in your own office. The fair’s opening ceremony will take place on Tuesday, 2 December (morning) in the Council Chamber in the presence of Rolf Heuer, Director-General of CERN and Nicolas Niemtchinow, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations in Geneva and to international organisations in Switzerland. For more information about the event and the 37 participating French firms, please visit: http://www.la-france-au-cern.com/

  8. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  9. At birth: the modern state, modern medicine, and the royal midwife Louise Bourgeois in seventeenth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article I explore the connections between state centralization, the professionalization of healing, and the end of the royal midwife Louise Bourgeois' (1563-1636) illustrious career in seventeenth-century France. Specifically, I analyze seventeenth-century narratives of two events which frame Louise Bourgeois' public career as a writer and royal midwife in order to demonstrate the way that the changing meanings of childbirth and the role of the midwife in the medical hierarchy were bound up in state formation and consolidation. The result for midwives was that, though they could still practice, they were ultimately considered marginal to the medical community.

  10. Production of heavy water in France; Production d'eau lourde en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.; Stouls, L.; Dirian, G.; Lazard, B.; Nief, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Four processes which can be employed on there own or in combination with others, are at present being studied and tried out in France, 1) Process of exchange between H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}O. A certain amount of laboratory research has been carried out. Also a study of corrosion and operation has been carried out in pilot plants at the same time as the process investigation. 2) Process involving the catalytic exchange H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O. Studies of liquid phase catalysts are being carried out. 3) The liquid hydrogen distillation process. It has been necessary to resolve numerous theoretical and technological questions. The pilot plant at Toulouse, designed to treat 4000 Nm{sup 3}/h of synthesis gas will soon start production. 4) Process involving the catalytic exchange NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}. A certain number of investigations have been carried out: the separation coefficient, catalysts, reaction kinetics. The process is promising. The development of a very accurate mass spectrograph has contributed to the success of this work. (author) [French] En France, actuellement, quatre procedes, qui peuvent etre employes seuls ou combines, font l'objet d'etudes et de travaux. 1) Procede d'echange H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2}O. Un certain nombre de recherches de laboratoire ont ete faites. Par ailleurs, des pilotes ont permis d'etudier les problemes de corrosion et de fonctionnement, en meme temps que des etudes de procede ont ete realisees. 2) Procede d'echange catalytique H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O. Des etudes de catalyseurs en phase liquide se poursuivent. 3) Procede par distillation de H{sub 2} liquide. II y a eu a resoudre de nombreux problemes theoriques ou technologiques. L'usine Pilote de Toulouse, prevue pour traiter 4000 Nm{sup 3}/h de gaz de synthese, doit prochainement entrer dans la phase de production. 4) Procede d'echange catalytique NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}. Un certain nombre d'etudes sont entreprises: coefficients de separation, catalyseurs

  11. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 1; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 1 concerns the Ile-de-France region (Paris region). (J.S.)

  12. Hf–Zr anomalies in clinopyroxene from mantle xenoliths from France and Poland: implications for Lu–Hf dating of spinel peridotite lithospheric mantle

    OpenAIRE

    Downes, Hilary; Vries, C. de; Wittig, N.

    2015-01-01

    \\ud \\ud Clinopyroxenes in some fresh anhydrous spinel peridotite mantle xenoliths from the northern Massif Central (France) and Lower Silesia (Poland), analysed for a range of incompatible trace elements by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, show unusually strong negative anomalies in Hf and Zr relative to adjacent elements Sm and Nd, on primitive mantle-normalised diagrams. Similar Zr–Hf anomalies have only rarely been reported from clinopyroxene in spinel peridotit...

  13. Integration of the European Arms Industry: An Analysis of Key Variables and Processes in France, Britain, and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Speech at Strasbourg, 23 November 1961, in Charles de Gaulle, Discours et Message III, as quoted in I.H. Daadler, The SDI Challenge to Europe...Rhine and the Elbe: Filance and the Conventional Defense of Central Europe," Comparative Strateg. 4/1987. 76 44. Hernu, C., "La politique et la volonte...de defense," Politique Internationale, no. 16 (Summer 1982), as cited in D.S. Yost, France’s Deterrent Posture and Security in Europe: Part 1

  14. Ordovician palaeogeography with new palaeomagnetic data from the Montagne Noire (Southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysæther, E.; Torsvik, T. H.; Feist, R.; Walderhaug, H. J.; Eide, E. A.

    2002-10-01

    A joint palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/ 39Ar study has been performed on two olistolithic blocks from the Cabrières Wildflysch in the Montagne Noire region of the Massif Central in France. There, andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Llanvirn-Early Caradoc age (ca 470-458 Ma) occur. Despite extensive secondary alteration, destruction of the dominant magnetic mineral phase and 40Ar/ 39Ar whole rock experiments that demonstrate that the volcanic rocks suffered significant argon loss, a positive fold test and the presence of dual polarities suggest that a primary, Ordovician magnetisation has mostly survived. This is one of the few documented cases where the argon system was substantially reset whilst a subordinate set of small, relatively unaltered magnetite grains, probably hosted in silicates, still carry the original, in this case Ordovician, remanence. The new data show that the Montagne Noire region was located at high southerly latitudes (68° +17/ -15) during the Mid-Ordovician. This latitude represents the location for NW Gondwana of which the Massif Central was a part. Palaeomagnetic data from all the Central European massifs and terranes demonstrate a close link to the Gondwana Margin during the Lower and Middle Ordovician.

  15. Air France Offers A Second Daily Flight on Its Beijing - Paris Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Starting from 14 June 2005, Air France is adding one more daily flight on its Beijing - Paris's route. Air France customers will then have a choice of fourteen weekly flights between the two cities.……

  16. Air France Offers A Second Daily Flight on Its Beijing - Paris Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Starting from 14 June 2005, Air France is adding one more daily flight on its Beijing - Paris's route. Air France customers will then have a choice of fourteen weekly flights between the two cities.

  17. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  18. Innovation Policies: A comparative study Between Brazil and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dias Coelho Jones

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comparison between the main actions promoted to encourage innovation by France, as well as the current stage of research and development initiatives (R&D, in relation to Brazil. Is a qualitative study that the procedures for its development ranks as literature and documents. The data collection technique was documentary and had as a data source primary and secondary documents, coming from public archives and statistical sources. For the survey of brazilian data for the development of this study, it was used as informational basis the fifth edition of the Innovation Research (PINTEC 2011. The data from France raised through the use of OECD year Report 2014 " Reviews of Innovation Policy France in 2014."  For the presentation of the study results comparative charts and tables were used. As the present study results can be highlighted, among others: France is a country with a long scientific tradition and technique, and plays a significant role in the world in this area. On the other hand, Brazil has one of the lowest proportions of R&D and export of high technology to GDP. The completion of this study brought an important diagnosis: there is a wide and interesting research topic that is still little explored by Brazilian researchers.

  19. Economic consequences of migration from North Africa to France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Migration to France from the countries of the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) for employment has supplied France with a labor force on favorable terms, though with some problems. In the Maghreb countries, development has been immediately aided by emigrant remittances and the relief of underemployment. Whether or not emigration will favor those countries in the long run is the question. Immigration to France from the Maghreb was suspended in July 1974 when 1.3 million emigrants from the Maghreb were living there including 710,000 workers. Building and engineering firms employed them as unskilled labor. Whole sections were able to grow at little social cost. It is the country of origin that loses the manpower, the human capital, and investment. Every Algerian in gainful employment has to provide, directly or indirectly, for the subsistence of 7 other Algerians who are not productive. In France the equivalent ratio is 1 to 2.5. As long as female employment is so limited in the Maghreb the pattern of emigration to support the family left behind will continue. The monthly postal order is a means of survival for many Maghreb families living at the subsistence level. The family of the emigrant is liable to pattern its consumption on the Western ideas which support the breadwinner.

  20. Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Shin, Young Joon; Kim, Yong Wan

    2007-07-15

    In celebration of the 120th anniversary on Korea-France diplomatic relations, both Korea and France agreed that the New-generation Energy Forum on a VHTR-assisted nuclear hydrogen production, renewable energy, and bio-fuel should be held in Paries, France. In accordance with the agreement, the Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy organized by KAERI and CEA was held at the Mercure Hotel Conference Hall in Paries for a couple of days, November 6 and 7 and a facility visit to the CEA-Saclay was arranged on November 8 by the French side. 19 scientists from both countries presented their R and D status and plans in 4 technical sessions of 'VHTR Nuclear System', 'VHTR-assited Hydrogen Production', 'Renewable Energy', and 'Fuel Cell and Energy Storage'. A contact point in each field was established for the exchange of technological information and dispatch of experts if necessary.

  1. Fashion Industry Supply Chain Issues: Zara (Azel France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of retail business is to continuously maintain the responsiveness to the changing trends in consumer fashion tastes through quickly creating new designs that are suitable for all customers with an affordable price. Hence, the importance of Supply Chain (Management has appeared. The objectives of this study are to analyze the impact of purchasing and supply chain management strategies in retail industry and identify the way of success of AZEL FRANCE Retailer Company of ZARA clothing in Bosnia and Herzegovina from supply chain perspective management by conducting a survey study. AZEL FRANCE is found to be successful in that it can control and streamline the highly consumable fashion items in their supply chains so that they can greatly decrease their lead time and thus increase be responsive enough for fast changes in fashion customer needs and desires by minimizing the industry risks. The retailer stores of AZEL FRANCE are also found to be confident about the future profitability. However, some technical inabilities of the company are also identified. It can be suggested that AZEL FRANCE can easily leverage more its successfully implemented supply chain activities by increasing its technical abilities.

