WorldWideScience

Sample records for central force optimization

  1. A New Optimized Data Clustering Technique using Cellular Automata and Adaptive Central Force Optimization (ACFO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinivasa Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As clustering techniques are gaining more important today, we propose a new clustering technique by means of ACFO and cellular automata. The cellular automata uniquely characterizes the condition of a cell at a specific moment by employing the data like the conditions of a reference cell together with its adjoining cell, total number of cells, restraint, transition function and neighbourhood calculation. With an eye on explaining the condition of the cell, morphological functions are executed on the image. In accordance with the four stages of the morphological process, the rural and the urban areas are grouped separately. In order to steer clear of the stochastic turbulences, the threshold is optimized by means of the ACFO. The test outcomes obtained vouchsafe superb performance of the innovative technique. The accomplishment of the new-fangled technique is assessed by using additional number of images and is contrasted with the traditional methods like CFO (Central Force Optimization and PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization.

  2. Central Force Optimization Applied to the PBM Suite of Antenna Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Formato, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Central Force Optimization (CFO) is a new nature-inspired deterministic multi-dimensional search and optimization metaheuristic based on the metaphor of gravitational kinematics. CFO is applied to the PBM antenna benchmark suite and the results compared to published performance data for other optimization algorithms. CFO acquits itself quite well. CFO's gradient-like nature is discussed, and it is speculated that a "generalized hyperspace derivative" might be defined for optimization problems...

  3. Central Force Optimization Applied to the PBM Suite of Antenna Benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Formato, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Central Force Optimization (CFO) is a new nature-inspired deterministic multi-dimensional search and optimization metaheuristic based on the metaphor of gravitational kinematics. CFO is applied to the PBM antenna benchmark suite and the results compared to published performance data for other optimization algorithms. CFO acquits itself quite well. CFO's gradient-like nature is discussed, and it is speculated that a "generalized hyperspace derivative" might be defined for optimization problems as a new mathematical construct based on the Unit Step function. What appears to be a sufficient but not necessary condition for local trapping, oscillation in the probe average distance curve, is discussed in the context of the theory of gravitational "resonant returns" that gives rise to strikingly similar oscillatory curves. It is suggested that the theory may be applicable to CFO as an aid to understanding trapping and to developing effective mitigation techniques, possibly based on a concept of "energy" in CFO space...

  4. Optimal Sales Force Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Kräkel; Anja Schöttner

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic moral-hazard model to derive optimal sales force compensation plans without imposing any ad hoc restrictions on the class of feasible incentive contracts. We explain when the compensation plans that are most common in practice - fixed salaries, quota-based bonuses, commissions, or a combination thereof - are optimal. Fixed salaries are optimal for small revenue-cost ratios. Quota-based bonuses (commissions) should be used if the revenue-cost ratio takes intermediate (larg...

  5. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  6. Simulating central forces in the classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirregabiria, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    We describe the easy to customize and extend open source Java program Central force workbench that can be used in the classroom to simulate the motion of a particle (or a two-body system) under central forces. It may be useful to illustrate problems in which the analytical solution is not available as well as to help students to grasp a more intuitive understanding of the main features of this kind of problem and to realize the exceptional nature of the particular case of Newtonian (and harmonic) forces. We also include some suggestions on how to use the program as a pedagogical tool.

  7. Optimal Central Counterparty Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Haene; Andy Sturm

    2009-01-01

    In order to protect themselves against the potential losses in case of a participant's default and to contain systemic risk, central counterparties (CCPs) need to maintain sufficient financial resources. Typically, these financial resources consist of margin requirements and contributions to a collective default fund. Based on a stylized model of CCP risk management, this article analyzes the main factors affecting the trade-off between margins and default fund. The optimal balance between th...

  8. Optimal centralized and decentralized velocity feedback control on a beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the optimization of a velocity feedback controller with a collocated force actuator, to minimize the kinetic energy of a simply supported beam. If the beam is excited at a single location, the optimum feedback gain varies with the position of the control system. It is shown that this variation depends partly on the location of the control force relative to the exciting force. If a distributed excitation is assumed, that is random in both time and space, a unique optimum value of the feedback gain can be found for a given control location. The effect of the control location on performance and the optimal feedback gain can then be examined and is found to be limited provided the control locations are not close to the ends of the beam. The optimization can also be performed for a multichannel velocity feedback system. Both a centralized and a decentralized controller are considered. It is shown that the difference in performance between a centralized and a decentralized controller is small, unless the control locations are closely spaced. In this case the centralized controller effectively feeds back a moment proportional to angular velocity as well as a force proportional to a velocity. It is also shown that the optimal feedback gain can be approximated on the basis of a limited model and that similar results can be achieved

  9. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2016-03-21

    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices. PMID:26903412

  10. ITER central solenoid model coil impregnation optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, J. B.; Munshi, N. A.; Smith, K. B.

    The success of the vacuum-pressure impregnation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor central solenoid is critical to success of the magnet system. Analysis of fluid flow through a fabric bed is extremely complicated, and complete analytical solutions are not available, but semiempirical methods can be adapted to model these flows. Several of these models were evaluated to predict the impregnation characteristics of a liquid resin through a mat of reinforcing glass fabric, and an experiment was performed to validate these models. The effects of applied pressure differential, glass fibre volume fraction, resin viscosity and impregnation time were examined analytically. From the results of this optimization, it is apparent that use of elevated processing temperature resin systems offer significant advantages in large scale impregnation due to their lower viscosity and longer working life, and they may be essential for large scale impregnations.

  11. Optimizing the modernization of Eastern European forces

    OpenAIRE

    Biggie, Theodore A., III

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Many Eastern European countries desire a method to evaluate the capability and cost of their military forces. in 1995 the Program Analysis and Evaluation branch of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD PA&E) provided a solution: the Defense Resources Management Model (DRMM). The DRMM is a database system that contains detailed report writing, allowing a nation's military to be described by: how its forces are ogranized and equip...

  12. Numerical Range for Orbits Under a Central Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an explicit form for the central force that describes the orbit of some roulette curve, and interpret the orbit of the roulette curve as an algebraic curve F(1, x, y) = 0 associated to the homogeneous polynomial F(t, x, y) of a matrix A. The hodograph of the orbit is obtained as the boundary generating curve of the numerical range of A.

  13. Optimal softening for force calculations in collisionless N-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E; Lambert, J C; Bosma, A

    1999-01-01

    In N-body simulations the force calculated between particles representing a given mass distribution is usually softened, to diminish the effect of graininess. In this paper we study the effect of such a smoothing, with the aim of finding an optimal value of the softening parameter. As already shown by Merritt (1996), for too small a softening the estimates of the forces will be too noisy, while for too large a softening the force estimates are systematically misrepresented. In between there is an optimal softening, for which the forces in the configuration approach best the true forces. The value of this optimal softening depends both on the mass distribution and on the number of particles used to represent it. For higher number of particles the optimal softening is smaller. More concentrated mass distributions necessitate smaller softening, but the softened forces are never as good an approximation of the true forces as for not centrally concentrated configurations. We give good estimates of the optimal soft...

  14. Optimizing feed force for turned parts through the Taguchi technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hari Singh; Pradeep Kumar

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the paper is to obtain an optimal setting of turning process parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) resulting in an optimal value of the feed force when machining EN24 steel with TiC-coated tungsten-carbide inserts. The effects of the selected turning process parameters on feed force and the subsequent optimal settings of the parameters have been accomplished using Taguchi’s parameter design approach. The results indicate that the selected process parameters significantly affect the selected machining characteristics. The results are confirmed by further experiments.

  15. Optimal Release Control of Companion Satellite System Using Electromagnetic Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengwen Xu,Peng Shi; Yushan Zhao∗

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic forces generated by the inter⁃action of component satellites can be used to release companion satellites. Optimal release trajectories for companion satellite system using inter⁃electromagnetic forces were investigated. Firstly, nonlinear relative motion dynamic equations of a two⁃craft electromagnetic companion satellite system were derived in spatial polar coordinates. Then principles of electromagnetic satellite formation flying were introduced. Secondly, the characteristics of the electromagnetic companion satellites release were analyzed and optimal release trajectories of companion satellites using electromagnetic forces were obtained using Gauss pseudospectral method. Three performance criteria were chosen as minimum time, minimum acceleration of the separation distance and minimum control acceleration. Finally, three release examples including expansion along separation distance, rotation in orbital plane and stable formation reconfiguration were given to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Results indicated that the release trajectories can converge to optimal solutions effectively and the concept of release companion satellites using electromagnetic forces is practicable.

  16. Automatic Parameterization of Force Fields for Liquids by Simplex Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, R; Biermann, O; Müller-Plathe, F; Faller, Roland; Schmitz, Heiko; Biermann, Oliver; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate an automatic method of force field development for molecular simulations. Parameter tuning is taken as an optimization problem in many dimensions. The parameters are automatically adapted to reproduce known experimental data such as the density and the heat of vaporization. Our method is more systematic than guessing parameters and, at the same time saves human labour in parameterization. It was successfully applied to several molecular liquids: As a test, force fields for 2-methylpentane, tetrahydrofurane, cyclohexene and cyclohexane were developed.

  17. Centralized Stochastic Optimal Control of Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV operation as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  18. Classical description of dynamical many-body systems with central forces, spin-orbit forces and spin-spin forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis develops a new model, and related numerical methods, to describe classical time-dependent many-body systems interacting through central forces, spin-orbit forces and spin-spin forces. The model is based on two-particle interactions. The two-body forces consist of attractive and repulsive parts. In this model the investigated multi-particle systems are self-bound. Also the total potential of the whole ensemble is derived from the two-particle potential and is not imposed 'from outside'. Each particle has the three degrees of freedom of its centre-of-mass motion and the spin degree of freedom. The model allows for the particles to be either charged or uncharged. Furthermore, each particle has an angular momentum, an intrinsic spin, and a magnetic dipole moment. Through the electromagnetic forces between these charges and moments there arise dynamical couplings between them. The internal interactions between the charges and moments are well described by electromagnetic coupling mechanisms. In fact, compared to conventional classical molecular dynamics calculations in van der Waals clusters, which have no spin degrees of freedom, or for Heisenberg spin Systems, which have no orbital degrees of freedom, the model presented here contains both types of degrees of freedom with a highly non-trivial coupling. The model allows to study the fundamental effects resulting from the dynamical coupling of the spin and the orbital-motion sub-systems. In particular, the dynamics of the particle mass points show a behaviour basically different from the one of particles in a potential with only central forces. Furthermore, a special type of quenching procedure was invented, which tends to drive the multi-particle Systems into states with highly periodic, non-ergodic behaviour. Application of the model to cluster simulations has provided evidence that the model can also be used to investigate items like solid-to-liquid phase transitions (melting), isomerism and specific heat

  19. Final Report of the Simulation Optimization Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Rimoldi, A.; Carli, T.; Dell' Acqua, A.; Froidevaux, D.; Gianotti, F.; Guyot, C.; Hinchliffe, I.; Jakobs, K.; Marshall, Z.; Nisati, A.; Quarrie, D.; Unal, G.; Young, C.

    2008-12-15

    This is the final report of the ATLAS Simulation Optimization Task Force, establishedin June of 2007. This note justifies the selected Geant4 version, physics list, and range cuts to be used by the default ATLAS simulation for initial data taking and beyond. The current status of several projects, including detector description, simulation validation, studies of additional Geant4 parameters, and cavern background, are reported.

  20. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  1. Optimal Inflation Targets, `Conservative' Central Banks, and Linear Inflation Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Inflation target regimes (like those of Canada, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom) are interpreted as having explicit inflation targets and implicit output/unemployment targets. Without output/unemployment persistence, delegation of monetary policy to a discretionary instrument-independent central bank with an optimal inflation target can eliminate the discretionary inflation bias, mimic the optimal linear inflation contract suggested by Walsh and extended by Persson and Tab...

  2. Central universal force field to explain solar orbital radial acceleration and other universal phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Barghout, Kamal

    2007-01-01

    I investigate a repulsive central universal force field on the behavior of celestial objects. I show its negative tidal effect on the solar orbits as experienced by Pioneer spacecrafts. I explain several cosmological effects in light of this force.

  3. Many-body central force potentials for tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten and tungsten-based alloys are the primary candidate materials for plasma facing components in fusion reactors. The exposure to high-energy radiation, however, severely degrades the performance and lifetime limits of the in-vessel components. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms driving the materials' degradation at the atomic level, large-scale atomistic simulations are performed to complement experimental investigations. At the core of such simulations lies the interatomic potential, on which all subsequent results hinge. In this work we review 19 central force many-body potentials and benchmark their performance against experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As basic features we consider the relative lattice stability, elastic constants and point-defect properties. In addition, we also investigate extended lattice defects, namely: free surfaces, symmetric tilt grain boundaries, the 1/2〈1 1 1〉{1 1 0} and 1/2〈1 1 1〉 {1 1 2} stacking fault energy profiles and the 1/2〈1 1 1〉 screw dislocation core. We also provide the Peierls stress for the 1/2〈1 1 1〉 edge and screw dislocations as well as the glide path of the latter at zero Kelvin. The presented results serve as an initial guide and reference list for both the modelling of atomically-driven phenomena in bcc tungsten, and the further development of its potentials. (topical review)

  4. Rigorous force field optimization principles based on statistical distance minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcek, Lukas, E-mail: vlcekl1@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States); Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6173 (United States); Chialvo, Ariel A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    We use the concept of statistical distance to define a measure of distinguishability between a pair of statistical mechanical systems, i.e., a model and its target, and show that its minimization leads to general convergence of the model’s static measurable properties to those of the target. We exploit this feature to define a rigorous basis for the development of accurate and robust effective molecular force fields that are inherently compatible with coarse-grained experimental data. The new model optimization principles and their efficient implementation are illustrated through selected examples, whose outcome demonstrates the higher robustness and predictive accuracy of the approach compared to other currently used methods, such as force matching and relative entropy minimization. We also discuss relations between the newly developed principles and established thermodynamic concepts, which include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and the thermodynamic length.

  5. Rigorous force field optimization principles based on statistical distance minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the concept of statistical distance to define a measure of distinguishability between a pair of statistical mechanical systems, i.e., a model and its target, and show that its minimization leads to general convergence of the model’s static measurable properties to those of the target. We exploit this feature to define a rigorous basis for the development of accurate and robust effective molecular force fields that are inherently compatible with coarse-grained experimental data. The new model optimization principles and their efficient implementation are illustrated through selected examples, whose outcome demonstrates the higher robustness and predictive accuracy of the approach compared to other currently used methods, such as force matching and relative entropy minimization. We also discuss relations between the newly developed principles and established thermodynamic concepts, which include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and the thermodynamic length

  6. Portfolio theory of optimal isometric force production: Variability predictions and nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, T.D. [Department of Psychology, Center for the Ecological Study of Perception and Action, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: till.frank@uconn.edu; Patanarapeelert, K. [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Silpakorn University, Sanam Chandra Palace Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Beek, P.J. [Faculty of Human Movement Sciences and Research Institute Move, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 9, 1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-05-12

    We derive a fundamental relationship between the mean and the variability of isometric force. The relationship arises from an optimal collection of active motor units such that the force variability assumes a minimum (optimal isometric force). The relationship is shown to be independent of the explicit motor unit properties and of the dynamical features of isometric force production. A constant coefficient of variation in the asymptotic regime and a nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem for optimal isometric force are predicted.

  7. Portfolio theory of optimal isometric force production: Variability predictions and nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a fundamental relationship between the mean and the variability of isometric force. The relationship arises from an optimal collection of active motor units such that the force variability assumes a minimum (optimal isometric force). The relationship is shown to be independent of the explicit motor unit properties and of the dynamical features of isometric force production. A constant coefficient of variation in the asymptotic regime and a nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem for optimal isometric force are predicted

  8. Optimal retirement consumption with a stochastic force of mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Huaxiong Huang; Moshe A. Milevsky; Thomas S. Salisbury

    2012-01-01

    We extend the lifecycle model (LCM) of consumption over a random horizon (a.k.a. the Yaari model) to a world in which (i.) the force of mortality obeys a diffusion process as opposed to being deterministic, and (ii.) a consumer can adapt their consumption strategy to new information about their mortality rate (a.k.a. health status) as it becomes available. In particular, we derive the optimal consumption rate and focus on the impact of mortality rate uncertainty vs. simple lifetime uncertaint...

  9. Evolutionary Hessian Learning: Forced Optimal Covariance Adaptive Learning (FOCAL)

    CERN Document Server

    Shir, Ofer M; Whitley, Darrell; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-01-01

    The Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) has been the most successful Evolution Strategy at exploiting covariance information; it uses a form of Principle Component Analysis which, under certain conditions, is suggested to converge to the correct covariance matrix, formulated as the inverse of the mathematically well-defined Hessian matrix. However, in practice, there exist conditions where CMA-ES converges to the global optimum (accomplishing its primary goal) while it does not learn the true covariance matrix (missing an auxiliary objective), likely due to step-size deficiency. These circumstances can involve high-dimensional landscapes with large condition numbers. This paper introduces a novel technique entitled Forced Optimal Covariance Adaptive Learning (FOCAL), with the explicit goal of determining the Hessian at the global basin of attraction. It begins by introducing theoretical foundations to the inverse relationship between the learned covariance and the Hessian matrices. FOCAL ...

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCIAL PERSONNEL NUMBER IN ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bolshakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of a centralized accounting system for service personnel by an example of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.Normative for financial personnel strength of the supposed unified financial centre which is involved in accounting recordings on salary and other payments has been calculated on the basis of inter-branch standards. While taking as an example a conventional organization “B” with staff strength which is equal to the strength of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus the possible efficiency in introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel has been determined in the paper. According to represented calculations reduction of financial personnel dealing with accounting recordings on salary and other payments in the whole organization “B” can constitute up to 60 persons with more than 200 branches which are carrying out independent payment accounting for personnel concerned.Dependence of strength normative on number of financial bodies, percentage of personnel receiving payments through a unified financial centre and concentration of financial and economic document circulation has been determined in the paper. It has been pointed out that it is not sufficient to determine quantitative indices in order to ensure an objective reflection of the efficiency of possible introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel in the Armed Forces. In order to obtain complete information it is

  11. Efficient retrieval of landscape Hessian: Forced optimal covariance adaptive learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shir, Ofer M.; Roslund, Jonathan; Whitley, Darrell; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the Hessian matrix at the landscape optimum of a controlled physical observable offers valuable information about the system robustness to control noise. The Hessian can also assist in physical landscape characterization, which is of particular interest in quantum system control experiments. The recently developed landscape theoretical analysis motivated the compilation of an automated method to learn the Hessian matrix about the global optimum without derivative measurements from noisy data. The current study introduces the forced optimal covariance adaptive learning (FOCAL) technique for this purpose. FOCAL relies on the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) that exploits covariance information amongst the control variables by means of principal component analysis. The FOCAL technique is designed to operate with experimental optimization, generally involving continuous high-dimensional search landscapes (≳30) with large Hessian condition numbers (≳104). This paper introduces the theoretical foundations of the inverse relationship between the covariance learned by the evolution strategy and the actual Hessian matrix of the landscape. FOCAL is presented and demonstrated to retrieve the Hessian matrix with high fidelity on both model landscapes and quantum control experiments, which are observed to possess nonseparable, nonquadratic search landscapes. The recovered Hessian forms were corroborated by physical knowledge of the systems. The implications of FOCAL extend beyond the investigated studies to potentially cover other physically motivated multivariate landscapes.

  12. A Novel Particle Swarm Optimization based Algorithm for the Optimal Centralized Wireless Access Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dac-Nhuong Le

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless access networks design problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem, where the goal is to find a network topology such that an objective function is optimized, subject to a set of constraints. The objective function may be the total cost, or some performance measure like utilization, call blocking or throughput. The constraints may be bounds on link capacities, cost elements, or some network performance measure. However, the optimization problem is too complex. In this paper, we propose a novel Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm to finding the total cost of connecting the BSs to the MSCs, and connecting the MSCs to the LE called by the optimal centralized wireless access network. Numerical results show that performance of our proposed algorithm is much better than previous studies.

  13. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  14. On the optimization of a rolling-force model for a hot strip finishing line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingcheng; Chen, Chunzhao

    2007-10-01

    This paper starts with a profound analysis of rolling-force calculation models of two hot strip rolling product lines. According to classical theory of rolling-force calculation, the structure of rolling-force calculation model is firstly optimized. Then with application of data mining techniques, including clustering sampling approach and optimization algorithm, to the field data from product line, the value of key coefficients of the model is adjusted. By the proposed optimization scheme, a better rolling-force prediction is achieved. PMID:17507017

  15. Surface exponent in percolation and central-force percolation: A test for splay rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hansen, Alex

    1988-09-01

    We study two related problems: one in the usual percolation and the other in central-force percolation; namely, the probability that a site sitting on the border of a semi-infinite domain belongs to either the infinite cluster in usual percolation or the infinitely rigid cluster in central-force percolation. We study the critical exponents describing the critical behavior of these probabilities by a numerical simulation using a transfer-matrix technique. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that both critical phenomena belong to the same universality class. In addition, our results suggest that the splay-rigid phase threshold is different from the rigidity threshold in central-force percolation.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCIAL PERSONNEL NUMBER IN ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Bolshakova

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of...

  17. Relativistic corrections to the central force problem in a generalized potential approach

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ashmeet

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel technique to obtain the relativistic corrections to the central force problem in the Lagrangian formulation, using a generalized potential energy. Throughout the paper, we focus on the attractive inverse square law central force. The generalised potential can be made a part of the regular classical lagrangian which can reproduce the relativistic force equation upto second order in $|\\vec{v}|/c$. We then go on to derive the relativistically corrected Hamiltonian from the Lagrangian and estimate the corrections to the total energy of the system. We employ our methodology to calculate the relativistic correction to the circular orbit in attractive gravitational force. We also estimate to the first order energy correction in the ground state of the hydrogen atom in the semi-classical approach. Our predictions in both problems give the reasonable agreement with the known results. Thus we feel that this work has pedagogical value and can be used by undergraduate students to better understand the ...

  18. GEOFLOW: simulation of convection in a spherical shell under central force field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Beltrame

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent dynamical simulations related to convective motion in a spherical gap under a central force field due to the dielectrophoretic effect are discussed. This work is part of the preparation of the GEOFLOW-experiment which is planned to run in a microgravity environment. The goal of this experiment is the simulation of large-scale convective motion in a geophysical or astrophysical framework. This problem is new because of, on the one hand, the nature of the force field (dielectrophoretic effect and, on another hand, the high degree of symmetries of the system, e.g. the top-bottom reflection. Thus, the validation of this simulation with well-known results is not possible. The questions concerning the influence of the dielectrophoretic force and the possibility to reproduce the theoretically expected motions in the astrophysical framework, are open. In the first part, we study the system in terrestrial conditions: the unidirectional Earth's force is superimposed on the central dielectrophoretic force field to compare with the laboratory experiments during the development of the equipment. In the second part, the GEOFLOW-experiment simulations in weightless conditions are compared with theoretical studies in the astrophysical framework's, in the first instance a fluid under a self-gravitating force field. We present complex time-dependent dynamics, where the dielectrophoretic force field causes significant differences in the flow compared to the case that does not involve this force field.

  19. Performance Analysis and Optimization of Sizable 6-Axis Force Sensor Based on Stewart Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. Z.; Zhao, T. S.; Liu, L. H.; H. Bian; Li, N

    2008-01-01

    The paper plots the indices atlases based on the screw theory and definition of the performances indices, and summaries the law how structure parameters affect the indices. With the constructed optimization objective functions, the sizable parallel 6-axis force sensor's structure parameters are optimized in nonlinear single objective and multi-objective respectively. The corresponding optimal structure parameters are obtained. A novel sizable 6-axis force sensor with flexible joints is develo...

  20. Springback prediction and optimization of variable stretch force trajectory in three-dimensional stretch bending process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Zhang, Wanxi; Liang, Jicai; Gao, Song

    2015-11-01

    Most of the existing studies use constant force to reduce springback while researching stretch force. However, variable stretch force can reduce springback more efficiently. The current research on springback prediction in stretch bending forming mainly focuses on artificial neural networks combined with the finite element simulation. There is a lack of springback prediction by support vector regression (SVR). In this paper, SVR is applied to predict springback in the three-dimensional stretch bending forming process, and variable stretch force trajectory is optimized. Six parameters of variable stretch force trajectory are chosen as the input parameters of the SVR model. Sixty experiments generated by design of experiments (DOE) are carried out to train and test the SVR model. The experimental results confirm that the accuracy of the SVR model is higher than that of artificial neural networks. Based on this model, an optimization algorithm of variable stretch force trajectory using particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. The springback amount is used as the objective function. Changes of local thickness are applied as the criterion of forming constraints. The objection and constraints are formulated by response surface models. The precision of response surface models is examined. Six different stretch force trajectories are employed to certify springback reduction in the optimum stretch force trajectory, which can efficiently reduce springback. This research proposes a new method of springback prediction using SVR and optimizes variable stretch force trajectory to reduce springback.

  1. Springback Prediction and Optimization of Variable Stretch Force Trajectory in Three-dimensional Stretch Bending Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Fei; ZHANG Wanxi; LIANG Jicai; GAO Song

    2015-01-01

    Most of the existing studies use constant force to reduce springback while researching stretch force. However, variable stretch force can reduce springback more efficiently. The current research on springback prediction in stretch bending forming mainly focuses on artificial neural networks combined with the finite element simulation. There is a lack of springback prediction by support vector regression (SVR). In this paper, SVR is applied to predict springback inthe three-dimensional stretch bending forming process,and variable stretch force trajectory is optimized. Six parameters of variable stretch force trajectory are chosen as the input parameters of the SVR model. Sixty experiments generated by design of experiments (DOE) are carried out to train and test the SVR model. The experimental results confirm that the accuracy of the SVR model is higher than that of artificial neural networks. Based on this model, an optimization algorithm of variable stretch force trajectory using particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. The springback amount is used as the objective function. Changes of local thickness are applied as the criterion of forming constraints. The objection and constraints are formulated by response surface models. The precision of response surface models is examined. Six different stretch force trajectories are employed to certify springback reduction in the optimum stretch force trajectory, which can efficiently reduce springback. This research proposes a new method of springback prediction using SVR and optimizes variable stretch force trajectory to reduce springback.

  2. A twist on folding: Predicting optimal sequences and optimal folds of simple protein models with the hidden-force algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kolossváry, István

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new way of looking at global optimization of off-lattice protein models. We present a dual optimization concept of predicting optimal sequences as well as optimal folds. We validate the utility of the recently introduced hidden-force Monte Carlo optimization algorithm by finding significantly lower energy folds for minimalist protein models than previously reported. Further, we also find the protein sequence that yields the lowest energy fold amongst all sequences for a given chain length and residue mixture. In particular, for protein models with a binary sequence, we show that the sequence-optimized folds form more compact cores than the lowest energy folds of the historically fixed, Fibonacci-series sequences of chain lengths of 13, 21, 34, 55, and 89. We emphasize that while the protein model we used is minimalist, the methodology is applicable to detailed protein models, and sequence optimization may yield novel folds and aid de novo protein design.

  3. Optimal Sales Force Diversification and Group Incentive Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Caldieraro; Anne T. Coughlan

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we show that the interaction between territory allocation and sales force compensation—two key drivers of sales productivity—strongly affects the firm's profitability. We analyze an agency-theoretic model that jointly considers the degree of negative or positive correlation across territory outcomes, differences in territories' sales potentials, the agency problem with risk-averse salespeople, and the availability of both own-territory compensation elements, such as commissi...

  4. Improvement of strain gauges micro-forces measurement using Kalman optimal filtering.

    OpenAIRE

    Haddab, Yassine; Chen, Qiao; Lutz, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience Manipulation of small components and assembly of Microsystems require force measurement. In the microworld (the world of very small components), signal/noise ratio is very low due to the weak amplitude of the signals. To be used in feedback control or in a micromanipulation system, a force sensor must allow static and dynamic measurements. In this paper, we present a micro-force measurement system based on the use of strain gauges and a Kalman optimal filter. Using a...

  5. Optimized positioning of pre-disaster relief force and assets

    OpenAIRE

    Tean, Ee Shen

    2006-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Recent events in the United States of America and Pakistan have exposed the shortcomings of existing planning in relief and humanitarian assistance in the face of large-scale natural disasters. This thesis develops a two-stage stochastic optimization model to provide guidance in the pre-positioning of relief units and assets, where budget, physical limitations and logistics are taken into account. Stochastic data include the numbers...

  6. Relativistic equation of the orbit of a particle in a arbitrary central force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equation of the orbit of a relativistic particle moving in an arbitrary central force field is derived. Straightforward generalizations of well-known first and second order differential equations are given. It is pointed out that the relativistic equation of the orbit has the same form as in the non-relativistic case, the only changes consisting in the appearance of additional terms proportional to 1/c2 in both potential and total energies. (author)

  7. Muscle synergies may improve optimization prediction of knee contact forces during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jonathan P; Kinney, Allison L; Banks, Scott A; D'Lima, Darryl D; Besier, Thor F; Lloyd, David G; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2014-02-01

    The ability to predict patient-specific joint contact and muscle forces accurately could improve the treatment of walking-related disorders. Muscle synergy analysis, which decomposes a large number of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals into a small number of synergy control signals, could reduce the dimensionality and thus redundancy of the muscle and contact force prediction process. This study investigated whether use of subject-specific synergy controls can improve optimization prediction of knee contact forces during walking. To generate the predictions, we performed mixed dynamic muscle force optimizations (i.e., inverse skeletal dynamics with forward muscle activation and contraction dynamics) using data collected from a subject implanted with a force-measuring knee replacement. Twelve optimization problems (three cases with four subcases each) that minimized the sum of squares of muscle excitations were formulated to investigate how synergy controls affect knee contact force predictions. The three cases were: (1) Calibrate+Match where muscle model parameter values were calibrated and experimental knee contact forces were simultaneously matched, (2) Precalibrate+Predict where experimental knee contact forces were predicted using precalibrated muscle model parameters values from the first case, and (3) Calibrate+Predict where muscle model parameter values were calibrated and experimental knee contact forces were simultaneously predicted, all while matching inverse dynamic loads at the hip, knee, and ankle. The four subcases used either 44 independent controls or five synergy controls with and without EMG shape tracking. For the Calibrate+Match case, all four subcases closely reproduced the measured medial and lateral knee contact forces (R2 ≥ 0.94, root-mean-square (RMS) error model fidelity for contact force prediction. For the Precalibrate+Predict and Calibrate+Predict cases, synergy controls yielded better contact force predictions (0.61 force

  8. WAYS OF OPTIMIZING FORCE DEVELOPMENT AT PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Ionela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The accomplishment of progressively developing the muscular mass is a permanent objective of thePhysical Education and Sport lessons. The breakthrough of the elastic band makes this objective achievable.This band is quite useful in improving the muscle capacity, for it can adapt in function of each individual’spossibilities, including his or her age, muscular force, articulation mobility.These elastic bands are of 5 types, with a roughness degree in between 1 and 5, and it comes in variouscolours.The elastics using gymnastics is a light sportive activity that respects basic rules. It simply has to beapplied progressively. One first uses the elastic band of the color corresponding to that difficulty degree thatallows for easy movements. Strength is then measured in order for the band to be changed according to thenewly necessary resistance.

  9. Force control of a tri-layer conducting polymer actuator using optimized fuzzy logic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting polymers actuators (CPAs) are potential candidates for replacing conventional actuators in various fields, such as robotics and biomedical engineering, due to their advantageous properties, which includes their low cost, light weight, low actuation voltage and biocompatibility. As these actuators are very suitable for use in micro-nano manipulation and in injection devices in which the magnitude of the force applied to the target is of crucial importance, the force generated by CPAs needs to be accurately controlled. In this paper, a fuzzy logic (FL) controller with a Mamdani inference system is designed to control the blocking force of a trilayer CPA with polypyrrole electrodes, which operates in air. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is employed to optimize the controller’s membership function parameters and therefore enhance the performance of the FL controller. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model, which can capture the nonlinear dynamics of the actuator, is utilized in the optimization process. The optimized Mamdani FL controller is then implemented on the CPA experimentally, and its performance is compared with a non-optimized fuzzy controller as well as with those obtained from a conventional PID controller. The results presented indicate that the blocking force at the tip of the CPA can be effectively controlled by the optimized FL controller, which shows excellent transient and steady state characteristics but increases the control voltage compared to the non-optimized fuzzy controllers. (paper)

  10. Optimal impedance on transmission of Lorentz force EMATs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Julio; Seher, Matthias; Challis, Richard; Cegla, Frederic

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMATs) are attractive for non-destructive inspections because direct contact with the specimen under test is not required. This advantage comes at a high cost in sensitivity and therefore it is important to optimise every aspect of an EMAT. The signal strength produced by EMATs is in part determined by the coil impedance regardless of the transduction mechanism (e.g. Lorentz force, magnetostriction, etc.). There is very little literature on how to select the coil impedance that maximises the wave intensity; this paper addresses that gap. A transformer circuit is used to model the interaction between the EMAT coil and the eddy currents that are generated beneath the coil in the conducting specimen. Expressions for the coil impedances that satisfy the maximum efficiency and maximum power transfer conditions on transmission are presented. To support this analysis, a tunable coil that consists of stacked identical thin layers independently accessed is used so that the coil inductance can be modified while leaving the radiation pattern of the EMAT unaffected.

  11. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipil; Chauhan, Musharraf; Patel, Ravi; Patel, Jayvadan

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X(1)), superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X(2)), and direct compression aid (spray dried lactose, X(3)). Tablets were characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y(1)) and hardness (Y(2)). Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using pullulan as a diluent. PMID:23066220

  12. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipil Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X1, superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X2, and direct compression aid (spray dried lactose, X3. Tablets were characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y1 and hardness (Y2. Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using pullulan as a diluent.

  13. Optimal design of a vehicle magnetorheological damper considering the damping force and dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an optimal design of a passenger vehicle magnetorheological (MR) damper based on finite element analysis. The MR damper is constrained in a specific volume and the optimization problem identifies the geometric dimensions of the damper that minimize an objective function. The objective function consists of the damping force, the dynamic range, and the inductive time constant of the damper. After describing the configuration of the MR damper, the damping force and dynamic range are obtained on the basis of the Bingham model of an MR fluid. Then, the control energy (power consumption of the damper coil) and the inductive time constant are derived. The objective function for the optimization problem is determined based on the solution of the magnetic circuit of the initial damper. Subsequently, the optimization procedure, using a golden-section algorithm and a local quadratic fitting technique, is constructed via commercial finite element method parametric design language. Using the developed optimization tool, optimal solutions of the MR damper, which are constrained in a specific cylindrical volume defined by its radius and height, are determined and a comparative work on damping force and inductive time constant between the initial and optimal design is undertaken

  14. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Dipil Patel; Musharraf Chauhan; Ravi Patel; Jayvadan Patel

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X1), superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X2), and direct compression aid ...

  15. Optimization of classical nonpolarizable force fields for OH(-) and H3O(.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonthuis, Douwe Jan; Mamatkulov, Shavkat I; Netz, Roland R

    2016-03-14

    We optimize force fields for H3O(+) and OH(-) that reproduce the experimental solvation free energies and the activities of H3O(+) Cl(-) and Na(+) OH(-) solutions up to concentrations of 1.5 mol/l. The force fields are optimized with respect to the partial charge on the hydrogen atoms and the Lennard-Jones parameters of the oxygen atoms. Remarkably, the partial charge on the hydrogen atom of the optimized H3O(+) force field is 0.8 ± 0.1|e|-significantly higher than the value typically used for nonpolarizable water models and H3O(+) force fields. In contrast, the optimal partial charge on the hydrogen atom of OH(-) turns out to be zero. Standard combination rules can be used for H3O(+) Cl(-) solutions, while for Na(+) OH(-) solutions, we need to significantly increase the effective anion-cation Lennard-Jones radius. While highlighting the importance of intramolecular electrostatics, our results show that it is possible to generate thermodynamically consistent force fields without using atomic polarizability. PMID:26979693

  16. Optimal New Business for Insurer to Minimize the Ruin Probability under Interest Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Gao-qin; LIU Ci-hua; XU Li-xia

    2007-01-01

    Under constant interest force, the risk processes for old and new insurance business are modelled by Brownian motion with drift. By the stochastic control method, the explicit expressions for the minimum ruin probability and the corresponding optimal strategy are derived. Numerical example shows that the minimum probability of ruin and the optimal proportion for new business decrease as the interest rate increases, and vice versa.

  17. Optimal Discrete PTO Force Point Absorber Wave Energy Converters in Regular Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    For ocean wave energy converters (WECs) to become a cost-effective alternative in the energy production system a large increase in the conversion efficiency is needed. Fluid power technology is the leading technology for the Power Take- Off (PTO) system of wave energy converters. However the...... of discrete force systems for PTO, by focusing on how to choose the optimal PTO force levels and force profile when seeking to increase energy harvesting. The work concerns point absorber WECs and utilises a simple float model based on linear wave theory. Utilising the principle of superposition and...... the Laplace transform a solution of the float movement is found when subjected an incoming wave and a discrete PTO force. Finally an optimisation leads to the force profile implying the highest harvested energy....

  18. Dynamic topology multi force particle swarm optimization algorithm and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongning; Zhang, Ruixing; Yao, Chengyu; Zhao, Zheyu

    2016-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is an effective bio-inspired algorithm but it has shortage of premature convergence. Researchers have made some improvements especially in force rules and population topologies. However, the current algorithms only consider a single kind of force rules and lack consideration of comprehensive improvement in both multi force rules and population topologies. In this paper, a dynamic topology multi force particle swarm optimization (DTMFPSO) algorithm is proposed in order to get better search performance. First of all, the principle of the presented multi force particle swarm optimization (MFPSO) algorithm is that different force rules are used in different search stages, which can balance the ability of global and local search. Secondly, a fitness-driven edge-changing (FE) topology based on the probability selection mechanism of roulette method is designed to cut and add edges between the particles, and the DTMFPSO algorithm is proposed by combining the FE topology with the MFPSO algorithm through concurrent evolution of both algorithm and structure in order to further improve the search accuracy. Thirdly, Benchmark functions are employed to evaluate the performance of the DTMFPSO algorithm, and test results show that the proposed algorithm is better than the well-known PSO algorithms, such as µPSO, MPSO, and EPSO algorithms. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to optimize the process parameters for ultrasonic vibration cutting on SiC wafer, and the surface quality of the SiC wafer is improved by 12.8% compared with the PSO algorithm in Ref. [25]. This research proposes a DTMFPSO algorithm with multi force rules and dynamic population topologies evolved simultaneously, and it has better search performance.

  19. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana

    2012-01-01

    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  20. An optimized intermolecular force field for hydrogen-bonded organic molecular crystals using atomic multipole electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Thompson, Hugh P. G.; Day, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a re-parameterization of a popular intermolecular force field for describing intermolecular interactions in the organic solid state. Specifically we optimize the performance of the exp-6 force field when used in conjunction with atomic multipole electrostatics. We also parameterize force fields that are optimized for use with multipoles derived from polarized molecular electron densities, to account for induction effects in molecular crystals. Parameterization is performed against a set of 186 experimentally determined, low-temperature crystal structures and 53 measured sublimation enthalpies of hydrogen-bonding organic molecules. The resulting force fields are tested on a validation set of 129 crystal structures and show improved reproduction of the structures and lattice energies of a range of organic molecular crystals compared with the original force field with atomic partial charge electrostatics. Unit-cell dimensions of the validation set are typically reproduced to within 3% with the re-parameterized force fields. Lattice energies, which were all included during parameterization, are systematically underestimated when compared with measured sublimation enthalpies, with mean absolute errors of between 7.4 and 9.0%. PMID:27484370

  1. An optimized intermolecular force field for hydrogen-bonded organic molecular crystals using atomic multipole electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O; Thompson, Hugh P G; Day, Graeme M

    2016-08-01

    We present a re-parameterization of a popular intermolecular force field for describing intermolecular interactions in the organic solid state. Specifically we optimize the performance of the exp-6 force field when used in conjunction with atomic multipole electrostatics. We also parameterize force fields that are optimized for use with multipoles derived from polarized molecular electron densities, to account for induction effects in molecular crystals. Parameterization is performed against a set of 186 experimentally determined, low-temperature crystal structures and 53 measured sublimation enthalpies of hydrogen-bonding organic molecules. The resulting force fields are tested on a validation set of 129 crystal structures and show improved reproduction of the structures and lattice energies of a range of organic molecular crystals compared with the original force field with atomic partial charge electrostatics. Unit-cell dimensions of the validation set are typically reproduced to within 3% with the re-parameterized force fields. Lattice energies, which were all included during parameterization, are systematically underestimated when compared with measured sublimation enthalpies, with mean absolute errors of between 7.4 and 9.0%. PMID:27484370

  2. Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  3. An Optimal Angle of Launching a Point Mass in a Medium with Quadratic Drag Force

    CERN Document Server

    Chudinov, P

    2005-01-01

    A classic problem of the motion of a point mass (projectile) thrown at an angle to the horizon is reviewed. The air drag force is taken into account with the drag factor assumed to be constant. Analytic approach is used for investigation. The problem of finding an optimal angle of launching a point mass in a medium with quadratic drag force is considered. An equation for determining a value of this angle is obtained. After finding the optimal angle of launching, eight main parameters of the point mass motion are analytically determined. These parameters are used to construct analytically six main functional relationships of the problem. Simple analytic formulas are used to solve two problems of optimization aimed to maximize the flight range of a point mass and minimize the initial speed of the point mass for getting to the given point on the plane. The motion of a baseball is presented as an example.

  4. A computed torque method based attitude control with optimal force distribution for articulated body mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces an attitude control scheme based in optimal force distribution using quadratic programming which minimizes joint energy consumption. This method shares similarities with force distribution for multifingered hands, multiple coordinated manipulators and legged walking robots. In particular, an attitude control scheme was introduced inside the force distribution problem, and successfully implemented for control of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II. This is an actual mobile robot composed of cylindrical segments linked in series by prismatic joints and has a long snake-like appearance. These prismatic joints are force controlled so that each segment's vertical motion can automatically follow the terrain irregularities. An attitude control is necessary because this system acts like a system of wheeled inverted pendulum carts connected in series, being unstable by nature. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by computer simulation and experiments with the robot KR-II. (author)

  5. A computed torque method based attitude control with optimal force distribution for articulated body mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Edwardo F.; Hirose, Shigeo [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    This paper introduces an attitude control scheme based in optimal force distribution using quadratic programming which minimizes joint energy consumption. This method shares similarities with force distribution for multifingered hands, multiple coordinated manipulators and legged walking robots. In particular, an attitude control scheme was introduced inside the force distribution problem, and successfully implemented for control of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II. This is an actual mobile robot composed of cylindrical segments linked in series by prismatic joints and has a long snake-like appearance. These prismatic joints are force controlled so that each segment's vertical motion can automatically follow the terrain irregularities. An attitude control is necessary because this system acts like a system of wheeled inverted pendulum carts connected in series, being unstable by nature. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by computer simulation and experiments with the robot KR-II. (author)

  6. Bandwidth Optimization in Centralized WLANs for Different Traffic Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Haines

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Allocating bandwidth between different forms of coexisting traffic (such as web-browsing, streaming, and telephony within a wireless LAN is a challenging and interesting problem. Centralized coordination functions in wireless LANs offer several advantages over distributed approaches, having the benefit of a system overview at the controller, but obtaining a stable configuration of bandwidth allocation for the system is nontrivial. We present, review, and compare different mechanisms to achieve this end, and a number of different means of obtaining the configurations themselves. We describe an analytical model of the system under consideration and present two mathematical approaches to derive solutions for any system configuration and deployment, along with an adaptive feedback-based solution. We also describe a comprehensive simulation-based model for the problem, and a prototype that allows comparison of these approaches. Our investigations demonstrate that a self-adaptive dynamic approach far outperforms any static scheme, and that using a mathematical model to produce the configurations themselves confers several advantages.

  7. Bandwidth Optimization in Centralized WLANs for Different Traffic Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines RJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Allocating bandwidth between different forms of coexisting traffic (such as web-browsing, streaming, and telephony within a wireless LAN is a challenging and interesting problem. Centralized coordination functions in wireless LANs offer several advantages over distributed approaches, having the benefit of a system overview at the controller, but obtaining a stable configuration of bandwidth allocation for the system is nontrivial. We present, review, and compare different mechanisms to achieve this end, and a number of different means of obtaining the configurations themselves. We describe an analytical model of the system under consideration and present two mathematical approaches to derive solutions for any system configuration and deployment, along with an adaptive feedback-based solution. We also describe a comprehensive simulation-based model for the problem, and a prototype that allows comparison of these approaches. Our investigations demonstrate that a self-adaptive dynamic approach far outperforms any static scheme, and that using a mathematical model to produce the configurations themselves confers several advantages.

  8. MODELING, VALIDATION AND OPTIMAL DESIGN OF THE CLAMPING FORCE CONTROL VALVE USED IN CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yunshan; LIU Jin'gang; CAI Yuanchun; ZOU Naiwei

    2008-01-01

    Associated dynamic performance of the clamping force control valve used in continuously variable transmission (CVT) is optimized. Firstly, the structure and working principle of the valve are analyzed, and then a dynamic model is set up by means of mechanism analysis. For the purpose of checking the validity of the modeling method, a prototype workpiece of the valve is manufactured for comparison test, and its simulation result follows the experimental result quite well. An associated performance index is founded considering the response time, overshoot and saving energy, and five structural parameters are selected to adjust for deriving the optimal associated performance index. The optimization problem is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) with necessary constraints. Finally, the properties of the optimized valve are compared with those of the prototype workpiece, and the results prove that the dynamic performance indexes of the optimized valve are much better than those of the prototype workpiece.Key words: Dynamic modeling Optimal design Genetic algorithm Clamping force control valve Continuously variable transmission (CVT)

  9. An entransy dissipation-based optimization principle for building central chilled water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently developed entransy theory is introduced in this paper to tackle the heat transfer processes in building central chilled water systems so as to improve their energy efficiency. We first divide the irreversible heat transfer processes into four categories: (1) air mixing processes; (2) heat transfer processes between chilled water and air; (3) chilled water mixing processes; and (4) heat transfer processes between chilled water and refrigerant. The formulas of entransy dissipation rates for each irreversible process are derived, and then the total entransy dissipation rate in the whole chilled water systems is obtained, which connects the geometrical structures of each heat exchanger and the operating parameters of each fluid directly to the demands of users and the supply of refrigerating unit. Based on the formula of entransy dissipation rate together with the conditional extremum method in mathematics, two optimization equation groups are deduced theoretically. Simultaneously solving such equation groups will easily find the optimal central chilled water system with the highest energy efficiency. Finally, a simple building central chilled water system with two users is taken as an example to illustrate the applications of the newly proposed optimization principle. -- Highlights: ► A general principle for the optimization of building central chilled water systems is developed based on the entransy theory. ► The total entransy dissipation connects the structural and operating parameters of chilled water systems directly to the users’ demands. ► Two optimization equation groups are derived theoretically for designing the optimal chilled water system with the highest energy efficiency. ► A practical building central chilled water system is optimized to illustrate the applications of the newly proposed optimization principle.