  2. [The pharmaceutical industry in France: the turning point of 1915].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    For several convergent reasons, 1915 was a key period for the pharmaceutical industry in France. The overall realization that France was dependent on Germany for chemical and pharmaceutical products came from shortages of key drugs but also from massive use of poison gas for which France was not able to face this unexpected event. France's shortage for chemists properly trained to answer the needs of industry, the weak relationship between industry and faculty, the uncomfortable situation of specialty drugs, the regulations on patents and trademarks were many subjects of controversies which will contribute to the analysis of the source of this French dependence to Germany. It will be at the origin of new orientations after the war for the pharmaceutical industry and the French society. The objective was to be independent for drugs and consequently to resolve the identified issues, as well as to have a dynamic industrial research. The creation and development of several pharmaceutical companies after the war was a more or less direct benefit from the considerations starting in 1915.

  3. Entrepreneurial Finance in France: The Persistent Role of Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cieply (Sylvie); M.A.F.G. Dejardin (Marcus)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study financial constraints new firms suffer from in France during the mid-nineties. Three types of constraints are distinguished: the classic and well-known weak and strong credit rationing and the new concept of self-rationing bound to the theory of discouraged borrowers. We look fo

  4. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corre...

  5. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Abat, C.; Moal, V.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature. PMID:26958347

  6. The Processing of Architects' Records. A Case-Study: France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    By means of close examination of the records created and accumulated by individual architects and architectural firms in France, this Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study is intended to call attention to the basic documentary values of these architectural records and to provide practical guidance to help ensure their preservation…

  7. Romanticism or Reality? An Exploration of Frances Mary Hendry's "Chandra."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jilaine

    This paper singles out a novel written for children about India, "Chandra" (1995) by Frances Mary Hendry, as a powerful and useful novel to present to today's 11 to 14 year old students. The paper contends that the novel allows students to explore and consider different value systems, challenges them to become aware of prejudice and the…

  8. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  9. "Training the Trainers" of Teachers in France: Assessment and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapostolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of IUFMs (university institutes of teacher training) in the 1990s, the training of teacher trainers in France has become a fundamental part of the renewal of teacher training. It is seen as a fundamental lever for the IUFMs to achieve the tasks and goals entrusted to them: training teachers who need to accommodate the new demands…

  10. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  11. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V; Abat, C; Moal, V; Rolain, J-M

    2016-05-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature.

  12. Vaccine Knowledge in Students in Paris, France, and surrounding Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Mellon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases.

  13. Psychology and Didactics of Mathematics in France--An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Gerard

    1983-01-01

    Examples are given of the variety of mathematical concepts and problems being studied by psychologically oriented researchers in France. Work on decimals, circles, natural numbers, decimal and real numbers, and didactic transposition are included. Comments on designing research on mathematics concept formation conclude the article. (MNS)

  14. Napoleon: His Interest in Books and the Libraries of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Dorothy R.

    Napoleon Bonaparte had both a personal and national interest in books, and he exerted a tremendous influence on the country's libraries during his 16 years as leader of France. In addition to collecting books for his personal libraries (including a traveling library that he took with him on his campaigns), he instituted an accelerated program for…

  15. Promoting Reflective Practice in Continuing Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Educationalist Fred Korthagen elaborated a model in the 1980s for the relationship between the teacher educator and the teacher which embraces reflective practice as its guiding principle. In the present study, research was carried out into teacher development among a small group of language teachers working in continuing education in France.…

  16. Critical Citizenship Education in England and France: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of "critical citizenship" has become a key objective of official school curricula around the world. Using an analytic framework developed by the authors, this paper identifies the diverse conceptions of critical citizenship that are promoted, by comparing the official school curricula for citizenship in England and France.…

  17. Hydrozoa, La Ciotat and nearby areas, Mediterranean coast of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water hydrozoan fauna of La Ciotat and nearby areas, Mediterranean coast of France, was surveyedover a period of 6 years; 41 species, belonging to 10 families of Athecata and 13 families of Thecata were identified.

  18. Great War Shakespeare: Somewhere in France, 1914-1919

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenselaars, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/091415640

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the various ways in which the entente cordiale and the political alliance between France and England in 1914-1918 created a unique climate in which the reception of Shakespeare thrived on either side of the Channel. Studying a number of manifestations during the period, we learn

  19. A new lichenicolous Enterographa species from Britanny (France)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrius, L.B.; Aptroot, A.

    2007-01-01

    Enterographa brezhonega, a fourth lichenicolous species in the genus is described. The species has been collected in an ancient woodland in western France growing on Porina rosei and probably other crustose lichens with a Trentepohlia photobiont. It shows affinities with the similar Enterographa epi

  20. Entrepreneurial Finance in France: The Persistent Role of Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cieply (Sylvie); M.A.F.G. Dejardin (Marcus)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study financial constraints new firms suffer from in France during the mid-nineties. Three types of constraints are distinguished: the classic and well-known weak and strong credit rationing and the new concept of self-rationing bound to the theory of discouraged borrowers. We look

  1. New large-format holographic laboratory in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchet, Pascal E. P.

    1994-01-01

    A new holographic laboratory, Photonics 3D, has opened in Lyon, France. Its objectives are many fold: to encourage creative research in the field of holographic imagery, to set up an artist in residence program and to allow the production of very large holograms.

  2. France@CERN” 2016 | 3-4 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Come and meet 37 French companies at the 2016’s edition of “France@CERN”, that will take place on October 3 and 4.   Thanks to Business France, the national agency for the international development of the French economy, 37 French firms will have the opportunity to showcase their know-how at CERN. These companies are looking forward to meeting you during the B2B sessions which are going to be held on Monday, October 3 and on Tuesday, October 4 in the buildings 500, 61 or at your convenience in your own office. The fair’s official opening ceremony is going to take place on Monday in the late afternoon in the Council’s room in the presence of Ms. Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General of CERN and Ms. Elisabeth Laurin, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations in Geneva and to international organizations in Switzerland. Check out the participant list and select on the matching platform the companies you want to meet: www.la-france...

  3. Who Studies Abroad? Evidence from France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Giorgio; Page, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    This article uses data from representative samples of university students in France and Italy in an attempt to investigate the determinants of participation in foreign exchange programmes. Empirical results indicate that selection into these programmes is mainly driven by student's academic and foreign language skills. On the other hand, parents'…

  4. France: A Strong State, Towards a Stronger Local Democracy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Edwards (Arthur); P.L. Hupe (Peter)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the political organization of France, the so-called 'Jacobean logic' plays an important role. It stands for a tendency towards centralisation and uniformity. However, since the 1980s there has been a process of decentralisation to sub-national authorities. Grenoble is an example of a

  5. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, A.; Grierson, S.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Martelli, F.; Johne, R.; Reetz, J.; Ulrich, R.G.; Pavio, N.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Banks, M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated viability of hepatitis E virus (HEV) identified in contaminated pork liver sausages obtained from France. HEV replication was demonstrated in 1 of 4 samples by using a 3-dimensional cell culture system. The risk for human infection with HEV by consumption of these sausages should be

  6. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia,V.; C. Abat; V. Moal; J.-M. Rolain

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature.

  7. [The Australian nurses in France during the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil

    2014-06-01

    Australia was dragged into the First World War due to its status as a dominion of the British Empire. High numbers of nurses, both civilian and military, served during this conflict, notably in France, reflecting the surge of support and sympathy felt by Australians for the country.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, A.; Grierson, S.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Martelli, F.; Johne, R.; Reetz, J.; Ulrich, R.G.; Pavio, N.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Banks, M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated viability of hepatitis E virus (HEV) identified in contaminated pork liver sausages obtained from France. HEV replication was demonstrated in 1 of 4 samples by using a 3-dimensional cell culture system. The risk for human infection with HEV by consumption of these sausages should be

  9. Early Childhood Program for the Handicapped in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucman, Elisabeth

    1985-01-01

    Early intervention in France begins with compulsory screening of all infants at birth, nine months, and at two years. Problems remain, especially in the availability of adequate support and of services for the handicapped child. Interdisciplinary teams operate from "early medico-social activity centers" to provide a variety of…

  10. Systemic Change in Vocational Training Institutions in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, Abbas; Moallem, Mahnaz

    1998-01-01

    The Specialized Vocational Training Institutions known as Institut Medico-Professionel (IMPro) in France are faced with increasing demands to provide quality services to adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This article describes the process of organizational changes in IMPro including the model, methods, tools, and techniques used in…

  11. [Report on chronic dialysis in France in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Société Francophone de Néphrologie Dialyse Et Transplantation

    2017-04-01

    The report on dialysis in France in 2016 from the French Speaking Society of Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (SFNDT) provides an exhaustive and documented inventory on dialysis in France. It underlines the organizations that are important in 2016 to maintain a high quality dialysis. Several measures are proposed to maintain and improve the care of dialysis in France: (1) The regulation of dialysis treatment in France must be maintained; (2) a burden of care indicator is proposed to ensure that patients requiring the most care are treated in the centers. Proposals are also made to stimulate peritoneal dialysis offers, (3) to improve the calculation of the cost of dialysis and warn against lower reimbursement rates of dialysis, (4) to reduce transport costs by minimizing transport by ambulance (5). The SFNDT recalls recent recommendations concerning access to the renal transplant waiting list, are recalled; (6) as well as recommendations that require waiting until clinical signs are present to start dialysis (7). The SFNDT makes the proposal to set up advanced renal failure units. These units are expected to develop care that is not supported today: consultation with a nurse, a dietician, a social worker or psychologist, palliative care, and coordination (8). Finally, the financial and human resources for pediatric dialysis should be maintained. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Youth Cultural Exchange Held in France and Monaco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Qing

    2013-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the municipal government of Nice and the Monaco-China Association, the 2012-2013 China-France and China-Monaco youth cultural and art exchanges sponsored by the CPAFFC were held on the

  13. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  14. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    , I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible...