  10. Ionic force field optimization based on single-ion and ion-pair solvation properties

    CERN Document Server

    Fyta, Maria; Dzubiella, Joachim; Vrbka, Lubos; Netz, Roland R

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of ionic solutions depend sensitively on the force fields employed for the ions. To resolve the fine differences between ions of the same valence and roughly similar size and in particular to correctly describe ion-specific effects, it is clear that accurate force fields are necessary. In the past, optimization strategies for ionic force fields either considered single-ion properties (such as the solvation free energy at infinite dilution or the ion-water structure) or ion-pair properties (in the form of ion-ion distribution functions). In this paper we investigate strategies to optimize ionic force fields based on single-ion and ion-pair properties simultaneously. To that end, we simulate five different salt solutions, namely CsCl, KCl, NaI, KF, and CsI, at finite ion concentration. The force fields of these ions are systematically varied under the constraint that the single-ion solvation free energy matches the experimental value, which reduces the two-dimensional $\\{\\sigma,\\e...

  11. Optimization of Active Muscle Force-Length Models Using Least Squares Curve Fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Goran Abdulrahman; Hou, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose an asymmetric Gaussian function as an alternative to the existing active force-length models, and to optimize this model along with several other existing models by using the least squares curve fitting method. The minimal set of coefficients is identified for each of these models to facilitate the least squares curve fitting. Sarcomere simulated data and one set of rabbits extensor digitorum II experimental data are used to illustrate optimal curve fitting of the selected force-length functions. The results shows that all the curves fit reasonably well with the simulated and experimental data, while the Gordon-Huxley-Julian model and asymmetric Gaussian function are better than other functions in terms of statistical test scores root mean squared error and R-squared. However, the differences in RMSE scores are insignificant (0.3-6%) for simulated data and (0.2-5%) for experimental data. The proposed asymmetric Gaussian model and the method of parametrization of this and the other force-length models mentioned above can be used in the studies on active force-length relationships of skeletal muscles that generate forces to cause movements of human and animal bodies. PMID:26276984

  12. Shielded attractive shell model again: resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reščič, J; Kalyuzhnyi, Y V; Cummings, P T

    2016-10-19

    The approach developed earlier to describe the dimerizing shielded attractive shell (SAS) primitive model of chemical association due to Cummings and Stell is generalized and extended to include a description of a polymerizing SAS model. Our extension is based on the combination of the resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force (RTPT-CF) associating potential and self consistent scheme, which takes into account the changes in the system free volume due to association. Theoretical results for thermodynamical properties of the model at different bonding length, density and temperature are compared against newly generated computer simulation results. The theory gives very accurate predictions for the model with bonding length L (*) from the range 0  <  L (*)  <  0.6 at all values of the density and temperature studied, including the limit of infinitely large temperature. PMID:27545613

  13. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Aeropropulsion Engines and Solid Modeling/Animation via the Integrated Forced Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The grant closure report is organized in the following four chapters: Chapter describes the two research areas Design optimization and Solid mechanics. Ten journal publications are listed in the second chapter. Five highlights is the subject matter of chapter three. CHAPTER 1. The Design Optimization Test Bed CometBoards. CHAPTER 2. Solid Mechanics: Integrated Force Method of Analysis. CHAPTER 3. Five Highlights: Neural Network and Regression Methods Demonstrated in the Design Optimization of a Subsonic Aircraft. Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PX-300 Aircraft Engine. Engine with Regression and Neural Network Approximators Designed. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design. Neural Network and Regression Approximations Used in Aircraft Design.

  14. Validation of Multibody Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II Parachute Simulation with Interacting Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.; Hotchko, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A capability to simulate trajectories of multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed, tested and validated. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2). The standard version of POST 2 allows trajectory simulation of multiple bodies without force interaction. In the current implementation, the force interaction between the parachute and the suspended bodies has been modeled using flexible lines, allowing accurate trajectory simulation of the individual bodies in flight. The POST 2 multibody capability is intended to be general purpose and applicable to any parachute entry trajectory simulation. This research paper explains the motivation for multibody parachute simulation, discusses implementation methods, and presents validation of this capability.

  15. Optimization of a parity of brake forces of automobiles in view of a bias of road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clause it is shown a method optimization of brake of forces in view of a bias road it is established, that in mountain conditions of loss of coupling weight of automobiles than 2-3 times concerning flat conditions therma are more. The degree of use of coupling weight in result use of a regulator of brake forces very much increases also efficiency of brake systems such a kind of automobiles is provided with definition of optimum factor of coupling at which value of loss of coupling weight is provided minimal

  16. Optimization Mathematical Model of Pile Forces for Offshore Piled Breasting Dolphins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锡礽; 王东芹; 王晖; 朱福明

    2004-01-01

    An optimization mathematical model of the pile forces for piled breasting dolphins in the open sea under various loading conditions is presented. The optimum layout with the well distributed pile forces and the least number of piles is achieved by the multiplier penalty function method. Several engineering cases have been calculated and compared with the result of the conventional design method. It is shown that the number of piles can be reduced at least by 10% ~ 20%and the piles' bearing state is improved greatly.

  17. Glacial forcing of central Indonesian hydroclimate since 60,000 y B.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James M; Vogel, Hendrik; Konecky, Bronwen L; Bijaksana, Satria; Huang, Yongsong; Melles, Martin; Wattrus, Nigel; Costa, Kassandra; King, John W

    2014-04-01

    The Indo-Pacific warm pool houses the largest zone of deep atmospheric convection on Earth and plays a critical role in global climate variations. Despite the region's importance, changes in Indo-Pacific hydroclimate on orbital timescales remain poorly constrained. Here we present high-resolution geochemical records of surface runoff and vegetation from sediment cores from Lake Towuti, on the island of Sulawesi in central Indonesia, that continuously span the past 60,000 y. We show that wet conditions and rainforest ecosystems on Sulawesi present during marine isotope stage 3 (MIS3) and the Holocene were interrupted by severe drying between ∼33,000 and 16,000 y B.P. when Northern Hemisphere ice sheets expanded and global temperatures cooled. Our record reveals little direct influence of precessional orbital forcing on regional climate, and the similarity between MIS3 and Holocene climates observed in Lake Towuti suggests that exposure of the Sunda Shelf has a weaker influence on regional hydroclimate and terrestrial ecosystems than suggested previously. We infer that hydrological variability in this part of Indonesia varies strongly in response to high-latitude climate forcing, likely through reorganizations of the monsoons and the position of the intertropical convergence zone. These findings suggest an important role for the tropical western Pacific in amplifying glacial-interglacial climate variability. PMID:24706841

  18. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR CENTRAL RECEIVER SYSTEMS FROM A MONTE CARLO DIRECT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Farges, Olivier; Bézian, Jean-Jacques; El Hafi, Mouna; Fudym, Olivier; Bru, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Considering the investment needed to build a solar concentrating facility, the performance of such an installation has to be maximized. This is the reason why the preliminary design step is one of the most important stage of the project process. This paper presents an optimization approach coupling a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm with a Monte Carlo algorithm applied to the design of Central Receiver Solar systems. After the validation of the direct model from experimental data, severa...

  19. External force back-projective composition and globally deformable optimization for 3-D coronary artery reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical value of the 3D reconstruction of a coronary artery is important for the diagnosis and intervention of cardiovascular diseases. This work proposes a method based on a deformable model for reconstructing coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images acquired from different angles. First, an external force back-projective composition model is developed to determine the external force, for which the force distributions in different views are back-projected to the 3D space and composited in the same coordinate system based on the perspective projection principle of x-ray imaging. The elasticity and bending forces are composited as an internal force to maintain the smoothness of the deformable curve. Second, the deformable curve evolves rapidly toward the true vascular centerlines in 3D space and angiographic images under the combination of internal and external forces. Third, densely matched correspondence among vessel centerlines is constructed using a curve alignment method. The bundle adjustment method is then utilized for the global optimization of the projection parameters and the 3D structures. The proposed method is validated on phantom data and routine angiographic images with consideration for space and re-projection image errors. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for the reconstruction of coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images. The proposed method can achieve a mean space error of 0.564 mm and a mean re-projection error of 0.349 mm. (paper)

  20. Optimal arm posture control and tendon traction forces of a coupled tendon-driven manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the optimum arm posture of a coupled tendon-driven multijoint manipulator arm (or CT Arm) at maximum payload output was derived and the corresponding tendon traction forces were also analyzed, during management of a heavy payload by the manipulator in a gravity environment. The CT Arm is special tendon traction transmission mechanism in which a pair of tendons used to drive a joint is pulled from base actuators via pulleys mounted on the base-side joints. This mechanism enables optimal utilization of the coupled drive function of tendon traction forces and thus enables the lightweight manipulator to exhibit large payload capability. The properties of the CT Arm mechanism are elucidated by the proposed optimal posture control scheme. Computer simulation was also executed to verify the validity of the proposed control scheme. (author)

  1. Optimization of Rolling Force Distribution Based on Niche Genetic Algorithm in Continuous Hot Rolling Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zi-ping; LI Li-xin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the niche genetic algorithm, the intelligent and optimizing model for the rolling force distribution in hot strip mills was put forward. The research showed that the model had many advantages such as fast searching speed, high calculating pre-cision and suiting for on-line calculation. A good strip shape could be achieved by using the model and it is appropriate and practica-ble for rolling producing.

  2. OPTIMAL CONVERGENCE RATES OF LANDAU EQUATION WITH EXTERNAL FORCING IN THE WHOLE SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Tong; Yu Hongjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the method of constructing the compensating func-tion introduced by Kawashima and the standard energy method for the study on the Landau equation with external forcing. Both the global existence of solutions near the time asymptotic states which are local Maxwellians and the optimal convergence rates are obtained. The method used here has its own advantage for this kind of studies because it does not involve the spectrum analysis of the corresponding linearized operator.

  3. ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF CENTRALIZED HEAT-SUPPLY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sednin; Korznikov, A.; A. Sednin; I. Shkliar

    2014-01-01

     The paper presents algorithms for structure optimization of centralized heat-supply systems in large cities due to higher heat loads and necessity for equipment change. The algorithms can be applied for elaboration of plans for development of heat supply in cities and human settlements.

  4. ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF CENTRALIZED HEAT-SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  The paper presents algorithms for structure optimization of centralized heat-supply systems in large cities due to higher heat loads and necessity for equipment change. The algorithms can be applied for elaboration of plans for development of heat supply in cities and human settlements.

  5. Structural Optimization of a Force Balance Using a Computational Experiment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, P. A.; DeLoach, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to force balance structural optimization featuring a computational experiment design. Currently, this multi-dimensional design process requires the designer to perform a simplification by executing parameter studies on a small subset of design variables. This one-factor-at-a-time approach varies a single variable while holding all others at a constant level. Consequently, subtle interactions among the design variables, which can be exploited to achieve the design objectives, are undetected. The proposed method combines Modern Design of Experiments techniques to direct the exploration of the multi-dimensional design space, and a finite element analysis code to generate the experimental data. To efficiently search for an optimum combination of design variables and minimize the computational resources, a sequential design strategy was employed. Experimental results from the optimization of a non-traditional force balance measurement section are presented. An approach to overcome the unique problems associated with the simultaneous optimization of multiple response criteria is described. A quantitative single-point design procedure that reflects the designer's subjective impression of the relative importance of various design objectives, and a graphical multi-response optimization procedure that provides further insights into available tradeoffs among competing design objectives are illustrated. The proposed method enhances the intuition and experience of the designer by providing new perspectives on the relationships between the design variables and the competing design objectives providing a systematic foundation for advancements in structural design.

  6. Optimization of Blank Holding Force in Deep Drawing Process Using Friction Property of Steel Blank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad S. Pandhare

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Majority of automobile and appliances component are made by deep drawing sheet metal process. So these growing need demands a new design methodology based on metal forming simulation. With the help of metal forming simulation we can identify the problem areas and solutions can be validated in computers without any expensive shop floor operations prior to any tool construction. Metal forming simulation is also helpful at the product and tool design stage to decide various parameters. Problem and improvements in each area of the SDF technology and their interactions should be considered. In the product and process design phases in order to optimize Blank Holding Force which is one of the important parameters in Deep Drawing process. Sometimes accuracies of frictional values have more effect on the simulation results than most of the material properties. So that friction plays a major role during optimization of Blank Holding Force. In this paper, the friction is varied in six different values. CRDQ Steel is used as a material. For each value of friction and its corresponding B.H.F., Forming Limit Diagrams are drawn by using hyper mesh module of Hyper Form Solver software. Also the effect of these two parameters on occurrence of wrinkling during the process is studied. Thus, optimized range of coefficient of friction in which product is safe as well as having minimized wrinkles along with optimized B.H.F. is calculated.

  7. Bio-inspired Optimal Locomotion Reconfigurability of Quadruped Rovers using Central Pattern Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Murtaza

    Legged rovers are often considered as viable solutions for traversing unknown terrain. This work addresses the optimal locomotion reconfigurability of quadruped rovers, which consists of obtaining optimal locomotion modes, and transitioning between them. A 2D sagittal plane rover model is considered based on a domestic cat. Using a Genetic Algorithm, the gait, pose and control variables that minimize torque or maximize speed are found separately. The optimization approach takes into account the elimination of leg impact, while considering the entire variable spectrum. The optimal solutions are consistent with other works on gait optimization, and are similar to gaits found in quadruped animals as well. An online model-free gait planning framework is also implemented, that is based on Central Pattern Generators is implemented. It is used to generate joint and control trajectories for any arbitrarily varying speed profile, and shown to regulate locomotion transition and speed modulation, both endogenously and continuously.

  8. Optimizations of force-field parameters for protein systems with the secondary-structure stability and instability

    CERN Document Server

    Sakae, Yoshitake

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel method for refining force-field parameters of protein systems. In this method, the agreement of the secondary-structure stability and instability between the protein conformations obtained by experiments and those obtained by molecular dynamics simulations is used as a criterion for the optimization of force-field parameters. As an example of the applications of the present method, we refined the force-field parameter set of the AMBER ff99SB force field by searching the torsion-energy parameter spaces of $\\psi$ (N-C$^{\\alpha}$-C-N) and $\\zeta$ (C$^{\\beta}$-C$^{\\alpha}$-C-N) of the backbone dihedral angles. We then performed folding simulations of $\\alpha$-helical and $\\beta$-hairpin peptides, using the optimized force field. The results showed that the new force-field parameters gave structures more consistent with the experimental implications than the original AMBER ff99SB force field.

  9. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Mes, Daan; Kusters, Kasper; Roques, Jonathan A C; Flik, Gert; Kloet, Kees; Blonk, Robbert J W

    2014-01-01

    Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (U opt in m s(-1) or body lengths s(-1), BL s(-1)) were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and sustained swimming at U opt on growth performance of juvenile yellowtail kingfish. U opt was quantified in Blazka-type swim-tunnels for 145, 206, and 311 mm juveniles resulting in values of: (1) 0.70 m s(-1) or 4.83 BL s(-1), (2) 0.82 m s(-1) or 3.25 BL s(-1), and (3) 0.85 m s(-1) or 2.73 BL s(-1). Combined with literature data from larger fish, a relation of U opt (BL s(-1)) = 234.07(BL)(-0.779) (R (2) = 0.9909) was established for this species. Yellowtail kingfish, either forced to perform sustained swimming exercise at an optimal speed of 2.46 BL s(-1) ("swimmers") or allowed to perform spontaneous activity at low water flow ("resters") in a newly designed 3600 L oval flume (with flow created by an impeller driven by an electric motor), were then compared. At the start of the experiment, ten fish were sampled representing the initial condition. After 18 days, swimmers (n = 23) showed a 92% greater increase in BL and 46% greater increase in BW as compared to resters (n = 23). As both groups were fed equal rations, feed conversion ratio (FCR) for swimmers was 1.21 vs. 1.74 for resters. Doppler ultrasound imaging showed a statistically significant higher blood flow (31%) in the ventral aorta of swimmers vs. resters (44 ± 3 vs. 34 ± 3 mL min(-1), respectively, under anesthesia). Thus, growth performance can be rapidly improved by optimal swimming, without larger feed investments. PMID:25620933

  10. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIN; Hu, Haijing

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics, the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed, and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality, rather than take “household register†measures to solve the problem simply.

  11. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  12. Simulation of body force field effects on airfoil separation control and optimization of plasma actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all active flow control methods, EHD, MHD and EMHD are the only methods which operate on the basis of body force induction on flow field. The EHD plasma actuator is the proper method which has been used in various flow control applications recently. In this paper, the effects of different body force fields on different domains have been studied for separation control on NACA 0021 and the results have been discussed. The airflow velocity has been assumed to be 35 m s-1 at a post-stall angle of attack of 23 deg. Three different domains have been used around the airfoil to investigate body forces with different strengths and directions and those which give the best result in separation control have been obtained for each domain. It has been shown that the results could be used for optimizing the plasma actuator by manipulating its electrode configuration. Two non-dimensional numbers, Ab and Dc, have been obtained and validated by different applied body forces. These numbers have been defined for plasma actuators to show their efficiency in different applications

  13. Optimization of Encoding Gradients for Magnetic Resonance Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Watkins, Ron; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2009-04-01

    For HIFU treatments without significant heating, MR monitoring could be done by imaging the acoustic radiation force (MR-ARFI). MR-ARFI used motion-sensitizing gradients to encode the small displacement induced by the acoustic radiation force into the phase of the image. Unfortunately, large conventional gradients render the image sensitive to motion, and susceptible to artifacts, which are seen as a non-linear background phase and can be larger than the displacement-induced phase. In this work, MR-ARFI encoding gradients are optimized to minimize these problems. The proposed repeated bipolar gradients are robust against motion and eddy current, and the SNR is significantly enhanced at no cost of scan time or encoding sensitivity.

  14. Optimal Configuration of Discrete Fluid Power Force System Utilised in the PTO for WEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2016-01-01

    . Transferring from a continuous fluid power PTO-system to a discrete poses the question of configuration and control of the discrete fluid power system utilised in a wave energy converter (WEC). The current paper presents a method for determining the optimal configuration of a discrete fluid power force system...... for the PTO-system in a WEC. A model based optimisation is utilised to identify the system configuration leading to the highest energy output. It is shown how the time distribution of wave conditions affects the choice of system configuration. Based on the current paper the preferred PTO system......In the pursue of lowering the cost of energy for ocean wave energy devices the energy conversion efficiency of the Power Take Off (PTO) system has attained increased focus. A discrete fluid power force system has been proposed as a possible solution to improve the conversion efficiency...

  15. Antidepressant-like effect of centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive caramiphen in a forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Miki, Risa; Shima, Eriko; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2010-09-13

    Recently, we reported that a centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive (cough suppressant drug), tipepidine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in rats. Because pharmacological properties of tipepidine apparently differ from those of typical antidepressants developed to date, we speculated that caramiphen, another centrally acting antitussive, has an antidepressant-like effect. That effect of caramiphen was studied in rats using the forced swimming test. Caramiphen at 20 and 40mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced immobility. At 40mg/kg i.p., it increased climbing behavior. Even at 40mg/kg, this drug had no effect on locomotor activity. Results suggest that a centrally acting antitussive possessing inhibition of GIRK channels has an antidepressant-like effect. PMID:20621160

  16. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiandong; Zhang, Li [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong); Wang, Michael Yu, E-mail: michael.wang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe’s characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude’s sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement.

  17. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe’s characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude’s sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement

  18. Specialty Task Force: A Strategic Component to Electronic Health Record (EHR) Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mary Rachel; Staub, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Post-implementation stage comes after an electronic health record (EHR) deployment. Analyst and end users deal with the reality that some of the concepts and designs initially planned and created may not be complementary to the workflow; creating anxiety, dissatisfaction, and failure with early adoption of system. Problems encountered during deployment are numerous and can vary from simple to complex. Redundant ticket submission creates backlog for Information Technology personnel resulting in delays in resolving concerns with EHR system. The process of optimization allows for evaluation of system and reassessment of users' needs. A solid and well executed optimization infrastructure can help minimize unexpected end-user disruptions and help tailor the system to meet regulatory agency goals and practice standards. A well device plan to resolve problems during post implementation is necessary for cost containment and to streamline communication efforts. Creating a specialty specific collaborative task force is efficacious and expedites resolution of users' concerns through a more structured process. PMID:27332478

  19. Fuel cycle optimization in pressurized water reactors under forced outrage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel management being a vital aspect of economic nuclear power, it is important for the nuclear fuel manager to dispose of the necessary tools for reaching the right decisions. The problem can be defined as ''Optimization of energy output from a specific amount of U-235''. As part of this research project the computer program SCOPE was used to optimize the loading pattern with the aim of attaining maximum energy output for full depletion of reactivity. The program is extremely useful for a case where the enrichment cannot be changed, such as in a forced outage. Other available methods tend to be too cumbersome for such events, so frequent in the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. (B.G.)

  20. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiandong; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhang, Li

    2015-12-01

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe's characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude's sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement. PMID:26724066

  1. Simultaneous optimization of force and placement of friction dampers under seismic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck Fadel Miguel, Letícia; Fleck Fadel Miguel, Leandro; Holdorf Lopez, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    It is known that the use of passive energy-dissipation devices, such as friction dampers, reduces considerably the dynamic response of a structure subjected to earthquake ground motions. Nevertheless, the parameters of each damper and the best placement of these devices remain difficult to determine. Some articles on optimum design of tuned mass dampers and viscous dampers have been published; however, there is a lack of studies on optimization of friction dampers. The main contribution of this article is to propose a methodology to simultaneously optimize the location of friction dampers and their friction forces in structures subjected to seismic loading, to achieve a desired level of reduction in the response. For this purpose, the recently developed backtracking search optimization algorithm (BSA) is employed, which can deal with optimization problems involving mixed discrete and continuous variables. For illustration purposes, two different structures are presented. The first is a six-storey shear building and the second is a transmission line tower. In both cases, the forces and positions of friction dampers are the design variables, while the objective functions are to minimize the interstorey drift for the first case and to minimize the maximum displacement at the top of the tower for the second example. The results show that the proposed method was able to reduce the interstorey drift of the shear building by more than 65% and the maximum displacement at the top of the tower by approximately 55%, with only three friction dampers. The proposed methodology is quite general and it could be recommended as an effective tool for optimum design of friction dampers for structural response control. Thus, this article shows that friction dampers can be designed in a safe and economic way.

  2. Robust versus optimal strategies for two-alternative forced choice tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacksenhouse, M; Bogacz, R; Holmes, P

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that animals and humans might choose a speed-accuracy tradeoff that maximizes reward rate. For this utility function the simple drift-diffusion model of two-alternative forced-choice tasks predicts a parameter-free optimal performance curve that relates normalized decision times to error rates under varying task conditions. However, behavioral data indicate that only ≈ 30% of subjects achieve optimality, and here we investigate the possibility that, in allowing for uncertainties, subjects might exercise robust strategies instead of optimal ones. We consider two strategies in which robustness is achieved by relinquishing performance: maximin and robust-satisficing. The former supposes maximization of guaranteed performance under a presumed level of uncertainty; the latter assumes that subjects require a critical performance level and maximize the level of uncertainty under which it can be guaranteed. These strategies respectively yield performance curves parameterized by presumed uncertainty level and required performance. Maximin performance curves for uncertainties in response-to-stimulus interval match data for the lower-scoring 70% of subjects well, and are more likely to explain it than robust-satisficing or alternative optimal performance curves that emphasize accuracy. For uncertainties in signal-to-noise ratio, neither maximin nor robust-satisficing performance curves adequately describe the data. We discuss implications for decisions under uncertainties, and suggest further behavioral assays. PMID:23180885

  3. Design optimization and uncertainty quantification for aeromechanics forced response of a turbomachinery blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modgil, Girish A.

    Gas turbine engines for aerospace applications have evolved dramatically over the last 50 years through the constant pursuit for better specific fuel consumption, higher thrust-to-weight ratio, lower noise and emissions all while maintaining reliability and affordability. An important step in enabling these improvements is a forced response aeromechanics analysis involving structural dynamics and aerodynamics of the turbine. It is well documented that forced response vibration is a very critical problem in aircraft engine design, causing High Cycle Fatigue (HCF). Pushing the envelope on engine design has led to increased forced response problems and subsequently an increased risk of HCF failure. Forced response analysis is used to assess design feasibility of turbine blades for HCF using a material limit boundary set by the Goodman Diagram envelope that combines the effects of steady and vibratory stresses. Forced response analysis is computationally expensive, time consuming and requires multi-domain experts to finalize a result. As a consequence, high-fidelity aeromechanics analysis is performed deterministically and is usually done at the end of the blade design process when it is very costly to make significant changes to geometry or aerodynamic design. To address uncertainties in the system (engine operating point, temperature distribution, mistuning, etc.) and variability in material properties, designers apply conservative safety factors in the traditional deterministic approach, which leads to bulky designs. Moreover, using a deterministic approach does not provide a calculated risk of HCF failure. This thesis describes a process that begins with the optimal aerodynamic design of a turbomachinery blade developed using surrogate models of high-fidelity analyses. The resulting optimal blade undergoes probabilistic evaluation to generate aeromechanics results that provide a calculated likelihood of failure from HCF. An existing Rolls-Royce High Work Single

  4. Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1986-11-12

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

  5. Analysis and optimization of centralized sequential channel sensing in cognitive radio networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Yaghoubi, Forough; Fischione, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Effective spectrum sensing strategies enable cognitiveradios to enhance the spectrum efficiency. In this paper,modeling, performance analysis, and optimization of spectrum handoff in a centralized cognitive radio network are studied.More specifically, for a given sensing order, the average throughput of secondary users and average interference level among the secondary and primary users are evaluated for a cognitive radio network with only one secondary user. By aMarkov chain analysis, a netw...

  6. Optimizing Solute-Solute Interactions in the GLYCAM06 and CHARMM36 Carbohydrate Force Fields Using Osmotic Pressure Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Wesley K; Miller, Mark S; Elcock, Adrian H

    2016-04-12

    GLYCAM06 and CHARMM36 are successful force fields for modeling carbohydrates. To correct recently identified deficiencies with both force fields, we adjusted intersolute nonbonded parameters to reproduce the experimental osmotic coefficient of glucose at 1 M. The modified parameters improve behavior of glucose and sucrose up to 4 M and improve modeling of a dextran 55-mer. While the modified parameters may not be applicable to all carbohydrates, they highlight the use of osmotic simulations to optimize force fields. PMID:26967542

  7. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan P. Palstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (Uopt in m s-1 or body lengths s-1, BL s-1 were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and sustained swimming at Uopt on growth performance of juvenile yellowtail kingfish. Uopt was quantified in Blazka-type swim-tunnels for 145 mm, 206 mm and 311 mm juveniles resulting in values of: 1 0.70 m s-1 or 4.83 BL s-1, 2 0.82 m s-1 or 3.25 BL s-1 and 3 0.85 m s-1 or 2.73 BL s-1. Combined with literature data from larger fish, a relation of Uopt (BL s-1 = 234.07(BL-0.779 (R2= 0.9909 was established for this species. Yellowtail kingfish, either forced to perform sustained swimming exercise at an optimal speed of 2.46 BL s-1 (‘swimmers’ or allowed to perform spontaneous activity at low water flow (‘resters’ in a newly designed 3,600 L oval flume (with flow created by an impeller driven by an electric motor, were then compared. At the start of the experiment, ten fish were sampled representing the initial condition. After 18 days, swimmers (n= 23 showed a 92% greater increase in BL and 46% greater increase in BW as compared to resters (n= 23. As both groups were fed equal rations, feed conversion ratio (FCR for swimmers was 1.21 vs. 1.74 for resters. Doppler ultrasound imaging showed a statistically significant higher blood flow (31% in the ventral aorta of swimmers vs. resters (44 ± 3 mL min-1 vs. 34 ± 3 mL min-1, respectively, under anesthesia. Thus growth performance can be rapidly improved by optimal swimming, without larger feed investments.

  8. Optimal Power Distribution Control for Multicode MC-CDMA with Zero-Forcing Successive Interference Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeheskel Bar-Ness

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Multicarrier CDMA (MC-CDMA has become a promising candidate for future wireless multimedia communications for its robustness to frequency-selective fading and its flexibility for handling multiple data rates. Among different multirate access schemes, multicode MC-CDMA is attractive for its high performance, good flexibility in rate matching, and low complexity. However, its performance is limited by self-interference (SI and multiuser interference (MUI. In this paper a zero-forcing successive interference cancellation (ZF-SIC receiver is used to mitigate this problem for multicode MC-CDMA. Furthermore, optimal power distribution control (PDC, which minimizes each user's bit error rate (BER, is considered. Our results show that, in correlated Rayleigh fading channels, the ZF-SIC receiver integrated with the optimal PDC dramatically improves the performance of the multicode MC-CDMA system in comparison to other receivers proposed in the literature. Moreover, the optimal PDC significantly outperforms the PDC based on equal BER criterion, particularly under a short-term transmit power constraint.

  9. Optimal Dividend and Capital Injection Strategies for a Risk Model under Force of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of the classical Cramér-Lundberg risk model, we consider a risk model including a constant force of interest in the present paper. Most optimal dividend strategies which only consider the processes modeling the surplus of a risk business are absorbed at 0. However, in many cases, negative surplus does not necessarily mean that the business has to stop. Therefore, we assume that negative surplus is not allowed and the beneficiary of the dividends is required to inject capital into the insurance company to ensure that its risk process stays nonnegative. For this risk model, we show that the optimal dividend strategy which maximizes the discounted dividend payments minus the penalized discounted capital injections is a threshold strategy for the case of the dividend payout rate which is bounded by some positive constant and the optimal injection strategy is to inject capitals immediately to make the company's assets back to zero when the surplus of the company becomes negative.

  10. Application of Taguchi method for cutting force optimization in rock sawing by circular diamond sawblades

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Izzet Karakurt

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, an optimization study was carried out for the cutting force (Fc) acting on circular diamond sawblades in rock sawing. The peripheral speed, traverse speed, cut depth and flow rate of cooling fluid were considered as operating variables and optimized by using Taguchi approach for the Fc. L16(44) orthogonal array was chosen for the experimental trials based on the operating variables and their levels. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to determine optimum cutting conditions and significant operating variables, respectively. The Fc was also modelled based on the operating variables using regression analysis. The developed model was then verified using various statistical approaches. The results revealed that the operating variables of circular diamond sawblades can be precisely optimized by Taguchi approach for the Fc in rock sawing. The cut depth and peripheral speed were statistically determined as the significant operating variables affecting Fc. Furthermore, the modelling results showed that the proposed model can be effectively used for the prediction of Fc in practical applications.

  11. Estimation of muscle forces in gait using a simulation of the electromyographic activity and numerical optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Crespo, Marcos José; Braidot, Ariel Andrés Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Clinical gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait patterns. However, a complete distribution of muscle forces throughout the gait cycle is a current challenge for many researchers. Two techniques are often used to estimate muscle forces: inverse dynamics with static optimization and computer muscle control that uses forward dynamics to minimize tracking. The first method often involves limitations due to changing muscle dynamics and possible signal artefacts that depend on day-to-day variation in the position of electromyographic (EMG) electrodes. Nevertheless, in clinical gait analysis, the method of inverse dynamics is a fundamental and commonly used computational procedure to calculate the force and torque reactions at various body joints. Our aim was to develop a generic musculoskeletal model that could be able to be applied in the clinical setting. The musculoskeletal model of the lower limb presents a simulation for the EMG data to address the common limitations of these techniques. This model presents a new point of view from the inverse dynamics used on clinical gait analysis, including the EMG information, and shows a similar performance to another model available in the OpenSim software. The main problem of these methods to achieve a correct muscle coordination is the lack of complete EMG data for all muscles modelled. We present a technique that simulates the EMG activity and presents a good correlation with the muscle forces throughout the gait cycle. Also, this method showed great similarities whit the real EMG data recorded from the subjects doing the same movement. PMID:25408069

  12. Climatic and paleoclimatic forcing of erosion in the southern Central Andes and the northwestern Himalaya (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The windward flanks of the tectonically active southern Central Andes and the NW Himalaya are characterized by steep climatic, tectonic, and topographic gradients. The first windward topographic rise of these mountain ranges constitutes a significant orographic barrier resulting in high orographic rainfall causing some of the wettest places on Earth. However, the higher-elevation areas of the windward flanks of both regions become progressively drier, until arid conditions are attained in the orogen interiors (i.e., the Altiplano-Puna and Tibet plateaus). Both areas have experienced significant paleoclimatic changes with deeper penetration of moisture into the orogen and thus an orogenward shift of the climate gradient. Some of the world's largest rivers with high sediment loads emerge from these mountain belts, and understanding the relation between climate and erosion is key in predicting mass fluxes, assessing the impacts of climate variability, and long-term climate forcing of erosion on landscape evolution. Here, we quantify the impact of the climatic gradients and their spatial shifts during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. We rely on sedimentary archives, digital topography, and cosmogenic inventories of river sands (10Be) and bedrock-erosion rates (10Be and 26Al) from the Puna Plateau in NW Argentina and the interior of the western Himalaya in NW India. We make three key observations that underline the importance of present-day climatic parameters and paleoclimatic changes on the effiency of surface processes in both areas: (1) First-order spatial erosion patterns follow the climatic gradient and catchment-mean erosion rates vary by three orders of magnitude from the wet mountain fronts to the dry orogen interior. In NW Argentina, our measurements represent the fluvial transport rates and indicate very low fluvial activity in the interior of the Puna Plateau during the Late Pleistocene; (2) the spatial distribution of erosion rates can be explained by a

  13. Do experienced physiotherapists apply equal magnitude of force during a grade I central pa on the cervical spine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Conradie

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Physiotherapists frequently use central posterior-anterior (PA joint mobilization techniques for assessing and managing spinal disorders. Manual examination findings provide the basis for the selection of treatment techniques. From the literature it is evident that the level of reliability varies when physiotherapists perform different mobilization techniques. Repeatability of mobilization techniques is important for better physiotherapy management. The aim of the study was to determine whether experienced physiotherapists apply equal magnitude of force during a grade I central PA mobilisation technique on the cervical spine. Another aim was to determine the variation in the magnitude of forceapplied by each individual physiotherapist. Subjects: Sample of convenience, consisting of sixteen (n=16 selected qualified physiotherapists with experience inOrthopaedic Manual Therapy.Methods: A grade I central PA was performed on the Flexiforce TM sensors positioned on C6 of the same asymptomatic model to measure the applied magnitude of force. Two separate measurements, each lasting 30-seconds, were obtained.Results: The average maximum peak force applied by the majority of physiotherapists (87.5% was between 10.95gand 72g. The difference in the forces applied for the two measurements ranged between 0.64g and 24.4g. The BlandAltman scatterplot determined the mean of the difference between measurement one and two, calculated for the group, was zero. When comparing the two measurements, little variation was noted in the forces applied, as well as the coefficient of variation for each physiotherapist.Conclusion and Discussion: Current results demonstrated good intra-therapist and moderate to good inter-therapist repeatability. Further research is required to generalize results.

  14. Optimizing contact force during ablation of atrial fibrillation: available technologies and a look to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Lennart J; Szili-Torok, Tamas

    2016-03-01

    In a select atrial fibrillation population, catheter ablation is considered first-line therapy. Prevention of early reconnection of the isolated pulmonary veins is an important goal for a successful treatment. Here, adequate catheter-tissue contact is crucial. One of the most promising new advances, therefore, is contact force (CF) sensing technology. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of innovations regarding catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation with a special focus on CF optimization. Both experimental and human studies show how CF sensing catheters lead to a reduction of fluoroscopy time, increased procedural safety and a better clinical outcome. Possible future developments include new parameters combining real-time ablation data, direct visualization of lesion formation and incorporation of robotics. PMID:26916025

  15. Optimization and Control for Sharing of the ITER Vacuum Vessel Support Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is a complex body supported in 9 points below lower ports by restraints in the radial, toroidal and vertical directions. The applied load produces a combination of reaction forces, which must be consistent with the design of the supported object. A reasonable sharing of the load among the supports is important for overall performance of the structure and helps to avoid excessive stress at the joints between the VV and lower ports. Optimization has been performed of the sharing of the total horizontal load applied to the ITER VV between radial and toroidal restraints. An effective method of finding simple parametric relationships between the design parameters of supports and the balance of the reaction forces has been developed. This allows purely analytical prediction of the sharing of the reaction forces for any desired stiffness of the applied restraints with no need for finite element structural analysis, and also allows control of the sharing by a proper selection of parameters of the supports. The method is based on the use of elementary mono-directional schemes - equivalent oscillators built for the main global modes, in static problems. The types of schemes and parameters of their members, related to the a-priori unknown stiffness of the VV structure under the supports, are found from consideration of the free vibration problem for the object using a 3D model of the VV with mass simulators - a series of simple eigenvalue analyses with variation of stiffness of the external restraints, that demands quite moderate computational resources. The equivalent schemes for the main modes not only enable simple one-line analytical calculation of the natural frequencies at any desired stiffness of the supports, but also indicate the contributions and balance of stiffness, to be considered in the static problem. The results of assessments of the reaction forces by direct static structural analyses for several cases are in agreement with values

  16. SpaGrOW—A Derivative-Free Optimization Scheme for Intermolecular Force Field Parameters Based on Sparse Grid Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Reith

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular modeling is an important subdomain in the field of computational modeling, regarding both scientific and industrial applications. This is because computer simulations on a molecular level are a virtuous instrument to study the impact of microscopic on macroscopic phenomena. Accurate molecular models are indispensable for such simulations in order to predict physical target observables, like density, pressure, diffusion coefficients or energetic properties, quantitatively over a wide range of temperatures. Thereby, molecular interactions are described mathematically by force fields. The mathematical description includes parameters for both intramolecular and intermolecular interactions. While intramolecular force field parameters can be determined by quantum mechanics, the parameterization of the intermolecular part is often tedious. Recently, an empirical procedure, based on the minimization of a loss function between simulated and experimental physical properties, was published by the authors. Thereby, efficient gradient-based numerical optimization algorithms were used. However, empirical force field optimization is inhibited by the two following central issues appearing in molecular simulations: firstly, they are extremely time-consuming, even on modern and high-performance computer clusters, and secondly, simulation data is affected by statistical noise. The latter provokes the fact that an accurate computation of gradients or Hessians is nearly impossible close to a local or global minimum, mainly because the loss function is flat. Therefore, the question arises of whether to apply a derivative-free method approximating the loss function by an appropriate model function. In this paper, a new Sparse Grid-based Optimization Workflow (SpaGrOW is presented, which accomplishes this task robustly and, at the same time, keeps the number of time-consuming simulations relatively small. This is achieved by an efficient sampling procedure

  17. Fluctuations Mitigation of Variable Speed Wind Turbine through Optimized Centralized Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masoud Barakati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A wind energy conversion system (WECS including a variable wind turbine in grid-connected mode is considered to control. In this paper, each component of WECS model is systematically presented and then the integrated overall model is validated.Regarding to nonlinear nature of WECS and the complex system structure as multiple-input- multiple-output (MIMO,control procedure counters the problem which strategy to handle.To simplify the control policy, a centralized controller which is compatible with systematic modelling introduced, is employed. In other hand to augment the centralized controller performance, an optimization based on genetic algorithm (GA is accomplished. Simulation results demonstate the proper efficiency in fluctuations mitigation.

  18. Optimal force control of an IPMC actuated micromanipulator for safe cell handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaid, Andrew J.; Aw, Kean C.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Haemmerle, Enrico

    2012-04-01

    The demand for single cell manipulation to allow scientist to carry out medical researcher is fast increasing. To facilitate this advanced manipulation systems are required to permit both precise and safe handling of the biological cells. Current devices can achieve a high level of precision at the micro/nano scale but as a consequence are highly rigid and this stiffness puts the target cells at risk as there is no compliance or back-drivability. Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are naturally compliant, giving them a 'soft touch', and now with recent advances in their fabrication and control IPMCs are showing major promise as safe and accurate cell manipulators. This paper presents the development of an optimally tuned force controller for a 2 degree-of-freedom (2DOF) IPMC actuated micro-manipulator. The control system has been implemented to demonstrate the ability to control the manipulator's applied force as a step towards implementing a truly safe system with active compliance control. The controller is adaptively tuned using a model-free iterative feedback tuning (IFT) approach which is ideal for operation in unknown cellular environments as well as for controlling the complex time-varying behavior of the IPMC actuators themselves. The IFT algorithm tunes the force controller by minimizing the design criteria, a least squares error, by 25% in the horizontal direction and 46% in the vertical direction. Experiments then show that the manipulator can accurately track a reference trajectory up to 4gf or ~40mN in both DOF.

  19. Femoral strain during walking predicted with muscle forces from static and dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W Brent; Miller, Ross H; Derrick, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in skeletal health, and the ability to accurately and noninvasively quantify bone strain in vivo may be used to develop preventive measures that improve bone quality and decrease fracture risk. A non-invasive estimation of bone strain requires combined musculoskeletal - finite element modeling, for which the applied muscle forces are usually obtained from static optimization (SO) methods. In this study, we compared finite element predicted femoral strains in walking using muscle forces obtained from SO to those obtained from forward dynamics (FD) simulation. The general trends in strain distributions were similar between FD and SO derived conditions and both agreed well with previously reported in vivo strain gage measurements. On the other hand, differences in peak maximum (εmax) and minimum (εmin) principal strain magnitudes were as high as 32% between FD (εmax/εmin=945/-1271με) and SO (εmax/εmin=752/-859με). These large differences in strain magnitudes were observed during the first half of stance, where SO predicted lower gluteal muscle forces and virtually no co-contraction of the hip adductors compared to FD. The importance of these results will likely depend on the purpose/application of the modeling procedure. If the goal is to obtain a generalized strain distribution for adaptive bone remodeling algorithms, then traditional SO is likely sufficient. In cases were strain magnitudes are critical, as is the case with fracture risk assessment, bone strain estimation may benefit by including muscle activation and contractile dynamics in SO, or by using FD when practical. PMID:26994784

  20. Optimal spacecraft formation establishment and reconfiguration propelled by the geomagnetic Lorentz force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft as it moves through the planetary magnetic field could be utilized as propellantless electromagnetic propulsion for orbital maneuvering, such as spacecraft formation establishment and formation reconfiguration. By assuming that the Earth's magnetic field could be modeled as a tilted dipole located at the center of Earth that corotates with Earth, a dynamical model that describes the relative orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft is developed. Based on the proposed dynamical model, the energy-optimal open-loop trajectories of control inputs, namely, the required specific charges of Lorentz spacecraft, for Lorentz-propelled spacecraft formation establishment or reconfiguration problems with both fixed and free final conditions constraints are derived via Gauss pseudospectral method. The effect of the magnetic dipole tilt angle on the optimal control inputs and the relative transfer trajectories for formation establishment or reconfiguration is also investigated by comparisons with the results derived from a nontilted dipole model. Furthermore, a closed-loop integral sliding mode controller is designed to guarantee the trajectory tracking in the presence of external disturbances and modeling errors. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved by a Lyapunov-based approach. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the validity of the proposed open-loop control methods and demonstrate the performance of the closed-loop controller. Also, the results indicate the dipole tilt angle should be considered when designing control strategies for Lorentz-propelled spacecraft formation establishment or reconfiguration.

  1. Development and Optimization of Elementary osmotic pump tablet of Nicardipine Hydrochloride using central composite experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Teja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Elementary Osmotic Pumps (EOP consists of osmotic core (coated with a semipermeable membrane (SPM and a small orifice is created in the membrane. The objective of the present study was to develop an optimized EOP tablets containing inclusion complex of Nicardipine Hydrochloride (NH using central composite design. Amount of osmotic agent (X1 and size of delivery orifice (X2 were selected as independent variables. Formulations were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for % Cumulative Drug Release (% CDR at 540min. as dependent variables. Amount of osmotic agent and size of delivery orifice had a significant effect on % CDR. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that EOP tablets should be prepared using an optimum concentration of osmotic agent and size of delivery orifice to achieve a zero order drug release. Contour plots as well as response surface plots were constructed to show the effects of X1 and X2 on % CDR. A model was validated for accurate prediction of % CDR by performing checkpoint analysis. The computer optimization process, contour plots and response surface plots predicted at the concentration of independent variables X1 and X2 (50mg and 0.8mm respectively, for maximized response. The drug release from the developed formulation was found independent of pH and agitational intensity. The above optimized batch was also evaluated by different pharmacokinetic models. Stability study of optimized batch was conducted at accelerated conditions for six month and it was found to be stable.

  2. Metabolic regulation and maximal reaction optimization in the central metabolism of a yeast cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbawati, Gunawan, A. Y.; Hertadi, R.; Sidarto, K. A.

    2015-03-01

    Regulation of fluxes in a metabolic system aims to enhance the production rates of biotechnologically important compounds. Regulation is held via modification the cellular activities of a metabolic system. In this study, we present a metabolic analysis of ethanol fermentation process of a yeast cell in terms of continuous culture scheme. The metabolic regulation is based on the kinetic formulation in combination with metabolic control analysis to indicate the key enzymes which can be modified to enhance ethanol production. The model is used to calculate the intracellular fluxes in the central metabolism of the yeast cell. Optimal control is then applied to the kinetic model to find the optimal regulation for the fermentation system. The sensitivity results show that there are external and internal control parameters which are adjusted in enhancing ethanol production. As an external control parameter, glucose supply should be chosen in appropriate way such that the optimal ethanol production can be achieved. For the internal control parameter, we find three enzymes as regulation targets namely acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase which reside in the acetaldehyde branch. Among the three enzymes, however, only acetaldehyde dehydrogenase has a significant effect to obtain optimal ethanol production efficiently.

  3. Comment on `Effective polar potential in the central force Schr\\"{o}dinger equation'

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Francisco M

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a recent pedagogical proposal for an alternative treatment of the angular part of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with a central potential. We show that the authors' arguments are unclear, unconvincing and misleading.

  4. Comment on `Effective polar potential in the central force Schr\\"odinger equation'

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a recent pedagogical proposal for an alternative treatment of the angular part of the Schr\\"odinger equation with a central potential. We show that the authors' arguments are unclear, unconvincing and misleading.

  5. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, P.; Hegde, P; Dumka, U. C.; Sagar, Ram; S. K. Satheesh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended ...

  6. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption. (paper)

  7. Optimizing flurbiprofen-loaded NLC by central composite factorial design for ocular delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Mira, E; Egea, M A; Garcia, M L [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Barcelona, Avenida Joan XXIII s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Souto, E B [Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Rua Carlos da Maia, Nr. 296, Office S.1, P-4200-150 Porto (Portugal); Calpena, A C, E-mail: eligonzalezmi@ub.edu [Department of Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Avenida Joan XXIII s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-28

    The purpose of this study was to design and optimize a new topical delivery system for ocular administration of flurbiprofen (FB), based on lipid nanoparticles. These particles, called nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), were composed of a fatty acid (stearic acid (SA)) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Miglyol 812 and castor oil (CO) as the liquid lipids, prepared by the hot high pressure homogenization method. After selecting the critical variables influencing the physicochemical characteristics of the NLC (the liquid lipid (i.e. oil) concentration with respect to the total lipid (cOil/L (wt%)), the surfactant and the flurbiprofen concentration, on particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency), a three-factor five-level central rotatable composite design was employed to plan and perform the experiments. Morphological examination, crystallinity and stability studies were also performed to accomplish the optimization study. The results showed that increasing cOil/L (wt%) was followed by an enhanced tendency to produce smaller particles, but the liquid to solid lipid proportion should not exceed 30 wt% due to destabilization problems. Therefore, a 70:30 ratio of SA to oil (miglyol + CO) was selected to develop an optimal NLC formulation. The smaller particles obtained when increasing surfactant concentration led to the selection of 3.2 wt% of Tween 80 (non-ionic surfactant). The positive effect of the increase in FB concentration on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and its total solubilization in the lipid matrix led to the selection of 0.25 wt% of FB in the formulation. The optimal NLC showed an appropriate average size for ophthalmic administration (228.3 nm) with a narrow size distribution (0.156), negatively charged surface (-33.3 mV) and high EE ({approx}90%). The in vitro experiments proved that sustained release FB was achieved using NLC as drug carriers. Optimal NLC formulation did not show toxicity on ocular tissues.

  8. Thermodynamic investigation and optimization of laminar forced convection in a rotating helical tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Variation of total entropy generation is investigated parametrically. • Pareto solution sets for heat transfer and flow friction components are obtained. • Dominant irreversibility component and impact of key variables are discussed. - Abstract: Based on the second law of thermodynamics, an entropy generation investigation is carried out under given dimensionless parameters, i.e. heat exchanger duty, heat flux, with respect to heat transfer and frictional pressure drop in a rotating helical tube heat exchanger with laminar convective flow. The entropy generation from heat transfer across a finite temperature difference – Ψh decreases with increasing Dean number which represents the impact of centrifugal force induced secondary flow in enhancing heat transfer. Another aspect of increasing Dean number is that intensified momentum transfer in the radial direction also raises the entropy generation from frictional pressure drop – Ψf, the superposed effect of which yields a decreasing–increasing trend of the total entropy generation-Ψ, a local minimum located in between. The rotation of the helical tube in streamwise (co-rotation) or counter streamwise (counter-rotation) direction leads to a decrease in Ψh and a increase in Ψf which complicates the situation that whether or where the minimum of total entropy generation exists is dependent on whether Ψ is dominated by Ψh or Ψf or somewhere in between. No difference is discerned between pairs of cases with constant wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux but the same set of variables and parameters. A multi-objective optimization targeting Ψh and Ψf simultaneously is implemented using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II). Five solution sets are selected and compared with the conventional optimization in regard of Ψ distinguishing the Ψh-dominated region from the Ψf-dominated region, the dimensionless variable η1 is found to be the most suitable representative

  9. OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTRON BEAM RESIST USING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sutikno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resis negatif ma-N 2403 dan 495 K PMMA memiliki resolusi yang baik untuk aplikasi litografi berkas elektron (EBL. Ketebalanresist optimal memainkan peran penting dalam paparan berkas elektron. Oleh karena itu, dalam penelitian ini, ketebalan darikedua resist yang dioptimalkan menggunakan spincoater dalam jangkauan laju spin 1000-6000 rpm. Semakin laju spin meningkat,ketebalan resist menurun juga. Morfologi permukaan resist dikarakterisasi dengan mikroskop gaya atom. Butir butir resist nampakpanjang. Dalam analisis AFM, permukaan profil resist negatif ma-N 2403 dan 495 K PMMA nampak seperti kerucut. Negative resist ma-N 2403 and 495 K PMMA have good resolution for electron beam lithography (EBL application. The optimumresist thickness plays significant role in e-beam exposure. Therefore, in this research, thicknesses of both resists were optimizedusing spincoater within spin speeds of 1000-6000 rpm. As spin speed increased, resist thickness decreased as well. Morphology ofresist surfaces were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Grains of resist show long grains. In AFM analyses,surface profiles of negative resist ma-N 2403 and 495 K PMMA show cone peaks.Keywords: e-beam resist; spincoater; e-beam lithography

  10. Geometric derivation of the microscopic stress: A covariant central force decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sánchez, Alejandro; Vanegas, Juan M.; Arroyo, Marino

    2016-08-01

    We revisit the derivation of the microscopic stress, linking the statistical mechanics of particle systems and continuum mechanics. The starting point in our geometric derivation is the Doyle-Ericksen formula, which states that the Cauchy stress tensor is the derivative of the free-energy with respect to the ambient metric tensor and which follows from a covariance argument. Thus, our approach to define the microscopic stress tensor does not rely on the statement of balance of linear momentum as in the classical Irving-Kirkwood-Noll approach. Nevertheless, the resulting stress tensor satisfies balance of linear and angular momentum. Furthermore, our approach removes the ambiguity in the definition of the microscopic stress in the presence of multibody interactions by naturally suggesting a canonical and physically motivated force decomposition into pairwise terms, a key ingredient in this theory. As a result, our approach provides objective expressions to compute a microscopic stress for a system in equilibrium and for force-fields expanded into multibody interactions of arbitrarily high order. We illustrate the proposed methodology with molecular dynamics simulations of a fibrous protein using a force-field involving up to 5-body interactions.

  11. Force optimization of ionic polymeric platinum composite artificial muscles by means of an orthogonal array manufacturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Tariq; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1999-05-01

    Ionic polymer platinum composite (IPPC) artificial muscles have been the subject of research activities at AMRI (Artificial Muscle Research Institute) and have been identified as smart intelligent material. The potential for such artificial muscles is so vast that muscles of different enhanced characteristics will be required in the future to accomplish different desired tasks. However the immediate challenges are to identify, control and enhance different desired characteristics of artificial muscles (IPPC). One important milestone that may be regarded, as the most critical one is to enhance force produced by these artificial muscles. Obviously force enhancement if successful may put these artificial muscles into one-to-one competition against the available line of traditional force actuators which fall in the same category. In order to experimentally approach the process of optimizing the force output of ionic polymeric platinum composite (IPPC) artificial muscles, an orthogonal array method was used to identify potential specific manufacturing procedures. These sets of procedures will eventually be helpful to identify the different desired characteristics of manufactured artificial muscles. One manufactured artificial muscles are tested for force outputs, the best ones would then be easily traced back to manufacturing procedure and will be further enhanced up to the desired levels by further refining the underlying manufacturing procedures. The measure chosen for optimization process was basically the force generated by a specific piece of muscle of specific geometry.

  12. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for Indirect Forced-Circulation Solar Water Heating System Using NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the multi-objective optimization of an indirect forced-circulation solar water heating (SWH system was performed to obtain the optimal configuration that minimized the life cycle cost (LCC and maximized the life cycle net energy saving (LCES. An elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II was employed to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions of the multi-objective optimization. To incorporate the characteristics of practical SWH systems, operation-related decision variables as well as capacity-related decision variables were included. The proposed method was used to conduct a case study wherein the optimal configuration of the SWH system of an office building was determined. The case study results showed that the energy cost decreases linearly and the equipment cost increases more significantly as the LCES increases. However, the results also showed that it is difficult to identify the best solution among the Pareto optimal solutions using only the correlation between the corresponding objective function values. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the energy and economic performances of the Pareto optimal solutions are significantly influenced by the ratio of the storage tank volume to the collector area (RVA. Therefore, it is necessary to simultaneously consider the trade-off and the effect of the RVA on the Pareto optimal solutions while selecting the best solution from among the optimal solutions.

  13. Optimization models of the supply of power structures’ organizational units with centralized procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysoiev Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of the state power structures’ organizational units for materiel and technical support requires the use of effective tools for supporting decisions, due to the complexity, interdependence, and dynamism of supply in the market economy. The corporate nature of power structures is of particular interest to centralized procurement management, as it provides significant advantages through coordination, eliminating duplication, and economy of scale. This article presents optimization models of the supply of state power structures’ organizational units with centralized procurement, for different levels of simulated materiel and technical support processes. The models allow us to find the most profitable options for state power structures’ organizational supply units in a centre-oriented logistics system in conditions of the changing needs, volume of allocated funds, and logistics costs that accompany the process of supply, by maximizing the provision level of organizational units with necessary material and technical resources for the entire planning period of supply by minimizing the total logistical costs, taking into account the diverse nature and the different priorities of organizational units and material and technical resources.

  14. Optimization of adhesion mode atomic force microscopy resolves individual molecules in topography and adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, O.H.; Snel, M.M.E.; Noort, van S.J.T.; Werf, van der K.O.; Grooth, de B.G.; Figdor, C.G.; Greve, J.

    1999-01-01

    The force sensor of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is sensitive enough to measure single molecular binding strengths by means of a force–distance curve. In order to combine high-force sensitivity with the spatial resolution of an AFM in topography mode, adhesion mode has been developed. Since this

  15. Effects of vertically ribbed surface roughness on the forced convective heat losses in central receiver systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Ralf; Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    External receiver configurations are directly exposed to ambient wind. Therefore, a precise determination of the convective losses is a key factor in the prediction and evaluation of the efficiency of the solar absorbers. Based on several studies, the forced convective losses of external receivers are modeled using correlations for a roughened cylinder in a cross-flow of air. However at high wind velocities, the thermal efficiency measured during the Solar Two experiment was considerably lower than the efficiency predicted by these correlations. A detailed review of the available literature on the convective losses of external receivers has been made. Three CFD models of different level of detail have been developed to analyze the influence of the actual shape of the receiver and tower configuration, of the receiver shape and of the absorber panels on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer coefficients deduced from the correlations have been compared to the results of the CFD simulations. In a final step the influence of both modeling approaches on the thermal efficiency of an external tubular receiver has been studied in a thermal FE model of the Solar Two receiver.

  16. Optimization of tannase production by a novel Klebsiella pneumoniae KP715242 using central composite design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel tannase producing bacterial strain was isolated from rhizospheric soil of Acacia species and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae KP715242. A 3.25-fold increase in tannase production was achieved upon optimization with central composite design using response surface methodology. Four variables namely pH, temperature, incubation period, and agitation speed were used to optimize significant correlation between the effects of these variables on tannase production. A second-order polynomial was fitted to data and validated by ANOVA. The results showed a complex relationship between variables and response given that all factors were significant and could explain 99.6% of the total variation. The maximum production was obtained at 5.2 pH, 34.97 °C temperature, 103.34 rpm agitation speed and 91.34 h of incubation time. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted ones and the models were highly significant with a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.99 and a highly significant F-value of 319.37.

  17. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, P; Dumka, U C; Sagar, R; Satheesh, S K; Moorthy, K K; Sagar, Ram

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration was in the range 15 - 40 micro g m^(-3) (mean value 27.1 $\\pm$ 8.3 micro g m^(-3)). Interestingly, aerosol BC had a mean concentration of 1.36 $\\pm$ 0.99 micro g m^(-3), contributed to ~5.0 $\\pm$ 1.3 % to the composite aerosol mass. This large abundance of BC is found to have linkages to the human activities in the adjoining valley and to the boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, the inferred single scattering albedo lies in the range of 0.87 to 0.94 (mean value 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.03), indicatin...

  18. Control-Informed Geometric Optimization of Wave Energy Converters: The Impact of Device Motion and Force Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B. Garcia-Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy cost for producing electricity via wave energy converters (WECs is still not competitive with other renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. It is well known that energy maximising control plays an important role to improve the performance of WECs, allowing the energy conversion to be performed as economically as possible. The control strategies are usually subsequently employed on a device that was designed and optimized in the absence of control for the prevailing sea conditions in a particular location. If an optimal unconstrained control strategy, such as pseudo-spectral optimal control (PSOC, is adopted, an overall optimized system can be obtained no matter whether the control design is incorporated at the geometry optimization stage or not. Nonetheless, strategies, such as latching control (LC, must be incorporated at the optimization design stage of the WEC geometry if an overall optimized system is to be realised. In this paper, the impact of device motion and force constraints in the design of control-informed optimized WEC geometries is addressed. The aim is to verify to what extent the constraints modify the connection between the control and the optimal device design. Intuitively, one might expect that if the constraints are very tight, the optimal device shape is the same regardless of incorporating or not the constrained control at the geometry optimization stage. However, this paper tests the hypothesis that the imposition of constraints will limit the control influence on the optimal device shape. PSOC, LC and passive control (PC are considered in this study. In addition, constrained versions of LC and PC are presented.

  19. Symmetry-breaking bifurcations of central forced and heated convection in a spherical fluid shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, L. S.; Feudel, F.; Bergemann, K.; Egbers, C.; Futterer, B.; Gellert, M.; Hollerbach, R.

    2010-11-01

    We study convection in a spherical shell under a gravitational force designed to mimic the GeoFlow microgravity experiment, using a combination of time-dependent simulation and path-following methods. With an outer radius which is twice that of the inner radius, the critical modes are spherical harmonics with l=4, leading generically to transcritical bifurcations involving axisymmetric and octahedral branches, in agreement with predictions by Michel, Ihrig & Golubitsky, Chossat, Matthews, and Busse & Riahi. A secondary bifurcation involving the l=5 mode leads to an additional seven-cell branch. All three steady patterns are simultaneously stable for 7 150 18 710, simulations lead to time-dependent states, some periodic and some chaotic. The period varies greatly: some of the orbits belong to different branches and a global bifurcation is suspected of delimiting the lower limit of periodic states.

  20. Climate sensitivity of allergenic taxa in Central Europe associated with new climate change related forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Aron József; Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Muladi, Beáta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse trends of the pollen season with its duration, start and end dates, as well as trends of the annual total pollen count and annual peak pollen concentration for the Szeged agglomeration in Southern Hungary. The data set covered an 11-year period (1997-2007) that included eight taxa and seven daily climate variables. Trend analysis was performed on both annual and daily bases. Trend analysis on a daily basis is a new approach that provides information on the annual cycles of the trends. To quantify the strength of the relationship between the annual cycle of the slope of a pollen concentration trend and the annual cycles of the slopes of the climate variable trends, an association measure and a multiple association measure are introduced. Individual taxa were sorted into three categories according to their climate sensitivities. These were compared with two novel climate change-related forces, namely risk potential and expansion potential due to the climate change. The total annual pollen counts indicated significant trends for 4 taxa and 3 of these 4 trends increased on a daily basis. At the same time, significant changes were detected for the pollen season characteristics of three taxa. The association measures performed well when compared to the climate change-related forces. Significant changes in pollen season characteristics were also in accordance with the risk potential and expansion potential due to the climate change. A novel procedure was applied to separate the effects of the past and current weather conditions that influence the current Ambrosia pollen concentrations. The potential effect of land use changes on pollen release of the given taxa was also discussed using the CORINE Land Cover Database. PMID:23178762

  1. Aerosol radiative forcing efficiency in the UV-B region over central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palancar, Gustavo G.; Olcese, Luis E.; Lanzaco, Bethania L.; Achad, Mariana; López, María Laura; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2016-07-01

    AEROSOL Robotic Network (AERONET), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and global UV-B (280-315 nm) irradiance measurements and calculations were combined to investigate the effects of aerosol loading on the ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) reaching the surface under cloudless conditions in Córdoba, Argentina. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and the aerosol forcing efficiency (ARFE) were calculated for an extended period of time (2000-2013) at a ground-based monitoring site affected by different types and loading of aerosols. The ARFE was evaluated by using the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 340 nm retrieved by AERONET at the Cordoba CETT site. The individual and combined effects of the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the ARFE were also analyzed. In addition, and for comparison purposes, the MODIS AOD at 550 nm was used as input in a machine learning method to better characterize the aerosol load at 340 nm and evaluate the ARFE retrieved from AOD satellite measurements. The ARFE at the surface calculated using AOD data from AERONET ranged from (-0.11 ± 0.01) to (-1.76 ± 0.20) Wm-2 with an average of -0.61 Wm-2; however, when using AOD data from MODIS (TERRA/AQUA satellites), it ranged from (-0.22 ± 0.03) to (-0.65 ± 0.07) Wm-2 with an average value of -0.43 Wm-2. At the same SZA and SSA, the maximum difference between ground and satellite-based was 0.22 Wm-2.

  2. Role of proximity forces in fragmentation potentials for central and oriented heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proximity potential calculations are generalized to collisions involving deformed nuclei, which can also be polarized. It is shown to be strongly attractive for deformed colliding surfaces such that the surface separation parameter must be a strong function of their mass-symmetry as well as orientations. The importance of proximity effects in fragmentation potentials is clearly depicted by predicting the compound nucleus with large mass-asymmetry to be highly excited, in agreement with the recent fusion-fission experiments and the other dynamical fragmentation theory calculations. An apparent choice of the symmetric or nearly symmetric, spherical, reaction partners for forming cool compound nuclei in central collisions is suggested. For oriented collisions, the use of polarized targets is still believed though more experimental data on surface separation parameter is required for a better analysis. Our calculations are made for the compound nuclei with 104<=Z<=114. (author)

  3. Climatic Forcing of Glacier Surface Mass Balance Changes Along North-Central Peru: A Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Most tropical glaciers are Peru, where they are key water sources for communities in mountain environments and beyond. Thus, their sustained shrinkage portrays these glaciers as archetype of global warming impacts on the local scale. However, there is still no deep understanding on the mechanism connecting temperature and these glaciers. Among others, the effect of temperature on the glacier surface mass balance (GSMB) can be expressed within accumulation regimes and hence in surface albedo, or in ablation dynamics through incoming longwave energy (LE). Here, we report a study combining statistical analyses of reanalysis data (~30km grid-cell), regional climate modeling and glacier mass balance simulations at high resolution (2km) to analyze long-term (30 years) and seasonal GSMB along north-central Peru. Our goal is to mechanistically understand climate change impact on these glaciers. Results suggest temperature as the main factor controlling GSMB changes through the lapse rate (LR). Correlations of GSMB with LR, humidity and zonal wind point to vertical homogenization of temperature, causing LE to increase, despite this flux always remaining negative. This "less negative" LE multiplies the impact of the seasonal fluctuation in albedo, thereby enhancing total ablation. As this mechanism only needs a relative increase in temperature, it may even occur in subfreezing conditions. Model output also indicates that turbulent fluxes are small, largely cancelling out. This suggests that the impact of LE is more likely to occur compared to either turbulent fluxes changes or shifts in the proportion of sublimation versus melt, which we find to be regionally stable. These findings imply that glaciers in north-central Peru are sensitive to subtle changes in temperature. We discuss the implications for process-based understanding and how this non-linear and somewhat hidden effect of temperature reduces the skill of temperature index models to simulate GSMB in the Tropics.

  4. A magnetic-piezoelectric smart material-structure utilizing magnetic force interaction to optimize the sensitivity of current sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Po-Chen; Chung, Tien-Kan; Lai, Chen-Hung; Wang, Chieh-Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a magnetic-piezoelectric smart material-structure using a novel magnetic-force-interaction approach to optimize the sensitivity of conventional piezoelectric current sensing technologies. The smart material-structure comprises a CuBe-alloy cantilever beam, a piezoelectric PZT sheet clamped to the fixed end of the beam, and an NdFeB permanent magnet mounted on the free end of the beam. When the smart material-structure is placed close to an AC conductor, the magnet on the beam of the smart structure experiences an alternating magnetic attractive and repulsive force produced by the conductor. Thus, the beam vibrates and subsequently generates a strain in the PZT sheet. The strain produces a voltage output because of the piezoelectric effect. The magnetic force interaction is specifically enhanced through the optimization approach (i.e., achieved by using SQUID and machining method to reorient the magnetization to different directions to maximize the magnetic force interaction). After optimizing, the beam's vibration amplitude is significantly enlarged and, consequently, the voltage output is substantially increased. The experimental results indicated that the smart material-structure optimized by the proposed approach produced a voltage output of 4.01 Vrms with a sensitivity of 501 m Vrms/A when it was placed close to a conductor with a current of 8 A at 60 Hz. The optimized voltage output and sensitivity of the proposed smart structure were approximately 316 % higher than those (1.27 Vrms with 159 m Vrms/A) of representative piezoelectric-based current sensing technologies presented in other studies. These improvements can significantly enable the development of more self-powered wireless current sensing applications in the future.

  5. Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the climate impact of cities and urban surfaces in general on climate of central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005–2009 for central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces or with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer as well as on the boundary layer height (increases up to 50 m. Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to −0.6 m s−1, though both increases and decreases were detected in summer depending on the location relative to the cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 m s−1. Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts the simulated summer precipitation rate, showing decrease over cities up to −2 mm day−1. Significant temperature increases are simulated over higher elevations as well, not only within the urban canopy layer. With the urban parameterization, the climate model better describes the diurnal temperature variation, reducing the cold afternoon and evening bias of RegCM4. Sensitivity experiments were carried out to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs and anthropogenic heat release. The results proved to be rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts them only slightly (mainly temperature, boundary layer height and wind velocity. Statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas, but the influence of the cities is also evident over rural areas without major urban surfaces. It is shown that this is the result of the combined effect of

  6. Predictability of intense rain storms in the Central Mediterraneanbasin: sensitivity to upper-level forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the sensitivity of a moderate-intense storm that occurred over Calabria, southern Italy, to upper-tropospheric forcing from a Potential Vorticity (PV perspective. A prominent mid-troposheric trough can be identified for this event, which occurred between 22–24 May 2002, and serves as the precursor agent for the moderate-intense precipitation recorded.

    The working hypothesis is that the uncertainty in the representation of the upper-level disturbance has a major impact on the precipitation forecast and we test the hypothesis in a two-step approach. First, we examine the degree of uncertainty by comparing five different scenarios in a Limited area model Ensemble Prediction System (LEPS framework which utilizes the height of the dynamical tropopause as the discriminating variable. Pseudo water vapour images of different scenarios are compared to the corresponding METEOSAT 7 water vapour image at a specific time, antecedent to the rain occurrence over Calabria, in order to evaluate the reliability of the different precipitation scenarios simulated by the LEPS.

    Second, we examine the impact of upper tropospheric PV variations on precipitation by comparing model simulations with slightly different initial PV fields. Initial velocity and mass fields in each case are balanced with the chosen PV perturbation using a PV inversion technique. The results of this study support the working hypothesis.

  7. Multi-objective optimization of surface roughness, cutting forces, productivity and Power consumption when turning of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based super alloys are excellent for several applications and mainly in structural components submitted to high temperatures owing to their high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and metallurgical stability such as in cases of jet engine and gas turbine components. The current work presents the experimental investigations of the cutting parameters effects (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the surface roughness, cutting force components, productivity and power consumption during dry conditions in straight turning using coated carbide tool. The mathematical models for output parameters have been developed using Box-Behnken design with 15 runs and Box-Cox transformation was used for improving normality. The results of the analysis have shown that the surface finish was statistically sensitive to the feed rate and cutting speed with the contribution of 43.58% and 23.85% respectively, while depth of cut had the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting force components with the contribution of 79.87% for feed force, 66.92% for radial force and 66.26% for tangential force. Multi-objective optimization procedure allowed minimizing roughness Ra, cutting forces and power consumption and maximizing material removal rate using desirability approach.

  8. Atomic force microscopy analysis of central nervous system cell morphology on silicon carbide and diamond substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewin, C L; Jaroszeski, M; Weeber, E; Muffly, K E; Kumar, A; Peters, M; Oliveros, A; Saddow, S E

    2009-01-01

    Brain machine interface (BMI) devices offer a platform that can be used to assist people with extreme disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease. Silicon (Si) has been the material of choice used for the manufacture of BMI devices due to its mechanical strength, its electrical properties and multiple fabrication techniques; however, chronically implanted BMI devices have usually failed within months of implantation due to biocompatibility issues and the fact that Si does not withstand the harsh environment of the body. Single crystal cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) are semiconductor materials that have previously shown good biocompatibility with skin and bone cells. Like Si, these materials have excellent physical characteristics, good electrical properties, but unlike Si, they are chemically inert. We have performed a study to evaluate the general biocompatibility levels of all of these materials through the use of in vitro techniques. H4 human neuroglioma and PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cell lines were used for the study, and polystyrene (PSt) and amorphous glass were used as controls or for morphological comparison. MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assays were performed to determine general cell viability with each substrate and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to quantify the general cell morphology on the substrate surface along with the substrate permissiveness to lamellipodia extension. 3C-SiC was the only substrate tested to have good viability and superior lamellipodia permissiveness with both cell lines, while NCD showed a good level of viability with the neural H4 line but a poor viability with the PC12 line and lower permissiveness than 3C-SiC. Explanations pertaining to the performance of each substrate with both cell lines are presented and discussed along with future work that must be performed to further evaluate specific cell reactions on

  9. Optimization of Muscle Activity for Task-Level Goals Predicts Complex Changes in Limb Forces across Biomechanical Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, J. Lucas; Ting, Lena H.

    2012-01-01

    Optimality principles have been proposed as a general framework for understanding motor control in animals and humans largely based on their ability to predict general features movement in idealized motor tasks. However, generalizing these concepts past proof-of-principle to understand the neuromechanical transformation from task-level control to detailed execution-level muscle activity and forces during behaviorally-relevant motor tasks has proved difficult. In an unrestrained balance task i...

  10. Optimization of coil geometries for bone fracture healing via dielectrophoretic force stimulation - a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibritoğlu, Erman; Gülçür, Halil Özcan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose a novel technique for shortening fracture healing times based on the use of dielectrophoretic forces (DEPFs). If a non-uniform electromagnetic field is applied around a fracture site, red blood cells within the blood will be polarized; creating electrical dipoles. The dielectrophoretic forces resulting from the interaction of these dipoles and the electromagnetic field, can be used to manipulate blood flow at a fracture site, promote vascularization, increase transmembrane signaling, increase supply of nutrients, necessary hormones and growth factors at the fracture site and thus may help bone healing. For the generation of non-uniform fields we considered three different coil designs (linear, parabolic and square root) and using Mathcad numerically studied the dielectrophoretic forces for a long bone fracture where the main arteries are vertically-oriented and the blood flow is downward. The gravitational force and the drag force on the red blood cells determine the steady state blood flow. The dielectrophoretic force added to the force balance is functional in increasing the blood flow. The ratio of the velocity in the presence of dielectrophoresis to the velocity without dielectrophoresis (called here as the Dielectrophoretic Force Factor, K(DEpF)) is a good measure of the performance of the dielectrophoresis, since it indicates the increase in blood flow. It was found that the dielectorophoretic force reaches peak levels at a frequency range between 5-15 Hz. At 5 Hz, the average value of dielectrophoretic force factor is 1.90, 2.51 and 1.61 for the linear, parabolic and the square root coils, respectively. The parabolic coil results in the best DEPF and therefore would be the configuration to use in an experimental study to determine if DEPF is useful for bone healing. PMID:26737886

  11. Optimizing Protein-Protein van der Waals Interactions for the AMBER ff9x/ff12 Force Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Dail E; Steck, Jonathan K; Nerenberg, Paul S

    2014-01-14

    The quality of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations relies heavily on the accuracy of the underlying force field. In recent years, considerable effort has been put into developing more accurate dihedral angle potentials for MD force fields, but relatively little work has focused on the nonbonded parameters, many of which are two decades old. In this work, we assess the accuracy of protein-protein van der Waals interactions in the AMBER ff9x/ff12 force field. Across a test set of 44 neat organic liquids containing the moieties present in proteins, we find root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 1.26 kcal/mol in enthalpy of vaporization and 0.36 g/cm(3) in liquid densities. We then optimize the van der Waals radii and well depths for all of the relevant atom types using these observables, which lowers the RMS errors in enthalpy of vaporization and liquid density of our validation set to 0.59 kcal/mol (53% reduction) and 0.019 g/cm(3) (46% reduction), respectively. Limitations in our parameter optimization were evident for certain atom types, however, and we discuss the implications of these observations for future force field development. PMID:26579910

  12. Evaluation and optimization of quartz resonant-frequency retuned fork force sensors with high Q factors, and the associated electric circuits, for non-contact atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Mikihiro; Tomitori, Masahiko; Arai, Toyoko

    2016-02-01

    High-Q factor retuned fork (RTF) force sensors made from quartz tuning forks, and the electric circuits for the sensors, were evaluated and optimized to improve the performance of non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. To exploit the high Q factor of the RTF sensor, the oscillation of the RTF sensor was excited at its resonant frequency, using a stray capacitance compensation circuit to cancel the excitation signal leaked through the stray capacitor of the sensor. To improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in the detected signal, a small capacitor was inserted before the input of an operational (OP) amplifier placed in an UHV chamber, which reduced the output noise from the amplifier. A low-noise, wideband OP amplifier produced a superior S/N ratio, compared with a precision OP amplifier. The thermal vibrational density spectra of the RTF sensors were evaluated using the circuit. The RTF sensor with an effective spring constant value as low as 1000 N/m provided a lower minimum detection limit for force differentiation. A nc-AFM image of a Si(111)-7 × 7 surface was produced with atomic resolution using the RTF sensor in a constant frequency shift mode; tunneling current and energy dissipation images with atomic resolution were also simultaneously produced. The high-Q factor RTF sensor showed potential for the high sensitivity of energy dissipation as small as 1 meV/cycle and the high-resolution analysis of non-conservative force interactions.

  13. Optimization of heliostat field layout in solar central receiver systems on annual basis using differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Differential evolution optimization model was developed to optimize the heliostat field. • Five optical parameters were considered for the optimization of the optical efficiency. • Optimization using insolation weighted and un-weighted annual efficiency are developed. • The daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 while the monthly was 0.5025. • The insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency was 0.5634. - Abstract: Optimization of a heliostat field is an essential task to make a solar central receiver system effective because major optical losses are associated with the heliostat fields. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to effectively optimize the heliostat field on annual basis using differential evolution, which is an evolutionary algorithm. The heliostat field layout optimization is based on the calculation of five optical performance parameters: the mirror or the heliostat reflectivity, the cosine factor, the atmospheric attenuation factor, the shadowing and blocking factor, and the intercept factor. This model calculates all the aforementioned performance parameters at every stage of the optimization, until the best heliostat field layout based on annual performance is obtained. Two different approaches were undertaken to optimize the heliostat field layout: one with optimizing insolation weighted annual efficiency and the other with optimizing the un-weighted annual efficiency. Moreover, an alternate approach was also proposed to efficiently optimize the heliostat field in which the number of computational time steps was considerably reduced. It was observed that the daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 as compared to the monthly averaged annual optical efficiency, 0.5025. Moreover, the insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency of the heliostat field was 0.5634 for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The code developed can be used for any other

  14. Optimization of muscle activity for task-level goals predicts complex changes in limb forces across biomechanical contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lucas McKay

    Full Text Available Optimality principles have been proposed as a general framework for understanding motor control in animals and humans largely based on their ability to predict general features movement in idealized motor tasks. However, generalizing these concepts past proof-of-principle to understand the neuromechanical transformation from task-level control to detailed execution-level muscle activity and forces during behaviorally-relevant motor tasks has proved difficult. In an unrestrained balance task in cats, we demonstrate that achieving task-level constraints center of mass forces and moments while minimizing control effort predicts detailed patterns of muscle activity and ground reaction forces in an anatomically-realistic musculoskeletal model. Whereas optimization is typically used to resolve redundancy at a single level of the motor hierarchy, we simultaneously resolved redundancy across both muscles and limbs and directly compared predictions to experimental measures across multiple perturbation directions that elicit different intra- and interlimb coordination patterns. Further, although some candidate task-level variables and cost functions generated indistinguishable predictions in a single biomechanical context, we identified a common optimization framework that could predict up to 48 experimental conditions per animal (n = 3 across both perturbation directions and different biomechanical contexts created by altering animals' postural configuration. Predictions were further improved by imposing experimentally-derived muscle synergy constraints, suggesting additional task variables or costs that may be relevant to the neural control of balance. These results suggested that reduced-dimension neural control mechanisms such as muscle synergies can achieve similar kinetics to the optimal solution, but with increased control effort (≈2× compared to individual muscle control. Our results are consistent with the idea that hierarchical, task

  15. A New Method to Determine Central Wavelength and Optimal Bandwidth for Predicting Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xin-feng; YAO Xia; TIAN Yong-chao; NI Jun; LIU Xiao-jun; CAO Wei-xing; ZHU Yan

    2013-01-01

    Plant nitrogen (N) uptake is a good indicator of cropNstatus. In this study, a new method was designed to determine the central wavelength, optimal bandwidth and vegetation indices for predicting plantNuptake (gNm-2) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The data were collected from the ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements in eight field experiments on winter wheat of different years, eco-sites, varieties,Nrates, sowing dates, and densities. The plantNuptake index (PNUI) based on NDVI of 807 nm combined with 736 nm was selected as the optimal vegetation index, and a linear model was developed with R2 of 0.870 and RMSE of 1.546 gNm-2 for calibration, and R2 of 0.834, RMSE of 1.316 gNm-2, slope of 0.934, and intercept of 0.001 for validation. Then, the effect of the bandwidth of central wavelengths on model performance was determined based on the interaction between central wavelength and bandwidth expansion. The results indicated that the optimal bandwidth varies with the changes of the central wavelength and with the interaction between the two bands in one vegetation index. These findings are important for prediction and diagnosis of plantNuptake more precise and accurate in crop management.

  16. Technique of optimization of minimum temperature driving forces in the heaters of regeneration system of a steam turbine unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamarokov, A. S.; Zorin, V. M.; Dai, Fam Kuang

    2016-03-01

    At the current stage of development of nuclear power engineering, high demands on nuclear power plants (NPP), including on their economy, are made. In these conditions, improving the quality of NPP means, in particular, the need to reasonably choose the values of numerous managed parameters of technological (heat) scheme. Furthermore, the chosen values should correspond to the economic conditions of NPP operation, which are postponed usually a considerable time interval from the point of time of parameters' choice. The article presents the technique of optimization of controlled parameters of the heat circuit of a steam turbine plant for the future. Its particularity is to obtain the results depending on a complex parameter combining the external economic and operating parameters that are relatively stable under the changing economic environment. The article presents the results of optimization according to this technique of the minimum temperature driving forces in the surface heaters of the heat regeneration system of the steam turbine plant of a K-1200-6.8/50 type. For optimization, the collector-screen heaters of high and low pressure developed at the OAO All-Russia Research and Design Institute of Nuclear Power Machine Building, which, in the authors' opinion, have the certain advantages over other types of heaters, were chosen. The optimality criterion in the task was the change in annual reduced costs for NPP compared to the version accepted as the baseline one. The influence on the decision of the task of independent variables that are not included in the complex parameter was analyzed. An optimization task was decided using the alternating-variable descent method. The obtained values of minimum temperature driving forces can guide the design of new nuclear plants with a heat circuit, similar to that accepted in the considered task.

  17. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  18. Magnetic force improvement and parameter optimization for magnetic abrasive polishing of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic force acting on workpieee to be machined plays a significantly important role in magnetic abrasive polishing process.But in a case of polishing nonferrous materials,the strength of magnetic force is very low and it leads lower polishing efficiency.The magnesium alloy that has superior mechanical properties for industrial application such as a lightweight and high specific strength is one of the most famous nonferrous materials.An improving strategy of the magnetic force for me AZ31 magnesium alloy installed with a permanent magnet was proposed and experimental verification Was carded out.For the proposed strategy,the effect of process parameters on the surface roughness of the AZ31 magnesium alloy Was evaluated by a design of experimental method.

  19. Feedforward suppression of force ripple based on a simplex-optimized dither signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K K; Chin, S J; Dou, H F

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a feedforward dither signal to reduce the force ripple in an iron-core permanent magnet linear motor (PMLM). A composite control structure is used, consisting of three components: a simple feedforward component, a PID feedback component, and a ripple compensator (RC). The first two components are designed based on a dominant linear model of the motor. The dither signal is generated based on a signal model which is identified using a multidimensional simplex downhill method. In this way, a simple approach is available to eliminate or suppress the inherent force ripple, thus facilitating smooth precise motion while uncompromising on the maximum force achievable. Real-time experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for high precision motion trajectory tracking. PMID:12546465

  20. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausrud Kyrre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108

  1. Torque and atomic forces for Cartesian tensor atomic multipoles with an application to crystal unit cell optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elking, Dennis M

    2016-08-15

    New equations for torque and atomic force are derived for use in flexible molecule force fields with atomic multipoles. The expressions are based on Cartesian tensors with arbitrary multipole rank. The standard method for rotating Cartesian tensor multipoles and calculating torque is to first represent the tensor with n indexes and 3(n) redundant components. In this work, new expressions for directly rotating the unique (n + 1)(n + 2)/2 Cartesian tensor multipole components Θpqr are given by introducing Cartesian tensor rotation matrix elements X(R). A polynomial expression and a recursion relation for X(R) are derived. For comparison, the analogous rotation matrix for spherical tensor multipoles are the Wigner functions D(R). The expressions for X(R) are used to derive simple equations for torque and atomic force. The torque and atomic force equations are applied to the geometry optimization of small molecule crystal unit cells. In addition, a discussion of computational efficiency as a function of increasing multipole rank is given for Cartesian tensors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27349179

  2. Optimal adjustment of the atmospheric forcing parameters of ocean models using sea surface temperature data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinvielle, M.; Brankart, J.-M.; Brasseur, P.; Barnier, B.; Dussin, R.; Verron, J.

    2013-10-01

    In ocean general circulation models, near-surface atmospheric variables used to specify the atmospheric boundary condition remain one of the main sources of error. The objective of this research is to constrain the surface forcing function of an ocean model by sea surface temperature (SST) data assimilation. For that purpose, a set of corrections for ERAinterim (hereafter ERAi) reanalysis data is estimated for the period of 1989-2007, using a sequential assimilation method, with ensemble experiments to evaluate the impact of uncertain atmospheric forcing on the ocean state. The control vector of the assimilation method is extended to atmospheric variables to obtain monthly mean parameter corrections by assimilating monthly SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) climatological data in a low resolution global configuration of the NEMO model. In this context, the careful determination of the prior probability distribution of the parameters is an important matter. This paper demonstrates the importance of isolating the impact of forcing errors in the model to perform relevant ensemble experiments. The results obtained for every month of the period between 1989 and 2007 show that the estimated parameters produce the same kind of impact on the SST as the analysis itself. The objective is then to evaluate the long-term time series of the forcing parameters focusing on trends and mean error corrections of air-sea fluxes. Our corrections tend to equilibrate the net heat-flux balance at the global scale (highly positive in ERAi database), and to remove the potentially unrealistic negative trend (leading to ocean cooling) in the ERAi net heat flux over the whole time period. More specifically in the intertropical band, we reduce the warm bias of ERAi data by mostly modifying the latent heat flux by wind speed intensification. Consistently, when used to force the model, the corrected parameters lead to a better agreement between the mean SST produced by the model and mean SST

  3. Optimal adjustment of the atmospheric forcing parameters of ocean models using sea surface temperature data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meinvielle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In ocean general circulation models, near surface atmospheric variables used to specify the atmospheric remain one of the main sources of error. The objective of this research is to constrain the surface forcing function of an ocean model by Sea Surface Temperature (SST data assimilation. For that purpose, a set of corrections for ERAinterim (hereafter ERAi reanalysis data is estimated for the period from 1989 to 2007 using a sequential assimilation method, with ensemble experiments to evaluate the impact of uncertain atmospheric forcing on the ocean state. The control vector of the assimilation method is extended to atmospheric variables to obtain monthly mean parameter corrections by assimilating monthly SST and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS climatological data in a low resolution global configuration of the NEMO model. In this context, the careful determination of the prior probability distribution of the parameters is an important matter. This paper demonstrates the importance of isolating the impact of forcing errors in the model to perform relevant ensemble experiments.

    The results obtained for every month of the period between 1989 and 2007 show that the estimated parameters produce the same kind of impact on the SST as the analysis itself. The objective is then to evaluate the long term time-series of the forcing parameters focusing on trends and mean error corrections of air-sea fluxes. Our corrections tend to equilibrate the net heat flux balance at the global scale (highly positive in ERAi database, and to remove the potentially unrealistic negative trend (leading to ocean cooling in the ERAi net heat flux over the whole time period. More specifically in the intertropical band, we reduce the warm bias of ERAi data by mostly modifying the latent heat flux by wind velocity intensification. Consistently, when used to force the model, the corrected parameters lead to a better agreement between the mean SST produced by the model and

  4. Milankovitch insulation forcing and cyclic formation of large-scale glacial, fluvial, and eolian landforms in central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beget, J. E.

    Continuous marine and ice-core proxy climate records indicate that the Earth's orbital geometry modulates long-term changes. Until recently, little direct evidence has been available to demonstrate correlations between Milankovitch cycles and large-scale terrestrial landforms produced during worldwide glaciations. In central Alaska large areas of loess and sand fill valleys and basins near major outwash streams. The streams themselves are bordered by sets of outwash terraces, and the terraces grade up valley into sets of moraines. The discovery of the Stampede tephra (approximately 175,000 yr ago) reworked within push moraines of the Lignite Creek glaciation suggests that this event correlates with the glaciation of marine isotope stage 6. A new occurrence of the Old Crow tephra (approximately 140,000 yr ago) on the surface of the oldest outwash terrace of the Tanana River, correlated with Delta glaciation, suggests this event also occurred at this time. The penultimate Healy glaciation apparently correlates with marine isotope stage 4, while radiocarbon dates indicate the latest Pleistocene moraines correlate with marine isotope stage 2. Recognition of the importance of orbital forcing to the cyclical formation of glacial landforms and landscapes can help in interpretations of remotely sensed glacial and proglacial land forms.

  5. Partial Validation of Multibody Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST II) Parachute Simulation With Interacting Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Ben; Queen, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    A capability to simulate trajectories Of Multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST II). Previously, POST II had the ability to simulate multiple bodies without interacting forces. The current implementation is used for the Simulation of parachute trajectories, in which the parachute and suspended bodies can be treated as rigid bodies. An arbitrary set of connecting lines can be included in the model and are treated as massless spring-dampers. This paper discusses details of the connection line modeling and results of several test cases used to validate the capability.

  6. Optimal Force Control of Vibro-Impact Systems for Autonomous Drilling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack B.; Okon, Avi B.

    2012-01-01

    The need to maintain optimal energy efficiency is critical during the drilling operations performed on future and current planetary rover missions (see figure). Specifically, this innovation seeks to solve the following problem. Given a spring-loaded percussive drill driven by a voice-coil motor, one needs to determine the optimal input voltage waveform (periodic function) and the optimal hammering period that minimizes the dissipated energy, while ensuring that the hammer-to-rock impacts are made with sufficient (user-defined) impact velocity (or impact energy). To solve this problem, it was first observed that when voice-coil-actuated percussive drills are driven at high power, it is of paramount importance to ensure that the electrical current of the device remains in phase with the velocity of the hammer. Otherwise, negative work is performed and the drill experiences a loss of performance (i.e., reduced impact energy) and an increase in Joule heating (i.e., reduction in energy efficiency). This observation has motivated many drilling products to incorporate the standard bang-bang control approach for driving their percussive drills. However, the bang-bang control approach is significantly less efficient than the optimal energy-efficient control approach solved herein. To obtain this solution, the standard tools of classical optimal control theory were applied. It is worth noting that these tools inherently require the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP), i.e., a system of differential equations where half the equations have unknown boundary conditions. Typically, the TPBVP is impossible to solve analytically for high-dimensional dynamic systems. However, for the case of the spring-loaded vibro-impactor, this approach yields the exact optimal control solution as the sum of four analytic functions whose coefficients are determined using a simple, easy-to-implement algorithm. Once the optimal control waveform is determined, it can be used

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION FROM CITRUS MICROCARPA (HASSK.) BUNGE BY CENTRAL COMPOSITE FACE CENTERED (CCF) MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pham Tan Quoc; Le Thi Tra Giang; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hanh; Giang Thuy Phuong Quyen; Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was the investigation on main factors (the grind time, ratio of water/peel and distillation time) affecting the amount of essential oil after distilling. Researching and optimizing the factors for essential oil production by laboratory – scale distillation and the yield was evaluated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Central Composite Face Centered (CCF) model. There is the interaction between ratio of water/peel, distillation time and grind time with vol...

  8. Optimization of a PDMS structure for energy harvesting under compressive forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Zhu, D.; Cao, Z.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optimisation of a PDMS structure for energy harvesting applications. The PDMS structure was optimised using ANSYS simulation. The fabrication processes were also optimised for maximum PDMS ferroelectret energy harvesting performance. The optimised PDMS structure was fabricated using a 3D-printed plastic mould. The ANSYS simulation and experiment results demonstrated the variation in energy harvesting performance of the PDMS ferroelectret depending upon the different void geometry. The optimised operating frequency is determined by the geometry of the voids inside ferroelectrets and the Young's modulus of the PDMS. The peak voltage and energy generated per strike under a compressive load was obtained experimentally as a function of force applied and frequency. The experimental maximum peak output power of an optimised PDMS structure with an area of 2×2 cm2 was 0.46 μW across an optimum load resistance of 21 MΩ under a square wave force of 800 N and 17 Hz.