  15. Sarah Frances Whiting: A foremother of American women physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Frieda A.

    2005-11-01

    Sarah Frances Whiting taught physics and astronomy at Wellesley College from 1876 to 1916 and developed the first physics laboratory classes for female students. She was elected a fellow of AAAS in 1883 and received an honorary D. Sc. from Tufts University in 1905. I review her accomplishments and discuss some of the barriers that she had to overcome.

  16. France at CERN, from 19 to 21 October 1999

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    The "France at CERN" trade fair was opened by Claude Allègre, the French Minister for National Education, Research and Technology, and Pierre Moscovici, the Minister for European Affairs. CERN was represented by the Director General, Professor Luciano Maiani.

  17. Changing Patterns of Educational Accountability in England and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Uses France and England--because of their radically different institutional and ideological traditions in education--to illustrate common trends in educational accountability. Explains general trends affecting advanced capitalist societies at the present time, e.g., the use of corporate management approaches in education and the adoption of…

  18. Terrestrial mammal fauna and threatened species in France

    OpenAIRE

    François De Beaufort; Hervé Maurin; Patrick Haffner

    1996-01-01

    Abstract With the passing of time, the terrestrial mammal fauna changed considerably in France: definitive extinctions, temporary disappearances, natural reapparitions, introductions and reintroductions. 21 species are considered as threatened (endangered and vulnerab1e) and two have completely disappeared. However, more precise data are needed for a few of them.

  19. Organic Matter of the Mulhouse Basin, France: A synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hofmann, P.; Huc, A.Y.; Carpentier, B.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.; Keely, B.J.; Maxwell, J.R.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Leythaeuser, D.

    1993-01-01

    The lower Oligocene evaporite sequence of the Mulhouse Basin (France) contains organic matter-rich marl deposits. These marls display an overall cyclic variation of sedimentation rate, organic carbon content, hydrogen index and selected molecular parameters over a 30 m thick stratigraphic interval.

  20. A Rhaeto-Liassic flora from Airel, Northern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, M.; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, van J.H.A.

    1970-01-01

    An assemblage of fossil plants from the Upper Triassic/Liassic of Airel (Manche), Northern France, is recorded, and two new species, Hirmerella airelensis sp. nov. and Classopollis harrisii sp. nov., are described and figured. In situ and dispersed pollen is compared and a lycopod megaspore and micr

  1. Providing for Disabled Students: University of Grenoble, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEB Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines how France's University of Grenoble provides for its disabled students in its residence halls, including a description of the university's service for disabled service. A hospital/education center where disabled students can receive care and physiotherapy while attending school is highlighted. (GR)

  2. Great War Shakespeare: Somewhere in France, 1914-1919

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenselaars, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the various ways in which the entente cordiale and the political alliance between France and England in 1914-1918 created a unique climate in which the reception of Shakespeare thrived on either side of the Channel. Studying a number of manifestations during the period, we learn

  3. Plant safety in France 2000 until 2010; Anlagensicherheitspolitik in Frankreich 2000 bis 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, Agnes; Affeltranger, Bastien; Descourriere, Sandrine; Oger, Florence; Duval, Christophe; Gaucher, Rodolphe [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2013-03-15

    The study on the safety of industrial plants on France covers the following issues: The explosion in the operational area of AZF (plant Grande Paroisse) and the consequences; classified installations; the players of accident risks in France; realization of the accident prevention policy in France from 2000 to 2010; prevention of natural risks and consideration of these risks on the level of classified installations (NATECH accidents) in France from 2000 to 2010; further specific topics; actual activities and developments.

  4. Multiple sclerosis in North African migrants to France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzke, J F; Delasnerie-Lauprêtre, N; Wallin, M T

    1998-11-01

    Among some 7500 respondents with known place of birth who had completed a nationwide questionnaire survey for multiple sclerosis (MS) in France in 1986, there were 260 born in former French North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia). They had migrated to France between 1923 and 1986, but 66% came between 1956 and 1964. Two-thirds were from Algeria, where virtually the entire European population had emigrated in 1962 at the end of the Algerian war for independence. The migrants were younger at prevalence day (mean 43.4 years) and at onset (29.4 years) than the French-born MS (46.6; 31.3 years). Eight migrants lacked age information. The 225 migrants with onset more than 1 year after immigration presumably acquired their MS in France. They provided an age adjusted (US 1960) MS prevalence rate 1.54 times that for all France. If the latter is taken at 50 per 100,000 population their estimated adjusted rate is 76.8 with 95% confidence interval of 67.1 to 87.5. The other 27 with presumed acquisition in North Africa gave an estimated adjusted prevalence of 16.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 10.9-24.1). For those migrants with acquisition in France there was a mean interval of 13 years between immigration or age 11 and clinical onset, with a minimum of 3 years. This series provides further support for the theses: 1) that MS is primarily an environmental disease acquired after childhood; 2) that acquisition requires prolonged or repeated exposure (here 3 years for these medium-to-high MS risk migrants) followed by a prolonged latent or incubation period between acquisition and symptom onset (here 10 years); and 3) that this disease is most likely a widespread but unknown persistent infection which results in clinical MS in only a small proportion of those affected.

  5. Major Tourists’ Security Concerns in France at the Present Stage of Travel Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina G. Кudlaenko; Sergey V. Arzumanov

    2012-01-01

    France is the first most popular tourist destination in the international tourism. The article gives another look on France: homeless illegal immigrants, raids on synagogues, inappropriate conduct of migrants from North Africa. Besides, the article gives some recommendations on less troubled areas of France.

  6. Major Tourists’ Security Concerns in France at the Present Stage of Travel Business Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina G. Кudlaenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available France is the first most popular tourist destination in the international tourism. The article gives another look on France: homeless illegal immigrants, raids on synagogues, inappropriate conduct of migrants from North Africa. Besides, the article gives some recommendations on less troubled areas of France.

  7. 77 FR 33159 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... rates based entirely on facts available. See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary... France, Germany, and Italy for the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011. We have preliminarily...

  8. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313,...

  9. 77 FR 19642 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France on February 10, 2012,\\1\\ in which the... Results. \\1\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  10. 77 FR 7128 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... review (CCR) of the antidumping duty order of low enriched uranium (LEU) from France.\\1\\ We preliminarily.... \\1\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

  11. 78 FR 52905 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Expedited Changed Circumstances Review, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Expedited Changed... uranium from France with respect to Eurodif S.A. and AREVA NP Inc. (collectively, AREVA). Moreover, the... published an order on low- enriched uranium from France.\\1\\ The order contains a provision to exclude...

  12. "La France en direct" im gymnasialen Anfangsunterricht. Ein Erfahrungsbericht ("La France en direct" in Gymnasium Beginning Classes. Experience Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erich

    1975-01-01

    Reports on an FL teaching experiment in grades 5 and 6 (gymnasium), using "La France en direct 1" (Hachette). Concludes that the text can be used with younger beginners, but is less suited for orientation classes because it is not amenable to flexibility of method. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  13. France: Reforme dans l'Enseignement des Langues Vivantes (France: Reform in the Teaching of Modern Languages).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documentation Centre for Education in Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Details of a circular distributed in November 1969 by the National Minister of Education of France proposing some controversial changes in the instruction of modern languages are reported in this paper. The principal changes allow students wider choice in determining whether to study one or more languages during the same period of time. German,…

  14. France, an international partner in the climate change field; La France, partenaire international dans le domaine du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cooperation for low carbon and energy efficient development is a high priority for France, in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. France contributes to tackling climate change by working with its partners on all continents to implement projects both to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change. Within the framework of the Marrakech Accords, France also encourages the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, in particular between French business and non-Annex I countries; this mechanism will facilitate the financing of mitigation projects and contribute to the sustainable development of host countries in the South. At multilateral level, France is a major donor. At a bilateral level, an initial analysis of cooperation projects which are strongly linked to tackling climate change identified public support of 136 millions euros per year, as an average over the past few years. Some project examples, mostly implemented with local/national co-financing are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. Provisional energy balance-sheet of France in 1999; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France en 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document presents a first and provisional analysis of the energy balance-sheet in France during the year 1999. the main conclusions concern: the energy mastership, the primary energy consumption, the energy intensity, the climatic conditions, the nuclear energy production, the energy independence, the carbon dioxide emissions and the energy bill. Many tables and charts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  16. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition; Hauts-de-France. Vorreiter in der franzoesischen Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Thomas

    2016-08-15

    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [German] Frankreich hatte sich im Vorfeld des letztjaehrigen Pariser-Klimagipfels auf ambitionierte Energiewendeziele festgelegt. Insbesondere die 2016 neu gebildete Region Hauts-de-France sticht dabei als Vorreiter heraus. Dort treibt man Innovationen und Investitionen mit dem Ziel an, bis 2050 den Eigenbedarf vollstaendig mittels erneuerbarer Quellen zu decken. Die Orientierung dazu liefert Jeremy Rifkins Idee der dritten industriellen Revolution. Im Erfolgsfall laege die Region beim Klimaschutz deutlich vor den nationalen Zielen, die bis 2050 ''nur'' eine CO{sub 2}-Emissionsreduktion von 75 % vorsehen. Neben der Forschung und Entwicklung (F and E) zu vielen Zukunftsideen werden in Hauts-de-France aber auch einige Grossprojekte zur Absicherung der europaeischen Energieversorgung realisiert, die Ausweis der dortigen Agilitaet sind.