  9. Optimal adjustment of the atmospheric forcing parameters of ocean models using sea surface temperature data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meinvielle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In ocean general circulation models, near-surface atmospheric variables used to specify the atmospheric boundary condition remain one of the main sources of error. The objective of this research is to constrain the surface forcing function of an ocean model by sea surface temperature (SST data assimilation. For that purpose, a set of corrections for ERAinterim (hereafter ERAi reanalysis data is estimated for the period of 1989–2007, using a sequential assimilation method, with ensemble experiments to evaluate the impact of uncertain atmospheric forcing on the ocean state. The control vector of the assimilation method is extended to atmospheric variables to obtain monthly mean parameter corrections by assimilating monthly SST and sea surface salinity (SSS climatological data in a low resolution global configuration of the NEMO model. In this context, the careful determination of the prior probability distribution of the parameters is an important matter. This paper demonstrates the importance of isolating the impact of forcing errors in the model to perform relevant ensemble experiments. The results obtained for every month of the period between 1989 and 2007 show that the estimated parameters produce the same kind of impact on the SST as the analysis itself. The objective is then to evaluate the long-term time series of the forcing parameters focusing on trends and mean error corrections of air–sea fluxes. Our corrections tend to equilibrate the net heat-flux balance at the global scale (highly positive in ERAi database, and to remove the potentially unrealistic negative trend (leading to ocean cooling in the ERAi net heat flux over the whole time period. More specifically in the intertropical band, we reduce the warm bias of ERAi data by mostly modifying the latent heat flux by wind speed intensification. Consistently, when used to force the model, the corrected parameters lead to a better agreement between the mean SST produced by the

  10. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility are analyzed for determining the variability of cloud fraction and radiative forcing at several temporal scales between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layer low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (greater than 6 km) using ARM SGP ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cloud radiative forcings (CRF) are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements. The annual averages of total, and single-layer, nonoverlapped low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Total and low cloud amounts were greatest from December through March and least during July and August. The monthly variation of high cloud amount is relatively small with a broad maximum from May to August. During winter, total cloud cover varies diurnally with a small amplitude, mid-morning maximum and early evening minimum, and during summer it changes by more than 0.14 over the daily cycle with a pronounced early evening minimum. The diurnal variations of mean single-layer cloud cover change with season and cloud height. Annual averages of all-sky, total, and single-layer high, middle, and low LW CRFs are 21.4, 40.2, 16.7, 27.2, and 55.0 Wm(sup -2), respectively; and their SW CRFs are -41.5, -77.2, -37.0, -47.0, and -90.5 Wm(sup -2). Their net CRFs range from -20 to -37 Wm(sup -2). For all-sky, total, and low clouds, the maximum negative net CRFs of -40.1, -70, and -69.5 Wm(sup -2), occur during April; while the respective minimum values of -3.9, -5.7, and -4.6 Wm(sup -2), are found during December. July is the month having maximum negative net CRF of -46.2 Wm(sup -2) for middle clouds, and May has the maximum value of -45.9 Wm(sup -2) for high clouds. An

  11. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will lead to a dramatic increase in damage from forest fires in Europe by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region, the average annual area affected by forest fires has quadrupled since the 1960s (WWF, 2012). The number of forest fires is also on the increase in Central and Northern Europe. The Austrian forest fire database shows a total of 584 fires for the period 2012 to 2014, while even large areas of Sweden were hit by forest fires in August 2014, which were brought under control only after two weeks of intense fire-fighting efforts supported by European civil protection modules. Based on these facts, the improvements in forest fire control are a major international issue in the quest to protect human lives and resources as well as to reduce the negative environmental impact of these fires to a minimum. Within this paper the development of a multi-functional airborne management support system within the frame of the Austrian national safety and security research programme (KIRAS) is described. The main goal of the developments is to assist crisis management tasks of civil emergency teams and armed forces in disaster management by providing multi spectral, near real-time airborne image data products. As time, flexibility and reliability as well as objective information are crucial aspects in emergency management, the used components are tailored to meet these requirements. An airborne multi-functional management support system was developed as part of the national funded project AIRWATCH, which enables real-time monitoring of natural disasters based on optical and thermal images. Airborne image acquisition, a broadband line of sight downlink and near real-time processing solutions allow the generation of an up-to-date geo-referenced situation map. Furthermore, this paper presents ongoing developments for innovative extensions and research activities designed to optimize command operations in national and international fire

  12. Optimizing atomic force microscopy for characterization of diamond-protein interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, Apr. (2011), 337/1-337/10. ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : atomic force microscopy (AFM) * nanocrystalline diamond * oxygen-terminated diamond * hydrogen-terminated diamond * proteins * fetal bovine serum (FBS) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2011

  13. Stability enhancement and fuel economy of the 4-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicles by optimal tyre force distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Mohammadi, Masoud

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, vehicle stability control and fuel economy for a 4-wheel-drive hybrid vehicle are investigated. The integrated controller is designed within three layers. The first layer determines the total yaw moment and total lateral force made by using an optimal controller method to follow the desired dynamic behaviour of a vehicle. The second layer determines optimum tyre force distribution in order to optimise tyre usage and find out how the tyres should share longitudinal and lateral forces to achieve a target vehicle response under the assumption that all four wheels can be independently steered, driven, and braked. In the third layer, the active steering, wheel slip, and electrical motor torque controllers are designed. In the front axle, internal combustion engine (ICE) is coupled to an electric motor (EM). The control strategy has to determine the power distribution between ICE and EM to minimise fuel consumption and allowing the vehicle to be charge sustaining. Finally, simulations performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment show that the proposed structure could enhance the vehicle stability and fuel economy in different manoeuvres.

  14. Strike a Balance: Optimization of Backbone Torsion Parameters of AMBER Polarizable Force Field for Simulations of Proteins and Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, ZHI-XIANG; ZHANG, WEI; WU, CHUN; LEI, HONGXING; CIEPLAK, PIOTR; DUAN, YONG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the AMBER polarizable model (ff02), we have reoptimized the parameters related to the main-chain (Φ, Ψ) torsion angles by fitting to the Boltzmann-weighted average quantum mechanical (QM) energies of the important regions (i.e., β, PII, αR, and αL regions). Following the naming convention of the AMBER force field series, this release will be called ff02pol.rl The force field has been assessed both by energetic comparison against the QM data and by the replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of short alanine peptides in water. For Ace-Ala-Nme, the simulated populations in the β, PII and αR regions were approximately 30, 43, and 26%, respectively. For Ace-(Ala)7-Nme, the populations in these three regions were approximately 24, 49, and 26%. Both were in qualitative agreement with the NMR and CD experimental conclusions. In comparison with the previous force field, ff02pol.rl demonstrated good balance among these three important regions. The optimized torsion parameters, together with those in ff02, allow us to carry out simulations on proteins and peptides with the consideration of polarization. PMID:16526038

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE PEDICEL DETACHING AND CRUSHING FORCES OF GRAPE BERRIES TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL MECHANICAL HARVESTING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carrara

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting of grapes is an important operation in order to contain the operating costs of the viticultural farms. One of the limits of the mechanical harvesting of grapes is represented by the production of juice that is mostly due to the energetic action of the shakers that knocks against the grape clusters to allow the detachment of the berries. As a consequence, under the same structural conditions of the plants, the production of grape juice depends on the physical-mechanical characteristics of the berry and particularly on its breaking strength and on its detachment from the pedicel. In this paper the strength of the berry to the compression force is evaluated through the measurement of the crushing force and the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel measuring its detaching force. The study was performed on two variety of grapes very widespread in Sicily: Catarratto comune and Nero d’Avola. The research showed that the evaluation of the breaking strength of the berry and its pedicel detachment resistance, correlated with the sugar content, allows to find out the optimal mechanical harvesting time in order to obtain a low production of grape juice and, then, wines of quality from mechanically harvested grapes.

  16. Optimization of the preparation of sonogenic phospholipids-based microbubbles by using central composite experimental design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Lu, Cui-Tao; Mei, Xin-Guo

    2008-08-01

    Sonogenic microbubble agent is a newly developed drug targeting delivery system, which uses ultrasonic beam to enhance the delivery of drug and gene to targeted cells and tissues. In this paper, the preparation of sonogenic phospholipids-based microbubbles was optimized by using central composite experimental design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Hydrogenated egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC), Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG 1500) were important components affecting the concentration of 2 - 8 microm microbubbles in the preparation. The combined effects of these three factors were analyzed by CCD and optimized by RSM. Evaluation variable was the concentration of 2 - 8 microm microbubbles. Overall desirability was fitted to a second-order polynomial equation, through which three dimensional response surface graphs were produced. Optimal experimental conditions were selected from the stationary point of the response surfaces. The stability of the sonogenic phospholipids-based microbubbles by the optimal formulation was investigated by accelerated experiment. The contrast effect in vivo of the optimal formulation was investigated. Foreign market product SonoVue was used as the control. From the results, all the three factors had positive effects on the concentration of 2 - 8 microm microbubbles. The optimal condition in the preparation of phospholipids-based microbubbles was obtained as following: EPC 8.35 mg, Tween 80 21.68 mg and PEG 1500 201 mg. The mean value of the concentration of 2 - 8 microm microbubbles in rechecking experiment reached 8.60 x 10(9) x mL(-1). From the accelerated experiment, phospholipids-based microbubbles showed good physical stability. The intensity (relative unit) and duration of the contrast effect by the optimal formulation were 4.47 +/- 0.15 and (302 +/- 7) s respectively, which showed little difference with foreign market product SonoVue [4.28 +/- 0.13, (309 +/- 8) s]. The optimal formulation selected by CCD and

  17. Optimization of the blankholder force distribution with application to the stamping of a car front door panel (Numisheet'99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New materials such as dual phase steel or aluminium and complex geometries of industrial parts increase the difficulties to obtain a defect free part by stamping. One way of solution is a better regulation of the blankholder pressures. Our work is based on an original idea of Siegert, Haeussermann and Haller. The goal is to control the movement of the blank under the blankholder. Thanks to a deformable flexible blankholder, it is possible to create some independent zones. In each zone, a blankholder force can be applied on the sheet, so that a strong force can hold the blank in a zone, and a smaller one can let it move in another zone. The methodology is presented as well as some results dealing with the optimization of the blankholder force considering the drawing of a front door panel (Numisheet'99 benchmark test). The numerical simulations are performed using ABAQUS Explicit. The parameters of the finite element model (mesh density, speed of punch) are set to achieve a good prediction with a minimum simulation time. The objective function is defined to minimize the work of the punch. Three inequality constraints functions were defined to avoid necking and wrinkling. To avoid necking, the major stress of the blank is limited to a value, which is determined by using the modified maximum force criterion (MMFC). To avoid wrinkling, under the blankholder, the angle between the blankholder surface and an element of the blank is limited to a value set by the user, as proposed by Gelin and Labergere. However, in the useful part of the workpiece, the major stress is limited to a value, which was proposed by Brunet, Batoz and Bouabdallah. For the localization of the optimum, we use a response surface method computed with a diffuse approximation and coupled with an adaptative strategy to update the research space

  18. Shape optimization of 3D continuum structures via force approximation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, Garret N.; Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1988-01-01

    The existing need to develop methods whereby the shape design efficiency can be improved through the use of high quality approximation methods is addressed. An efficient approximation method for stress constraints in 3D shape design problems is proposed based on expanding the nodal forces in Taylor series with respect to shape variations. The significance of this new method is shown through elementary beam theory calculations and via numerical computations using 3D solid finite elements. Numerical examples including the classical cantilever beam structure and realistic automotive parts like the engine connecting rod are designed for optimum shape using the proposed method. The numerical results obtained from these methods are compared with other published results, to assess the efficiency and the convergence rate of the proposed method.

  19. Optimization of Jiawei Qing'e Oral Fast Disintegrating Tablets Based on Response Surface-Central Composite Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-ling; WANG Ya-jing; GAO Xiu-mei; GAO Xu; PENG Shu-juan; ZHENG Yin; OKEKE Chukwunweike Ikechukwu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To apply the response surface-central composite design to developing and optimizing the oral fast disintegrating tablets (ODT) formulation for Jiawei Qing'e,a kind of prescription of Chinese herbal medicine.Methods The bitterness of Jiawei Qing'e was masked using Eudragit E-100 by solvent evaporation technique.Response surface approach was applied to investigating the interaction of formulation parameters in optimizing the formulation.The independent variables were Eudragit E-100/drug ratio (X1),amount of disintegrants (X2),and the amount of diluents (X3).The disintegration time (Y1),hardness (Y2),and weight variations of the tablets were characterized.Results The models predicted levels ofX1 =4.63%,X2 =5.25%,and X3 =34.33%,for the optimal formulation having a hardness of 3.0 kg with the disintegration time of 30 s within experimental region.The observed response of Y1 =26.5 s and Y2 =3.14 kg reasonably agreed with the predicted response.Conclusion Response surface methodology shows the good predictability and reliability in optimizing the formulation.The optimized ODT of Jiawei Qing'e has acceptable taste,rapid disintegrating ability,and good mechanical strength.

  20. Driving forces of main landscape change processes from past 200 years in Central Europe - differences between old democratic and post-socialist countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skokanová Hana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares and points out differences in driving forces of four main landscape change processes that shaped post-socialist countries and old democratic countries of Central Europe during the last two centuries. Studying landscape change processes and corresponding driving forces helps in understanding patterns of present landscape and can help among others in better prediction of future landscape change trends. Here, the presented results are based on review of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014. Driving forces affecting these processes were grouped into four categories. Economic forces drove mainly agricultural intensification; agricultural land abandonment and urbanisation and were pronounced especially in the second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. Technological driving forces affected agricultural intensification especially in the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century while cultural driving forces had the biggest impact on urbanisation at the beginning of the 21st century. Political driving forces affected agricultural intensification, urbanisation as well as agricultural land abandonment and were pronounced mainly during the second half of the 20th century in the post-socialist countries. Political forces in the form of subsidies drove agricultural extensification at the beginning of the 21st century. The drivers for the agricultural intensification as well as urbanisation seem to be similar for both old democratic and post-socialist countries. In contrast, agricultural land abandonment in the old democratic countries was driven by technological, cultural and economic driving forces while in the post-socialist countries the political driving forces were mainly responsible. Changes in systems for subsidies and changes in the agricultural commodity markets are also responsible for different frequencies and rates of extensification of

  1. Propagation of Localization Optimal Entropy Production and Convergence rates for the Central Limit Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Carlen, E

    2011-01-01

    We prove for the rescaled convolution map $f\\to f\\circledast f$ propagation of polynomial, exponential and gaussian localization. The gaussian localization is then used to prove an optimal bound on the rate of entropy production by this map. As an application we prove the convergence of the CLT to be at the optimal rate $1/\\sqrt{n}$ in the entropy (and $L^1$) sense, for distributions with finite 4th moment.

  2. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems. PMID:26992734

  3. Driving forces of individual BVOC emissions from a spruce tree in Central Germany; results from a dynamic enclosure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, S.; Dittmann, A.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

    2012-04-01

    We have conducted seasonal ambient and emission measurements of a series of biogenic VOCs such as monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (SQT), isoprene, methanol, methyl chavicol and acetaldehyde. Therefore a plant enclosure technique was applied in order to investigate a Central European spruce forest and its emissions responses to meteorological and environmental parameters. A healthy ≈15m tall Norway spruce tree was selected and a vegetation enclosure technique was applied from April to November 2011. VOCs are measured by PTR-MS, while samples have also been analyzed with GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) techniques for intercomparison and identification of individual VOCs. E/N ratio was adjusted at 117Td[2] and the primary ion signal (H3O+) was continuously above 4×10^7cps, implying a high sensitivity to our measurements. Temperature, relative humidity, ozone, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and CO2 concentrations were continuously measured inside the plant cuvette. Meteorological and environmental parameters (radiation, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, wind direction, temperature, O3, relative humidity, soil moisture, precipitation, global radiation, H2O, NO, NO2) were measured by HLUG (Hessian Agency for Environment and Geology) and DWD (German Weather Service), 50 meters away from the measuring site. In a peculiar season, which was characterized by a warm spring (temperature anomaly >40C), a wet summer (precipitation anomaly 126-150%) and an extremely dry autumn (precipitation anomaly <50%), VOC emissions were analyzed and studied in order to discern different driving forces for the individual compounds. The suggested[3] empirical beta factor for MT found to be in a reasonable range but the temperature dependency was almost double for daytime compared to nighttime measurements, suggesting that light is also influencing MT emissions. On the contrary, SQT emissions showed similar temperature dependency for both day and night measurements

  4. Complementary numerical–experimental benchmarking for shape optimization and validation of structures subjected to wave and current forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markus, D.; Ferri, Francesco; Wüchner, R.;

    2015-01-01

    defining a simple test geometry, altered in one design variable only, and by designing the test case such that a two dimensional analysis of the flow fields is possible. The force sensitivities to changes in the geometry are determined both numerically and experimentally for a great bandwidth of different...... load cases. The experiments are carried out in a recirculating wave–current flume while the numerical simulations are based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Data is also provided to analyze the effect of wave–current interaction on structural loads. Furthermore, a reference study is carried out......A new benchmark problem is proposed and evaluated targeting fluid related shape optimization problems, motivated by design related ocean engineering tasks. The analyzed test geometry is a bottom mounted, polygonal structure in a channel flow. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of shape...

  5. Optimization models of the supply of power structures’ organizational units with centralized procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sysoiev Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    Management of the state power structures’ organizational units for materiel and technical support requires the use of effective tools for supporting decisions, due to the complexity, interdependence, and dynamism of supply in the market economy. The corporate nature of power structures is of particular interest to centralized procurement management, as it provides significant advantages through coordination, eliminating duplication, and economy of scale. Th...

  6. Optimal Power Consumption in a Central Heating System with Geothermal Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Driving a ground source heat pump in a central heating system with the minimum power consumption is studied. The idea of control is based on the fact that, in a heat pump, the temperature of the forward water has a strong positive correlation with the consumed electric power by the compressor. Th...

  7. Optimization of thermal efficiency of nuclear central power like as PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work is the definition of operational conditions for the steam and power conservation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant in order to increase its system thermal efficiency without changing any component, based on the optimization of operational parameters of the plant. The thermal efficiency is calculated by a thermal balance program, based on conservation equations for homogeneous modeling. The circuit coefficients are estimated by an optimization tool, allowing a more realistic thermal balance for the plans under analysis, as well as others parameters necessary to some component models. With the operational parameter optimization, it is possible to get a level of thermal efficiency that increase capital gain, due to a better relationship between the electricity production and the amount of fuel used, without any need to change components plant. (author)

  8. Optimized reinforcement of nuclear power plant structures for aircraft impact forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor buildings of nuclear power plants and, to some extent also other buildings of the plant, according to the present safety requirements, have to be able to withstand aircraft impact forces. The building has to withstand this loading only once since afterwards it will be out of use. Accordingly, other criteria for design and the necessary safety measures are valid than in the case of service loads. Large deformations and the development of large cracks due to such loadings are insignificant from a construction point of view for reinforced concrete structures i.e. the stresses can build up to the ultimate load carrying capacity. From the nuclear safety point of view, however, some restrictions are possible in this regard e.g. to obstruct the penetration of fuel through the cracks. Basically all mild steels, with large ducility and without brittle fracture under sudden load increase, are suitable for this purpose. High stresses in the structure would, however, require uneconomical concentrations of mild steel. It is for this reason that the use of high strength steels e.g. St 110/135, has been introduced in Germany for this kind of loading. Through the use of wire strands or cables of high strength steel it is possible to reach a condition of cracks and large deformations due to ultimate loads in zone of point loading. The reinforcement takes on a distinctly curved shape and is able to carry the normal loads and shears through a suspension-structure action. The deformability of the structure for the analysed limit load state can be further increased through a bond-free net. This measure allows a more uniform sketching of the cables or strands over a larger zone. (Auth.)

  9. Stable Walking of Humanoid Robots Using Vertical Center of Mass and Foot Motions by an Evolutionary Optimized Central Pattern Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Dae Hong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to produce the stable walking of humanoid robots by incorporating the vertical center of mass (COM and foot motions, which are generated by the evolutionary optimized central pattern generator (CPG, into the modifiable walking pattern generator (MWPG. The MWPG extends the conventional 3-D linear inverted pendulum model (3-D LIPM by allowing a zero moment point (ZMP variation. The disturbance caused by the vertical COM motion is compensated in real time by the sensory feedback in the CPG. In this paper, the vertical foot trajectory of the swinging leg, as well as the vertical COM trajectory of the 3-D LIPM, are generated by the CPG for the effective compensation of the disturbance. Consequently, using the proposed method, the humanoid robot is able to walk with a vertical COM and the foot motions generated by the CPG, while modifying its walking patterns by using the MWPG in real time. The CPG with the sensory feedback is optimized to obtain the desired output signals. The optimization of the CPG is formulated as a constrained optimization problem with equality constraints and is solved by two-phase evolutionary programming (TPEP. The validity of the proposed method is verified through walking experiments for the small-sized humanoid robot, HanSaRam-IX (HSR-IX.

  10. The optimal fractional S transform of seismic signal based on the normalized second-order central moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqing; Peng, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    As the extension of time-bandwidth product (TBP) in the fractional domain, the generalized time-bandwidth product (GTBP) provides a rotation-independent measure of compactness. A new fractional S transform (FrST) is proposed to avoid missing the physical meaning of the fractional time-frequency plane. FrST is based on the GTBP criterion and the time-frequency rotation property of fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). In addition, we introduce the normalized second-order central moment (NSOCM) calculation method to determine the optimal order. The optimal order searching process can be converted into the NSOCM calculation. Compared with TBP search algorithms, the NSOCM approach has higher computational efficiency. The qualitative advantage of the NSOCM approach in the optimal order selection is demonstrated by a series of model tests. The optimal FrST based on NSOCM (OFrST) can produce more compact time-frequency support than the S transform. The real seismic data spectral decomposition results show that the proposed algorithm can obtain single-frequency visualization with better time-frequency concentration, thereby enhancing the precision of reservoir prediction.

  11. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  12. Fluctuations Mitigation of Variable Speed Wind Turbine through Optimized Centralized Controller

    OpenAIRE

    S. Masoud Barakati; Saeed Tavakoli; Sajjad Farajianpour; Ali Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    A wind energy conversion system (WECS) including a variable wind turbine in grid-connected mode is considered to control. In this paper, each component of WECS model is systematically presented and then the integrated overall model is validated.Regarding to nonlinear nature of WECS and the complex system structure as multiple-input- multiple-output (MIMO),control procedure counters the problem which strategy to handle.To simplify the control policy, a centralized controller which is compatibl...

  13. Feedback Optimal Control of Low-thrust Orbit Transfer in Central Gravity Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. Owis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-thrust trajectories with variable radial thrust is studied in this paper. The problem is tackled by solving the Hamilton- Jacobi-Bellman equation via State Dependent Riccati Equation( STDE technique devised for nonlinear systems. Instead of solving the two-point boundary value problem in which the classical optimal control is stated, this technique allows us to derive closed-loop solutions. The idea of the work consists in factorizing the original nonlinear dynamical system into a quasi-linear state dependent system of ordinary differential equations. The generating function technique is then applied to this new dynamical system, the feedback optimal control is solved. We circumvent in this way the problem of expanding the vector field and truncating higher-order terms because no remainders are lost in the undertaken approach. This technique can be applied to any planet-to-planet transfer; it has been applied here to the Earth-Mars low-thrust transfer

  14. Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method optimization for characterization of surface adsorption forces of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanovic-Miklicanin, Enisa; Valzacchi, Sandro; Simoneau, Catherine; Gilliland, Douglas; Rossi, Francois

    2014-10-01

    A complete characterization of the different physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) is necessary for the evaluation of their impact on health and environment. Among these properties, the surface characterization of the nanomaterial is the least developed and in many cases limited to the measurement of surface composition and zetapotential. The biological surface adsorption index approach (BSAI) for characterization of surface adsorption properties of NPs has recently been introduced (Xia et al. Nat Nanotechnol 5:671-675, 2010; Xia et al. ACS Nano 5(11):9074-9081, 2011). The BSAI approach offers in principle the possibility to characterize the different interaction forces exerted between a NP's surface and an organic--and by extension biological--entity. The present work further develops the BSAI approach and optimizes a solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) method which, as an outcome, gives a better-defined quantification of the adsorption properties on NPs. We investigated the various aspects of the SPME/GC-MS method, including kinetics of adsorption of probe compounds on SPME fiber, kinetic of adsorption of probe compounds on NP's surface, and optimization of NP's concentration. The optimized conditions were then tested on 33 probe compounds and on Au NPs (15 nm) and SiO2 NPs (50 nm). The procedure allowed the identification of three compounds adsorbed by silica NPs and nine compounds by Au NPs, with equilibrium times which varied between 30 min and 12 h. Adsorption coefficients of 4.66 ± 0.23 and 4.44 ± 0.26 were calculated for 1-methylnaphtalene and biphenyl, compared to literature values of 4.89 and 5.18, respectively. The results demonstrated that the detailed optimization of the SPME/GC-MS method under various conditions is a critical factor and a prerequisite to the application of the BSAI approach as a tool to characterize surface adsorption properties of NPs and therefore to draw any further

  15. Using Central Composite Experimental Design to Optimize the Degradation of Tylosin from Aqueous Solution by Photo-Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Elaziz Sarrai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of the application of the Photo-Fenton process in the treatment of aqueous solution contaminated by Tylosin antibiotic was evaluated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD was used to evaluate and optimize the effect of hydrogen peroxide, ferrous ion concentration and initial pH as independent variables on the total organic carbon (TOC removal as the response function. The interaction effects and optimal parameters were obtained by using MODDE software. The significance of the independent variables and their interactions was tested by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA with a 95% confidence level. Results show that the concentration of the ferrous ion and pH were the main parameters affecting TOC removal, while peroxide concentration had a slight effect on the reaction. The optimum operating conditions to achieve maximum TOC removal were determined. The model prediction for maximum TOC removal was compared to the experimental result at optimal operating conditions. A good agreement between the model prediction and experimental results confirms the soundness of the developed model.

  16. Application of central composite design to optimize the amount of carbon source and prebiotics for Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Guowei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to obtain the optimum proportion of the carbon source and prebiotics for Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 by the central composite design (CCD. The effect of carbon source (lactose and two prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides on the BB01 were observed by measuring the OD600 value, pH value and the viable counts at 18h. The final optimized concentrations of carbon source and prebiotics were: lactose 1.6%, inulin 0.26%, and fructooligosaccharides 0.22%. The result indicates that the growth of B. bifidum BB01 shows an significant increase in the optimized culture medium (p < 0.05, the OD600 value reached 1.434 at 18h, which increased 6.58% compared to the control. And the viable counts of B. bifidum BB01 increased 24.36% and reached (2.17±0.06 ×109cfu/mL. The results show that the optimization of the carbon source and prebiotics using CCD in this study is workable and necessary.

  17. Optimización de la agudeza visual en las FAS Optimization of visual acuity in Spanish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Medin Catoira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La existencia de una agudeza visual óptima es requerida para la mayor parte de las actividades del personal de las FAS, pero se hace estrictamente necesaria en el despliegue dentro del teatro de operaciones internacional. Material y Método: Hemos realizado un estudio sobre el registro de la agudeza visual en un grupo aleatorio (n = 54 durante los reconocimientos periódicos de permanencia realizados en nuestro centro. Resultados: Sólo 3 casos (5,56% reconocen ver mal; 20 (37,04% han utilizado corrección en algún momento de su vida; 12 (22,22% utilizan corrección; en 32 (60,38% sería altamente recomendable el uso de corrección. Ningún caso (0% de los usuarios de corrección posee corrección de repuesto (en gafas. Conclusión: Se hace incidencia en el control y registro de los parámetros visuales en el personal de las FAS, especialmente en actividades de riesgo y despliegue internacional.Introduction: The existence of an optimal visual acuity is required for most of the activities of the membrers of the Armed Forces, but it is strictly necessary in the deployment within the international theater. Materials and Methods: We conducted a study of visual acuity in a random group of periodical surveys in our center. Results: Only 3 cases (5.56% recognize look bad; 20 (37.04% have used correction at some point in their lives; 12 (22.22% used correction; in 32 cases (60.38% was highly recommended the use of correction. No cases (0% of users of correction has a duplicate of it (in glasses. Conclusions: The study suggests the need for better surveillance and control of visual parameters of the Armed Forces members, especially in risky activities and international deployment.

  18. Effect of environmental forcing on the biomass, production and growth rate of size-fractionated phytoplankton in the central Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Ortega, María; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Graña, Rocío; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Marañón, Emilio

    2011-11-01

    To ascertain the response of phytoplankton size classes to changes in environmental forcing, we determined size-fractionated biomass, carbon fixation and growth (production/biomass) rates in surface waters along the central Atlantic Ocean (26°N-5°S). As a result of the enhanced input of nutrients into the euphotic layer and the higher water column stability found at the equatorial upwelling, we observed increases not only in phytoplankton biomass and primary production, but also in turnover rates, suggesting nutrient limitation of phytoplankton physiology in the oligotrophic central Atlantic. The phytoplankton groups analysed (pico-, small nano-, large nano- and micro-phytoplankton) showed different responses to the equatorial environmental forcing, in terms of carbon biomass, primary production and growth rate. Large nano- and micro-phytoplankton consistently showed higher growth rates and carbon fixation to chl a ratios than smaller phytoplankton. We observed a higher stimulating effect of increased nitrate supply on the small phytoplankton growth rates. This observation can be explained by the dynamics of the equatorial upwelling, where the continuous but small nutrient input into the euphotic layer provide a competitive advantage for smaller cells adapted to oligotrophic conditions. The size-fractionated approach shown here reveals important group-specific differences in the response to environmental forcing, which cannot be appreciated in bulk measurements of the whole community.

  19. Optimization of China´s centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having a...... smart, energy efficient and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system. Nevertheless, the development of centralized DHW (CDHW) systems in these two countries differs significantly. This article details the challenges China’s CDHW system is currently encountering and proposes to apply the flat...... station concept to improve China’s CDHW system. Meanwhile, the technical advantages of the Danish CDHW, which would benefit China, are analyzed. Overall, from a technical point of view, the flat station concept is not only in line with China’s current DH conditions but would compensate for some technical...

  20. Optimization of China's centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having a...... smart, energy efficient and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system. Nevertheless, the development of centralized DHW (CDHW) systems in these two countries differs significantly. This article details the challenges China's CDHW system is currently encountering and proposes to apply the flat...... station concept to improve China's CDHW system. Meanwhile, the technical advantages of the Danish CDHW, which would benefit China, are analyzed. Overall, from a technical point of view, the flat station concept is not only in line with China's current DH conditions but would compensate for some technical...

  1. Thermoeconomic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, Jesper Graa;

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. This paper evaluates the use of a high temperature Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant...... and the economic perspectives, the results suggest that it is not beneficial to use the Kalina cycle for high temperature concentrating solar power plants....... with direct vapour generation and without storage. The use of the ammonia-water mixture as the power cycle working fluid with non-isothermal evaporation and condensation presents the potential to improve the overall performance of the plant. This however comes at a price of requiring larger heat exchangers...

  2. Optimization of reloading Laguna Verde Central U1/U2, Federal Electricity Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laguna Verde Central from the beginning of the commercial operation settled down as maximum priority 'the total safety in its operation' taking in consideration the so much experience of the good operation and of multiple recharges made in a sure and reliable way, and without separate us of the safety mystic of the CLV, but looking for to be better every day a new challenge it settled down 'to compare us with the best plants in the world' and certainly to work to classify us like one of them. For this we established a 4.0 year old plan (2003/2006) for the effectiveness all the processes in the power station that allowed us to measure our acting with the same parameters that settle down at international level (nuclear safety, industrial safety, radiological safety, capacity factor, readiness factor, cleaning of the power station, attachment to procedures, attention to the detail and certainly to be competitive in the economic aspect, summing up means to be good in all the aspects). All the above mentioned would allow us to qualify us as level 1 of WANO (world proprietors association of nuclear centrals) at the end of the year 2006 and to pass to be part of this select group. After analyzing the acting record of the power station, evaluating our technical and economic capacity, the location of the installation besides revising the international experiences was defined that one of the concepts that impact considerably so much to the capacity factors and availability besides the dose and production cost is the duration of the recharge periods, for this reason the present work is elaborated. (Author)

  3. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Kausrud Kyrre; Begon Mike; Ari Tamara; Viljugrein Hildegunn; Esper Jan; Büntgen Ulf; Leirs Herwig; Junge Claudia; Yang Bao; Yang Meixue; Xu Lei; Stenseth Nils

    2010-01-01

    Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis) infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. ...

  4. The Integrated Optimization of High-Speed NC Milling Machine Based on the Assembly of Modal Force Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RongChuan Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A relative displacement between cutter and workpiece formed by Incremental linear superposition, which is created by all joints of the whole structure system of high-speed NC milling machine, influences the machining precision. In this study, connection relations of major components in machine tool are analyzed. The corresponding minimum displacement of vibration mode between the principal axis and workpiece in low order mode of the whole machine is adopted as the evaluation indicator of dynamic performance advantages and disadvantages. The comprehensive analysis is conducted on natural frequency and vibration mode of machine tool through the assembly of modal force matrix, so as to search out the corresponding maximum modal frequency and weak structural links, to correct modal frequencies of main structural components for separation, to avoid substantial increase of the whole vibration amplitude caused by the fact that the driving frequency of the whole machine is close to the modal frequency of component and to achieve the goal of optimizing the whole structure. Compared with the whole finite element, the analytical accuracy error of this method is less than 2.5% and the analysis time can be reduced by 50%.

  5. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Antonie Renata

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions and internal type (Greenfield investments in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy for the owned market shares through increasing the efficiency of the production network at global level. This paper aims to present the less evident aspects of tax optimization of the applied business strategy by implemented MNEs in the automobile industry in CEE, and in this context, the necessity to establish transfer prices in accordance with the OECD recommendations, as an obligation assessed by the tax legislations of the considered countries, but also from the necessity of efficient run of these enterprises.

  6. Optimization of Mineral Separator for Recovery of Total Heavy Minerals of Bay of Bengal using Central Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Sunita; Swain, Ranjita; Rao, Raghupatruni Bhima

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating the optimization of a mineral separator for processing of beach sand minerals of Bay of Bengal along Ganjam-Rushikulya coast. The central composite design matrix and response surface methodology were applied in designing the experiments to evaluate the interactive effects of the three most important operating variables, such as feed quantity, wash water rate and Shake amplitude of the deck. The predicted values were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.97 for grade and 0.98 for recovery). To understand the impact of each variable, three dimensional (3D) plots were also developed for the estimated responses.

  7. The Study for Optimizing of the Electricity Power Supply in Central Java Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity planning includes identification of electricity generation potential and problem where solution are being planned through the annual program. Due to correlation between electricity growth and economic growth, the sensitivity study for Central Java province has been done using three scenarios of annual electricity growth, i.e.: 6.7 %, 8 % and 10 % within the study period of 2003-2020. The tool used in this sensitivity study is WASP IV. From result the calculation gives total installed capacity in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 3960 MW, 5500 MW and 8620 MW respectively. Total produced energy in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 32301 G Wh, 39619 G Wh and 54374 G Wh. For total fuel required. Coal still predominate in all scenarios, followed by HSD and Gas. According to this study, Nuclear power plant can be introduced in 2020 for scenario of 8 % growth and 2017 for that of 10 % growth. WASP is utilized for projecting electricity supply. (author)

  8. Martingale approximation and optimality of some conditions for the central limit theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Volný, Dalibor

    2009-01-01

    Let $(X_i)$ be a stationary and ergodic Markov chain with kernel $Q$, $f$ an $L^2$ function on its state space. If $Q$ is a normal operator and $f = (I-Q)^{1/2}g$ (which is equivalent to the convergence of $\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty \\frac{\\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}Q^kf}{n^{3/2}}$ in $L^2$), we have the central limit theorem (cf\\. \\cite{D-L 1}, \\cite{G-L 2}). Without assuming normality of $Q$, the CLT is implied by the convergence of $\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty \\frac{\\|\\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}Q^kf\\|_2}{n^{3/2}}$, in particular by $\\|\\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}Q^kf\\|_2 = o(\\sqrt n/\\log^q n)$, $q>1$ by \\cite{M-Wu} and \\cite{Wu-Wo} respectively. We shall show that if $Q$ is not normal and $f\\in (I-Q)^{1/2} L^2$, or if the conditions of Maxwell and Woodroofe or of Wu and Woodroofe are weakened to $\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty c_n\\frac{\\|\\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}Q^kf\\|_2}{n^{3/2}}<\\infty$ for some sequence $c_n\\searrow 0$, or by $\\|\\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}Q^kf\\|_2 = O(\\sqrt n/\\log n)$, the CLT need not hold.

  9. A Comparison of Central Composite Design and Taguchi Method for Optimizing Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anam Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. Dyeini, Dye : Fe+2, H2O2 : Fe+2, and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.

  10. Nanofibrous scaffolds supporting optimal central nervous system regeneration: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamudzandu M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Munyaradzi Kamudzandu, Paul Roach, Rosemary A Fricker, Ying Yang Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK Abstract: Restoration of function following damage to the central nervous system (CNS is severely restricted by several factors. These include the hindrance of axonal regeneration imposed by glial scars resulting from inflammatory response to damage, and limited axonal outgrowth toward target tissue. Strategies for promoting CNS functional regeneration include the use of nanotechnology. Due to their structural similarity, synthetic nanofibers could play an important role in regeneration of CNS neural tissue toward restoration of function following injury. Two-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds have been used to provide contact guidance for developing brain and spinal cord neurites, particularly from neurons cultured in vitro. Three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds have been used, both in vitro and in vivo, for creating cell adhesion permissive milieu, in addition to contact guidance or structural bridges for axons, to control reconnection in brain and spinal cord injury models. It is postulated that nanofibrous scaffolds made from biodegradable and biocompatible materials can become powerful structural bridges for both guiding the outgrowth of neurites and rebuilding glial circuitry over the “lesion gaps” resulting from injury in the CNS. Keywords: scaffold, nanofibrous scaffold, CNS, regeneration, alignment

  11. Study on optimization of forced sprouting of Chinese yam. Development of a Chinese yam forced sprouting device; Nagaimo saiga saitekika kenkyu. Nagaimo saiga sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M.; Konno, T.; Kogayashi, Y. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-03-24

    In Chinese yam cultivation in Hokkaido, curing and forced sprouting treatments are indispensable, by which the cut faces of seed yams are dried completely into cork, and the treatments are the important factors to govern the yield. In practice, the work is being done using vinyl greenhouses, but it tends to be dependent of climate, its control is complex, and much labor is consumed for an extended period of time. Status of sprouting also tends to become non-uniform. In order to perform simply and stably the curing and the forced sprouting treatment, an electric heat utilizing device was developed, that can identify suitable environmental conditions and realize the conditions. It was verified that both of the curing (using air permeable sheets) and the forced sprouting treatment (using temperature keeping sheets) can raise and maintain the temperature to the optimum value. Humidity stayed in an adequate humidity band for the curing and the forced sprouting treatment at about 70% when the air permeable sheets are used, and 80% to saturation when the temperature keeping sheets are used, respectively. Some humidifying water addition may suffice the cultivation during the period of the forced sprouting, and the temperature control has reduced largely manpower consumption when compared to the greenhouse side window opening and closing practice. No re-stacking is required to make the sprouting condition uniform, thus production stability can be enhanced. (NEDO)

  12. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION FROM CITRUS MICROCARPA (HASSK. BUNGE BY CENTRAL COMPOSITE FACE CENTERED (CCF MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Pham Tan Quoc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation on main factors (the grind time, ratio of water/peel and distillation time affecting the amount of essential oil after distilling. Researching and optimizing the factors for essential oil production by laboratory – scale distillation and the yield was evaluated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM with Central Composite Face Centered (CCF model. There is the interaction between ratio of water/peel, distillation time and grind time with volume of essential oil extracted. Optimal result which is essential oil was 1.83 ml (y with quantity of kumquat peel/batch of 50 g, grind time (x1 in 118 seconds, ratio of water/peel (x2 was 6/1, distillation time (x3 during 32 minutes at 100 oC. The essential oil from the peel of C.microcarpa (Hassk. Bunge was analysed by GC-MS method. In which, there are a lot of compounds were useful, it can use widely in the food processing and the cosmetics industry, for instance limonene, α-Pinene, β-Pinene, β-Myrcene, Sabinen.

  14. Applying Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Growth and Biomass Production of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Seyed Bahman; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Akbari, Neda; Ranjbar, Bijan; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-01-01

    Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia, and septic arthritis in infants and young children. The Hib capsule contains the major virulence factor, and is composed of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) that can induce immune system response. Vaccines consisting of Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to a carrier protein are effective in the prevention of the infections. However, due to costly processes in PRP production, these vaccines are too expensive. Objectives To enhance biomass, in this research we focused on optimizing Hib growth with respect to physical factors such as pH, temperature, and agitation by using a response surface methodology (RSM). Materials and Methods We employed a central composite design (CCD) and a response surface methodology to determine the optimum cultivation conditions for growth and biomass production of H. influenzae type b. The treatment factors investigated were initial pH, agitation, and temperature, using shaking flasks. After Hib cultivation and determination of dry biomass, analysis of experimental data was performed by the RSM-CCD. Results The model showed that temperature and pH had an interactive effect on Hib biomass production. The dry biomass produced in shaking flasks was about 5470 mg/L, which was under an initial pH of 8.5, at 250 rpm and 35° C. Conclusions We found CCD and RSM very effective in optimizing Hib culture conditions, and Hib biomass production was greatly influenced by pH and incubation temperature. Therefore, optimization of the growth factors to maximize Hib production can lead to 1) an increase in bacterial biomass and PRP productions, 2) lower vaccine prices, 3) vaccination of more susceptible populations, and 4) lower risk of Hib infections.

  15. Optimization of permeate flux produced by solar energy driven membrane distillation process using central composite design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguecha, Salah T; Boubakri, Ali; Aly, Samir E; Al-Beirutty, Mohammad H; Hamdi, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is considered as a relatively high-energy requirement. To overcome this drawback, it is recommended to couple the MD process with solar energy as the renewable energy source in order to provide heat energy required to optimize its performance to produce permeate flux. In the present work, an original solar energy driven direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) pilot plant was built and tested under actual weather conditions at Jeddah, KSA, in order to model and optimize permeate flux. The dependency of permeate flux on various operating parameters such as feed temperature (46.6-63.4°C), permeate temperature (6.6-23.4°C), feed flow rate (199-451L/h) and permeate flow rate (199-451L/h) was studied by response surface methodology based on central composite design approach. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that all independent variables had significant influence on the model (where P-value <0.05). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9644 and R(adj)(2) = 0.9261) obtained by ANOVA demonstrated good correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response. The optimized conditions, determined using desirability function, were T(f) = 63.4°C, Tp = 6.6°C, Q(f) = 451L/h and Q(p) = 451L/h. Under these conditions, the maximum permeate flux of 6.122 kg/m(2).h was achieved, which was close to the predicted value of 6.398 kg/m(2).h. PMID:27386986

  16. Market Information and Signaling in Central Bank Operations, or, How Often Should a Central Bank Intervene?

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    A central bank must decide on the frequency with which it will conduct open market operations and the variability in short-term money market that it will allow. The paper shows how the optimal operating procedure balances the value of attaining an immediate target and broadcasting the central bank's intentions against the informational advantages to the central bank of allowing the free play of market forces to reveal more of the information available to market participants.

  17. Airborne lidar study of the vertical distribution of aerosols over Hyderabad, an urban site in central India, and its implication for radiative forcing calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gadhavi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of a compact, low power commercial lidar onboard a small aircraft for aerosol studies is demonstrated. A Micro Pulse Lidar fitted upside down in a Beech Superking aircraft is used to measure the vertical distribution of aerosols in and around Hyderabad, an urban location in the central India. Two sorties were made, one on 17 February 2004 evening hours and the other on 18 February 2004 morning hours for a total flight duration of four hours. Three different algorithms, proposed by Klett (1985, Stephens et al. (2001 and Palm et al. (2002 for deriving the aerosol extinction coefficient profile from lidar data are studied and is shown that the results obtained from the three methods compare within 2%. The result obtained from the airborne lidar is shown more useful to study the aerosol distribution in the free troposphere than that obtained by using the same lidar from ground. Using standard radiative transfer model the aerosol radiative forcing is calculated and is shown that knowledge on the vertical distribution of aerosols is very important to get more realistic values than using model vertical profiles of aerosols. We show that for the same aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but for different vertical profiles of aerosol extinction the computed forcing values differ with increasing altitude and improper selection of the vertical profile can even flip the sign of the forcing at tropopause level.

  18. Pareto optimality between width of central lobe and peak sidelobe intensity in the far-field pattern of lossless phase-only filters for enhancement of transverse resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somparna; Hazra, Lakshminarayan

    2015-11-01

    Resolution capability of an optical imaging system can be enhanced by reducing the width of the central lobe of the point spread function. Attempts to achieve the same by pupil plane filtering give rise to a concomitant increase in sidelobe intensity. The mutual exclusivity between these two objectives may be considered as a multiobjective optimization problem that does not have a unique solution; rather, a class of trade-off solutions called Pareto optimal solutions may be generated. Pareto fronts in the synthesis of lossless phase-only pupil plane filters to achieve superresolution with prespecified lower limits for the Strehl ratio are explored by using the particle swarm optimization technique. PMID:26560575

  19. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  20. Optimization of a spectrofluorimetric method based on a central composite design for the determination of potassium losartan in pharmaceutical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Demirkaya-Miloglu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of potassium losartan (PL in pharmaceutical products is described. The effects of critical parameters, pH, acid molarity, and temperature, on the fluorescence intensity of PL were analyzed, and these parameters were optimized using a central composite design (CCD. The highest fluorescent intensity at excitation (λex and emission (λem wavelengths of 248 nm and 410 nm, respectively, was achieved using 0.01 M sulfurous acid (pH 2 at 21.6 °C. Under optimum conditions, the method was linear from 0.025-0.5 µg/mL, with a reasonably high correlation coefficient (0.9993. Furthermore, the method was very sensitive (LOQ, 0.006, accurate (RE, ≤7.06, and precise (%RSD, ≤6.51. After development and validation of the method, samples containing PL were analyzed with this method, and the obtained data were statistically compared with those obtained with a previously published reference method using a two one-sided equivalence test (TOST. According to the data, the results from the proposed and reference assays were equivalent.

  1. FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED, MICROBIALLY TRIGGERED COLON TARGETED SYSTEM USING FACE CENTERED CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Saini et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present investigation was to achieve successful delivery especially to colon using microbially triggered, osmotically controlled approach. Prednisolone was chosen model drug for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Prednisolone-β-cyclodextrin complex were prepared and phase solubility study was carried out. Cellulose acetate solution containing chitosan was used to prepare semi-permeable. Face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect on independent variables (concentration of sodium chloride, polyethylene glycol, and chitosan, % cumulative release and disintegration time. Both independent variables, the proportion of chitosan (X1 and proportion of NaCl and PEG (X2 had an influence on the % drug release in both the media (buffers and buffer with rat ceacal content. Formulations were evaluated for their Preformulation parameters and found within the specified limit. Formulation code F8 and S8 were the optimized batches with an in vitro release of 83.77 and 99.13 % respectively. The formulations containing PEG was found to be a promising drug delivery system better release kinetics.

  2. Optimizing the driving scheme of a self-actuated atomic force microscope probe for high-speed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the optimum driving scheme of a dynamic atomic force microscope with a self-actuated probe for high-speed applications by performing numerical simulations. We compare the recently developed methods such as Q-control, dynamic PID control, and modified Q-control methods to the standard tapping mode by considering scan speed and peak transient forces. In addition, the effects of driving frequency and set-point amplitude on the maximum achievable scan speed for the same probe-sample system are discussed. We find that the scan speed can be increased significantly at the expense of increased peak transient forces. -- Highlights: → Driving schemes of a dynamic AFM are examined to achieve the highest scan speed. → Q-control provides the highest scan speed with increased transient forces. → Off-resonance tapping is preferable unless transient forces can be ignored. → False error signal generation methods provide a slight improvement.

  3. Decadal to millennial-scale solar forcing of Last Glacial Maximum climate in the Estancia Basin of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menking, Kirsten M.

    2015-05-01

    Lacustrine sediments from the Estancia Basin of central New Mexico reveal decadal to millennial oscillations in the volume of Lake Estancia during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) time. LGM sediments consist of authigenic carbonates, detrital clastics delivered to the lake in stream flow pulses, and evaporites that precipitated in mudflats exposed during lake lowstands and were subsequently blown into the lake. Variations in sediment mineralogy thus reflect changes in hydrologic balance and were quantified using Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction traces. Radiocarbon dates on ostracode valve calcite allowed the construction of mineralogical time series for the interval ~ 23,600 to ~ 18,300 ka, which were subjected to spectral analysis using REDFIT (Schulz and Mudelsee, 2002). Dominant periods of ~ 900, ~ 375, and ~ 265 yr are similar to cycles in Holocene 14C production reported for a variety of tree ring records, suggesting that the Lake Estancia sediments record variations in solar activity during LGM time. A prominent spectral peak with a period of ~ 88 yr appears to reflect the solar Gleissberg cycle and may help, along with the ~ 265 yr cycle, to explain an ongoing mystery about how Lake Estancia was able to undergo abrupt expansions without overflowing its drainage basin.

  4. Potential of the Pseudo-Inverse Method as a Constrained Static Optimization for Musculo-Tendon Forces Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Moissenet, Florent; CHEZE, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Inverse dynamics combined with a constrained static optimization analysis has often been proposed to solve the muscular redundancy problem. Typically, the optimization problem consists in a cost function to be minimized and some equality and inequality constraints to be fulfilled. Penalty-based and Lagrange multipliers methods are common optimization methods for the equality constraints management. More recently, the pseudo-inverse method has been introduced in the field of biomechanics. The ...

  5. Two distinct decadal and centennial cyclicities forced marine upwelling intensity and precipitation during the late Early Miocene in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Within a 5.5 m-thick succession of Upper Burdigalian (Karpatian sediments in the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB; Austria, dated to CNP-zone NN4, a high-resolution section was logged continuously. 100 samples were taken with a resolution of ~10 mm per layer and analysed using an integrated multi-proxy approach. Earlier analyses of geochemistry and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages hint at small-scale, short-term variations in palaeoenvironmental conditions, such as water-column stratification, primary productivity, organic matter flux, bottom-water oxygenation, freshwater influx and changes in relative sea-level. The results indicate a highly dynamic shallow marine setting that was subject to high frequency environmental changes on a decadal to centennial scale. Time-series analyses on nine different proxy-datasets using REDFIT-analysis and Wavelet spectra were applied to resolve a possible cyclic nature of these variations. Analyses revealed that different proxies for precipitation, upwelling intensity, and over all productivity likely were controlled by different cyclicities. A best-fit adjustment of the likely sedimentation rates within the high-resolution section resulted in periodicities fitting well with the Lower (~65 yr and Upper (~113 yr Gleissberg cycle as well as the Suess/de Vries cycle (~211 yr. The section covers a timespan of ~1190 yr based on the correlation with solar cycles, which resulted in an estimated sedimentation rate of 575 mm kyr−1. For the first time, short-term climate variability on a decadal to centennial scale is resolved in Lower Miocene shallow marine laminated sediments in a land-based section. The results hint at a close relationship between climate variability and solar forcing during the Late Burdigalian. Moreover, accepting that these cyclicities are indeed of solar origin, this would indicate that precipitation was driven by the two Gleissberg cycles, while upwelling was driven by the Suess cycle

  6. Observations of wind and waves in the central Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-99 and their effect on mixed layer depth variability due to forced mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Swain; R K Shukla; A Raghunadha Rao; J K Panigrahi; N R Venkitachalam

    2003-06-01

    Time-series wind and wave measurements were carried out onboard INS Sagardhwani in the central Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-99. Various other marine meteorological and oceanographic measurements relevant to monsoon studies were also collected simultaneously. The observed variations of wind and waves and the associated mixed layer depth (MLD) variability based on both temperature and density criteria at 3 hourly intervals are presented in this paper as a case study. At the time-series location (13°N, 87°E) wind varied between 6 and 16 m/s and the predominant direction was southwesterly. The significant wave height and period varied from 1.9 to 3.7m and 8 to 13 s respectively. Some of the available statistical predictive methods for the determination of MLD by forced mixing are utilized to test the extent of mechanical mixing within the top layer of water by the local wind and wave activity. The same is extended to formulate a new empirical relation for gross estimation of effective depth within which the sound energy is generally trapped during its transmission in the surface duct. The present analysis aiming for estimation of observed MLD variability (35 to 75 m) using the suggested simple empirical relation reveals that, the mixed layer variability observed during the experiment depends on both local ocean variability as well as remote forcing as reported earlier.

  7. Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán R Millar

    Full Text Available Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC measured at two sites: (1 immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib and (2 between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway, which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation.This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes.WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared to WC midway (in men and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women. A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003, Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001, Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001, but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127, when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74.WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or

  8. Optimizing the third-and-a-half post-Newtonian gravitational radiation-reaction force for numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravitational radiation-reaction force acting on perfect fluids at 3.5 post-Newtonian order is cast into a form which is directly applicable to numerical simulations. Extensive use is made of metric-coefficient changes induced by functional coordinate transformations, of the continuity equation, as well as of the equations of motion. We also present an expression appropriate for numerical simulations of the radiation field causing the worked out reaction force

  9. Optimization of vegetable milk extraction from whole and dehulled Mucuna pruriens (Var Cochinchinensis) flours using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Dimitry Y; Abdou, Armand B; Njintang, Nicolas Y; Djiogue, Edith J M; Panyo, Emmanuel A; Bernard, Clemence; Ndjouenkeu, Robert; Loura, Benoît B; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-01-01

    Extraction conditions for maximum values of protein yield, protein content, sugar content and dry matter of vegetable milk extracts from dehulled Mucuna cochinchinensis bean flour and whole Mucuna cochinchinensis bean flour were investigated using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCFD) with three factors: temperature (25 to 95 °C); extraction time (6 to 74 min.) and water to flour ratio (6 to 24 mL/g) were used. Data analysis showed that all the factors significantly (p flour ratio 12-13 mL/g and extraction time of 57-67 min. At these optimum points the protein and sugar contents, extraction yield of protein and dry matter were respectively 14.0 g/100 mL, 4.8 g/100 mL, 53.8 g/100 g, 12.1 g/100 g for vegetable milk produced from dehulled M. cochinchinensis bean flour and 6.4 g/100 mL, 3.5 g/100 mL, 50.0 g/100 g and 8.0 g/100 g for vegetable milk extracted from whole M. cochinchinensis bean flour milk. The optimal condition was verified at the optimum points for model validation and the response values were not significantly different from the predicted values. PMID:26787938

  10. Optimal nuclear magnetic resonance excitation schemes for the central transition of a spin 3/2 in the presence of residual quadrupolar coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2008-12-14

    Optimal control theory is applied for enhancing the intensity of the central peak of a spin 3/2 signal in the presence of a residual quadrupolar coupling. While a maximum enhancement is always possible in the regime omega(rf) control and test these with (23)Na NMR in this regime. In addition to enhancing the intensity of the central transition signal, the satellite peaks can be effectively suppressed, which is a useful feature for the implementation in (23)Na imaging sequences. PMID:19071931

  11. Optimized plan of centralized and decentralized wastewater reuse systems for housing development in the urban area of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X C; Chen, R; Zhang, Q H; Li, K

    2008-01-01

    In an arid and water deficient urban area, such as Xi'an in the northwest region of China, gardening and forestation often use large amounts of tap water. Therefore, there is a need for treated wastewater reuse for such purpose to mitigate urban water shortage, especially in the newly developed housing area, where a high green coverage is often required for both commercial value and living condition improvement. Supply of the treated wastewater through a centralized system which has been planned and partially constructed is one measure to meet such need, but it may require an extension of the distribution system for a full coverage of the whole city area. A supplementary measure is to construct decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse (DESAR) systems in areas that are distant from the planned centralized system. In order to optimize the plan of wastewater reuse for housing development in the urban area, the authors analyzed the existing plan of centralized wastewater reuse and the envisaged plan of housing development in Xi'an urban area. A method was proposed for selection of a feasible way of reclaimed water reuse from two options, namely centralized and decentralized ones, by introducing a critical distance L0 which depends on the relationship between the cost for DESAR system installation and that for water delivery pipeline construction. If the distance from the project site to the nearest access point of the centralized system L is shorter than L0 then using reclaim water from the centralized system becomes more feasible, and otherwise DESAR system installation becomes more feasible. A distribution map was thus obtained to show an optimized plan of centralized and decentralized wastewater reuse systems for housing development in Xi'an city. An example was also given to show the advantage of a DESAR system installed. PMID:18824793

  12. Detection of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges: a case study from the central-southern Siena Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ivan; Arragoni, Simone; Aldinucci, Mauro; Foresi, Luca Maria; Bambini, Anna Maria; Sandrelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The detection of detached nearshore wedges formed in response to relative sea-level drops is considered one of the hottest topics in sequence stratigraphic analysis due to their importance as reservoir analogues. In fact, they usually constitute sandy and porous bodies generally encased in impermeable clay, thus presenting a good potential as traps for fluids. This paper focuses on the sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pliocene deposits cropping out in the central-southern sector of the Siena Basin (Tuscany, Italy), a post-collisional basin of the Northern Apennines. The exposed sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic approach, integrated by biostratigraphic analyses, aimed at a better characterization of the infilling history of this sector of the basin. Specifically, this study revealed the occurrence of repeated facies shifts that allowed the identification of two depositional sequences. In detail, a thick sand-rich body far from the basin margins, and previously considered as a turbiditic lobe, has been reinterpreted as formed in a nearshore setting during a fall in relative sea level. This body is totally encased in offshore clay, and due to the lack of physical connection with the related HST deposits, it has to be considered as a detached forced-regressive wedge. The present work led to the recognition of some sedimentological and stratigraphic features typical of falling stage systems tract deposits (e.g. presence of intrabasinal recycled materials, sedimentological evidence of a pre-existing fluvial network subsequently eroded) that can provide useful clues for the identification of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges in core studies and poorly exposed settings.

  13. Optimal design of a flexure hinge-based XYZ atomic force microscopy scanner for minimizing Abbe errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish of standard technique of nanolength measurement in a two-dimensional plane, a new (AFM) system has been designed. In this system, measurement uncertainty is dominantly affected by the Abbe error of the XYZ scanning stage. No linear stage is perfectly straight; in other words, every scanning stage is subject to tilting, pitch, and yaw motion. In this article, an AFM system with minimum offset of XYZ sensing is designed. And, the XYZ scanning stage is designed to minimize the rotation angle because Abbe errors occur through the multiply of offset and rotation angle. For XY stage, optimal design is performed to minimize the rotation angle by maximizing the stiffness ratio of motion direction to the parasitic motion direction of each stage. For the Z stage, the optimal design of maximizing the first-resonant frequency is performed. When the resonant frequency increases, the scan speed is improved, thereby reducing errors caused by sensor drift. This article describes the procedures of selecting parameters for the optimal design. The full range of the XYZ scanner is 100 μmx100 μmx10 μm. Based on the solution of the optimization problem, the XYZ scanner is fabricated. And tilting, pitch, and yaw motion are measured by autocollimator to evaluate the performance of XY stage

  14. Optimal design of a mechanically decoupled six-axis force/torque sensor based on the principal cross coupling minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Soobum; Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes design optimization of a mechanically decoupled six-axis F/T sensor. In order to indicate the biggest cross coupling error of a Maltese cross type F/T six-axis sensor, principal error is proposed in this paper. Locations of twenty-four strain gages are determined and four design variables are selected to solve optimization problem. The average of principal couplings and output strain levels are chosen as the objective function and the constraints respectively. An effective optimization framework is suggested, which utilizes interaction between FEM software ANSYS and MATLAB by using morphing technique. As a result of optimization, the biggest coupling error is reduced from about 35% to 2.5%, which is satisfactory for use of mechanically decoupled six-axis F/T sensors. Experimental verification is conducted and it is shown that there is maximum 5.1 % difference in strain outputs of numerical and experimental results, which verifies the validity of suggested FE model. The design formulation and framework proposed in this study are expected to promote researches on multi-axis F/T sensors and their commercialization in various industries.

  15. New optimality criteria methods - Forcing uniqueness of the adjoint strains by corner-rounding at constraint intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozvany, G. I. N.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1992-01-01

    In new, iterative continuum-based optimality criteria (COC) methods, the strain in the adjoint structure becomes non-unique if the number of active local constraints is greater than the number of design variables for an element. This brief note discusses the use of smooth envelope functions (SEFs) in overcoming economically computational problems caused by the above non-uniqueness.

  16. Application of multi-criteria decision-making model for choice of the optimal solution for meeting heat demand in the centralized supply system in Belgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected growth of living standard, number of inhabitants and development of technology, industry and agriculture will cause a significant increase of energy consumption in cities. Three scenarios of energy sector development until 2030 and corresponding energy consumption for the city of Belgrade are analyzed in this paper. These scenarios consider different level of economic development, investments in energy sector, substitution of fossil fuels, introduction of renewable energy sources and implementation of energy efficiency measures. The proposed model for selection of optimal district heating system compares different options for fulfilling expected new heat demand through eight criteria for each scenario. Proposed options are combination of different energy sources and technologies for their use. The criteria weights are set according to Serbian economy and energy position. The criteria include financial aspects, environmental impact and availability of energy. Multi-criteria method ELECTRE (ELimination Et Choix Traduisant la REalite) is used as a tool for obtaining the optimal option. It is concluded that combination of CHP (combined heat and power) plant and centralized use of geothermal energy is optimal choice in the optimistic scenario. In the pessimistic and business as usual scenario the optimal option is combination of new gas boilers and centralized use of geothermal energy. - Highlights: • Three scenarios for meeting new heat demand are developed and assessed. • Constructing CHP (combined heat and power) is desirable in case of significant electricity price growth. • In all scenarios the chosen option includes using geothermal energy for heating

  17. Role of wind and thermal forcing in the formation of the water circulation variability in the Japan/East Sea Central Basin in 1958-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diansky, N. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Gusev, A. V.; Novotryasov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the numerical experiment on simulation of the Japan/East Sea (JES) water circulation response to the atmospheric forcing for 1958-2006, the analysis is made of its long-term variability in the JES Central Basin (CB). It was found that during the climatic year, the circulation remains cyclonic, strengthening in spring and weakening in autumn. The analysis of mean relative vorticity (MRV) at intermediate depths in the JES CB showed one that the spectrum of its interannual variability is formed mainly by oscillations of periods ˜2, ˜4 and ˜5 years, and in the decadal range with ˜10 and ˜14 years. Along the depth, the spectral composition of MRV variability does not change, but there is a noticeable weakening of decadal variability amplitude, which does not occur with the 4- and 5-year oscillations. Using SVD-analysis, the connection is established between MRV variability, wind stress curl (WSC), as well as sensible heat flux. The strong connection between MRV and WSC is revealed in the range of 4-5 years, and in the decadal range (period is 10 years) the significant connection is with both WSC and air-sea temperature as a result of winter cooling and following deep convection.

  18. Modern concepts of thermodynamic optimization in Mexican thermoelectric stations; Conceptos modernos de optimacion termodinamica en centrales termoelectricas mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-de Gortari, J; Vidal-Santo, A.; Mendez-Lavielle, F.; Bautista-Godinez, O. [Departamento de Termoenergia, from Facultad de Ingenieria UNAM (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a summary review of the current thermodynamic concepts related to the maximum power generation and minimum entropy production are presented. The results of the analysis are considered in Mexican power stations using conventional cycles and are compared with other power stations around the world. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisa el analisis de maxima generacion de potencia que implica la minimizacion de la produccion de entropia en centrales generadoras de potencia. De acuerdo con los lineamientos mas recientes publicados en la literatura. Los conceptos y resultados del analisis se aplican a varias centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales en el mundo.

  19. Optimization of reloading Laguna Verde Central U1/U2, Federal Electricity Commission; Optimizacion de recargas Central Laguna Verde U1/U2, Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa G, J.M. [Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 45.5, Municipio de Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The Laguna Verde Central from the beginning of the commercial operation settled down as maximum priority 'the total safety in its operation' taking in consideration the so much experience of the good operation and of multiple recharges made in a sure and reliable way, and without separate us of the safety mystic of the CLV, but looking for to be better every day a new challenge it settled down 'to compare us with the best plants in the world' and certainly to work to classify us like one of them. For this we established a 4.0 year old plan (2003/2006) for the effectiveness all the processes in the power station that allowed us to measure our acting with the same parameters that settle down at international level (nuclear safety, industrial safety, radiological safety, capacity factor, readiness factor, cleaning of the power station, attachment to procedures, attention to the detail and certainly to be competitive in the economic aspect, summing up means to be good in all the aspects). All the above mentioned would allow us to qualify us as level 1 of WANO (world proprietors association of nuclear centrals) at the end of the year 2006 and to pass to be part of this select group. After analyzing the acting record of the power station, evaluating our technical and economic capacity, the location of the installation besides revising the international experiences was defined that one of the concepts that impact considerably so much to the capacity factors and availability besides the dose and production cost is the duration of the recharge periods, for this reason the present work is elaborated. (Author)

  20. Optimal and centralized reservoir management for drought and flood protection via Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming on the Upper Seine-Aube River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavico, Mattia; Raso, Luciano; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seine river region is an extremely important logistic and economic junction for France and Europe. The hydraulic protection of most part of the region relies on four controlled reservoirs, managed by EPTB Seine-Grands Lacs. Presently, reservoirs operation is not centrally coordinated, and release rules are based on empirical filling curves. In this study, we analyze how a centralized release policy can face flood and drought risks, optimizing water system efficiency. The optimal and centralized decisional problem is solved by Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) method, minimizing an operational indicator for each planning objective. SDDP allows us to include into the system: 1) the hydrological discharge, specifically a stochastic semi-distributed auto-regressive model, 2) the hydraulic transfer model, represented by a linear lag and route model, and 3) reservoirs and diversions. The novelty of this study lies on the combination of reservoir and hydraulic models in SDDP for flood and drought protection problems. The study case covers the Seine basin until the confluence with Aube River: this system includes two reservoirs, the city of Troyes, and the Nuclear power plant of Nogent-Sur-Seine. The conflict between the interests of flood protection, drought protection, water use and ecology leads to analyze the environmental system in a Multi-Objective perspective.

  1. Preferences of the Central Reserve Bank of Peru and optimal monetary rules in the inflation targeting regime

    OpenAIRE

    Nilda Mercedes Cabrera Pasca; Edilean Kleber da Silva Bejarno Aragón; Marcelo Savino Portugal

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify the preferences of the monetary authority in the Peruvian regime of inflation targeting through the derivation of optimal monetary rules. To achieve that, we used a calibration strategy based on the choice of values of the parameters of preferences that minimize the square deviation between the true interest rate and interest rate optimal simulation. The results showed that the monetary authority has applied a system of flexible inflation targeting, prioritizing th...

  2. A novel atomic force microscope operating in liquid with open probe unit and optimized laser tracking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Fu; Dongxian Zhang; Haijun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A novel atomic force microscope (AFM) for large samples to be measured in liquid is developed.An innovative laser beam tracking system is proposed to eliminate the tracking and feedback errors.The open probe design of the AFM makes the operation in liquid convenient and easy.A standard 1200-lines/mm grating and a sheet of filter paper are imaged respectively in air and liquid to confirm its performance.The corrosion behavior of aluminum surface in 1-mol/L NaOH solution is further investigated by the AFM.Experimental results show that the system can realize wide range (20 × 20 (μm)) scanning for large samples both in air and liquid,while keeping nanometer order resolution in liquid by eliminating the tracking and feedback error.

  3. Precessional forcing of lacustrine sedimentation in the late Cenozoic Chemeron Basin, Central Kenya Rift, and calibration of the Gauss/Matuyama boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deino, Alan L.; Kingston, John D.; Glen, Jonathan M.; Edgar, Robert K.; Hill, Andrew

    2006-07-01

    The fluviolacustrine sedimentary sequence of the Chemeron Formation exposed in the Barsemoi River drainage, Tugen Hills, Kenya, contains a package of five successive diatomite/fluvial cycles that record the periodic development of freshwater lakes within the axial portion of the Central Kenya Rift. The overwhelming abundance in the diatomite of planktonic species of the genera Aulacoseira and Stephanodiscus, and the virtual absence of benthic littoral diatoms and detrital material indicate areally extensive, deep lake systems. A paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy has been determined and chronostratigraphic tie points established by 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of intercalated tuffs. The sequence spans the interval 3.1-2.35 Ma and bears a detailed record of the Gauss/Matuyama paleomagnetic transition. The 40Ar/ 39Ar age for this boundary of 2.589 ± 0.003 Ma can be adjusted to concordance with the Astronomical Polarity Time Scale (APTS) on the basis of an independent calibration to 2.610 Ma, 29 kyr older than the previous APTS age. The diatomites recur at an orbital precessional interval of 23 kyr and are centered on a 400-kyr eccentricity maximum. It is concluded that these diatomite/fluvial cycles reflect a narrow interval of orbitally forced wet/dry climatic conditions that may be expressed regionally across East Africa. The timing of the lacustrine pulses relative to predicted insolation models favors origination of moisture from the northern Africa monsoon, rather than local circulation driven by direct equatorial insolation. This moisture event at 2.7-2.55 Ma, and later East African episodes at 1.9-1.7 and 1.1-0.9 Ma, are approximately coincident with major global climatic and oceanographic events.

  4. Design optimization of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station fuel recharge; Optimacion del diseno de recargas de combustible para la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Campos, Carlos Cristobal [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Montes Tadeo, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    It is described, in general terms, the procedure that is followed to accomplish the optimization of the recharge design, and an example is shown where this procedure was applied for the analysis of the type BWR reactor of Unit No. 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. [Espanol] Se describe en terminos generales el procedimiento que se sigue para realizar la optimacion del diseno de recargas, y se muestra un ejemplo en el que se utilizo dicho procedimiento para el analisis del reactor tipo BWR de la unidad 1, de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV).

  5. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Azad, F Nasiri; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Goudarzi, A; Soylak, M

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20mgg(-1)) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99min). PMID:27318150

  6. Classifying Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors through near Optimal Feature Selection and Mutual Information: A Single Center Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faranoush

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Labeling, gathering mutual information, clustering and classificationof central nervous system tumors may assist in predicting not only distinct diagnosesbased on tumor-specific features but also prognosis. This study evaluates the epidemi-ological features of central nervous system tumors in children who referred to Mahak’sPediatric Cancer Treatment and Research Center in Tehran, Iran.Methods: This cohort (convenience sample study comprised 198 children (≤15years old with central nervous system tumors who referred to Mahak's PediatricCancer Treatment and Research Center from 2007 to 2010. In addition to the descriptiveanalyses on epidemiological features and mutual information, we used the LeastSquares Support Vector Machines method in MATLAB software to propose apreliminary predictive model of pediatric central nervous system tumor feature-labelanalysis. Results:Of patients, there were 63.1% males and 36.9% females. Patients' mean±SDage was 6.11±3.65 years. Tumor location was as follows: supra-tentorial (30.3%, infra-tentorial (67.7% and 2% (spinal. The most frequent tumors registered were: high-gradeglioma (supra-tentorial in 36 (59.99% patients and medulloblastoma (infra-tentorialin 65 (48.51% patients. The most prevalent clinical findings included vomiting,headache and impaired vision. Gender, age, ethnicity, tumor stage and the presence ofmetastasis were the features predictive of supra-tentorial tumor histology.Conclusion: Our data agreed with previous reports on the epidemiology of centralnervous system tumors. Our feature-label analysis has shown how presenting features maypartially predict diagnosis. Timely diagnosis and management of central nervous systemtumors can lead to decreased disease burden and improved survival. This may be furtherfacilitated through development of partitioning, risk prediction and prognostic models.

  7. Central composite design approach towards optimization of flamboyant pods derived steam activated carbon for its use as heterogeneous catalyst in transesterification of Hevea brasiliensis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Activated carbon was prepared from novel precursor flamboyant pods (Delonix regia). • Activation process was optimized using central composite design approach. • Prepared activated carbon at optimized condition was used as support for KOH. • Carbon based heterogeneous catalyst was used in transesterification of HBO. • Effect of catalyst loading and alcohol ratio on biodiesel yield was studied. - Abstract: The present investigation emphasises the preparation of carbon based KOH impregnated heterogeneous catalyst from flamboyant pods (Delonix regia) for the production of biodiesel from novel feedstock Hevea brasiliensis oil (HBO). Initially, carbonized char was physically activated by superheated steam and the process was optimized to study the effects of activation time and temperature by central composite design approach (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM). Activated carbon was impregnated with KOH at four different ratios. Biodiesel production process was carried out at constant temperature 60 °C, reaction time 1 h, and 5 g of carbon based catalyst at varying quantities of catalyst loading (0.5, 2, 3.5, 5 wt%) and methanol to oil ratio (5:1–20:1). The influence of parameters on the biodiesel yield at varied condition was studied. Maximum yield of 89.3% was obtained at methanol to oil ratio 15:1 and catalyst loading 3.5 wt% and corresponding yield at same process parameters was observed to be 88.7% implying the significant activity of catalyst in reutilization. Produced biodiesel was characterized following ASTM standards. The experimental analysis confirmed that the carbonaceous catalyst developed from flamboyant pods under optimized condition is capable of transesterifying HBO into biodiesel

  8. Minimizing Drilling Thrust Force for HFRP Composite by Optimizing Process Parameters using Combination of ANOVA Approach and S/N Ratios Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoinser Mohd Azuwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drilling hybrid fiber reinforced polymer (HFRP composite is a novel approach in fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite machining studies as this material combining two different fibers in a single matrix that resulted in considerable improvement in mechanical properties and cost saving as compared to conventional fiber composite material. This study presents the development and optimized way of drilling HFRP composite at various drilling parameters such as drill point angle, feed rate and cutting speed by using the full factorial design experiment with the combination of analysis of variance (ANOVA approach and signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis. The results identified optimum drilling parameters for drilling the HFRP composite using small drill point angle at low feed rate and medium cutting speed that resulted in lower thrust force.

  9. Mini-Central heating and Power Plant (CHP): the choice of the optimal structure and modes of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil'manshin, I. R.; Konahina, I. A.; Kashapov, N. F.; Fahreev, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The paper provides an overview of the different types of organizations of mini-CHP, the results of a comparative evaluation of their performance in terms of the variable load. The recommendations to improve power facilities of the mini-CHP on the basis of system analysis methods and the technical and economic optimization are defined.

  10. Comparison of constant and time-variant optimal forcing approaches in El Niño simulations by using the Zebiak-Cane model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ben; Duan, Wansuo

    2016-06-01

    Model errors offset by constant and time-variant optimal forcing vector approaches (termed COF and OFV, respectively) are analyzed within the framework of El Ni˜no simulations. Applying the COF and OFV approaches to the well-known Zebiak-Cane model, we re-simulate the 1997 and 2004 El Ni˜no events, both of which were poorly degraded by a certain amount of model error when the initial anomalies were generated by coupling the observed wind forcing to an ocean component. It is found that the Zebiak-Cane model with the COF approach roughly reproduced the 1997 El Ni˜no, but the 2004 El Ni˜no simulated by this approach defied an ENSO classification, i.e., it was hardly distinguishable as CP-El Ni˜no or EP-El Ni˜no. In both El Ni˜no simulations, substituting the COF with the OFV improved the fit between the simulations and observations because the OFV better manages the time-variant errors in the model. Furthermore, the OFV approach effectively corrected the modeled El Ni˜no events even when the observational data (and hence the computational time) were reduced. Such a cost-effective offset of model errors suggests a role for the OFV approach in complicated CGCMs.

  11. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Nitu Antonie Renata; Feder Emoke Szidonia

    2008-01-01

    The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania) is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions) and internal type (Greenfield investments) in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy fo...

  12. FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED, MICROBIALLY TRIGGERED COLON TARGETED SYSTEM USING FACE CENTERED CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Saini et al

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of present investigation was to achieve successful delivery especially to colon using microbially triggered, osmotically controlled approach. Prednisolone was chosen model drug for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prednisolone-β-cyclodextrin complex were prepared and phase solubility study was carried out. Cellulose acetate solution containing chitosan was used to prepare semi-permeable. Face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect on indep...

  13. Development of a modified embedded atom force field for zirconium nitride using multi-objective evolutionary optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Badri; Sasikumar, Kiran; Mei, Zhi-Gang; Kinaci, Alper; Sen, Fatih G.; Davis, Michael J.; Gray, Stephen K.; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K.R.S.

    2016-07-28

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) exhibits exceptional mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties, which make it attractive for a wide range of technological applications, including wear-resistant coatings, protection from corrosion, cutting/shaping tools, and nuclear breeder reactors. Despite its broad usability, an atomic scale understanding of the superior performance of ZrN, and its response to external stimuli, for example, temperature, applied strain, and so on, is not well understood. This is mainly due to the lack of interatomic potential models that accurately describe the interactions between Zr and N atoms. To address this challenge, we develop a modified embedded atom method (MEAM) interatomic potential for the Zr–N binary system by training against formation enthalpies, lattice parameters, elastic properties, and surface energies of ZrN (and, in some cases, also Zr3N4) obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The best set of MEAM parameters are determined by employing a multiobjective global optimization scheme driven by genetic algorithms. Our newly developed MEAM potential accurately reproduces structure, thermodynamics, energetic ordering of polymorphs, as well as elastic and surface properties of Zr–N compounds, in excellent agreement with DFT calculations and experiments. As a representative application, we employed molecular dynamics simulations based on this MEAM potential to investigate the atomic scale mechanisms underlying fracture of bulk and nanopillar ZrN under applied uniaxial strains, as well as the impact of strain rate on their mechanical behavior. These simulations indicate that bulk ZrN undergoes brittle fracture irrespective of the strain rate, while ZrN nanopillars show quasi-plasticity owing to amorphization at the crack front. The MEAM potential for Zr–N developed in this work is an invaluable tool to investigate atomic-scale mechanisms underlying the response of ZrN to external stimuli (e.g, temperature

  14. Estimate of the Saharan dust shortwave and photosynthetic radiative forcing efficiency at the surface during the propagation of a gravity wave in the central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sarra, Alcide; Fuà, Daniele; Meloni, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    This study is based on measurements made at ENEA Station for Climate Observations (35.52° N, 12.63° E, 50 m asl) on the island of Lampedusa, in the Southern part of the Central Mediterranean. A quasi periodic oscillation of aerosol optical depth, column water vapour, shortwave (SW) and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) is observed to occur during the morning of 7 September 2005. The quasi-periodic wave is present from about 6 to 10 UT, with solar zenith angles (SZA) varying between 77.5° and 37.2° . In this period the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm, ?, varies between 0.29 and 0.41; the column water vapour, cwv, varies between 2.4 and 2.8 cm. The oscillations of ? and cwv are in phase, while the modulation of the downward surface irradiances is in opposition of phase with respect to ? and cwv. The period of the oscillation is about 13 min. The oscillation is attributed to the propagation of a gravity wave which modulates the structure of the planetary boundary layer. The measured aerosol optical properties are typical of cases dominated by Saharan dust, with the Ångström exponent comprised between 0.5 and 0.6. The backtrajectory analysis for that day shows that airmasses overpass Northern Libya (trajectories arriving below 2000 m), Tunisia and Northern Algeria (trajectories arriving above 2000 m), carrying Saharan dust particles to Lampedusa. The combined modulation of downward irradiance, water vapour column, and aerosol optical depth is used to estimate the aerosol effect on the irradiance. From the irradiance-optical depth relation, the aerosol surface direct forcing efficiency (FE) is derived, under the assumption that during the measurement interval the aerosol microphysical properties do not appreciably change. As a first step, all SW irradiances are reported to the same cwv content (2.6 cm), by using radiative transfer model calculations. Reference curves describing the downward SW and PAR irradiances are constructed by using measurements obtained

  15. Demonstration optimization analyses of pumping from selected Arapahoe aquifer municipal wells in the west-central Denver Basin, Colorado, 2010–2109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Declining water levels caused by withdrawals of water from wells in the west-central part of the Denver Basin bedrock-aquifer system have raised concerns with respect to the ability of the aquifer system to sustain production. The Arapahoe aquifer in particular is heavily used in this area. Two optimization analyses were conducted to demonstrate approaches that could be used to evaluate possible future pumping scenarios intended to prolong the productivity of the aquifer and to delay excessive loss of saturated thickness. These analyses were designed as demonstrations only, and were not intended as a comprehensive optimization study. Optimization analyses were based on a groundwater-flow model of the Denver Basin developed as part of a recently published U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-availability study. For each analysis an optimization problem was set up to maximize total withdrawal rate, subject to withdrawal-rate and hydraulic-head constraints, for 119 selected municipal water-supply wells located in 96 model cells. The optimization analyses were based on 50- and 100-year simulations of groundwater withdrawals. The optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells for a 50-year simulation time was about 58.8 cubic feet per second. For an analysis in which the simulation time and head-constraint time were extended to 100 years, the optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells was about 53.0 cubic feet per second, demonstrating that a reduction in withdrawal rate of about 10 percent may extend the time before the hydraulic-head constraints are violated by 50 years, provided that pumping rates are optimally distributed. Analysis of simulation results showed that initially, the pumping produces water primarily by release of water from storage in the Arapahoe aquifer. However, because confining layers between the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers are thin, in less than 5 years, most of the water removed by managed-flows pumping likely would be supplied

  16. Preferences of the Central Reserve Bank of Peru and optimal monetary rules in the inflation targeting regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda Mercedes Cabrera Pasca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the preferences of the monetary authority in the Peruvian regime of inflation targeting through the derivation of optimal monetary rules. To achieve that, we used a calibration strategy based on the choice of values of the parameters of preferences that minimize the square deviation between the true interest rate and interest rate optimal simulation. The results showed that the monetary authority has applied a system of flexible inflation targeting, prioritizing the stabilization of inflation, but without disregarding gradualism in interest rates. On the other hand, concern over output stabilization has been minimal, revealing that the output gap has been important because it contains information about future inflation and not because it is considered a variable goal in itself. Finally, when the smoothing of the nominal exchange rate is considered in the loss function of the monetary authority, the rank order of preferences has been maintained and the smoothing of the exchange rate proved insignificant.

  17. Radiological landmarks for optimal tip-position of the central venous port catheter inserted via peripheral vein in the left arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate normative data of the superior vena cava (SVC) anatomy using multi-detector row CT (MDCT) and determine the optimal tip-position of the central venous port catheter inserted via the peripheral veins in the left arm. On the coronal images of MDCT in 48 patients as a control, the SVC length and distances between the carina and cavoatrial junction and between the cephalad margin of SVC and carina were measured using a workstation. The location of a catheter-tip in twenty-three patients with a central venous port catheter inserted via a peripheral veins in the left arm was categorized into two groups: group A (above or same level as the carina, n=14), group B (below the carina, n=9). We investigated catheter-related complications such as catheter dislodgement and venous thrombosis. According to the MDCT images in the control group, the mean distance from the carina to the cavoatrial junction was 35.3 mm±7.4 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]; 30 mm, 40.6 mm). The mean distance from the cephalad margin of the SVC to the carina was 28.5 mm±5.6 mm (95% CI; 24.5 mm, 32.5 mm). The catheter tip was dislodged into the left innominate vein in seven patients of group A, and venous thrombosis was seen in two of these patients. No significant complications in group B (26.8 mm±7.6 mm below the carina, 95% CI; 21.8 mm, 31.8 mm) were seen. The position at approximately 3-4 cm below the carina is near the cavoatrial junction. The optimal tip-position of the central venous port catheter should be 2-3 cm below the carina. (author)

  18. Is it safe? Voles in an unfamiliar dark open-field divert from optimal security by abandoning a familiar shelter and not visiting a central start point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David

    2010-01-01

    Open-field behavior is a common tool in studying exploration and navigation, as well as emotions and motivations. However, it has been suggested that this behavior might be parsimoniously interpreted as directed to optimize security, with no need to interpret the animal's mental state. This latter view was challenged here by providing voles with presumably sense of optimal security. For this, voles were introduced into a dark open-field inside a familiar shelter in which they previously lived in their home cage. Voles then emerged either to locomote only in the vicinity of the shelter, or to travel further out to explore the entire arena and only later to return to the shelter. While their staying near the shelter confirms the notion of optimizing security, their traveling further out along the perimeter negates this notion. This divergence of behavior under the same security conditions illustrates that open-field behavior, which is a multi-faceted and dynamic process, is also affected by an emotional component. That is, safety is a subjective emotional state dictated by various inputs and, therefore, the resulting dynamic behavior, which is the ultimate output of the central nervous system, may vary beyond the possibility of being parsimoniously interpreted by only one factor. In a similar vein, we show that the impact of the start point on the paths of locomotion is not an intrinsic property of that point, but depends on its physical location. PMID:19744526

  19. Adaptation of potato production to climate change by optimizing sowing date in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-ling; SHEN Shuang-he; ZHANG Shu-yu; LI Qiao-zhen; YAO Yu-bi

    2015-01-01

    Potato grows in most part of China, it achieves higher yield and better quality in Gansu Province than in others. With global warming, its growth duration has been prolonged and sowing date become earlier than before. Therefore, to regulate its sowing date and growing period is of great signiifcance for better harvest. In this study, experiments were conducted with six sowing-date treatments of potato in Dingxi, which is in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu Province in Northwest China in 2010. The growth period, morphological index and change in yield and their relationships with temperature, precipitation, and other climatic factors were investigated for each treatment. Results show that the crop with different sowing dates experienced different climate conditions, leading to distinct growth duration, plant height, and leaf area index. The growth duration was shortened due to a delay in sowing date. For each 15-day delay in sowing, the growth duration was reduced by 12 days on average. A signiifcant linear relationship was found between numbers of days either from seeding to emergence or from lfowering to harvest and mean temperature over the corresponding period. Dry matter accumulation, tuber fresh weight, and ifnal yield were al decreased because of insufifcient cumulative temperature over the shorter growing periods. Marked differences in tuber yield were discovered among the six treatments of sowing date, the potato planted on May 27 giving the highest yield. The potato planted either earlier or later would produce invariably lower yield than the treatment of May 27. Late May therefore can be taken as the optimum sowing time of potato in this region because the crop can ful y utilize thermal resource. We conclude that to postpone sowing time is a good practice for potato production to adapt to climate warming in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China.

  20. ForcePAD And Optimization -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Lindemann; Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Design of structures such as bridges, wind turbine wings or mechanical components is a very challenging task and involves both finding the structural layout and analysis of the bearing capacity of the structure. The analysis part is almost always solved by Finite Elements and involves defining a ...

  1. Using Satellite Tracking to Optimize Protection of Long-Lived Marine Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Conservation in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sara M.; Breed, Greg A.; Nickel, Barry A.; Makanga-Bahouna, Junior; Pemo-Makaya, Edgard; Parnell, Richard J.; Formia, Angela; Ngouessono, Solange; Godley, Brendan J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Witt, Matthew J.; Coyne, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09). These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent), highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool. PMID:21589942

  2. MODELING, VARIABLES INFLUENCE AND OPTIMIZATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD – CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN (RSM-CCD ON THE SODIUM LIGNOSULFONATE PRODUCTION FROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Amri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sodium lignosulfonate (SLS is a derivative compound from lignin which has various usefulness. Commercial SLS is a by-product of Arbiso pulping sulfite industry, but nowadays, the amount of available commercial SLS is scare due to the expensive price of SLS. Therefore, it is needed to find the solution to produce of SLS using a feasible process. This research involves producing SLS by directly cooking the palm oil stem biomass dust in a pressurized reactor using sodium bi-sulfite (NaHSO3 solvent. The experiment focused on the modeling, influence of process variables and its optimization that statistically analyze using the Response Surface Method-Central Composite Design (RSM-CCD. The result showed that the solid-liquid ratio is the most affecting factor to the SLS rendemen. The relation between rendemen and temperature (T, pH (C and solid-liquid ratio (R can be modeled as % rendemen = 12.18 + 0.52T – 0.48C + 3.5R – 1.02T2 – C2 – 1.53R2. The optimal operation conditions were identified at temperature of 153.8oC, pH = 4.64 and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15.9.

  3. A hybrid model of support vector regression with genetic algorithm for forecasting adsorption of malachite green onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes: central composite design optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Ghaedi, A M; Dehghanian, N

    2016-05-11

    The aim of this work is the study of the predictive ability of a hybrid model of support vector regression with genetic algorithm optimization (GA-SVR) for the adsorption of malachite green (MG) onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Various factors were investigated by central composite design and optimum conditions was set as: pH 8, 0.018 g MWCNTs, 8 mg L(-1) dye mixed with 50 mL solution thoroughly for 10 min. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isothermal models are applied to fitting the experimental data, and the data was well explained by the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 62.11-80.64 mg g(-1) in a short time at 25 °C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent dosages and the initial MG concentration show that maximum MG removal was achieved within 10 min of the start of every experiment under most conditions. The adsorption obeys the pseudo-second-order rate equation in addition to the intraparticle diffusion model. The optimal parameters (C of 0.2509, σ(2) of 0.1288 and ε of 0.2018) for the SVR model were obtained based on the GA. For the testing data set, MSE values of 0.0034 and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) values of 0.9195 were achieved. PMID:27119755

  4. ForcePAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and engin...... engineering. In the latest version of ForcePAD an optimization module was added to enable to take advantage of topology optimization in the design process....

  5. Casimir force of expulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Fateev, Evgeny G.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility in principle is shown that the noncompensated Casimir force can exist in nanosized open metal cavities. The force shows up as time-constant expulsion of open cavities toward their least opening. The optimal parameters of the angles of the opening, of "generating lines" of cavities and their lengths are found at which the expulsive force is maximal. The theory is created for trapezoid configurations, in particular for parallel mirrors which experience both the transverse Casimi...

  6. A credibility-based chance-constrained optimization model for integrated agricultural and water resources management: A case study in South Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Du, Peng; Chen, Yizhong; He, Li

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a credibility-based chance-constrained optimization model for integrated agricultural irrigation and water resources management. The model not only deals with parameter uncertainty represented as fuzzy sets, but also provides a credibility level which indicates the confidence level of the generated optimal management strategies. The model is used on a real-world case study in South Central China. Results from the case study reveal that: (1) a reduction in credibility level would result in an increasing planting area of watermelon, but impaired the planting acreage of high-quality rice and silk; (2) groundwater allocation would be prioritized for reducing surface water utilization cost; (3) the actual phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reached their limit values in most of the zones over the planning horizon (i.e., phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reaching 969 tonnes and 3814 tonnes under λ = 1.00, respectively; phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reaching 972 tonnes and 3891 tonnes under λ = 0.70, respectively). When the credibility level reduces from 1.00 to 0.70, system benefit would rise by 32.60% and groundwater consumption would be reduced by 79.51%. However, the pollutant discharge would not increase as expected, which would be reduced by 40.14% on the contrary. If system benefit is not of major concern, an aggressive strategy is suggested by selecting a rather low credibility level (say, 0.70). This strategy is suggested for guaranteeing protection of local groundwater resources and mitigation of local environmental deterioration by sacrificing part of system benefit.

  7. Ventricular fiber optimization utilizing the branching structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Takumi; Yoneda, Kazunori; Okada, Jun-Ichi; Kariya, Taro; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that optimizes the ventricular fiber structure of the human heart. A number of histological studies and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analyses have revealed that the myocardial fiber forms a right-handed helix at the endocardium. However, the fiber formation changes its orientation as a function of transmural depth, becoming a left-handed helix at the epicardium. To determine how nature can construct such a structure, which obtains surprising pumping performance, we introduce macroscopic modeling of the branching structure of cardiac myocytes in our finite element ventricular model and utilize this in an optimization process. We put a set of multidirectional fibers around a central fiber orientation at each point of the ventricle walls and simulate heartbeats by generating contraction forces along each of these directions. We examine two optimization processes using the workloads or impulses measured in these directions to update the central fiber orientation. Both processes improve the pumping performance towards an optimal value within several tens of heartbeats, starting from an almost-flat fiber orientation. However, compared with the workload optimization, the impulse optimization produces better agreement with experimental studies on transmural changes of fiber helix angle, streamline patterns of characteristic helical structures, and temporal changes in strain. Furthermore, the impulse optimization is robust under geometrical changes of the heart and tends to homogenize various mechanical factors such as the stretch and stretch rate along the fiber orientation, the contraction force, and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26453026

  8. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710-1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  9. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils and fatty acids from flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Jowkarderis, Mina; Raofie, Farhad

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils and fatty acids of Descurainia sophia L. seed were obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and steam distillation methods. The effect of different parameters such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, dynamic and static extraction timeon the extraction yield were optimized using a central composite design after a 2 (n-1) fractional factorial design. The results showed that under the pressure of 355 bar, temperature of 65 °C, methanol volume of 150 μL, dynamic and static extraction times of 35 and 10 min, respectively, the major components were methyl linoleate (18.2 %), camphor (12.32 %), cis-thujone (11.3 %) and trans-caryophyllene (9.17 %). The results indicated that by using the proper conditions, the supercritical fluid extraction is more selective than the steam distillation method. Extraction yields based on supercritical fluid extraction varied in the range of 0.68 to 17.1 % (w/w), and the extraction yield based on the steam distillation was 0.25 % (v/w). PMID:26139911

  10. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values 2 was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds

  11. Are Near Earth Objects the Key to Optimization Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Formato, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This note suggests that near earth objects and Central Force Optimization have something in common, that NEO theory may hold the key to solving some vexing problems in deterministic optimization: local trapping and proof of convergence. CFO analogizes Newton's laws to locate the global maxima of a function. The NEO-CFO nexus is the striking similarity between CFO's Davg and an NEO's Delta-V curves. Both exhibit oscillatory plateau-like regions connected by jumps, suggesting that CFO's metapho...

  12. 3rd GAMM/IFIP-Workshop on “Stochastic Optimization: Numerical Methods and Technical Applications” held at the Federal Armed Forces University Munich

    CERN Document Server

    Kall, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Optimization problems arising in practice usually contain several random parameters. Hence, in order to obtain optimal solutions being robust with respect to random parameter variations, the mostly available statistical information about the random parameters should be considered already at the planning phase. The original problem with random parameters must be replaced by an appropriate deterministic substitute problem, and efficient numerical solution or approximation techniques have to be developed for those problems. This proceedings volume contains a selection of papers on modelling techniques, approximation methods, numerical solution procedures for stochastic optimization problems and applications to the reliability-based optimization of concrete technical or economic systems.

  13. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  14. Electroweak Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The united force that encompasses the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force. The unification of these two forces is described by a theory that was devised during the 1960s by Sheldon Glashow, Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam according to which, at high enough energies, the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear interaction behave in exactly the same way....