  17. Energy in France, reference data; L'energie en France, reperes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This little booklet presents a selection of statistical data about the energy in France: 1 - energy in economy: contribution of energy industries to the gross domestic product; employment; investment of public companies in the energy sector; 2 - overall energies: average monthly and annual prices of crude oil; public opinion barometer; 2001 status of supplies, employment and consumption; production and consumption of primary energy per energy sources; consumption per sector; energy bill; price of imported crude and US$ change rate; 3 - petroleum: total primary production; final consumption of refined petroleum products per sector and per type of product; evolution of the gasoline and diesel automotive fuels demand; imports and exports of petroleum products; petroleum bill; 4 - natural gas: total national production; consumption per sector; imports per country of origin and costs; 5 - coal: national production, consumption per sector; imports per country of origin; 6 - electric power: gross production; thermal production per type of fuel; end-consumption per sector; nuclear power plants; power trades with neighboring countries; 7 - renewable energy sources: national production; wind power connected to the grid; end consumption of wood; energy production from municipal wastes; solar thermal and photovoltaic production; 8 - district heating networks: primary energy consumption per energy type; non-conventional energy sources (geothermal, wastes, industrial heat); 9 - rational use of energy: energy intensity; compared evolutions of the gross domestic product and of the energy consumption; cumulated energy saving since 1986; 10 - energy prices: in the industry, for domestic uses; automotive fuels; energy consumption in the overall consumption of households; 11 - energy and environment: CO{sub 2} emissions per sector; net CO{sub 2} emissions of energy origin. (J.S.)

  18. France and Norway. The unfulfilled Troll agreement; Frankrike og Norge. Den uoppfylte Trollavtalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, Samuel

    1997-12-31

    The present reports starts by presenting Norway as an oil and gas producer and an exporting country and France as an importing country. It describes the relations between France and Norway during the Troll gas negotiations and then goes on to describe the compensation policy adopted by the French authorities during these negotiations. The main aim of the report is to discover whether France`s requests of 1986 have actually been realised. In order to do this, it first analyses the position occupied by French petroleum companies in Norwegian offshore sectors and secondly seeks to account for the evolution of trade exchanges between France and Norway. It will be seen that new investments in the production fields and in transportation systems have been realised most of the time by Norwegian firms as from 1986 and that France`s trade deficit towards Norway has not levelled off as from the time of the Troll deal. 18 figs., 40 tabs., 24 refs

  19. An exact "Tour de France" passes through CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    In August 2011, the renowned French mountaineer Lionel Daudet set off from Mont Blanc on a "Tour de la France exacte",  strictly following the 5,000 km of land borders and coastline without using a single motorised vehicle. And about a week into his expedition, the French border led him… to CERN of course… where he described his experience as out of the ordinary.   Lionel Daudet at one of the posts marking the French border in Meyrin (next to the Linac 4 building).  The words "out of the ordinary" are not used lightly by a man who has scaled France's highest peaks in extreme conditions and conquered the world's greatest climbs (mainly solo), from Alaska to Patagonia. "I had never visited a physics lab before today," confesses Lionel Daudet, sitting at a table in the CERN cafeteria. "You get the feeling that knowledge is being built here. When I crossed this particular border...

  20. [How to approach the discipline of "nursing science" in France?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecordier, Didier; Rémy-Largeau, Isabelle; Jovic, Ljiljana

    2013-03-01

    The last four years have seen the development of supports toward research in nursing and other healthcare professionals' research, along with the fact that, nursing education has become part of university programs. Professional and scientific landscapes are changing and the opening perspectives let glimpse a growing professionalization of nurses' activities but also, raise the question of the nursing science construction in France. By considering interdisciplinary work, as an approach for complex situations of care, by specifying the purpose of the production of nursing scientific knowledge in order to meet the population needs of healthcare, by explaining the purpose of nursing research and theoretical elements that allow its construction, the following article offers an epistemological reflection on the evolution of the profession and on the construction of a nursing scientific discipline in France.

  1. Communication on Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassaad Ben Mahjoub

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available France is located at the crossroads of major European cultural currents, between Northern Europe and the Mediterranean, his attention to the preservation of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development has evolved in recent years by taking several attempts and measures. Many studies were interested to evaluate the scope of social and environmental disclosure by using different measures; these criteria do not cover all features which can reflect all social and environmental concerns.We attempt to determine the level of corporate social responsibility disclosure in France by a new measure; it takes the form of an index; for this, we use a content analysis of annual reports in order to evaluate the items which describe the impact of firm activity on environment and community.Our findings show an acceptable level of social and environmental disclosure, in French companies, compared to others studies.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1393

  2. The future of astronomy PhDs in France

    CERN Document Server

    Boissier, S

    2012-01-01

    This contribution presents a poll undertaken at the beginning of 2012, and addressed to every doctor in astronomy who obtained his/her degree in France. Its goal is to motivate the French astronomical community to think and discuss about what should be the training of PhDs, and what should be its objective. Further discussions and reactions can be posted e.g. on http://docastro.blogspot.fr/. A worrying results from the poll is that the majority of the participants would not encourage a young student to start a thesis in astronomy. The main reasons for this fact may be the high pressure on astronomy positions and the little interest a doctorate has for other careers in France. I suggest we either have to modify our formations or reduce the number of thesis starting each year in astronomy.

  3. La mémoire de la France Antarctique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Lestringan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Les fortunes de la France Antarctique du Brésil sont sans commune mesure avec la brièveté d'une expérience coloniale d'un lustre à peine, de novembre 1555 à mars 1560, restreinte de surcroît à un îlot et à l'immédiate proximité du littoral de la baie de Rio de Janeiro. Je partirai du jugement de l'abbé Prévost, l'auteur de l'immortelle Manon Lescaut, mais aussi de l'Histoire générale des voyages pour retracer la mémoire de la France Antarctique dans l'historiographie française.

  4. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  5. History of nonlinear oscillations theory in France (1880-1940)

    CERN Document Server

    Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    This book reveals the French scientific contribution to the mathematical theory of nonlinear oscillations and its development. The work offers a critical examination of sources with a focus on the twentieth century, especially the period between the wars. Readers will see that, contrary to what is often written, France's role has been significant. Important contributions were made through both the work of French scholars from within diverse disciplines (mathematicians, physicists, engineers), and through the geographical crossroads that France provided to scientific communication at the time. This study includes an examination of the period before the First World War which is vital to understanding the work of the later period. By examining literature sources such as periodicals on the topic of electricity from that era, the author has unearthed a very important text by Henri Poincaré, dating from 1908. In this work Poincaré applied the concept of limit cycle (which he had introduced in 1882 through his own...

  6. The renaissance of tramways and urban redevelopment in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boquet Yves

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tramways have made a remarkable comeback in France since the 1980s. An organization of public transport based on the decentralized administration system set up in the early 1980s has allowed local urban authorities to make their own choices to develop public transport networks in the context of automobile domination. As in many other countries, worries about fossil fuel dependency and demands concerning sustainable urban development appear as strong elements in favour of urban light rail. However, in France, tramways are not just technical solutions for traffic congestion, they have also become a symbol of a cultural mutation in urban development planning. Coupled with a national political push for a more inclusive city in social terms, tramways are the backbone of contemporary urban policies, in a French version of transit-oriented development (TOD, especially for mid-size cities.

  7. Out of home care in France and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the structural similarities and dissimilarities that exist between child protection systems in France and Switzerland, as exemplified by the evolutions of the last decade. The absence of anintegrated holistic system and the great diversity of practices between territories in both countries creates a reality that is a challenge for research and practitioners alike. Furthermore, legislation in France andSwitzerland is quite similar in that there is no single defined support or welfare body of legislation for children and youth. In both countries, the need for a better understanding of this reality drives the development of better data collection processes and of new in-depth research on these issues.

  8. [Study on two manuscripts with colored illustrations collected in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hui

    2013-09-01

    Two manuscripts with colored illustrations in French libraries were investigated. The research showed that: the first manuscript with colored pictures include 2 volumes, titled Animaux et Plantes de Chine collected in Library of Museum National d'Historie Naturelle (MNHN);the other manuscript with colored pictures has only 1 volume, titled Botanique Chinoise collected in Library of Societe Asiatique, College de France, which were identified as illustrations of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) (1640 edition) by Li Shi-zhen. These pictures were copied by P. d'Incarville, and are similar to Plantes fleurs et arbres de Chine in Bibliotheque de l'Institut de Franceand, Collection de Plantes Veneneuses de la Chine Gravees et Imprimees en Couleurs par les Missionnaries Jesuites in Bibliotheque Nationale de France, respectively. The latter two manuscripts were identified as illustrations of Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Essential Collections of Materia Medica) (1700 edition).

  9. Proceedings of the second workshop of LHC Computing Grid, LCG-France; ACTES, 2e colloque LCG-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollet, Frederique; Hernandez, Fabio; Malek, Fairouz; Gaelle, Shifrin (eds.) [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire Clermont-Ferrand, Campus des Cezeaux, 24, avenue des Landais, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2007-03-15

    The second LCG-France Workshop was held in Clermont-Ferrand on 14-15 March 2007. These sessions organized by IN2P3 and DAPNIA were attended by around 70 participants working with the Computing Grid of LHC in France. The workshop was a opportunity of exchanges of information between the French and foreign site representatives on one side and delegates of experiments on the other side. The event allowed enlightening the place of LHC Computing Task within the frame of W-LCG world project, the undergoing actions and the prospects in 2007 and beyond. The following communications were presented: 1. The current status of the LHC computation in France; 2.The LHC Grid infrastructure in France and associated resources; 3.Commissioning of Tier 1; 4.The sites of Tier-2s and Tier-3s; 5.Computing in ALICE experiment; 6.Computing in ATLAS experiment; 7.Computing in the CMS experiments; 8.Computing in the LHCb experiments; 9.Management and operation of computing grids; 10.'The VOs talk to sites'; 11.Peculiarities of ATLAS; 12.Peculiarities of CMS and ALICE; 13.Peculiarities of LHCb; 14.'The sites talk to VOs'; 15. Worldwide operation of Grid; 16.Following-up the Grid jobs; 17.Surveillance and managing the failures; 18. Job scheduling and tuning; 19.Managing the site infrastructure; 20.LCG-France communications; 21.Managing the Grid data; 22.Pointing the net infrastructure and site storage. 23.ALICE bulk transfers; 24.ATLAS bulk transfers; 25.CMS bulk transfers; 26. LHCb bulk transfers; 27.Access to LHCb data; 28.Access to CMS data; 29.Access to ATLAS data; 30.Access to ALICE data; 31.Data analysis centers; 32.D0 Analysis Farm; 33.Some CMS grid analyses; 34.PROOF; 35.Distributed analysis using GANGA; 36.T2 set-up for end-users. In their concluding remarks Fairouz Malek and Dominique Pallin stressed that the current workshop was more close to users while the tasks for tightening the links between the sites and the experiments were definitely achieved. The IN2P3

  10. Role of Cattle Movements in Bovine Tuberculosis Spread in France between 2005 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisson, Aurore; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Live animal movements are a major transmission route for the spread of infectious agents such as Mycobacterium bovis, the main agent of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB). France became officially bTB-free in 2001, but M. bovis is still circulating in the cattle population, with about a hundred of outbreaks per year, most located in a few geographic areas. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of cattle movements in bTB spread in France between 2005 and 2014, using social network analysis and logistic regression models. At a global scale, the trade network was studied to assess the association between several centrality measures and bTB infection though a case-control analysis. The bTB infection status was associated with a higher in-degree (odds-ratio [OR] = 2.4 [1.1-5.4]) and with a higher ingoing contact chain (OR = 2.2 [1.0-4.7]). At a more local scale, a second case-control analysis was conducted to estimate the relative importance of cattle movements and spatial neighbourhood. Only direct purchase from infected herds was shown to be associated with bTB infection (OR = 2.9 [1.7-5.2]), spatial proximity to infected herds being the predominant risk factor, with decreasing ORs when distance increases. Indeed, the population attributable fraction was 12% [5%-18%] for cattle movements and 73% [68%-78%] for spatial neighbourhood. Based on these results, networks of potential effective contacts between herds were built and analysed for the three major spoligotypes reported in France. In these networks, the links representing cattle movements were associated with higher edge betweenness than those representing the spatial proximity between infected herds. They were often links connecting distinct communities and sometimes distinct geographical areas. Therefore, although their role was quantitatively lower than the one of spatial neighbourhood, cattle movements appear to have been essential in the French bTB dynamics between 2005 and 2014.

  11. France's 2010 energy situation; Bilan energetique de la France pour 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    2010 in Europe was marked by a moderate economic upturn after the crisis year of 2009, when consumption dropped. At the global level, the energy demand from emerging countries continued to push up prices. In France, 2010 was a year in which the winter months were particularly cold, causing additional consumption for heating of more than 10 per cent, estimated at 4.6 millions tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). National primary energy production was 138.6 Mtoe, 0.2 Mtoe higher than the previous record year 2008. Nearly all forms of energy contributed to the increase. Nuclear power increased its output by 4.6 per cent and was only 5 per cent below its maximum, reached in 2005. Hydro production returned to a regime almost in line with the average. Wind power once again increased significantly (+19%) and photovoltaic electricity tripled, although it still only accounts for 0.6 Mtoe. Extraction of conventional fossil fuels was stable at 2.5 Mtoe. Thermal renewable energy and energy recovered from waste also increased markedly, by 10.7 per cent (+1.7 Mtoe). Total primary energy consumption increased by 3.8 per cent. Once corrected for climatic variations, it increased slightly (+1.7%) but remained well below its pre-crisis level. With 266 Mtoe it was even below its 2000 level. It progressed by 4 Mtoe per year on average in the 1990's, then by only 2 Mtoe in 2001 and 2002. Since then, despite a rebound in 2004, it had remained stable until the clear drop in 2009. Aggregated renewable thermal energy and energy recovered from waste continued their progression (+5.1%). The pace dipped slightly, but progress has been permanent since 2006 (+37% in 4 years). However, this group of sources still only accounts for 6.4 per cent of primary consumption. Stimulated by the rigours of the climate, gas beat all its records. However, after correction, its level was close to that around which it was fluctuating before the crisis, between 2002 and 2008. Primary electricity consumption

  12. Media Report on the Indian community in France

    OpenAIRE

    Lebrand, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    DEMO: India-EU MaP - Developing Evidence based Management and Operations in India-EU Migration and Partnership France has, in Indian terms, a relatively small Indian community. This paper analyses the French media coverage of this community in recent years. Compared to other French communities, the Indian community is seen as discrete and it is not widely covered in the media: few articles having been written. These articles can be broken down into two sets: articles covering local events,...

  13. Fashion Industry Supply Chain Issues: Zara (Azel France)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen; Iskra Handukic

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of retail business is to continuously maintain the responsiveness to the changing trends in consumer fashion tastes through quickly creating new designs that are suitable for all customers with an affordable price. Hence, the importance of Supply Chain (Management) has appeared. The objectives of this study are to analyze the impact of purchasing and supply chain management strategies in retail industry and identify the way of success of AZEL FRANCE Retailer Company of ZARA c...

  14. Stress and burnout among teachers in Italy and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrabissi, L; Rolland, J P; Santinello, M

    1993-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to show differences between culture-bound stress levels in two samples of elementary and junior high school teachers in Italy (N = 299) and in France (N = 217), using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach & Jackson, 1981) as a questionnaire. The results confirmed the influence of sociocultural background on stress levels in both samples in relation to age. Personal accomplishment was the most discriminating indicator in the two groups.

  15. France: strength of monopoly utilities guides Paris towards energy independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-08-05

    This report carried out an energy analysis of energy supply in France. In the past two decades, the drive for energy independence, coupled with long term, centralised planning, has resulted in 51.8% of French energy needs being met indigenously. The main contributor to this growth is nuclear electricity. There is also significant expansion of natural gas but in contrast the long-term prospects for the indigenous coal industry look less promising. (UK)

  16. France Prešeren Pesmi/Cantos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El día 3 de diciembre de 2003, aniversario del poeta France nacido el 3 de diciembre de 1800, fue presentada en la ciudad de Kranj (Carniola Superior Eslovena en edición bilingüe la traducción española de sus poesías, obra de Juan Octavio Prenz que escribió también un breve, exhaustivo comentario para acompañar a los Cantos en su trayectoria por el mundo cultural hispánico. La traducción forma parte de la Colección Prešeren en el mundo y representa el octavo volumen de la colección, precedida por las traducciones al serbocroata, ruso, polaco, italiano, francés, alemán, inglés. Los editores son el Municipio de la ciudad de Kranj –durante los últimos años de su vida el poeta trabajó en Kranj como abogado y murió allí en 1849– y la editorial eslovena Mohorjeva založba-Hermagoras, Klagenfurt-Ljubljana-Viena, con sede en la ciudad de Celovec (Klagenfurt en la Carantania austriaca, que se dedica también a publicar libros en esloveno y las traducciones de autores eslovenos sobre todo al alemán. Se publica esta colección bajo la redacción del prof. France Pibernik y del prof. Franc Drolc. En nuestra revista ya se presentó al poeta Prešeren, también traducido por el prof. Juan Octavio Prenz, en el volumen IV, con los Sonetos de infelicidad.

  17. Vichy France and the continuity of medical nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evleth, D

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the rise of medical nationalism and protectionism in France from the end of the nineteenth century through to the 1940s, with an emphasis on the Vichy period. It presents this nationalism as part of a continuity, showing its beginnings well before the coming of the Vichy government, its extremes under this government, and its continuation after the fall of the Vichy government, although retreating from its more extreme positions.

  18. Characterization of the large fire regime in SE France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Ganteaume; Marielle Jappiot

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern France is the most wildfire prone region of the country, covering 14.7 percent of its land area-entire country, is the region most affected by wildfires, with 55 percent of the total number of fires recorded in the whole country from 2006 to 2008. It is a typical Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers, often with strong NW wind, and includes plant...

  19. Household Food Consumption, Individual Caloric Intake and Obesity in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Céline; Dubois, Pierre; Orozco, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    We show how to use a long period of observation of all food purchases at the household level to infer the profile of average individual caloric intakes according to the gender, age and the body mass index of household members. Using data from France, we apply this method to analyze the relationship between obesity and individual food consumption. The results show that obese or overweight individuals do absorb more calories at all ages but with differences that vary across gender and ages and ...

  20. Household Food Consumption, Individual Calories Intake and Obesity in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Céline; Dubois, Pierre; Orozco, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    We show how to use a long period of observation of all food purchases at the household level to infer the profile of average individual caloric intakes according to the gender, age and the body mass index of household members. Using data from France, we apply this method to analyze the relationship between obesity and individual food consumption. The results show that obese or overweight individuals do absorb more calories at all ages but with differences that vary across gender and ages and ...

  1. The GMO case in France: politics, lawlessness and postmodernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-07-03

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a "modern" to a "postmodern" framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs.

  2. Early retinopathy in the Bernese Mountain Dog in France: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudieu, G; Molon-Noblot, S

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe a form of early retinopathy in the Bernese Mountain Dog in France. Sixty-two Bernese Mountain Dogs (38 males and 24 females), whose ages ranged from 2 months to 9 years, were examined over a period of 3 years. Visual behavior, pupillary light reflexes, menace responses and ocular fundi were evaluated in all animals. Electroretinography (ERG) was performed on six of the affected dogs after dark adaptation. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed on one affected dog. Whenever possible, the pedigrees of the affected dogs were evaluated. A histological examination of the retina was performed on one of the affected dogs. Eight dogs (seven males and one female) were diagnosed with retinopathy with an early onset of clinical signs. (Four dogs were aged between 3 months and 1 year, two dogs were aged 2 and 3.5 years, and one dog was 7 years old.) Night vision was impaired in most of the dogs. Retinopathy was characterized ophthalmoscopically by a bilateral, symmetrical horizontal zone of tapetal hyper-reflectivity adjacent to and above the optic disc, and sometimes by peri-papillary hyper-reflectivity. ERG changes included a reduction in b-wave amplitude varying from one case to another. Fluoroscein angiography demonstrated an ischemic-type alteration with epitheliopathy opposite the hyper-reflective zone. Pedigree examinations suggested a familial predisposition. The histological examination indicated photoreceptor degeneration that was more pronounced in the central tapetal zone. In France, retinopathy in the Bernese Mountain Dog involves an early retinal degeneration that produces specific manifestations of the ocular fundus, night visual impairment or blindness, and has familial transmission.

  3. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts in France between 1939 and 1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mijolla, A

    1988-01-01

    France was affected by a deep psychoanalytic silence, both in theoretical and clinical fields, throughout the four years of German occupation. The psychoanalytic Institute closed its doors and the Revue française de psychanalyse interrupted its publication as soon as the armistice of 1940. Some people, e.g. Rudolf Loewenstein or Princess Marie Bonaparte, emigrated, others fought, e.g. Sacha Nacht or Paul Schiff. Daniel Lagache went on with his researches within the works of the University of Strasburg, which had sought shelter in Clermont-Ferrand. René Laforgue cooperated with the German occupant; after the Liberation of France in 1944 he was discarded from a group in which, a few years before, he may have entertained the hope of playing an outstanding part. Quite a few of those he analyzed remained faithful to him--which will have an important bearing on the evolution of the psychoanalytic movement in France after 1945. In 1945, indeed, the new generation emerging from the last convulsions of the war, will gather around the most influential potential leaders: Sacha Nacht and Jacques Lacan. Only after the latency of those silent years, only after those years of violent struggles and cowardice, will the psychoanalytic elaborations appear, and also the institutional feuds to which they gave vent--in a conflictual climate amounting to the schism of 1953.

  4. Intelligence Reform and the Snowden Paradox: The Case of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Tréguer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking France as a case study, this article reflects on the ongoing legalisation strategies pursued by liberal states as they seek to secure and expand the Internet surveillance programs of their domestic and foreign intelligence agencies. Following the path to legalisation prior and after the Snowden disclosures of 2013, the article shows how post-Snowden controversies helped mobilise advocacy groups against the extra judicial surveillance of Internet communications, a policy area which had hitherto been overlooked by French human rights groups. It also points to the dilemma that post-Snowden contention created for governments. On the one hand, the disclosures helped document the growing gap between the existing legal framework and actual surveillance practices, exposing them to litigation and thereby reinforcing the rationale for legalisation. On the other hand, they made such a legislative reform politically risky and unpredictable. In France, policy-makers navigated these constraints through a cautious mix of silence, denials, and securitisation. After the Paris attacks of January 2015 and a hasty deliberation in Parliament, the Intelligence Act was passed, making it the most extensive piece of legislation ever adopted in France to regulate secret state surveillance. The article concludes by pointing to the paradoxical effect of post-Snowden contention: French law now provides for clear rules authorising large-scale surveillance, to a degree of detail that was hard to imagine just a few years ago.

  5. Regulation of pluralism in France. Context, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Almiron-Roig, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical and up-to-date study of the media regulation in France with regards to the protection of pluralism. To this end, the article presents a study on the French legal framework for the media, which is complemented with the opinions of scholars, journalists, trade union representatives, members of public organizations regulating the media, and relevant figures with expertise in the media sector in France. The views of these actors were obtained through a series of in-depth interviews conducted in Paris in July 2008 and December 2009. The study reveals that the legal framework, which uses multiple mechanisms and instruments to guarantee pluralism, both external (mainly, corporate concentration and internal (media contents, is highly complex, vast, difficult, and almost impossible to apply. The study suggests that the French legal framework is a top example of inefficient hyper-regulation, which the author sees as a result of the ferocious battle between the two strongest modern forces in France: the egalitarian democratic values, based on solidarity and deeply rooted in the historical tradition of the French Republic; and the neoliberal capitalism based on the ideas of material accumulation and individualism.

  6. [Drug sensitivity of falciparum malaria imported into France in 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuet, C; Ramiliarisoa, O; Thor, R; Bouchaud, O; Basco, L K; Doury, J C; Le Bras, J

    1997-01-01

    The National Reference Centre for Malaria Chemosusceptibility (CNRCP) and the Tropical Medicine Institute of the Health Department for the Army (IMTSSA) monitor the chemosusceptibility of falciparum malaria introduced in France. In 1995, 353 isolates of P. falciparum are sent to the CNRCP and IMTSSA from malaria cases presenting in 49 civil and military hospitals distributed all over the french country. The patients are mostly Africans living in France and have mainly stayed in West Africa. Half of them did not take any chemoprophylaxis and a quarter took only chloroquine more or less regularly. The curative treatment, when known, is halofantrine alone in 52% of cases and quinine alone in 28% of cases. Three halofantrine failures are reported including 1 incorrect regimen and 4 quinine failures including 3 incorrect regimens. In 1995, in vitro resistance of P. falciparum isolates imported in France to the chemoprophylactic and therapeutic drugs is not worsening. In vitro quinine resistance is rare (1/108), mefloquine resistance (2/20) and halofantrine resistance (12/211) are limited, cycloguanil resistance (42/185) is stable and chloroquine resistance (84/230) is even decreasing (less selective pressure in Africa?).

  7. Unusual neurotoxic envenomations by Vipera aspis aspis snakes in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, L; Robbe-Vincent, A; Saliou, B; Valli, M; Bon, C; Choumet, V

    2002-03-01

    Vipera aspis aspis (V.a.a.) is the most dangerous poisonous snake in South-Eastern France. The clinical symptoms observed after V.a.a. envenomations involve mostly local signs (pain, edema) associated in the more severe cases with systemic symptoms (gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular manifestations). Since 1992, several unusual cases of moderate and severe 'neurotoxic' envenomations by V.a.a. snakes have been reported in a very localized area in South-Eastern France. Most of the human patients mainly suffered neurological signs owing to cephalic muscle paralysis. Drowsiness and dyspnea were observed for the most severe cases. Envenomed animals suffered respiratory distress and paralysis. The local signs were never as severe as observed after envenomations by vipers in other French regions. Human patients with moderate or severe clinical features received two intravenous injections of Viperfav antivenom, the first dose inducing the decrease of the neurological signs and the second reducing significantly the edema. Neurotoxic components immunologically cross-reacting with toxins from V. ammodytes ammodytes venom from Eastern Europe were detected in the blood of all patients suffering neurological symptoms after a V.a.a. bite. The protective efficacy of various antivenoms was evaluated in mice. The existence of geographical variations in the composition of V.a.a. venom emphasizes on the use of polyvalent antivenom in the treatment of viper envenomations in France.

  8. Centrality based Document Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    summarization. In ECIR ’09: Proceedings of the 31th European Conference on IR Research, Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 724–728, Toulouse, France...Proceedings, Part I, volume 8796 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science . Springer, 2014. 16. J. Otterbacher, G. Erkan, and D. R. Radev. Using random walks for

  9. Où va la France? L'image de la France et de sa puissance en Belgique francophone (1944-1951)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Où va la France ? : cette question, liée aux concepts de déclin et de décadence, traverse l’histoire sans jamais se démoder et s’avère toujours d’une brûlante actualité. Par ailleurs, elle sous-tendait déjà notre mémoire de licence, consacré à la période du Front populaire. Les débats passionnés de l’époque nous ont amenée à nous interroger sur l’après-Libération. Comment la France s’est-elle relevée de son effondrement rapide du printemps 1940 et, plus largement, du traumatisme que fut le se...

  10. Return of the vitrified residues of France to Germany; Retour des residus vitrifies de France en Allemagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The return of the vitrified residues from France to Germany fits into framework of the spent fuels reprocessing contracts, signed between COGEMA and german electric power companies. These contracts preconize the return in the origin country of the ultimate wastes after their processing and conditioning. This document proposes nine information cards on this topic: why France returns vitrified residues in Germany; what is a vitrified residues container; the quality and the safety control; the containers transportation; the regulatory framework applied to these transports; the interim storage before and after the transport; the final disposal of vitrified residues in Germany; concerned societies, experts and authorities; the risks bound to the radiation exposure during the transport. (A.L.B.)

  11. The biofuels stakes in France. DGEMP - DIREM/DIDEME; Les enjeux des biocarburants en France. DGEMP - DIREM/DIDEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    The biofuels are fuels obtained from vegetal raw materials. Two main channel are developed in France: the ethanol channel (ethanol and ETBE, ethyl tertio butyl ether) for the gasoline vehicles and the vegetal oils channel with the EMHV (ester methyl vegetal oils) for the diesel vehicles. This document presents the different channels, the financial incentives and the french energy policy to promote the biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  12. The natural gas storage in France and in Europe; Le stockage de gaz naturel en France et en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The natural gas storages play a great role in the gas supplying security. They allow to compensate for the variations of the supply and demand. This document presents the different natural gas storage technic: in the phreatic cave, in salt hollows, in abandoned deposits and the natural liquefied gas. It includes also a map of the natural gas storage situation in France. (A.L.B.)

  13. IPPC installations in France and limit values of emission; Installations IPPC en France et valeurs limites d'emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-07-15

    The IPPC directive of the 24 September 1996 asked for the main european industrial installations an authorization. This authorization fixes limit values for pollutant emissions. In France, the main industrial installations are controlled since many years in the framework of the regulation on classified installations for the environment protection (ICPE). This report compares the limit values of emissions for the national and prefectorial orders and for the IPPC directive. (A.L.B.)

  14. Very low level waste disposal in France. A key tool for the management for decommissioning wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetzer, Michel [Andra - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactives, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Direction Industrielle

    2015-07-01

    At the end of the 90{sup th}, France had to deal with the emerging issue of the management of wastes resulting from decommissioning operations of nuclear facilities. A specific regulation was issued and Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, developed a dedicated near surface disposal facility to accommodate very low level radioactive wastes. After more than 10 years of operation, this facility demonstrated it can provide efficient and flexible solutions for the management of decomissioning wastes.

  15. Energy in France in 2002. What is to be remembered?; L'energie en France en 2002. Que retenir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes and comments the main energy data of France for 2002: primary and end-use consumption per sector, CO{sub 2} emissions, energy bill, total primary energy consumption, domestic production and energy independence, primary consumption per energy source (coal, petroleum, gas, primary electric power, thermal renewable energies), sectoral end-use consumption, simplified status (supplies and uses per energy source). Data are presented in tables and graphs for the 1970(1973)-2002 era. (J.S.)

  16. Emergent patterns in the regulation of pharmaceuticals: institutions and interests in the United States, Canada, Britain, and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowicz, Mary E

    2003-08-01

    Although industrialized nations regulate pharmaceuticals to ensure their safety and efficacy, they balance these concerns with those related to the timeliness of the approval process and the burdens involved in meeting regulatory criteria. The United States, Canada, Britain, and France have adopted different approaches to the regulation of pharmaceuticals that place varying emphases on these competing goals and involve the participation of private interests to different extents. The regulatory approval processes and the government-industry relationships inherent within them are compared in the United States, Canada, Britain, and France by analyzing five features that distinguish the U.S. pluralist from the European corporatist approaches to policy development: representation (internal versus external), process (closed versus open), stance (informal, accommodative versus formal, adversarial), institutional power (fragmented versus centralized), and resources. An institutional framework further characterizes these approaches as based on models of managerial discretion and adjudication (United States), consultation (Canada), and bargaining (Britain, France) to clarify the patterns that emerge. While the approach that most effectively supports product safety involves managerial discretion as occurs in the United States, formal mechanisms for negotiation might be incorporated rather than a reliance on the judicial process. In an era of globalization and regulatory harmonization such divergence has significant implications. First, where harmonization in Europe involves the mutual recognition of one country's product licensing decision by the others, differences in evaluative processes remain important. Second, as harmonization leads to a common set of regulatory criteria, the criteria adopted tend to be those of nations with the least stringent regulatory standards, making evident the need for more responsive systems of post-market surveillance to protect the public

  17. Kulturny turizmus vo Francúzsku so zameraním na vybrané projekty

    OpenAIRE

    Sopúchová, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Master thesis discusses the topic of cultural tourism in France. Its main objective is to evaluate culture in context of tourism in France and conduct case studies of selected projects. Theoretical part is focused on defining terms culture, tourism and cultural tourism. Practical part of the thesis analyses apporach of France to culture, it's cultural practice in respect of tourism and analyses French tourism as a whole. First examined project is Guédelon, construction of medieval castle exec...

  18. Travel industry as a focus on regional development: Case study of the Mediterranean France

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić Aleksandra; Petrović Marko; Vuković Darko

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a regionalization of the Mediterranean France with regard to tourism, as well as basic economic sectors present in the region. The study included three administrative regions of this part of France: Provence - Alpes - Cote d'Azur, Languedoc - Roussillon and the Island of Corsica, where the travel industry is defined as dominant. The subject of this research is to study the area of the Mediterranean France, primarily from the aspect of tourism. Special attention is focused ...

  19. Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in France in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, A; Doloy, A; Bidet, P; Leblond, A; Perrocheau, A; Bingen, E; Trieu-Cuot, P; Bouvet, A; Poyart, C; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2011-12-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. A national survey was initiated to assess the burden of invasive GAS infections in France, describe their clinical characteristics, and assess the molecular characteristics of GAS strains responsible for these infections. The survey was conducted in 194 hospitals, accounting for 51% of acute care hospital admissions in France. Clinical data, predisposing factors, and demographic data were obtained, and all GAS isolates were emm sequence typed. We identified 664 cases of invasive GAS infections, with an annual incidence of 3.1 per 100,000 population. The case-fatality ratio was 14% and rose to 43% in the case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Bacteremia without identified focus (22%) and skin/soft tissue infections (30%) were the most frequent clinical presentations. Necrotizing fasciitis was frequent in adults (18%) and uncommon in children (3%). The 3 predominant emm types were emm1, emm89, and emm28, accounting for 33%, 16%, and 10% of GAS isolates, respectively. The emm1 type was associated with fatal outcomes and was more frequent in children than in adults. Six clusters of cases were identified, with each cluster involving 2 invasive cases due to GAS strains which shared identical GAS emm sequence types. Four clusters of cases involved eight postpartum infections, one family cluster involved a mother and child, and one cluster involved two patients in a nursing home. Invasive GAS infection is one of the most severe bacterial diseases in France, particularly in persons aged ≥ 50 years or when associated with toxic shock syndrome.

  20. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Martin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, whereby it can influence the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic soil stocks (SOCS are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOCS is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing circa 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory.

    We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOCS as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOCS for the whole of metropolitan France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on soil organic carbon for such soils.

    The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOCS and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions over the French territory. These relationship strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOCS in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOCS distributions of France, and consequently that the previously

  1. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory.

    We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils.

    The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the

  2. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2011-05-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the

  3. Un opérateur à peine franc-comtois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Várkonyi Zsófia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude, fondée sur l’observation de l’utilisation du morphème "à peine" dans le parler franc-comtois, vise à déterminer s’il est nécessaire de lui conférer une description sémantique spécifique (différente de celle du morphème en français standard. En effet, on verra que l’usage typiquement franc-comtois de "à peine" produit des énoncés qui sont difficilement interprétables pour un locuteur non franc-comtois. Pour être en mesure d’affirmer qu’il s’agit bien d’un usage dialectal, et de rendre compte de la différence entre ce dernier et l’emploi standard, je propose une description sémantique minimale de l’expression standard (inspirée de la description proposée par (Ducrot, 1972, et sa confrontation à l’emploi sous examen. Dans les travaux concernant les articulateurs qui ont été effectués dans le cadre des théories argumentationnelles, on décrit habituellement les opérateurs "un peu" et "à peine" comme anti-orientés. Or, l’observation de terrain et les tests réalisés auprès des locuteurs francs-comtois indiquent que "à peine", dans son usage dialectal est co-orienté avec "un peu". Les instructions sémantiques utilisés pour décrire le "à peine" dialectal ne peuvent donc être les mêmes que l’on utilise pour décrire le "à peine" standard. Les tests qui sont présentés dans cette étude servent uniquement à suggérer les éléments principaux de la description, ils ne doivent pas être compris comme des tests sociolinguistiques. Néanmoins, ce travail peut ouvrir une piste pour une étude sociolinguistique plus approfondie

  4. Autochthonous strongyloidiasis, Bordeaux area, South-Western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glize, Bertrand; Malvy, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a ubiquitous parasitic infection mostly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, although sporadic autochthonous cases or sparse pockets have been reported in some areas of temperate regions. We report here the first, to our knowledge, autochthonous case diagnosed in the Arcachon basin in the coastal Aquitaine region of South-Western France. We failed to identify any recognized risk factor for transmission in this case of autochthonous infection occurring in a wealthy major tourist destination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Juan Valdez in the coffe market of France

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Maldonado, Edna Katherine

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un marco organizacional en profundidad de las operaciones de Juan Valdez y sus posibilidades de incursionar en el mercado Francés. El Análisis se presenta en base a una investigación de mercados que tiene como referencia las tendencias de consumo, más exactamente hacía bebidas con alto contenido de cafeína, (Bebidas energizantes, deportivas, café etc.). Igualmente se analizan los socios estratégicos con más fuerza de realizar alianzas con la empresa c...

  6. La Réforme en France et en Italie

    OpenAIRE

    Adorni Braccesi, Simonetta; Aikemait, Bernard; Ambrosini, Federica; Belligni, Eleonora; Benedict, Philip; Brambilla, Elena; Cameron, Euan; Caravale, Giorgio; Christin, Olivier; Crouzet,Denis; Dall’Aglio, Stefano; Daussy, Hugues; Del Col, Andrea; Ditchfield, Simon; Firpo, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Le déroulement de la Réforme en France et en Italie présente en même temps des similitudes frappantes et des différences évidentes. Première rencontre consacrée aux comparaisons, aux contrastes et aux contacts entre ces deux mouvements de renouveau religieux, puissants, mais qui finalement échouent au moins partiellement, le colloque réuni à Rome les 27-20 octobre 2005 avait plusieurs objectifs : en premier lieu, étudier les rapports directs entre les individus et les événements dans ces deux...

  7. Shielding designs for pressurized water reactors in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, G.; Forestier, J.; Vergnaud, T.

    1986-07-01

    The efforts made by Electricite de France to reduce exposure from the two-component neutron-gamma radiation fields inside the pressurized water reactor (PWR) building are described. Most of the attention had been focused on the problem of neutron exposure relative to the problem of achieving a highly efficient confinement within the reactor cavity and the state of the art of personnel neutron dosimetry. A description of the general neutron calculation scheme that links the characteristics of the neutron fields escaping from the reactor vessel to the dose equivalent rate cartographies inside the reactor building is provided.

  8. Deux approches du risque d'inondation en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno LEDOUX

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available En France, les sources d’informations centralisées sur les risques naturels sont rares. Pourtant, une politique de prévention engagée par l’État nécessite de disposer d’une information à l’échelle nationale, d’évaluer les enjeux et de mobiliser les acteurs. Deux sources d’informations sont décrites et exploitées, qui permettent, par une représentation cartographique nationale, d’amorcer analyses et débats.

  9. Les nouveaux contours du champ intellectuel musulman en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Frégosi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Islam in France hides a heterogeneous human reality which is quite removed from the stereotypes and clichés that generally abound about it. This is also true of the French Muslim intellectual landscape, a competitive space, in which diverse actors hold distinct and often opposing visions and representations of Islam, confront each other and strive nevertheless to present their Islam as the socially legitimized version that is compatible with the surrounding society. This article attempts to delimit the boundaries of the Muslim intellectual field by studying its dynamics and by proposing a typology of French Muslim intellectuals.

  10. The contract facilities for gamma irradiation at Dagneux, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, D.; Kavanagh, M. T.

    CONSERVATOME SA have operated a facility at DAGNEUX near LYON, France since 1961. This operation is among the very first of its kind in the entire world. The process is based on gamma rays from Cobalt 60 of which there are three separate units. In addition there is a small experimental unit using Cesium 137. At present CONSERVATOME is owned by TRANSNUCLEAIRE and EPICEA as principal shareholders and so has the support of the French Atomic Energy Commission. This paper describes the larger D3 unit and reviews some of the products treated at DAGNEUX.

  11. [Etiology, epidemiology, biology. Tobacco use and smoking in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, G

    2008-10-01

    Since 1976, France improved its anti tobacco legislation and regulation with the help of the Non-governmental organizations under the umbrella of the Alliance Against Tobacco. Since then were implemented a total ban of tobacco advertising (1991), a total ban of smoking in enclosed public and work places (2006), a high taxation of tobacco products, strong media campaigns to de normalize smoking and tobacco products, improved availability, accessibility and affordability of treatments of tobacco dependence. Since 1991, the number of cigarettes smoked per adult was halved.

  12. Time transfer by laser link between China and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Ni, W. T.; Samain, E.

    2008-07-01

    To advance from milli-arcsecond to micro-arcsecond astrometry, time keeping capability and its comparison among different stations need to be improved and enhanced. The T2L2 (Time transfer by laser link) experiment under development at OCA and CNES to be launched in 2008 on Jason-2, allows the synchronization of remote clocks on Earth. It is based on the propagation of light pulses in space which is better controlled than propagation of radio waves. In this paper, characteristics are presented for both a common view and non-common view T2L2 comparisons of clocks between China and France.

  13. Time transfer by laser link between China and France

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, C; Samain, E

    2007-01-01

    To advance from milli-arcsecond to micro-arcsecond astrometry, time keeping capability and its comparison among different stations need to be improved and enhanced. The T2L2 (Time transfer by laser link) experiment under development at OCA and CNES to be launched in 2008 on Jason-2, allows the synchronization of remote clocks on Earth. It is based on the propagation of light pulses in space which is better controlled than the radio waves propagation. In this paper, characteristics are presented for both common view and non-common view T2L2 comparisons of clocks between China and France.

  14. The Collège de France Institute of Civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Römer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Cardinal-Lemoine site will undergo an important phase of internal and external redevelopment. The building work, which should start in the summer of 2016, will be completed in 2018 / 2019. The entire site will then become the Collège de France Institute of Civilizations. Can you present the organization of this new structure? Until now, the Cardinal-Lemoine site hosted a number of Chairs that were established there ad hoc, and that happened to bring together research interests as well as...

  15. Enssib and the preservation of special collections in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dupuigrenet Desroussilles

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What kind of formal training and continuing education are provided in France for special collection librarians, and how do they prepare librarians for the variety of educational roles they have to play? To answer these two questions I will mostly rely on my experience of ten years as director of Enssib, the school that has a monopoly on the initial training of all French librarians and provides most of their continuing education, hoping this will be of interest to our Italian partners with whom we work to define “new professional figures” dedicated to the preservation of cultural artefacts.

  16. El turismo nacional francés: los turistas franceses

    OpenAIRE

    Narros Arranz, Marina

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la evolución y las características del turismo francés; partiendo desde los siglos XVII y XVIII, cuando solamente era realizado por los aristócratas, hasta la actualidad. Por otro lado, analizamos las principales áreas turísticas francesas y los tipos de turismo que allí se realizan. Acabamos señalando las consecuencias del turismo sobre el medioambiente, debido a que es uno de los países líderes en políticas ecológicas. Grado en Turismo

  17. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.

  18. Vocational Training of Young People in France: A Resource Difficult to Exploit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Eric

    1994-01-01

    Discusses vocational training in France, particularly the widening gap between training and the labor market, the indecisiveness regarding educational strategies, and institutional links between training and employment. (JOW)

  19. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  20. RAISIN - a national programme for early warning, investigation and surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2009-11-19

    Surveillance is a key component of the French plan for prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and has progressively evolved in the past decades. We describe the development and current organisation of surveillance of HAI in France and summarise key achievements and results. Surveillance of HAI is under the auspice of the national institute for public health surveillance through a central coordinating structure, the Reseau d alerte, d investigation et de surveillance des infections nosocomiales (RAISIN), which consists of five regional coordinating structures, two national advisory committees of the Ministry of Health and public health agencies. Surveillance includes the performance of national prevalence surveys every five years (latest in 2006), specific surveillance networks to follow trends and characterise HAI that are national priority, and mandatory reporting of HAI that meet specific criteria for alert purposes. RAISIN prioritises activities, defines technical specifications of surveillance systems, coordinates their implementation, and supports response to alerts, emergences or outbreaks of HAI. We demonstrate that the French surveillance program of HAI has become comprehensive and contributes to evaluating the impact of control and prevention of HAI. Data from RAISIN indicate a general decrease in the risk of HAI in acute care in France. They show a decrease in HAI during recent years, particularly of those related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for which a drop of 38% was documented between 2001 and 2006. RAISIN is also integrated into European surveillance of HAI coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Control.