  15. Market regulation in Central America and Bit-Energy.CEL as tool for improving the self regulating forces for a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    establishment of regional spot and contracts market comprising 6 Central American countries; 3. the introduction of a retail market, allowing auto generation for industrial consumers; 4. the introduction of a renewable and rural electrification support scheme; 5. the introduction of the stochastic planning tool Bit-Energy.CEL for making offers for the spot market less predictable and more flexible. The proposed paper will show more details on the history of market liberalisation in Central America, summarise ongoing activities for improving market efficiency and explain in more detail which role Bit-Energy.CEL plays in this process. (author)

  16. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Software Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    This document describes the final software design of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype. Its purpose is to provide the overall architecture of the software and the logic behind this architecture. Documentation for the individual classes is provided in the application Javadoc. The Contingency Contractor Optimization project is intended to address Department of Defense mandates by delivering a centralized strategic planning tool that allows senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks, and mitigation strategies associated with utilizing contract support. The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype was developed in Phase 3 of the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization project to support strategic planning for contingency contractors. The planning tool uses a model to optimize the Total Force mix by minimizing the combined total costs for selected mission scenarios. The model optimizes the match of personnel types (military, DoD civilian, and contractors) and capabilities to meet mission requirements as effectively as possible, based on risk, cost, and other requirements.

  17. Simultaneous current, force and dissipation measurements on the Si(111 7×7 surface with an optimized qPlus AFM/STM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Majzik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of simultaneous scanning-tunneling and frequency-modulated dynamic atomic force microscopy measurements with a qPlus setup. The qPlus sensor is a purely electrical sensor based on a quartz tuning fork. If both the tunneling current and the force signal are to be measured at the tip, a cross-talk of the tunneling current with the force signal can easily occur. The origin and general features of the capacitive cross-talk will be discussed in detail in this contribution. Furthermore, we describe an experimental setup that improves the level of decoupling between the tunneling-current and the deflection signal. The efficiency of this experimental setup is demonstrated through topography and site-specific force/tunneling-spectroscopy measurements on the Si(111 7×7 surface. The results show an excellent agreement with previously reported data measured by optical interferometric deflection.

  18. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Jejawi Complex of Academics (3), UniMAP, 02600 Arau Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  19. Discussion on Central-Force-Movement of Mass Point in Different Initial Conditions%质点在不同初始条件下做有心力运动的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江昌龙

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on the movement energy equation of mass point under the action of central force that inverses ratio to the square of the distance and with the combination of initial conditions,works out the kinematical equation of mass point,systematically analyses the influence different initial conditions make on movement results,and confirms initial conditions as the criteria of the movement track curve type of mass point.%根据质点在与平方成反比的有心力作用下运动的能量方程,结合初始条件求解出质点的运动学方程,系统分析初始条件的不同对运动结果的影响,确定以初始条件作为质点运动轨迹曲线类型的判据。

  20. Discuss about Solving of Orbit Equation of Particle in Central Force Field%有心力场中质点轨道方程求解问题的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆世专; 游开明; 汪新文; 戴志平; 杨辉

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了用正则方程求解受平方反比引力作用的质点轨道方程的方法,推导了质点的角动量守恒定律( mh =恒量)和机械能守恒定律( E =恒量)及其轨道方程。以往用比耐公式求解质点的轨道方程,通常没有给出积分常数的具体形式。该文用 E和h确定了用比耐公式法求解的积分常数。这样用比耐公式方法与用机械能守恒方法求解的轨道方程形成了统一的形式,有利于学生更深入地理解受平方反比引力作用质点运动的物理内涵。%This paper has introduced a method with the canonical equations to solve the central force problem ,derived the Law of conservation of angular momentum (mh=constant) and the Law of conservation of machinery energy (E=constant) and the orbit equation of the particle .Existing methods solving of the orbit equation with Binet equation usually do not provide a specif-ic form of integral constants .UsedEandh ,we have determined the integral constant .So ,the orbit equation solved by methods of the Law of conservation and the Binet equation has a unified form .It is useful for students understanding of the physical meaning of particle motion in a central force field .

  1. Optimization of Milk-Based Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 Using Face-Centered Central Composite-Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4) biomass and β -galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 23 full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk...

  2. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies. PMID:26891762

  3. 基于模拟退火算法的无刷直线直流电机恒推力优化%Optimization of Constant Force of Brushless Linear DC Motor Based on Simulated Annealing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 李小民; 李治源; 赵科义

    2012-01-01

    The increment of velocity will bring about force decline during the electromagnetic launchers and wish to compensate force decline. The effect of traditional methods is worse when the velocity is too great. The mathematical model was established, the calculation formulae of current, force were deduced, and then the influence of velocity, voltage and duty cycle to force was analyzed in detailed. The method of compensation force was given, that the velocity was graded, changing the duty cycle in the same interval and adjust the voltage in the different interval to compensate the decline of force caused by velocity. The simulated annealing algorithm (SA) was introduced and was used to seek for the optimal duty cycle. At last, the simulation results verified the analysis and feasibility of algorithm.%在电磁弹射中,速度的增大会引起推力下降,要进行补偿,以往关于推力补偿的方法因速度过大导致效果较差甚至无法使用.文中建立了数学模型,推导出电流、推力解析式,分析了速度、电压、占空比对推力的影响.提出了对速度划分区间,区间内电压不变,通过提高占空比,区间之间提高电压补偿因速度引起推力下降的方法.介绍了模拟退火算法(SA),并将模拟退火算法用于搜索最优占空比.最后通过仿真,验证了理论分析的正确性及算法的可行性.

  4. Trajectory optimization of multiple quad-rotor UAVs in collaborative assembling task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yongbo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchic optimization strategy based on the offline path planning process and online trajectory planning process is presented to solve the trajectory optimization problem of multiple quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles in the collaborative assembling task. Firstly, the path planning process is solved by a novel parallel intelligent optimization algorithm, the central force optimization-genetic algorithm (CFO-GA, which combines the central force optimization (CFO algorithm with the genetic algorithm (GA. Because of the immaturity of the CFO, the convergence analysis of the CFO is completed by the stability theory of the linear time-variant discrete-time systems. The results show that the parallel CFO-GA algorithm converges faster than the parallel CFO and the central force optimization-sequential quadratic programming (CFO-SQP algorithm. Then, the trajectory planning problem is established based on the path planning results. In order to limit the range of the attitude angle and guarantee the flight stability, the optimized object is changed from the ordinary six-degree-of-freedom rigid-body dynamic model to the dynamic model with an inner-loop attitude controller. The results show that the trajectory planning process can be solved by the mature SQP algorithm easily. Finally, the discussion and analysis of the real-time performance of the hierarchic optimization strategy are presented around the group number of the waypoints and the equal interval time.

  5. Topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Taking as a starting point a design case for a compliant mechanism (a force inverter), the fundamental elements of topology optimization are described. The basis for the developments is a FEM format for this design problem and emphasis is given to the parameterization of design as a raster image ...

  6. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  7. Parallel computation with the force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology, called the force, supports the construction of programs to be executed in parallel by a force of processes. The number of processes in the force is unspecified, but potentially very large. The force idea is embodied in a set of macros which produce multiproceossor FORTRAN code and has been studied on two shared memory multiprocessors of fairly different character. The method has simplified the writing of highly parallel programs within a limited class of parallel algorithms and is being extended to cover a broader class. The individual parallel constructs which comprise the force methodology are discussed. Of central concern are their semantics, implementation on different architectures and performance implications.

  8. Lean processing as driving force behind efficiency increase and comprehensive optimization of heading operations; Lean Processing als Motor zur Effizienzsteigerung und ganzheitlichen Optimierung in der Streckenauffahrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhanki, Bernd [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Projekt Weiterentwicklung Lean Processing; Koenig, Walter [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Bereich Bergtechnik

    2010-09-15

    Next to coal production, roadway drivage with a length of nearly 48 km in 2009 holds an important second rank amongst the core processes in German collieries. The requirements as to roadway installations, roadway cross section and quality of roadway support have grown constantly over the years past. In this context the complexity of the drivage procedure has increased as well. Of course such a development necessarily results in a revision of methods for efficiency increase, since the aims of process optimization are fixed: Improvement of quality, reliable scheduling and a reduction of production costs. At RAG, Lean Processing is the preferred optimization tool to meet these requirements. An overall analysis covers the optimization of process components on site, in the adjacent back area as well as the supporting maintenance and logistics processes. Transparency through key figures as well as a systematic and methodical approach, including the working staff, is the key element to eliminate waste from the processes, to further increase work safety and to meet the customer's requirements as to later usage. (orig.)

  9. Theoretical analysis and evaluation of an optimally controlled full-car vehicle model with a variable-damping semi-active vehicle suspension forced by measured road inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to obtain the optimal control algorithm for a full-car model with a variable-damping semi-active suspension, such as a magnetorheological damper, by solving the linear quadratic regulator problem, and then to evaluate the system performance if the control inputs are constrained and delayed, and the vehicle is subjected to measured road inputs. A seven-degree of freedom full-car vehicle model was considered, and the state equations of the system were obtained in bilinear form. An integral performance index involving a weighted combination of the mean squares of average sprung mass acceleration and suspension deflections was defined. Trade-off curves were obtained between the sprung mass acceleration and suspension deflections of the optimally controlled system which is subjected to a measured road profile input. Performance of the optimally controlled system was compared to the performance of the corresponding optimum passive suspension system. For the vehicle parameters and the road input profile considered in this study, a reduction of 6.4% in the average vertical acceleration and 2.8% in the average suspension deflection was achieved by the semi-active suspensions. The response of the system to an initial condition has shown that its transient oscillations are damped out effectively by the semi-active suspension.

  10. Optimization of force-cooled power transmission cables by means of 3D FEM simulations; Optimierung zwangsgekuehlter Energiekabel durch dreidimensionale FEM-Simulationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongping

    2009-10-26

    Lateral forced cooling can significantly increase the temporary overload capacity of a cable system, but the design of such systems requires a time-dependent 3D analysis of the nonlinear thermal behavior as the cooling water along the cable is heated up, resulting in position-dependent and time-dependent heat uptake. For this, a new calculation method was developed on the basis of an available 3D FEM software. The new method enables 3D simulation of force-cooled cables in consideration of the potential partial dryout of soil and of thermal stabilizations. The new method was first applied to a 110 kV wind power transmission cable for different configurations and grid conditions. It was found that with lateral forced cooling, the 110 kV will have a temporal 50 percent overload capacity. Further, the thermal characteristics and limiting capacity of a force-cooled 380 kV cable system were investigated. According to the results so far, laterally cooled cable systems open up new operating options, with advantages in terms of availability, economic efficiency, and flexibility. (orig.) [German] Eine laterale Zwangskuehlung kann die temporaere Ueberlastbarkeit einer Kabelanlage signifikant erhoehen. Der Entwurf solcher zwangsgekuehlter Kabelanlagen erfordert jedoch eine zeitabhaengige, dreidimensionale Analyse des nichtlinearen thermischen Verhaltens, da sich das Kuehlwasser entlang der Trasse erwaermt und sich so eine orts- und zeitabhaengige Waermeaufnahme ergibt. Zu diesem Zweck wurde auf der Basis eines vorhandenen zweidimensionalen FEM-Programms ein neues Berechnungsverfahren entwickelt, das die dreidimensionale Simulation zwangsgekuehlter Kabelanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung einer moeglicherweise auftretenden partiellen Bodenaustrocknung und von thermischen Stabilisierungen erlaubt. Mit Hilfe dieses Berechnungsverfahrens wurde zuerst eine 110-kV-Kabelanlage zur Windenergieuebertragung bei unterschiedlichen Anordnungen und unterschiedlichen Netzsituationen untersucht

  11. Simultaneous current, force and dissipation measurements on the Si(111) 7x7 surface with an optimized qPlus AFM/STM technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majzik, Zsolt; Setvín, Martin; Bettac, A.; Feltz, A.; Cháb, Vladimír; Jelínek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, March (2012), s. 249-259. ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR GAP204/10/0952; GA AV ČR IAA100100905; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : AFM * STM * cross-talk * specific-site force spectroscopy * atomic resolution Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.374, year: 2012

  12. Artificial surfaces in the Raya Central Iberica Use generalized linear models to define driving forces of the territorial changes; Las superficies artificiales en la Raya Central Iberica El uso de modelos lineales generalizados para definir los factores condicionantes de los cambios territoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaraiz Cabanillas, F. J.; Mora Aliseda, J.; Gutierrez Gallego, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The rapid changes that the socio-demographic structure and the economic activity are experiencing in the Raya Central Iberica, and that are produced for the new socioeconomic needs, the concentration of the population in the principal cities, the abandon of the rural spaces, the growth of irrigation areas, etc., they motivate changes in the artificial surfaces. A spatial analysis is applied to determine the principal driving forces of the artificial surfaces changes. For this, different tools are in use in order to differentiate the land use and land cover changes or the driving forces. The changes were quantified by statistical technologies and images of CORINE Land Cover Project and the driving factors were analyzed by logistic regressions (generalized linear models) combining human and geophysics variables. Conclusions show the suitability of the employment of the information of CORINE Land Cover project, the significant selected independent variables, and the validity of the generalized linear models for the explanation of the land use and land cover change of a certain territory. (Author)

  13. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  14. Centralized Management of Military Health Strengths in Station Armed Forces%驻地部队卫勤力量集中调度管理模式改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曙光; 欧崇阳; 胡其平

    2011-01-01

    The author summarized the existing problems of station armed forces in health service person-nel , materials and equipment. Then, a new mode of health strength management was put forward, which included "integrating resources, centralized management and scientific development" , so as to reinforce the comprehensive effects of all level health institutions, serve the preparedness for emergency military region, complete diversified military operations, and satisfied the medical and health demands.%通过归纳目前驻地部队在卫勤人员、物资装备管理等方面存在的问题,对驻地部队“整合资源、集中调度、科学发展”的卫勤力量调度管理新模式进行探讨,以不断增强部队各级卫生机构建设的综合效益,为服务军事斗争准备、完成多样化军事任务、满足官兵医疗卫生需求提供强有力的支援.

  15. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

    2014-01-01

    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the Kā‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  16. Bifurcation, chaos, and scan instability in dynamic atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamical motion at any point on the cantilever of an atomic force microscope can be expressed quite generally as a superposition of simple harmonic oscillators corresponding to the vibrational modes allowed by the cantilever shape. Central to the dynamical equations is the representation of the cantilever-sample interaction force as a polynomial expansion with coefficients that account for the interaction force "stiffness," the cantilever-to-sample energy transfer, and the displacement amplitude of cantilever oscillation. Renormalization of the cantilever beam model shows that for a given cantilever drive frequency cantilever dynamics can be accurately represented by a single nonlinear mass-spring model with frequency-dependent stiffness and damping coefficients [S. A. Cantrell and J. H. Cantrell, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094314 (2011)]. Application of the Melnikov method to the renormalized dynamical equation is shown to predict a cascade of period doubling bifurcations with increasing cantilever drive force that terminates in chaos. The threshold value of the drive force necessary to initiate bifurcation is shown to depend strongly on the cantilever setpoint and drive frequency, effective damping coefficient, nonlinearity of the cantilever-sample interaction force, and the displacement amplitude of cantilever oscillation. The model predicts the experimentally observed interruptions of the bifurcation cascade for cantilevers of sufficiently large stiffness. Operational factors leading to the loss of image quality in dynamic atomic force microscopy are addressed, and guidelines for optimizing scan stability are proposed using a quantitative analysis based on system dynamical parameters and choice of feedback loop parameter.

  17. Force sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David

    2007-01-01

    A young child can explore and learn and compensate for unknown dynamics by prodding, pushing, touching, grasping and feeling. Force sensing and software research could soon allow artificial mechanisms to do the same. Force sensing has its roots in strain gauges, piezoelectrics, Wheatstone bridges, automation, robotics, grippers and virtual reality. That force sensing research has now become commonplace and has expanded from those roots to include so much more: video games, athletic equipment,...

  18. Optimization of thermal efficiency of nuclear central power like as PWR; Otimizacao da eficiencia termica de uma usina nuclear do tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Nelbia da Silva

    2005-10-15

    The main purpose of this work is the definition of operational conditions for the steam and power conservation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant in order to increase its system thermal efficiency without changing any component, based on the optimization of operational parameters of the plant. The thermal efficiency is calculated by a thermal balance program, based on conservation equations for homogeneous modeling. The circuit coefficients are estimated by an optimization tool, allowing a more realistic thermal balance for the plans under analysis, as well as others parameters necessary to some component models. With the operational parameter optimization, it is possible to get a level of thermal efficiency that increase capital gain, due to a better relationship between the electricity production and the amount of fuel used, without any need to change components plant. (author)

  19. Optimizing the function of upstanding activities in adult patients with acquired lesions of the central nervous system by using the Bobath concept approach - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelica, Stjepan; Seper, Vesna; Davidović, Erna; Bujisić, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Nonspecific medical gymnastic therapy may help patients after stroke achieve certain results in terms of efficiency but not in terms of quality of movement. The goal of treatment by Bobath concept is development of movement (effectiveness) and optimization of movement (efficiency). This article presents the case of a 62-year old patient who had experienced a stroke and has difficulties with standing up activities. It underscores the importance of not only recovery of function but also optimization of the function in such patients. PMID:21648353

  20. Strong Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  1. Optimal Expectation

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnermeier, Markus K.; Jonathan A. Parker

    2004-01-01

    This Paper introduces a tractable, structural model of subjective beliefs. Forward-looking agents care about expected future utility flows, and hence have higher current felicity if they believe that better outcomes are more likely. On the other hand, biased expectations lead to poorer decisions and worse realized outcomes on average. Optimal expectations balance these forces by maximizing average felicity. A small bias in beliefs typically leads to first-order gains due to increased anticipa...

  2. On the optimal allocation of assets in investment portfolio with application of modern portfolio and nonlinear dynamic chaos theories in investment, commercial and central banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2013-01-01

    The investment economy is a main characteristic of prosperous society. The investment portfolio management is a main financial problem, which has to be solved by the investment, commercial and central banks with the application of modern portfolio theory in the investment economy. We use the learning analytics together with the integrative creative imperative intelligent conceptual co-lateral adaptive thinking with the purpose to advance our scientific knowledge on the diversified investment ...

  3. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  4. 带利息力和交易费用的风险模型的最优分红策略%Optimal dividend strategies for a risk model under force of interest and transaction cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳毅蒙; 赵锐; 王辉

    2014-01-01

    研究了保险精算中带利息力和交易费用的经典风险模型的最优分红策略问题,认为:在分红约束的情况下,以股东的折现分红减去惩罚折现注资的差的期望值最大化为目标,利用随机控制理论建立相应的HJB方程,最终得到相应的解,并得出最优分红策略,是Threshold策略。%Considering the classical risk model with optimal dividend payments under force of interest and transaction cost,with maximizing the discounted dividend payments minus the penalized discounted capital injections as the object the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation was built by stochastic control theory.A method to determine numerically the solution to the integro-differential equation was derived.It showed that the optimal strategy was threshold strategy.

  5. Optimization of Self-microemulsion Drug Delivery System of Ursolic Acid by Central Composite Design/Response Surface Methodology%星点设计-效应面法优化熊果酸自微乳给药系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹丹; 徐新刚; 生立嵩; 于蓓蓓; 闫雪生

    2013-01-01

    目的:采用星点设计-效应面法优化熊果酸自微乳化给药系统.方法:以乳化剂与助乳化剂的比例和含油量为考察因素,微乳粒径、饱和载药量为效应值,采用SAS 9.1.3软件筛选最优处方,并进行验证.结果:熊果酸自微乳的优化处方为油相(MCT)-乳化剂(HS15)-助乳化剂(alcohol) 12.5∶62.5∶25.结论:应用星点设计-效应面法能方便准确地得到熊果酸自微乳化给药系统的较优处方,所建立的模型预测性良好.%Objective: To optimize formulation of ursolic acid self-microemulsion drug delivery system using central composite design/response surface methodology. Method: With ratio of surfactants and cosurfactants and oil content as independent variables, particle size and saturated drug doading were taken as dependent variables, optimum formulation was screened by SAS9. 1. 3 software, and verified. Result: Optimized formulation of ursolic acid self-microemulsion was oil phase (MCT) -emulsifier (HS15) -cosurfactants (alcohol) 12.5:62.5 :25. Conclusion: This optimized formulation of ursolic acid self-microemulsion drug delivery system could be obtained exactly and conveniently by central composite design response surface methodology, and established model had a reliable predictability.

  6. 星点设计-效应面法优化香青兰黄酮缓释片处方%Optimization of Dracocephalum moldevica flavones sustained-release tablets formulation by central composite design-response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀; 邢建国; 王新春; 李悦; 薛桂蓬; 马祖文; 任文东

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过星点设计-效应面法优化香青兰黄酮缓释片处方并探讨释药机制.方法:以HPMC的用量和乳糖/淀粉(1:1)的用量为考察因素,以2,6,12 h的累积释放度为考察指标,分别用线性和二项式模型描述因素与考察指标之间的数学关系,根据模型绘制等高线图,通过重叠等高线图确定优化处方并进行验证实验,探讨药物释放机制.结果:优化后的处方为HPMC 50 mg,乳糖68 mg,淀粉68 mg,主药150 mg,释放模型符合Higuchi方程.结论:星点设计-效应面法优化香青兰黄酮缓释片的处方具有良好的预测性.%OBJECTIVE To optimize the formulation of sustained-release preparation by the central composite design-response surface methodology. METHODS The amounts of HPMC and lactose:strarch (1:1) as independent variables were optimized with RSM plus CCD by selecting percentages of in vitro cumulative releases at 2,6 and 12 h as dependent variables. Multi-linear and quadratic models were used to estimate the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables, and to delineate RSM and overlay contour plots in order to select the optimal formulations with the application of hypothesized in vitro cumulative release(%) at 2,6 and 12 h. RESULTS Regression coefficients of second-order models were higher than first-order model. Optimized formulation was proposed to consist of HPMC 50 mg,lactose 68 mg,starch 68 mg,remedium car-dinale 150 mg. In vitro release indicated that there existed high approximation between the observed and estimated values. The release was conformed to Higuchi equation. CONCLUSION Central composite design-response surface methodology can be applied to optimize the coating formulation for Dracocephalum moldevica flavones sustained release tablets and the models are proved to be predictable.

  7. Mechanical forces and lymphatic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Jerome W

    2014-11-01

    This review examines the current understanding of how the lymphatic vessel network can optimize lymph flow in response to various mechanical forces. Lymphatics are organized as a vascular tree, with blind-ended initial lymphatics, precollectors, prenodal collecting lymphatics, lymph nodes, postnodal collecting lymphatics and the larger trunks (thoracic duct and right lymph duct) that connect to the subclavian veins. The formation of lymph from interstitial fluid depends heavily on oscillating pressure gradients to drive fluid into initial lymphatics. Collecting lymphatics are segmented vessels with unidirectional valves, with each segment, called a lymphangion, possessing an intrinsic pumping mechanism. The lymphangions propel lymph forward against a hydrostatic pressure gradient. Fluid is returned to the central circulation both at lymph nodes and via the larger lymphatic trunks. Several recent developments are discussed, including evidence for the active role of endothelial cells in lymph formation; recent developments on how inflow pressure, outflow pressure, and shear stress affect the pump function of the lymphangion; lymphatic valve gating mechanisms; collecting lymphatic permeability; and current interpretations of the molecular mechanisms within lymphatic endothelial cells and smooth muscle. An improved understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which lymphatic vessels sense mechanical stimuli, integrate the information, and generate the appropriate response is key for determining the pathogenesis of lymphatic insufficiency and developing treatments for lymphedema. PMID:25107458

  8. Mechanical Forces and Lymphatic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines current understanding of how the lymphatic vessel network can optimize lymph flow in response to various mechanical forces. Lymphatics are organized as a vascular tree, with blind-ended initial lymphatics, precollectors, prenodal collecting lymphatics, lymph nodes, postnodal collecting lymphatics and the larger trunks (thoracic duct and right lymph duct) that connect to the subclavian veins. The formation of lymph from interstitial fluid depends heavily on oscillating pressure gradients to drive fluid into initial lymphatics. Collecting lymphatics are segmented vessels with unidirectional valves, with each segment, called a lymphangion, possessing an intrinsic pumping mechanism. The lymphangions propel lymph forward against a hydrostatic pressure gradient. Fluid is returned to the central circulation both at lymph nodes and via the larger lymphatic trunks. Several recent developments are discussed, including: evidence for the active role of endothelial cells in lymph formation; recent developments on how inflow pressure, outflow pressure, and shear stress affect pump function of the lymphangion; lymphatic valve gating mechanisms; collecting lymphatic permeability; and current interpretations of the molecular mechanisms within lymphatic endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Improved understanding of the physiological mechanisms by lymphatic vessels sense mechanical stimuli, integrate the information, and generate the appropriate response is key for determining the pathogenesis of lymphatic insufficiency and developing treatments for lymphedema. PMID:25107458

  9. Central composite design with the help of multivariate curve resolution in loadability optimization of RP-HPLC to scale-up a binary mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammadreza; Moazeni-Pourasil, Roudabeh Sadat; Sheikh-Olia-Lavasani, Majid; Karami, Ahmad; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Chromatographic method development for preparative targets is a time-consuming and subjective process. This can be particularly problematic because of the use of valuable samples for isolation and the large consumption of solvents in preparative scale. These processes could be improved by using statistical computations to save time, solvent and experimental efforts. Thus, contributed by ESI-MS, after applying DryLab software to gain an overview of the most effective parameters in separation of synthesized celecoxib and its co-eluted compounds, design of experiment software that relies on multivariate modeling as a chemometric approach was used to predict the optimized touching-band overloading conditions by objective functions according to the relationship between selectivity and stationary phase properties. The loadability of the method was investigated on the analytical and semi-preparative scales, and the performance of this chemometric approach was approved by peak shapes beside recovery and purity of products. PMID:26768981

  10. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Tiele M; Kemmerich, Magali; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-04-01

    In this study, different extraction procedures based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in orange juice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After choosing preliminary conditions, an experimental design was carried out with the variables C18, PSA, NaOH and CH3COONa to optimize the sample preparation step. The validation results of the validation were satisfactory, since the method presented recoveries between 70% and 118%, with RSD lower than 19% for spike levels between 10 and 100 μg L(-1). The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.0 to 7.6 μg L(-1) and from 4.9 to 26 μg L(-1), respectively. The method developed was adequate for the determination of 74 pesticide residues in orange juice. PMID:26593461

  11. Optimization of the Formula of Arbutin Cream by Central Composite Design-response Surface Methodology%星点设计-效应面法优化熊果苷乳膏配方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘圣; 苏丹; 唐丽琴; 陈象青; 张善堂; 方卫

    2011-01-01

    目的:优化熊果苷乳膏配方,并建立制剂质量控制方法.方法:采用星点设计-效应面法,以乳膏伸展性为指标,优化十六醇、十二烷基硫酸钠-三乙醇胺(2:1)和二甲基硅油用量;考察配方优化后制剂的外观性状、粒度、pH、伸展性、稳定性和熊果苷含量.结果:优化的配方是十六醇用量为60g,十二烷基硫酸钠-三乙醇胺(2:1)用量为10g,二甲基硅油用量为25g;乳膏伸展性较好,延展直径约58.7mm,符合半流体乳膏特性;pH为6.2;稳定性较好;熊果苷含量为标示量的94.5%.结论:星点设计-效应面法优化的熊果苷乳膏配方稳定、可行.%OBJECTIVE: To optimize the formula of Arbutin cream, and to establish its quality control method.METHODS:Using central composite design-respoase surface methodology, the formula of Arbutin cream was optimized using the spreadability of cream as index and with the amounts of cetyl alcohol, sodium lauryl sulfate-triethanolamine(2: 1)and dimethicone as independent variables.The appearance characteristic, article size, pH value, spreadability, stability of preparation and the content of arbutin were studied.RESULTS: The optimal conditions were cetyl alcohol 60 g,sodium lauryl sulfate-triethanolamine(2: 1) 10 g, and dimethicone 25 g.According to the optimal conditions,the diameter of spreadability of prepared cream was about 58.7 mm,and cream suited with the property of semi-fluid cream.The pH value of cream ranged was 6.2.The content of arbutin was 94.5% of labeling amount.CONCLUSION:Central composite design-response surface methodology is stable and feasible.

  12. Multi-Criteria GIS Methodology Focused on the Location of Optimal Places for Small Hydro Power Via Hydrological and Geostatistic Aplications; Metodologia SIG Multicriterio Enfocada a la Localizacion de Enclaves Optimos para Centrales de Minihidroelectricas mediante Aplicaciones Hidrologicas y Geoestadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C. de la

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this research is the development of a location methodology for sitting optimization of small hydro power (SHP) centrals. In order of achieve this goal, a Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methodology implemented through the use of tools in a GIS environment: Spatial Analysis, Geostatistic Analysis, and Hydrology have been developed. This methodology includes two different models based on the same MCE process. The substantial difference of both models is in the input data and the tools applied to estimate the energy resource and the principal factor of the methodology (caudal or accumulated flow). The first model is generated from caudal data obtained in the study area (El Bierzo), and the second one from pluviometric data and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Both models include viability maps with greater ability areas to locate SHP facilities. As an additional objective, the study allows contrasting the results of the two developed models to evaluate their similarity. (Author)

  13. Multiscale upwelling forcing cycles and biological response off north-central Chile Ciclos multiescala en el forzamiento de la surgencia y respuesta biológica en el centro-norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ RUTLLANT

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical forcing of the upwelling along the subtropical west coasts of the continents encompasses a broad range of time scales which shape both phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a and primary productivity (carbon fixation changes over any given time interval. The narrow continental shelf and the steep alongshore orography off north-central Chile provide for a unique combination of year-round, upwelling-favorable winds with quasi-weekly upwelling pulses associated with atmospheric coastal-trapped disturbances (coastal lows. This variability is modulated by intraseasonal oscillations in the depth of the thermo/nutricline, produced by coastal-trapped waves in the ocean, upon which annual (seasons and interannual (ENSO cycles are superimposed. During coastal field experiments off Cruz Grande bay (29º S, carried on in November 1987 and 1988 (opposite extremes of the ENSO cycle, mean changes of the phytoplankton-integrated Chl-a (B and carbon fixation rate (PP from the active to the relaxed phases of the local upwelling forcing cycle (phyto-pattern were characterized. Those data were contrasted against similar ones reported off Punta Lengua de Vaca (Coquimbo, 30º S and off Mejillones peninsula (Antofagasta, 23º S, encompassing different seasons and phases of intraseasonal and interannual (ENSO cycles from 1992 to 1997. A "warm" phyto-pattern was schematically characterized by a significant increase in B and a quasi-steady evolution of PP from the active to the relaxed phases of one complete upwelling event. Conversely, relative small changes in B and a significant increase in PP characterized a "cold" phyto-pattern. It is proposed here that the ENSO "cold/warm" signal may be offset by more than one opposite "thermal" condition (seasonal and/or intraseasonal in defining a "warm" or "cold" phyto-pattern associated with a particular cycle of the local upwelling forcingEl forzamiento físico de la surgencia a lo largo de las costas occidentales de los

  14. Collaborative Optimization of Active Steering System with Force and Displacement Coupled Control%力与位移耦合控制的主动转向系统协同优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵万忠; 孙培坤; 刘顺

    2012-01-01

    A novel active steering system with force and displacement coupled control(the novel active front steering(AFS)system) is introduced, and it has the functions of both active steering and electric power steering. The novel AFS system can not only achieve perfect combination of steering road feel and steering portable, but also realize harmonization of automotive safety and flexibility. Therefore, it is an ideal technology of automotive power steering. Based on the model of the novel AFS and the vehicle three-freedom system, the concept and quantitative formulas of the novel AFS system steering performance are proposed. The novel AFS system can be optimized based on collaborative optimization, with steering road feel as the system-level optimizing target, and the ergonomics, vehicle safety and steering economy as the subsystems. The simulation results show that based on the collaborative optimization, the novel AFS system can improve the steering road feel and can also guarantee the steering stability, steering portability and steering energy consumption, thus the collaborative optimization method can provide a theoretical basis for the design and optimization of the novel AFS system.%设计一种力与位移耦合控制的前轮主动转向(Active front steering,AFS)系统,使其同时具有主动转向和电动助力转向功能,不仅实现汽车转向轻便性和转向路感的完美融合,而且实现汽车安全性与灵活性的协调统一,是一种理想的汽车动力转向技术.建立新型AFS系统和整车3自由度动力学模型,提出新型AFS系统的性能指标及量化公式,应用协同优化方法,考虑人机工程学、汽车安全性和转向经济性三个子系统,以转向路感为系统级优化目标,对新型AFS系统参数进行协同优化设计.仿真结果表明,基于协同优化的新型AFS系统可在保证系统具有较好的转向稳定性、转向灵敏度和转向能耗基础上,有效提高系统的转向路感,为新

  15. Development of an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of antichagasic drugs in human breast milk: Optimization by central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padró, Juan M; Pellegrino Vidal, Rocío B; Echevarria, Romina N; Califano, Alicia N; Reta, Mario R

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease constitutes a major public health problem in Latin America. Human breast milk is a biological sample of great importance for the analysis of therapeutic drugs, as unwanted exposure through breast milk could result in pharmacological effects in the nursing infant. Thus, the goal of breast milk drug analysis is to inquire to which extent a neonate may be exposed to a drug during lactation. In this work, we developed an analytical technique to quantify benznidazole and nifurtimox (the two antichagasic drugs currently available for medical treatment) in human breast milk, with a simple sample pretreatment followed by an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection. For this technique, the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been used as the "extraction solvent." A central composite design was used to find the optimum values for the significant variables affecting the extraction process: volume of ionic liquid, volume of dispersant solvent, ionic strength, and pH. At the optimum working conditions, the average recoveries were 77.5 and 89.7%, the limits of detection were 0.06 and 0.09 μg/mL and the interday reproducibilities were 6.25 and 5.77% for benznidazole and nifurtimox, respectively. The proposed methodology can be considered sensitive, simple, robust, accurate, and green. PMID:25711461

  16. Imaging of central nAChReceptors with 2-[18F]F-A85380: optimized synthesis and in vitro evaluation in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo labeling of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) could be a useful tool for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. 2-[18F]F-A85380 (2-[18F]Fluoro-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine), a ligand with high affinity to the β2 subunit of the nAChRs, has been shown to label neurons in the nAChR-rich thalamus, cortex and striatum in baboons. We report an optimized synthesis resulting in an uncorrected yield of 58% in 45 min (precursor 2), enabling efficient production intended for clinical use. Incubation of normal rat brain sections with 2-[18F]F-A85380 with subsequent autoradiographic analyses showed the expected distribution in nAChR areas. In human brain sections of Alzheimer's disease (AD) a decrease of 2-[18F]F-A85380 uptake to 36% of the control group was measured in the thalamus and also in the occipital cortex. These findings suggest that 2-[18F]F-A85380 is a promising PET-ligand in the diagnosis of AD

  17. A Statistical Approach for Optimization of Simultaneous Production of β-Glucosidase and Endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae from Solid-State Fermentation of Water Hyacinth Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production cost of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase could be reduced by using water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, as the sole carbon source and using cost-efficient fermentation strategies like solid-state fermentation (SSF. In the present study, the effect of different production conditions on the yield of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 9642 from water hyacinth was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. A Central composite experimental design was applied to optimize the impact of three variables, namely, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature, on enzyme production. The optimal level of each parameter for maximum enzyme production by the fungus was determined. Highest activity of endoglucanase of 495 U/mL was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.23%, pH 7.29, and temperature 29.93°C whereas maximum β-glucosidase activity of 137.32 U/ml was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.25%, pH 6.66, and temperature 32.09°C. There was a direct correlation between the levels of enzymatic activities and the substrate concentration of water hyacinth as carbon source.

  18. Development of a novel naphthoic acid ionic liquid and its application in "no-organic solvent microextraction" for determination of triclosan and methyltriclosan in human fluids and the method optimization by central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Jiajia; Yu, Nana; Qu, Jingang; Fang, Fang; Wang, Huili; Wang, Mei; Wang, Xuedong

    2016-07-01

    In traditional ionic liquids (ILs)-based microextraction, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ILs are often used as extractant and disperser, respectively. However, the functional effects of ILs are not utilized in microextraction procedures. Herein, we introduced 1-naphthoic acid into imidazolium ring to synthesize a novel ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium naphthoic acid salt ([C4MIM][NPA]), and its structure was characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and MS. On the basis of its acidic property and lower solubility than common [CnMIM][BF4], it was used as a mixing dispersive solvent with [C4MIM][BF4] in "functionalized ionic liquid-based no organic solvent microextraction (FIL-NOSM)". Utilization of [C4MIM][NPA] in FIL-NOSM procedures has two obvious advantages: (1) it promoted the non-polar environment, increased volume of the sedimented phase, and thus could enhance the extraction recoveries of triclosan (TCS) and methyltriclosan (MTCS) by more than 10%; and (2) because of the acidic property, it can act as a pH modifier, avoiding extra pH adjustment step. By combining single factor optimization and central composite design, the main factors in the FIL-NOSM method were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the relative recoveries of TCS and MTCS reached up to 98.60-106.09%, and the LODs of them were as low as 0.12-0.15µgL(-1) in plasma and urine samples. In total, this [C4MIM][NPA]-based FIL-NOSM method provided high extraction efficiency, and required less pretreatment time and unutilized any organic solvent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of [C4mim][NPA]-based microextraction method for the simultaneous quantification of trace TCS and MTCS in human fluids. PMID:27154690

  19. Optimal Vehicle Path Generator Using Optimization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanata, Peeroon Pete

    1998-01-01

    This research explores the idea of developing an optimal path generator that can be used in conjunction with a feedback steering controller to automate track testing experiment. This study specifically concentrates on applying optimization concepts to generate paths that meet two separate objective functions; minimum time and maximum tire forces. A three-degree-of freedom vehicle model is used to approximate the handling dynamics of the vehicle. ...

  20. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems.

  1. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems

  2. 复合伺服驱动压边力控制执行机构建模与优化%Modeling and Optimization of Composite and Servo-driven Actuator for Blank-holder Force Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 金振林; 秦泗吉; 邹凤刚; 黄勇超

    2015-01-01

    将伺服电动机驱动与双滑块六杆机构复合,利用伺服电动机的可控性和六杆机构的速度特性,实现拉深过程的变压边力控制。在综合考虑机构输出位移中的弹性位移和刚性位移基础上,建立压边机构输入输出关系的数学模型。当机构几何参数一定时,可根据压边力与滑块位移的关系并考虑机构的变形,确定压边机构的输入速度。为优化杆系尺寸,在考虑压边工作行程和传动效果良好的基础上,以机构输出速度与压力机滑块速度相差最小(在压边力施加阶段),及机构总体尺寸最小为目标函数,优化确定了双滑块六杆机构的杆系尺寸。利用仿真软件,由前面建立的输入输出关系数学模型确定仿真输入速度,仿真结果表明,采用复合伺服驱动双滑块六杆执行机构实现压边力控制是可行的。%By using servo driving combined with six-bar mechanismand controllability of servo motor and the six-bar linkage’s speed characteristics, control of variable blank holder force during deep drawing process is obtained. Based on consideration of both of elastic displacement and rigid displacement, mathematic model of relationship between input and output speeds of the mechanism is established. Therefore, as the parameters of the mechanism are given, the input speed of the actuator for blank-holder force (BHF) can be determined according to the relationship between BHF force versus stroke and consideration of the actuator’s deformation. On the basis of considering the maximum blank holder stroke and good transmission results, taking the minimum error between the output speed and that of press slider (during blank-holder’s stroke) and the minimum linkage sizes as objective functions, the dimensions of double-slider mechanism with six bars are optimized. Using the simulation software and with input simulation speed determined by the mathematic model given above

  3. Response surface methodology based on central composite design as a chemometric tool for optimization of dispersive-solidification liquid-liquid microextraction for speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahzadeh, Mehdi; Tavakoli, Hamed; Torab-Mostaedi, Meisam; Hosseini, Ghaffar; Hemmati, Alireza

    2014-06-01

    Dispersive-solidification liquid-liquid microextraction (DSLLME) coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for preconcentration and determination of inorganic arsenic (III, V) in water samples. At pH=1, As(III) formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted into the fine droplets of 1-dodecanol (extraction solvent) which were dispersed with ethanol (disperser solvent) into the water sample solution. After extraction, the organic phase was separated by centrifugation, and was solidified by transferring into an ice bath. The solidified solvent was transferred to a conical vial and melted quickly at room temperature. As(III) was determined in the melted organic phase while As(V) remained in the aqueous layer. Total inorganic As was determined after the reduction of the pentavalent forms of arsenic with sodium thiosulphate and potassium iodide. As(V) was calculated by difference between the concentration of total inorganic As and As(III). The variable of interest in the DSLLME method, such as the volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, pH, concentration of APDC (chelating agent), extraction time and salt effect, was optimized with the aid of chemometric approaches. First, in screening experiments, fractional factorial design (FFD) was used for selecting the variables which significantly affected the extraction procedure. Afterwards, the significant variables were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). In the optimum conditions, the proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of inorganic arsenic in different environmental water samples and certified reference material (NIST RSM 1643e). PMID:24725860

  4. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  5. Neuromusculoskeletal Model Calibration Significantly Affects Predicted Knee Contact Forces for Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrancolí, Gil; Kinney, Allison L; Fregly, Benjamin J; Font-Llagunes, Josep M

    2016-08-01

    muscle forces and lateral optimal muscle fiber lengths but lower medial, central, and lateral normalized muscle fiber lengths compared to Approach A. These findings suggest that poorly calibrated model parameter values may be a major factor limiting the ability of neuromusculoskeletal models to predict knee contact and leg muscle forces accurately for walking. PMID:27210105

  6. Active media under rotational forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villar, Vicente; Porteiro, Jose L F; Muñuzuri, Alberto P

    2006-10-01

    The bubble-free Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction has been used to study the effects of centrifugal forces on autowave propagation. The reaction parameters were chosen such that the system oscillates naturally creating target waves. In the present study, the system was forced to rotate with a constant velocity around a central axis. In studying the effects of such a forcing on the system, we focused on target dynamics. The system reacts to this forcing in different ways, the most spectacular being a dramatic increase in the period of the target, the effect growing stronger as we move away from the center of rotation. A numerical study was carried out using the two-variable Oregonator model, modified to include convective effects through the diffusion coefficient. The numerical results showed a good qualitative agreement with those of the experiments. PMID:17155149

  7. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue and vesuvine dyes in the presence of blue light active photocatalyst of Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF: Central composite optimization and synergistic effect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, S; Rahimi, M R; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K

    2016-09-01

    An efficient simultaneous sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue (TB) and vesuvine (VS) using Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF as a novel visible light active photocatalyst was carried out successfully in a continuous flow-loop reactor equipped to blue LED light. Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF with activation ability under blue light illumination was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The effect of operational parameters such as the initial TB and VS concentration (5-45mg/L), flow rate (30-110mL/min), irradiation and sonication time (10-30min), pH (3-11) and photocatalyst dosage (0.15-0.35g/L) has been investigated and optimized using central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF). Maximum sonophotodegradation percentage (98.44% and 99.36% for TB and VS, respectively) was found at optimum condition set as: 25mg/L of each dye, 70mL/min of solution flow rate, 25min of irradiation and sonication time, pH 6 and 0.25g/L of photocatalyst dosage. At optimum conditions, synergistic index value was obtained 2.53 that indicated the hybrid systems including ultrasound irradiation and photocatalysis have higher efficiency compared with sum of the individual processes. PMID:27150785

  8. Modeling forces in high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple model that uses computed shielding currents to determine the forces acting on a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). The model has been applied to measurements of the force between HTS and permanent magnets (PM). Results show the expected hysteretic variation of force as the HTS moves first toward and then away from a permanent magnet, including the reversal of the sign of the force. Optimization of the shielding currents is carried out through a simulated annealing algorithm in a C++ program that repeatedly calls a commercial electromagnetic software code. Agreement with measured forces is encouraging

  9. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  10. Multidisciplinary Optimization for Aerospace Using Genetic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Hahn, Edward E.; Herrera, Claudia Y.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the ARMD guidelines NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design and optimization tool This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Optimization has made its way into many mainstream applications. For example NASTRAN(TradeMark) has its solution sequence 200 for Design Optimization, and MATLAB(TradeMark) has an Optimization Tool box. Other packages, such as ZAERO(TradeMark) aeroelastic panel code and the CFL3D(TradeMark) Navier-Stokes solver have no built in optimizer. The goal of the tool development is to generate a central executive capable of using disparate software packages ina cross platform network environment so as to quickly perform optimization and design tasks in a cohesive streamlined manner. A provided figure (Figure 1) shows a typical set of tools and their relation to the central executive. Optimization can take place within each individual too, or in a loop between the executive and the tool, or both.

  11. A Force Theorem by Electron Momentum in Solids

    OpenAIRE

    SENOO, Masafumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; 妹尾, 允史; 鈴木, 泰之

    1991-01-01

    A new force operator, ħ∂2/∂t∂x, is proposed, which is obtained from differentiating of momentum expectration of a quantum perticle by time. A wavefunction is approximated to a planewave, this operator is worked to the wavefunction ; then, force expectation, ħkω, is obtained. We call this force expectation 'marion force'. It is the same as working force to a quantum particle which moves cyclic in a central force potential like centrifugal force on the Bohr model. Apllication of the marion forc...

  12. A Force-Electric Coupling Model and Power Optimization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester*%压电振动能量采集器的力电耦合模型及其功率优化*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光庆; 金文平; 展永政; 陆跃明

    2013-01-01

    为提高传统压电振动能量采集器集总参数模型的性能预测精度,考虑悬臂梁的振型信息与轴向应变分布情况,提出了一种改进的力电耦合模型,该模型引入无因次幅值修正因子,通过曲线拟合方法确定了修正因子与振型函数和振动幅值之间的关系表达式;利用Rayleigh-Ritz模态分析法确定了力电耦合模型中的集总等效参数(如质量、刚度等),并根据弹性动力学原理建立了能量采集器的运动控制方程,得到了稳态时能量采集器的力、电输出响应表达式;最后,利用改进的模型对能量采集器的负载电阻和输出功率进行了优化,得到了负载短路和负载开路时能量采集器的最优输出特性。仿真结果与实例对比验证了提出模型的正确性,表明改进的力电耦合模型具有较高的预测精度。%In order to overcome the disadvantages of the traditional lumped parameter model of piezoelectric vibration energy harvester ( PVEH ) , this article presents an improved force-electric coupling model ( FECM ) to predict the output performances of the PVEH by considering the dynamic mode shape and the strain distribution of the bender. A dimensionless correction factor is adopted in the FECM to formulate the relationship expression between the mode shape and the vibration amplitude of the PVEH with curve fitting method. The equivalent parameters(such as mass,stiffness) of FECM are obtained by using the Rayleigh-Ritz modal analysis method,the governing motion equations and the exact analytical solution of cantilevered piezoelectric vibration energy harvester excited by persistent base motions are developed according to the elastic dynamics principle. The steady state electrical and mechanical output response expressions are derived for arbitrary frequency excitations. Finally,the op-timizations of the load resistance and the output power of the PVEH are carried out and the optimized output

  13. Static magnetic forces and torques in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic forces acting on the various metallic objects around the ATLAS detector, are the subject of the given paper. A system designer could use the information on global forces and torque acting on various components, obtained in this report, to optimize them. The results of force calculations could also serve as additional criteria for the replacement of the magnetic baseline material of various structures by nonmagnetic ones

  14. Sucker rod centralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  15. Rogoff's 'Conservative' Central Banker Restored

    OpenAIRE

    Herrendorf, Berthold; Lockwood, Ben

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows that delegation of monetary policy to a weight-conservative central banker is optimal, although the government can also use an inflation contract, an employment target, an inflation target, or any combination of these, to control the central banker. The key feature of our model is a stochastic inflation bias, arising when wage-setters receive some information about a supply shock prior to signing nominal wage contracts. Weight-conservatism is shown to be desirable if the stoc...

  16. Optimal Stresses in Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Segev, Reuven; deBotton, Gal

    2006-01-01

    For a given external loading on a structure we consider the optimal stresses. Ignoring the material properties the structure may have, we look for the distribution of internal forces or stresses that is in equilibrium with the external loading and whose maximal component is the least. We present an expression for this optimal value in terms of the external loading and the matrix relating the external degrees of freedom and the internal degrees of freedom. The implementation to finite element ...

  17. Delegating Optimal Monetary Policy Inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbiie, Florin Ovidiu

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that absent a commitment technology, central banks can nevertheless achieve the (timeless-)optimal commitment equilibrium if they are delegated with an objective function that is different from the societal one. In a prototypical forward-looking New Keynesian model, I develop a general linear-quadratic method to solve for the optimal delegation parameters that generate the optimal amount of inertia in a Markov-perfect equilibrium. I study the optimal design of some policy reg...

  18. 星点设计-效应面法优化盐酸二甲双胍缓释片处方%Optimization of metformin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets by central composite design/response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈颖; 林巧平; 刘春晖; 狄留庆

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用星点设计-效应面法优化盐酸二甲双胍缓释片的处方.方法 以HPMC K100M的用量和Carbopol 71GNF的用量为考察因素,以1,3,6和10 h的累积释放度为考察指标,采用多元线性回归和多元非线性回归拟合选择合适的模型,根据最佳模型绘制效应面图和等高线图,选择最佳处方并进行验证.采用相似因子对自研片和国外进口片在不同介质中的累积释放度进行比较研究.结果 优化处方中HPMC K100M和Carbopol 71GNF的用量分别为片重的8%~15%和10%~13%.最佳处方在各时间点的累积释放度的实测值与预测值的偏差均在6%以内.自研片和国外进口片在pH=4.5、pH=6.8和水中的累积释放度相似性因子f 2分别为:76.60、75.58和72.38.结论 通过星点设计-效应面法建立的模型可以用于盐酸二甲双胍缓释片处方的优化.%Aim To optimize the formulation of metformin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets by central composite design/response surface methodology( CCD ). Methods The independent variables were the amount of HPMC KIOOM and Carbopol 71GNF, and the dependent variables were the dissolution of metformin hydrochloride at 1 ,3 ,6 ,10 h. Linear or nonlinear mathematic models were used to estimate the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Response surface and 2D-contour map were delineated according to the hest-fit mathematic models to select the optimized formulation and assess the observed and predicted values. The release rate of the sustained-release tablets and imported tablets were studied by similarity factor. Results Optimized forruulation of metformin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets were proposed to consist of 8% - 15% HPMC K1OOM and 10%~ 13% Carbopol 7IGNF. Bias hetween the observed and predicted values was within 6% . The f2 for the sustained-release tablets and imported tablets in different dissolution mediums( pH =4. 5 ,pH =6. 8 and water )were 76

  19. Optimal Stresses in Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, R; Botton, Gal de; Segev, Reuven

    2006-01-01

    For a given external loading on a structure we consider the optimal stresses. Ignoring the material properties the structure may have, we look for the distribution of internal forces or stresses that is in equilibrium with the external loading and whose maximal component is the least. We present an expression for this optimal value in terms of the external loading and the matrix relating the external degrees of freedom and the internal degrees of freedom. The implementation to finite element models consisting of elements of uniform stress distributions is presented. Finally, we give an example of stress optimization for of a two-element model of a cylinder under external traction.

  20. A SCALED CENTRAL PATH FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-xiang Yuan

    2001-01-01

    Interior point methods are very efficient methods for solving large scale linear programming problems. The central path plays a very important role in interior point methods. In this paper we propose a new central path, which scales the variables. Thus it has the advantage of forcing the path to have roughly the same distance from each active constraint boundary near the solution.

  1. Mechanical Forces and Lymphatic Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines current understanding of how the lymphatic vessel network can optimize lymph flow in response to various mechanical forces. Lymphatics are organized as a vascular tree, with blind-ended initial lymphatics, precollectors, prenodal collecting lymphatics, lymph nodes, postnodal collecting lymphatics and the larger trunks (thoracic duct and right lymph duct) that connect to the subclavian veins. The formation of lymph from interstitial fluid depends heavily on oscillating pre...

  2. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  3. Optimization Analysis of Artillery Forces Distribution Based on Functioned Modularity%基于功能“模块化”炮兵兵力区分优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚保禄; 秦喜庆

    2011-01-01

    It expatiates the advantages of artillery forces distribution based on functional modularity with qualitative a nalysis method, establishes a artillery forces distribution model based on functional modularity, demonstrates what the ad vantages are with quantitative analysis method.%定性地阐述了基于功能“模块化”炮兵兵力区分的优势,构建了基于功能“模块化”炮兵兵力区分模型,利用定量分析的方法论证了其优势所在。

  4. Comparative Study on the Differentiation of Central Cities' Development Quality Based on "Three Force" Catastrophe Progression%基于“三力”突变级数的中心城市发展质量差异化比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解佳龙; 雷殷

    2013-01-01

    Based on the model of "Three Force" used in industry evaluation, this paper set the evaluation index system from three dimensions of indigenous innovation ability, effective contribution ability and international competitive ability, and constructed the evaluation model of central cities' development quality by catastrophe progression method. By comprehensive measuring and scatter clustering in three-dimensional space the development quality among the 4 municipalities and 15 sub-provincial cities in China, it is concluded that central cities in China are superposed by the trend of Three Force synchronous equilibrium alienation and the feature of plate level gradient descending, and appears five development phase features, including high equilibrium mode, crossing approximation mode, steady advance mode, innovation short-board mode and low equilibrium mode.%以产业评价“三力模型”为依据,从自主创新力、效益贡献力、国际竞争力三个维度设定了评价指标体系,采用突变级数法构建了中心城市发展质量评价模型,并对全国4个直辖市和15个副省级城市的发展质量进行综合测算与三维空间散点聚类分析,结论认为:我国中心城市发展质量“三力”同步均衡异化趋势与板块级别梯度递减特征叠加,且呈现高水平均衡、跨越逼近、平稳推进、创新短板、低水平均衡五种发展阶段特征.

  5. The swim force as a body force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Brady, John

    2015-11-01

    Net (as opposed to random) motion of active matter results from an average swim (or propulsive) force. It is shown that the average swim force acts like a body force - an internal body force [Yan and Brady, Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/C5SM01318F]. As a result, the particle-pressure exerted on a container wall is the sum of the swim pressure [Takatori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 028103] and the `weight' of the active particles. A continuum mechanical description is possible when variations occur on scales larger than the run length of the active particles and gives a Boltzmann-like distribution from a balance of the swim force and the swim pressure. Active particles may also display `action at a distance' and accumulate adjacent to (or be depleted from) a boundary without any external forces. In the momentum balance for the suspension - the mixture of active particles plus fluid - only external body forces appear.

  6. Malaysia and forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysi...

  7. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  8. The trade off between central bank independence and conservativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoeberichts, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces a parameter for central bank independence in a monetary policy game with a conservative central banker.It tries to explain the optimal degree of central bank independence and conservativeness by four economic and political determinants, both theoretically and empirically.There appears to be a trade off between central bank independence and conservativeness.Then, by comparing the optimal degree of conservativeness and independence with the actual degree of independence, w...

  9. An absolutely dated high-resolution stalagmite record from Lianhua Cave in central China: Climate forcing and comparison with Wanxiang Cave and Dongge Cave records over the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Chun; Yin, Jian-Jun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Mii, Horng-Sheng; Li, Ting-Yong

    2015-04-01

    A 33-cm long aragonite stalagmite (LHD-1) from Lianhua Cave has been dated by MC-ICPMS 230Th/U method on 41 horizons. Very high U contents (1~6ppm) and low Th contents yield excellent 230Th/U dates which provide reliable chronology of the stalagmite on sub-decadal time scale over the past 3350 years. A total of 1716 samples have been measured for δ18O and δ13C, spanning annual resolution over the past 1820 years. The stalagmite δ18O is not only influenced by the 'amount effect', but also affected by the moisture source. Enhanced the tropical monsoon trough under strong EASM brings higher spring quarter rainfall with isotopically light monsoonal moisture in the cave site, resulting in lighter stalagmite δ18O. On decadal or longer time scales, increased solar activity produces warmer condition and stronger summer monsoon which lead to wet climates. On interannual-to-decadal scales, the Walker Circulation under El Niño conditions during cold periods will shift toward the central Pacific and result in weakening of EASM. Under such a circumstance, dry climates will be prevailed in the study area. Based on the δ18O and δ13C records, we have deciphered climatic and vegetation changes of the study area in decadal scales. The highly precise dated LHD-1 record has been compared with previous published Wanxiang Cave and Dongge Cave records. Although some similarities can be found, there are major discrepancies among the three well-dated records, especially during AD 500-700 and AD 1300-1600. In additional, the major weak monsoon periods defined in the Wanxiang Cave record during late Tang Dynasty, late Yuan Dynasty and late Ming Dynasty are not supported by the LHD-1 record. The heaviest δ18O peaks (more than five continuous heavy values) over the past 2000 years appeared around AD 1990-2003, 1657-1662, 1220-1228, 663-669, 363-370, and 1082-1090 (in the order of heavy to light). None of these periods occurred Chinese dynasty collapse.

  10. Force and torque production in static multifinger prehension: biomechanics and control. II. Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Gregory, Robert W.; Latash, Mark L.

    2002-01-01

    The coordination of digits during combined force/torque production tasks was further studied using the data presented in the companion paper [Zatsiorsky et al. Biol Cybern this issue, Part I]. Optimization was performed using as criteria the cubic norms of (a) finger forces, (b) finger forces normalized with respect to the maximal forces measured in single-finger tasks, (c) finger forces normalized with respect to the maximal forces measured in a four-finger task, and (d) finger forces normal...

  11. Force-Directed Graph Drawing Using Social Gravity and Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Bannister, Michael J; Goodrich, Michael T; Trott, Lowell

    2012-01-01

    Force-directed layout algorithms produce graph drawings by resolving a system of emulated physical forces. We present techniques for using social gravity as an additional force in force-directed layouts, together with a scaling technique, to produce drawings of trees and forests, as well as more complex social networks. Social gravity assigns mass to vertices in proportion to their network centrality, which allows vertices that are more graph-theoretically central to be visualized in physically central locations. Scaling varies the gravitational force throughout the simulation, and reduces crossings relative to unscaled gravity. In addition to providing this algorithmic framework, we apply our algorithms to social networks produced by Mark Lombardi, and we show how social gravity can be incorporated into force-directed Lombardi-style drawings.

  12. Formulation Optimization of Asiaticoside Cationic Liposomes by Using Central Composite Design-response Surface Method%星点设计-响应面法优化积雪草苷阳离子脂质体的处方Δ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翔; 刘琨; 张莉

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To optimize the formulation of Asiaticoside cationic liposomes,and to investigate the characteristics of drug release in vitro. METHODS:The thin film dispersion method was used to prepare liposome;using encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading amount as index,the formulation of Asiaticoside liposomes was optimized by central composite design-response surface method with the ratio of drug to lipid(X1),the ratio of cholesterol to lipid(X2)and the concentration of D-mannose(X3) as factors. Using sodium lauryl sulfate as medium,in vitro release characteristics of cationic liposomes prepared with 1%octadecyl-amine was investigated by bag filter method,and compared with those of Asiaticoside solution and common liposome. RESULTS:The optimal formulation was X1 0.07,X2 0.17 and X3 0.03 g/ml. The encapsulation efficiency was (75.529 ± 1.071)%,and drug-loading amount was(2.539±0.029)%(n=3);the deviation from the predicted values were -0.217% and 0.205%;1% oc-tadecylamine was add into formulation to obtain cationic liposomes,and the Zeta potential had changed from -5.6 mV to 20.8 mV. in vitro accumulative release rates of Asiaticoside solution,common liposomes and cationic liposomes were 89.13%(12 h), 87.58%(72 h) and 94.46%(72 h),and the latter was in line with Weibull model. CONCLUSIONS:Asiaticoside cationic lipo-somes have high encapsulation efficiency,and can releases for 72 h.%目的:优化积雪草苷阳离子脂质体的处方,并对其体外释药特性进行考察。方法:采用薄膜分散法制备脂质体;以包封率、载药量为指标,以积雪草苷与磷脂质量比(药脂比,X1)、胆固醇与磷脂质量比(X2)、D-甘露糖质量浓度(X3)为因素,采用星点设计-响应面法优化处方;以十二烷基硫酸钠为介质,采用透析袋法考察加入1%十八胺所制阳离子脂质体的体外释药特性,并与积雪草苷的溶液及普通脂质体进行比较。结果:最优处方为X10.07、X20

  13. Surface and Interfacial Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Hans-Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    This systematic introduction to the topic includes theoretical concepts to help readers understand and predict surface forces, while also integrating experimental techniques and practical applications with up-to-date examples plus motivating exercises. Starting with intermolecular forces, the authors discuss different surfaces forces, with a major part devoted to surface forces between solid surfaces in liquid media. In addition, they cover surface forces between liquid-vapor interfaces and between liquid-liquid interfaces.

  14. Betweenness centrality profiles in trees

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Benjamin; Turan, Gyorgy

    2016-01-01

    Betweenness centrality of a vertex in a graph measures the fraction of shortest paths going through the vertex. This is a basic notion for determining the importance of a vertex in a network. The k-betweenness centrality of a vertex is defined similarly, but only considers shortest paths of length at most k. The sequence of k-betweenness centralities for all possible values of k forms the betweenness centrality profile of a vertex. We study properties of betweenness centrality profiles in trees. We show that for scale-free random trees, for fixed k, the expectation of k-betweenness centrality strictly decreases as the index of the vertex increases. We also analyze worst-case properties of profiles in terms of the distance of profiles from being monotone, and the number of times pairs of profiles can cross. This is related to whether k-betweenness centrality, for small values of k, may be used instead of having to consider all shortest paths. Bounds are given that are optimal in order of magnitude. We also pre...

  15. The Ontology of Knowledge Based Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization has been becoming a central of studies in mathematic and has many areas with different applications. However, many themes of optimization came from different area have not ties closing to origin concepts. This paper is to address some variants of optimization problems using ontology in order to building basic of knowledge about optimization, and then using it to enhance strategy to achieve knowledge based optimization.

  16. optimal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Rozonoer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of optimal control for all initial data are proved for LQ-optimization problem. If these conditions are fulfilled, necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality are formulated. Basing on the results, some general hypotheses on optimal control in terms of Pontryagin's maximum condition and Bellman's equation are proposed.

  17. Repulsive casimir forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss repulsive Casimir forces between dielectric materials with nontrivial magnetic susceptibility. It is shown that considerations based on the naive pairwise summation of van der Waals and Casimir-Polder forces may not only give an incorrect estimate of the magnitude of the total Casimir force but even the wrong sign of the force when materials with high dielectric and magnetic responses are involved. Indeed repulsive Casimir forces may be found in a large range of parameters, and we suggest that the effect may be realized in known materials. The phenomenon of repulsive Casimir forces may be of importance both for experimental study and for nanomachinery applications

  18. Force propagation and force generation in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Oliver; Duschl, Claus

    2010-09-01

    Determining how forces are produced by and propagated through the cytoskeleton (CSK) of the cell is of great interest as dynamic processes of the CSK are intimately correlated with many molecular signaling pathways. We are presenting a novel approach for integrating measurements on cell elasticity, transcellular force propagation, and cellular force generation to obtain a comprehensive description of dynamic and mechanical properties of the CSK under force loading. This approach uses a combination of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We apply well-defined loading schemes onto the apical cell membrane of fibroblasts using the SFM and simultaneously use TIRF microscopy to image the topography of the basal cell membrane. The locally distinct changes of shape and depth of the cytoskeletal imprints onto the basal membrane are interpreted as results of force propagation through the cytoplasm. This observation provides evidence for the tensegrity model and demonstrates the usefulness of our approach that does not depend on potentially disturbing marker compounds. We confirm that the actin network greatly determines cell stiffness and represents the substrate that mediates force transduction through the cytoplasm of the cell. The latter is an essential feature of tensegrity. Most importantly, our new finding that, both intact actin and microtubule networks are required for enabling the cell to produce work, can only be understood within the framework of the tensegrity model. We also provide, for the first time, a direct measurement of the cell's mechanical power output under compression at two femtowatts. PMID:20607861

  19. 斗轮堆取料机门座架受力分析及结构优化%Force analysis and structure optimization of portal frame of bucket-wheel /stacker reclaimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万正喜; 彭高明; 黄志刚

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at problems of portal frames of bucket-wheel stacker/reclaimer such as poor strength and stiffness, greater material consumptim and existence of safety hazards, detailed force analysis for portal frame is performed, and based on this, a new structure for portal frame is put forward, with jointing race replaced by the annular girder. The new portal frame is of good force-bearing condition and high safety reliability, and saves materials and machining work, so it can provide guidance and reference for design of portal frames of bucket-wheel stacker/reclaimer.%针对传统斗轮堆取料机门座架强度和刚度差、耗材、存在安全隐患等问题,对门座架进行详细受力分析,在此基础上提出了新的门座架结构形式,以环形梁代替联结座圈,新的门座架受力好、节省材料、节省加工工序及加工量、安全可靠性高,可为斗轮堆取料机门座架的设计提供指导和参考.

  20. Feed Rate Optimization Program Based on the Simple Average Cutting Force Model%基于简易的平均切削力模型的进给速度优化程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑喜朝

    2011-01-01

    The spindle speed, feed rate, cutting depth, and process spacing are directly proportional to the cutting force.The overhang length and hardness of the tool, hardness of the workpiece have not linear or regular relationship for their complexity in the cutting process.This requires vast amounts of experimental data to establish a cutting force model, and requires a lot of material and human resources.%主轴转速、进给速度、切削深度、加工行距与切削力都成正比关系,刀具的悬长、硬度,工件的硬度等由于切削过程的复杂性,它们并不成线性或有规律的关系.这就需要海量的实验数据来建立起铣削力模型,这就需要耗费大量的物力和人力.

  1. Optimization of laser-assisted glass frit bonding process by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Xiao, Yanyi; Wu, Xingyang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a systematic study on laser-assisted glass frit bonding process was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). Laser power, sealing speed and spot diameter were considered as key bonding parameters. Combined with a central rotatable experimental design, RSM was employed to establish mathematical model to predict the relationship between the shear force after bonding and the bonding process parameters. The model was validated experimentally. Based on the model, the interaction effects of the process parameters on the shear force were analyzed and the optimum bonding parameters were achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to illustrate the relationship between the shear force and the bonding parameters. The predicted results obtained under the optimized parameters by the models are consistent with the experimental results.

  2. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  3. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  4. Business processes optimization possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreva, Elizabeta; Taskov, Nako; Filiposki, Oliver; Boskov, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model and opportunities for better performance, greater efficiency and effectiveness of companies, through optimization of the business processes, change of corporate culture and manners of taking full advantage of the business potential. The benefits of implementation of this model not only increase business results of companies and will continue to serve as the driving force for a continuous improvement, but also increasing the commitment of the top management and...

  5. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  6. Three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries toward calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian. They represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from genuine two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the description of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces. (author)

  7. Hydrophobic Forces in Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Pazhianur, Rajesh R

    1999-01-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to conduct force measurements to better understand the role of hydrophobic forces in flotation. The force measurements were conducted between a flat mineral substrate and a hydrophobic glass sphere in aqueous solutions. It is assumed that the hydrophobic glass sphere may simulate the behavior of air bubbles during flotation. The results may provide information relevant to the bubble-particle interactions occurring during flotation. The glass ...

  8. Estonian central bank sees euro as stabilizing force

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu rahanduskomisjoni esindajad teatasid, et Eesti Pank on valmistanud ette lisameetmeid tugevdamaks Eesti rahandussektorit ning näeb eurotsooniga liitumises võtit Eesti majanduse stabiilsusele

  9. Effective Nuclear Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of effective forces in nuclei from the Hamada- Johnston potential is described. This work begins from the theories of Brueckner and Bethe and applies them to finite systems. Various renormalizations of the force are discussed. The density dependence of the effective forces is considered in detail. Arguments for the partial breakdown of the shell model in heavy nuclei are given. (author)

  10. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  11. Debunking Coriolis Force Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written and debated about the Coriolis force. Unfortunately, this has done little to demystify the paradoxes surrounding this fictitious force invoked by an observer in a rotating frame of reference. It is the purpose of this article to make another valiant attempt to slay the dragon of the Coriolis force! This will be done without…

  12. Crossflow force transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related

  13. Stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Johannes J

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses stochastic optimization procedures in a broad manner. The first part offers an overview of relevant optimization philosophies; the second deals with benchmark problems in depth, by applying a selection of optimization procedures. Written primarily with scientists and students from the physical and engineering sciences in mind, this book addresses a larger community of all who wish to learn about stochastic optimization techniques and how to use them.

  14. Efficacy of climate forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2005-09-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such

  15. Knitting Force Measurement on Flat Knitting Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knittability can be defined as the ability of yarns to run on knitting machines without problems. Knittability can be achieved when less stress is applied on the knitting machine parts by the knitting yarns. This paper presents a novel measuring system for the knitting force needed to perform knitting yarns on flat knitting machine based on data acquisition system (DAS. The proposed system is used to measure the knitting force at different machine settings and different properties of the knitting yarns to determine the optimal production conditions. For this reason, three types of knitted fabric structures (single jersey, Rib 1 × 1, and full cardigan with three different loop lengths and five different twists of ply yarn were produced. The obtained results showed the optimal yarn ply twist factor (αe which gave minimum knitting force (less stress on needles or knitting yarns at different loop lengths for each structure.

  16. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder;

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  17. Forces in molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another? PMID:17328425

  18. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Seligman, T.H.; Straub, F.; Schleich, W.P.

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a...... singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number of...... atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  19. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. A study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority is summarized. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) legal considerations, (2) liability, (3) staffing and operations, (4) costs, (5) relationship to off-site forces, (6) management and control, and (7) transportation. (U.S.)

  20. A Statistical Approach for Optimization of Simultaneous Production of β-Glucosidase and Endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae from Solid-State Fermentation of Water Hyacinth Using Central Composite Design

    OpenAIRE

    Moumita Karmakar; Rina Rani Ray

    2011-01-01

    The production cost of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase could be reduced by using water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, as the sole carbon source and using cost-efficient fermentation strategies like solid-state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, the effect of different production conditions on the yield of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 9642 from water hyacinth was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. A Central composite experimental desig...

  1. Self-force and fluid resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Mendes, Raissa F. P.; Poisson, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The gravitational self-force acting on a particle orbiting a massive central body has thus far been computed for vacuum spacetimes involving a black hole. In this work we continue an ongoing effort to study the self-force in nonvacuum situations. We replace the black hole by a material body consisting of a perfect fluid, and determine the impact of the fluid's dynamics on the self-force and resulting orbital evolution. We show that as the particle inspirals toward the fluid body, its gravitational perturbations trigger a number of quasinormal modes of the fluid-gravity system, which produce resonant features in the conservative and dissipative components of the self-force. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified framework in which gravity is mediated by a scalar potential satisfying a wave equation in Minkowski spacetime.

  2. Self-force and fluid resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Poisson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational self-force acting on a particle orbiting a massive central body has thus far been computed for vacuum spacetimes involving a black hole. In this work we continue an ongoing effort to study the self-force in nonvacuum situations. We replace the black hole by a material body consisting of a perfect fluid, and determine the impact of the fluid's dynamics on the self-force and resulting orbital evolution. We show that as the particle inspirals toward the fluid body, its gravitational perturbations trigger a number of quasinormal modes of the fluid-gravity system, which produce resonant features in the conservative and dissipative components of the self-force. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified framework in which gravity is mediated by a scalar potential satisfying a wave equation in Minkowski spacetime.

  3. Toward isometric force capabilities evaluation by using a musculoskeletal model: Comparison with direct force measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Vincent; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe

    2015-09-18

    Developing formalisms to determine force capabilities of human limbs by using musculoskeletal models could be useful for biomechanical and ergonomic applications. In this framework, the purpose of this study was to compare measured maximal isometric force capabilities at the hand in a set of Cartesian directions with forces computed from a musculoskeletal model of the upper-limb. The results were represented under the form of a measured force polytope (MFP) and a musculoskeletal force polytope (MSFP). Both of them were obtained from the convex hull of measured and simulated force vectors endpoints. Nine subjects participated to the experiment. For one posture recorded with an optoelectronic system, maximum isometric forces exerted at the hand were recorded in twenty six directions of the Cartesian space with a triaxial force sensor. Results showed significant differences between the polytopes global shapes. The MSFP was more elongated than the MFP. Concerning the polytopes volumes, no significant difference was found. Mean maximal isometric forces provided by MFP and MSFP were 509.6 (118.4)N and 627.9 (73.3)N respectively. Moreover, the angle between the main axes of the two polytopes was 5.5 (2.3)° on average. Finally, RMS error values between MFP and MSFP were lower than 100N in 88% of the considered directions. The proposed MSFP based on a musculoskeletal model gave interesting information on optimal force orientation parameters. The possible applications in the frame of ergonomics, rehabilitation and biomechanics are proposed and discussed. PMID:26206551

  4. High-throughput screening for modulators of cellular contractile force

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chan Young; Zhou, Enhua H; Tambe, Dhananjay; Chen, Bohao; Lavoie, Tera; Dowell, Maria; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J.; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Burger, Stephanie; Frykenberg, Matthew; Butler, James P.; Stamer, W. Daniel; Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    When cellular contractile forces are central to pathophysiology, these forces comprise a logical target of therapy. Nevertheless, existing high-throughput screens are limited to upstream signaling intermediates with poorly defined relationship to such a physiological endpoint. Using cellular force as the target, here we screened libraries to identify novel drug candidates in the case of human airway smooth muscle cells in the context of asthma, and also in the case of Schlemm's canal endothel...

  5. Quantification of the lateral detachment force for bacterial cells using atomic force microscope and centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the lateral detachment force for individual bacterial cells, a quantitative method using the contact mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed in this study. Three key factors for the proposed method, i.e. scan size, scan rate and cantilever choice, were evaluated and optimized. The scan size of 40x40 μm2 was optimal for capturing sufficient number of adhered cells in a microscopic field and provide adequate information for cell identification and detachment force measurement. The scan rate affected the measurement results significantly, and was optimized at 40 μm/s considering both force measurement accuracy and experimental efficiency. The hardness of applied cantilevers also influenced force determination. The proposed protocol for cantilever selection is to use those with the lowest spring constant first and then step up to a harder cantilever until all cells are detached. The lateral detachment force of Escherichia coli cells on polished stainless steel and a glass-slide coated with poly-L-lysine were measured as 0.763±0.167 and 0.639±0.136 nN, respectively. The results showed that the established method had good repeatability and sensitivity to various bacteria/substrata combinations. The detachment force quantified by AFM (0.639±0.136 nN) was comparable to that measured by the centrifugation method (1.12 nN). -- Research highlights: → A quantitative method via AFM is developed to measure the lateral detachment force of an attached cell. → The parameters of AFM operation for this method are optimized. → The tests using E. coli on different substrata show that the method has good repeatability and sensitivity. → The method could obtain reliable results that are comparable to those using the centrifugation approach.

  6. Hirsch index as a network centrality measure

    CERN Document Server

    Campiteli, Monica G; Soles, Paulo R C; Soares, Leonardo H D; Kinouchi, Osame

    2010-01-01

    We study the h Hirsch index as a local node centrality measure for complex networks in general. The h index is compared with the Degree centrality (a local measure), the Betweenness and Eigenvector centralities (two non-local measures) in the case of a biological network (Yeast interaction protein-protein network) and a linguistic network (Moby Thesaurus II) as test environments. In both networks, the Hirsch index has poor correlation with Betweenness centrality but correlates well with Eigenvector centrality, specially for the more important nodes that are relevant for ranking purposes, say in Search Machine Optimization. In the thesaurus network, the h index seems even to outperform the Eigenvector centrality measure as evaluated by simple linguistic criteria.

  7. Optimal Control Strategy on the Centralized Control Type Emergency Evacuation System of Super High-rise Building%超高层建筑集中控制型应急疏散系统最优控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全蜀

    2013-01-01

    本文以目前我国在建结构第一高楼天津高银117大厦所采用的集中控制型应急疏散系统为对象,研究建筑中应急疏散系统的最优控制策略。该系统利用最优控制理论中的自适应蚁群算法,将公共区域疏散指示标志灯进行通讯整合,实现集中控制。%This paper takes the centralized control type emer-gency evacuation system of Tianjin high silver 117 building, China’s first high-rise structure currently in construction, as o-bject, researches the optimal control strategy of building eme-rgency evacuation system. The system uses adaptive optimal c-ontrol theory of ant colony algorithm, integrates the communi-cation of evacuation indicator lights in public area, to realize the centralized control.

  8. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  9. Optimization of synchronizability in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, Sanjiv K; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the optimization of synchronizability in multiplex networks and demonstrate that the interlayer coupling strength is the deciding factor for the efficiency of optimization. The optimized networks have homogeneity in the degree as well as in the betweenness centrality. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength crucially affects various properties of individual layers in the optimized multiplex networks. We provide an understanding to how the emerged network properties are shaped or affected when the evolution renders them better synchronizable.

  10. Force sensitivity of plant gravisensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurinavičius, R.; Švegždien≐, D.; Gaina, V.

    Rotation at 4, 10, 50 and 100 rpm on a horizontal clinostat and in microgravity exerts limited effects on the morphogenesis of lettuce and cress root statocytes and statoliths if compared with the vertical control or 1 g spaceflight reference centrifuge. However, the average distance of statoliths from the distal wall increases. The pattern of plastid location of microgravity-grown and that of clino-rotated samples has been determined at 10, 50, and 100 rpm. Experiments on the centrifuge-clinostat and spaceflight centrifuge (acceleration forces of 0.005 to 1 g) revealed that the average statolith location depends on the amplitude of acropetally or basipetally directed mass acceleration. Decreasing the acropetally directed force from 1 g to 0.4 g dislocates statoliths towards the cell center possibly mediated by the elastic forces of the cytoskeleton. In statocytes formed on the clinostat or in microgravity, the majority of statoliths are located at the center of the cell. To force the statoliths from the center of the statocyte towards one of its poles, a threshold mass acceleration of 0.01 g is required. Statocytes with centrally-located statoliths are considerably more effective in transducing a gravistimulus than those with distally-located plastids. The latent time of the graviresponse is shorter and the response itself is enhanced in roots grown on the clinostat compared to vertically grown samples. The early phases of graviperception are independent of root growth conditions since presentation time and g-threshold are similar for roots grown stationary and those on a clinostat. We propose a sequence of events in gravitropic stimulation that considers not only the lateral displacement of statoliths, as predicted by the starch-statolith hypothesis, but also its longitudinal motion, together with differential gravisensitivity of mechanotransducing structures along the lower-most longitudinal cell wall.

  11. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J;

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force devel....... Therefore, we provide evidence-based practical recommendations for rational quantification of rate of force development in both laboratory and clinical settings.......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...... development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms...

  12. Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Björnham, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...

  13. Optimization about preparing methods of milk solidification force medium of Rumeisheng tablet and crude material in identification%乳酶生片及原料鉴别中牛奶凝固力培养基制备方法的优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋菲; 闵红; 杨晓丽; 刘海静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the milk solidification force medium from three kinds of pure milk and two kinds of defatted milk powder about RumeiSheng quality standards. Methods We compared milk solidification force mediums from different brands, which were Yili,Yinqiao,Mengniu pure milks and Wandashan,Yili defated milk powder,and different methods including centrifuging at low temperature or boiling. Results Lactoalbumin was not separated out, clot was uniform and dense, gas did not emerged, there was not digestive phenomenon in the defatted milk medium. So methods by centrifuging at low temperature and boiling were feasible. Conclusion Boiling to defat is simple and convenient. Solidification force from defatted pure milks is better than defatted milk powders.%目的 优选乳酶生片及原料鉴别中牛奶凝固力培养基的制备方法.方法 以伊利、银桥、蒙牛3种纯牛奶,完达山和伊利2种脱脂奶粉为样本,比较低温离心和煮沸2种脱脂方法.结果 低温离心和煮沸2种脱脂方法均可,经脱脂处理的牛奶培养基表面无多量乳清分出,凝块均匀稠密,无气体产生,无消化现象.结论 用煮沸脱脂方法简便易操作,经脱脂的纯牛奶比脱脂奶粉凝固较好.

  14. Rol del fallo mecánico en la optimización del mantenimiento en una central nuclear//Role of the mechanical failure during the maintenance optimization in the nuclear power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Torres - Valle

    2012-01-01

    Entre las más recientes aplicaciones del Análisis Probabilista de Seguridad (1997 – 2003) de la Central Nuclear Embalse en Argentina, está el Programa de Mantenimiento Orientado a la Seguridad (2006– 2009) el cual se ha desarrollado con el empleo de la metodología de Mantenimiento Centrado en la Confiabilidad (RCM en inglés). El objetivo general del artículo es demostrar la alta contribución de los fallos mecánicos en el diseño de las políticas de mantenimiento de varios sistemas de la instal...

  15. Application of central composite design and rank annihilation factor analysis for optimization of mixed chelate of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} complex with ammonium-N,N-tetramethylenedithiocarbamate and estimation of K{sub f} value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslani, Mahmut A.A.; Kuru, Yesim F.; Aslani, Ceren Kutahyali [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and ammonium-N,N-tetramethylenedithiocarbamate (ATMDTC) was investigated experimentally by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to optimisation of reaction with 54 runs in duplicate. This design type was also used to developed mathematical model equation. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicates that the terms of the model are significant within the 95% confident interval. Remarkably initial solution pH, initial ATMDTC concentration, initial Cu{sup 2+} concentration and temperature have effect on the reaction. Formation constant (log K{sub f}) was calculated as 2.917 by using Rank Annihilation Factor Analysis (RAFA).

  16. Application of central composite design and rank annihilation factor analysis for optimization of mixed chelate of UO22+ complex with ammonium-N,N-tetramethylenedithiocarbamate and estimation of Kf value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between UO22+ and ammonium-N,N-tetramethylenedithiocarbamate (ATMDTC) was investigated experimentally by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to optimisation of reaction with 54 runs in duplicate. This design type was also used to developed mathematical model equation. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicates that the terms of the model are significant within the 95% confident interval. Remarkably initial solution pH, initial ATMDTC concentration, initial Cu2+ concentration and temperature have effect on the reaction. Formation constant (log Kf) was calculated as 2.917 by using Rank Annihilation Factor Analysis (RAFA).

  17. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  18. Three-body forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-body forces are defined and their properties discussed. Evidence for such forces in the trinucleon bound states and scattering reactions is reviewed. The binding energy defects of the trinucleon bound states, the 3He charge density, the Phillips line for doublet n-d scattering lengths, and three-nucleon breakup reactions are discussed, together with the possible influence of three-body forces on these observables

  19. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  20. Theory of intermolecular forces

    CERN Document Server

    Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

    1971-01-01

    Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

  1. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  2. No fifth force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Hopes that geophysicists might be able to document a fifth force of nature have diminished, as new measurements and analyses of earlier geodetic experiments have yielded no solid evidence of a non-Newtonian component of gravity.Modern physics recognizes four fundamental forces with distinct spheres of influence: The strong and weak nuclear forces operate over the range of one atom, while gravity and electromagnetism have an infinite range. Gravity measurements over a few centimeters in laboratories and over millions of kilometers in space continue to buttress Issac Newton's conclusion that the gravitational force between two objects decreases as the square of the distance between them.

  3. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  4. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, P.K.

    1986-12-01

    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  5. Sparse regularization for force identification using dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Baijie; Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    The classical function expansion method based on minimizing l2-norm of the response residual employs various basis functions to represent the unknown force. Its difficulty lies in determining the optimum number of basis functions. Considering the sparsity of force in the time domain or in other basis space, we develop a general sparse regularization method based on minimizing l1-norm of the coefficient vector of basis functions. The number of basis functions is adaptively determined by minimizing the number of nonzero components in the coefficient vector during the sparse regularization process. First, according to the profile of the unknown force, the dictionary composed of basis functions is determined. Second, a sparsity convex optimization model for force identification is constructed. Third, given the transfer function and the operational response, Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation (SpaRSA) is developed to solve the sparse regularization problem of force identification. Finally, experiments including identification of impact and harmonic forces are conducted on a cantilever thin plate structure to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of SpaRSA. Besides the Dirac dictionary, other three sparse dictionaries including Db6 wavelets, Sym4 wavelets and cubic B-spline functions can also accurately identify both the single and double impact forces from highly noisy responses in a sparse representation frame. The discrete cosine functions can also successfully reconstruct the harmonic forces including the sinusoidal, square and triangular forces. Conversely, the traditional Tikhonov regularization method with the L-curve criterion fails to identify both the impact and harmonic forces in these cases.

  6. Optimization (Central Composite Design and Validation of HPLC Method for Investigation of Emtricitabine Loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid Nanoparticles: In Vitro Drug Release and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study is to develop nanoparticles (NPs drug delivery system of emtricitabine solely using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA and evaluate its in vitro and in vivo release performance by systematically optimized HPLC method using Formulation by Design (FbD. NPs were evaluated for in vitro release and in vivo absorption study. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm column, under isocratic conditions using UV detection at 280 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 40 mM phosphate dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 6.8, methanol, and 2% acetonitrile in a ratio of (83 : 15 : 2, v/v/v at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The linear regression analysis for the calibration curves showed a good linear correlation over the concentration range 0.040–2.0 μg/mL, with retention time of 4.39 min. An average encapsulation efficiency of 74.34% was obtained for NPs. In vitro studies showed zero-order release and about 95% drug being released within 15 days in PBS (pH 7.4. In conclusion, the proposed optimized method was successfully applied for the determination of in vitro and in vivo release studies of emtricitabine NPs.

  7. CENTRAL EUROPE: Role models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungary is one of the newcomers to the CERN fold, having joined in 1992. The country's contributions are naturally in line with its slender resources and are not as immediately visible as those of the major Western European Member States. However the approach used and its consequent successes provide a good role model for a smaller nation in an international research environment. This was reflected on 24 September at a meeting of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) convened in Budapest, continuing an ECFA tradition of holding meetings in national centres to learn more about the physics programmes of different countries. This tradition started with visits to major West European Centres, but last year ECFA held a meeting in Warsaw, its first in a central European country. By far the largest Hungarian population centre, Budapest is also a hub for national research in this sector, with university centres and the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the National Academy of Sciences. However important research work is also carried out in the eastern city of Debrecen. Hungarians look back to the classic investigations of Eotvos early this century as the starting point of their national tradition in fundamental physics. (In the mid-80s, these experiments briefly came back into vogue when there was a suggestion of an additional 'fifth force' contribution to nuclear masses.)

  8. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  9. 以广义力传递率为目标的动力总成隔振悬置系统优化设计方法%Optimal Design Method of Power-train Mounting System for Generalized Force Transmissibility Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚楠; 吕振华

    2011-01-01

    Generalized force transmissibility (GFT) and sum of GFT integrals of power-train mounts are defined, which are appropriate to be taken as vibration isolation index of power-train mounting system.A design optimization approach for power-train mounting system is proposed, with many design variables, several constraints of rigid-body modal frequencies and an objective of minimizing the sum of GFT integrals.As an example, a power-train mounting system of a coach is optimized with the approach, and important design parameters, such as coordinates, angles and spring rates of power-train mounts, are optimized.As a result, the GFTs,the frequency ratio and dynamic force transmissibility are improved, thus certifying feasibility and effectiveness of this optimizatioin approach.%定义动力总成悬置系统的广义力传递率及其积分和,适于作为动力总成悬置系统隔振特性优化设计计算的评价指标.提出以广义力传递率积分和极小化为目标的动力总成悬置系统优化设计计算方法,对动力总成一悬置系统的刚体振动模态频率的分布范围加以约束,可实现悬置系统布置参数和悬置元件刚度的优化.基于一种客车的动力总成-悬置系统,进行较完整的优化设计计算分析,使系统的广义力传递率、各阶固有振动频率的频率比和动态力传递率均得到了明显改善,证明了这种优化设计方法的可行性和有效性.

  10. Searches for new macroscopic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for new interactions and their associated bosons is a central theme in modern physics. Such searches are particularly topical today, when there is a consensus that the Standard Model cannot be complete, and that new interactions and their mediating particles are required. However, because of the wide variety of theoretical ideas for overcoming the perceived difficulties of the Standard Model, there is no consensus on the expected properties of mediating particles. One normally supposes that the bosons mediating these new interactions have not been observed because they are too massive to have been produced by existing accelerators. Therefore particle searches are usually conducted at the highest energy accelerators. However, it has recently been recognized that there is another quite different and largely unexplored window on possible new physics, namely the search for new bosons with masses so low that they would generate a macroscopic force. This paper covers recent theoretical and experimental work that addresses this possibility

  11. To centralize or not to centralize?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Andrew; Kunisch, Sven; Müller-Stewens, Günter

    2011-01-01

    The CEO's dilemma-were the gains of centralization worth the pain it could cause?-is a perennial one. Business leaders dating back at least to Alfred Sloan, who laid out GM's influential philosophy of decentralization in a series of memos during the 1920s, have recognized that badly judged centralization can stifle initiative, constrain the ability to tailor products and services locally, and burden business divisions with high costs and poor service.1 Insufficient centralization can deny bus...

  12. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

    2011-01-01

    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  13. Force Concept Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestenes, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports the rationale, design, validation, and uses of the "Force Concept Inventory," an instrument to assess the students' beliefs on force. Includes results and implications of two studies that compared the inventory with the "Mechanics Baseline." Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  14. Medicinsk Optimering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Klavs

    2010-01-01

    En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system......En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system...

  15. Optimization and variability of motor behavior in multi-finger tasks: What variables does the brain use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joel R.; Terekhov, Alexander V.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    The neural control of movement has been described using different sets of elemental variables. Two possible sets of elemental variables have been suggested for finger pressing tasks: the forces of individual fingers and the finger commands (also called “finger modes” or “central commands”). In this study we analyze which of the two sets of the elemental variables is more likely used in the optimization of the finger force sharing and which set is used for the stabilization of performance. We used two recently developed techniques – the analytical inverse optimization (ANIO) and the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis – to evaluate each set of elemental variables with respect to both aspects of performance. The results of the UCM analysis favored the finger commands as the elemental variables used for performance stabilization, while ANIO worked equally well on both sets of elemental variables. A simple scheme is suggested as to how the CNS could optimize a cost function dependent on the finger forces, but for the sake of facilitation of the feed-forward control it substitutes the original cost function by a cost function, which is convenient to optimize in the space of finger commands. PMID:23742067

  16. Searchability of central nodes in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Social networks are discrete systems with a large amount of heterogeneity among nodes (individuals). Measures of centrality aim at a quantification of nodes' importance for structure and function. Here we ask to which extent the most central nodes can be found by purely local search. We find that many networks have close-to-optimal searchability under eigenvector centrality, outperforming searches for degree and betweenness. Searchability of the strongest spreaders in epidemic dynamics tends to be substantially larger for supercritical than for subcritical spreading.

  17. Forced Bank Mergers and SME Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Ramli

    2015-01-01

    Access to finance is one of the most significant challenges for the creation, survival and growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially, innovative ones. However, forced bank mergers by Central bank of Indonesia may hurdle SME financing and growth. Using the financial data of seven Indonesian bank mergers within 2004-2009, periods three years before and after the merger, this study examines whether bank mergers may hurdle SME financing and growth. The study concludes that bank me...

  18. Topology Optimization of Thermal Heat Sinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaas Haertel, Jan Hendrik; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, topology optimization is applied to optimize the cooling performance of thermal heat sinks. The coupled two-dimensional thermofluid model of a heat sink cooled with forced convection and a density-based topology optimization including density filtering and projection are implemented...... in COMSOL Multiphysics. The optimization objective is to minimize the heat sink’s temperature for a prescribed pressure drop and fixed heat generation. To conduct the optimization, COMSOL’s Optimization Module with GCMMA as the optimization method is used. The implementation of this topology...... optimization approach in COMSOL Multiphysics is described in this paper and results for optimized two-dimensional heat sinks are presented. Furthermore, parameter studies regarding the effect of the prescribed pressure drop of the system on Reynolds number and realized heat sink temperature are presented and...

  19. The poor man's scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Macroscope (Zypman F R and Guerra-Vela C 2001 Eur. J. Phys. 22 17-30), an educational large-scale version of a scanning force microscope's cantilever-tip system, is used in the presence of nonlinear forces. This paper presents quantitative experimental evidence confirming the validity of the beam model (BM) (Eppel S J, Todd B A and Zypman F R 2000 Materials Issues and Modeling for Device Nanofabrication ed L Merhari et al (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society) pp 584, 189) as a proper reconstruction algorithm. As a teaching laboratory experiment, the force measurements are first done directly with a variety of dynamometer-like setups. Subsequently, the measurements are performed indirectly with the Macroscope from the cantilever resonant frequency shifts and the BM algorithm. Two central results of this work lie in its ability to compare forces obtained by traditional algorithms with known forces, and to illustrate in a hands-on fashion the principles behind the working of a scanning force microscope. (author)

  20. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope

  1. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-05-15

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  2. Based on the Force Deployment Model of Unascertained Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize the unascertained mathematics method to give the unascertained number of countermeasure of anti-terrorism strategic force deployment and unknown event. It has been defined the situation sets of force deployment, condition density and mathematical expectation of density model. It has been given the unascertained parameters Cij which decide and direct the force deployment. Find out the condition density matrix of force deployment, further get the conditional density of single target force deployment, using the maximum density mathematical expectation in order to get the optimal mathematical model of multiple target force deployment. Analyzing the coefficient of model and provide two kinds of discussed computing method. The model overcomes the limitation of past deterministic thinking method which study the force deployment and provide the decision maker a relative substantial theory evidence.

  3. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  4. Synchrony-optimized power grids

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Rafael S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate synchronization in power grids, which we assume to be modeled by a network of Kuramoto oscillators with inertia. More specifically, we study the optimization of the power grid topology to favor the network synchronization. We introduce a rewiring algorithm which consists basically in a hill climb scheme where the edges of the network are swapped in order enhance the main measures of synchronization. As a byproduct of the optimization algorithm, we typically have also the anticipation of the synchronization onset for the optimized network. We perform several robustness tests for the synchrony-optimized power grids, including the impact of consumption peaks. In our analyses, we investigate synthetic random networks, which we consider as hypothetical decentralized power generation situations, and also a network based in the actual power grid of Spain, which corresponds to the current paradigm of centralized power grids. The synchrony-optimized power grids obtained by our algorithm have some intere...

  5. Multi-objective optimization of stamping forming process of head using Pareto-based genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 卓芳; 黄磊; 罗艳

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the optimal process parameters of stamping forming, finite element analysis and optimization technique were integrated via transforming multi-objective issue into a single-objective issue. A Pareto-based genetic algorithm was applied to optimizing the head stamping forming process. In the proposed optimal model, fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying are a function of several factors, such as fillet radius, draw-bead position, blank size and blank-holding force. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between the objective functions and the variables in order to make objective functions varying minimized simultaneously. Firstly, the central composite experimental (CCD) with four factors and five levels was applied, and the experimental data based on the central composite experimental were acquired. Then, the response surface model (RSM) was set up and the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) show that it is reliable to predict the fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying functions by the response surface model. Finally, a Pareto-based genetic algorithm was used to find out a set of Pareto front, which makes fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying minimized integrally. A head stamping case indicates that the present method has higher precision and practicability compared with the“trial and error”procedure.

  6. Notes on forcing axioms

    CERN Document Server

    Todorcevic, Stevo; Feng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the mathematical practice, the Baire category method is a tool for establishing the existence of a rich array of generic structures. However, in mathematics, the Baire category method is also behind a number of fundamental results such as the Open Mapping Theorem or the Banach-Steinhaus Boundedness Principle. This volume brings the Baire category method to another level of sophistication via the internal version of the set-theoretic forcing technique. It is the first systematic account of applications of the higher forcing axioms with the stress on the technique of building forcing notions

  7. Magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles of the operation of the magnetic force microscope are considered. The main areas of application of magnetic force microscopy are characterised. The prospects are shown of using this method for solving problems of materials science, including the most topical problem, viz., the creation of magnetic recording media with ultrahigh recording density. Unique potentials for investigation of nanostructures using a combination of magnetic force microscopy with electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance are pointed out. Primary attention is focused on the description of experimental techniques. The bibliography includes 27 references.

  8. Quantized Casimir Force

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Macdonald, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the Casimir effect between two-dimensional electron systems driven to the quantum Hall regime by a strong perpendicular magnetic field. In the large separation (d) limit where retardation effects are essential we find i) that the Casimir force is quantized in units of 3\\hbar c \\alpha^2/(8\\pi^2 d^4), and ii) that the force is repulsive for mirrors with same type of carrier, and attractive for mirrors with opposite types of carrier. The sign of the Casimir force is therefore elec...

  9. Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions by graphene oxide modified with 2,2'-dipyridylamine: Central composite design optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah; Ferdowsi, Somayeh Moazen; Barzin, Ahmad; Tadjarodi, Azadeh

    2016-09-01

    In present work, a graphene oxide chemically modified with 2,2'-dipyridylamine (GO-DPA), was synthesized by simple, fast and low-cost process for the simultaneous adsorption of four toxic heavy metals, Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), from aqueous solutions. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM and AFM measurements. The effects of variables such as pH solution, initial ion concentrations, adsorbent dosage and sonicating time were investigated on adsorption efficiency by rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions, specified as 8mg of adsorbent, 20mgL(-1) of each ion at pH 5 and short time of 4min led to the achievement of a high adsorption capacities. Ultrasonic power had important role in shortening the adsorption time of ions by enhancing the dispersion of adsorbent in solution. The adsorption kinetic studies and equilibrium isotherms for evaluating the mechanism of adsorption process showed a good fit to the pseudo-second order and Langmuir model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) of this adsorbent were 369.749, 257.201, 180.893 and 358.824mgg(-1) for lead, cadmium, nickel and copper ions, respectively. The removal performance of adsorbent on the real wastewater samples also showed the feasibility of adsorbent for applying in industrial purposes. PMID:27150770

  10. Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic assisted adsorption of brilliant green and eosin B onto ZnS nanoparticles loaded activated carbon: Artificial neural network modeling and central composite design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Dashtian, K.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Hajati, S.; Goudarzi, A.; Alipanahpour, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function approach (DFA) gives useful information about operational condition and also to obtain useful information about interaction and main effect of variables concerned to simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of brilliant green (BG) and eosin B (EB) by zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NPs-AC). Spectra overlap between BG and EB dyes was extensively reduced and/or omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method, while multi-layer artificial neural network (ML-ANN) model learned with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was used for building up a predictive model and prediction of the BG and EB removal. The ANN efficiently was able to forecast the simultaneous BG and EB removal that was confirmed by reasonable numerical value i.e. MSE of 0.0021 and R2 of 0.9589 and MSE of 0.0022 and R2 of 0.9455 for testing data set, respectively. The results reveal acceptable agreement among experimental data and ANN predicted results. Langmuir as the best model for fitting experimental data relevant to BG and EB removal indicates high, economic and profitable adsorption capacity (258.7 and 222.2 mg g- 1) that supports and confirms its applicability for wastewater treatment.

  11. A single magnetic nanocomposite cilia force sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-04-20

    The advancements in fields like robotics and medicine continuously require improvements of sensor devices and more engagement of cooperative sensing technologies. For example, instruments such as tweezers with sensitive force sensory heads could provide the ability to sense a variety of physical quantities in real time, such as the amount and direction of the force applied or the texture of the gripped object. Force sensors with such abilities could be great solutions toward the development of smart surgical tools. In this work, a unique force sensor that can be integrated at the tips of robotic arms or surgical tools is reported. The force sensor consists of a single bioinspired, permanent magnetic and highly elastic nanocomposite cilia integrated on a magnetic field sensing element. The nanocomposite is prepared from permanent magnetic nanowires incorporated into the highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane. We demonstrate the potential of this concept by performing several experiments to show the performance of the force sensor. The developed sensor element has a 200 μm in diameter single cilium with 1:5 aspect ratio and shows a detection range up to 1 mN with a sensitivity of 1.6 Ω/mN and a resolution of 31 μN. The simple fabrication process of the sensor allows easy optimization of the sensor performance to meet the needs of different applications.

  12. Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    the features he may wish. A way to solve the initial design problem namely finding a form can be solved by so-called topology optimization. The idea is to define a design region and an amount of material. The loads and supports are also fidefined, and the algorithm finds the optimal material...... distribution. The objective function dictates the form, and the designer can choose e.g. maximum stiness, maximum allowable stresses or maximum lowest eigenfrequency. The result of the topology optimization is a relatively coarse map of material layout. This design can be transferred to a CAD system and given...... the necessary geometrically refinements, and then remeshed and reanalysed in other to secure that the design requirements are met correctly. The output of standard topology optimization has seldom well-defined, sharp contours leaving the designer with a tedious interpretation, which often results in...

  13. OPTIMAL THICKNESS OF A CYLINDRICAL SHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ziemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an optimization problem for a cylindrical shell is discussed. The aim is to look for an optimal thickness of a shell to minimize the deformation under an applied external force. As a side condition, the volume of the shell has to stay constant during the optimization process. The deflection is calculated using an approach from shell theory. The resulting control-to-state operator is investigated analytically and a corresponding optimal control problem is formulated. Moreover, necessary conditions for an optimal solution are stated and numerical solutions are presented for different examples.

  14. Portfolio Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Issagali, Aizhan; Alshimbayeva, Damira; Zhalgas, Aidana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Portfolio Optimization techniques were used to determine the most favorable investment portfolio. In particular, stock indices of three companies, namely Microsoft Corporation, Christian Dior Fashion House and Shevron Corporation were evaluated. Using this data the amounts invested in each asset when a portfolio is chosen on the efficient frontier were calculated. In addition, the Portfolio with minimum variance, tangency portfolio and optimal Markowitz portfolio are presented.

  15. Quantized Casimir force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; MacDonald, A H

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the Casimir effect between two-dimensional electron systems driven to the quantum Hall regime by a strong perpendicular magnetic field. In the large-separation (d) limit where retardation effects are essential, we find (i) that the Casimir force is quantized in units of 3ħcα(2)/8π(2)d(4) and (ii) that the force is repulsive for mirrors with the same type of carrier and attractive for mirrors with opposite types of carrier. The sign of the Casimir force is therefore electrically tunable in ambipolar materials such as graphene. The Casimir force is suppressed when one mirror is a charge-neutral graphene system in a filling factor ν=0 quantum Hall state. PMID:23368242

  16. Astrocytes optimize synaptic fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter; Levine, Herbert

    2007-03-01

    Most neuronal synapses in the central nervous system are enwrapped by an astrocytic process. This relation allows the astrocyte to listen to and feed back to the synapse and to regulate synaptic transmission. We combine a tested mathematical model for the Ca^2+ response of the synaptic astrocyte and presynaptic feedback with a detailed model for vesicle release of neurotransmitter at active zones. The predicted Ca^2+ dependence of the presynaptic synaptic vesicle release compares favorably for several types of synapses, including the Calyx of Held. We hypothesize that the feedback regulation of the astrocyte onto the presynaptic terminal optimizes the fidelity of the synapse in terms of information transmission.

  17. Optimal heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Andre; Doering, Charles R.

    2015-11-01

    The transport of heat by buoyancy driven flows, i.e., thermal convection plays a central role in many natural phenomena and an understanding of how to control its mechanisms is relevant to many engineering applications. In this talk we will consider a variational formulation of optimal heat transport in simple geometries. Numerical results, limits on heat transport, and a comparison to Rayleigh-Bénard convection will be presented. Research supported by NSF Awards PHY-1205219, PHY-1338407, PHY-1443836, PHY-1533555 and DMS-1515161.

  18. New force in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent experimental and theoretical work dealing with the proposed fifth force. Further analysis of the original Eotvos experiments has uncovered no challenges to our original assertion that these data evidence a correlation characteristic of the presence of a new coupling to baryon number or hypercharge. Various models suggest that the proposed fifth force could be accommodated naturally into the existing theoretical framework. 40 refs

  19. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphas...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  20. Strategic forces briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.; Chrzanowski, P.; May, M.; Nordyke, M.

    1989-04-06

    The Strategic Forces Briefing'' is our attempt, accomplished over the past several months, to outline and highlight the more significant strategic force issues that must be addressed in the near future. Some issues are recurrent: the need for an effective modernized Triad and a constant concern for force survivability. Some issues derive from arms control: the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (SALT) are sufficiently advanced to set broad numerical limits on forces, but not so constraining as to preclude choices among weapon systems and deployment modes. Finally, a new administration faced with serious budgetary problems must strive for the most effective strategic forces limited dollars can buy and support. A review of strategic forces logically begins with consideration of the missions the forces are charged with. We begin the briefing with a short review of targeting policy and implementation within the constraints of available unclassified information. We then review each element of the Triad with sections on SLBMs, ICBMs, and Air-Breathing (bomber and cruise missile) systems. A short section at the end deals with the potential impact of strategic defense on offensive force planning. We consider ABM, ASAT, and air defense; but we do not attempt to address the technical issues of strategic defense per se. The final section gives a brief overview of the tritium supply problem. We conclude with a summary of recommendations that emerge from our review. The results of calculation on the effectiveness of various weapon systems as a function of cost that are presented in the briefing are by Paul Chrzanowski.

  1. Motional Casimir force

    OpenAIRE

    Jaekel, Marc-Thierry; Reynaud, Serge

    2001-01-01

    We study the situation where two point like mirrors are placed in the vacuum state of a scalar field in a two-dimensional spacetime. Describing the scattering upon the mirrors by transmittivity and reflectivity functions obeying unitarity, causality and high frequency transparency conditions, we compute the fluctuations of the Casimir forces exerted upon the two motionless mirrors. We use the linear response theory to derive the motional forces exerted upon one mirror when it moves or when th...

  2. Casimir force for electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Høye, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir force between a pair of parallell plates filled with ionic particles is considered. We use a statistical mechanical approach and consider the classical high temperature limit. In this limit the ideal metal result with no transverse electric (TE) zero frequency mode is recovered. This result has also been obtained by Jancovici and \\v{S}amaj earlier. Our derivation differs mainly from the latter in the way the Casimir force is evaluated from the correlation function. By our approach...

  3. Friction force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Bennewitz

    2005-01-01

    Friction force microscopy (FFM) can detect lateral force variations on the atomic scale when sliding a sharp tip over a flat surface. The sliding often takes the form of a stick-slip movement with the same periodicity as the atomic lattice. Here, I discuss how the occurrence of stick-slip instabilities is related to the onset of dissipation. The velocity and load dependence of atomic friction on various materials are discussed in the light of simple classical laws of friction.

  4. A novel multi-axis force sensor for microrobotics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High performance force sensors often encounter the conflicting requirements of fine sensitivity and wide bandwidth. While there is an intrinsic tradeoff between these two metrics that cannot be physically avoided for any force transducer, through proper optimization the product of these two can be maximized. Similarly, the requirements of multiple sensing axes and overall compactness are also often at odds. This paper describes a novel design, simple method of fabrication, and thorough analysis of a high performance two-axis force sensor. We conclude with an example application: measuring the lift and drag forces from a flapping-wing robotic insect

  5. Optimal pits and optimal transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekeland, Ivar; Queyranne, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    In open pit mining, one must dig a pit, that is, excavate the upper layers of ground before reaching the ore. The walls of the pit must satisfy some geomechanical constraints, in order not to collapse. The question then arises how to mine the ore optimally, that is, how to find the optimal pit. We set up the problem in a continuous (as opposed to discrete) framework, and we show, under weak assumptions, the existence of an optimum pit. For this, we formulate an optimal transportation problem,...

  6. Ultrasonic-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of morphine in urine samples by new imprinted polymer-supported on MWCNT-Fe3O4-NPs: Central composite design optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaei, Milad; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rafiee, Zahra; Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2016-11-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were magnetized with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MWCNTs-Fe3O4-NPs) and subsequently coated by vinyl end groups (Vinyltrimethoxysilane). MWCNT-Fe3O4-NPs were used as support for a new morphine (MO) molecularly imprinted polymer (MWCNT-Fe3O4-NPs@MO-MIP) by surface imprinting polymerization method. The MWCNT-Fe3O4-NPs@MO-MIP was characterized by FTIR, VSM and SEM techniques and successfully used for determination of MO. Ultrasonic-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction followed by UV-vis spectrophotometer (UAMSPE-UV-vis) was investigated for MWCNT-Fe3O4-NPs@MO-MIP and compared with non-imprinted polymer (NIP) using batch method. Central composite design under response surface methodology was used for the evaluation of the effect of variables, individually, as well as their possible interaction effects on the adsorption process. The variables such as sonication time, MWCNT-Fe3O4-NPs@MO-MIP mass, initial concentration of MO and pH were investigated in this study. At optimum experimental conditions, UAMSPE-UV-vis method was exhibited a linear range of 0.8-8.7mgL(-1) of the MO concentration with a detection limit of 0.18mgL(-1). The relative standard deviation for the analyte was found to be lower than 2.32%. The MWCNT-Fe3O4-NPs@MO-MIP adsorption capacity was found to be 37.01mgg(-1). The enrichment and preconcentration factors were found to be 107.01 and 98.21, respectively. The developed method was finally applied successfully to the determination of MO in urine and wastewater samples with the recoveries ranged from 96.40 to 105.6%. PMID:27245975

  7. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed. PMID:26944242

  8. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  9. Polynomial force approximations and multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Platz; Daniel Forchheimer; Tholén, Erik A; David B. Haviland

    2013-01-01

    We present polynomial force reconstruction from experimental intermodulation atomic force microscopy (ImAFM) data. We study the tip–surface force during a slow surface approach and compare the results with amplitude-dependence force spectroscopy (ADFS). Based on polynomial force reconstruction we generate high-resolution surface-property maps of polymer blend samples. The polynomial method is described as a special example of a more general approximative force reconstruction, where the aim is...

  10. Forced ventilation increases variability of isometric finger forces

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sheng; Yasuda, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of forced ventilation on variability of the index finger force at the submaximal levels. Fourteen (6 men, 8 women) healthy subjects were instructed to perform self-initiated forced inspiration and forced expiration, the Valsalva maneuver and normal breathing while sustaining 15%, 30%, and 45% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) by the index finger. Standard deviation (S.D.) of finger forces increased significantly with the level of force. At each level...

  11. Ground reaction force sensor fault detection and recovery method based on virtual force sensor for walking biped robots

    OpenAIRE

    Hashlamon, Iyad; ERBATUR, Kemalettin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for ground force sensor faults detection and faulty signal reconstruction using Virtual force Sensor (VFS) for slow walking bipeds. The design structure of the VFS consists of two steps, the total ground reaction force (GRF) and its location estimation for each leg based on the center of mass (CoM) position, the leg kinematics, and the IMU readings is carried on in the first step. In the second step, the optimal estimation of the distributed reaction forces ...

  12. Central and peripheral demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Man Mohan Mehndiratta; Natasha Singh Gulati

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to ad...

  13. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  14. 星点设计-效应面法优化依托泊苷自微乳化释药系统%Optimization of etoposide self-microemulsifying drug delivery system by central composite design-response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成杨; 尹东东; 王杏林; 王频

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop the stable formulation of etoposide self-microemulsifying system and evaluate its quality. Methods The optimum formulations of etoposide SMEDDS were screened by solubility, compatibility tests, tertiary phase diagrams and central composite design-response surface methodology, with the particle size, solubility and zeta electric potential as parameters. The physic-chemical property and dissolution characters of etoposide SMEDDS were also determined. Results The optimum self-microemulsifying drug delivery system was composed of etoposide (2.0%), Capryol 90 (15.1%), Cremophor RH40 (30.4%), and Transcutol HP (52.5%). The mean particle diameter after the emuLsification was 18.31 nm, the self-microemulsifying time was less than 1 min, and the drug loading of emulsifying exceeded 25 mg·mL-1. Conclusion The prepared etoposide SMEDDS is stable with good drug loading.%目的 研制稳定的依托泊苷自微乳制剂并评价其质量.方法 通过溶解度试验、处方配比、三元相图的绘制及星点设计-效应面法的优化,以粒径、溶解度和zeta电位为指标,筛选各组分的最佳组合和处方配比,并对依托泊苷自微乳的理化性质和体外溶出进行测定.结果 依托泊苷自微乳最佳处方为:依托泊苷(2.0%)、Capryol 90(15.1%)、Cremophor RH40(30.4%)、Transcutol HP(52.5%),平均粒径为18.31 nm,自乳化时间<1min,乳化后载药量> 25 mg· mL-1.结论 制备的依托泊苷自微乳稳定性好,载药量高.

  15. CENTRALIZED OPTIMAL ENDOGENOUS POLLUTION TAXES PROBLEM FOR CLOSED-LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK%集权制下闭环供应链网络最优内生污染税问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉香; 黄祖庆; 周根贵

    2012-01-01

    为激励生产企业积极参与逆向物流活动、自发回收处理废旧产品,对其废旧产品的排放实施税收政策是控制污染的一项有效措施.通过对闭环供应链网络中各决策者间相互关系的分析,并结合环境政策,建立集权制下废旧产品排放内生污染税均衡模型,研究网络中各主体的竞争行为及均衡条件,解决集权制下既能使网络中各主体利润最大化又能达到预期环境目标的废旧产品排放内生污染税设计问题,并全面分析环境政策的变化对网络中各主体的产品生产量、交易量、交易价格、需求量和废旧产品回收量等经济指标的影响.%In order to encourage manufacturers to take on reverse logistics and take the initiative in recycling EOL (End-of-Life) products, EOL products emission pollution taxes are levied on these enterprises, which is an effective measure to control pollution. A centralized EOL products emission endogenous pollution tax equilibrium model is developed through analyzing interactions among decision-makers in closed-loop supply chain network, coupled with the incorporation of environmental policies. The competitive behaviors and the equilibrium conditions of the various decision-makers are studied. The EOL products emission endogenous pollution tax can maximize the profits of all decision-makers and achieve the desired environmental goal. Finally, the impact of the environmental policy on the equilibrium values of various economic indicators (the amount of products transacted, prices transacted and demands, etc) of all decision-makers is analyzed.

  16. Rol del fallo mecánico en la optimización del mantenimiento en una central nuclear//Role of the mechanical failure during the maintenance optimization in the nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Torres-Valle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre las más recientes aplicaciones del Análisis Probabilista de Seguridad (1997 – 2003 de la Central Nuclear Embalse en Argentina, está el Programa de Mantenimiento Orientado a la Seguridad (2006– 2009 el cual se ha desarrollado con el empleo de la metodología de Mantenimiento Centrado en la Confiabilidad (RCM en inglés. El objetivo general del artículo es demostrar la alta contribución de los fallos mecánicos en el diseño de las políticas de mantenimiento de varios sistemas de la instalación a través del empleo de la metodología RCM. La composición, estructura y políticas de explotación de los sistemas tecnológicos de muchas instalaciones con riesgo asociado, similares a las de los sistemas analizados en este estudio, permite inferir que los resultados que se obtendrán serán equivalentes de aplicarse la metodología RCM en dichas instalaciones. Palabras claves: mantenimiento centrado en la confiabilidad, mantenimiento predictivo, mantenimiento preventivo, fallo mecánico, seguridad, confiabilidad, riesgo.______________________________________________________________________________ Abstract One of the most recent applications of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (1997 – 2003 to Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Argentina, is the Safety Oriented Maintenance Program (2006 – 2009 developed with employment of the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM methodology. The general objective of the paper is to demonstrate the high contribution of the mechanical failures in the maintenance program design through the RCM methodology. The composition, structure and operation strategies of the technological systems of many risk associated facilities, similar to the analysed systems included in this study, allow deduce that the results will equivalent in case of application of RCM methodology in such facilities. Key words: reliability centered maintenance (RCM, predictive maintenance, preventive maintenance, mechanical failure, safety

  17. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis protein from hot pressed rapeseed meal using central composite design%中心组合设计优化高温菜籽粕中蛋白的酶解工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党斌; 孙小凤

    2012-01-01

    Protein peptide has some of the biological activity and easily absorbed,applications of peptide in special food,pharmaceutical and biodegradable plastics have a potential prospect.This paper taking rapeseed protein from hot pressed rapeseed meal by ultrasonic wave as raw materials,and it is enzymatic hydrolysis using alkali protease.The single factor experiments and central composite design were adopted to study the effects of substrate concentration,enzymatic hydrolysis temperature,enzyme activity,pH value on degree of hydrolysis,the optimum process conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were determined,then enzymatic hydrolysis regression model were established,substrate concentration 3%,enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 46 ℃,enzyme activity12000U/g,pH value 9.57,enzymatic hydrolysis time3 h,the degree of hydrolysis of rapeseed protein by this new process was 23.96%.It will lay the better foundation for further enzymatic hydrolysis,and it is economical feasible.%蛋白肽具有一定的生物活性且容易吸收,广泛应用在食品、医药和化妆品等领域,显示出了诱人的应用前景。研究以超声波法从热榨春油菜菜籽粕中提取的蛋白为原料,利用碱性蛋白酶进行酶解制备菜籽蛋白肽。通过单因素试验及中心组合设计试验研究了底物浓度、酶解温度、酶用量、pH等因素对菜籽蛋白水解度的影响,确定了碱性蛋白酶酶解菜籽蛋白的最佳工艺条件,建立了回归数学模型。结果表明:在底物浓度为3%,酶解温度为46℃,酶用量为12000U/g,pH为9.57的条件下酶解3h,菜籽蛋白的水解度达23.96%。为进一步酶解打下良好的基础,是一条经济可行的工艺路线。

  18. A utilização de diferentes configurações de molas "T" para a obtenção de sistemas de forças otimizados Using different T-loops configurations to obtain optimized force systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Thiesen

    2006-10-01

    -titanium, different preactivation bends intensities (0º and 40º/180º and different transverse sections (0.017" x 0.025" and 0.019" x 0.025". METHODS: 80 loops for space closure were submitted to mechanical testing, which were centralized in a space of 21mm. The magnitudes of horizontal force, moment/force ratio and load/deflection ratio were quantified using a moment transducer connected to a digital indicator for extensometry adapted to an Instron universal testing machine (model TTDML. The specimens were distended to a total activation of 5mm, being registered the values at every 1mm of activation. The data achieved were statistically analyzed by means of variance analysis and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: in general, the results indicated that the T-loops with helices produced lower magnitudes of horizontal force and load/deflection ratio than the T-loops. When inserted with the preactivation bends, the loops yielded high magnitudes of moment/force ratios, while when these preactivation bends were not presented, the moment/force ratios were low. The metallic alloy was the variable that presented the largest influence on the horizontal force and load/deflection ratio. The moment/force ratio was more intensely influenced by the incorporation of preactivation bends in the closure loops.

  19. Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor Discriminating Multidirectional Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdo Jung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible tactile sensors capable of detecting the magnitude and direction of the applied force together are of great interest for application in human-interactive robots, prosthetics, and bionic arms/feet. Human skin contains excellent tactile sensing elements, mechanoreceptors, which detect their assigned tactile stimuli and transduce them into electrical signals. The transduced signals are transmitted through separated nerve fibers to the central nerve system without complicated signal processing. Inspired by the function and organization of human skin, we present a piezoresistive type tactile sensor capable of discriminating the direction and magnitude of stimulations without further signal processing. Our tactile sensor is based on a flexible core and four sidewall structures of elastomer, where highly sensitive interlocking piezoresistive type sensing elements are embedded. We demonstrate the discriminating normal pressure and shear force simultaneously without interference between the applied forces. The developed sensor can detect down to 128 Pa in normal pressure and 0.08 N in shear force, respectively. The developed sensor can be applied in the prosthetic arms requiring the restoration of tactile sensation to discriminate the feeling of normal and shear force like human skin.

  20. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerkoetter, R.; Schumann, U. [DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Phys. der Atmosphaere; Doelling, D.R.; Minnis, P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Nakajima, T.; Tsushima, Y. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Center for Climate System Research

    1999-08-01

    A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, midlatitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm{sup -2} daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover. (orig.) 78 refs.

  1. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meerkötter

    Full Text Available A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, mid-latitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm-2 daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · radiative processes

  2. Confusion around the tidal force and the centrifugal force

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Takuya; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the tidal force, whose notion is sometimes misunderstood in the public domain literature. We discuss the tidal force exerted by a secondary point mass on an extended primary body such as the Earth. The tidal force arises because the gravitational force exerted on the extended body by the secondary mass is not uniform across the primary. In the derivation of the tidal force, the non-uniformity of the gravity is essential, and inertial forces such as the centrifugal force are not needed. Nevertheless, it is often asserted that the tidal force can be explained by the centrifugal force. If we literally take into account the centrifugal force, it would mislead us. We therefore also discuss the proper treatment of the centrifugal force.

  3. Optimization of texture measurements. Further applications: optimal smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper (Luzin, 1997) the basic principles of the quantitative approach to optimize the texture measurements were obtained. This paper is the report of advances in this. The quantitative approach is used to solve the smoothing problem. Smoothing by singular integrals with an integral kernel used by Nikolayev et al. (1996) is used. It is shown how the optimal smoothing parameter depends on the grain statistics, i.e. the number of grains in the sample. The algorithm for optimal smoothing of real pole density data (pole figures) is proposed. Also, the application of optimal smoothing for solving the central problem of quantitative texture analysis (QTA), i.e. orientation distribution function (ODF) reproduction, is discussed

  4. Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Vinter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    "Each chapter contains a well-written introduction and notes. They include the author's deep insights on the subject matter and provide historical comments and guidance to related literature. This book may well become an important milestone in the literature of optimal control." --Mathematical Reviews "Thanks to a great effort to be self-contained, [this book] renders accessibly the subject to a wide audience. Therefore, it is recommended to all researchers and professionals interested in Optimal Control and its engineering and economic applications. It can serve as an excellent

  5. Unconstrained Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, P. E.; Jonasson, K.; Nielsen, Hans Bruun;

    1999-01-01

    This lecture note is intended for use in the course 04212 Optimization and Data Fitting at the Technincal University of Denmark. It covers about 25% of the curriculum. Hopefully, the note may be useful also to interested persons not participating in that course. The aim of the note is to give an...... introduction to algorithms for unconstrained optimization. We present Conjugate Gradient, Damped Newton and Quasi Newton methods together with the relevant theoretical background. The reader is assumed to be familiar with algorithms for solving linear and nonlinear system of equations, at a level corresponding...

  6. Unification of fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam, a Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, provides an accessible overview of modern particle physics and the quest for the unification of the fundamental forces, the electromagnetic, strong nuclear weak nuclear and gravitational. A major theme of the lecture is the way in which the theoretical physicists approach the task of imposing orders on a seemingly chaotic universe. A secondary theme is that the electroweak force is most likely to be the force of life. The theme of the philosophy behind the work of theorists is continued in two additional lectures by Werner Heisenberg and Paul Dirac which give fascinating insights into the modus operandi and work of two of the founders of quantum mechanics. (author)

  7. The amazing normal forces

    CERN Document Server

    Petrache, Horia I

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is written for students in introductory physics classes to address some of the common difficulties and misconceptions of the normal force, especially the relationship between normal and friction forces. Accordingly, it is intentionally informal and conversational in tone to teach students how to build an intuition to complement mathematical formalism. This is accomplished by beginning with common and everyday experience and then guiding students toward two realizations: (i) That real objects are deformable even when deformations are not easily visible, and (ii) that the relation between friction and normal forces follows from the action-reaction principle. The traditional formulae under static and kinetic conditions are then analyzed to show that peculiarity of the normal-friction relationship follows readily from observations and knowledge of physics principles.

  8. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the biological data has dramatically reformed today's biological research. The need to integrate and analyze high-dimensional biological data on a large scale is driving the development of novel bioinformatics approaches. Biclustering, also known as 'simultaneous clustering' or 'co......-clustering', has been successfully utilized to discover local patterns in gene expression data and similar biomedical data types. Here, we contribute a new heuristic: 'Bi-Force'. It is based on the weighted bicluster editing model, to perform biclustering on arbitrary sets of biological entities, given any kind of...... pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...

  9. 星点设计-效应面法优化硼酸乳膏基质配方及质量控制%Optimization of the Base Formula of Boric Acid Cream by Central Composite Design-response Surface Methodology and Its Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓军; 唐菱; 周芃; 张小琼

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To optimize the base formula of boric acid cream,and investigate its quality. Methods:Using central composite design-response surface methodology,with the viscosity of cream as the index,the amounts of Cremophor A6,Cremophor A25,cetyl alcohol,stearyl alcohol,isooctadecyl isooctadecanoate,jojoba oil and light liquid paraffin were optimized. The appearance characteristics,particle size,viscosity and stability of the preparation and the content of boric acid were studied. Results:The optimal conditions were as follows:50 g Cremophor A6-Cremophor A25(3 ∶2),65 g cetyl alcohol-stearyl alcohol(3∶7),and 125 g isooctadecyl isooctadecanoate-jojoba oil- light liquid paraffin(5 ∶3 ∶2). According to the optimal formula,the cream showed the property of semi-fluid cream,the content of boric acid was 98. 5% of the labeling amount,and the viscosity was about 1. 64 × 104 mPa·s. The predicted value was equivalent to the measured one,and the stability of the preparation was promising. Conclusion:The central composite design-response surface methodology used in the base optimization of boric acid cream is simple with high precision and good predictability,and the quality of the preparation is stable and controllable.%目的:优化硼酸乳膏基质配方,考察制剂成品质量。方法:采用星点设计效应面法,以乳膏黏度为评价指标,优化脂肪醇醚-6(和)硬脂醇、鲸蜡硬脂醇聚醚-25、十六醇、十八醇、异硬脂醇异硬脂酸酯、霍霍巴油、轻质液状石蜡的用量;考察优化后制剂的外观性状、粒度、黏度、稳定性及硼酸的含量。结果:配方中含脂肪醇醚-6-鲸蜡硬脂醇聚醚-25(3∶2)50 g、十六醇-十八醇(3∶7)65 g、异硬脂醇异硬脂酸酯-霍霍巴油-轻质液状石蜡(5∶3∶2)125 g 时,制得的成品为白色半流体乳膏,硼酸含量为标示量的98.50%,粘度为1.64×104 mPa·s,预测值与实测值相当,制剂稳定性较好

  10. Optimal restructuring strategies under various dynamic factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-xuan

    2007-01-01

    Corporate restructuring was identified as a new industrial force that has great impact on economic values and that therefore has become central in daily financial decision making. This article investigates the optimal restructuring strategies under different dynamic factors and their numerous impacts on firm value. The concept of quasi-leverage is introduced and valuation models are built for corporate debt and equity under imperfect market conditions. The model's input variables include the quasi-leverage and other firm-specific parameters, the output variables include multiple corporate security values. The restructuring cost is formulated in the form of exponential function, which allows us to observe the sensitivity of the variation in security values. The unified model and its analytical solution developed in this research allow us to examine the continuous changes of security values by dynamically changing the coupon rates, riskless interest rate, bankruptcy cost, quasi-leverage, personal tax rate, corporate taxes rate, transaction cost, firm risk, etc., so that the solutions provide useful guidance for financing and restructuring decisions.

  11. Forcing for mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Nik

    2014-01-01

    Ever since Paul Cohen's spectacular use of the forcing concept to prove the independence of the continuum hypothesis from the standard axioms of set theory, forcing has been seen by the general mathematical community as a subject of great intrinsic interest but one that is technically so forbidding that it is only accessible to specialists. In the past decade, a series of remarkable solutions to long-standing problems in C*-algebra using set-theoretic methods, many achieved by the author and his collaborators, have generated new interest in this subject. This is the first book aimed at explain

  12. Friction force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bennewitz

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction force microscopy (FFM can detect lateral force variations on the atomic scale when sliding a sharp tip over a flat surface. The sliding often takes the form of a stick-slip movement with the same periodicity as the atomic lattice. Here, I discuss how the occurrence of stick-slip instabilities is related to the onset of dissipation. The velocity and load dependence of atomic friction on various materials are discussed in the light of simple classical laws of friction.

  13. Force-Free Foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Compère, Geoffrey; Lupsasca, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic field configurations with vanishing Lorentz force density are known as force-free and appear in terrestrial, space, and astrophysical plasmas. We explore a general method for finding such configurations based on formulating equations for the field lines rather than the field itself. The basic object becomes a foliation of spacetime or, in the stationary axisymmetric case, of the half-plane. We use this approach to find some new stationary and axisymmetric solutions, one of which could represent a rotating plasma vortex near a magnetic null point.

  14. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  15. Optimization of Grillages Using Genetic Algorithms for Integrating Matlab and Fortran Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Mačiūnas; Juozas Kauna; Dmitrij Šešok

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present technology applied for the global optimization of grillage-type pile foundations (further grillages). The goal of optimization is to obtain the optimal layout of pile placement in the grillages. The problem can be categorized as a topology optimization problem. The objective function is comprised of maximum reactive force emerging in a pile. The reactive force is minimized during the procedure of optimization during which variables enclose the positions ...

  16. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Boucher, Olivier; Haigh, J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Haywood, J.; Myhre, G.; Nakajima, Takahito; Shi, Guangyu; Solomon, S.; Betts, Robert E.; Charlson, R.; Chuang, C. C.; Daniel, J. S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Feichter, J.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Forster, P. M.; Ghan, Steven J.; Jones, A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Koch, D.; Land, C.; Lean, J.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Minschwaner, K.; Penner, Joyce E.; Roberts, D. L.; Rodhe, H.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rotstayn, Leon D.; Schneider, T. L.; Schumann, U.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Schwartzkopf, M. D.; Shine, K. P.; Smith, Steven J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Stordal, F.; Tegen, I.; van Dorland, R.; Zhang, Y.; Srinivasan, J.; Joos, Fortunat

    2001-10-01

    Chapter 6 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 6.1 Radiative Forcing 6.2 Forcing-Response Relationship 6.3 Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases 6.4 Stratospheric Ozone 6.5 Radiative Forcing By Tropospheric Ozone 6.6 Indirect Forcings due to Chemistry 6.7 The Direct Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.8 The Indirect Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.9 Stratospheric Aerosols 6.10 Land-use Change (Surface Albedo Effect) 6.11 Solar Forcing of Climate 6.12 Global Warming Potentials hydrocarbons 6.13 Global Mean Radiative Forcings 6.14 The Geographical Distribution of the Radiative Forcings 6.15 Time Evolution of Radiative Forcings Appendix 6.1 Elements of Radiative Forcing Concept References.

  17. Contact Force and Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Ullah; Richard Schilling; Tom Wong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Catheters able to measure the force and vector of contact between the catheter tip and myocardium are now available. Pre-clinical work has established that the degree of contact between the radiofrequency ablation catheter and myocardium correlates with the size of the delivered lesion. Excess contact is associated with steam pops and perforation. Catheter contact varies within the left atrium secondary to factors including respiration, location, atrial rhythm and the trans-septal catheter delivery technology used. Compared with procedures performed without contact force (CF-sensing, the use of this technology has, in some studies, been found to improve complication rates, procedure and fluoroscopy times, and success rates. However, for each of these parameters there are also studies suggesting a lack of difference from the availability of CF data. Nevertheless, CF-sensing technology has been adopted as a standard of care in many institutions. It is likely that use of CF-sensing technology will allow for the optimization of each individual radiofrequency application to maximize efficacy and procedural safety. Recent work has attempted to define what these optimal targets should be, and approaches to do this include assessing for sites of pulmonary vein reconnection after ablation, or comparing the impedance response to ablation. Based on such work, it is apparent that factors including mean CF, force time integral (the area under the force-time curve and contact stability are important determinants of ablation efficacy. Multicenter prospective randomized data are lacking in this field and required to define the CF parameters required to produce optimal ablation.

  18. Confusion around the tidal force and the centrifugal force

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Takuya; Isaka, Hiromu; Boffin, Henri M. J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the tidal force, whose notion is sometimes misunderstood in the public domain literature. We discuss the tidal force exerted by a secondary point mass on an extended primary body such as the Earth. The tidal force arises because the gravitational force exerted on the extended body by the secondary mass is not uniform across the primary. In the derivation of the tidal force, the non-uniformity of the gravity is essential, and inertial forces such as the centrifugal force are not nee...

  19. Combinatorial optimization theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Korte, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is one of the youngest and most active areas of discrete mathematics, and is probably its driving force today. This book describes the most important ideas, theoretical results, and algorithms of this field. It is conceived as an advanced graduate text, and it can also be used as an up-to-date reference work for current research. The book includes the essential fundamentals of graph theory, linear and integer programming, and complexity theory. It covers classical topics in combinatorial optimization as well as very recent ones. The emphasis is on theoretical results and algorithms with provably good performance. Some applications and heuristics are mentioned, too.

  20. Fifth force, sixth force and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent literature, a few claims appeared about possible deviations from the ordinary gravitational laws (both at the terrestrial and at the galactic level). The experimental evidence does not seem to be conclusive; nor its is clear if new forces are showing up, or if we have to accept actual deviations from Newton or Einstein gravitation (in the latter case, the validity of the very Equivalence Principle might be on the stage). In such a situation, the attempts by various authors at explaining the ''new effects'' just on the basis of the ordinary theory of General Relativity (for instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically questionable. In this pedagogically oriented paper, the problem is approached within the classical realm, by exploring whether the possible new effects can be accounted for through minimal modifications of the standard formulatiaon of General Relativity: in particular, through exploitation and extension of the role of the cosmological constant

  1. The fifth force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a phenomenological description of the ''fifth force'' which focuses on the implications of the existing data from satellite and geophysical measurements of gravity, the Eoetvoes experiment, decays into hyperphotons, and the energy-dependence of the K0 - anti K0 parameters

  2. Unification of Fundamental Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.

    2005-10-01

    Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.

  3. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002. ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  4. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...

  5. The Dynamic Force Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, John B.; Black, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    We examine an experimental apparatus that is used to motivate the connections between the basic properties of vectors, potential functions, systems of nonlinear equations, and Newton's method for nonlinear systems of equations. The apparatus is an adaptation of a force table where we remove the center-pin and allow the center-ring to move freely.…

  6. The Force of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Carol

    2005-01-01

    "The Force of Ideas" describes a little-known aspect of both educational history and Viennese psychoanalysis during the interwar years: the movement for psychoanalytic pedagogy. The author traces her father's own story, beginning with his application to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society for training as a psychoanalytic pedagogue, as a way to…

  7. Reduction in Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phay, Robert

    Chapter 2 in a book on school law discusses the reasons for reduction in force (RIF) and presents a set of model regulations for school districts as the best means of minimizing legal problems resulting from RIF. The reasons for RIF include declining student enrollments; reduced turnover among teachers; changes in programs; and more constrained…

  8. CENTRAL ASIA IN SEARCH OF STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Plastun, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The tension in the Central Asian Region, particularly in its southern part, which includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran, largely affects the rest of this vast area and forces the United States and its allies to seek prompt settlement of the crisis they have on their hands. The situation in occupied Iraq is tense; the Turkish invasion into Iraqi Kurdistan in search of terrorists of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party did nothing to relieve the tension; the conflict area spread even further. Two ot...

  9. Shape of optimal active flagella

    CERN Document Server

    Eloy, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cells use the active waving motion of flexible flagella to self-propel in viscous fluids. However, the criteria governing the selection of particular flagellar waveforms among all possible shapes has proved elusive so far. To address this question, we derive computationally the optimal shape of an internally-forced periodic planar flagellum deforming as a travelling wave. The optimum is here defined as the shape leading to a given swimming speed with minimum energetic cost. To calculate the energetic cost though, we consider the irreversible internal power expanded by the molecular motors forcing the flagellum, only a portion of which ending up dissipated in the fluid. This optimisation approach allows us to derive a family of shapes depending on a single dimensionless number quantifying the relative importance of elastic to viscous effects: the Sperm number. The computed optimal shapes are found to agree with the waveforms observed on spermatozoon of marine organisms, thus suggesting that the...

  10. CENTRAL ASIA'S POWER DILEMMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Budkin, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    It turned out to be much harder to create new power structures in Central Asia than elsewhere in the post-socialist world: no matter how hard it was for the Central European countries to acquire new political institutions, their advance toward the Western democratic model was much smoother. In the European part of the post-Soviet geopolitical expanse, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova experienced fewer problems than the Central Asian region (CAR for short), though they too had their share of contr...

  11. ON OPTIMIZING MECHANISM OF“CENTRAL DECISION-MAKING-PROVINCIAL EXECUTION”IN THE FIELD OF FOOD SECURITY IN CHINA%论优化我国粮食安全领域的“中央决策-省级执行”机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭波

    2015-01-01

    Food safety responsibility is a kind of national responsibility. The provincial government’s chief re-sponsibility system under the national macro-control embodies the distinctions between decision-making respon-sibility and execution responsibility. Based on the key words such as local grain reserve,the analysis can lead to the trail of“central decision-making and provincial execution”. To optimize the system of“central decision-making and provincial execution”in the field of grain safety,there is the need to improve the present status from perspectives of execution resources,execution standards,execution ideas and decision-making coordination so that the complete“decision-making and execution”system can be constructed.%粮食安全责任属于一种国家责任。国家宏观调控下的省级人民政府行政首长负责制表明决策与执行责任的分野。从地方粮食储备等关键词的角度分析,可以看出我国粮食安全领域的“中央决策-省级执行”的痕迹。优化粮食安全领域“中央决策-省级执行”的机制,需要从执行资源、执行标准、执行思路和决策协调的角度,多管齐下,形成相对系统的“决策-执行”体制。

  12. Neuroevolutionary optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Volna, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of evolutionary search procedures to artificial neural networks. Here, we can distinguish among three kinds of evolution in artificial neural networks, i.e. the evolution of connection weights, of architectures, and of learning rules. We review each kind of evolution in detail and analyse critical issues related to different evolutions. This article concentrates on finding the suitable way of using evolutionary algorithms for optimizing the artificial neural...

  13. Optimal learning

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, Warren B

    2012-01-01

    Learn the science of collecting information to make effective decisions Everyday decisions are made without the benefit of accurate information. Optimal Learning develops the needed principles for gathering information to make decisions, especially when collecting information is time-consuming and expensive. Designed for readers with an elementary background in probability and statistics, the book presents effective and practical policies illustrated in a wide range of applications, from energy, homeland security, and transportation to engineering, health, and business. This book covers the

  14. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  15. Optimization Modeling for Airlift Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, David P.; Rosenthal, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a multi-period optimization model, implemented in GAMS, to help the U.S. Air Force improve logistical efficiency. It determines the maximum on-time throughput of cargo and passengers that can be transported within a given aircraft fleet over a given network, subject to appropriate physical and policy constraints. The model can be used to help answer questions about selecting airlift assets and about investing or divesting in airfield infrastructure.

  16. Optimization Modeling for Airlift Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, David P.; Rosenthal, Richard E.; Lim, Teo-Weng.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a multi-period optimization model, implemented in GAMS, to help the U.S. Air Force improve logistical efficiency. It determines the maximum on-time throughput of cargo and passengers that can be transported with a given aircraft fleet over a given network, subject to appropriate physical and policy constraints. The model can be used to help answer questions about selecting airlift assets and about investing or divesting in airfield infrastructure

  17. The geometry of generalized force matching in coarse-graining and related information metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Plechac, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Using the probabilistic language of conditional expectations we reformulate the force matching method for coarse-graining of molecular systems as a projection on spaces of coarse observables. A practical outcome of this probabilistic description is the link of the force matching method with thermodynamic integration. This connection provides a way to systematically construct a local mean force in order to optimally approximate the potential of mean force through force matching. We introduce a generalized force matching condition for the local mean force in the sense that allows the approximation of the potential of mean force under both linear and non-linear coarse graining mappings (e.g., reaction coordinates, end-to-end length of chains). Furthermore, we study the equivalence of force matching with relative entropy minimization which we derive for general non-linear coarse graining maps. We present in detail the generalized force matching condition through applications to specific examples in molecular syst...

  18. SOF and conventional force interoperability through SOF reconfiguration

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to decide what environmental variables affected past SOF attempts at achieving interoperability with the conventional military, to examine the status of SOF and conventional forces interoperability as it exists today, and to explain why now is the time for SOP to engage in the reconfiguration of its forces to achieve an optimal level of interoperability. Five variables were used in the examination of SOFs organizational evolution toward interoperability with conven...

  19. Irrigation as an historical climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2015-03-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  20. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols