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Sample records for central fat distribution

  1. Relationship of Social and Lifestyle Factors with Central Fat Distribution Expressed by the Aggregate Fat Distribution Index

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    Suder Agnieszka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is caused by several factors and the explanation of the level of its variability also depends on anthropometric indexes applied for its assessment. The aim was to determine the degree of explanation of the abdominal adiposity variation, presented by the aggregate fat distribution index (AFDI, through the socio-economic status and lifestyle. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a sample of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. A full model was created using a stepwise backward regression with the social and lifestyle data as independent variables and the AFDI as a dependent variable. The AFDI was created by unitarization applied to selected characteristics of fat distribution which were transformed into [0,1] interval (without measurement unit and then added and averaged to form a composite index. The highest autonomous influence on AFDI is ascribed to age (b = 0.2456 p = 0.000, level of motor fitness b=−0.2392 p=0.000, leisure time physical activity (b=−0.1353 p=0.000 and being born in a rural area (b=0.1300 p=0.000. The variables explain 17% (R2=0.1667 of the variation of the central fat distribution. Variation of the abdominal adiposity was explained with the use of AFDI at the level close to the commonly applied indexes.

  2. Central Body Fat Distribution Associates with Unfavorable Renal Hemodynamics Independent of Body Mass Index

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    Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Zelle, Dorien M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects centra

  3. Nutritional status and fat tissue distribution in health adults from some places in central Banat

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    Pavlica Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine, relying on anthropological parameters, nutritional status, fat tissue distribution and possible health risk in adult population of Central Banal. Material and methods. 730 subjects of both genders (average age 4O.19±11.36y underwent following measurements: height, weight, waist and hip circumference. Results and discussion. Central Banat population was characterized by great height (males: 178.40±7.24 cm: females: 163.06±6.32 cm. The average BMI was at the lower limit of overweight category (males: 26.59 kg/m2; females: 25.29 kg/m2. Overweight and obesity were found in 55.5% of examined subjects. In males, normal weight was recorded only in the youngest age group (20-29y, while in older age groups the percentage of overweight and obese males increased with age. In females, normal weight was recorded till the age of 50, after which overweight category was mainly present. Regarding both of the sexes, obesity was most frequent in the age group 50-59 (22%. The average waist circumference was lower than the cut-off values recommended by WHO (96.43 cm in males and 82.49 cm in females. According to fat distribution, normal values were recorded in males younger that 39y, after which there was an increase m risk central obesity. In females, normal fat distribution was mainly present in all ages, although the percentage of the risk category increased with age. The highest percentage of the subjects of both sexes showed no health risk. Conclusion. Our results indicate the need for preventive action towards obesity consequences and obesity inducing surroundings.

  4. A central body fat distribution is related to renal function impairment, even in lean subjects

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    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Navis, G; Janssen, WMT; de Zeeuw, D; Gans, ROB; de Jong, PE

    2003-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are believed to be associated with renal damage. Whether this depends on fat distribution is not known. We hypothesize that in addition to overweight, fat distribution may be associated with renal function abnormalities. Methods: We studied the relation between body

  5. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

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    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  6. Fat graft myringoplasty in small central perforations

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    Chandni Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perforations of the tympanic membrane (TM are treated with various surgical techniques and materials. Although autologous temporalis fascia is the most common material used for the closure of TM perforations, however for a dry, small central perforation the fat graft myringoplasty (FM is a good alternative as it is a simple and cost-effective technique. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of FM for repair of small central perforations. Suggestions for optimizing the outcome of FM are presented. Material and Methods: Twenty patients (10 males and 10 females who had uncomplicated dry small central perforation, which was confined to one quadrant of the pars tensa underwent FM. The outcome was evaluated after 1-week, 1-month, and 3 months. Results: After 3 months of follow-up, a closure rate of 80% was achieved. Mean preoperative air-bone (AB gap was 22.90 ± 6.54 dB and mean postoperative AB gap was 21.80 ± 6.28 dB. Mean improvement in AB gap postoperatively was 1.1 ± 2.63 dB. Conclusion: Fat graft myringoplasty, with its ease of technique and good graft uptake rate justifies its use in the closure of small dry central TM perforations.

  7. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  8. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  9. Distributed Assessment of Network Centrality

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    Wehmuth, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for the Distributed Assessment of Network CEntrality (DANCE) in complex networks. DANCE attributes to each node a volume-based centrality computed using only localized information, thus not requiring knowledge of the full network topology. We show DANCE is simple, yet efficient, in assessing node centrality in a distributed way. Our proposal also provides a way for locating the most central nodes, again using only the localized information at each node. We also show that the node rankings based on DANCE's centrality and the traditional closeness centrality correlate very well. This is quite useful given the vast potential applicability of closeness centrality, which is however limited by its high computational costs. We experimentally evaluate DANCE against a state-of-the-art proposal to distributively assess network centrality. Results attest that DANCE achieves similar effectiveness in assessing network centrality, but with a significant reduction in the associated costs for practical ap...

  10. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  11. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF......), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM......). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood...

  12. Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution

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    Pulit, Sara L.; Karaderi, Tugce

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment. PMID:28073971

  13. Familial lipoprotein lipase-activity deficiency: study of total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution.

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    Brun, L D; Gagné, C; Julien, P; Tremblay, A; Moorjani, S; Bouchard, C; Lupien, P J

    1989-10-01

    Total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution were evaluated in 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients. Eleven were males, aged 10 to 57 years, and eight were females, aged 13 to 46 years. Familial lipoprotein-lipase-activity deficiency was diagnosed by the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in the plasma withdrawn ten and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of ten units of heparin per kilogram of body weight. The 19 patients had skin-fold measurements for evaluation of subcutaneous fat distribution. Fifteen also underwent body density measurements by underwater weighing. Percent body fat was calculated from body density. These anthropometric data were plotted against the regression curves of 1638 normal controls of both sexes (aged 10 to 54 years) for fat tissue weight, percent body fat, subcutaneous fat/total fat mass ratio and trunk/extremity skin-fold ratio. Impairments in the process of building fat tissue reserves could not be shown in the 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients, in spite of the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in their postheparin plasma. It is hypothesized that normal fat tissue mass in these patients could be due partly to de novo synthesis of fatty acids by adipocytes, hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides by hepatic lipase, and/or contribution of a specific fat-tissue lipase to the catabolism of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

  14. Detrimental and protective fat: body fat distribution and its relation to metabolic disease.

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    Booth, Andrea; Magnuson, Aaron; Foster, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous comorbidities that include, but are not limited to, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Current evidence suggests, however, obesity itself is not an exclusive predictor of metabolic dysregulation but rather adipose tissue distribution. Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat accumulation, the detrimental distribution, commonly associated with visceral obesity. Increased lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue, however, is associated with a reduced risk of obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation and even enhanced insulin sensitivity, thus, storage in this region is considered protective. The proposed mechanisms that causally relate the differential outcomes of adipose tissue distribution are often attributed to location and/or adipocyte regulation. Visceral adipose tissue effluent to the portal vein drains into the liver where hepatocytes are directly exposed to its metabolites and secretory products, whereas the subcutaneous adipose tissue drains systemically. Adipose depots are also inherently different in numerous ways such as adipokine release, immunity response and regulation, lipid turnover, rate of cell growth and death, and response to stress and sex hormones. Proximal extrinsic factors also play a role in the differential drive between adipose tissue depots. This review focuses on the deleterious mechanisms postulated to drive the differential metabolic response between central and lower body adipose tissue distribution.

  15. Neck circumference as a novel screening method for estimating fat distribution and metabolic complications in obese children

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    Abeer Atef

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: NC is a valuable predictor for body fat distribution among obese children either central (WC and HC or peripheral (triceps skin fold. It should be used as a screening tool in population-based studies.

  16. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

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    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established.

  17. The relationship between fat content and biological parameters of bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obseus) in the Western Central Indian Ocean

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    Song, Liming; Shen, Zhibin; Li, Jie; Li, Dongjing; Li, Yuwei

    2016-10-01

    Comparing fat content with physiological status can throw light on the reproduction and feeding behavior of the fish. The biological data of 586 bigeye tuna were collected from the longline fishery in the waters of Western Central Indian Ocean from November, 2012 to March, 2013. The spatial or temporal distribution of the fat content, and the relationships of fat content with gender, round weight, gonadal maturity and fork length were analyzed. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the relationships between fat content and fork length (FL), gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (K), and somatic index (SI). Results showed that: 1) the fat content of bigeye tuna was in the range of 3.1%-27.1% with the average 12.8%; 2) there were no significant geographical differences of average fat content ( P > 0.05) among 1° squares in general; 3) there were no significant differences ( P > 0.05) of the fat content for different genders, months, or gonad maturity stages; 4) there was an extremely significant correlation ( P = 0.000) between fat content and FL and GSI. There was no significant correlation ( P = 0.051) between fat content and K. There was a significant correlation ( P = 0.003) between fat content and SI. The results of this study suggest that the fat content of the matured fish was relatively stable. The survey area was in a spawning region, and the survey period was the spawning season for bigeye tuna.

  18. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three Loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution.

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    Cecilia M Lindgren

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580 informative for adult waist circumference (WC and waist-hip ratio (WHR. We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9x10(-11 and MSRA (WC, P = 8.9x10(-9. A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.6x10(-8. The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity.

  19. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); J.C. Randall (Joshua); C. Lamina (Claudia); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); L. Qi (Lu); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); C.J. Willer (Cristen); B.M. Herrera (Blanca); A.U. Jackson (Anne); N. Lim (Noha); P. Scheet (Paul); N. Soranzo (Nicole); N. Amin (Najaf); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); J.C. Chambers (John); A. Drong (Alexander); J. Luan; H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S. Sanna (Serena); N. Timpson (Nicholas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); H.Z. Jing; P. Almgren (Peter); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); L. Cherkas (Lynn); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); C. Cooper (Charles); G. Crawford (Gabe); A. Doering (Angela); A. Dominiczak (Anna); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); S. Ebrahim (Shanil); P. Elliott (Paul); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Fischer (Guido); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grallert (Harald); C.J. Groves (Christopher); S.M. Grundy (Scott); C. Guiducci (Candace); D. Hadley (David); A. Hamsten (Anders); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); A. Hofman (Albert); R. Holle (Rolf); J.W. Holloway (John); T. Illig (Thomas); B. Isomaa (Bo); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); K. Jameson (Karen); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); F. Karpe (Fredrik); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.P. Morris (Andrew); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Nordström (Anna); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); F. Payne (Felicity); J. Peden (John); I. Prokopenko (Inga); F. Renström (Frida); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); K. Song (Kijoung); X. Yuan (Xin); H.M. Stringham (Heather); A.J. Swift (Amy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); M. Uda (Manuela); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); G.B. Walters (Bragi); M.N. Weedon (Michael); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); C. Zhang (Cuilin); M. Caulfield (Mark); F.S. Collins (Francis); G.D. Smith; I.N.M. Day (Ian); P.W. Franks (Paul); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A. Kong (Augustine); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); M. Laakso (Markku); E. Lakatta (Edward); V. Mooser (Vincent); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D.P. Strachan (David); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); D. Waterworth (Dawn); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Groop (Leif); D.J. Hunter (David); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); D. Schlessinger (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); I. Barroso (Inês); M.I. McCarthy (Mark)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTo identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evid

  20. ANALYZING FAT-TAILED DISTRIBUTIONS IN EMERGING CAPITAL MARKETS

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    FELICIA RAMONA BIRĂU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article focuses on analyzing the implications of fat-tailed distributions in emerging capital markets. An essential aspect that was highlighted by most empirical research, especially in terms of emerging capital markets, emphasizes the fact that extreme financial events can not be accurately predicted by the normal distribution. Fat-tailed distributions establish a very effective econometric tool in the analysis of rare events which are characterized by extreme values that occur with a relatively high frequency .The importance of exploring this particular issue derives from the fact that it is fundamental for optimal portfolio selection, derivatives valuation, financial hedging and risk management strategies. The implications of fat-tailed distributions for investment process are significant especially in the turbulent context of the global financial crisis.

  1. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  2. Changes in Fat Distribution in Children Following Severe Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Pavankumar; Sallam, Hanaa S.; Ali, Arham; Chandalia, Manisha; Suman, Oscar; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Abate, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with severe cutaneous burn injury show persistent metabolic abnormalities, including inflammation and insulin resistance. Such abnormalities could potentially increase their future risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This could be related to changes in body composition and fat distribution.

  3. Blackouts, risk, and fat-tailed distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Weron, R; Simonsen, Ingve; Weron, Rafal

    2005-01-01

    We analyze a 19-year time series of North American electric power transmission system blackouts. Contrary to previously reported results we find a fatter than exponential decay in the distribution of inter-occurrence times and evidence of seasonal dependence in the number of events. Our findings question the use of self-organized criticality, and in particular the sandpile model, as a paradigm of blackout dynamics in power transmission systems. Hopefully, though, they will provide guidelines to more accurate models for evaluation of blackout risk.

  4. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille F.; Andersen, Gregers S.; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. METHODS: We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology. A total of 5275 individuals (3083 Inuit......, 1397 Africans and 795 Europeans) aged 17-95 years with measures of anthropometry and ultrasonography of abdominal fat were included in the study. Multiple regression models with fractional polynomials were used to analyse VAT and SAT as functions of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist...

  5. [Adiposity and fat distribution in preschool children from low socioeconomic levels in Caracas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, B M; Vásquez, M; Landaeta-Jiménez, M; Rámirez, G; Ledezma, T

    1997-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that body fat distribution in adults is associated with chronical nontransmissible diseases, less is known during the growing years. The current study was undertaken to explore the relationship between level of fatness, fat patterning and some socioenvironmental variables in a group of 449 children aged 3 to 6, living in Caracas, who belong to the poorest Venezuelan socio-economic stratum. Data was analyzed taking nutritional status (weight-for-age), an index of socioeconomic conditions (ICSA), sex and age, as control variables. Using a multivariate analysis we derived first, two groups of households (G1 and G2) as determined by socioeconomic variables, to which principal component analysis was applied to elicited fatness and relative fat patterning through six skinfolds. First component identify level of adiposity, second extremity/trunk fatness, and third upper/lower pattern. Comparison of normal children with those of low weight-for-age showed differences in adiposity and in the upper/lower patterning as detected by the skinfolds involved in the differences: subscapular (-0.53) and supraspinale (0.32) in children with low weight-for-age; triceps (-0.46) and thigh (0.29) in those classified as normal. We found that gender, nutritional condition, environmental variables and age, were significant predictors of the differences in adiposity level; while age and households conditions, appear to be related to upper/lower patterning. The data equally suggests that body fat is more centrally distributed in boys with low weight-for-age. Since these patterns are indicators of risk in the ongoing years, we call tha attention about environmental circumstances.

  6. Active commuting throughout adolescence and central fatness before adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martinez-Gomez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active commuting is a good opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA across the lifespan that potentially might influence central body fat. We aimed to examine the prospective associations of active commuting at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with central body fat at 18 years. METHODS: Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3,649 participants. Active commuting, leisure-time PA and income were self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years. Waist circumference and trunk fat mass were collected at 18 years with the use of a 3-dimensional photonic scanner and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. RESULTS: Active commuting at 11 years was not prospectively associated with central body fat. However, we found that active commuting at 15 and 18 years were prospectively and cross-sectionally associated with central body fat variables, respectively, in boys but not in girls. Also, boys in the highest tertile of accumulated active commuting (i.e., average of active commuting at 11, 13 and 18 years were associated with -2.09 cm (95%CI: -3.24; -0.94 of waist circumference and -1.11 kg (95%CI: -1.74; -0.48 of trunk fat mass compared to boys in the lowest tertile. Analyses on changes in tertiles of active commuting from 11 and 15 years to 18 years with central body fat variables at 18 years showed that boys who remained consistently in the highest tertile or moved to a higher tertile had lower levels of central body fat compared to those consistently in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Active commuting throughout adolescence in boys, especially during middle and late adolescence, is associated with lower levels in central fatness before adulthood.

  7. Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2010-08-01

    Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).

  8. Body mass index and body fat distribution as renal risk factors : a focus on the role of renal haemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Toering, Tsjitske J.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Weight excess and/or central body fat distribution are associated with increased long-term renal risk, not only in subjects with renal disease or renal transplant recipients, but also in the general population. As the prevalence of weight excess is rising worldwide, this may become a main renal risk

  9. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one...

  10. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE MILK FAT PHASE USING UNIVERSAL PEARSON DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of approximating the experimental values of the coefficient of attenuation of ultrasonic oscillations and the mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products. The analysis of experimental data in terms of the choice of the method of approximation was done. A approximating dependence is based on the solution of Pearson differential equations. The advantages of the proposed method for the type of approximation of the experimental data obtained. An algorithm for constructing a mathematical model describing the relaxation spectrum and mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products was implemented. As a result, a family of Pearson approximation curves of the experimental data shows the ability to qualitatively correctly describe the change in the distribution of the fat phase in the process of homogenization. It estimates the error of approximating dependence, which amounted to 18 %. It is shown that during of the process of homogenization of dairy products changes shape of the curve describing the distribution of the fat globules, in view of the fact that there is a local extremum, caused by the presence of the non-homogenized fat globules. The accuracy of the selected mathematical model is significantly reduced. At the same time, it loses its physical meaning and its parameters. To address the identified deviations in the proposed mass distribution of fat globules as a function with two modes. It is proved that the complexity of the model is not only doubles the number of its parameters, but also complicates the interpretation of measurement results in a control system, and makes it difficult to analyze the obtained parameters of approximation by decision-maker. As a result of approximation of experimental data suggested to use statistical moments of the distribution for problem decision.

  12. Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then...

  13. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  14. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Lv; Aisen Zhang; Wenjuan Di; Yunlu Sheng; Peng Cheng; Hanmei Qi; Juan Liu; Jing Yu; Guoxian Ding; Jinmei Cai; Bin Lai

    2016-01-01

    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis,...

  15. Renal morphology assessed by ultrasound in relation to central haemodynamics and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Krauze, Tomasz; Milewska, Agata; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Stajgis, Marek; Wysocki, Henryk

    2013-02-01

    There is a correlation between renal function and the morphological characteristics of the kidney. However, little is known about the association between renal morphology and other important predictors of the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as central haemodynamics or body fat. Thus, in the present study we investigated correlations between renal morphology, body fat and central haemodynamics. Renal morphology and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat were assessed by ultrasound, whereas central haemodynamics were evaluated by pulse wave analysis, in 93 healthy, non-obese subjects (mean (±SEM) age 52 ± 1 years; 43 men, 50 women). Significant correlations were found for indices of body fat (waist : hip ratio, body mass index and intra-abdominal fat) and renal morphology (kidney length, width and volume). Significant inverse correlations were found between central augmentation pressure (cAP) and kidney length (r = -0.33; P = 0.0009), width (r = -0.24; P = 0.01) and volume (r = -0.27; P = 0.007). In addition, significant negative correlations were found between the central augmentation index (cAIx) and kidney length (r = -0.36; P = 0.0003), width (r = -0.29; P = 0.003) and volume (r = -0.33; P = 0.0008). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed independent associations between kidney length and both cAP and cAIx. In conclusion, common morphometric characteristics of the kidney, as assessed by ultrasound, are associated with measures of body fat and descriptors of central haemodynamics. The relationships demonstrated in the present study indicate that these associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon.

  16. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... women. Adjusted for BMI, age and Inuit heritage waist circumference decreased with Westernization (among women), while hip circumference did not change. The differences were particularly pronounced for migrants compared with residents of Greenland. CONCLUSION: BMI and central fat patterning decrease...

  17. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Monda, Keri L; Taylor, Kira C; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K; Ellis, Jaclyn C; Vitolins, Mara Z; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J; Nalls, Michael A; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Strom, Sara S; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S; Sun, Yan V; Mosley, Thomas H; Yanek, Lisa R; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Britton, Angela F; Zonderman, Alan B; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, Joann E; Kuller, Lewis H; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Johnson, Karen C; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M; Palmer, Julie R; Haiman, Christopher A; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V; Becker, Diane M; Bielak, Lawrence F; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A; Grant, Struan F A; Burke, Gregory L; Patel, Sanjay R; Schreiner, Pamela J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Evans, Michele K; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S; Rotimi, Charles N; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B; Reiner, Alexander P; Cupples, L Adrienne; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  18. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    Full Text Available Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio (WHR, is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA. We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1. Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6 were followed-up (stage 2 in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8; RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8. Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN. Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02. In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  19. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Lockes, Adam E.; Maegi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivaniss, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stancakova, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanakam, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Arnlov, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blueher, Matthias; Buhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrichs, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Juergen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkila, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, Francois; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Ken L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Asa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chiness, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehmi, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geusl, Eco J. C.; Doerr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliovaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voelker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Maerz, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur R.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Math; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnkes, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Dujin, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Ines; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Moret, NC; Broekmans, FJM; Fauser, BCJM

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide asso

  20. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Anderson (David); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao; E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (Yongmei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct geno

  1. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  2. Correlation of fatty liver and abdominal fat distribution using a simple fat computed tomography protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seonah Jang; Chang Hee Lee; Kyung Mook Choi; Jongmee Lee; Jae Woong Choi; Kyeong Ah Kim; Cheol Min Park

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between hepatic fat infiltration and abdominal fat volume by using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Three hundred and six patients who visited our obesity clinic between November 2007 and April 2008 underwent fat protocol CT scans. The age range of the patients was 19 to 79 years and the mean age was 49 years. The male to female ratio was 116:190. Liver and spleen attenuation measurements were taken with three regions of interests (ROIs) from the liver and two ROIs from the spleen. Hepatic attenuation indices (HAIs) were measured as follows: (1) hepatic parenchymal attenuation (CTLP); (2) liver to spleen attenuation ratio (LS ratio); and (3) difference between hepatic and splenic attenuation (LSdif). Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan starting at the level of the umbilicus and was automatically calculated by a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified into total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used a bivariate correlation method to assess the relationship between the three HAIs and TF, VF, and SF. RESULTS: There were significant negative correlations between CTLP, LS ratio, and LSdif with TF, VF, and SF, respectively. The CTLP showed a strong negative correlation with TF and VF (r = -0.415 and -0.434, respectively, P < 0.001). The correlation between CTLP and SF was less significant (r = -0.313, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Fatty infiltration of the liver was correlated with amount of abdominal fat and VF was more strongly associated with fatty liver than SF.

  3. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Hung-Yu [Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); E-Da Hospital/ I-Shou University, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Yang, Yi-Hsin [Kaohsiung Medical University, Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Kaohsiung (China); Shih, Paul Ming-Chen [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chuang, Shu-Mien [Yuh-Ing Junior College of Health Care and Management, Kaohsiung (China); Shen, Jung-Tsung [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Juan, Yung-Shun [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  4. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Eis, Jeanette; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition...... in rural and urban Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold...... thickness were measured. Body mass index (BMI), arm fat area (AFA) and arm muscle area (AMA) were calculated. RESULTS: Among 1430 individuals (58.3% females) aged 17-68 years, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, BMI, AFA and waist circumference (WC) increased with age, and were highest in the Maasai...

  5. Theoretical Study of the Effect of Multi-Diameter Distribution on the Mie Scattering Characteristics of Milk Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinying Yin∗; Siqi Zhang; Hongyan Yang; Zhen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To correct the light scattering property parameters of milk fat for improving the detection accuracy, the Mie⁃theory was used to establish a predictive model for light scattering properties of milk fat globule with multi⁃diameter distributions, by means of Monte Carlo approach to simulate actual multi⁃diameter size distribution of milk fat globule in milk fat solution. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of multi⁃diameter distribution milk fat particles were calculated by simulating the particles size distribution in milk fat solution. And the light scattering properties of multi⁃diameter distribution was compared with that of volume mean diameter, Sauter mean diameter and numerical mean diameter in milk fat solution. Theoretical simulation results indicate that the scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of milk fat particles are determined by the particle size distribution in milk fat solution. There is a distinct difference in scattering characteristics between the milk fat particles with multi⁃diameter distribution and that with mean diameters. Compared to that with multi⁃diameter distribution, the scattering coefficient of the milk fat particles with mean diameter has a maximum mean deviation of 9 042 m-1 . The particle size distribution is not completely determined by the mean diameters. The dependence of the light scattering properties on the particle size distribution should be considered into the model and simulation. Therefore, it is found that the particle size distribution in milk fat solution is an essential and critical factor to significantly improve the detection accuracy of milk fat content.

  6. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  7. Effects of abdominal fat distribution parameters on severity of acute pancreatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Increased visceral fat has been shown to exacerbate the pro-inflammatory milieu experienced by patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of acute pancreatitis and abdominal fat distribution parameters measured on computed tomography (CT) scan.

  8. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  9. Divergent effects of central melanocortin signalling on fat and sucrose preference in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Keogh, Julia M.; Henning, Elana; Stephenson, Cheryl; Kelway, Sarah; Trowse, Victoria M.; Subramanian, Naresh; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Fletcher, Paul C.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R)-expressing neurons modulate food intake and preference in rodents but their role in human food preference is unknown. Here we show that compared with lean and weight-matched controls, MC4R deficient individuals exhibited a markedly increased preference for high fat, but a significantly reduced preference for high sucrose food. These effects mirror those in Mc4r null rodents and provide evidence for a central molecular circuit influencing human macronutrient preference. PMID:27701398

  10. [Central fat deposits contribute to atherosclerosis and insulin resistance and peripheral fat deposits protect against atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women--secondary publication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Laszlo B; Richelsen, Bjørn; Larsen, Philip J

    2005-09-19

    An analysis of 290 postmenopausal women, subdivided into four distinct body fat distribution groups, showed that peripheral fat mass (PFM) confers insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic effects. PFM contributes to circulating adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects. In generally obese women, the secretion of adiponectin by PFM provides effective anti-atherogenic protection. In postmenopausal women, body fat distribution has more critical implications for metabolic and cardiovascular risk than overall obesity per se.

  11. Fat distribution and glucose intolerance among Greenland inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Stolk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A high amount of subcutaneous fat is suggested to explain the observation of lower obesity-associated metabolic risk among Inuit than among Europeans. We examined the association between measures of obesity (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT], BMI, waist....... RESULTS Mean SATs were 1.8 and 3.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Mean VATs were 7.0 and 6.3 cm in men and women, respectively. The total prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 9%. Percentage of body fat generally was most strongly associated with all outcomes. Both SAT and VAT were significantly...... circumference [WC], and percentage of body fat) and the indices of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose levels, insulin resistance per homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR], and the insulin sensitivity index [ISI0,120]) among Greenland Inuit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 3,108 adult Inuit...

  12. Reproducibility of ultrasonography for assessing abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, A; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2013-01-01

    Background:Visceral fat plays an important role in the development of metabolic disease independently of the effect of overall abdominal fat. Ultrasonography is an accessible method of accurately assessing abdominal fat distribution in epidemiological studies, but few details about...... the reproducibility of this method have been published.Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of ultrasonography in the assessment of abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.Design and Methods:Ultrasonography was used to estimate visceral...... and subcutaneous abdominal fat. Intra- and interobserver variation, short-term variation and variation between estimates in the fasting and non-fasting state were examined in three samples of 30, 33 and 23 participants from the ADDITION-PRO study. A variance components model was used to calculate intra...

  13. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  14. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system....

  15. Crayfish distribution updating in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scalici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introductions of non-indigenous crayfish have received great attention from biologists and policy makers during the last decade. Purposes of this study are to update the knowledge about the crayfish distribution in Latium (central Italy, and to show how interactions between indigenous and non-indigenous species can affect their distribution. The main findings of this study were (1 the great decrease of the Austropotamobius pallipes populations and (2 the alarming spread of the four non-indigenous species red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (the main widespread crayfish, spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, and yabby Cherax destructor. We never observed indigenous and non-indigenous crayfish living in syntopy, although we noted that white-clawed crayfish had become extinct at sites where non-indigenous crayfish species exist now. Other type of problems (i.e. illegal harvesting and over-abstraction of water for human use can also reduce the distribution and abundance of the indigenous crayfish stocks. The distribution of Italian crayfish populations has not been studied sufficiently and more studies are required nationwide to assess the conservation status of A. pallipes and the occurrence of non-indigenous species. A national database of crayfish records ought to be constructed and regularly updated.

  16. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. Objective: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition...

  17. Fat distribution and glucose intolerance among Greenland Inuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Stolk, Ronald; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEA high amount of subcutaneous fat is suggested to explain the observation of lower obesity-associated metabolic risk among Inuit than among Europeans. We examined the association between measures of obesity (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT], BMI, waist circum

  18. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  19. Observational study of body weight, body fat with segmental fat distribution, visceral fat and body mass index in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Dube; Shanti Viswanathan; Manjree Dube

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in the last decade. This prevalence has been steadily increasing and is expected to increase further in the coming decade. The change in our lifestyle plus a sedentary lifestyle has led to this .Various body composition monitoring methods help us evaluate obesity and its association with diabetes. In this study, we analysed the trend of body fat distribution in diabetics. Methods: A multifrequency body c...

  20. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and lipolysis enzymes participate in methylprednisolone induced fat differential distribution between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Han; Yang, Jiaojiao; Qi, Xiaoyan; Zu, Xuyu; Yang, Jing; Zhong, Jing; Cao, Renxian; Liu, Jianghua; Wen, Gebo

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are well known to induce fat distribution, which is consistent with the central adiposity phenotype seen in Cushing's syndrome. GCs have been proposed to be both adipogenic and lipolytic in action within adipose tissues. Different adipogenic and lipolytic effects between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are likely to play a role in GCs induced fat differential distribution. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the most important regulators in adipogenesis. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) are the major lipases contributing to lipolysis. In the present study, we measured fat depot masses and the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and lipolytic enzymes of female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without methylprednisolone. We assessed the roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and lipolytic enzymes in fat differential distribution between SAT and VAT. Our data suggested that methylprednisolone could inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in SAT and VAT, increase the expression of ATGL and HSL in SAT, and decrease the expression of ATGL and HSL in VAT. The differential expression of lipolysis enzymes induced by methylprednisolone between SAT and VAT might play a crucial role in fat distribution. Those findings would offer novel insights into the mechanisms of GCs induced fat distribution.

  1. Circulating persistent organic pollutants and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, after adjusting for major confounders, including age, smoking status, and history of lactation and parity. Wolfe's method was used to compare correlation coefficients derived from the same participants. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. METHODS: This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health......: Twelve POPs showed significantly different correlations with fat depots in trunk and leg regions. β-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-126 showed stronger positive correlations with trunk FM% than with leg FM%, whereas PCBs...

  2. Systematic review of antiretroviral-associated lipodystrophy: lipoatrophy, but not central fat gain, is an antiretroviral adverse drug reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé de Waal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophy and/or central fat gain are observed frequently in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART. Both are assumed to be antiretroviral adverse drug reactions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to determine whether fat loss or gain was more common in HIV-infected patients on ART than in uninfected controls; was associated with specific antiretrovirals; and would reverse after switching antiretrovirals. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria. One cohort study reported more lipoatrophy, less subcutaneous fat gain, but no difference in central fat gain in HIV-infected patients on ART than in controls. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs showed more limb fat loss (or less fat gain with the following regimens: stavudine (versus other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs; efavirenz (versus protease inhibitors (PIs; and NRTI-containing (versus NRTI-sparing. RCTs showed increased subcutaneous fat after switching to NRTI-sparing regimens or from stavudine/zidovudine to abacavir/tenofovir. There were no significant between-group differences in trunk and/or visceral fat gain in RCTs of various regimens, but results from efavirenz versus PI regimens were inconsistent. There was no significant between-group differences in central fat gain in RCTs switched to NRTI-sparing regimens, or from PI-containing regimens. CONCLUSIONS: There is clear evidence of a causal relationship between NRTIs (especially thymidine analogues and lipoatrophy, with concomitant PIs possibly having an ameliorating effect or efavirenz causing additive toxicity. By contrast, central fat gain appears to be a consequence of treating HIV infection, because it is not different from controls, is not linked to any antiretroviral class, and doesn't improve on switching.

  3. A systematic review of body fat distribution and mortality in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Beason, Tracey S; Hunleth, Jean M; Colditz, Graham A

    2012-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review investigating body fat distribution in older adults and its association with morbidity and mortality. Our search yielded 2702 citations. Following three levels of screening, 25 studies were selected to evaluate the association between body fat distribution and comorbidity, and 17 studies were used in the mortality analysis. Most of the selected studies in our analyses used anthropometric measures, e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio; relatively few studies used direct measures, such as body fat/lean mass, and percentage body fat. Studies reported inconsistent findings regarding the strongest predictor(s) of morbidity and mortality. However, the majority of studies suggested that BMI per se was not the most appropriate predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly because of its inability to discern or detect age-related body fat redistribution. In addition, studies using BMI found that the optimal BMI range for the lowest mortality in the elderly was overweight (25 kg/m(2)≤BMIBMIbody fat distribution measurements, and to certify that these guidelines will not be applied to inappropriate populations.

  4. Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls.Methods: A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools.Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometricassessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regionalfat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status.Findings: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular riskfactors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total andregional body fat percent (P<0.001. After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat massespecially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure.Conclusion: Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  6. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution in South Asian men compared to Caucasian men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Chandalia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: South Asians are susceptible to insulin resistance even without obesity. We examined the characteristics of body fat content, distribution and function in South Asian men and their relationships to insulin resistance compared to Caucasians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-nine South Asian and 18 Caucasian non-diabetic men (age 27+/-3 and 27+/-3 years, respectively underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for insulin sensitivity, underwater weighing for total body fat, MRI of entire abdomen for intraperitoneal (IP and subcutaneous abdominal (SA fat and biopsy of SA fat for adipocyte size. RESULTS: Compared to Caucasians, in spite of similar BMI, South Asians had higher total body fat (22+/-6 and 15+/-4% of body weight; p-value<0.0001, higher SA fat (3.5+/-1.9 and 2.2+/-1.3 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.004, but no differences in IP fat (1.0+/-0.5 and 1.0+/-0.7 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.4. SA adipocyte cell size was significantly higher in South Asians (3491+/-1393 and 1648+/-864 microm2; p-value = 0.0001 and was inversely correlated with both glucose disposal rate (r-value = -0.57; p-value = 0.0008 and plasma adiponectin concentrations (r-value = -0.71; p-value<0.0001. Adipocyte size differences persisted even when SA was matched between South Asians and Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance in young South Asian men can be observed even without increase in IP fat mass and is related to large SA adipocytes size. Hence ethnic excess in insulin resistance in South Asians appears to be related more to excess truncal fat and dysfunctional adipose tissue than to excess visceral fat.

  7. Application of hyperspectral imaging for characterization of intramuscular fat distribution in beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a hyperspectral imaging system in the spectral region of 400-1000 nm was used for visualization and determination of intramuscular fat concentration in beef samples. Hyperspectral images were acquired for beef samples, and spectral information was then extracted from each single sample from the fat and non-fat regions. The intramuscular fat content was chemically extracted and quantified for the same samples. Chemometrics including analysis of variance (ANOVA) and spectral similarity measures involving spectral angle measure (SAM), and Euclidian distance measure (EDM) were then used to analyze the data. An ANOVA analysis indicates that the two selected spectral variables (e.g., 650.4-736.4 nm) are effective to generate ratio image for visualization of the intramuscular fat distribution in beef. The spectral similarity analysis methods, which is based on the quantifying the spectral similarities by using predetermined endmember spectrum vector, provided comparable results for characterization and detection of intramuscular fat in beef. In term of overall classification accuracy, spectral similarity measure methods outperformed the ratio image of selected bands based on the result of ANOVA analysis. The results demonstrate that proposed technique has a potential for fast and nondestructive determination of intramuscular fat in beef.

  8. AHSG gene variation is not associated with regional body fat distribution--a magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, K; Staiger, H; Machicao, F; Machann, J; Hennige, A M; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2009-09-01

    Obesity-resistance in AHSG-knockout mice indicate an important role of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG) in the development of obesity. We studied whether genetic variation within AHSG affects whole-body adiposity and regional fat distribution in humans. We genotyped 321 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs2248690, rs4831, rs2070635, rs4917, and rs1071592. Body fat distribution and ectopic hepatic and intramyocellular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance techniques. AHSG levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. The five chosen SNPs covered 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency >/=0.05) within AHSG (r (2)>/=0.8). All SNPs were significantly associated with AHSG levels (pbody mass index (BMI). AHSG levels were associated with liver fat content (p=0.0160) and BMI (p=0.0247) after adjustment for gender and age. While rs2248690 was nominally associated with BMI in the dominant model (p=0.0432), none of the SNPs was associated with regional fat distribution. Common genetic variation within AHSG does not appear to influence regional body fat distribution, but may affect whole-body adiposity in humans.

  9. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  10. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  11. The Growth and Distribution of Carcass Fat in Fattening Steer of Different Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Priyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and distribution patterns of carcass fat were investigated in three breeds of beef cattle entering fattening phase. The study involved 23 grass-fed steer Brahman, 24 Hereford and 22 Brahmanx Hereford crosses with a live weight range from 300-600 kg. An allometric Huxley model was used to study the growth and distribution patterns of fat tissue within wholesale cut. In most cases, Brahmans had significantly higher growth coefficients than Herefords and/or BrahmanxHereford crosses while Herefords and BrahmanxHereford crosses had similar growth coefficients in wholesale cuts. At log natural of 75 kg side muscle+bone weight (4.313 kg, Herefords had significantly a higher fat weight within wholesale cuts than Brahmans and BrahmanxHereford crosses. Comparison at log natural of 114 kg side muscle+bone weight (4.733 kg, whilst Brahmans and Herefords were similar in fat weight distribution, the cross-bred steer had lower fat weights than the other two breed groups in almost all wholesale cuts.

  12. Central amygdala opioid transmission is necessary for increased high-fat intake following 24-h food deprivation, but not following intra-accumbens opioid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kyle E; Johns, Howard W; Floros, Ted G; Will, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-h food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a distributed corticolimbic circuitry, including the amygdala. Specifically, the central amygdala (CeA) has been shown to be involved in high-fat feeding within both opioid and food-deprivation driven models. The present experiments were conducted to examine the more specific role of CeA opioid transmission in mediating high-fat feeding driven by either intra-Acb administration of the μ-opioid agonist d-Ala2-NMe-Phe4-Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) or 24-h home cage food deprivation. Injection of DAMGO into the Acb (0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side) increased consumption of the high-fat diet, but this feeding was unaffected by administration of opioid antagonist, naltrexone (5 μg/0.25 μl/side) administered into the CeA. In contrast, intra-CeA naltrexone administration attenuated high-fat intake driven by 24-h food deprivation, demonstrating a specific role for CeA opioid transmission in high-fat consumption. Intra-CeA naltrexone administration alone had no effect on baseline feeding levels within either feeding model. These findings suggest that CeA opioid transmission mediates consumption of a palatable high-fat diet driven by short-term negative-energy balance (24-h food deprivation), but not intra-Acb opioid receptor activation.

  13. Polymorphisms in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 in relation to fat mass distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both animal and human studies have associated the endocannabinoid system with obesity and markers of metabolic dysfunction. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) caused weight loss and reduction in waist size in both obese and type II diabetics. Recent studies on common variants...... of the CB1 receptor gene (CNR1) and the link to obesity have been conflicting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether selected common variants of the CNR1 are associated with measures of obesity and fat distribution. DESIGN AND METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs806381, rs......10485179 and rs1049353 were genotyped, and body fat and fat distribution were assessed by the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging in a population-based study comprising of 783 Danish men, aged 20-29 years. RESULTS: The rs806381 polymorphism was significantly associated...

  14. Metabolic Syndrome in Italian Obese Children and Adolescents: Stronger Association with Central Fat Depot than with Insulin Sensitivity and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brufani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate whether body fat distribution, birth weight, and family history for diabetes (FHD were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and adolescents. Methods. A total of 439 Italian obese children and adolescents (5–18 years were enrolled. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: prepubertal and pubertal. MetS was diagnosed according to the adapted National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Birth weight percentile, central obesity index (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, insulin sensitivity (ISI, and disposition index were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine variables associated with MetS. Results. The prevalence of MetS was 17%, with higher percentage in adolescents than in children (21 versus 12%. In the overall population, central obesity index was a stronger predictor of MetS than insulin sensitivity and low birth weight. When the two groups were considered, central fat depot remained the strongest predictor of MetS, with ISI similarly influencing the probability of MetS in the two groups and birth weight being negatively associated to MetS only in pubertal individuals. Neither FHD nor degree of fatness was a significant predictor of MetS. Conclusion. Simple clinical parameters like increased abdominal adiposity and low birth weight could be useful tools to identify European obese adolescents at risk for metabolic complications.

  15. Fat tailed distributions for deaths in conflicts and disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistics of human deaths from wars, conflicts, similar man-made conflicts as well as natural disasters. The probability distribution of number of people killed in natural disasters as well as man made situations show power law decay for the largest sizes, with similar exponent values. Comparisons with natural disasters, when event sizes are measured in terms of physical quantities (e.g., energy released in earthquake, volume of rainfall, land area affected in forest fires, etc.) also show striking resemblances. The universal patterns in their statistics suggest that some subtle similarities in their mechanisms and dynamics might be responsible.

  16. The role of body mass index, insulin, and adiponectin in the relation between fat distribution and bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); A.L. Berends (Anne); P. Henneman (Peter); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), the role of fat distribution in BMD/BMC remains unclear. We examined relationships between BMD/BMC and various measurements of fat distribution and studied the role of BMI, in

  17. Central Place Theory and Distribution of Post Offices in Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of application of the Central Place Theory in the distribution of post offices in cities is analysed, the grade scale structure and space distribution structure Shijiazhauang of post offices in city are studied, the research results prove the actual value of the Central Place Theory, and the suggestion of adjustment in the space distribution Shijiazhuang of post offices in city is put forward.

  18. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo In; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Shin, Jang Yel; Chung, Choon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in adult populations. Methods A total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010). Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The odds ratios (ORs) for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001). Conclusion The relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:28029016

  19. Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Eva L; Poulsen, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Indirect estimates of obesity such as BMI seem to be strongly influenced by genetic factors in twins. Precise measurements of total and regional fat as determined by direct techniques such as DXA scan have only been applied in a few twin studies. The aim of the present study was to est......OBJECTIVE: Indirect estimates of obesity such as BMI seem to be strongly influenced by genetic factors in twins. Precise measurements of total and regional fat as determined by direct techniques such as DXA scan have only been applied in a few twin studies. The aim of the present study...... was to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of total and regional fat distribution in young and elderly Danish twins. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Monozygotic (108) and dizygotic (88) twins in two age groups (25 to 32 and 58 to 66 years) underwent anthropometric measurements and DXA scans. Intraclass correlations...... and etiologic components of variance were estimated for total and regional fat percentages using biometric modeling. RESULTS: The intraclass correlations demonstrated higher correlations for all fat percentages among monozygotic twins as compared with dizygotic twins. The biometric modeling revealed a major...

  20. Development and tracking of central patterns of subcutaneous fat of rural South African youth: Ellisras longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemper Han CG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals grow and accumulate central patterns of body fat into the diseases they will suffer from as older adults. The need to elicit the development and tracking of central patterns of body fat from younger age into adolescent remains to be explored. Method Skinfolds measurements were done according to the standard procedures in the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. In total, 2,225 children--550 preschool and 1,675 primary school--aged 3-10 years (birth cohorts 1993 to 1986 were enrolled at baseline in 1996 and followed through out the eight-year periodic surveys. In 2003, 1,771 children--489 preschool and 1,282 primary school--were still in the study. Results The development of triceps, biceps, suprailiac and suscapular skinfolds of Ellisras girls were significantly higher (p Conclusion The accumulation of central patterns of body fat of Ellisras children starts in childhood and adolescence spurt with Ellisras girls acquiring more than boys over time. High significant tracking of skinfold thickness while the skinfold ratios show low and insignificant tracking over time. The magnitude of central patterns of body fat accumulation over time requires further investigation to clarify their association with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wah So

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.

  2. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  3. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.;

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome......-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P ...(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated...

  4. Selected CNR1 polymorphisms and hyperandrogenemia as well as fat mass and fat distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejuk, Diana; Laczmański, Lukasz; Kuliczkowska, Justyna; Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Trzmiel-Bira, Anna; Hirnle, Lidia; Dorobisz, Urszula; Milewicz, Andrzej; Lwow, Felicja; Urbanovych, A; Słoka, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is postulated to play an important role in the etiology of obesity, insulin resistance, fat distribution and metabolic disorders. Insulin resistance associated with abdominal obesity plays a leading role in the etiology of hyperandrogenism and other clinical features of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 174 women 16-38 years old, diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria are recruited. Control group consisted of 125 healthy women 18-45 years old. Medical history, physical examination, anthropometric parameters and metabolic parameters were carried out. Six CNR1 gene polymorphisms were diagnosed. We observed a significantly three times higher risk of GG genotype in the polymorphism rs12720071 in women with PCOS versus the control group (p = 0.0344, OR = 3.01). A similar, significant 8-fold higher risk (p = 0.0176, OR = 8.81) was demonstrated for genotype CC polymorphism rs806368 associated with PCOS. We observed a 3.6-fold increased risk of hyperandrogenemia (free androgen index - FAI > 7) in patients with GG genotype in the rs12720071 polymorphism and AA genotype in the polymorphism rs1049353 (OR = 2.7). Our study may indicate a role of the endocannabinoid system in the occurrence of a specific hyperandrogenemia phenotype of PCOS.

  5. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  6. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  7. Regional Fat Distribution and Blood Pressure Level and Variability: The Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Ayers, Colby; Turer, Aslan; Chandra, Alvin; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Greenland, Philip; de Lemos, James A; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the associations of regional fat distribution with home and office blood pressure (BP) levels and variability. Participants in the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic cohort, underwent 5 BP measurements on 3 occasions during 5 months (2 in home and 1 in office) and quantification of visceral adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and liver fat by magnetic resonance imaging, and lower body subcutaneous fat by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The relation of regional adiposity with short-term (within-visit) and long-term (overall visits) mean BP and average real variability was assessed with multivariable linear regression. We have included 2595 participants with a mean age of 44 years (54% women; 48% black), and mean body mass index was 29 kg/m(2) Mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 127/79 mm Hg and average real variability systolic BP was 9.8 mm Hg during 3 visits. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher amount of visceral adipose tissue was associated with higher short-term (both home and office) and long-term mean systolic BP (β[SE]: 1.9[0.5], 2.7[0.5], and 2.1[0.5], respectively; all Pfat was associated with lower short-term home and long-term mean BP (β[SE]: -0.30[0.13] and -0.24[0.1], respectively; both Pfat was associated with BP levels or variability. In conclusion, excess visceral fat was associated with persistently higher short- and long-term mean BP levels and with lower long-term BP variability, whereas lower body fat was associated with lower short- and long-term mean BP. Persistently elevated BP, coupled with lower variability, may partially explain increased risk for cardiac hypertrophy and failure related to visceral adiposity.

  8. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. METHODS: The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent...... examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. RESULTS: Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA......). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LTPA and OPA were associated...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure carried out for homogenized milk samples at different pressures, as well as homogenized. As a result of research obtained distribution histogram of fat globules in dependence on the homogenization pressure. Also performed acoustic studies to obtain the frequency characteristics of loss modulus as a function of homogenization pressure. For further research the choice of method for approximating dependences is obtained using statistical moments of distributions. The parameters for the approximation of the distribution of fat globules and loss modulus versus pressure homogenization were obtained. Was carried out to test the hypothesis on the relationship parameters of approximation of the distribution of the fat globules and loss modulus as a function of pressure homogenization. Correlation analysis showed a clear dependence of the first and second statistical moment distributions of the pressure homogenization. The obtain ed dependence is consistent with the physical meaning of the first two moments of a statistical distribution. Correlation analysis was carried out according to the statistical moments of the distribution of the fat globules from moments of loss modulus. It is concluded that the possibility of ultrasonic testing the degree of homogenization and mass distribution of the fat globules of milk products.

  10. The birth-death-mutation process: a new paradigm for fat tailed distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruvka, Yosef E; Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2011-01-01

    Fat tailed statistics and power-laws are ubiquitous in many complex systems. Usually the appearance of of a few anomalously successful individuals (bio-species, investors, websites) is interpreted as reflecting some inherent "quality" (fitness, talent, giftedness) as in Darwin's theory of natural selection. Here we adopt the opposite, "neutral", outlook, suggesting that the main factor explaining success is merely luck. The statistics emerging from the neutral birth-death-mutation (BDM) process is shown to fit marvelously many empirical distributions. While previous neutral theories have focused on the power-law tail, our theory economically and accurately explains the entire distribution. We thus suggest the BDM distribution as a standard neutral model: effects of fitness and selection are to be identified by substantial deviations from it.

  11. Polymorphisms in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 in relation to fat mass distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, M; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2010-01-01

    Both animal and human studies have associated the endocannabinoid system with obesity and markers of metabolic dysfunction. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) caused weight loss and reduction in waist size in both obese and type II diabetics. Recent studies on common variants of the CB1...... receptor gene (CNR1) and the link to obesity have been conflicting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether selected common variants of the CNR1 are associated with measures of obesity and fat distribution....

  12. Centralized and distributed architectures of scalable video conferencing services

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Tien Anh; Nguyen, Hang

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The Multipoint Control Unit-based centralized architecture and Application Layer Multicast-based distributed architecture are mainly used for data distribution in video conferencing services. With the contribution of Scalable Video Coding, the latest extension of Advanced Video Coding, video conferencing services are being further researched to support terminals' scalability. The main contribution of this research is to answer a fundamental question before a video conf...

  13. Distributed Computing with Centralized Support Works at Brigham Young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kelly; Stone, Brad

    1992-01-01

    Brigham Young University (Utah) has addressed the need for maintenance and support of distributed computing systems on campus by implementing a program patterned after a national business franchise, providing the support and training of a centralized administration but allowing each unit to operate much as an independent small business.…

  14. Central Renin-Angiotensin System Activation and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat Diet Sensitize Angiotensin II-Elicited Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Thunhorst, Robert L; Yu, Yang; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G; Felder, Robert B; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to promote renin-angiotensin system activity and inflammation in the brain and to be accompanied by increased sympathetic activity and blood pressure. Our previous studies demonstrated that administration of a subpressor dose of angiotensin (Ang) II sensitizes subsequent Ang II-elicited hypertension. The present study tested whether high-fat diet (HFD) feeding also sensitizes the Ang II-elicited hypertensive response and whether HFD-induced sensitization is mediated by an increase in renin-angiotensin system activity and inflammatory mechanisms in the brain. HFD did not increase baseline blood pressure, but enhanced the hypertensive response to Ang II compared with a normal-fat diet. The sensitization produced by the HFD was abolished by concomitant central infusions of either a tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis inhibitor, pentoxifylline, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, or an inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline. Furthermore, central pretreatment with tumor necrosis factor-α mimicked the sensitizing action of a central subpressor dose of Ang II, whereas central pentoxifylline or minocycline abolished this Ang II-induced sensitization. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of lamina terminalis tissue indicated that HFD feeding, central tumor necrosis factor-α, or a central subpressor dose of Ang II upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines, whereas inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor and of inflammation reversed these changes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by upregulation of the brain renin-angiotensin system and of central proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  16. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is associated with lower LDL but unhealthy fat distribution, independent of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cathrine Laustrup; Vistisen, Dorte; Færch, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    GIP and lipid metabolism in individuals with low to high risk of type 2 diabetes and assessed whether the associations were modified by or mediated through insulin. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Analyses were based on the Danish cross-sectional ADDITION-PRO study (n=1,405). Lipid metabolism...... was measured by fasting plasma lipids and obesity including abdominal fat distribution assessed by ultrasonography. GIP and insulin were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (0, 30 and 120 minutes). Linear regression analysis was used to study the associations between GIP, plasma lipids and obesity...... was associated with 0.13 cm less (0.01;0.25) subcutaneous fat but with more visceral abdominal fat (0.45 cm (0.12;0.78)) and higher waist-hip ratio (0.011 (0.004;0.019)). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to what was previously thought, GIP may be associated with improved LDL clearance but with an unhealthy fat distribution...

  17. Stretched exponential distributions in nature and economy: ``fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherrère, J.; Sornette, D.

    1998-04-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported "natural" fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributions of radio and light emissions from galaxies, of US GOM OCS oilfield reserve sizes, of World, US and French agglomeration sizes, of country population sizes, of daily Forex US-Mark and Franc-Mark price variations, of Vostok (near the south pole) temperature variations over the last 400 000 years, of the Raup-Sepkoski's kill curve and of citations of the most cited physicists in the world. We also discuss its potential for the distribution of earthquake sizes and fault displacements. We suggest physical interpretations of the parameters and provide a short toolkit of the statistical properties of the stretched exponentials. We also provide a comparison with other distributions, such as the shifted linear fractal, the log-normal and the recently introduced parabolic fractal distributions.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure ...

  19. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  20. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet is associated with increased immune cell entry into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Laura B; Hasty, Alyssa H; Flaherty, David K; Buckman, Christopher T; Thompson, Misty M; Matlock, Brittany K; Weller, Kevin; Ellacott, Kate L J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in peripheral tissues caused, in part, by the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes into adipose tissue. Studies in rodent models have also shown increased inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) during obesity. The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the CNS. To do this we used a bone marrow chimerism model to track the entry of green-fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled peripheral immune cells into the CNS. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the number of GFP(+) immune cells recruited into the CNS of mice fed a high-fat diet compared to standard chow fed controls. High-fat feeding resulted in obesity associated with a 30% increase in the number of GFP(+) cells in the CNS compared to control mice. Greater than 80% of the GFP(+) cells recruited to the CNS were also CD45(+) CD11b(+) indicating that the GFP(+) cells displayed characteristics of microglia/macrophages. Immunohistochemistry further confirmed the increase in GFP(+) cells in the CNS of the high-fat fed group and also indicated that 93% of the recruited cells were found in the parenchyma and had a stellate morphology. These findings indicate that peripheral immune cells can be recruited to the CNS in obesity and may contribute to the inflammatory response.

  1. Correlation of Abdominal Fat Distribution with Different Types of Diabetes in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate abdominal fat distribution in Chinese subjects with diabetes and its correlation with different types of diabetes. A total of 176 diabetic subjects were enrolled, 92 with type 1 and 84 with type 2, with a mean age of 27.41 and 49.3 yrs. No subject has history of severe diseases. Multi-slice CT was used to measure total abdominal adipose (TA and visceral adipose (VA tissues. Subcutaneous adipose (SA tissue was obtained by subtracting VA from TA. There were differences between subjects with T1DM and T2DM for TA, VA, SA, VA/SA, body mass index (BMI, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein, but not total Cholesterol or low density lipoprotein. There were positive correlations between TA, VA, SA, VA/SA and T1DM and T2DM (P0.86. In subjects with T1DM, VA was negatively correlated with HDL, positively with BMI and age, and SA was positively correlated with BMI and sex (P0.86 for all. In subjects with T2DM, VA was positively correlated to BMI, TG and age, and SA was positively correlated to TG and sex (P0.86 for all. Abdominal fat content was positively correlated to diabetes in Chinese, which differs in different types of diabetes.

  2. Correlation of abdominal fat distribution with different types of diabetes in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anhui; Cui, Bin; Dang, Haodan; Yao, Dan; Yu, Haitao; Jia, Hongmin; Hu, Zhijun; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate abdominal fat distribution in Chinese subjects with diabetes and its correlation with different types of diabetes. A total of 176 diabetic subjects were enrolled, 92 with type 1 and 84 with type 2, with a mean age of 27.41 and 49.3 yrs. No subject has history of severe diseases. Multi-slice CT was used to measure total abdominal adipose (TA) and visceral adipose (VA) tissues. Subcutaneous adipose (SA) tissue was obtained by subtracting VA from TA. There were differences between subjects with T1DM and T2DM for TA, VA, SA, VA/SA, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein, but not total Cholesterol or low density lipoprotein. There were positive correlations between TA, VA, SA, VA/SA and T1DM and T2DM (P 0.86). In subjects with T1DM, VA was negatively correlated with HDL, positively with BMI and age, and SA was positively correlated with BMI and sex (P 0.86 for all). In subjects with T2DM, VA was positively correlated to BMI, TG and age, and SA was positively correlated to TG and sex (P 0.86 for all). Abdominal fat content was positively correlated to diabetes in Chinese, which differs in different types of diabetes.

  3. Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesús; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel A; Lewis, Jerome; Hewlett, Barry; Breuer, Thomas; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M; Fernández, María; Germi, Francesco; Hattori, Shiho; Head, Josephine; Ichikawa, Mitsuo; Kitanaishi, Koichi; Knights, Jessica; Matsuura, Naoki; Migliano, Andrea; Nese, Barbara; Noss, Andrew; Ekoumou, Dieudonné Ongbwa; Paulin, Pascale; Real, Raimundo; Riddell, Mike; Stevenson, Edward G J; Toda, Mikako; Vargas, J Mario; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654) in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC) is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.

  4. Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Olivero

    Full Text Available Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654 in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.

  5. Central infusion of histamine reduces fat accumulation and upregulates UCP family in leptin-resistant obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, T; Yoshimatsu, H; Chiba, S; Watanabe, T; Sakata, T

    2001-02-01

    Leptin resistance has recently been confirmed not only in animal obese models but in human obesity. Evidence is rapidly emerging that suggests that activation of histamine signaling in the hypothalamus may have substantial anti-obesity and antidiabetic actions, particularly in leptin-resistant states. To address this issue, effects of central, chronic treatment with histamine on food intake, adiposity, and energy expenditure were examined using leptin-resistant obese and diabetic mice. Infusion of histamine (0.05 pmol x g body wt(-1) x day(-1)) into the lateral cerebroventricle (i.c.v.) for 7 successive days reduced food intake and body weight significantly in both diet-induced obesity (DIO) and db/db mice. Histamine treatment reduced body fat weight, ob gene expression, and serum leptin concentration more in the model mice than in pair-fed controls. The suppressive effect on fat deposition was significant in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat. Serum concentrations of glucose and/or insulin were reduced, and tests for glucose and insulin tolerance showed improvement of insulin sensitivity in those mice treated with histamine compared with pair-fed controls. On the other hand, gene expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 expression in white adipose tissue were upregulated more in mice with i.c.v. histamine infusion than in the pair-fed controls. These upregulating effects of histamine were attenuated by targeted disruption of the H1-receptor in DIO and db/db mice. Sustained i.c.v. treatment with histamine thus makes it possible to partially restore the distorted energy intake and expenditure in leptin-resistant mice. Together, i.c.v. treatment with histamine contributes to improvement of energy balance even in leptin-resistant DIO and db/db mice.

  6. Distribution probability of large-scale landslides in central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Manita; Bhandary, Netra P.; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale landslides in the Himalaya are defined as huge, deep-seated landslide masses that occurred in the geological past. They are widely distributed in the Nepal Himalaya. The steep topography and high local relief provide high potential for such failures, whereas the dynamic geology and adverse climatic conditions play a key role in the occurrence and reactivation of such landslides. The major geoscientific problems related with such large-scale landslides are 1) difficulties in their identification and delineation, 2) sources of small-scale failures, and 3) reactivation. Only a few scientific publications have been published concerning large-scale landslides in Nepal. In this context, the identification and quantification of large-scale landslides and their potential distribution are crucial. Therefore, this study explores the distribution of large-scale landslides in the Lesser Himalaya. It provides simple guidelines to identify large-scale landslides based on their typical characteristics and using a 3D schematic diagram. Based on the spatial distribution of landslides, geomorphological/geological parameters and logistic regression, an equation of large-scale landslide distribution is also derived. The equation is validated by applying it to another area. For the new area, the area under the receiver operating curve of the landslide distribution probability in the new area is 0.699, and a distribution probability value could explain > 65% of existing landslides. Therefore, the regression equation can be applied to areas of the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal with similar geological and geomorphological conditions.

  7. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    . The associations of VAT and SATwith blood pressure and lipids were examined by linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex,smoking, alcohol, physical activity, glucose tolerance status (GTS), medication use, and body massindex. Effect modification by GTS and sex was examined, and stratified analyses performed......Context: Regional fat distribution rather than overall obesity has been recognized as important tounderstanding the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Objective:We examined the associations of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominalsubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT......) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound...

  8. The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Earle C; Tull, Eugene S; Fraser, Henry S; Mutunhu, Nyasha R; Sobers, Natasha; Niles, Elisa

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of internalized racism (INR) and hostility to body fat distribution and insulin resistance in black adolescent children age 14-16 years on the Caribbean island of Barbados. Questionnaire data on psychosocial variables and anthropometric measurements, together with a fasting blood sample, were obtained from 53 low-birthweight and 119 normal-birthweight adolescents. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Spearman correlation analyses showed that both INR (r = 0.244) and hostility (r = 0.204) were significantly (p physical activity and family history of diabetes. The results of the current study show that the positive relationship between INR and metabolic health risk seen in African-Caribbean adults also exists in African Caribbean adolescent youth independent of birthweight.

  9. The Use of P45 Plastination Technique to Study the Distribution of Preseptal and Preaponeurotic Fat Tissues in Asian Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Pu; Yu, Shengbo; Qin, Hongzhi; Sui, Hongjin

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the anatomical features of preseptal and preaponeurotic fat tissues in the upper eyelids of individuals of Asian heritage. Specifically, we attempted to elucidate the role of these tissues in the formation of sunken upper eyelids and devise an easy and feasible approach to rectify this. Sixteen heads (32 facial halves) from fresh adult cadavers were processed using the P45 plastination techniques. The polymer resulted in transparent plastination, and the sagittal median section of the eyeballs was dissected. Gross anatomy results of 12 adult cadaveric heads (24 facial halves) were included as supplementary data. The orbital septum was observed on sagittal section slides prepared with P45 sheet plastination. Based on the amount of fat distribution, the upper eyelid was classified into three groups: preseptal fat predominant type, preaponeurotic fat predominant type, and orbital septum equilibrium type (relative distribution of 31.3, 12.5, and 56.3 % in plastinated slices, and 29.2, 16.7, and 54.2 % in gross anatomical studies). Major tissues on P45 sheet plastination slices in the supraorbital region were preseptal fat, preaponeurotic fat, frontalis muscle and frontalis muscle aponeurosis, and partial orbicularis oculi muscle. The muscle fibers of the frontalis muscle and orbicularis oculi were interconnected and extended backward to connect with the orbital septum through preseptal fat. In conclusion, the morphology and external appearance of the upper eyelids depend on the relative relationship between preseptal and preaponeurotic fat tissues. Mildly or moderately sunken upper eyelids can be corrected by modifying the soft tissue in the supraorbital margin.

  10. Objectively measured time spent sedentary is associated with insulin resistance independent of overall and central body fat in 9- to 10-year-old Portuguese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardinha, Luis B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2007-01-01

    . All associations remained statistically significant, although they were attenuated after further adjustments for sex, birth weight, sexual maturity, and total or central fat mass (P Physical activity is associated with insulin resistance independent of total and central fat mass......OBJECTIVE: We examined the independent relationships between objectively measured physical activity and insulin resistance in Portuguese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a school-based, cross-sectional study in 147 randomly selected girls (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 27.8 +/- 9.3% body...... fat) and 161 boys (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 22.0 +/- 9.2% body fat). Physical activity was assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer for 4 days and summarized as time spent sedentary (accelerometer counts

  11. Effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in drug-naive subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Wen; Yang, Huijie; Feng, Wenhuan; Li, Cuiliu; Tong, Guoyu; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Bin; Weng, Jianping; Zhu, Dalong

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in T2DM. Thirty-three drug-naive T2DM patients (age 52.7 ± 1.7 years, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.2 %, body mass index 24.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized into exenatide, insulin, or pioglitazone for 6 months. Intrahepatic fat (IHF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and adiponectin were assayed by ELISA. HbA1c declined significantly in all three groups. Body weight, waist, and serum triglycerides decreased with exenatide. After interventions, IHF significantly reduced with three treatments (exenatide Δ = -68 %, insulin Δ = -58 %, pioglitazone Δ = -49 %). Exenatide reduced VF (Δ = -36 %) and SF (Δ = -13 %), and pioglitazone decreased VF (Δ = -30 %) with no impact on SF, whereas insulin had no impact on VF or SF. Levels of TNFα (exenatide/insulin/pioglitazone) decreased, and levels of adiponectin (exenatide/pioglitazone) increased. Analysis showed that ΔIHF correlated with ΔHbA1c and Δweight. Besides, ΔIHF correlated with Δtriglycerides and ΔTNFα, but the correlations fell short of significance after BMI adjustment. By linear regression analysis, ΔHbA1c alone explained 41.5 % of the variance of ΔIHF, and ΔHbA1c + Δweight explained 57.6 % of the variance. Liver fat content can be significantly reduced irrespective of using exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone. Early glycaemic control plays an important role in slowing progression of fatty liver in T2DM.

  12. Loss of P2X7 nucleotide receptor function leads to abnormal fat distribution in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Kim L; Xiao, Andrew; Pollmann, Steven I; Grol, Matthew W; Beach, Ryan J; Holdsworth, David W; Sims, Stephen M; Darling, Mark R; Dixon, S Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel expressed by a number of cell types. We have shown previously that disruption of P2X7 receptor function results in downregulation of osteogenic markers and upregulation of adipogenic markers in calvarial cell cultures. In the present study, we assessed whether loss of P2X7 receptor function results in changes to adipocyte distribution and lipid accumulation in vivo. Male P2X7 loss-of-function (KO) mice exhibited significantly greater body weight and epididymal fat pad mass than wild-type (WT) mice at 9 months of age. Fat pad adipocytes did not differ in size, consistent with adipocyte hyperplasia rather than hypertrophy. Histological examination revealed ectopic lipid accumulation in the form of adipocytes and/or lipid droplets in several non-adipose tissues of older male KO mice (9-12 months of age). Ectopic lipid was observed in kidney, extraorbital lacrimal gland and pancreas, but not in liver, heart or skeletal muscle. Specifically, lacrimal gland and pancreas from 12-month-old male KO mice had greater numbers of adipocytes in perivascular, periductal and acinar regions. As well, lipid droplets accumulated in the renal tubular epithelium and lacrimal acinar cells. Blood plasma analyses revealed diminished total cholesterol levels in 9- and 12-month-old male KO mice compared with WT controls. Interestingly, no differences were observed in female mice. Moreover, there were no significant differences in food consumption between male KO and WT mice. Taken together, these data establish novel in vivo roles for the P2X7 receptor in regulating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in an age- and sex-dependent manner.

  13. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study amo

  14. Irisin plasma concentration in PCOS and healthy subjects is related to body fat content and android fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukajło, Katarzyna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Bolanowski, Marek; Milewicz, Andrzej; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipo-myokine, cleaved and secreted from the protein FNDC5 in response to physical activity, has been postulated to induce the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and to mediate the beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of factors leading to impaired energy homeostasis, affects a significant proportion of subjects suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Ir plasma concentrations and metabolic disturbances. The study group consisted of 179 PCOS patients and a population of 122 healthy controls (both groups aged 25-35 years). A subset of 90 subjects with MS was isolated. A positive association between Ir plasma level and MS in the whole group and in controls was found. In subjects with high adipose body content (>40%), Ir was higher than in lean persons (<30%). Our results showed a significant positive association between Ir concentration and android type of adipose tissue in the whole study group and in the control group. Understanding the role of Ir in increased energy expenditure may lead to the development of new therapeutics for obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  15. CENTRAL OBESITY AND LIPID PROFILE IN NORTH INDIAN MALES

    OpenAIRE

    Nitesh Mishra; Manoj Kumar Sharma; Chandrasekhar, M.; Suresh, M; Ambareesha Kondam; Sanghishetty Vijay Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome in adults. Metabolic syndrome includes agroup of cardiovascular disease risk factors namely impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension.Central fat distribution, particularly intra-abdominal fat, is a greater risk factor than peripheral fat distribution.Anthropometric indices used to measure fat distribution have been shown to be associated with altered lipid profile.The objective of the present study was to compare the seru...

  16. Determinants of relative weight and body fat distribution in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Molarius (Anu)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOverweight can be defined as excess storage of body fat in an individual. In adult men with a "normal" weight, the percentage of body fat is about 15-20%. In women this percentage is higher, about 25-30%. In spite of the fact that differences in weight between individuals are only partly

  17. PPARγ Pro12Ala and ACE ID polymorphisms are associated with BMI and fat distribution, but not metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS results from the combined effect of environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the possible association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE I/D polymorphisms with MetS and interaction between these genetic variants. Methods Three hundred sixty four unrelated Caucasian subjects were enrolled. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI were recorded. Body composition was estimated by impedance analysis; MetS was diagnosed by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. A fasting blood sample was obtained for glucose, insulin, lipid profile determination, and DNA isolation for genotyping. Results The prevalence of MetS did not differ across PPARγ2 or ACE polymorphisms. Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but lower systolic blood pressure compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes. A significant PPARγ2 gene-gender interaction was observed in the modulation of BMI, fat mass, and blood pressure, with significant associations found in women only. A PPARγ2-ACE risk genotype combination for BMI and fat mass was found, with ACE DD/PPARγ2 Ala subjects having a higher BMI (p = 0.002 and Fat Mass (p = 0.002. Pro12Ala was independently associated with waist circumference independent of BMI and gender. Conclusions Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but not a worse metabolic profile, possibly because of a more favorable adipose tissue distribution. A gene interaction exists between Pro12Ala and ACE I/D on BMI and fat mass. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of Pro12Ala polymorphism in adiposity distribution.

  18. Influence of layered skin structure on the distribution of radiofrequency currents in dermis and subcutaneous fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.

    2015-12-01

    The layered structure of skin with multiple interfaces separating the skin layers having very different electrical characteristics significantly modifies the spatial distribution of radiofrequency (RF) current in the skin compared to that in a homogeneous medium. In this study we present the analytical solutions of Laplace's equation describing the current densities for a two-layer skin model with homogeneous single layers for the monopolar and bipolar configurations of RF electrodes. Then we analyze analytically and numerically the optimal distances between the RF electrodes providing the maximal current concentration in a given depth or in a given depths' interval under the skin surface. It is demonstrated that two main parameters which significantly define the optimization condition are the thickness of the dermis and the reflection coefficient of the current at the dermis/subcutis interface. According to this model, under physiological conditions, the surface under RF electrode collecting 50% of the current entering subcutis is 184 times larger than in homogeneous medium. Such redistribution of RF current will significantly reduce the local density of the current entering the fat tissue reducing the effect of its selective heating.

  19. Influence of Parental Overweight on the Association of Birth Weight and Fat Distribution Later in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the association between birth weight and fat distribution in childhood is modified by parental overweight. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 728 Danish children aged 8-10 and 14-16 years. The main outcomes were waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, subscapular...... skinfold, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold ratio. Analyses were stratified by parental overweight status (none vs. ≥1 overweight parent) for each dependent variable, expressed as z-scores. Results: Birth weight z-score was negatively associated with waist circumference (β -0.08 SD; 95% CI -0.15, -0...... in the group with ≥1 overweight parent. Birth weight was negatively associated with subscapular skinfold in groups with (β -0.16 SD; 95% CI -0.24, -0.06) and without overweight parents (β -0.09 SD; 95% CI -0.16, -0.02), but the magnitude of the association was greater in the former group. Conclusion...

  20. Is There a Gender Difference in Fat Distribution around the Hamstring Tendon Insertion? A Prospective MRI Evaluation of 40 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael Ahearn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knee ligament reconstructions are commonly performed using hamstring tendon grafts. We observed anecdotally that there was a difference in the fat distribution superficial to the pes anserinus between men and women and proposed that this effect was independent of BMI, being significantly greater in women. Methods. We performed a prospective study to evaluate 40 MRI scans performed in 20 women and 20 men. The scans allowed visualisation of the insertion of the hamstring tendons at the pes anserinus. Results. The mean BMI of the male patients was 25.6 (19.8–37.2 and of the female patients was 24.7 (17.9–34.5. The mean fat distribution superficial to the pes anserinus in men was 16.2 mm (4.1–29.4 and in women was 29.7 mm (19.6–47.5. There was a significant increase in fat superficial to the hamstring tendons in women compared with men (P<0.001, despite no significant difference in BMI (P=0.5. Conclusions. Our evaluation of a prospective series of MRI scans has shown that there is significantly more fat superficial to the insertion of the hamstring tendons in women than in men. This effect is independent of BMI and may influence exposure during hamstring tendon graft harvesting.

  1. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2014-04-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

  2. Differential modulation of arcuate nucleus and mesolimbic gene expression levels by central leptin in rats on short-term high-fat high-sugar diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, José K; Eggels, Leslie; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; Adan, Roger A H; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Leptin resistance is a common hallmark of obesity. Rats on a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet are resistant to peripherally administered leptin. The aim of this study was to investigate feeding responses to central leptin as well as the associated changes in mRNA levels in hy

  3. Fetal liver blood flow distribution: role in human developmental strategy to prioritize fat deposition versus brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M Godfrey

    Full Text Available Among primates, human neonates have the largest brains but also the highest proportion of body fat. If placental nutrient supply is limited, the fetus faces a dilemma: should resources be allocated to brain growth, or to fat deposition for use as a potential postnatal energy reserve? We hypothesised that resolving this dilemma operates at the level of umbilical blood distribution entering the fetal liver. In 381 uncomplicated pregnancies in third trimester, we measured blood flow perfusing the fetal liver, or bypassing it via the ductus venosus to supply the brain and heart using ultrasound techniques. Across the range of fetal growth and independent of the mother's adiposity and parity, greater liver blood flow was associated with greater offspring fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both in the infant at birth (r = 0.43, P<0.001 and at age 4 years (r = 0.16, P = 0.02. In contrast, smaller placentas less able to meet fetal demand for essential nutrients were associated with a brain-sparing flow pattern (r = 0.17, p = 0.02. This flow pattern was also associated with a higher degree of shunting through ductus venosus (P = 0.04. We propose that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supply of essential nutrients is limited. Facilitated placental transfer mechanisms for glucose and other nutrients evolved in environments less affluent than those now prevalent in developed populations, and we propose that in circumstances of maternal adiposity and nutrient excess these mechanisms now also lead to prenatal fat deposition. Prenatal developmental influences play important roles in the human propensity to deposit fat.

  4. Body fat distribution in women with familial partial lipodystrophy caused by mutation in the lamin A/C gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Z Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD, Dunnigan variety, is an autosomal dominant disorder caused due to missense mutations in the lamin A/C (LMNA gene encoding nuclear lamina proteins. Patients with FPLD are predisposed to metabolic complications of insulin resistance such as diabetes. We sought to evaluate and compare body fat distribution with dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry in women with and without FPLD and identify densitometric, clinical and metabolic features.

  5. Distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass in international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, D G; Pyne, D B; Anson, J M; Dziedzic, C E; Slater, G J

    2014-06-01

    Differences in the body composition of international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players, and between players of different positions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the quantity and regional distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass between playing units in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens. Male Rugby Union (n=21 forwards, 17 backs) and Rugby Sevens (n=11 forwards, 16 backs) players from the Australian national squads were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each player was partitioned into anatomical regions including the arms, legs, trunk, and android and gynoid regions. Compared with backs, forwards in each squad were heavier and exhibited higher absolute regional fat (Union 43-67%; ±~17%, range of % differences; ±~95% confidence limits (CL); Sevens 20-26%; ±~29%), non-osseous lean (Union 14-22%; ±~5.8%; Sevens 6.9-8.4%; ±~6.6%) and bone mineral (Union 12-26%; ±~7.2%; Sevens 5.0-11%; ±~7.2%) mass. When tissue mass was expressed relative to regional mass, differences between Rugby Sevens forwards and backs were mostly unclear. Rugby Union forwards had higher relative fat mass (1.7-4.7%; ±~1.9%, range of differences; ±~95% CL) and lower relative non-osseous lean mass (-4.2 to -1.8%; ±~1.8%) than backs in all body regions. Competing in Rugby Union or Rugby Sevens characterized the distribution of fat and non-osseous lean mass to a greater extent than a player's positional group, whereas the distribution of bone mineral mass was associated more with a player's position. Differences in the quantity and distribution of tissues appear to be related to positional roles and specific demands of competition in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens.

  6. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for

  7. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic control, and fat distribution in type 2 diabetes subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Tarperi, Cantor; Baraldo, Anna; Faccioli, Niccolò; Milanese, Chiara; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Lanza, Massimo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonora, Enzo; Schena, Federico; Moghetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness typical of sedentary subjects with type 2 diabetes are still largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal and skeletal muscle fat content in 39 untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, 27 males and 12 females (mean ± SD age 56.5 ± 7.3 year, BMI 29.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) were assessed by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate visceral, total subcutaneous (SAT), superficial (SSAT) and deep sub-depots of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as well as femoral quadriceps skeletal muscle fat content. In univariate analysis, both VO2peak and VO2VT were inversely associated with BMI, total fat mass, SAT, SSAT, and sagittal abdominal diameter. VO2peak was also inversely associated with skeletal muscle fat content. A significant direct association was observed between VO2VT and insulin sensitivity. No associations between cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and metabolic profile data were found. In multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for age and gender, VO2peak was independently predicted by higher HDL cholesterol, and lower SAD and skeletal muscle fat content (R (2) = 0.64, p < 0.001), whereas VO2VT was predicted only by sagittal abdominal diameter (R (2) = 0.48, p = 0.025). In conclusion, in untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, peak oxygen uptake is associated with sagittal abdominal diameter, skeletal muscle fat content, and HDL cholesterol levels. Future research should target these features in prospective intervention studies.

  8. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  9. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Changes in Tissue-specific Fat Distribution and Cardiac Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Widya, Ralph L.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kan, Hermien E.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics

  10. Prorenin/Renin Receptor Blockade Promotes a Healthy Fat Distribution in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paul; Blais, Carolane; Nguyen, Thi M.-D.; Schiller, Peter W.; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Lavoie, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Administration of the handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor blocker, decreases body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet-fed mice. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms implicated in these observations. Methods Mice were given a normal or a HF/HC diet along with saline or HRP for 10 weeks. Results In HF/HC-fed mice, HRP increased the expression of several enzymes implicated in lipogenesis and lipolysis in subcutaneous fat (SCF) while the expression of the enzyme implicated in the last step of lipogenesis decreased in VAT. A reduction was also observed in circulating free fatty acids in these animals which was accompanied by normalized adipocyte size in VAT and increased adipocyte size in SCF. “Beiging“ is the evolution of a white adipose tissue toward a brown-like phenotype characterized by an increased mitochondrial density and small lipid droplets. HRP increased the expression of’ “beiging” markers in SCF of HF/HC diet-fed mice. Conclusions HRP treatment may favor healthy fat storage in SCF by activating a triglyceride/free fatty acid cycling and “beiging,” which could explain the body weight and fat mass reduction. PMID:27458124

  11. Copper content and distribution in vineyard soils of central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Ninkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the copper content of vineyard soils as affected by the long-term use of copper-based fungicides. The soil samples were taken from individual vineyards located in the central region of Serbia, from two depths: 0-30 and 30-60 cm. At the same time, at each site, control samples were collected from a nearby forest in order to determine the background concentrations. The pseudototal (CuT and available (CuEDTA copper content were analysed in 60 soil samples in total, 46 of which represented vineyard soils and 14 control samples. The maximum value of copper was 200.1 mg/kg of pseudototal and 82.1 mg/kg of available copper. Comparison of the copper content in vineyards to the background concentrations of control samples clearly confirmed anthropogenic influence. Out of 46 vineyard soil samples, about one half (22 of them had the CuT concentration above the critical level of 60 mg/kg. Eleven samples had the pseudototal content over the MAC of 100 mg/kg. Anthropogenic influence was also confirmed on the basis of copper bioavailability and copper distribution along the soil profile. Available content of over 50 mg/kg was found in 8 out of 46 analysed samples of vineyard soils. According to the percentage contribution of available CuEDTA to pseudototalCuT, half of the samples were above 36%, which is potentially phytotoxic. The concentration of copper was the highest in the surface layer in the vineyard soil samples. A check of the background Cu levels has shown that the distribution of CuT and CuEDTA is uniform throughout the soil profile. Data from some of the analysed plots indicate that the process of erosion is under way at the site. The soil on lower-lying terrain has been found to be more exposed to copper pollution than the soil of higher terrain. Since copper at the surveyed sites is very persistent and accumulates in a short period of time, focus should be placed on the preventive measures of reducing the use of copper

  12. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28......The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role...... in the metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements...

  13. Trans and interesterified fat and palm oil during the pregnancy and lactation period inhibit the central anorexigenic action of insulin in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kenia Pereira; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Letícia; da Silva Soares de Souza, Érica; Mucci, Daniela; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; de Albuquerque, Kelse Tibau; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fatima Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil and interesterified fat have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fats, rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. This study investigated whether the maternal consumption of normolipidic diets containing these lipids affects the insulin receptor and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) contents in the hypothalamus and the hypophagic effect of centrally administered insulin in 3-month-old male offspring. At 90 days, the intracerebroventricular injection of insulin decreased 24-h feeding in control rats but not in the palm, interesterified or trans groups. The palm group exhibited increases in the insulin receptor content of 64 and 69 % compared to the control and trans groups, respectively. However, the quantifications of PKB did not differ significantly across groups. We conclude that the intake of trans fatty acid substitutes during the early perinatal period affects food intake regulation in response to centrally administered insulin in the young adult offspring; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

  14. Miocene sediments distribution in the central and northern parts of the Vienna Basin, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Wagreich, M.; Decker, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Vienna Basin is a Miocene sedimentary basin situated at the Alpine-Carpathian transition and spreading from Austria in the South to the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the north. The basin primarily developed as a piggy-back basin during the Lower Miocene (~18 - 16 Ma) on top of the NW-ward moving Eastern Alpine and West Carpathians thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, the local stress regime changed by the lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps towards the Pannonian area. It leads to the developing of the basin between two left stepping sinistral strike-slip faults of the Vienna Basin faults system during the Middle and Upper Miocene (~16 - 8 Ma). Structures related with this pull-apart stage are extensional sinistral strike-slip duplexes connected with large scale listric normal fraults. Our study area mainly covers the central and northern Vienna Basin that is not yet studied well for the stratigraphy. The goal of this study is the characterization and distribution of the Miocene sediments. For this purpose we investigated approximately 200 wells in 17 well-groups in order to obtain details on the Miocene sediments. Among them 84 wells drilled down to the Northern Calcareous Alps and the flysch units in the pre-Neogene basin subcrop. The initial phase of the Miocene deposition was related to the transgression and is characterized by the deposition of coarse clastic and marly clay sediments. These sediments are distributed locally in the northern part of the basin. The overlying sediments are more widely distributed than the underlying ones. During the late Lower Miocene, the depocenters shifted towards the south and sedimentation was dominated by marly clay intercalated with sand. An unconformity depicted for the regional stage boundary fits well with the regressive phase and the subsequent transgression. From Middle to Upper Miocene, sediments were deposited over a wide area of the Vienna Basin. The sedimentation was governed by combination of pull

  15. Cumulants of multiplicity distributions in most-central heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-11-01

    I investigate the volume corrections on cumulants of total charge distributions and net proton distributions. The required volume information is generated by an optical Glauber model. I find that the corrected statistical expectations of multiplicity distributions mimic the negative binomial distributions at noncentral collisions, and they tend to approach the Poisson ones at most-central collisions due to the "boundary effects," which suppress the volume corrections. However, net proton distributions and reference multiplicity distributions are sensitive to the external volume fluctuations at most-central collisions, which imply that one has to consider the details of volume distributions in event-by-event multiplicity fluctuation studies.

  16. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  17. Distribution of dearomatised white spirit in brain, blood, and fat tissue after repeated exposure of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, A.; Lam, Henrik Rye; Gullstrand, E.

    1999-01-01

    spirit was 1.5 and 5.6 mg/kg in blood; 7.1 and 17.1 mg/kg in brain; 432 and 1452 mg/kg in fat tissue at the exposure levels of 400 and 800 p.p.m., respectively. The concentrations of n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, and total white spirit in blood and brain were not affected by the duration of exposure....... Two hours after the end of exposure the n-decane concentration decreased to about 25% in blood and 50% in brain. A similar pattern of elimination was also observed for n-nonane, n-undecane and total white spirit in blood and brain. In fat tissue the concentrations of n-nonane, n-decane, n......-undecane, and total white spirit increased during the 3 weeks of exposure. The time to reach steady-state concentrations is longer than 3 weeks. After the 3 weeks' exposure the fat tissue concentration of n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, and total white spirit decreased very slowly compared with the rate of decrease...

  18. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, D.; Faerch, K.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n...... by computer model, early phase insulin secretion, and disposition index (DI) dividing insulin secretion by insulin resistance. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness were carried out by ultrasonography. Linear regression analyses were done to assess ethnic...

  19. Isovector coupling channel and central properties of the charge density distribution in heavy spherical nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Haddad

    2010-09-01

    The influence of the isovector coupling channel on the central depression parameter and the central value of the charge density distribution in heavy spherical nuclei was studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to about 50% increase of the central depression parameter, and weakens the dependency of both central depression parameter and central density on the asymmetry, impressively contributing to the semibubble form of the charge density distribution in heavy nuclei, and increasing the probability of larger nuclei with higher proton numbers and higher neutron-to-proton ratios stable.

  20. Effect of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism on Plasma Lipid Levels, BMI and Subcutaneous Fat Distribution in Simple Obesity Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Hind Ⅲ DNA polymorphis in the lipoprotein lipase ( LPL )gene on plasma lipid levels, body mass index ( BMI) and subcutaneous fat distribution in simple obesity children. Methods The LPL Hind Ⅲ genotypes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP ) techniques in 92 children with simple obesity. The levels of the plnsma lipid, plasma lipoproteins, BMI and skinfold thickness in three regions (biceps, subscapular and abdominal uall) were also measured. Results It was shown that the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ApoB, BMI, biceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, and the average value of the skinfold thickness in three regions were significantly higher in the obese children uyith H -H- genotype than those with H-+-H- genotype. Conclusions It can be concluded that LPL-Hind Ⅲ polymorphism may modify the levels of plasma lipid, plasma lipoprotein and BMI in children with simple obesity, and meanwhile alters the distribution of subcutaneous fat.

  1. Effect of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism on Plasma Lipid Levels, BMI and Subcutaneous Fat Distribution in Simple Obesity Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Hind Ⅲ DNA polymorphis in the lipoprotein lipase ( LPL )gene on plasma lipid levels, body mass index ( BMI) and subcutaneous fat distribution in simple obesity children. Methods The LPL Hind Ⅲ genotypes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP ) techniques in 92 children with simple obesity. The levels of the plnsma lipid, plasma lipoproteins, BMI and skinfold thickness in three regions (biceps, subscapular and abdominal uall) were also measured. Results It was shown that the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ApoB, BMI, biceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, and the average value of the skinfold thickness in three regions were significantly higher in the obese children uyith H -H- genotype than those with H-+-H- genotype. Conclusions It can be concluded that LPL-Hind Ⅲ polymorphism may modify the levels of plasma lipid, plasma lipoprotein and BMI in children with simple obesity, and meanwhile alters the distribution of subcutaneous fat.

  2. Insulin Resistance, Microbiota, and Fat Distribution Changes by a New Model of Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy in Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Nicola; Soricelli, Emanuele; Castagneto-Gissey, Lidia; Casella, Giovanni; Albanese, Davide; Fava, Francesca; Donati, Claudio; Tuohy, Kieran; Angelini, Giulia; La Neve, Federica; Severino, Anna; Kamvissi-Lorenz, Virginia; Birkenfeld, Andrea L; Bornstein, Stefan; Manco, Melania; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic surgery improves insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes possibly because of weight loss. We performed a novel sleeve gastrectomy in rats that resects ∼80% of the glandular portion, leaving the forestomach almost intact (glandular gastrectomy [GG]) and compared subsequent metabolic remodeling with a sham operation. GG did not affect body weight, at least after 10 weeks; improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity likely through increased Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and AMPK phosphorylation; and reduced ectopic fat deposition and hepatic glycogen overaccumulation. Body adipose tissue was redistributed, with reduction of intraabdominal fat. We found a reduction of circulating ghrelin levels, increased GLP-1 plasma concentration, and remodeling of gut microbiome diversity characterized by a lower relative abundance of Ruminococcus and a higher relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Collinsella These data suggest that at least in rat, the glandular stomach plays a central role in the improvement of insulin resistance, even if obesity persists. GG provides a new model of the metabolically healthy obese phenotype.

  3. The effect of strength and endurance training on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, B; Hansen, T; Hvid, T;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Fat redistribution, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation characterize HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Currently, no effective therapies exist for the combined treatment of fat redistribution and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the effects...... of strength and endurance training on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty sedentary HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy were randomly assigned to supervised strength or endurance training three times a week for 16 wk. The primary...... and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P lipodystrophy....

  4. Maternal undernutrition alters fat cell size distribution, but not lipogenic gene expression, in the visceral fat of the late gestation guinea pig fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L T; Muhlhausler, B S; Botting, K J; Morrison, J L

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the development of adipose tissue in the guinea pig and the impact of maternal undernutrition on the structural and functional characteristics of perirenal adipose tissue in the dam and fetus. Date-mated guinea pigs were provided with either ad libitum feed (Control, C) or 85% of food intake per body weight of the Controls (Undernutrition, UN). Maternal (C, n = 6; UN, n = 7) perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) was collected at 60 d gestation and fetal PAT was collected at 50 d (C, n = 4) and 60 d (C, n = 8 and UN, n = 7) gestation (term, 69 d). The expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), leptin and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA and glucose transporters 1 and 4 (GLUT1 and GLUT4) was determined by Real Time PCR. There was no effect of maternal UN on total or relative PAT mass in the pregnant dam. There was an increase in G3PDH, but not LPL, leptin, FAS or GLUT4 mRNA expression, in UN dams compared to Controls (P PAT mass, however, the UN fetuses had a higher percentage of larger lipid locules in their PAT compared to Controls (P PAT was not different between the Control and UN fetuses. These results support previous studies which have demonstrated that maternal undernutrition is associated with an increased accumulation of visceral adipose tissue in utero, and extend them by showing that maternal undernutrition results in early changes in the size distribution of lipid locules in visceral fat depots that precede changes in lipogenic gene expression.

  5. Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selecti

  6. Mobile Codes Localization in Ad hoc Networks: a Comparative Study of Centralized and Distributed Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Zafoune, Youcef; kanawati, Rushed; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2213

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the management of mobile ad hoc networks. Our alternative, based on mobile agent technology, allows the design of mobile centralized server in ad hoc network, where it is not obvious to think about a centralized management, due to the absence of any administration or fixed infrastructure in these networks. The aim of this centralized approach is to provide permanent availability of services in ad hoc networks which are characterized by a distributed management. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we apply it to solve the problem of mobile code localization in ad hoc networks. A comparative study, based upon a simulation, of centralized and distributed localization protocols in terms of messages number exchanged and response time shows that the centralized approach in a distributed form is more interesting than a totally centralized approach.

  7. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Kyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Gil; Shin, Jinho

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure in women increases sharply in middle age, especially after menopause. As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect of total body fat on blood pressure through the menopausal transition. We analyzed 1422 subjects aged 45-55 years using the database from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. The waist circumference (WC) of post-menopausal women was larger than that of pre-menopausal women (80.44 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.36-81.52 vs. 78.94 cm, 95% CI 78.27-79.61, P=0.013), but there was no statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women: SBP was 118.33 mm Hg, 95% CI 116.52-120.15 vs. 115.22 mm Hg, 95% CI 114.17-116.28 (P=0.003) and DBP was 76.94 mm Hg, 95% CI 75.88-77.99 vs. 75.25 mm Hg, 95% CI 74.57-75.93 (P=0.009). BMI and WC were positively correlated with BP. After adjustment for BMI, the correlation of WC with SBP remained significant (β=0.250, 95% CI 0.024-0.476, P=0.030). In a stratified analysis, WC correlated with SBP in women with BMIBMI25 kg m(-2). We conclude that the changes in body fat distribution through the menopausal transition are associated with SBP, independent of total body fat. This finding indicates that alterations in the localization of body fat are another cause of menopause-related changes in BP.

  8. Mass Distribution in the Central Few Parsecs of Our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seungkyung; Figer, Donald F

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the enclosed mass profile in the central 10 pc of the Milky Way by analyzing the infrared photometry and the velocity observations of dynamically relaxed stellar population in the Galactic center. HST/NICMOS and Gemini Adaptive Optics images in the archive are used to obtain the number density profile, and proper motion and radial velocity data were compiled from the literature to find the velocity dispersion profile assuming a spherical symmetry and velocity isotropy. From these data, we calculate the enclosed mass and density profiles in the central 10 pc of the Galaxy using the Jeans equation. Our improved estimates can better describe the exact evolution of the molecular clouds and star clusters falling down to the Galactic center, and constrain the star formation history of the inner part of the Galaxy.

  9. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J A de Paula

    Full Text Available Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT. While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism.

  10. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Francisco J A; de Araújo, Iana M; Carvalho, Adriana L; Elias, Jorge; Salmon, Carlos E G; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT). While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism.

  11. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Atmospheric transmissivity: Distribution and empirical estimation around the central andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baigorria, G.A.; Villegas, E.B.; Trebejo, I.; Carlos, J.F.; Quiroz, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study of the distribution in space and time of atmospheric transmissivity takes into account the fact that, in complex terrain, many factors affect this variable; thus, it is not possible to use the generalizations that can be applied under more homogeneous conditions. Climatic controls, topogr

  13. Distribution characteristics of co-rich manganese deposits on a seamount in the central Pacific Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yamazaki, T.; Sharma, R.

    Distribution characteristics of cobalt-rich manganese deposits were evaluated from stereo photographs and video data on a seamount in the central Pacific Ocean by image analysis, photogrammetric technique, and visual observations. The results show...

  14. Why are public health authorities not concerned about Ebola in the US? Part I. Fat tailed distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2014-01-01

    US public health authorities claim imposing quarantines on healthcare workers returning from West Africa is incorrect according to science. Their positions rely upon a set of studies and experience about outbreaks and transmission mechanisms in Africa as well as assumptions about what those studies imply about outbreaks in the US. According to this view the probability of a single infection is low and that of a major outbreak is non-existent. In a series of brief reports we will provide insight into why properties of networks of contagion that are not considered in traditional statistics suggest that risks are higher than those assumptions suggest. We begin with the difference between thin and fat tailed distributions applied to the number of infected individuals that can arise from a single one. Traditional epidemiological models consider the contagion process as described by $R_0$, the average number of new infected individuals arising from a single case. However, in a complex interdependent society it is p...

  15. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants...

  16. Central indexes to the citation distribution: A complement to the h-index

    CERN Document Server

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo; 10.1007/s11192-011-0453-3

    2013-01-01

    The citation distribution of a researcher shows the impact of their production and determines the success of their scientific career. However, its application in scientific evaluation is difficult due to the bi-dimensional character of the distribution. Some bibliometric indexes that try to synthesize in a numerical value the principal characteristics of this distribution have been proposed recently. In contrast with other bibliometric measures, the biases that the distribution tails provoke, are reduced by the h-index. However, some limitations in the discrimination among researchers with different publication habits are presented in this index. This index penalizes selective researchers, distinguished by the large number of citations received, as compared to large producers. In this work, two original sets of indexes, the central area indexes and the central interval indexes, that complement the h-index to include the central shape of the citation distribution, are proposed and compared.

  17. On the multiplicity distribution in statistical model: (II) most central collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-01-01

    This work is a continuation of our effort [arXiv:1602.06378] to investigate the statistical expectations for cumulants of (net-conserved) charge distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions, by using a simple but quantitatively more realistic geometric model, i.e. optical Glauber model. We suggest a new approach for centrality definition in studying of multiplicity fluctuations, which aim at eliminating the uncertainties between experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, as well as redoubling the statistics. We find that the statistical expectations of multiplicity distribution mimic the negative binomial distribution at non-central collisions, but tend to approach the Poisson one at most central collisions due to the "boundary effect" from distribution of volume. We conclude that the collisional geometry (distribution of volume and its fluctuations) play a crucial role in studying of event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  18. Vertical Raindrop Size Distribution in Central Spain: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fraile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A precipitation event that took place on 12 October 2008 in Madrid, Spain, is analyzed in detail. Three different devices were used to characterize the precipitation: a disdrometer, a rain gauge, and a Micro Rain Radar (MRR. These instruments determine precipitation intensity indirectly, based on measuring different parameters in different sampling points in the atmosphere. A comparative study was carried out based on the data provided by each of these devices, revealing that the disdrometer and the rain gauge measure similar precipitation intensity values, whereas the MRR measures different rain fall volumes. The distributions of drop sizes show that the mean diameter of the particles varied considerably depending on the altitude considered. The level at which saturation occurs in the atmosphere is decisive in the distribution of drop sizes between 2,700 m and 3,000 m. As time passes, the maximum precipitation intensities are registered at a lower height and are less intense. The maximum precipitation intensities occurred at altitudes above 1,000 m, while the maximum fall speeds are typically found at altitudes below 700 m.

  19. Cross-flow deep fat frying and its effect on fry quality distribution and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koerten, K N; Schutyser, M A I; Somsen, D; Boom, R M

    2016-04-01

    Conventional industrial frying systems are not optimised towards homogeneous product quality, which is partly related to poor oil distribution across the packed bed of fries. In this study we investigate an alternative frying system with an oil cross-flow from bottom to top through a packed bed of fries. Fluidization of rectangular fries during frying was characterised with a modified Ergun equation. Mixing was visualized by using two coloured layers of fries and quantified in terms of mixing entropy. Smaller fries mixed quickly during frying, while longer fries exhibited much less mixing, which was attributed to the higher minimum fluidization velocity and slower dehydration for longer fries. The cross-flow velocity was found an important parameter for the homogeneity of the moisture content of fries. Increased oil velocities positively affected moisture distribution due to a higher oil refresh rate. However, inducing fluidization caused the moisture distribution to become unpredictable due to bed instabilities.

  20. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  1. The analytical investigation of temperature distribution in off-central diode-pumped lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Ealhi; A Taghavi; A Gharaati

    2008-04-01

    The influence of displacement of the pump source with respect to the crystal center on the thermal behavior of the laser crystal is studied analytically. We consider the pump energy to be deposited into the pump region which has been slightly displaced with respect to the crystal center. An analytical expression for temperature distribution for such off-central diode-pumped laser is investigated. The results are then applied to the Nd :YAG and Nd :YVO4 laser crystals and compared with the conventional diode-pumped lasers. We showed that in this special case, the temperature distribution equation in the off-central pumping convert to the conventional central pump scheme.

  2. [Distribution of Clostridium tetani in topsoil from Sagamihara, central Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Jun; Shiobara, Yasumasa; Inui, Masami; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshinori; Takayama, Yoko; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Okuda, Shunji; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Sasahara, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Despite reports of Clostridium tetani being isolated from soil in Kanazawa, Okinawa, and Tokyo, Japan, little has been studied about C. tetani distribution in other regions. We studied C. tetani in topsoil samples collected from private gardens, public road shoulders, a university campus, mountains, and fields in Sagamihara. C. tetani occurred in 8 of 35 soil samples (22.9%) and tetanus toxin in 7 of the 8 C. tetani-positive samples (87.5%). Contamination was clearly higher in soils from mountains near Tsukui-gun (Kanagawa Prefecture), Minamitsuru-gun, and Uenohara and Koshu cities (Yamanashi Prefecture) than in other regions. These findings suggest that tetanus toxin-producing strains of C. tetani tend to inhabit the topsoil of western Sagaminaha region, as a geographical feature.

  3. Isolation and distribution of endomorphins in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadina, James E

    2002-07-01

    Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2, EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2, EM-2) have the highest affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-R) of all known mammalian opioids. They were isolated from bovine and human brain, and are structurally distinct from the other endogenous opioids. Both EM-1 and EM-2 have potent antinociceptive activity in a variety of animal models of acute, neuropathic and allodynic pain. They regulate cellular signaling processes in a manner consistent with MOP-R-mediated effects. The EMs are implicated in the natural modulation of pain by extensive data localizing EM-like immunoreactivity (EM-LI) near MOP-Rs in several regions of the nervous system known to regulate pain. These include the primary afferents and their terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn, where EM-2 is well-positioned to modulate pain in its earliest stages of perception. In a nerve-injury model of chronic pain, a loss of spinal EM2-LI occurs concomitant with the onset of chronic pain. The distribution of the EMs in other areas of the nervous system is consistent with a role in the modulation of diverse functions, including autonomic, neuroendocrine and reward functions as well as modulation of responses to pain and stress. Unlike several other mu opioids, the threshold dose of EM-1 for analgesia is well below that for respiratory depression. In addition, rewarding effects of EM-1 can be separated from analgesic effects. These results indicate a favorable therapeutic profile of EM-1 relative to other mu opioids. Thus, the pharmacology and distribution of EMs provide new avenues both for therapeutic development and for understanding the neurobiology of opioids.

  4. The Distribution of Satellites Around Central Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xuce; Kang, Xi; Wang, Yang O; Dutton, Aaron A; Macciò, Andrea V

    2014-01-01

    Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but rather, it is aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. The strength of the alignment is dependent on the properties of both satellites and centrals. Theoretical studies using dissipationless N-body simulations are limited by their inability to directly predict the shape of central galaxies. Using hydrodynamical simulations including gas cooling, star formation and feedback, we carry out a study of galaxy alignment and its dependence on galaxy properties predicted directly from the simulations. We found that the observed alignment signal is well produced, as is the color dependence: red satellites and red centrals both show stronger alignments than their blue counterparts. The reason for the stronger alignment of red satellites is that most of them stay in the inner region of the dark matter halo, where the shape of central galaxy traces better the dark matter distribution. The dependence of alignment on the ...

  5. Moments of the log non-central chi-square distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Pav, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulants and moments of the log of the non-central chi-square distribution are derived. For example, the expected log of a chi-square random variable with v degrees of freedom is log(2) + psi(v/2). Applications to modeling probability distributions are discussed.

  6. The effect of diurnal distribution of carbohydrates and fat on glycaemic control in humans: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Katharina; Hornemann, Silke; Petzke, Klaus J.; Kemper, Margrit; Kramer, Achim; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Pivovarova, Olga; Rudovich, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Diurnal carbohydrate and fat distribution modulates glycaemic control in rodents. In humans, the optimal timing of both macronutrients and its effects on glycaemic control after prolonged consumption are not studied in detail. In this cross-over trial, 29 non-obese men were randomized to two four-week diets: (1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 13.30 and fat-rich meals between 16.30 and 22.00 (HC/HF) versus (2) inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). After each trial period two meal tolerance tests were performed, at 09.00 and 15.40, respectively, according to the previous intervention. On the HF/HC diet, whole-day glucose level was increased by 7.9% (p = 0.026) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT, n = 11), and GLP-1 by 10.2% (p = 0.041) in normal glucose-tolerant subjects (NGT, n = 18). Diet effects on fasting GLP-1 (p = 0.009) and PYY (p = 0.034) levels were observed in IFG/IGT, but not in NGT. Afternoon decline of glucose tolerance was more pronounced in IFG/IGT and associated with a stronger decrease of postprandial GLP-1 and PYY levels, but not with changes of cortisol rhythm. In conclusion, the HF/HC diet shows an unfavourable effect on glycaemic control in IFG/IGT, but not in NGT subjects. Consequently, large, carbohydrate-rich dinners should be avoided, primarily by subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:28272464

  7. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heid, Iris M.; Jackson, Anne U.; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M. Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Maegi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Luan, Jianan; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tonu; Kilpelaeinen, Tuomas O.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L.; Dixon, Anna L.; Holmes, Christopher C.; Kaplan, Lee M.; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R.; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E.; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R.; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A.; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L.; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F.; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Marjolein J.; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proenca, Christine; Chines, Peter S.; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R.; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J.; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M.; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W.; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N. M.; Dei, Mariano; Doerr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J. C.; Gjesing, Anette P.; Grallert, Harald; Graessler, Juergen; Groves, Christopher J.; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G. Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N.; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L.; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A.; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J.; Pare, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Peden, John F.; Pichler, Irene; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstrale, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swift, Amy J.; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G. Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P.; James, Alan L.; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S.; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J.; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Toenjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N.; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jorgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Arnold, Alice M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Collins, Francis S.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W. H. Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR a

  8. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C

    2010-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WH...

  9. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Heid (Iris); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J.C. Randall (Joshua); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); L. Qi (Lu); V. Ssteinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); G. Tthorleifsson (Ggudmar); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); E.K. Sspeliotes (Eelizabeth); R. Mägi (Reedik); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); C.C. White (Charles); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); E. Ingelsson (Erik); C.J. Willer (Cristen); J. Luan; S. Vedantam (Sailaja); T. Eesko (Tõnu); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); S. Li (Shengxu); K.L. Monda (Keri); A.L. Dixon (Anna); C. Holmes (Christopher); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); L. Liang (Liming); J. Min (Josine); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); C. Molony (Cliona); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); E.E. Sschadt (Eeric); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Ferreira (Teresa); H.L. Allen; R.J. Weyant (Robert); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); A.R. Wood (Andrew); K. Eestrada (Karol); M.E. Goddard (Michael); G. Lettre (Guillaume); M. Mangino (Massimo); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); S. Purcell (Shaun); A.V. Ssmith; P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); S.A. McCcarroll (Ssteven); J. Nemesh (James); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); T. Aspelund (Thor); L. Coin (Lachlan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); C. Hayward (Caroline); N. Heard-Ccosta (Nancy); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); A. Johansson (Åsa); T. Johnson (Toby); M. Kaakinen (Marika); K. Kapur (Karen); S. Ketkar (Shamika); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); P. Kraft (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); C. Lamina (Claudia); M.F. Leitzmann (Michael); B. McKknight (Barbara); A.D. Morris (Andrew); K. Oong (Ken); J.R.B. Perry (John); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); S. Ripatti (Samuli); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); N.R. Robertson (Neil); S. Sanna (Serena); U. Sovio (Ulla); I. Surakka (Ida); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. van Wingerden (Sophie); V. Vitart (Veronique); J.H. Zhao; C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); P.S. Chines (Peter); E. Fisher (Eeva); J.R. Kulzer (Jennifer); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); N. Narisu (Narisu); C. Sandholt (Camilla); L.J. Scott (Laura); K. Silander (Kaisa); K. Stark (Klaus); M.L. Tammesoo; T.M. Teslovich (Tanya); N. Timpson (Nicholas); R.P. Welch (Ryan); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); J.O. Jansson; J. Kettunen (Johannes); R. Wlawrence (Robert); N. Pellikka (Niina); M. Perola (Markus); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); H. Alavere (Helene); P. Almgren (Peter); L.D. Atwood (Larry); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R. Biffar (Reiner); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); H. Campbell (Harry); I.N.M. Day (Ian); M. Dei (Mariano); M. Dörr (Marcus); P. Eelliott (Paul); M.R. Eerdos (Micheal); J.G. Eeriksson (Johan); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); M. Fu (Mao); S. Gaget (Stefan); E.J.C. Geus (Eco); A.P. Gjesing (Anette); H. Grallert (Harald); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); A.L. Hartikainen; N. Hassanali (Neelam); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); K.H. Herzig; A.A. Hicks (Andrew); J. Hui (Jennie); W. Igl (Wilmar); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); E. Kajantie (Eero); L. Kinnunen (Leena); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); V. Krzelj (Vjekoslav); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); K. Kvaløy (Kirsti); J. Laitinen (Jaana); O. Lantieri (Olivier); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); M.L. Lokki; R.N. Luben (Robert); B. Ludwig (Barbara); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); A. McCcarthy (Anne); M.A. Morken (Mario); M. Nelis (Mari); M.J. Neville (Matthew); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); J. Peden (John); I. Pichler (Irene); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); C.P. Platou (Carl); A. Pouta (Anneli); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); J. Sinisalo (Juha); J.H. Smit (Jan); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); H.M. Stringham (Heather); A.J. Swift (Amy); M. Teder-Llaving (Maris); B. Thomson (Brian); G. Usala; J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); G.J. van Ommen (Gert); V. Vatin (Vincent); C.B. Volpato; H. Wallaschofski (Henri); G.B. Walters (Bragi); E. Widen (Elisabeth); S.H. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); D.R. Witte (Deniel); L. Zgaga (Lina); P. Zitting (Paavo); J.P. Beilby (John); A. James (Alan); M. Kähönen (Mika); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C. Palmer (Cameron); O. Raitakari (Olli); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); J. Viikari (Jorma); B. Balkau (Beverley); Y. Ben-Shlomo; R.N. Bergman (Richard); H. Boeing (Heiner); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); S. Eebrahim (Shah); P. Froguel (Philippe); T. Hansen (Torben); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); K. Hveem (Kristian); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); F. Karpe (Fredrik); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); M. Laakso (Markku); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); M. Marre (Michel); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Metspalu (Andres); K. Midthjell (Kristian); O. Pedersen (Oluf); V. Salomaa (Veikko); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); N.J. Wareham (Nick); A.M. Arnold (Alice); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Caulfield (Mark); F.S. Collins (Francis); G. Eeiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A. Hamsten (Anders); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A. Hofman (Albert); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); C. Iribarren (Carlos); M.R. Järvelin; W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); L.J. Launer (Lenore); P. Munroe (Patricia); B.A. Oostra (Ben); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T. Quertermous (Thomas); A. Rissanen (Aila); I. Rudan (Igor); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.C. Syvanen; M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.F. Wright (Alan); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); T. Haritunians (Talin); D.J. Hunter (David); K.E. North (Kari); J.R. O'Cconnell (Jeffrey); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger; D.P. Strachan (David); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); K. Stefansson (Kari); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); I. Barroso (Inês); C.S. Fox (Caroline); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); M.N. Weedon (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWaist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studi

  10. Body fat distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: outcomes from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associations between abnormal body fat distribution and clinical variables are poorly understood in pediatric HIV disease. Our objective was to compare total body fat and its distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and to evaluate associations with clin...

  11. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Silva de Almeida; Andrey José de Andrade; Alan Sciamarelli; Josué Raizer; Jaqueline Aparecida Menegatti; Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira Hermes; Maria do Socorro Laurentino de Carvalho; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In a...

  12. Effects of insulin therapy on weight gain and fat distribution in the HF/HS-STZ rat model of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsø, Søs; Damgaard, J; Fels, J J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin therapy is required for many patients with the obesity-related disorder type 2 diabetes, but is also associated with weight gain. The specific location of adipose tissue location matters to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated effects of exogenous...... insulin on fat distribution in the high-fat/high-sucrose fed rat treated with streptozotocin (HF/HS-STZ) rat model of type 2 diabetes. We also examined effects of insulin therapy on circulating CVD markers, including adiponectin, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein...... doubling of total fat mass (Ptissue as compared with visceral adipose tissue (Pfat were observed after insulin therapy, whereas plasma TG and cholesterol levels were decreased (P

  13. A two-Factor Asset Pricing Model and the Fat Tail Distribution of Firm Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Malevergne, Y

    2007-01-01

    In the standard equilibrium and/or arbitrage pricing framework, the value of any asset is uniquely specified from the belief that only the systematic risks need to be remunerated by the market. Here, we show that, even for arbitrary large economies when the distribution of the capitalization of firms is sufficiently heavy-tailed as is the case of real economies, there may exist a new source of significant systematic risk, which has been totally neglected up to now but must be priced by the market. This new source of risk can readily explain several asset pricing anomalies on the sole basis of the internal-consistency of the market model. For this, we derive a theoretical two-factor model for asset pricing which has empirically a similar explanatory power as the Fama-French three-factor model. In addition to the usual market risk, our model accounts for a diversification risk, proxied by the equally-weighted portfolio, and which results from an ``internal consistency factor'' appearing for arbitrary large econ...

  14. Late gestation undernutrtion can predispose for visceral adiposity by altering fat distribution patterns and increasing the preference for a high-fat diet in early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Thygesen, M P

    2013-01-01

    and three females) were slaughtered for further examination and the other half (females only) were transferred to a moderate sheep diet until slaughtered at 24 months of age (adulthood). Maternal undernutrition during late gestation reduced the birth weight of LOW offspring (P ... (LOW). From day 3 postpartum to 6 months (around puberty) of age, one twin lamb was fed a conventional (CONV) diet and the other a high-carbohydrate–high-fat (HCHF) diet, resulting in four groups of offspring: NORM-CONV; NORM-HCHF; LOW-CONV; LOW-HCHF. At 6 months of age, half of the lambs (all males......-term effects were increased adrenal size in male lambs and adult females (P LOW-HCHF female lambs had markedly higher...

  15. Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Nadkarni, Nachiket; Piedcoq, Julien; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet have combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity.

  16. An Experimental Study on Distribution of Vertical Stress in a Silo with a Central Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景山; 易江林; 王金福; 汪展文; 金涌

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of vertical stress for both active and passive state in the silo with a central innerdowncomer is reported in this paper. Experimental measurement of the axial distribution of vertical stress for bothactive and passive state in the silo are in good agreement with that predicted by theoretical analysis. The meanaxial stress is reduced due to the presence of the inner downcomer in the silo.

  17. Petrological differentiation patterns and geomorphic distribution of ferricretes in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUVAIS, Anicet; Roquin, C.

    1996-01-01

    Geomorphic distribution and petrological differentiation patterns of ferricretes widespread on landsurfaces were studied in the Dembia-Zemio area, southeastern Central African Republic. Four types of ferricretes are distributed on high plateaux, hillslopes and low plateaux. The main contrast corresponds to the differentiation between ferricretes of high plateaux rich in poorly hydrated minerals, hematite and kaolinite, and those covering hillslopes and low plateaux richer in hydrated minerals...

  18. Visceral fat dominant distribution in male type 2 diabetic patients is closely related to hepatic insulin resistance, irrespective of body type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Yoshinori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All previous studies that investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance evaluated subcutaneous and visceral fat area and/or volume, but these values were not related to the body type of each subject. In the present study we have examined the association between abdominal fat distribution and peripheral (muscle/hepatic sensitivity to insulin using the visceral to abdominal subcutaneous fat area ratio (VF/SF ratio in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This ratio defines the predominancy of visceral or subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, independent of the body type of each individual. Methods Thirty-six type 2 diabetic male patients underwent a euglycemic insulin clamp (insulin infusion rate = 40 mU/m2·min with 3-3H-glucose to measure insulin-mediated total body (primarily reflects muscle glucose disposal (TGD and suppression of endogenous (primarily reflects liver glucose production (EGP in response to a physiologic increase in plasma insulin concentration. Abdominal subcutaneous (SF and intraabdominal visceral fat (VF areas were quantitated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the level of L4–5. Results TGD and TGD divided by steady state plasma insulin concentration during the insulin clamp (TGD/SSPI correlated inversely with body mass index (BMI, total fat mass (FM measured by 3H2O, SF and VF areas, while VF/SF ratio displayed no significant relationship with TGD or TGD/SSPI. In contrast, EGP and the product of EGP and SSPI during the insulin clamp (an index hepatic insulin resistance correlated positively with VF/SF ratio, but not with BMI, FM, VF or SF. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of the individual's body type, visceral fat dominant accumulation as opposed to subcutaneous fat accumulation is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, whereas peripheral (muscle insulin resistance is more closely related to general obesity (i.e. higher BMI and total FM

  19. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E;

    2015-01-01

    diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) was selectively expressed in central 5-HT neurons. Treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) eliminated 5-HT neurons and caused loss of thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) steatosis, and a >50% decrease in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in BAT and inguinal white...... glucose and lipid homeostasis, in part through recruitment and metabolic activation of brown and beige adipocytes....

  20. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae in Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani,Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpiswere the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  1. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Andrade, Andrey José de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino de; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  2. Improvement of dose distribution by central beam shielding in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji

    2007-12-01

    Since boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beams started at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in June 2002, nearly 200 BNCT treatments have been carried out. The epithermal neutron irradiation significantly improves the dose distribution, compared with the previous irradiation mainly using thermal neutrons. However, the treatable depth limit still remains. One effective technique to improve the limit is the central shield method. Simulations were performed for the incident neutron energies and the annular components of the neutron source. It was clear that thermal neutron flux distribution could be improved by decreasing the lower energy neutron component and the inner annular component of the incident beam. It was found that a central shield of 4-6 cm diameter and 10 mm thickness is effective for the 12 cm diameter irradiation field. In BNCT at KUR, the depth dose distribution can be much improved by the central shield method, resulting in a relative increase of the dose at 8 cm depth by about 30%. In addition to the depth dose distribution, the depth dose profile is also improved. As the dose rate in the central area is reduced by the additional shielding, the necessary irradiation time, however, increases by about 30% compared to normal treatment.

  3. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...

  4. Normative data of body fat mass and its distribution as assessed by DXA in Indian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Garg, M K; Narang, Archna; Mehan, Neena; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of body fat mass is precise and highly correlated with under water weighing. In view of ethnic differences, we undertook this study to prepare normative data for body fat mass in apparently healthy adult Indians and correlate it with body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional population-based study included 2347 subjects (male: 924; female: 1423) aged >20 yr who participated in a general health examination. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body fat mass by DXA. All subjects were categorized as overweight and obese based on standard BMI criteria. Mean age and BMI were 49.1 ± 18.2yr and 25.0 ± 4.7kg/m(2), respectively. Mean percent total and regional fat (trunk, arm, and leg) reached maximum in the age group of 30-40yr in males and 50-60yr in females. Females had significantly higher total and regional fat mass compared with males. Fat mass was positively correlated with age (r = 0.224; p BMI (r = 0.668; p body fat mass (PTBFM) of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22.0kg/m(2) with sensitivity of >80% and specificity of >70% in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Body fat mass in Indians is higher than that in Western populations for a given age and BMI. PTBFM of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22kg/m(2) in Indians.

  5. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... tissue in humans possibly through binding to oestrogen-receptor-alpha, which in turn activates anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor. DESIGN AND METHODS: To address these issues circulating pituitary-gonadal-axis hormones and gene expression of receptors in subcutaneous adipose tissue were...... determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased...

  6. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit;

    2007-01-01

    of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... tissue in humans possibly through binding to oestrogen-receptor-alpha, which in turn activates anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor. DESIGN AND METHODS: To address these issues circulating pituitary-gonadal-axis hormones and gene expression of receptors in subcutaneous adipose tissue were...

  7. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until ...

  8. Genome-wide analysis of copy number variations reveals that aging processes influence body fat distribution in Korea Associated Resource (KARE) cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Young; Shin, Dong Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Seo, Kang-Seok; Kim, Heebal

    2012-11-01

    Many anthropometric measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and subcutaneous fat thickness, are used as indicators of nutritional status, fertility and predictors of future health outcomes. While BMI is currently the best available estimate of body adiposity, WHR and skinfold thickness at various sites (biceps, triceps, suprailiac, and subscapular) are used as indices of body fat distribution. Copy number variation (CNV) is an attractive emerging approach to the study of associations with various diseases. In this study, we investigated the dosage effect of genes in the CNV genome widely associated with fat distribution phenotypes in large cohorts. We used the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP Array 5.0 data of 8,842 healthy unrelated adults in KARE cohorts and identified CNVs associated with BMI and fat distribution-related traits including WHR and subcutaneous skinfold thickness at suprailiac (SUP) and subscapular (SUB) sites. CNV segmentation of each chromosome was performed using Golden Helix SVS 7.0, and single regression analysis was used to identify CNVs associated with each phenotype. We found one CNV for BMI, 287 for WHR, 2,157 for SUP, and 2,102 for SUB at the 5% significance level after Holm-Bonferroni correction. Genes included in the CNV were used for the analysis of functional annotations using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID v6.7b) tool. Functional gene classification analysis identified five significant gene clusters (metallothionein, ATP-binding proteins, ribosomal proteins, kinesin family members, and zinc finger proteins) for SUP, three (keratin-associated proteins, zinc finger proteins, keratins) for SUB, and one (protamines) for WHR. BMI was excluded from this analysis because the entire structure of no gene was identified in the CNV. Based on the analysis of genes enriched in the clusters, the fat distribution traits of KARE cohorts were related to the fat redistribution

  9. Comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links

    CERN Document Server

    Bilson-Thompson, S O

    2004-01-01

    We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values.

  10. Physical exercise is associated with better fat mass distribution and lower insulin resistance in spinal cord injured individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Oliveira, Giselle Louise C.; Figueiredo, Flávia A.; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Chain, Amina; Bezerra, Flávia F.; Koury, Josely Correa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to compare total and regional body composition and their relationship with glucose homeostasis in physically active and non-active individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (c-SCI). Methods Individuals with lesion level between C5–C7 were divided into two groups: physically active (PA; n = 14; who practiced physical exercise for at least 3 months, three times per week or more, minimum of 150 minutes/week): and non-physically active (N-PA n = 8). Total fat mass (t-FM) and regional fat mass (r-FM) were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results PA group present lower (P < 0.01) total fat mass (t-FM), % and kg, regional fat mass (r-FM), % and kg, FPI levels and HOMA index, while they had higher (P < 0.001) total free fat mass (t-FFM), %, and regional free fat mass (r-FFM), %, compared to the N-PA group. In the N-PA group, FPI and HOMA index were negatively (P < 0.05) correlated with FFM% (r = −0.71, −0.69, respectively) and positively correlated to trunk-FM (r = 0.71, 0.69, respectively) and trunk-FM:t-FM (kg) ratio (r = 0.83, 0.79, respectively). Conclusion Physical exercise is associated with lower t-FM, r-FM, and insulin resistance, which could contribute to the decrease of the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in individuals with c-SCI. PMID:24090139

  11. A Robust Function to Return the Cumulative Density of Non-Central F Distributions in Microsoft Office Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James Byron

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents a Visual Basic[superscript R] for Applications function that operates within Microsoft Office Excel[superscript R] to return the area below the curve for a given F within a specified non-central F distribution. The function will be of use to Excel users without programming experience wherever a non-central F distribution is…

  12. Centralized and Distributed Solutions for Fast Muting Adaptation in LTE-Advanced HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced Intercell Interference Coordination (eICIC) is known to provide promising performance benefits for LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks. The use of eICIC facilitates more flexible inter-layer load balancing by means of small cell Range Extension (RE) and Almost Blank Subframes (ABS). Even...... though the eICIC configuration (RE and ABS) ideally should be instantaneously adapted to follow the fluctuations of the traffic and the channel conditions over time, previous studies have focused on slow intercell coordination. In this paper, we investigate fast dynamic eICIC solutions for centralized...... and distributed Radio Resource Management (RRM) architectures. The centralized RRM architecture assumes macro and Remote Radio Heads (RRHs) inter-connected via high-speed fronthaul connections, while the distributed architecture is based on traditional macro and pico cells deployments with X2 backhaul interface...

  13. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min;

    2013-01-01

    The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized-distribu......The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized...... the proposed system, which benefits for implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A hybrid MPPT control strategy is proposed for this HCD power conditioning system. The characteristics, circuit implementation and operation principles of the proposed system are presented...

  14. Immunohistochemical distribution of Calbindin D-28K immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of adult cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; LI Jin-lian; XIONG Kang-hui; LI Ji-shuo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In order to get more information about the possible functions of Calbindin D-28K in the central nervous system of adult cat, the distribution of Calbindin D-28K in the central nervous system of adult cat was examined. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining techniques were used, and immunostained sections were observed under a light microscopy. Results: A high density of both immunoreactive perikarya and fibers were observed in the basal ganglia, amygdaloid complex, nucleus of the fields of Forel, subthalamic nucleus, paracentral nucleus, pulvinar nucleus, subthalamus, dorsal hypothalamic area, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, oculomo-tor nucleus, superior olivary complex, marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, vestibular nuclei, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, cuneate nucleus, inferior olivary complex, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the laminae Ⅱ of the spinal cord, whereas the dentate gyrus, the central medial nucleus of the thalamus, the paracentral and central lateral nucleus of the thalamus, the lateral dorsal nucleus of the thalamus,the ventrolateral complex of the thalamus, the medioventral nucleus of the thalamus, the posterior hypothalamic area, the dorsal hypothalamic area, the infundibular nucleus, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and the interfascicular nucleus had just a high density of immunoreactive perikarya, and no positive fibres were detected in these areas. Conclusion: The present results showed that Calbindin D-28K-like immunoreactivity was widely distributed throughout the central nervous system of adult cat and might play an important role in the activities of the neurons in the central nervous system of adult cat.

  15. Spatial distribution of river dolphins, Inia geoffrensis (Iniidae), in the Araguaia River (central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    ARAÚJO, CLARYANA COSTA; Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the distribution of botos, Inia geoffrensis, along a 530 km stretch in the middle reaches of the Araguaia River (central Brazil). Data collection was conducted in May (lowering water season) and September (dry season) of 2009. The location and group size of botos were recorded, and the relative density was calculated. The river was divided into nine areas according to geomorphological features; these areas were later grouped into two (low and high) levels of s...

  16. The G-308A variant of the Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α gene is not associated with obesity, insulin resistance and body fat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecci Elio

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity. The increased expression of TNF-α in adipose tissue has been shown to induce insulin resistance, and a polymorphism at position -308 in the promoter region ofTNF-α has been shown to increase transcription of the gene in adipocytes. Aim of this study is to investigate the role of the G-308A TNFα variant in obesity and to study the possible influence of this mutation on body fat distribution and on measures of obesity (including Fat Free Mass, Fat Mass, basal metabolic rate, insulin resistance (measured as HOMAIR, and lipid abnormalities. The G-308A TNFα polymorphism has been studied in 115 patients with obesity (mean BMI 33.9 ± 0.5 and in 79 normal lean subjects (mean BMI 24.3 ± 0.3. Methods The G-308A variant, detected by PCR amplification and Nco-1 digestion, determines the loss of a restriction site resulting in a single band of 107 bp [the (A allele]. Results The (A allele frequencies of the G-308A TNFα polymorphism were 13.1% in the obese group and 14.6% in the lean subjects, with no significant difference between the two groups. Furthermore, no association was found with BMI classes, body fat distribution, HOMAIR, and metabolic abnormalities. Conclusions Our study did not detect any significant association of the G-308A TNFα polymorphism with obesity or with its clinical and metabolic abnormalities in this population. Our data suggests that, in our population, the G-308A TNFα polymorphism is unlikely to play a major role in the pathogenesis of these conditions.

  17. Coconut fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  18. Cervical CT derived neck fat tissue distribution differences in Japanese males and females and its effect on retroglossal and retropalatal airway volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Yuko; Enciso, Reyes; Ogawa, Takumi; Ikawa, Tomoko; Clark, Glenn T

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of neck fat tissue distribution by sex and its correlation with retropalatal and retroglossal airway. Study Design 38 consecutive patients (Male:19;Female:19) who received a CT scan were compared in the retroglossal region and at the narrowest cross-section of the airway. Retroglossal fat tissue volume (FV) was segmented with Amira software and separated into subcutaneous and internal fat volume (SFV, IFV). These volumes were normalized by retroglossal neck volume (NV). Results Men had 51.9% more IFV/NV and 64.4% less SFV/NV compared to the women. Age-adjusted BMI was negatively correlated with retroglossal airway volume (normalized by NV) and with the lateral width of the smallest cross-section airway (LW) in females. In males the IFV/NV was negatively correlated with LW, after adjusting for BMI and age. Conclusion Upper airway collapsibility analysis is needed to rule out whether increased BMI or IFV causes an increase in airway collapsibility. PMID:18554948

  19. Ferrule Designs and Stress Distribution in Endodontically Treated Upper Central Incisors: 3D Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hassan Ahangari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main goal of this study was to evaluate stress distribution of endodonti-cally treated maxillary central incisors restored with glass fiber posts, composite resin cores, and crowns with different ferrule designs.Materials and Methods: Four three-dimensional models of a maxillary central incisor were modeled in SolidWorks 2006. Tooth with no ferrule, tooth with a 2 mm circumferen-tial ferrule, tooth with a 2 mm beveled ferrule and tooth with a 0.5 mm circumferential ferrule. The teeth were restored with glass fiber posts, composite resin cores, and full ce-ramics crowns. Each model was loaded (1 N on the palatal side at an angle of 45 degrees to tooth long axis. Von Mises stress findings along the inner surface of the root canals were assessed and compared.Results: The Von Mises Stress at CEJ was the highest in the model without a ferrule when compared to the other models (without ferrule 0.0696, short ferrule 0.0492, cylindrical fer-rule 0.0248, and beveled ferrule 0.0387 MPa.Conclusion: Endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with a ferrule length vary-ing between 0.5 mm and 2.0 mm exhibit lower stress distribution compared to those with-out a ferrule. Keeping a long ferrule is suggested to decrease the stress at the cervical area of restored teeth.

  20. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  1. Comparison of intragastric balloon therapy and intensive lifestyle modification therapy with respect to weight reduction and abdominal fat distribution in super-obese Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takihata, Masahiro; Nakamura, Akinobu; Aoki, Kazutaka; Kimura, Mari; Sekino, Yusuke; Inamori, Masahiko; Maeda, Shin; Gotoh, Eiji; Nakajima, Atsushi; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the impacts of intragastric balloon (IGB) therapy and intensive lifestyle modification therapy on abdominal fat distribution. Sixteen extremely obese Japanese patients were assigned to an intensive lifestyle modification therapy group with educational hospitalisation (8 patients) or an IGB therapy group (8 patients) and were followed up for 6 months. The main outcome measures were the differences at 6 months, relative to the baseline values, in the visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and liver volume as measured using computed tomography. At 0 month, the body weights (BWs) were 121.3±19.0 kg and 127.1±24.4 kg and the VFAs were 299±55 cm2 and 257±56 cm2 in the intensive lifestyle modification therapy group and the IGB therapy group, respectively. No statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between these two groups. At 6 months, no difference in the changes in BW from the baseline value (-11.5 [-16.4, -6.6] kg vs. -11.2 [-18.9, -3.4] kg) was seen between the two groups. However, a statistically significant difference in the change in the VFA (-66 [-87, -44] cm2 vs. -22 [-70, 26]cm(2) [P=0.027]) was observed; no significant changes in the SFA or liver volume were seen. In conclusion, IGB therapy was as effective as intensive lifestyle modification therapy for weight reduction but was less effective with respect to the improvement in abdominal visceral fat accumulation and liver steatosis in super-obese Japanese patients.

  2. Invariability of Central Metabolic Flux Distribution in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Under Environmental or Genetic Perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie; Martin, Hector Garcia; Deutschbauer, Adam; Feng, Xueyang; Huang, Rick; Llora, Xavier; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-04-21

    An environmentally important bacterium with versatile respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, displayed significantly different growth rates under three culture conditions: minimal medium (doubling time {approx} 3 hrs), salt stressed minimal medium (doubling time {approx} 6 hrs), and minimal medium with amino acid supplementation (doubling time {approx}1.5 hrs). {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis indicated that fluxes of central metabolic reactions remained relatively constant under the three growth conditions, which is in stark contrast to the reported significant changes in the transcript and metabolite profiles under various growth conditions. Furthermore, ten transposon mutants of S. oneidensis MR-1 were randomly chosen from a transposon library and their flux distributions through central metabolic pathways were revealed to be identical, even though such mutational processes altered the secondary metabolism, for example, glycine and C1 (5,10-Me-THF) metabolism.

  3. Stochastic modeling to identify requirements for centralized monitoring of distributed wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, T; Maurer, M

    2012-01-01

    Distributed (decentralized) wastewater treatment can, in many situations, be a valuable alternative to a centralized sewer network and wastewater treatment plant. However, it is critical for its acceptance whether the same overall treatment performance can be achieved without on-site staff, and whether its performance can be measured. In this paper we argue and illustrate that the system performance depends not only on the design performance and reliability of the individual treatment units, but also significantly on the monitoring scheme, i.e. on the reliability of the process information. For this purpose, we present a simple model of a fleet of identical treatment units. Thereby, their performance depends on four stochastic variables: the reliability of the treatment unit, the respond time for the repair of failed units, the reliability of on-line sensors, and the frequency of routine inspections. The simulated scenarios show a significant difference between the true performance and the observations by the sensors and inspections. The results also illustrate the trade-off between investing in reactor and sensor technology and in human interventions in order to achieve a certain target performance. Modeling can quantify such effects and thereby support the identification of requirements for the centralized monitoring of distributed treatment units. The model approach is generic and can be extended and applied to various distributed wastewater treatment technologies and contexts.

  4. 胃转流手术对代谢综合征患者体脂分布改变的影响%Impact of gastric bypass surgery on body fat distribution in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 陈自谦; 戴露倢; 刘斌; 王畅; 黄盛

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胃转流术后代谢综合征患者体脂分布的改变情况.方法 2009年7月至2010年2月间南京军区福州总院前瞻性入组收治26例胃癌合并代谢综合征病例,行胃转流手术.分别于术前和术后1、4、12、48周,检测体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、臀围和脂肪面积等体脂参数,以及胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)等生化指标.结果 胃转流术后,26例代谢综合征患者肥胖、高血压、血脂紊乱及高血糖均获得了不同程度的好转.术后48周,26例患者HOMA-IR由术前的5.7±1.5降至3.4±1.0,BMI由术前的(27.1±3.8) kg/m2降至(22.6± 1.4) kg/m2(P<0.05).其中心性肥胖指标腰围由术前的(95.3±2.5) cm降至(75.3±1.1) cm,内脏脂肪面积由术前的(101.7±13.8) cm2降至(78.7±11.2) cm2(P<0.05);而外周性肥胖指标皮下脂肪面积未见下降(P>0.05).结论 胃转流术后体脂分布由中心性肥胖向外周性肥胖转变;胰岛素抵抗改善与中心性体脂参数下降有关.%Objective To evaluate the changes in body fat distribution after gastric bypass in gastric cancer patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods From July 2009 to February 2010, 26 patients with gastric cancer and concurrent metabolic syndrome were prospectively enrolled and underwent gastric bypass surgery at the Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command.Body mass index (BMI),waist circumference,hip circumference,insulin and insulin resistance index were measured before operation and at postoperative 1,4,12,24,48 weeks. Results After gastric bypass surgery,metabolic syndrome was improved including obesity,hypertension,disturbance of lipid and hyperglycemia.After 48 weeks postoperatively HOMA-IR decreased from 5.7±1.5 to 3.4±1.0 (P<0.05).BMI decreased from (27.1±3.8) kg/m2 to (22.6±1.4) kg/m2 (P<0.05).Indices for central obesity:waist circumference decreased from (95.3±2.5)cm to (75.3±1.1)cm,and visceral fat area decreased from (101.7±13.8) cm2 to (78.7±11.2) cm2

  5. [Calcium distribution in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Ye, Lv; Tian, Hui

    2008-02-01

    Potassium antimonite precipitation was used to locate calcium in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination. At 3d before anthesis, two polar nuclei of central cell separately located at two polarity of the cell, and few calcium precipitates (ppts) appeared in the polar nuclei and cytoplasm, but some ppts in its small vacuoles. At 2d before anthesis, two polar nuclei moved toward the middle of the cell and fused to form a secondary nucleus, and the ppts evidently increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm. At 1d before anthesis, secondary nucleus again moved toward micropylar end and located near the egg to prepare for fertilization. Calcium precipitates were mainly accumulated in the secondary nucleus. After pollination and before fertilization, the distribution of calcium ppts was similar to that before pollination. At 4h after pollination, the central cell was fertilized, and calcium ppts evidently increased in the cell and numerous were accumulated in its nucleus and cytoplasm. At 6h after pollination, the primary endosperm nucleus completed its first division and formed two dissociate endosperm nuclei, and still many calcium precipitates appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm. With endosperm development, calcium ppts decreased in the endosperm cell. At 1d after emasculated and without pollination, the secondary nucleus of the cell still bordered on the egg and some calcium ppts appeared in the secondary nucleus. The results indicated that the temporal and spatial changes of calcium in the central cell may play an important physiological role during the development of the central cell and endosperm.

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belard, Sabine; Toepfner, Nicole; Capan-Melser, Mesküre; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Groger, Mirjam; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Selidji T; Adegnika, Ayôla A; González, Raquel; Kremsner, Peter G; Menendez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael; Berner, Reinhard

    2015-11-25

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective antibiotics. This is the first report on serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae in pregnant women from a Central African region. Serotypes V, III, and Ib accounted for 88/109 (81%) serotypes and all isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin while 13% showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin.

  7. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S.; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

  8. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Liang, Nu-Chu; Ewald, Erin R; Purcell, Ryan H; Boersma, Gretha J; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2013-11-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk, after which all rats remained sedentary, resulting in four groups: CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, HF-SED, and HF-RW. Male HF offspring gained more body weight by PND7 compared with CHOW pups and maintained this weight difference through the entire experiment. Three weeks of postweaning exercise did not affect body weight gain in either CHOW or HF offspring, but reduced adiposity in HF offspring. Plasma leptin was decreased at the end of the 3-wk running period in HF-RW rats but was not different from HF-SED 9 wk after the exercise period ended. At 14 wk of age, intracerebroventricular injection of leptin suppressed food intake in CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, and HF-RW, while it did not affect food intake in HF-SED group. At death, HF-RW rats also had higher leptin-induced phospho-STAT3 level in the arcuate nucleus than HF-SED rats. Both maternal HF diet and postweaning exercise had effects on hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor mRNA expression in adult offspring. Our data suggest that postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity and signaling in this model.

  9. Rai1 haploinsufficiency causes reduced Bdnf expression resulting in hyperphagia, obesity and altered fat distribution in mice and humans with no evidence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Brooke; Schmidt, Kristie; Williams, Stephen R; Kim, Sun; Girirajan, Santhosh; Elsea, Sarah H

    2010-10-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of the retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene. In addition to intellectual disabilities, behavioral abnormalities and sleep disturbances, a majority of children with SMS also have significant early-onset obesity. To study the role of RAI1 in obesity, we investigated the growth and obesity phenotype in a mouse model haploinsufficient for Rai1. Data show that Rai1(+/-) mice are hyperphagic, have an impaired satiety response and have altered abdominal and subcutaneous fat distribution, with Rai1(+/-) female mice having a higher proportion of abdominal fat when compared with wild-type female mice. Expression analyses revealed that Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), a gene previously associated with hyperphagia and obesity, is downregulated in the Rai1(+/-) mouse hypothalamus, and reporter studies show that RAI1 directly regulates the expression of BDNF. Even though the Rai1(+/-) mice are significantly obese, serum analyses do not reveal any evidence of metabolic syndrome. Supporting these findings, a caregiver survey revealed that even though a high incidence of abdominal obesity is observed in females with SMS, they did not exhibit a higher incidence of indicators of metabolic syndrome above the general population. We conclude that Rai1 haploinsufficiency represents a single-gene model of obesity with hyperphagia, abnormal fat distribution and altered hypothalamic gene expression associated with satiety, food intake, behavior and obesity. Linking RAI1 and BDNF provides a more thorough understanding of the role of Rai1 in growth and obesity and insight into the complex pathogenicity of obesity, behavior and sex-specific differences in adiposity.

  10. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-12-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo.

  11. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease During Testosterone Therapy in Aging Men and are Associated with Changed Distribution of Regional Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Glintborg, D; Højlund, K

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of testosterone treatment are debated. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on OPG levels in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. A randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 6 months testosterone therapy (gel) in 38 men aged 60-78 years with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm was performed. Clinical evaluation, OPG, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements were carried out. Lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) were...

  12. Circulating sCD36 is associated with unhealthy fat distribution and elevated circulating triglycerides in morbidly obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøsgaard, L; Thomsen, S B; Støckel, M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recently identified circulating sCD36 has been proposed to reflect tissue CD36 expression, and is upregulated in case of obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of weight loss secondary to bariatric surgery in relation to s......-en-Y gastric bypass were included. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were collected at a preoperative baseline visit and 3 months after surgery. sCD36 was measured by an in-house assay, whereas insulin sensitivity and the hepatic fat accumulation were estimated by the homeostasis model...

  13. Arctic geese during brood-rearing on the central Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta: Analysis of patterns of distribution: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July 1985 two systematic aerial surveys were flown over the coastal fringe of the central Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, to examine the patterns of distribution...

  14. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  15. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...

  16. Theoretical Models of the Halo Occupation Distribution: Separating Central and Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Z; Weinberg, D H; Benson, A J; Baugh, C M; Cole, S; Davé, R; Frenk, C S; Katz, N; Lacey, C G; Zheng, Zheng; Weinberg, David H; Benson, Andrew J; Baugh, Carlton M; Cole, Shaun; Dave, Romeel; Frenk, Carlos S; Katz, Neal; Lacey, Cedric G

    2004-01-01

    The halo occupation distribution (HOD) describes the relation between galaxies and dark matter at the level of individual dark matter halos. The properties of galaxies residing at the centers of halos differ from those of satellite galaxies because of differences in their formation histories. Using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation and a semi-analytic (SA) galaxy formation model, we examine the separate contributions of central and satellite galaxies to the HOD, more specifically to the probability P(N|M) that a halo of virial mass M contains N galaxies of a particular class. In agreement with earlier results for dark matter subhalos, we find that the mean occupation function for galaxies above a baryonic mass threshold can be approximated by a step function for central galaxies plus a power law for satellites, and that the distribution of satellite numbers is close to Poisson at fixed halo mass. For galaxy samples defined by different baryonic mass thresholds, there is a nearly linear relat...

  17. Review of centralized packaging systems for distribution of retail-ready meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyamkondan, S; Jayas, D S; Holley, R A

    2000-06-01

    There is growing interest in centralized preparation of retail-ready meat cuts for distribution to widely dispersed retail stores due to the convenience of having high-quality ready-to-go products that are consistently provided to consumers at lower cost. Various centralized packaging techniques are described. Of all packaging techniques, master packaging is the most economical and shows promise for commercial application. Nevertheless, the master-packaging technique must be integrated with strict temperature control in a narrow range just above freezing (- 1.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C), good processing hygiene, and maintenance of a completely anoxic atmosphere in the package headspace throughout the distribution period to maximize storage life. Packaging using the CAPTECH process reduces the residual O2 present in the headspace to 300 ppm. Oxygen scavengers must be incorporated in the package to absorb the residual O2 and preserve the metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat tissues. Integration of all these technologies can provide a storage life of retail-ready meat up to 10 weeks in the master package followed by 3 days of retail display life. This extension of storage life is sufficient for transporting meat to distant markets.

  18. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BRACKISHWATER POND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS IN PEKALONGAN CITY CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Indrajaya Asaad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of brackishwater pond soil has a vital role in the system of bioenvironment including brackishwater pond environment. This research was aimed to determine the spatial distribution of brackishwater pond soil characteristics in Pekalongan City, Central Java Province. A total of 59 sampling points each with two different soil depth samplings were determined by simple random method. A total of 21 soil characteristics were measured in the field and analyzed further in the laboratory. Geostatistic with Kriging Interpolation method in the ArcGIS 9.3 software were used to depict the distribution of the data across the landscape. Furthermore, the spatial distribution was presented by using ALOS AVNIR-2 image. Research result indicates that in general, pond soil in Pekalongan City can be classified as soil with high variability or relatively heterogenic with the value of variation coefficient more than 36%. Soil characteristics which have similar pattern of spatial distribution are acid sulfate soil and soil nutrient content. High value of pH, organic matter, and total-N of soil, and on the other hand, low value of PO4 were generally found in the pond area of Krapyak Lor Village, while in Pekalongan City, it was found high clayish soil content but relatively homogenous. It is recommended that pond management must be based on soil characteristics which are different from one area to another. The soil characteristics itself can be drawn and assessed through spatial distribution.

  19. Regiospecific Distribution of trans-Octadecenoic Acid Positional Isomers in Triacylglycerols of Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil and Ruminant Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Kitayama, Takashi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Watanabe, Yomi; Sato, Shinichi; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    It is revealed that binding position of fatty acid in triacylglycerol (TAG) deeply relates to the expression of its function. Therefore, we investigated the binding positions of individual trans-octadecenoic acid (trans-C18:1) positional isomers, known as unhealthy fatty acids, on TAG in partially hydrogenated canola oil (PHCO), milk fat (MF), and beef tallow (BT). The analysis was carried out by the sn-1(3)-selective transesterification of Candida antarctica Lipase B and by using a highly polar ionic liquid capillary column for gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Trans-9-C18:1, the major trans-C18:1 positional isomer, was selectively located at the sn-2 position of TAG in PHCO, although considerable amounts of trans-9-C18:1 were also esterified at the sn-1(3) position. Meanwhile, trans-11-C18:1, the major isomer in MF and BT, was preferentially located at the sn-1(3) position. These results revealed that the binding position of trans-C18:1 positional isomer varies between various fats and oils.

  20. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  1. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  2. Distribution of algal aggregates under summer sea ice in the Central Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Nicolaus, Marcel

    The sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean has changed dramatically in the last decades, and the resulting consequences for the sea-ice-associated ecosystem remain difficult to assess. Algal aggregates underneath sea ice are of great importance for the ice-associated ecosystem and the pelagic-benthic coupling. However, the frequency and distribution of their occurrence is not well quantified. During the IceArc expedition (ARK-27/3) of RV Polarstern in late summer 2012, we observed different types of algal aggregates floating underneath various ice types in the Central Arctic basins. We investigated the spatial distribution of ice algal aggregates and quantified their biomass, using under-ice image surveys obtained by an upward-looking camera on a remotely operated vehicle. On basin scale, filamentous aggregates of Melosira arctica are more frequently found in the inner part of the Central Arctic pack ice, while rounded aggregates mainly formed by pennate diatoms are found closer to the ice edge, under melting sea ice. On the scale of an ice floe, the distribution of algal aggregates in late summer is mainly regulated by the topography of the ice underside, with aggregates accumulating in dome-shaped structures and at the edges of pressure ridges. The average biomass of the aggregates from our sites and season was 0.1-6.0 mg C m(-2). However, depending on the approach used, differences in orders of magnitude for biomass estimates may occur. This highlights the difficulties of upscaling observations and comparing results from surveys conducted using different methods or on different spatial scales.

  3. Higher central fat and poor self-body image in short-stature overweight/obese women living in Brazilian shantytowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassib Bezerra Bueno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Short stature in adult life, a possible consequence of poor perinatal conditions, is associated with higher risk of mortality and social disabilities. We aimed to determine whether low-income, overweight/obese, short-stature (SS women show alterations in body composition, self-body-image perception, and biochemical profile compared to their non-short (NS counterparts. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with women living in shantytowns and mother or relatives to undernourished children treated in a center for recuperation and nutritional education. Inclusion criteria were: (1 age, 19–45 years; (2 stature 158.7 cm; and (3 body mass index > 25 kg/m2. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, biochemical, and body image data were collected. We analyzed 56 SS and 57 NS women. Results The SS group showed a higher waist-to-height ratio (WHtR (mean: 0.63; standard deviation: 0.06 for SS and mean: 0.60; standard deviation: 0.07 for the NS group; p = 0.02, and, in the adjusted analysis, showed lower fat-free mass (Estimated Marginal Mean for the SS group: 45.7 kg 95% confidence intervals (CI (45.2–46.2 and for the NS group: 46.9 kg 95% CI (46.4–47.4; p < 0.01 and higher fat mass (Estimated Marginal Mean for the SS group: 32.5 95% CI (31.9–33.0 and for the NS group: 31.4 kg 95% CI (30.9–31.9; p < 0.01. Body mass index was a better predictor of current self-body-image perception for NS women. The SS coefficient values were β = 0.141, SE = 0.059, and R2-Nagelkerke = 0.107, and the NS coefficients values were β = 0.307, SE = 0.058, and R2-Nagelkerke = 0.491 (Z = 2.006; p < 0.05. Considering the obese subgroup, six out of 32 (18.8% SS women and 14 out of 33 (42.4% NS women perceived themselves as obese (χ2 = 4.27; p = 0.03. This difference remained significant even after adjustment by age, schooling, and number of children (p = 0.04. Only the total thyroxin showed significant differences between groups, lower in SS women (p = 0

  4. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights.

  5. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Khanal

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements, LOW (50% of NORM or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF or moderate (CONV diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood, plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights.

  6. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  7. Distribution pattern and conservation of threatened medicinal and aromatic plants of Central Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. S. Kandari; K.S. Rao; R. K. Maikhuri; G. Kharkwal; K. Chauhan; C.P. Kala

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the distribution pattern of four rhizomatous medicinal and aromatic plant species (MAPs) viz., Angelica glauca, Pleurospermum angelicoides, Rheum emodi and Arne- bia benthamii in different forest stands in Central Himalaya. Results show that A. Glauca and P. Angelicoides had a higher (50%) frequency at Chipkoan, Garpak and Phagati forest, R. Emodi had a higher (60%) fre- quency at Rishikund, Suki and Himtoli, and A. Benthamii had a higher (70%) frequency at Suki and Khambdhar The densities of A. Glauca (0.6 plants·m) and P. Angelicoides (0.5 plants·m) were higher at Chipkoan and Garpak sites than at other micro-sites, while densities of R. Emodi (0.8 plants·m) and A. Benthamii (1.0 plants·m) were higher at Suki and Khambdhar sites. A. Glauca had highest total basal covers (TBC) (1.2 cm·m) at Chipkoan, P. Angelicoides had highest TBC (0.92 cm·m) at Lati kharak site, A. Benthamii had the highest TBC (6.48 cm·m) at Khambdhar, and R. Emodi had highest TBC (4.53 cm·m) at Rishikund. For the four studied species, A. Glauca showed a contagious distribution, P. Angelicoides and R. Emodi showed the random and A. Benthamii showed the regular type of distribution.

  8. Theoretical study of the central depression of nuclear charge density distribution by electron scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; CHU Yan-Yun; REN Zhong-Zhou; WANG Zai-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The charge form factors of elastic electron scattering for isotones with N =20 and N =28 are calculated using the phase-shift analysis method,with corresponding charge density distributions from relativistic mean-field theory.The results show that there are sharp variations at the inner parts of charge distributions with the proton number decreasing.The corresponding charge form factors are divided into two groups because of the unique properties of the s-states wave functions,though the proton numbers change uniformly in two isotonic chains.Meanwhile,the shift regularities of the minima are also discussed,and we give a clear relation between the minima of the charge form factors and the corresponding charge radii.This relation is caused by the diffraction effect of the electron.Under this conclusion,we calculate the charge density distributions and the charge form factors of the A =44 nuclei chain.The results are also useful for studying the central depression in light exotic nuclei.

  9. Two-phase distribution in the vertical flow line of a domestic wet central heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Y.T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects of bubble distribution in bubbly two-phase flow are reviewed in the context of the micro bubbles present in a domestic gas fired wet central heating system. The latter systems are mostly operated through the circulation of heated standard tap water through a closed loop circuit which often results in water supersaturated with dissolved air. This leads to micro bubble nucleation at the primary heat exchanger wall, followed by detachment along the flow. Consequently, a bubbly two-phase flow characterises the flow line of such systems. The two-phase distribution across the vertical and horizontal pipes was measured through a consideration of the volumetric void fraction, quantified through photographic techniques. The bubble distribution in the vertical pipe in down flow conditions was measured to be quasi homogenous across the pipe section with a negligible reduction in the void fraction at close proximity to the pipe wall. Such a reduction was more evident at lower bulk fluid velocities.

  10. Two-phase distribution in the vertical flow line of a domestic wet central heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsadni, A.-M.; Ge, Y. T.

    2013-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of bubble distribution in bubbly two-phase flow are reviewed in the context of the micro bubbles present in a domestic gas fired wet central heating system. The latter systems are mostly operated through the circulation of heated standard tap water through a closed loop circuit which often results in water supersaturated with dissolved air. This leads to micro bubble nucleation at the primary heat exchanger wall, followed by detachment along the flow. Consequently, a bubbly two-phase flow characterises the flow line of such systems. The two-phase distribution across the vertical and horizontal pipes was measured through a consideration of the volumetric void fraction, quantified through photographic techniques. The bubble distribution in the vertical pipe in down flow conditions was measured to be quasi homogenous across the pipe section with a negligible reduction in the void fraction at close proximity to the pipe wall. Such a reduction was more evident at lower bulk fluid velocities.

  11. Effect of sex, dietary glycerol or dietary fat during late fattening, on fatty acid composition and positional distribution of fatty acids within the triglyceride in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Cambero, M I; Cámara, L; Loriente, C; Mateos, G G; López-Bote, C J

    2015-11-01

    The effect of sex, source of saturated fat (lard v. palm oil) and glycerol inclusion in the fattening diet on composition and fatty acid positional distribution in the triglyceride molecule was studied in pigs from 78 to 110 kg BW. Average daily gain and carcass characteristics, including ham and loin weight, were not affected by dietary treatment but sex affected backfat depth (P dietary glycerol increased lean content in gilts but not in barrows (P Dietary fat did not affect total SFA or PUFA concentrations of the IMF but the subcutaneous total MUFA concentration tended to be higher (P = 0.079) in pigs fed lard than in pigs fed palm oil. Dietary glycerol increased total MUFA and C18:1n-9 concentration in the IMF and increased total MUFA and decreased C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and total PUFA concentrations in the SF. The data indicate that altering the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride molecule at the 2-position, by dietary intervention during the fattening phase, is very limited.

  12. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    dominantly by sand- to coarse sand-sized sediment. Sandy areas also include Raccoon Strait, off Point Tiburon, and on the subtidal Alcatraz, Point Knox, and Presidio Shoals. Drab-colored silty clays are the dominant sediment observed in gravity cores from central bay. Their dominance along the length of the core suggests that silty clays have been deposited consistently over much of this subembayment for the time period covered by the recovered sediments (Woodrow and others, this report). Stratification types include weakly-defined laminae, 1-3 mm thick. Few examples of horizontal lamination in very fine sand or silt were observed. Cross lamination, including ripples, was observed in seven cores. Erosional surfaces were evident in almost every core where x-radiographs were available (they are very difficult to observe visually). Minor cut-and-fill structures also were noted in three cores and inclined strata were observed in three cores. Textural patterns in central bay indicate that silts and clays dominate the shallow water areas and margins of the bay. Sand dominates the tidal channel just east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands and to the west of the islands to the Golden Gate. The pattern of sand-sized sediment, as determined by particle-size analysis, suggests that sand movement is easterly from the west-central part of the bay. A second pattern of sand movement is to the south from the southwestern extremity of San Pablo Bay (boundary approximated by the location of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge). Age dates for central bay sediment samples were obtained by carbon-14 radiometric age dating. Age dates were determined from shell material that was interpreted to be largely in-place (not transported). Age dates subsequently were reservoir corrected and then converted to calendar years. Sediments sampled from central bay cores range in age from 330 to 4,155 years before present. Foraminiferal distribution in the San Francisco Bay estuary is fairly well

  13. The effect of models of the interstellar media on the central mass distribution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C. R.; Governato, F.; Quinn, T.; Brooks, A. M.; Shen, S.; McCleary, J.; Fisher, D. B.; Wadsley, J.

    2014-05-01

    We compared the central mass distribution of dwarf and spiral galaxies simulated with three different models of the interstellar medium with increasing complexity: primordial (H+He) cooling, additional cooling via metal lines, and molecular hydrogen ( H2) with shielding of atomic and molecular hydrogen, in addition to metal-line cooling. We followed the evolution of four high-resolution, simulated galaxies with Vpeak gas was hotter and the feedback-heated gas cooled relatively slowly so less energy was required to expel it. When H2 was included, the accompanying shielding produced large amounts of clumpy, cold gas, and the supernova feedback was more highly concentrated. In contrast to the spiral galaxies, the dwarfs had similarly realistic concentrations and displayed similar behaviour across all models because their low metallicities resulted in smaller differences is the behaviour of the gas.

  14. Developing Social Media Practices in SMEs - The Role of Distributed and Centralized Leadership Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Lutz, Salla; Brink, Tove

    Social media practices are implemented in a growing number of B2B-companies. However, it seems that SMEs adoption of these practices is lagging behind compared with larger firms. In this context the support from the leadership is essential in order to enhance a firm’s use of social media...... for business purposes. This study aims to contribute to the scarce existing literature on leadership activities in relation to a company’s social media practices by conducting a qualitative analysis that is based on three theoretical propositions. Managerially the paper wishes to emphasize the importance...... of leadership’s awareness on the increasing relevance of adopting social media practices. Furthermore, the need for specific sense making of both social media practices in SME organisations and the integration of distributed and central leadership is highlighted as important for progress. Our research has...

  15. Heavy metals in surficial sediments of the central Bohai Sea:their distribution, speciation and sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; FAN Dejiang; LIAO Yongjie; CHEN Bin; YANG Zuosheng

    2016-01-01

    The semi-enclosed Bohai Sea has received large amount of pollutants from surrounding rivers and sewage channels along the densely populated and industrializing Bohai coasts, as well as the offshore oil exploration in the sea. The concentrations of heavy metals copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, lead, chromium and cadmium in 25 surface sediment samples from the central Bohai Sea are obtained by ICP-MS analysis. The speciation of these heavy metals is extracted and their distribution, fractionation, pollution status and sources are presented. High concentrations of copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc and chromium are found in the sediments off the coastal area of the Bohai Bay and the central Bohai Sea mud, while high concentrations of cadmium and lead are found in the sediments in the whole study area. The residual fraction is the dominant form of copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc and chromium in the surface sediments, while cadmium and lead have large proportions in the nonresidual fractions. The ecological risk assessment shows that the sediments in the study area are unpolluted with respect to the heavy metals of cobalt, nickel and chromium and unpolluted to moderately polluted with respect to copper, zinc, cadmium and lead. Cobalt, nickel and chromium mainly have natural origin and their concentrations significantly vary with the composition of the sediments. The contents of copper, zinc, lead and especially cadmium in sediments are suggested to be influenced by pollutants of human activities. The heavy metals in the surface sediments at most sampling stations are mainly come from the Huanghe River; the heavy metals in the sediments in the northernmost part of the study area are significantly affected by the sediment from the Luanhe River; while in the Bohai Bay and the central region they were affected by the sediment from the Haihe River and aerosol deposition.

  16. Central Appalachian basin natural gas database: distribution, composition, and origin of natural gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a database consisting of three worksheets of central Appalachian basin natural gas analyses and isotopic compositions from published and unpublished sources of 1,282 gas samples from Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The database includes field and reservoir names, well and State identification number, selected geologic reservoir properties, and the composition of natural gases (methane; ethane; propane; butane, iso-butane [i-butane]; normal butane [n-butane]; iso-pentane [i-pentane]; normal pentane [n-pentane]; cyclohexane, and hexanes). In the first worksheet, location and American Petroleum Institute (API) numbers from public or published sources are provided for 1,231 of the 1,282 gas samples. A second worksheet of 186 gas samples was compiled from published sources and augmented with public location information and contains carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopic measurements of natural gas. The third worksheet is a key for all abbreviations in the database. The database can be used to better constrain the stratigraphic distribution, composition, and origin of natural gas in the central Appalachian basin.

  17. Modeling Nonresident Seabird Foraging Distributions to Inform Ocean Zoning in Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studwell, Anna J; Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith L; Howar, Julie; Holzman, Barbara; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seabird aggregations at sea have been shown to be associated with concentrations of prey. Previous research identified Central California as a highly used foraging area for seabirds, with locally breeding seabirds foraging close to their colonies on Southeast Farallon Island. Herein, we focus on nonresident (i.e. non-locally breeding) seabird species off of Central California. We hypothesized that high-use foraging areas for nonresident seabirds would be influenced by oceanographic and bathymetric factors and that spatial and temporal distributions would be similar within planktivorous and generalist foraging guilds but would differ between them. With data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies (ACCESS) partnership during cruises between April and October from 2004-2013, we developed generalized linear models to identify high-use foraging areas for each of six nonresident seabird species. The four generalist species are Phoebastria nigripes (black-footed albatross), Ardenna griseus (sooty shearwater), Ardenna creatopus (pink-footed shearwater), and Fulmarus glacialis (northern fulmar). The two planktivorous species are Phalaropus lobatus (red-necked phalarope) and Phalaropus fulicarius (red phalarope). Sea surface temperature was significant for generalist species and sea surface salinity was important for planktivorous species. The distance to the 200-m isobath was significant in five of six models, Pacific Decadal Oscillation with a 3-month lag in four models, and sea surface fluorescence, the distance to Cordell Bank, and depth in three models. We did not find statistically significant differences between distributions of individual seabird species within a foraging guild or between guilds, with the exception of the sooty shearwater. Model results for a multi-use seabird foraging area highlighted the continental shelf break, particularly within the vicinity of Cordell Bank, as the highest use areas as did Marxan prioritization. Our

  18. Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes association with Rhodnius prolixus and R. pallescens allopatric distribution in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Antón, Fernando; Urrea, Daniel Alfonso; Guhl, Felipe; Arévalo, Carolina; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Urbina, Andrea; Blandón-Naranjo, Melissa; Sousa, Octavio E; Zeledón, Rodrigo; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    Previous kDNA polymorphism-based reports have revealed the existence of two Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes (KP1+ and KP1-): SL and SSU rRNA gene polymorphism-based studies have revealed that five genotypes (A-E) are distributed throughout different Latin-American countries. Some evidence has shown that the genotypes' biogeographical distribution is associated with sympatric Rhodnius species. 12 T. rangeli isolates from humans and reservoirs from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama were characterised by kDNA and mini-exon gene intergene spacer analysis and compared to 12 previously characterised isolates from humans and vectors from Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras and Venezuela. Central American isolates corresponded to genotypes called KP1(+) or lineage A and KP1(-) or lineage C. Such dimorphism was corroborated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 22 selected isolates; a dendrogram was thus produced having two defined branches. One branch grouped KP1(-) or lineage C strains isolated from Rhodnius colombiensis (Colombia), humans (Panama), Procyon lotor and Choloepus hoffmanni (Costa Rica). The other group was formed by KP1(+) or lineage A strains isolated from Rhodnius prolixus (Colombia, Venezuela) and humans (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras). These results present evidence that both groups infect different mammals (humans, domestic and silvatic animals) having no association with any particular vertebrate species; however, T. rangeli KP1(+) or (A) strains have been isolated in Central America in areas where R. prolixus circulate (Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala) and KP1(-) or (C) strains have been isolated in areas where Rhodnius pallescens is the main vector (Panama and Costa Rica) indicating a parasite-vector association. The same lineages circulate in Andean countries (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru), KP1+ being associated with members of the prolixus group (R. prolixus and Rhodnius robustus) and KP1- with members of the

  19. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women%中年妇女年龄、月经状态、体重指数及体力活动对机体组成及脂肪分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏代敏; 郁琦; 张颖; 陈凤领

    2012-01-01

    distribution centrally, while body fat-free tissue mass decreases. Age itself has no significant relation with body composition and body fat distribution. It is recommended that midlife women should engage in more physical activity and keep proper body weight to reduce the negative effect of menopause on body fat tissue.%目的 研究中年妇女年龄、月经状态、体重指数(body mass index,BMI)及体力活动对机体组成及脂肪分布的影响. 方法 横断面收集于北京协和医院体检中心体检的健康妇女,利用经过效度和信度检验的国际体力活动问卷短卷中文版调查研究对象的体力活动情况,利用双能X线吸收法(DEXA)测定机体组成及脂肪分布情况. 结果 共收集到162例妇女资料,年龄40~62岁、(52.81±5.31)岁.多元线性回归分析结果显示,全身脂肪组织百分比与BMI(标准化偏回归系数b=0.70)、月经状态(b=0.19,生育期赋值1,绝经过渡期赋值2,绝经后赋值3,下同)呈正相关,而与体力活动能量消耗呈负相关(b=-0.17),回归方程的决定系数R2-0.55.全身无脂肪组织含量(fat-free tissue)与BMI呈正相关(b=0.61)、与月经状态呈负相关(b=-0.14),回归方程的决定系数R2=0.39.躯干脂肪/全身脂肪比值与BMI(b=0.32)、月经状态(b=0.30)呈正相关,回归方程的决定系数R2=0.20.校正了BMI、月经状态及体力活动的影响后,年龄与全身脂肪组织百分比、全身无脂肪组织含量、躯干脂肪/全身脂肪比值均无明显相关性. 结论 月经状态对机体组成及脂肪分布具有独立影响,随着生殖衰老的进展,脂肪组织增加且趋于中心性分布,机体无脂肪组织含量降低.而年龄本身与机体组成及脂肪分布无直接关系.中年妇女应增加体力活动,保持适当的体重以降低绝经对脂肪组织所造成的不利变化.

  20. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, J G; Schmidt, E B; Obel, T

    2011-01-01

    distribution.Methods and results:From 1993 to 1997, 27¿148 men and 29¿863 women, aged 50 to 64 year, were recruited into the Danish prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health. During 11.9 years of follow-up we identified 2028 cases of incident MI (1487 men and 541 women). BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip......Introduction:Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures...... to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat...

  1. Immunohistochemical distribution of Plexin A4 in the adult rat central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire-Anne Gutekunst

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available PlexinA4 is the latest member to be identified of the plexin A subfamily, critical transducers of class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilins 1 and 2. Despite functional information regarding the role of PlexinA4 in development and guidance of specific neuronal pathways, little is known about its distribution in the adult central nervous system (CNS. Here we report an in depth immunohistochemical analysis of PlexinA4 expression in the adult rat CNS. PlexinA4 staining was present in neurons and fibers throughout the brain and spinal cord, including neocortex, hippocampus, lateral hypothalamus, red nucleus, facial nucleus and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. PlexinA4 antibodies labeled fibers in the lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, several thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, pontine reticular region, as well as in several cranial nerve nuclei. This constitutes the first detailed description of the topographic distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult CNS and will set the basis for future studies on the functional implications of PlexinA4 in adult brain physiology.

  2. Spatial distribution of environmental risk associated to a uranium abandoned mine (Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I. M.; Ribeiro, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    The abandoned uranium mine of Canto do Lagar is located at Arcozelo da Serra, central Portugal. The mine was exploited in an open pit and produced about 12430Kg of uranium oxide (U3O8), between 1987 and 1988. The dominant geological unit is the porphyritic coarse-grained two-mica granite, with biotite>muscovite. The uranium deposit consists of two gaps crushing, parallel to the coarse-grained porphyritic granite, with average direction N30°E, silicified, sericitized and reddish jasperized, with a width of approximately 10 meters. These gaps are accompanied by two thin veins of white quartz, 70°-80° WNW, ferruginous and jasperized with chalcedony, red jasper and opal. These veins are about 6 meters away from each other. They contain secondary U-phosphates phases such as autunite and torbernite. Rejected materials (1000000ton) were deposited on two dumps and a lake was formed in the open pit. To assess the environmental risk of the abandoned uranium mine of Canto do Lagar, were collected and analysed 70 samples on stream sediments, soils and mine tailings materials. The relation between samples composition were tested using the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) (multivariate analysis) and spatial distribution using Kriging Indicator. The spatial distribution of stream sediments shows that the probability of expression for principal component 1 (explaining Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Th and U contents), decreases along SE-NW direction. This component is explained by the samples located inside mine influence. The probability of expression for principal component 2 (explaining Be, Na, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, Ba, Tl and Bi contents), increases to middle stream line. This component is explained by the samples located outside mine influence. The spatial distribution of soils, shows that the probability of expression for principal component 1 (explaining Mg, P, Ca, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Pr

  3. [The distribution of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera, Culicidae, Anophelinae) in Central Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Ezhov, M N

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, cytogenetic analysis, and investigation of egg exochorion have indicated that three representatives of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (subgenus Anopheles): An artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Falleroni, and An. marinius Shingarev. An. messeae is a European-Siberian species that has extended the southern border of its habitat and has been distributed in the south of Kazakhstan and in the north of Kyrgyzstan. In, Kyrgyzstan, An. messeae inhabiting the plains of Europe and Siberia is encountered rather high up in the mountains: the highest point where this species is found is at 1,879 m above sea level. An. artemievi is present in the highland and piedmont regions of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan, and northern Tajikistan) and in the intermountain basins (Naryn and Fergana ones). The single finding of this species is in south-eastern Turkmenistan. On the contrary, An. martinius tends to be in the plains and occurs in north-eastern Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Kazakhstan (Kzyl-Orda). On the other hand, a population of this species is found in proximity to the foothills of the Gissar Range in the east of Uzbekistan. An.maculipennis s.str. is not seen in Central Asia. Early evidence for the presence of both An. maculipennis s.str. and An. martinius in Kopet Dag (Southern Turkmenistan) is rather questionable. It is not improbable that these data are appropriate for either the newly described species An.persiensis or the scientifically new representative of the An. maculipennis complex.

  4. Distributed Plate Boundary Deformation Across the San Andreas Fault System, Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, M.; Titus, S. J.; Demets, C.; Tikoff, B.

    2007-12-01

    Plate boundaries are now recognized as broad zones of complex deformation as opposed to narrow zones with discrete offsets. When assessing how plate boundary deformation is accommodated, both spatially and temporally, it is therefore crucial to understand the relative contribution of the discrete and distributed components of deformation. The creeping segment of the San Andreas fault is an ideal location to study the distribution of plate boundary deformation for several reasons. First, the geometry of the fault system in central California is relatively simple. Plate motion is dominated by slip along the relatively linear strike-slip San Andreas fault, but also includes lesser slip along the adjacent and parallel Hosgri-San Gregorio and Rinconada faults, as well as within the borderlands between the three fault strands. Second, the aseismic character of the San Andreas fault in this region allows for the application of modern geodetic techniques to assess creep rates along the fault and across the region. Third, geologic structures within the borderlands are relatively well-preserved allowing comparison between modern and ancient rates and styles of deformation. Continuous GPS stations, alignment arrays surveys, and other geodetic methods demonstrate that approximately 5 mm/yr of distributed slip is accumulated (on top of the fault slip rate) across a 70-100 km wide region centered on the San Andreas fault. New campaign GPS data also suggest 2-5 mm/yr of deformation in the borderlands. These rates depend on the magnitude of the coseismic and postseismic corrections that must be made to our GPS time series to compensate for the 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes, which rupture faults outside, but near the edges of our GPS network. The off-fault deformation pattern can be compared to the style of permanent deformation recorded in the geologic record. Fold and thrust belts in the borderlands are better developed in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks west of

  5. Record keeping, genetic selection, educational experience and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow, milk fat percentage, bacterial score and bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy farms in the Central region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-12-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the record keeping, genetic selection, educational, and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow (AYC), milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) of dairy farms in the central region of Thailand. Farms were located in the provinces of Saraburi and Nakhon Ratchisima and were members of the Muaklek dairy cooperative. Records from individual animals were unavailable. Thus, farm records of milk yield, milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and BTCCC were collected from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2006. Additional record keeping, genetic selection, education, and farm management information was collected through a questionnaire in May of 2006. Data from the Muaklek dairy cooperative and the questionnaire were then merged by a farm identification number. A single trait mixed model was used to analyze AYC, milk fat percentage, and BTSCC, while a log linear model was used to analyze bacterial score. Results showed that farms that kept records on individual animals had higher (P personal opinion. Farms milking cows with a single unit milking machine and by hand, had higher (P < 0.05) bacterial scores and BTSCC than farms using only a single or multi unit machine. Overall farms that kept individual animal records, used EBV when selecting sires, used a single method for collecting milk, and used family labor achieved higher performance from their herds than farms that did not.

  6. Centralized Architecture of the Electricity Distribution Substation Automation - Benefits and Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtari, J.

    2013-04-15

    Smart grid initiatives around the world show how much the control and protection of distribution networks is expected to change within the next few years. As passive networks with unidirectional power flow evolve into active networks with a variety of different active resources, the requirements for distribution substations will also change, requiring the utilities to take action. Utilities do not want to undertake continuous and costly upgrades of the whole protection system, but there is still a clear need for adapting to new requirements. The need to increase the level of automation in the distribution system has been clearly recognized both on the vendor side and on the utility side. Various concept-level proposals have been presented in order to address the conflicting requirements for low life-cycle costs and the rapid uptake of new technology. The most traditional approach has been to increase the functionality of the bay-level protection and control IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices). This approach has been sufficient, while CPU capacity has been steadily increasing and the price of new technology has remained at a reasonable level. The issue in this approach has been the extensive costs of upgrades. New features have also required substantial changes in the substation's entire secondary system, requiring long maintenance breaks. This PhD thesis investigates how station-level data processing can be utilized to help in creating a future-proof architecture for the secondary system of a distribution substation. The needed technology is evaluated, and an overall life-cycle cost analysis is performed showing the cost benefit of a centralized architecture. The thesis shows that the larger the substation, the greater the benefits of a centralized architecture. It also shows how great is the impact of increased reliability. The outage costs of a network exceed all the other life-cycle costs of the secondary system, and illustrates how focusing on substation

  7. Composition and vertical distribution of metazoan meiofauna assemblages on the continental shelf off central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulogio Soto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative study of metazoan meiofauna was carried out in Valparaiso Bay (33°S 71°W which is affected by seasonal hypoxia in central Chile. The contents of bottom water, dissolved oxygen (BWDO, organic carbon, chloroplast pigments and composition of stable carbon isotope (δ13C in the sediment were used as a measure of the contribution of primary production in the water column, which accumulates in the sediment. Meiofauna abundances in the three sampling stations (80-140 m depth ranged from 2.218 ± 643 to 1.592 ± 148 ind 10 cm-2. Nine upper metazoan meiofauna groups were recorded, with nematodes as the dominant group, contributing with more than 95% of total abundances. The abundance vertical distribution was concentrated in the first layers of sediment in most groups except Acari and nauplii larvae. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed significant correlations (P < 0.05 between the meiofauna abundance and organic content, depth and redox potential from sediments. These results represent a first approach to understanding the ecology of meiofaunal assemblages in the Valparaiso Bay and may be useful as a baseline for future comparisons and descriptions of the ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation and seasonal variations of these unknown benthic communities.

  8. Stress distributions in maxillary central incisors restored with various types of post materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madfa, A A; Kadir, M R Abdul; Kashani, J; Saidin, S; Sulaiman, E; Marhazlinda, J; Rahbari, R; Abdullah, B J J; Abdullah, H; Abu Kasim, N H

    2014-07-01

    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (pmaterials, the highest level of stress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (p<0.05). The carbon and glass fibre posts reduced the stress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface.

  9. Neuronal classification and distribution in the central nervous system of the female mud crab, Scylla olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornthong, Napamanee; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Khornchatri, Kanjana; Saeton, Jirawat; Magerd, Sirilug; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Kruangkum, Thanapong; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-03-01

    The mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is one of the most economically valuable marine species in Southeast Asian countries. However, commercial cultivation is disadvantaged by reduced reproductive capacity in captivity. Therefore, an understanding of the general and detailed anatomy of central nervous system (CNS) is required before investigating the distribution and functions of neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and other biomolecules, involved with reproduction. We found that the anatomical structure of the brain is similar to other crabs. However, the ventral nerve cord (VNC) is unlike other caridian and dendrobrachiate decapods, as the subesophageal (SEG), thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused, due to the reduction of abdominal segments and the tail. Neurons in clusters within the CNS varied in sizes, and we found that there were five distinct size classes (i.e., very small globuli, small, medium, large, and giant). Clusters in the brain and SEG contained mainly very small globuli and small-sized neurons, whereas, the VNC contained small-, medium-, large-, and giant-sized neurons. We postulate that the different sized neurons are involved in different functions.

  10. The spectral energy distribution of the central parsec-scaled region of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, M A; Beckert, T; Tristram, K R W; Neumayer, N; Fernández, J A; Acosta, J; Beckert, Th.

    2007-01-01

    Genuine spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the central few parsec of the nearest and brightest active galaxies in the Southern Hemisphere are presented. They are compiled from very high spatial resolution observations in the radio (VLBA), the infrared (using adaptive optics and interferometry) and the optical (HST). The SEDs are characterized by two main emission bumps peaking in the X-rays and in the infrared respectively, as it is known from optically obscured galactic nuclei. Yet, the SED shape of the IR largely departs from the one derived from large aperture data. It reveals two new features: (1) a very sharp decay at wavelengths shortward of 2 $\\mu$m, plausibly a consequence of the heavy extinction towards the core region and (2) a flattening in the 10-20 $\\mu$m range as well as a downturn toward longer wavelengths. Accordingly, the true bolometric luminosity of these core regions turns out to be about an order of magnitude lower than previously estimated on the basis of IRAS/ISO data. These findin...

  11. The effect of models of the interstellar media on the central mass distribution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Charlotte; Quinn, Thomas; Brooks, Alyson M; Fisher, David B; Shen, Sijing; McCleary, Jacqueline; Wadsley, James

    2012-01-01

    We compare the central mass distribution of galaxies simulated with three different models of the interstellar medium (ISM) with increasing complexity: primordial (H+He) cooling down to 10^4 K, additional cooling via metal lines and to lower temperatures, and molecular hydrogen (H_2) with shielding of atomic and molecular hydrogen in addition to metal line cooling. In order to analyze the effect of these models, we follow the evolution of four field galaxies with V_peak < 120 km/s to a redshift of zero using high-resolution Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations in a fully cosmological LCDM context. The spiral galaxies produced in simulations with either primordial cooling or H_2 physics have bulge magnitudes and scale lengths very similar to observed galaxies and realistic, rising rotation curves. In contrast, the metal line cooling simulation produced galaxies with more massive and concentrated bulges and with the peaked rotation curves typical of most previous LCDM simulations of spiral galaxies. Th...

  12. Spatial Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafipour, Abedin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000. All analyses were undertaken with rural- and urban-level precision, i.e., rural and urban levels were our basic units of analysis. After identifying the sand flies, high-risk foci were determined. For spatial analysis of vector species population, the entomological sampling sites were geo-referenced using GPS. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used to determine the foci with leishmaniasis vector species. Following the analyses, two genera (Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia) and 14 species were identified. Based on the mapping and sand fly dispersion analysis, the rural districts were categorized into three groups-infection reported, without infection, and no report. Based on Geographical Information System analyses, Kahak and Markazi districts were identified as high-risk foci with leishmaniasis vector species. These findings can act as a help guide to direct active control measures to the identified high-risk foci and, eventually, lead to reduction in incidence of the disease.

  13. Modeling the potential distribution of three lichens of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents models of potential geographical distribution of Xanthoparmelia delisei, X. loxodes, and X. verruculifera in Central Europe. The models were developed with MaxEnt (maximum entropy algorithm) based on 224 collection localities and bioclimatic variables. The applied method enabled to identify the areas where climatic conditions are the most suitable for modeled species outside their known localities. According to obtained model, high potential distribution of the X. delisei a...

  14. Surface-water radon-222 distribution along the west-central Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.G.; Robbins, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009 and August 2009, the spatial distribution of radon-222 in surface water was mapped along the west-central Florida shelf as collaboration between the Response of Florida Shelf Ecosystems to Climate Change project and a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Research Fellowship project. This report summarizes the surface distribution of radon-222 from two cruises and evaluates potential physical controls on radon-222 fluxes. Radon-222 is an inert gas produced overwhelmingly in sediment and has a short half-life of 3.8 days; activities in surface water ranged between 30 and 170 becquerels per cubic meter. Overall, radon-222 activities were enriched in nearshore surface waters relative to offshore waters. Dilution in offshore waters is expected to be the cause of the low offshore activities. While thermal stratification of the water column during the August survey may explain higher radon-222 activities relative to the February survey, radon-222 activity and integrated surface-water inventories decreased exponentially from the shoreline during both cruises. By estimating radon-222 evasion by wind from nearby buoy data and accounting for internal production from dissolved radium-226, its radiogenic long-lived parent, a simple one-dimensional model was implemented to determine the role that offshore mixing, benthic influx, and decay have on the distribution of excess radon-222 inventories along the west Florida shelf. For multiple statistically based boundary condition scenarios (first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum radon-222 inshore of 5 kilometers), the cross-shelf mixing rates and average nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates varied from 100.38 to 10-3.4 square kilometers per day and 0.00 to 1.70 centimeters per day, respectively. This dataset and modeling provide the first attempt to assess cross-shelf mixing and SGD on such a large spatial scale. Such estimates help scale up SGD rates that are often made at 1- to 10-meter

  15. Candi, space and landscape : a study on the distribution, orientation and spatial organization of Central Javanese temple remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degroot, Véronique Myriam Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Central Javanese temples were not built anywhere and anyhow, quite the contrary: their position within the landscape and their architectural design was determined by a series of socio-cultural, religious and economical factors. Correlations between temple distribution, natural surroundings and archi

  16. Survey on normal distributions,central limit theorem,Brownian motion and the related stochastic calculus under sublinear expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This is a survey on normal distributions and the related central limit theorem under sublinear expectation.We also present Brownian motion under sublinear expectations and the related stochastic calculus of It?’s type.The results provide new and robust tools for the problem of probability model uncertainty arising in financial risk,statistics and other industrial problems.

  17. Distribution of DDT and Other Persistent Organic Contaminants in Canyons and on the Continental Shelf off the Central California Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, S. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of DDT and Other Persistent Organic Contaminants in Canyons and on the Continental Shelf off the Central California Coast correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +301 713 3028; fax: +301 713 4388. (Hartwell, S. Ian) (Hartwell, S. Ian) NOAA/NOS/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment 1305 East West Hwy Silver Spring - MD 20910--> - (Hartwell, S. Ian) UNITED STATES (Hartwell, S. Ia...

  18. Survey on normal distributions, central limit theorem, Brownian motion and the related stochastic calculus under sublinear expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG ShiGe

    2009-01-01

    This is a survey on normal distributions and the related central limit theorem under sublinear expectation. We also present Brownian motion under sublinear expectations and the related stochastic calculus of Ito's type. The results provide new and robust tools for the problem of probability model uncertainty arising in financial risk, statistics and other industrial problems.

  19. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, J.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C.; Husby, S.

    2016-01-01

    ) at age 10-15. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with increased total, android, and gynoid fat% (DXA) at age 10-15 years after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty (all β = 0.5 standard deviation score (SDS) p ... (total fat: β = 0.7 SDS, android-gynoid ratio: β = 0.1, both p ... circumference were found. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with higher adolescent body fat content, including android fat deposition, independent of puberty. Girls appeared more susceptible than boys. Furthermore, the association depended on maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype....

  20. Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera and its Environmental Conditions of Karaikal, Central Coast of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, R.; Gandhi, S.

    2013-05-01

    Foraminifera have been successful inhabitants of every aquatic environment from deep oceans to brackish water lagoons, estuaries and even rarely in freshwater streams, lakes etc. offshore region of Karaikal the present study has been taken up to enhance the existing knowledge on foraminifera of central coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 21 sediment and water samples were collected from the offshore region. The depth of sample collection in offshore area ranges from 1.5 m to 12 m. Standard procedures adopted for the evaluation of different environmental parameters are incorporated. A total of 33 foraminiferal taxa belonging to 17 genera, 12 subfamilies, 14 superfamilies, and 4 suborders have been identified. In Karaikal , the mean size of the sediments on the foreshore ranges from 1.51 to 2.95 φ indicating the predominance of fine sediments (80-85%) with an admixture of medium-grained sands. Calcium carbonate content is generally found to be directly proportional to the population size in both the estuary and shelf area. It clearly indicates that due to the erosional activities whatever sediments deposited near the Arasalar river in that region are transported to the marine region and were drifted towards northern direction by longshore current, hence the deposition of carbonate in the sediments shows negative correlation. Due to strong high energy environment the current action is more in this region the juvinile forms of A. beccarri, A.tepida, A. dendata, E. crispum, P. calar, and P. nipponica only withstand and the other species are absent. The Correlation between Living vs Dead, Dead Vs Calcium carbonate, Salinity Vs living, Organic matter Vs Living, Organic matter Vs Carbonate content shows positive correlation for all the samples like LT, HT, Beach, River, and Offshore. Even though, all the ecological parameters having good correlation with foraminifera, but the distribution are very less in the study area. M.RAJA Dept.of.Geology University of Madras Chennai

  1. Spatial distribution of air temperature in Toruń (Central Poland) and its causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylak, Rajmund; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna; Araźny, Andrzej; Kejna, Marek; Kunz, Mieczysław; Maszewski, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the results of an investigation into the air temperature pattern and development (including the urban heat island (UHI)) in Toruń (central Poland) are presented. For the analysis, daily mean temperature (Ti) as well as daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures for 2012 gathered for 20 sites, evenly distributed in the area of city, have been taken as source data. Additionally, in order to provide more extensive characteristics of the diversity of the air temperature in the study area, the diurnal temperature range (DTR) and the number of the so-called characteristic days were calculated as well. The impact of weather conditions (cloudiness and wind speed), atmospheric circulation, urban morphological parameters and land cover on the UHI in the study area was investigated. In Toruń, according to the present study, the average UHI intensity in 2012 was equal to 1.0 °C. The rise of cloudiness and wind speed led to a decrease of the magnitude of the UHI. Generally, in most cases, anticyclonic situations favour increased thermal contrast between rural and city areas, particularly in summer. Warm western circulation types significantly reduced temperature differences in the western side of the city and enlarged them in the eastern side of the city. Eastern cold types also have a similar influence on air temperature differences. Positive and statistically significant correlations have been found between the percentage of built-up areas (sealing factor) and air temperature. Conversely, sky view factor (SVF) reveals negative correlations which are statistically significant only for Tmin.

  2. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.

    1984-01-01

    Initiation of a geothermal energy program in western and central New York requires knowledge of subsurface temperatures for targeting areas of potential resources. The temperature distribution in possible geothermal reservoirs, calculated from heat flow measurements and modeling techniques, shows that a large area of New York can be considered for exploitation of geothermal resources. Though the temperatures at currently accessible depths show the availability of only a low-temperature (less than 100/sup 0/C), direct-use resource, this can be considered as an alternative for the future energy needs of New York State. From analysis of bottom-hole-temperature data and direct heat flow measurements, estimates of temperatures in the Cambrian Sandstones provide the basis of the economic evaluation of the reservoir. This reservoir contains the extractable fluids needed for targeting a potential geothermal well site in the low-temperature geothermal target zone. In the northern section of the Appalachian basin, reservoir temperatures in the Cambrian are below 50/sup 0/C but may be over 80/sup 0/C in the deeper parts of the basin in southern New York State. Using a minimum of 50/sup 0/C as a useful reservoir temperature, temperatures in excess of this value are encountered in the Theresa Formation at depths in excess of 1300 meters. Considering a maximum depth for economical drilling to be 2500 meters with present technology, the 2500 meters to the Theresa (sea level datum) forms the lower limit of the geothermal resource. Temperatures in the range of 70/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C are predicted for the southern portion of New York State.

  3. Distribution of SMI-32-immunoreactive neurons in the central auditory system of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Ladislav; Druga, Rastislav; Syka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    SMI-32 antibody recognizes a non-phosphorylated epitope of neurofilament proteins, which are thought to be necessary for the maintenance of large neurons with highly myelinated processes. We investigated the distribution and quantity of SMI-32-immunoreactive(-ir) neurons in individual parts of the rat auditory system. SMI-32-ir neurons were present in all auditory structures; however, in most regions they constituted only a minority of all neurons (10-30%). In the cochlear nuclei, a higher occurrence of SMI-32-ir neurons was found in the ventral cochlear nucleus. Within the superior olivary complex, SMI-32-ir cells were particularly abundant in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), the only auditory region where SMI-32-ir neurons constituted an absolute majority of all neurons. In the inferior colliculus, a region with the highest total number of neurons among the rat auditory subcortical structures, the percentage of SMI-32-ir cells was, in contrast to the MNTB, very low. In the medial geniculate body, SMI-32-ir neurons were prevalent in the ventral division. At the cortical level, SMI-32-ir neurons were found mainly in layers III, V and VI. Within the auditory cortex, it was possible to distinguish the Te1, Te2 and Te3 areas on the basis of the variable numerical density and volumes of SMI-32-ir neurons, especially when the pyramidal cells of layer V were taken into account. SMI-32-ir neurons apparently form a representative subpopulation of neurons in all parts of the rat central auditory system and may belong to both the inhibitory and excitatory systems, depending on the particular brain region.

  4. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel

    2008-11-01

    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis.

  5. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk,...

  6. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Need Fat? en español Algunos datos sobre las grasas Fat is a component in food. Some foods, ... they're used in place of saturated and trans fats. Unsaturated fats are found in salmon, avocados, ...

  7. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. Saturated fats and trans fats are solid at room temperature. ... fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. You should limit saturated fat to less than 10% of your daily calories. ...

  8. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fatty acid they contain. Types of Fat Saturated fats raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. High LDL ... avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Keep saturated fats to less than 6% of ...

  9. Morphogenetic controls on the distribution of the littoral placers along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    The total heavy mineral concentration along the central west coast of India varies from 0.17 to 98.54 percent. A zone of higher concentration is confined to the central protion of the coastal segment between 17 degrees 59' and 16 degrees 30'N...

  10. Fats and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with “good” unsaturated fats, limit foods high in saturated fat, and avoid “bad” trans fat. “Good” unsaturated fats — ... have been eliminated from many of these foods. Saturated fats , while not as harmful as trans fats, by ...

  11. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  12. Fat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei

    2006-01-01

    The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being flexible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I develop a model where ?rms can o¤er interval long 'fat' products in the spatial model of differentiation. Contrary to the standard results pro?ts of the firms can decrease with increased differentiati...

  13. THE CENTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF ADRENOMEDULLIN AND ITS EFFECTS ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏英杰; 李倩虹; 宋良文; 赵东; 张肇康; 何瑞荣; 汤健

    1996-01-01

    The present study was designed to make certairt whether there exists adrenomedullinrat central nervous system and evaluated the hemodynamic actions of in(ADM) in the administration(ICVA) of human ADM[13-52]. By immunobistochemistry (ABC method), We tound that there was a discrete localization of ADM positive immunoreactivity in the rat central system including cerebral cortex,paravent ricular tissues, hypothalamus, cerehellla cortex, mesencephalon and medulla oblongata. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, rat ADM mRNA was found to be expressed in rat brain. These above results of irnmunohistochemistry and RT PCR suggest that ADM exists in the rat brain. We also found that centrally administered ADM[13-52 in a dose of 0. 4 to 3.2 nmol/kg provoked marked, prolonged and dosedeioeudent increases in mean arteriBl blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate(HR). To clarify the mechanisms of the bemudynamic changes induced by centrally administered ADM[13-52], the effect of centrally administered ADM[13-52] on renal sympathetic nerve activity(RSNA)was studied, The result showed that centrally admiaaistered ADM [13-52] (1. 6 nmol/kg) provoked a marked increase in RSNA, therefore, the increases in MABP and HR induced by centrally administered ADM[13-52]might he due to the stimulation of central sympathetic mechanism. In eddtion,we also compared the relationship of activity and structure among the different fragments of ADM. In conclusion,ADM exists in the rat brain,and it may play an important role in the central control of cardiovascular system.

  14. Nitrous oxide distribution and its origin in the central and eastern South Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Charpentier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The biogeochemical mechanism of bacterial N2O production in the ocean has been the subject of many discussions in recent years. New isotopomeric tools can help further knowledge on N2O sources in natural environments. This research shows and compares hydrographic, nitrous oxide concentration, and N2O isotopic and isotopomeric data from three stations across the South Pacific Ocean, from the center of the subtropical oligotrophic gyre (~26° S; 114° W to the upwelling zone along the central Chilean coast (~34° S. Althought AOU/N2O and NO3 trends support the idea that most of N2O source (mainly from intermediate water (200–1000 m come from nitrification, N2O isotopomeric composition (intramolecular distribution of 15N isotopes in N2O reveals an abrupt change in the mechanism of nitrous oxide production, always observed through lower SP (site preference of 15N, at a high – stability layer, where particles could act as microsites and N2O would be produced by nitrifier denitrification (reduction of nitrite to nitrous oxide mediated by primary nitrifiers. There, nitrifier denitrification can account for 40% and 50% (center and east border of the gyre, respectively of the nitrous oxide produced in this specific layer. This process could be associated with the deceleration of sinking organic particles in highly stable layers of the water column. In constrast, coastal upwelling system is characterized by oxygen deficient condition and some N deficit in a eutrophic system. Here, nitrous oxide accumulates up to 480% saturation, and isotopic and isotopomer signal show highly complex nitrous oxide production processes, which presumably reflect both the effect of nitrification and denitrification at low oxygen levels on N2O production, but non N2O consumption by denitrification was observed.

  15. Modelling distributed ablation on Juncal Norte Glacier, dry Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, Marco; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Helbing, Jakob; Dadic, Ruzica; Burlando, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    In the Aconcagua River Basin, in the dry Andes of central Chile, water resources in summer originate mostly from snow and ice glacier melt. Summer seasons are dry and stable, with precipitation close to zero, low relative humidity and very intense solar radiation. The region's economic activities are dependent on these water resources, but their assessment is still incomplete and an effort is needed to evaluate present and future changes in water from glacier and seasonal snow covers in this area. The main aim of this paper is to simulate glacier melt and runoff from Juncal Norte Glacier, in the upper Aconcagua Basin, using models of various complexity and data requirement. We simulate distributed glacier ablation for two seasons using an energy-balance model (EB) and an enhanced temperature-index model (ETI). Meteorological variables measured at Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) located on and off-glacier are extrapolated from point observations to the glacier-wide scale. Shortwave radiation is modelled with a parametric model taking into account shading, reflection from slopes and atmospheric transmittance. In the energy-balance model, the longwave radiation flux is computed from Stefan-Boltzmann relationships and turbulent fluxes are calculated using the bulk aerodynamic method. The EB model includes subsurface heat conduction and gravitational redistribution of snow. Glacier runoff is modelled using a linear reservoir approach accounting for the temporal evolution of the system. Hourly simulations of glacier melt are validated against ablation observations (ultrasonic depth gauge and ablation stakes) and runoff measured at the glacier snout is compared to a runoff record obtained from a combination of radar water level measurements and tracer experiments. Results show that extrapolation of meteorological input data, and of temperature in particular, is the largest source of model uncertainty, together with snow water equivalent initial conditions. We explore

  16. Nitrous oxide distribution and its origin in the central and eastern South Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Charpentier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of microbial nitrous oxide (N2O production in the ocean have been the subject of many discussions in recent years. New isotopomeric tools can further refine our knowledge of N2O sources in natural environments. This study compares hydrographic, N2O concentration, and N2O isotopic and isotopomeric data from three stations along a coast-perpendicular transect in the South Pacific Ocean, extending from the center (Sts. GYR and EGY of the subtropical oligotrophic gyre (~26° S; 114° W to the upwelling zone (St. UPX off the central Chilean coast (~34° S. Although AOU/N2O and NO3 trends support the idea that most of the N2O (mainly from intermediate water (200–600 m comes from nitrification, N2O isotopomeric composition (intramolecular distribution of 15N isotopes expressed as SP (site preference of 15N shows low values (10 to 12permil that could be attributed to the production through of microbial nitrifier denitrification (reduction of nitrite to N2O mediated by ammonium oxidizers. The coincidence of this SP signal with high – stability layer, where sinking organic particles can accumulate, suggests that N2O could be produced by nitrifier denitrification inside particles. It is postulated that deceleration of particles in the pycnocline can modify the advection - diffusion balance inside particles, allowing the accumulation of nitrite and O2 depletion suitable for nitrifier denitrication. As lateral advection seems to be relatively insignificant in the gyre, in situ nitrifier denitrification could account for 40–50% of the N2O produced in this layer. In contrast, coastal upwelling system is characterized by O2 deficient condition and some N deficit in a eutrophic system. Here, N2O accumulates up to 480% saturation, and isotopic and

  17. Phytoplankton production and chlorophyll distribution in the eastarn and central Arabian Sea in 1994-1995

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Pant, A.; Sawant, S.S.; Gauns, M.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahanraju, R.

    Measurements of primary production, chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) were carried out during the inter-monsoon winter monsoon and summer monsoon seasons of 1994-95 in the central and eastern Arabian Sea...

  18. Phosphate geochemistry, mineralization processes, and Thioploca distribution in shelf sediments off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Arning, Esther T.; Küster-Heins, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    mineralization, and occurrence of dense communities of the filamentous sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp., on the continental shelf off central Chile during the austral summer when high phytoplankton productivity and anoxic bottom water prevailed. Freshly deposited phytodetritus stimulated extremely high sulfate...

  19. Arterial hypertension in cirrhosis: arterial compliance, volume distribution, and central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F;

    2006-01-01

    were 130 normotensive cirrhotic patients, 19 controls with normal arterial blood pressure and without liver disease, and 16 patients with essential arterial hypertension. All groups underwent haemodynamic investigation with determination of cardiac output (CO), plasma volume (PV), central blood volume...

  20. Modeling the potential distribution of three lichens of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents models of potential geographical distribution of Xanthoparmelia delisei, X. loxodes, and X. verruculifera in Central Europe. The models were developed with MaxEnt (maximum entropy algorithm based on 224 collection localities and bioclimatic variables. The applied method enabled to identify the areas where climatic conditions are the most suitable for modeled species outside their known localities. According to obtained model, high potential distribution of the X. delisei and X. loxodes was found in the northern and northeastern Poland, when areas most suitable for X. verruculifera were placed in the south, especially in the Carpathians. Model also suggests that potential distribution of X. delisei could be wider than known data on its occurrence and extend to Lithuania, Belarus and the Czech Republic. MaxEnt modeling of X. loxodes showed the widest potential distribution for this species in Central Europe with the best regions in Lithuania. Potential distribution in all models was strongly influenced by precipitation-related variables. All the modelled species prefer areas where precipitation in the coldest quarter is very low.

  1. On a problem of dark matter: A centrally symmetric distribution of a pseudoscalar field in the general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Rozgacheva, I K

    2016-01-01

    A precise solution of the general relativity equations for centrally symmetric distribution of a pseudoscalar field with U(1) symmetry is presented. It is found that energy density of the field is restricted in the symmetry center and falls with radial distance at a much slower rate than in numerical simulations of dark matter haloes. This result can solve the cusp problem for galaxies and the problem of rotation curves for galaxy exteriors.

  2. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, Denovan P.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantianigra producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers.

  3. Relationships between sinkholes areal distribution and main tectonic alignments in Abruzzo (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, G.; Moretti, A.; De Rose, C.; Stagnini, E.,; Serafini, M.

    2012-04-01

    Intermountain basins, developed at the back side of the Apennines overturning front, are the most evident morphological expressions of extensional tectonics in Central Italy and can be recognized in many different sections of the chain. L'Aquila basin and the adjoining Subequana valley are part of a single NW-SE elongated depression (about 60 km long) which began to develop about in the early Quaternary in response to the identification of various regional extensional tectonic alignments and the consequent starting of the basin subsidence. This impressive morphological element is characterized by the presence of several large funnel-shaped features (locally named Fosse = trench) which affect mainly the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic bedrock but also the Neogenic clastic sedimentary filling of the valley. Some of these last elements are often occupied by ponds or significant artesian water resurgences like the Sinizzo Lake where, during L'Aquila earthquake of April 6th 2009, the shores collapsed and strong microseismic activity, deep rumbles and flow rate changes were reported for the following months. The Fosse mapped in the L'Aquila basin have widths in the order of hundreds of meters, a considerable difference of elevation respect the rims and present a general morphology very close to that of the classic dissolution karst sinkholes. Their evolution/localization is strictly related to the active fault systems which controls also the main tracts of the relief; the low volume of residual sedimentary deposits within the depression, not comparable with the total volume of rock removed, indicates that surface karst dissolution phenomena are absent or secondary. The elevations of the floor of many Fosse are higher respect the actual flood plain depending on their age; in fact relict circular forms, recognizable at upper altitude on the relief slope, confirm that the phenomenon has been active for a considerable period of time. About the genesis of this features, even if at

  4. High-fat simple carbohydrate feeding impairs central and peripheral monoamine metabolic pathway triggering the onset of metabolic syndrome in C57Bl/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena S D'Souza

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: HFSC diet impairs the central and peripheral dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways in mice as evidenced by the disturbances in their hypothalamic, plasma, and urine levels and this might be one of the early factors contributing towards the development of the MetS.

  5. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others. Two of the most harmful fats are saturated fat and trans fat . Both of these fats can ... heart disease. Food labels show the amounts of saturated fats and trans fats in a particular food. Saturated ...

  6. Regional variability in occurrence and distribution of polymetallic nodules in the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B; Rebello, J.M.S.

    an inverse relationship with the nodule distribution, grade, and abundance. Interestingly, only 3–4 and 4–5 cm sized nodules have highest grade, abundance, and distribution percentages along longitudes in P1, first generation mine site...

  7. Distribución regional de la grasa corporal: Uso de técnicas de imagen como herramienta de diagnóstico nutricional Regional distribution of the body fat: Use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª J. Pérez Miguelsanz

    2010-04-01

    muscular comprende los depósitos de grasa localizados entre las fibras musculares esqueléticas o extramiocelulares, así como los lípidos localizados dentro de las fibras muculares esqueléticas o intramiocelulares. Su importancia radica, no sólo en su tamaño, similar a la grasa visceral, sino en sus posibles implicaciones fisiopatológicas. En definitiva, las técnicas de análisis de imagen han resultado ser sumamente útiles en el estudio de la localización y medida de los depósitos de grasa abdominal, pasando a ser la técnica de referencia para validar ecuaciones obtenidas a partir de los métodos denominados indirectos.Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary

  8. Plant endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Spain: taxonomic, distributional, and evolutionary aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Causes related to a low number of endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Iberian Peninsula are poorly understood. Taxonomic, distributional and genetic aspects of the 12 endemic taxa (species and subspecies are herein discussed. New populations found in the last years provide new chorological reports and taxa to science. As a result, we extend the distribution range of Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii and describe a new subspecies (Teucrium oxylepis subsp. Gredense. Genetic variation was investigated by sequencing the ITS (Internal Transcribed Sequence region, which is a widespread nuclear DNA region used to detect significant sequence divergence at the species and population levels. At the species level, only eight endemics to this large mountain range (c. 4,800 km2 indicates both limited speciation events coupled with their persistence, despite the high species richness of the flora of Sierra de Gredos (>2,500. According to the levels of ITS sequence divergence, significant isolation processes may have predated the Quaternary in Sierra de Gredos to account for divergence of the monotypic genus Pseudomisopates from its closest relatives (Misopates, Acanthorrhinum. Isolation of the other seven endemic species from their closest relatives has been a more recent process, as revealed by the limited ITS sequence variation obtained in this study. At the population level, no net nucleotide substitutions were observed between distant populations of the endemic species: Antirrhinum grosii, Astragalus devesae, Centaurea avilae, Dianthus gredensis, Echinospartum barnadesii, Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii, Santolina oblongifolia. In contrast, the three populations of Sedum lagascae displayed a relatively high number (4 of nucleotide substitutions. These results, together with limited morphological differentiation, may reflect insufficient population isolation of seven of the eight endemic species of Sierra de Gredos in the Quaternary. Recurrent population

  9. Effects of distributed and centralized stormwater best management practices and land cover on urban stream hydrology at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John V.; Noe, Gregory B.; Jarnagin, S. Taylor; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff remains an important issue that causes local and regional-scale water quantity and quality issues. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to mitigate runoff issues, traditionally in a centralized manner; however, problems associated with urban hydrology have remained. An emerging trend is implementation of BMPs in a distributed manner (multi-BMP treatment trains located on the landscape and integrated with urban design), but little catchment-scale performance of these systems have been reported to date. Here, stream hydrologic data (March, 2011–September, 2012) are evaluated in four catchments located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: one utilizing distributed stormwater BMPs, two utilizing centralized stormwater BMPs, and a forested catchment serving as a reference. Among urban catchments with similar land cover, geology and BMP design standards (i.e. 100-year event), but contrasting placement of stormwater BMPs, distributed BMPs resulted in: significantly greater estimated baseflow, a higher minimum precipitation threshold for stream response and maximum discharge increases, better maximum discharge control for small precipitation events, and reduced runoff volume during an extreme (1000-year) precipitation event compared to centralized BMPs. For all catchments, greater forest land cover and less impervious cover appeared to be more important drivers than stormwater BMP spatial pattern, and caused lower total, stormflow, and baseflow runoff volume; lower maximum discharge during typical precipitation events; and lower runoff volume during an extreme precipitation event. Analysis of hydrologic field data in this study suggests that both the spatial distribution of stormwater BMPs and land cover are important for management of urban stormwater runoff. In particular, catchment-wide application of distributed BMPs improved stream hydrology compared to centralized BMPs, but not enough to fully replicate forested

  10. Effects of distributed and centralized stormwater best management practices and land cover on urban stream hydrology at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, Gregory B.; Jarnagin, S. Taylor; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2014-11-01

    Urban stormwater runoff remains an important issue that causes local and regional-scale water quantity and quality issues. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to mitigate runoff issues, traditionally in a centralized manner; however, problems associated with urban hydrology have remained. An emerging trend is implementation of BMPs in a distributed manner (multi-BMP treatment trains located on the landscape and integrated with urban design), but little catchment-scale performance of these systems have been reported to date. Here, stream hydrologic data (March, 2011-September, 2012) are evaluated in four catchments located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: one utilizing distributed stormwater BMPs, two utilizing centralized stormwater BMPs, and a forested catchment serving as a reference. Among urban catchments with similar land cover, geology and BMP design standards (i.e. 100-year event), but contrasting placement of stormwater BMPs, distributed BMPs resulted in: significantly greater estimated baseflow, a higher minimum precipitation threshold for stream response and maximum discharge increases, better maximum discharge control for small precipitation events, and reduced runoff volume during an extreme (1000-year) precipitation event compared to centralized BMPs. For all catchments, greater forest land cover and less impervious cover appeared to be more important drivers than stormwater BMP spatial pattern, and caused lower total, stormflow, and baseflow runoff volume; lower maximum discharge during typical precipitation events; and lower runoff volume during an extreme precipitation event. Analysis of hydrologic field data in this study suggests that both the spatial distribution of stormwater BMPs and land cover are important for management of urban stormwater runoff. In particular, catchment-wide application of distributed BMPs improved stream hydrology compared to centralized BMPs, but not enough to fully replicate forested

  11. Distribution of baroduric, psychrotrophic and culturable nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; PradeepRam, A.S.; Nair, S.; Nath, B.N.; Chandramohan, D.

    The abundance of baroduric, culturable nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in the deep-sea cores of Central Indian Basin (CIB) at ca 5000 m depth was investigated. Analysis of 8 cores, sampled between 10 degrees 00 minutes S and 75 degrees 55...

  12. Distributed randomized algorithms for opinion formation, centrality computation and power systems estimation: A tutorial overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frasca, Paolo; Ishii, Hideaki; Ravazzi, Chiara; Tempo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this tutorial paper, we study three specific applications: opinion formation in social networks, centrality measures in complex networks and estimation problems in large-scale power systems. These applications fall under a general framework which aims at the construction of algorithms for distrib

  13. Rare earth element distribution and behaviour in buried manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Banakar, V.K.

    Eight burried manganese nodules taken in the upper metre of a siliceous ooze sediment core in the Central Indian Basin at 14 degrees S and 74 degrees E were analysed for major, trace and rare earth (REE) elements. Interelemental correlation yields a...

  14. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  15. Distribution and diversity of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy / Distribuzione e diversità dei chirotteri troglofili della regione laziale (Italia centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An attempt was made to evaluate the diversity and distribution of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy. Data about twelve species were examined and their frequency have been determined. Only Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. hipposideros are really frequent: the other species are more or less localized. The average number of species (2,63 has a great importance for future contro1 of cave bat populations. Similarity between cave bat coenosis was examined, together with the altitude distribution of five species. The relation between altitudinal range, number of caves and average number of species was also studied: between 801 and 1000 m.s.l., the last parameter increases considerably and a hypothesis is presented to explain the phenomenon. This troglophilous bat fauna is probably very rich in species in comparison with other Italian bat communities. Riassunto Viene svolta un'analisi delle cenosi di Chirotteri troglofili dell'Italia Centrale. Vengono esaminati i dati relativi a 12 specie; di ciascuna è stata determinata la frequenza. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum e R. hipposideros risultano le specie più frequenti. I1 numero medio di specie (2,63 assume un importante significato ai fini del controllo delle chirotterofaune troglofile. L'affinità tra le chirotterofaune è stata esaminata, analogamente alla distribuzione altitudinale di cinque specie. Range altitudinale, numero delle cavità e numero medio di specie sono comparati: fra 801 e 1000 m, si osserva un aumento dell'ultimo parametro e vengono formulate ipotesi per spiegare il fenomeno. La ricchezza di specie del Lazio viene evidenziata dal confronto con altre chirotterofaune troglofile regionali italiane.

  16. Chemotaxonomic Approach to the Central Balkan Sedum Species Based on Distribution of Triterpenoids in Their Epicuticular Waxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-04-01

    Triterpenoid distribution in epicuticular waxes of 20 central Balkan Sedum L. species and four out-groups of genera: Hylotelephium H. Ohba, Crassula L., Echeveria DC., and Kalanchoe Adans. were investigated for chemotaxonomic purposes. Identification and quantification of wax triterpenoids were performed by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. Distribution of identified triterpenoids (oleanane, lupane, and taraxerane series), as a pattern in statistical analysis, indicated very good agreement with phylogeny and systematics, except members of series Rupestria Berger, in which case the distribution of triterpenoids did not support known classification in a satisfactory manner. According to the obtained clustering, Kalanchoe is shown as similar to Sedum samples, while the other out-groups were clearly separated.

  17. Higher central fat and poor self-body image in short-stature overweight/obese women living in Brazilian shantytowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florêncio, Telma Toledo; Cavalcante, Fabiana Albuquerque; Lins, Isabela Lopes; Clemente, Ana Grotti; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Background Short stature in adult life, a possible consequence of poor perinatal conditions, is associated with higher risk of mortality and social disabilities. We aimed to determine whether low-income, overweight/obese, short-stature (SS) women show alterations in body composition, self-body-image perception, and biochemical profile compared to their non-short (NS) counterparts. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with women living in shantytowns and mother or relatives to undernourished children treated in a center for recuperation and nutritional education. Inclusion criteria were: (1) age, 19–45 years; (2) stature 158.7 cm; and (3) body mass index > 25 kg/m2. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, biochemical, and body image data were collected. We analyzed 56 SS and 57 NS women. Results The SS group showed a higher waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (mean: 0.63; standard deviation: 0.06 for SS and mean: 0.60; standard deviation: 0.07 for the NS group; p = 0.02), and, in the adjusted analysis, showed lower fat-free mass (Estimated Marginal Mean for the SS group: 45.7 kg 95% confidence intervals (CI) (45.2–46.2) and for the NS group: 46.9 kg 95% CI (46.4–47.4); p adults. PMID:27761335

  18. Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Eshnan (seidlitzia Rosmarinus) Shrubs to Exploring Their Ecological Interactions in Drylands of Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khosravi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the interactions of woody plants has been a major research topic of ecological investigations in arid ecosystems. Plant-plant interactions can shift from positive (facilitation) to negative (competition) depending on levels of environmental stress and determine the spatial pattern of plants. The spatial distribution analysis of plants via different summary statistics can reveal the interactions of plants and how they influence one another. An aggregated distribution indicates facilitative interactions among plants, while dispersion of species reflects their competition for scarce resources. This study was aimed to explore the intraspecific interactions of eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus) shrubs in arid lands, central Iran, using different summary statistics (i.e., pair correlation function g(r), O-ring function O(r), nearest neighbour distribution function D(r), spherical contact distribution function Hs(r)). The observed pattern of shrubs showed significant spatial heterogeneity as compared to inhomogeneous Poisson process (α=0.05). The results of g(r) and O(r) revealed the significant aggregation of eshnan shrubs up to scale of 3 m (α=0.05). The results of D(r) and Hs(r) also showed that maximum distance to nearest shrub was 6 m and the distribution of the sizes of gaps was significantly different from random distribution up to this spatial scale. In general, it was concluded that there were positive interactions between eshnan shrubs at small scales and they were aggregated due to their intraspecific facilitation effects in the study area.

  19. Token Ring Algorithm To Achieve Mutual Exclusion In Distributed System - A Centralized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for achieving mutual exclusion in Distributed System. The proposed algorithm is a betterment of the already existing Token Ring Algorithm, used to handle mutual exclusion in Distributed system. In the already existing algorithm, there are few problems, which, if occur during process execution, then the distributed system will not be able to ensure mutual exclusion among the processes and consequently unwanted situations may arise. The proposed algorithm will overcome all the problems in the existing algorithm, and ensures mutual exclusion among the processes, when they want to execute in their critical section of code.

  20. δ-Opioid receptor activation stimulates normal diet intake but conversely suppresses high-fat diet intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yuri; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2014-02-15

    The central opioid system is involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates food intake. Here, we show that activation of central δ-opioid receptor not only stimulated normal diet intake but conversely suppressed high-fat diet intake as well. [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE), an agonist selective for the δ-receptor, increased normal diet intake after central administration to nonfasted male mice. The orexigenic activity of DPDPE was inhibited by blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), D-type prostanoid receptor 1 (DP(1)), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor type 1 (Y1) for PGD(2) and NPY, respectively, suggesting that this was mediated by the PGD(2)-NPY system. In contrast, DPDPE decreased high-fat diet intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. DPDPE-induced suppression of high-fat diet intake was blocked by antagonists of melanocortin 4 (MC(4)) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors but not by knockout of the L-PGDS gene. These results suggest that central δ-opioid receptor activation suppresses high-fat diet intake via the MC-CRF system, independent of the orexigenic PGD(2) system. Furthermore, orally administered rubiscolin-6, an opioid peptide derived from spinach Rubisco, suppressed high-fat diet intake. This suppression was also blocked by centrally administered naltrindole, an antagonist for the δ-receptor, suggesting that rubiscolin-6 suppressed high-fat diet intake via activation of central δ-opioid receptor.

  1. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  2. The effect of fat distribution on bone mineral density in normal subjects%脂肪分布对不同年龄正常人群骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易波; 文重远; 孙永林; 蔡玉立

    2012-01-01

    The aim of [his stud) is to investigate [he effects of hod) mass index ( Bill), abdominal fat and hip fat on hone mineral densil)( HMD ) in normal people of different ages. Methods A total of 393 subjects were studied in this stud) conducted from 2010 to 2011. The subjects were divded into youth groups, middle-aged and elderly groups acearding to their ages, We measured the height, weight, waisl circumference and hip circumference, and then calculated Bill and WllR. BMD, abdominal fat and hip fat were measured by dual-energ) X-ray. The relationship of bone mineral densily and fat distribution were analyzed. Results 1, Fat mass increased with age, and the trends in women were more obvious than in men ( P < 0. 05 ) ; 2, In the middle-aged patients, Bill was posilivey correlated with BMD ( male: r = 0.237, P =0.018: female:r=0.279, P =0.024): 3, In old male subjects group, abdominal fat and hip fat were positiyely correlated with bone mineral densilj (P<(). 05 ). As for the aged female, abdominal fat mass was negalively correlated with BMD ( r = 0. 263 ,P < 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of fat distribution on bone mineral densil) in normal subjects is perplexing Lose weight should not be overly emphasized in middle-aged patients or elderl) people because it may led lo bone mass loss and osteoporosis formation.%目的 探讨体质指数(BMI)、腹部脂肪、臀部脂肪对不同年龄正常人群骨密度的影响.方法 采用双能X线BMD仪和医用身高体重测量仪测定393名正常体检人群腰椎松质骨密度、腹部脂肪含量、臀部脂肪含量、全身其他部位脂肪含量和身高、体重、腰围、臀围,并计算BMI和腰臀比.然后将人群按不同年龄分为青年组、中年组和老年组,分析骨密度与不同部位脂肪含量的关系.结果 (1)体内脂肪含量随年龄增加而增加,女性比男性的变化趋势更明显(P<0.05);(2)在中年患者中,BMI与骨密度成正相关(男性组r=0.237,P=0.018;女性组r=0

  3. The Probability Distribution of the Drought Parameters of the Central Anatolian Closed Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    KÖSE, ÖMER

    2002-01-01

    In this research, first the various descriptions of drought were presented and then the statistical characteristics of drought parameters based on monthly data of four streams within the Central Anatolian Closed Watershed were analysed. These parameters are drought duration, drought severity and drought magnitude. The stationarity and randomness analyses of the drought parameters were performed. Trend analysis based upon Student's t-test was used for the stationarity analysis a...

  4. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, Anneke M. J.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.;

    2008-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) are atherogenic. However, factors that determine RLP-C are not fully understood. This study evaluates which factors affect RLP-C in the fasting and postprandial state, using multiple regression analyses in a large cohort...... (n = 613) also participated in a 10-wk weight loss program (-2510 kJ/d), being randomized to either a low-fat or a high-fat diet (20-25 vs. 40-45en% fat). Postprandial RLP-C was associated with fasting RLP-C, waist:hip ratio (WHR), HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance......) (P related to fasting RLP-C (P

  5. Comparison of Geostatistical Methods to Determine the Best Bioclimatic Data Interpolation Method for Modelling Species Distribution in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khosravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic change can impose physiological constraints on species and can therefore affect species distribution. Bioclimatic predictors, including annual trends, regimes, thresholds and bio-limiting factors are the most important independent variables in species distribution models. Water and temperature are the most limiting factors in arid ecosystem in central Iran. Therefore, mapping of climatic factors in species distribution models seems necessary. In this study, we describe the extraction of 20 important bioclimatic variables from climatic data and compare different interpolation methods including inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, kriging with external trend, cokriging, and five radial basis functions. Normal climatic data (1950-2010 in 26 synoptic stations in central Iran were used to extract bioclimatic data. Spatial correlation, heterogeneity and trend in data were evaluated using three models of semivariogram (spherical, exponential and Gaussian and the best model was selected using cross validation. The optimum model for bioclimatic variables was assessed based on the root mean square error and mean bias error. Exponential model was considered to be the best fit mathematical model to empirical semivariogram. IDW and cokriging were recognised as the best interpolating methods for average annual temperature and annual precipitation, respectively. Use of elevation as an auxiliary variable appeared to be necessary for optimizing interpolation methods of climatic and bioclimatic variables.

  6. Snakes of an urban-rural landscape in the central Andes of Colombia: species composition, distribution, and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Rojas-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From 2005 to 2011, I studied the composition, distribution and natural history of an Andean urban-rural snake assemblage at the Cordillera Central of Colombia, based on three data sources: (1 examination of specimens in the MHN-UC [Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas], (2 incidental encounters by author, and (3 collection of data by other researchers. Additionally, I provide natural history notes for the species involved. A total of 14 species, including two subspecies of snakes, belonging to 12 genera and four families, have been found in the studied area (municipality of Manizales, Caldas. Taking into account this total, 10 had atleast one record in the urban area, 13 in the rural area and 14 in forested areas. Only Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus was found exclusively in forest environment. Three species (21.4% are apparently endemic to the region, six species (42.8% correspond to afauna representative of the Tropical–Andean range of South America, four species (28.5% are distributed from Central America to the tropical Andes, and only one species is widely distributed in the whole continent. The snake assemblage in Manizales is mostly terrestrial, and in general, the species tend to be more active in the rainy periods of the year (mainly from October–December, and most of them may occasionally be found in urban areas, mainly close to areas of vegetation such as crops and pastures.

  7. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anything else I should know? Laxatives, enemas, barium, mineral oil, fat-blocking supplements, psyllium fiber, and fat substitutes may affect test results. Children cannot ingest as much daily fat ...

  8. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oils like soybean, corn, canola, and olive oil. Saturated fats: These fats are found in meat and other ... as butter, cheese, and all milk except skim. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  9. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke . Your body naturally produces LDaL cholesterol. Eating saturated fat,and trans fat raises your blood cholesterol level ... LDL cholesterol, the American Heart Association recommends: Reducing saturated fat to no more than 5 to 6 percent ...

  10. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You ... or limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  11. Genotype Distribution and Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Hubei, Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Central China.A total of 570 patients from Hubei Province in central China were enrolled. These patients were tested positive for HCV antibody prior to blood transfusion. Among them, 177 were characterized by partial NS5B and/or Core-E1 sequences and classified into five subtypes: 1b, 83.0% (147/177; 2a, 13.0% (23/177; 3b, 2.3% (4/177; 6a, 1.1% (2/177; 3a, 0.6% (1/177. Analysis of genotype-associated risk factors revealed that paid blood donation and transfusion before 1997 were strongly associated with subtypes 1b and 2a, while some subtype 2a cases were also found in individuals with high risk sexual behaviors; subtypes 3b, 6a, and 3a were detected only in intravenous drug users. Phylogeographic analyses based on the coalescent datasets demonstrated that 1b, 2a, 3b, and 6a were locally epidemic in Hubei Province. Among them, subtype 1b Hubei strains may have served as the origins of this subtype in China, and 2a and 3b Hubei strains may have descended from the northwest and southwest of China, respectively, while 6a Hubei strains may have been imported from the central south and southwest.The results suggest that the migration patterns of HCV in Hubei are complex and variable among different subtypes. Implementation of mandatory HCV screening before donation has significantly decreased the incidence of transfusion-associated HCV infection since 1997. More attention should be paid to intravenous drug use and unsafe sexual contact, which may have become new risk factors for HCV infection in Hubei Province.

  12. Prevalence, Distributions and Determinants of Obesity and Central Obesity in the Southern Cone of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Lydia; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Calandrelli, Matias; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Manfredi, Jose A.; Seron, Pamela; Mores, Nora; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Olivera, Hector; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major determinant of cardiovascular disease in South America. However, population-based data are limited. Methods A total of 7,524 women and men, aged 35 to 74 years old, were randomly selected from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America between February 2010 and December 2011. Obesity clinical measurements and cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methodology. Results The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were 35.7% and 52.9%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were higher in women, and even higher in women with lower education compared with women with higher education. In men and women obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, odds ratio (OR) 2.38 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.86 to 3.05) and 3.01 (95%CI 2.42 to 3.74) respectively, hypertension (OR 2.79 (95%CI 2.32 to 3.36) and 2.40 (95%CI 2.05 to 2.80) respectively, dyslipidemia (OR 1.83 (95%CI 1.50 to 2.24) and 1.69 (95%CI 1.45 to 1.98), respectively, low physical activity (OR 1.38(95%CI 1.14 to 1.68) and 1.38 (95%CI 1.18 to 1.62) respectively and a lower prevalence of smoking (OR, 0.65 (95%CI 0.53 to 0.80) and 0.58(95%CI 0.48 to 0.70) respectively. Conclusions Obesity and central obesity are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America and are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factor prevalence. These data suggest that efforts toward prevention, treatment, and control of obesity should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. PMID:27741247

  13. Topographic control of snowpack distribution in a small catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees: intra- and inter-annual persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Revuelto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the relations between terrain characteristics and snow depth distribution in a small alpine catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. Twelve field campaigns were conducted during 2012 and 2013, which were years characterized by very different climatic conditions. Snow depth was measured using a long range terrestrial laser scanner and analyses were performed at a spatial resolution of 5 m. Pearson's r correlation, multiple linear regressions and binary regression trees were used to analyze the influence of topography on the snow depth distribution. The analyses were used to identify the topographic variables that better explain the snow distribution in this catchment, and to assess whether their contributions were variable over intra- and inter-annual time scales. The topographic position index, which has rarely been used in these types of studies, most accurately explained the distribution of snow accumulation. Other variables affecting the snow depth distribution included the maximum upwind slope, elevation, and northing (or potential incoming solar radiation. The models developed to predict snow distribution in the basin for each of the 12 survey days were similar in terms of the most explanatory variables. However, the variance explained by the overall model and by each topographic variable, especially those making a lesser contribution, differed markedly between a year in which snow was abundant (2013 and a~year when snow was scarce (2012, and also differed between surveys in which snow accumulation or melting conditions dominated in the preceding days. The total variance explained by the models clearly decreased for those days on which the snow pack was thinner and more patchily distributed. Despite the differences in climatic conditions in the 2012 and 2013 snow seasons, some similarities in snow accumulation patterns were observed.

  14. Factors influencing the distribution of large mammals within a protected central African forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.; Zalinge, van R.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the analyses of data obtained from eight permanent 20 km transects to determine the relative effect of local human populations and ecological factors on the distribution of large mammals within the Dzanga sector of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent area of the Dzang

  15. Centralized Control Architecture for Coordination of Distributed Renewable Generation and Energy Storage in Islanded AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2017-01-01

    The coordinated operation of distributed energy resources such as storage and generation units and also loads is required for the reliable operation of an islanded microgrid. Since in islanded microgrids the storage units are commonly responsible for regulating the voltage amplitude and frequency...

  16. Manganese nodule distribution in different topographic domains of the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; Sudhakar, M.

    domain (hilltop, valley, slope, or plain) for the sampling location. Highest mean abundance is observed at the valleys (6.94 kg/m sup(2), followEd. by hilltops, slopes, and least on plains. Frequency distributions are regular (Gaussian) on plains, whereas...

  17. Spatial distribution and longitudinal variation of clay minerals in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.

    Grain size and clay mineral distribution up to 45 cm depth in the silty clay sediments from 26 box cores from 10 degrees to 16 degrees S along four longitudes (73.5 degrees-76.5 degrees E) were studied for understanding spatial variability...

  18. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 125/I-galanin binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skofitsch, G.; Sills, M.A.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-11-01

    Galanin (GAL) binding sites in coronal sections of the rat brain were demonstrated using autoradiographic methods. Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-GAL binding to slide-mounted tissue sections revealed saturable binding to a single class of receptors with a Kd of approximately 0.2 nM. /sup 125/I-GAL binding sites were demonstrated throughout the rat central nervous system. Dense binding was observed in the following areas: prefrontal cortex, the anterior nuclei of the olfactory bulb, several nuclei of the amygdaloid complex, the dorsal septal area, dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the ventral pallidum, the internal medullary laminae of the thalamus, medial pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the medial optic tract, borderline area of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus adjacent to the spinal trigeminal tract, the substantia gelatinosa and the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord. Moderate binding was observed in the piriform, periamygdaloid, entorhinal, insular cortex and the subiculum, the nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, anterior hypothalamic, ventromedial, dorsal premamillary, lateral and periventricular thalamic nuclei, the subzona incerta, Forel's field H1 and H2, periventricular gray matter, medial and superficial gray strata of the superior colliculus, dorsal parts of the central gray, peripeduncular area, the interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra zona compacta, ventral tegmental area, the dorsal and ventral parabrachial and parvocellular reticular nuclei. The preponderance of GAL-binding in somatosensory as well as in limbic areas suggests a possible involvement of GAL in a variety of brain functions.

  19. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris B. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regional sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51 and the fine particle mass fraction (64%. Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.

  20. Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  1. The Effects of Post Diameter on Stress Distribution in Maxillary Central Incisor, A Three Dimensional Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monzavi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Currently there are three recognized theories about the diameter of prepared dowel space in endodontically treated teeth. Diameter of the dowel is commonly contributed to the root fracture.Purpose: This study used a 3 dimensional (3D finite element method to predict stress distribution in endodontically treated central maxillary tooth with cast post and core with various post diameter according to three philosophies about post diameter (Conservational,Proportional, Preservational.Materials and Methods: In this study three 3D models of central maxillary incisors with different post diameter were created and depend on the size of post called narrow, medium and thick model with post diameter of 1.1mm, 1.7 mm and 2.6 mm of in (CEJrespectively. A load of 100 N was applied to cingulum fossa from lingual direction with 45-degree angle to long axis of tooth and maximum tensile, compressive and Von Misses stresses and their distribution in dentin and post was studied.Results: The post in narrow, medium and thick models produced a similar magnitude of tensile, compressive and Von Misses stresses in dentin. Stress distribution was also similar in all models. Peak stresses in dentin were slightly decreased when post diameter increased from narrow to thick model. In all models peak tensile stresses in dentin occurred in the coronally one third of the lingual surface of the root, whereas peak compressive stresseswere evident in the coronal one third of the facial surface of the root.Conclusion: There were not significant differences stress distribution pattern and magnitude in dentin between the three theories of post diameter.

  2. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  3. A case of Distributed Continental Collision: Late Cretaceous Intraplate Shortening from Central Europe to North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Jaehne, F.

    2008-12-01

    Intraplate thrusting and basin inversion affected west-central Europe in Late Cretaceous time. The timing of this event is fairly well constrained between c. 90 and 65 Ma. The dominantly NW-trending European intraplate structures were often interpreted to have been dextrally transpressive, reflecting a northward push induced by the early collision of the Adria microplate with Europe's southern margin. However, many fault kinematic and other structural data from central Europe indicate dip-slip contraction essentially perpendicular to the main faults, suggesting a push from the southwest. In addition, recent plate reconstructions of the Mediterranean around 85 Ma place Adria far to the southeast and roughly along strike of the central European intraplate structures. The early Alpine nappe stack on Adria's leading edge was still separated from Europe by subducting oceanic lithosphere and had entered a phase of extension after the first orogenic event. All this makes Alpine collision an unlikely cause for intraplate thrusting in Europe. Rather, the timing, kinematics and location of structures suggest that intraplate shortening in Europe was a direct effect of convergence with the Iberian and African plates, with stresses transmitted across the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone. This hypothesis is supported by structures of Late Cretaceous age indicating SW-NE to S-N shortening in France, Spain (particularly the onset of convergence in the Pyrenees) and northwestern Africa. In contrast to other examples such as the Laramides, intraplate thrusting in this case was not a foreland phenomenon related to a coeval orogen. It does not reflect a transition from subduction to continental collision, but the beginning of convergence across two former transform boundaries. This system which included no strongly thickened and weakened crust was mostly governed by far-field stresses and therefore responded rapidly to plate reorganizations. Specifically, the onset of thrusting

  4. Integration Platform As Central Service Of Data Replication In Distributed Medical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Wajs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of Java Integration Platform (JIP to data replicationin the distributed medical system. After an introductory part on the medical system’s architecture,the focus shifts to a comparison of different approaches that exist with regard totransferring data between the system’s components. A description is given of the historicaldata processing and of the whole area of the JIP application to the medical system.

  5. A Survey of Concurrency Control Mechanisms for Centralized and Distributed Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    migration checking aproach the transaction migrates from one site to another during execution. At each site, the system checks whether the migrating...Kan79], employs a method to sequence the execution of transactions on the basis of synchronous counters, known as logical clocks. The algorithm...Synchronization Method for Duplicated Database Control", Proceedings of the First International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 601-611

  6. Modeling water balance distribution in a natural semiarid region of central Mexico using a SVAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Braud, I.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Centro de Investigaciones Del Agua de Querétaro

    2010-12-01

    Around the world water is becoming insufficient, especially in the semiarid regions where there is a high inter-annual variability in the amount and distribution of the rainfall. Studies on this kind of environments would allow us to understand the mechanisms that determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the water balance components. The study was carried out from October 2005 to October 2008 in two semiarid sites located in the south of the Mexican Plateau: El Carmen in Guanajuato State and Cadereyta in Queretaro State. The work aim was to provide a better understanding of the hydrological processes that occur in semiarid ecosystems, quantifying and modeling the water balance in order to define the distribution of the water and energy balance components in El Carmen and Cadereyta. For this purpose, the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atmosphere Transfer) model was used based on a parameterization of the soil, plants and atmosphere components. It was found that, using SiSPAT, the water balance components were particularly sensitive to parameters associated with the soil and the leaf area index. The model results showed that during the studied period, the annual evapotranspiration in Cadereyta was less than PG (-10 and -5%) and above PG for El Carmen (10 y 30%). Runoff and percolation at 5m were null. Finally in both sites there was a simulated loss of water stored in the soil.

  7. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  8. Glucose transporter distribution in the vessels of the central nervous system of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Urodela: Ambystomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Bettini, Simone; Ciani, Franco; Franceschini, Valeria

    2008-10-01

    The GLUT-1 isoform of the glucose transporter is commonly considered a reliable molecular marker of blood-brain barrier endothelia in the neural vasculature organized in a three-dimensional network of single vessels. The central nervous system of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is characterized by a vascular architecture that contains both single and paired vessels. The presence and distribution of the GLUT-1 transporter are studied in this urodele using both immunoperoxidase histochemistry and immunogold technique. Light microscopy reveals immunopositivity in both parenchymal and meningeal vessels. The transverse-sectioned pairs of vessels do not show the same size. Furthermore, in the same pair, the two elements often differ in diameter. The main regions of the central nervous system show a different percentage of the paired structures. Only immunogold cytochemistry reveals different staining intensity in the two adjoined elements of a vascular pair. Colloidal gold particles show an asymmetric distribution in the endothelia of both single and paired vessels. These particles are more numerous on the abluminal surface than on the luminal one. The particle density is calculated in both vascular types. The different values could indicate functional differences between single and paired vessels and between the two adjoined elements of a pair, regarding glucose transport.

  9. 高粱淀粉及抗性淀粉对高脂饮食诱导大鼠体脂分布研究%The study of effect of sorghum starch and resistant starch on body fat distribution of high-fat diet-induced rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董吉林; 林娟; 申瑞玲; 任贵兴; 李红

    2013-01-01

    为了解高粱淀粉及抗性淀粉对饮食诱导肥胖大鼠降脂减肥效果,该文以不同高脂饮食诱导超重(≥10%~20%正常体重)和肥胖(≥20%正常体重)模型大鼠为研究对象,分别给予模型大鼠含有30%高粱淀粉(SS)和高粱抗性淀粉(SRS)的高脂饲料喂养8周,研究其对大鼠体重、大鼠肾脏、小肠和睾丸组织周围脂肪含量和脂肪组织变化影响,结果表明高粱SS和RS可以影响大鼠体脂分布,尤其可显著影响超重大鼠体脂含量变化,且RS效果优于SS。%In order to understand the sorghum starch and resistant starch on weight loss effects of high-fat diet-induced(HFD)overweight and obese rats.In this paper ,the overweight(10 to 20%of normal weight)and obesity(20%of normal weight)model rats were given the diets contained 30%sorghum starch(SS)and sorghum resistant starch(SRS)with high fat and fed 8 weeks. The body weights of the rats,the fat contents and adipose tissue structure of the surrounding kidney,small intestine and testicular tissue were investigated. The results shown that the SRS could significantly reduce the body weightof the rats,improve body fat distribution and the effect of SRS was better than that of SS on overweight rats,rather than obese rats.

  10. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  11. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  12. Distribution of a GABAB-like receptor protein in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, K J; Calver, A R; Jourdain, S; Pangalos, M N

    2003-11-07

    Using a homology-based bioinformatics approach we have identified the human and rodent orthologues of a novel putative seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, termed GABA(BL). The amino acid sequence homology of these cDNAs compared to GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) led us to postulate that GABA(BL) may be a putative novel GABA(B) receptor subunit. We have developed a rabbit polyclonal antisera specific to the GABA(BL) protein and assessed the distribution of GABA(BL) in the rat CNS by immunohistochemistry. Protein expression was particularly dense in regions previously shown to contain known GABA(B) receptor subunits. Dense immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex, major subfields of the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus. GABA(BL) labelling was very conspicuous in the cerebellum, both in the granule cell layer and in Purkinje cells, and was also observed in the substantia gelatinosa and ventral horn motor neurons of the spinal cord. GABA(BL) immunoreactivity was also noted in a subset of parvalbumin positive hippocampal interneurons. Our data suggest a widespread distribution of GABA(BL) throughout the rat CNS.

  13. Distribution, foraging behavior, and capture results of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, T.J.; McCaffrey, M.F.; Wright, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) has been virtually unknown in Oregon despite the existence of potential habitat in many areas of the state. In 2002 and 2003 we searched for spotted bats along the John Day, Deschutes, and Crooked Rivers and at a remote dry canyon southeast of the city of Bend in central Oregon. The species was documented through the use of mist-nets, a bat detector, and recognition of audible spotted bat calls. Spotted bats were found at 11 locations in 6 Oregon counties. Nightly activity patterns of spotted bats were unpredictable. Spotted bats were found in 78% of search areas but on only 48% of survey nights. We observed spotted bats foraging above fields and low upland slopes adjacent to rivers and creeks and along the rims of cliffs. Estimated flying heights of spotted bats ranged from 3 m to 50 m aboveground. The species was difficult to capture and was captured only after considerable experimentation with methods and materials. Three spotted bats were captured toward the end of the project in 2003 and accounted for only 0.5% of all bats captured during the study. Although we attached radio transmitters to 2 spotted bats, we found no roost locations. We believe additional spotted bat surveys in Oregon are warranted, especially in higher-elevation habitats, but recommend that to increase their effectiveness, surveys accommodate the unique foraging behavior of the species.

  14. Patterns in the distribution of sponge populations across the central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Clive R.; Cheshire, Anthony C.

    1989-12-01

    Coral reef sponge populations were surveyed at two spatial scales: different depths and different reef locations across the continental shelf of the central Great Barrier Reef. The surveys were conducted on the forereef slopes of 12 reefs from land-influenced, inner-shelf reefs to those in the oligotrophic waters of the Coral Sea. Few sponges occur in shallow waters and the largest populations are found between 10 and 30 m depth. Sponges are apparently excluded from shallow waters because of excessive turbulence and possibly by high levels of damaging light. Sponge biomass is highest on the innershelf reefs and decreases away from the coast, whereas abundance is generally higher on middle-shelf reefs. There are considerable overlaps in the species composition on middle-, outer-shelf and Coral Sea reefs, but those on inner-shelf reefs are significantly different. The nature and size of sponge populations reflect environmental conditions across the continental shelf. The larger inner-shelf populations probably reflect higher levels of organic and inorganic nutrients and reduced amounts of physical turbulence, whereas sponges on reefs further from shore may be able to resist greater turbulence but appear more sensitive to the effects of fine sediments. These latter populations are smaller, reflecting the reduced availability of organic matter, however, many of these sponges rely on cyanobacterial symbionts to augment nutrition in these clearer, more oligotrophic waters.

  15. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021.

  16. Central perception of position sense involves a distributed neural network - Evidence from lesion-behavior analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlater, Sonja E; Desai, Jamsheed A; Semrau, Jennifer A; Kenzie, Jeffrey M; Rorden, Chris; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that proprioceptive inputs from the periphery are important for the constant update of arm position for perception and guiding motor action. The degree to which we are consciously aware of the position of our limb depends on the task. Our understanding of the central processing of position sense is rather limited, largely based on findings in animals and individual human case studies. The present study used statistical lesion-behavior analysis and an arm position matching task to investigate position sense in a large sample of subjects after acute stroke. We excluded subjects who performed abnormally on clinical testing or a robotic visually guided reaching task with their matching arm in order to minimize the potential confound of ipsilesional impairment. Our findings revealed that a number of regions are important for processing position sense and include the posterior parietal cortex, the transverse temporal gyrus, and the arcuate fasciculus. Further, our results revealed that position sense has dissociable components - spatial variability, perceived workspace area, and perceived workspace location. Each component is associated with unique neuroanatomical correlates. These findings extend the current understanding of the neural processing of position sense and identify some brain areas that are not classically associated with proprioception.

  17. Seabed litter composition, distribution and sources in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Giulia; Ronchi, Francesca; Strafella, Pierluigi; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Fortibuoni, Tomaso

    2016-12-01

    Detecting the origin of marine benthic litter is fundamental for developing policies aimed at achieving the Good Environmental Status in European Seas by 2020, as requested by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The abundance and composition of benthic litter in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea were investigated at 67 stations with bottom trawl nets. Average density of benthic litter was 913±80items/km(2), ranking the Adriatic as one of the most polluted basins worldwide. Plastic was dominant in terms of numbers (80%) and weight (62%), and mainly consisted in bags, sheets and mussel nets. Higher quantities of litter were found in coastal areas, especially in front river mouths, coastal cities and mussel farms. In deep waters, litter hotspots were associated with most congested shipping lanes, indicating an additional litter input to the basin. Benthic litter composition resulted to be largely driven by the vicinity to local sources, i.e. mussel farming installations and most congested shipping routes. These findings provide useful insights to set measures to manage marine litter in the Adriatic region, and possibly to minimize this anthropogenic pollution.

  18. Patterns in the distribution of coral communities across the central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, T. J.

    1982-10-01

    Despite the pre-eminence of the Great Barrier Reef, there has been little systematic description of its biotic communities, and in particular, of the corals themselves. Only recently have the problems of coral taxonomy been sufficiently resolved to allow a beginning to be made in rectifying this deficiency. The present study describes seventeen assemblages of corals which occupy the major habitat types found in and near the central Great Barrier Reef. The habitats studied range from the wave swept reef flats of Coral Sea atolls to the slopes of small reefs occupying sheltered, muddy conditions near the coast. These, and the array of reefs between, have characteristic suites of coral communities which provide the basis for a classification of reefs into non- Acropora reefs and various Acropora reefs. It is speculated that the faunistic differences are maintained because reefs are primarily self-seeded and because the majority of larvae from external sources are of species which are already present. The greatest diversity of both species and community types was found on reefs near the middle of the continental shelf, while the oceanic atolls and nearshore silt-affected reefs are almost equally depauperate.

  19. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  20. Associations between Ultrasound Measures of Abdominal Fat Distribution and Indices of Glucose Metabolism in a Population at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The ADDITION-PRO Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Jørgensen, Marit E; Vistisen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices...... standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt......AIMS: Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose...

  1. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...... observed in men, and no significant associations with GL were observed in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-GI diets may lead to increases in BW, body fat mass, and WC in women, especially in sedentary women, which suggests that physical activity may protect against diet-induced weight gain. No associations...

  2. Associations between dietary intake and body fat independent of genetic and familial environmental background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background.......To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background....

  3. An Empirical Detection to the Fat-Tail Distribution of the Returns in Shanghai Securities Exchange%关于上海股市收益厚尾性的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国庆; 张维; 程博

    2001-01-01

    对股市收益厚尾性进行了研究,基于极值理论利用高限峰值法POT(Peak Over Threshold)方法以样本平均超限(The Sample Mean Excess Function)函数为工具,通过GPD(Generalized Pareto Distrbution)模型,对股市收益分布尾部进行拟合探讨,由此给出股市收益分布尾部估计,并求出了尾部分位点。%Based on the extreme value theory, with the peak over threshold, this paper studies about the fat-tail distribution of market return in Shanghai Securities Exchange. We employ the Sample Mean Excess Function as diagnostic tool, and conduct fitted detection to the fat-tail distribution through GPD(generalized pareto distribution) model. We estimate the risk and get the quantile of the return of the stock market.

  4. Effect of a high-fat--high-fructose diet, stress and cinnamon on central expression of genes related to immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function and cerebral plasticity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marissal-Arvy, Nathalie; Batandier, Cécile; Dallennes, Julien; Canini, Frédéric; Poulet, Laurent; Couturier, Karine; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Mormède, Pierre

    2014-04-14

    The intake of a high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr) diet is described to be deleterious to cognitive performances, possibly via the induction of inflammatory factors. An excess of glucocorticoids is also known to exert negative effects on cerebral plasticity. In the present study, we assessed the effects of an unbalanced diet on circulating and central markers of inflammation and glucocorticoid activity, as well as their reversal by dietary cinnamon (CN) supplementation. A group of male Wistar rats were subjected to an immune challenge with acute lipopolysaccharide under a HF/HFr or a standard diet. Another group of Wistar rats were fed either a HF/HFr or a control diet for 12 weeks, with or without CN supplementation, and with or without restraint stress (Str) application before being killed. We evaluated the effects of such regimens on inflammation parameters in the periphery and brain and on the expression of actors of brain plasticity. To assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, we measured the plasma concentrations of corticosterone and the expression of central corticotrophin-releasing hormone, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We found that the HF/HFr diet induced the expression of cytokines in the brain, but only after an immune challenge. Furthermore, we observed the negative effects of Str on the plasma concentrations of corticosterone and neuroplasticity markers in rats fed the control diet but not in those fed the HF/HFr diet. Additionally, we found that CN supplementation exerted beneficial effects under the control diet, but that its effects were blunted or even reversed under the HF/HFr diet. CN supplementation could be beneficial under a standard diet. [corrected].

  5. Occurrence, distribution and characteristics of beached plastic production pellets on the island of Malta (central Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Holmes, Luke

    2011-02-01

    The distribution, abundance and chemical characteristics of plastic production pellets on beaches of the island of Malta have been determined. Pellets were observed at all locations visited and were generally most abundant (> 1000m⁻² at the surface) on the backshores of beaches with a westerly aspect. Most pellets were disc-shaped or flattened cylinders and could be categorised as white, yellow, amber or brown. The polymeric matrix of all pellets analysed by infrared spectroscopy was polyethylene and the degree of yellowing or darkening was associated with an increase in the carbonyl index, hence extent of photo-oxidation or aging. Qualitatively, pellets are similar to those reported for other regions of the Mediterranean in surveys spanning three decades, suggesting that they are a general and persistent characteristic of the region.

  6. sup 123 I-iomazenil: A quantitative study of the central benzodoazepine receptor distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldemann, R.C.; Bicik, I.; Pfeiffer, A.; Schulthess, G.K. von (Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Medical Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)); Wieser, H.G. (Clinic and Policlinic of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)); Hasler, P.H.; Schubiger, P. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1992-06-01

    Fourteen patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, 9 patients after amygdalohippocampectomy and 3 healthy volunteers were examined with the new benzodiazepine receptor marker {sup 123}I-Iomazenil and SPECT. For comparison perfusion SPECT studies with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO were done and a quantitative ROI analysis of the date performed. This quantitative analysis consisted of calculation of right-to-left ratios for {sup 123}I{sup I}omazenil SPECTs, whereby values of 1 were obtained with narrow standard deviations. ROI measurements of the medial occipital, frontal and parietal cortex, the cerebellum and white matter showed a pattern of benzodiazepine receptor concentration in concordance with that previously found in PET and autoradiographic studies, if {sup 123}I-Iomazenil ROIs were normalized to the corresponding {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO ROIs. The abnormal distribution in the temporal lobes will not be discussed in this paper. (orig.).

  7. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  8. A distribution analysis of the central Maya lowlands ecoinformation network: its rises, falls, and changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel D. Gunn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a study of central Maya lowland dynastic information networks, i.e., six cities' external elite ceramic influences, and how they reflect the decision-making practices of Maya elites over 3000 years. Forest cover, i.e., Moraceae family pollen, was added to the network analysis to provide ecological boundary conditions, thus ecologically moderated information networks. Principal components analysis revealed three dominant patterns. First, the networking of interior cities into powerful polities in the Late Preclassic and Classic periods (400 BCE-800 CE. In a second pattern, coastal cities emerged as key entrepôts based on marine navigation (Terminal and Postclassic periods, 800-1500 CE. Climate dynamics and sustainability considerations facilitated the transition. Forest cover, a measure of ecosystem health, shows interior forests diminished as interior cities networked but rebounded as their networks declined. By contrast, coastal forests flourished with networks implying that the marine-based economy was sustainable. Third, in the Classic, the network-dominant coast, west or east, changed with interior polities' political struggles, the critical transition occurring after 695 CE as Tikal gained dominance over the Calakmul-Caracol alliance. Beginning with the Late Preclassic about 2000 years ago, it is possible to assign names to the decision makers by referencing the growing literature on written Maya records. Although the detectable decision sequence evident in this analysis is very basic, we believe it does open possible avenues to much deeper understanding as the study proceeds into the future. The Integrated History and Future of People on Earth-Maya working group that sponsored the analysis anticipates that it will provide actionable social science intelligence for future decision making at the global scale.

  9. Linking spatial distribution and feeding behavior of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumolo, Paola; Basilone, Gualtiero; Fanelli, Emanuela; Barra, Marco; Calabrò, Monica; Genovese, Simona; Gherardi, Serena; Ferreri, Rosalia; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is a semi-pelagic fish species with a wide geographical distribution and commonly found on the continental shelf. In recent years, the species has received some attention due to its ecological role in pelagic food webs. Stable isotope of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N and δ13C) and Stomach Content Analysis (SCA) of T. trachurus were adopted as tools to provide necessary knowledge on its feeding habits in the Strait of Sicily. The strong correlation found between δ15N and δ13C values with body length, together with significant ontogenetic shift evidenced by SCA, could be associated to changes in food availability, which in turn is triggered by environmental conditions. Spatial distribution of T. trachurus in the study area, mainly for small and medium size specimens, is linked to lower temperature, salinity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PARsat) values with higher aggregations on the Adventure Bank (i.e., an area characterized by periodic upwelling events). Larger size specimens mostly inhabited shallower waters characterized by higher temperature, salinity and PAR values, typical of the central-eastern part of the study area. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behavior of T. trachurus is strictly linked to environmental factors (i.e. chiefly oceanographic conditions of the water column and day duration) that in turn influences the distribution of its prey. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis.

  10. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%, Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm, and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn, Sc/Th, (La/YbN, and (La/CeN ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  11. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations of O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Gubalówka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O3 concentrations in the Vychodna and Gubałówka sites reached 160 and 200 microg/m3 (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as microg/m3; and at 25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg, 1 microg O3/m3 = 0.51 ppb O3). These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal 03 distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon and lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-h period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O3 levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O3 levels with elevation occurred. Concentrations of O3 determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O3 concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O3 distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O3 on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the AOT40 indices for forest trees and natural vegetation. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the entire Carpathian range were typical

  12. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A. [Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States); Godzik, B. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Institute of Botany; Frczek, W. [Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands (US)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations f O{sub 3}, nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Guba Iowka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O{sub 3} concentrations in the Vychodna and Guba Iowka sites reached 160 and 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and at 25{sup o}C and 760 mm Hg, 1 {mu}g O{sub 3} = 0.51 ppb O{sub 3}), These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal O{sub 3} distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon with lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-hr period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O{sub 3} levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O{sub 3} levels with elevation occurred, Concentrations of O{sub 3} determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O{sub 3} concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O{sub 3} distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O{sub 3} on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the A0T40 indices for forest trees and natural

  13. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER CASES IN BANYUMAS DISTRICT, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2014-08-01

    showed DHF cases in 2012 were 200, spread in almost all subdistrict (75%. DHF casesclustered in East Purwokerto, South Purwokerto and North Purwokerto, that were lowlands area (12-250 above sea level ,urban area, settlement closed to ricefild and height density population. DHF cases were distributed in lowland area withdensely populated closed to rice field. DHF cases increasing on highly rainfall on January until May.Keyword : spatial distribution, DHF, Banyumas Regency

  14. Strain Distribution in Central Europe: FEM Modeling and Comparison with GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, A.; Bogusz, J.; Jarosinski, M.; Lenik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of this research is to demonstrate how the results of permanent GPS measurements can be understand in terms of recent geodynamics by applying numerical modeling method. On the other hand, the results of modeling are testing the consistency of the GPS measurements. The method of finite element analysis was applied to develop two-dimensional model of strain and stress field in Central Europe. The FEM model was prepared in the ABAQUS software, consisting of graphic modules and ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS Standard modules for solving the static task. The structure of the model was created in the plane Cartesian coordinate system, assuming that for this size of model the earth curvature will not affect the stress and strain direction significantly. Simplified elastic model with frictional contact elements was used for defining mechanical properties of the model. The model consists of 48 parts representing major tectonic units/blocks characterized by different material properties. The stiffness of tectonic blocks expressed by Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was determined based on the lithospheric thickness, surface heat flow and simplified lithological column of the lithosphere. For dislocations, different values of friction coefficient was tested in course of the trial-and-error modeling than the best fitted options were finally adopted in the model. The dynamic (force and pressure) boundary conditions were applied to the elastic model based on the recent tectonic stress directions from the World Stress Map Database. To allow fast changes of the loads the model boundary were designed normal to tectonic stresses. After each computing round the simulated stress and strain were compared with that measured, paying special attention to the GPS measurements from Poland and the adjacent areas. We have used coordinates and velocities from EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) densified by Polish national Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) ASG-EUPOS. They were obtained

  15. Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Cong, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xing-Liang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Zhang, Yong

    2006-12-15

    High mountains may serve as condenser for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the vegetation in remote areas has been used as a means to characterized atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants. In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Himalayan spruce needle samples from Zhangmu-Nyalam region (central-Himalayas) were analyzed and the altitudinal gradient of these pollutants was investigated. Total HCHs and DDTs concentration in needles were in the range of 1.3-2.9 ng g(-1) dry weight and 1.7-11 ng g(-1) dry weight, which were lower than concentrations reported in spruce needles from Alps, however higher than concentrations in conifer needles from mountain areas of Alberta. Total Himalayan spruce needle PAHs was below 600 ng g(-1) and fluorene, phenanthrene and acenaphthene were abundant individual compounds measured. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH in pine needles were similar with the usual values for technical HCH, implying technical HCHs might be used in this region. The high ratios of o-p'-DDT/p-p'-DDT and no p-p'-DDE measured in this study led to the suspicion that a new source of o-p'-DDT and/or p-p'-DDT existed in this region. In addition, higher ratios of low molecular weight-/high molecular weight-PAHs in this region indicated that petroleum combustion, vehicle emission and low-temperature combustion might be the major contributions of PAH source. To examine the POPs distillation, the analyte concentrations were correlated with altitude. The more volatile OCPs, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, aldrin and alpha-endosulfan positively correlated with altitude, however, less volatile OCPs (DDT and DDD) inversely related with elevation. Almost all PAHs detected in this area showed positive correlations with altitude. It is worthy to note that heavy PAHs (Benzo[k] fluoranthene and Benzo[a]anthracene) displayed positive correlation, which implied the sources of PAHs were near the sampling sites. The

  16. Strain Distribution in Root Surface Dentin of Maxillary Central Incisors during Lateral Compaction.

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    Raphael Pilo

    Full Text Available To precisely quantify the circumferential strains created along the radicular dentin of maxillary incisors during a simulated clinical procedure of lateral compaction.Six miniature strain gauges were bonded on the roots of fourteen recently extracted maxillary central incisors that were subjected to root canal instrumentation. The strain gauges were bonded at three levels (apical, middle, and coronal and four aspects (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal of the roots. Each tooth was embedded in a PVC cylinder containing polyvinyl-siloxane impression material. Root filling was then performed by simulating the clinical procedure of lateral compaction using nickel-titanium finger spreaders. The force applied to the spreader and the strains developing in the surface root dentin were continuously recorded at a frequency of 10 Hz.The highest strains that developed during lateral compaction were in the mesial and distal aspects at the apical level of the root. The magnitudes of the maximal mesial/distal strains at the apical as well as the mid-root levels were approximately 2.5-3 times higher than those at the buccal/lingual aspects (p = 0.041. The strains decreased significantly (p<0.04 from the apical through the mid-root levels to the coronal level, yielding gradients of 2.5- and 6-fold, respectively. The mesial and distal strains were consistently tensile and did not differ significantly; however, the buccal strains were generally 35-65% higher than the lingual strains (p = 0.078. Lateral compaction resulted in the gradual build-up of residual strains, resulting in generation of a 'stair-step' curve. These strains declined gradually and almost completely disappeared after 1000 sec.With proper mounting of several miniature strain gauges at various levels and aspects of the root, significant circumferential strains can be monitored under clinically relevant compaction forces. The residual strains at the end of lateral compaction are not stored in the

  17. The stability of recombined milk fat globules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The stability of the fat globules in recombined milk products against creaming, flocculation, clustering, partial coalescence and real coalescence, with the emphasis on partial coalescence, was studied. (partial) Coalescence was characterized by determining changes in globule size distribution and f

  18. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...

  19. Distribution of Hepatitis C Risk Factors and HCV Treatment Outcomes among Central Canadian Aboriginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parmvir; Corsi, Daniel J.; Cooper, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aboriginal Canadians face many lifestyle risk factors for hepatitis C exposure. Methods. An analysis of Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Canada) patients between January 2000 and August 2013 was performed. HCV infection risk factors and HCV treatment outcomes were assessed. Socioeconomic status markers were based on area-level indicators linked to postal codes using administrative databases. Results. 55 (2.8%) Aboriginal and 1923 (97.2%) non-Aboriginal patients were evaluated. Aboriginals were younger (45.6 versus 49.6 years, p < 0.01). The distribution of gender (63.6% versus 68.3% male), HIV coinfection (9.1% versus 8.1%), advanced fibrosis stage (29.2% versus 28.0%), and SVR (56.3% versus 58.9%) was similar between groups. Aboriginals had a higher number of HCV risk factors, (mean 4.2 versus 3.1, p < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–4.4) for having 4+ risk factors. This was not explained after adjustment for income, social deprivation, and poor housing. Aboriginal status was not related to SVR. Aboriginals interrupted therapy more often due to loss to follow-up, poor adherence, and substance abuse (25.0% versus 4.6%). Conclusion. Aboriginal Canadians have higher levels of HCV risk factors, even when adjusting for socioeconomic markers. Despite facing greater barriers to care, SVR rates were comparable with non-Aboriginals. PMID:27446875

  20. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting

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    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures or plastic surgery (liposuction, compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45 min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH = 7.21; PCO2 = 51 mmHg; PO2 = 52 mmHg; BE = -8; HCO3 = 18 mEq L-1, and lactate = 6.0 mmol L-1. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP = 55 mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF = 60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24 h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale = 3. A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72 h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. CONCLUSION: Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction. The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis.

  1. Some features of the quantitative distribution of sipunculan worms (Sipuncula in the central and southern Barents Sea

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    Evgeny A. Garbul

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on the current state of the sipunculan fauna of the central and southern parts of the Barents Sea. The main quantitative parameters (biomass and abundance of the sipunculan populations are obtained, and the contribution of sipunculids to the total benthos biomass is assessed. The major factors causing long-term variations in Sipunculidae distribution and abundance are evaluated for the area in question.      The investigations show that the most commonly encountered sipunculan species are Nephasoma diaphanes diaphanes,N. abyssorum abyssorum and Phascolion strombus strombus. The main contribution to the total benthos biomass comes from the two species most typical of the Barents Sea benthic fauna: Golfingia margaritacea margaritacea and G. vulgaris vulgaris. It is possible that the reductionin Golfingia biomass between the 1970s and 1990s, described in the article, is due to changes in the sampling methodology.

  2. Cuspy no more: how outflows affect the central dark matter and baryon distribution in Λ cold dark matter galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governato, F.; Zolotov, A.; Pontzen, A.; Christensen, C.; Oh, S. H.; Brooks, A. M.; Quinn, T.; Shen, S.; Wadsley, J.

    2012-05-01

    We examine the evolution of the inner dark matter (DM) and baryonic density profile of a new sample of simulated field galaxies using fully cosmological, Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM), high-resolution SPH+N-Body simulations. These simulations include explicit H2 and metal cooling, star formation (SF) and supernovae-driven gas outflows. Starting at high redshift, rapid, repeated gas outflows following bursty SF transfer energy to the DM component and significantly flatten the originally 'cuspy' central DM mass profile of galaxies with present-day stellar masses in the 104.5-109.8 M⊙ range. At z= 0, the central slope of the DM density profile of our galaxies (measured between 0.3 and 0.7 kpc from their centre) is well fitted by ρDM ∝ rα with α≃-0.5 + 0.35 log10(M★/108 M⊙), where M★ is the stellar mass of the galaxy and 4 < log M★ < 9.4. These values imply DM profiles flatter than those obtained in DM-only simulations and in close agreement with those inferred in galaxies from the THINGS and LITTLE THINGS surveys. Only in very small haloes, where by z= 0 SF has converted less than ˜0.03 per cent of the original baryon abundance into stars, outflows do not flatten the original cuspy DM profile out to radii resolved by our simulations. The mass (DM and baryonic) measured within the inner 500 pc of each simulated galaxy remains nearly constant over 4 orders of magnitudes in stellar mass for M★ < 109 M⊙. This finding is consistent with estimates for faint Local Group dwarfs and field galaxies. These results address one of the outstanding problems faced by the CDM model, namely the strong discrepancy between the original predictions of cuspy DM profiles and the shallower central DM distribution observed in galaxies.

  3. Influence of strong electromagnetic discharges on the dynamics of earthquakes time distribution in the Bishkek test area (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tosi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available From 08/01/1983 to 28/03/1990, at the Bishkek ElectroMagnetic (EM test site (Northern Tien Shan and Chu Valley area, Central Asia, strong currents, up to 2.5 kA, were released at a 4.5 km long electrical (grounded dipole. This area is seismically active and a catalogue with about 14100 events from 1975 to 1996 has been analyzed. The seismic catalogue was divided into three parts: 1975-1983 first part with no EM experiments, 1983-1990 second part during EM experiments and 1988-1996 after experiments part. Qualitative and quantitative time series non- linear analysis was applied to waiting times of earthquakes to the above three sub catalogue periods. The qualitative approach includes visual inspection of reconstructed phase space, Iterated Function Systems (IFS and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA. The quantitative approach followed correlation integral calculation of reconstructed phase space of waiting time distribution, with noise reduction and surrogate testing methods. Moreover the Lempel- Ziv algorithmic complexity measure (LZC was calculated. General dynamics of earthquakes’ temporal distribution around the test area, reveals properties of low dimensional non linearity. Strong EM discharges lead to the increase in extent of regularity in earthquakes temporal distribution. After cessation of EM experiments the earthquakes’ temporal distribution becomes much more random than before experiments. To avoid non valid conclusions several tests were applied to our data set: differentiation of the time series was applied to check results not affected by non stationarity; the surrogate data approach was followed to reject the hypothesis that dynamics belongs to the colored noise type. Small earthquakes, below completeness threshold, were added to the analysis to check results robustness.

  4. Modeling Spatial Distribution of a Rare and Endangered Plant Species (Brainea insignis) in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-C.; Lo, N.-J.; Chang, W.-I.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    With an increase in the rate of species extinction, we should choose right methods that are sustainable on the basis of appropriate science and human needs to conserve ecosystems and rare species. Species distribution modeling (SDM) uses 3S technology and statistics and becomes increasingly important in ecology. Brainea insignis (cycad-fern, CF) has been categorized a rare, endangered plant species, and thus was chosen as a target for the study. Five sampling schemes were created with different combinations of CF samples collected from three sites in Huisun forest station and one site, 10 km farther north from Huisun. Four models, MAXENT, GARP, generalized linear models (GLM), and discriminant analysis (DA), were developed based on topographic variables, and were evaluated by five sampling schemes. The accuracy of MAXENT was the highest, followed by GLM and GARP, and DA was the lowest. More importantly, they can identify the potential habitat less than 10% of the study area in the first round of SDM, thereby prioritizing either the field-survey area where microclimatic, edaphic or biotic data can be collected for refining predictions of potential habitat in the later rounds of SDM or search areas for new population discovery. However, it was shown unlikely to extend spatial patterns of CFs from one area to another with a big separation or to a larger area by predictive models merely based on topographic variables. Follow-up studies will attempt to incorporate proxy indicators that can be extracted from hyperspectral images or LIDAR DEM and substitute for direct parameters to make predictive models applicable on a broader scale.

  5. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  6. Fire effects on hydrochemistry of streams draining watersheds with continuous permafrost distribution in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires, assumed to be the main disturbance factor in the boreal biome, are tended to increase in frequency and severity under "dry warming" (Conard et al. 2002). Short fire-return interval in larch dominated permafrost terrains of Siberia (Kharuk et al., 2008) exert significant control on ecosystem biogeochemical cycling throughout the complex influences of deforestation, ground vegetation and organic layer combustion as well as deepen soil active layer. Despite extensive research of fire impact on carbon exchange between soil, forest biomass and atmosphere in permafrost affected regions of Siberia, much less is known on the role of fire in control of element transport in rivers and watersheds affected by fire events. To analyze the effect of fires on chemical composition of surface fluids in permafrost zone, fourteen small forested watersheds (3-25 km2) have been selected in mid-stream of Nizhnyaya Tunguska River (Yenissey basin, Central Siberia, Russia). Analysis of larch trees in forest stands of the area demonstrated that presumably all basins were affected by wildfires in the past. Selected watersheds have been influenced by ground fires (>90% of watershed area) ca 110, 60 and 15 years ago (respectively in 1899, 1947 and 1993). Water sampling campaign has been conducted from snowmelt (mid-May) to the start of freezing (mid-October) on weekly and/or monthly interval in 2006-2009. In this study, we analyzed the dissolved loads for major and trace element concentrations. In terms of concentration changes in the course of the year, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC as well as associated elements like Fe, Al, Y and REE) and inorganic ions (e.g. DIC, Cl, Ca, Na, Mg etc.) demonstrated opposite tendencies during a frost-free season in all streams. However, basins with recent fire effect exhibited generally lower DOC concentrations in streams along with much more pronounced seasonal increase in concentrations of inorganic compounds. The increased

  7. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  8. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  9. Evaluation of the Surface Water Distribution in North-Central Namibia Based on MODIS and AMSR Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Mizuochi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Semi-arid North-central Namibia has high potential for rice cultivation because large seasonal wetlands (oshana form during the rainy season. Evaluating the distribution of surface water would reveal the area potentially suitable for rice cultivation. In this study, we detected the distribution of surface water with high spatial and temporal resolution by using two types of complementary satellite data: MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System, using AMSR2 after AMSR-E became unavailable. We combined the modified normalized-difference water index (MNDWI from the MODIS data with the normalized-difference polarization index (NDPI from the AMSR-E and AMSR2 data to determine the area of surface water. We developed a simple gap-filling method (“database unmixing” with the two indices, thereby providing daily 500-m-resolution MNDWI maps of north-central Namibia regardless of whether the sky was clear. Moreover, through receiver-operator characteristics (ROC analysis, we determined the threshold MNDWI (−0.316 for wetlands. Using ROC analysis, MNDWI had moderate performance (the area under the ROC curve was 0.747, and the recognition error for seasonal wetlands and dry land was 21.2%. The threshold MNDWI let us calculate probability of water presence (PWP maps for the rainy season and the whole year. The PWP maps revealed the total area potentially suitable for rice cultivation: 1255 km2 (1.6% of the study area.

  10. Description and comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links

    CERN Document Server

    Bilson-Thompson, S O; Bilson-Thompson, Sundance O.; Lee, Weonjong

    2004-01-01

    We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values - a strong indicator of improved statistics for spectrum and static potential measurements, among other quantities.

  11. Not all fats are created equal: adipose vs. ectopic fat, implication in cardiometabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggini, Melania; Saponaro, Chiara; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ that acts not only as a fuel storage but also is able to secrete adipokines that can modulate inflammation. Most of the fat is composed of white adipocytes (WAT), although also brown/beige adipocytes (BAT/BeAT) have been found in humans. BAT is located close to the neck but also among WAT in the epicardial fat and perivascular fat. Adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of macrophages impair adipose tissue metabolism determining "adiposopathy" (i.e., sick fat) and increasing the risk to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review was to search and discuss the available literature on the impact of different types of fat and fat distribution on cardiometabolic risk. Visceral fat, but also ectopic fat, either in liver, muscle and heart, can increase the risk to develop insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Results recently published showed that BAT could have an impact on cardiometabolic risk, not only because it is implicated in energy metabolism but also because it can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Therapeutical interventions that can increase energy expenditure, successfully change fat distribution and reduce ectopic fat, also through BAT activation, were discussed.

  12. Visceral fat is more important than peripheral fat for endometrial thickness and bone mass in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Christiansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    as double-layer thickness. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, which divides the body into fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass, both for the total body and regional body compartments. An abdominal region was inserted manually. Statistics were Pearson correlations and analysis...... of variance. RESULTS: Endometrial thickness and total body bone mass were correlated, respectively, to body mass index (r = 0.14, P fat mass (r = 0.14, P fat mass (r = 0.16, P fat mass (r = 0.10, P...... fat mass (r = 0.12, P fat distribution correlate with increased endometrial thickness and bone mass....

  13. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  14. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  15. [Biometric ranging of the corpses destroyed at the site of a catastrophe in terms of gender, longitudinal and circumferencial dimensions, and the degree of subcutaneous fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Galitskaia, O I; Negasheva, M A

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative criteria for biometric ranging of destroyed corpses in terms of anatomical localization, gender, longitudinal length, trunk circumference, and the folds of subcutaneous fat are proposed. The wealth of anthropometric materials obtained in the studies of various Caucasoid populations was used to calculate the normative tables for biometric ranging of the decomposed corpses. The proposed technology excludes the subjective assessments for the purpose of such classification at the sites of catastrophes. Moreover, it promotes the accumulation of the variety of valuable information, such as the size of the collar, headwear, and footwear, clothing size and height, and portrait features, that can be used for victim identification.

  16. Late Quaternary paleoseismic sedimentary archive from deep central Gulf of Corinth: time distribution of inferred earthquake-induced layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Campos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A sedimentary archive corresponding to the last 17 cal kyr BP has been studied by means of a giant piston core retrieved on board R/V MARION-DUFRESNE in the North Central Gulf of Corinth. Based on previous methodological improvements, grain-size distribution and Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy (MSA have been analysed in order to detect earthquake-induced deposits. We indentified 36 specific layers -Homogenites+Turbidites (HmTu - intercalated within continuous hemipelagictype sediments (biogenic or bio-induced fraction and fine-grained siliciclastic fraction. The whole succession is divided into a non-marine lower half and a marine upper half. The “events” are distributed through the entire core and they are composed of two terms: a coarse-grained lower term and an upper homogeneous fine-grained term, sharply separated. Their average time recurrence interval could be estimated for the entire MD01-2477 core. The non-marine and the marine sections yielded close estimated values for event recurrence times of around 400 yrs to 500 yrs.

  17. Distribution of DDT and other persistent organic contaminants in Canyons and on the continental shelf off the central California coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, S Ian

    2008-04-01

    Sediment samples were collected to delineate the distribution of contaminants along the central California coast. Sampling included a variety of Canyons and shelf/slope areas to evaluate contaminant transport patterns and potential delivery to Canyons and the continental slope to a depth of 1200 m. Sediments were collected and analyzed for organic contaminants using standard techniques of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program (NS&T). DDT is distributed on the shelf within a zone of fine-grained sediments between Half Moon and Monterey Bays. DDT was found at higher concentrations in Ascension, Año Nuevo, and Monterey/Soquel Canyons than in Pioneer and Carmel Canyons, the Gulf of the Farallones, or the continental slope. The Monterey Bay watershed appears to be the primary source of DDT. In contrast, PAHs and PCBs on the shelf appear to be derived primarily from San Francisco Bay. DDT appears to be delivered to the deep ocean via the Canyons more than from cross-shelf sediment transport. Sediment budget estimates for the continental shelf north of Monterey Bay need further refinement and more data to account for the movement of material from Monterey Bay onto the shelf.

  18. Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Louise Thomas; Audrey E Brynes; Gavin Hamilton; Nayna Patel; Adam Spong; Robert D Goldin; Gary Frost; Jimmy D Bell; Simon D Taylor-Robinson

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the current UK clinical practice in reducing hepatic fat (IHCL).METHODS: Whole body MRI and 1H MRS were obtained, before and after 6 mo nutritional counselling,from liver, soleus and tibialis muscles in 10 subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).RESULTS: A 500 Kcal-restricted diet resulted in an average weight loss of 4% (-3.4 kg,) accompanied by significant reductions in most adipose tissue (AT)depots, including subcutaneous (-9.9%), abdominal subcutaneous (-10.2%) and intra-abdominalAT (-11.4%). Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were significantly reduced in the tibialis muscle (-28.2%).Decreases in both IHCL (-39.9%) and soleus IMCL (-12.2%) content were also observed, although these were not significant. Several individuals showed dramatic decreases in IHCL, while others paradoxically showed increases in IHCL content. Changes in body composition were accompanied by improvements in certain liver function tests: serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Significant correlations were found between decreases in IHCL and reductions in both intra-abdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT. Improvements in liver function tests were associated with reductions in intra-abdominal AT,but not with changes in IHCL.CONCLUSION: This study shows that even a very modest reduction in body weight achieved through lifestyle modification can result in changes in body fat depots and improvements in LFTs.

  19. Sonographic Prediction of Body Fat Volume (Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat in Cardiovascular Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleymanzadeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate body composition represents impaired energy and nutrient intake and can be a risk factor for many diseases, especially for cardiovascular disease. Different methods have been suggested for the estimation of body fat volume and its distribution. However, they may be either expensive or hazardous for some groups of patients. Sonography is a very accessible technique, which may be used for the evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic prediction of body fat and its distribution in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.Methods: During a three-month period, we conducted sonographic evaluations for visceral and subcutaneous fat in 106 patients who were admitted to our hospital. The subcutaneous fat was measured at the para-umbilical region and visceral fat was measured in the right para-renal space. The results were compared with the data obtained from the body mass index(BMI and bioelectric impedance analysis.Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.8 years, and the mean BMI was26.48 ± 0.33. The mean values of fat percent and fat mass obtained by the electric-method were 31.07 ± 0.81% and 22.12 ± 0.68 kg, respectively. The respective mean values of subcutaneous and visceral fat obtained by sonography were 20.50±0.56 mm and 24.14 ± 0.58 mm. The correlationbetween BMI and subcutaneous fat was 0.85 (p value < 0.0001 and the correlation between BMI and visceral fat was0.46(p value < 0.0001.Conclusion: Sonography is a reliable and available method for the estimation of body fat and its distribution in cardiovascularpatients, in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.

  20. Determinants of Central Adiposity among Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central obesity is one of the major public health problems. Recent studies have indicated that body fat distribution would be important in general health. Materials and Methods: The present study is a review of several studies which discuss the contributing factors of abdominal obesity, particulary in Iran. This study reviews 34 cross-sectional and interventional studies, which have been comducted during 1995-2012 and issued in English language. PubMed search engine and the related keywords were used to search the papers.Results: Breakfast skipping and also the sleep duration as well as the quality of diet are also associated with central adiposity. Dietary diversity score among Iranians can be related to abdominal adiposity. Fastfood consumption can increase the risk of central adiposity among young Iranian population. Red meat intake and food source of trans fat can increase the risk of central adiposity. Low quality diet with low amount of nutrients can increase the risk of central adiposity. Conclusion: Some behaviours such as sleep duration and eating breakfast can be associated with central adiposity among Iranians. Diet quality and dietary diversity score is also associated with this problem among Iranians.

  1. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  2. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  3. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fit Fats and Your Family en español Las grasas y su hijo As with carbohydrates in recent ... and increase the risk of heart disease. 3. Trans fats: Found in margarine (especially the sticks), commercial ...

  4. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in oily fish like tuna and salmon 2. Saturated fats: Found in meat and other animal products, such ... lard, cheese, and milk (except skim or nonfat), saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  5. Fat embolism syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob George; Reeba George; Dixit, R; Gupta, R C; Gupta, N.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonar...

  6. Development and distribution of PAG-immunoreactive neurons in the central pathway of trigeminal proprioception of the rat brainstem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG You-wang; LI Jin-lian

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the development and distribution of phosphate-activated glutaminase like immunoreactive (PAG-LI) neurons in the central pathway of trigeminal proprioception of the rat brainstem.Methods: The immunohistochemitry techniques were used. Results: (1) At embryonic day 17 (E17), PAGLI neurons were initially observed in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Vme). All PAG-LI neurons were large round neurons with moderate immunostaining. The immunoreactivity grew intense and attained adultlike pattern at P10. (2) Not until postnatal day 10 (P10) did a few PAG-LI neurons appear in the area ventral to the motor trigeminal nucleus (AVM) and area dorsal to the superior olivery nucleus (ADO), and not until P12 in the dorsomedial part of the subnucleus oralis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vodm) and dorsomedial part of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Vpdm). As development proceeded, more and more neurons in them were immunostained, and some PAG-LI neurons were detected in the lateral reticular formation adjacent to the Vodm(LRF)and the caudolateral part of the supratrigeminal nucleus (Vsup-CL) at P21.Conclusion: In the central pathway of trigeminal proprioception of the rat brainstem, PAG-LI neurons appeared during two stages: The first stage from E17 to P10, PAG-LI neurons appeared in the Vme and reached adult-like pattern; the second stage from P10 to P21, PAG-LI neurons appeared in the Vodm, LRF,Vpdm, Vsup-CL, ADO, AVM and gradually reached adult-like pattern. This might be relative to the establishment of jaw movement patterns.

  7. Rare wetland grass Coleanthus subtilis in Central and Western Europe – current distribution, habitat types, and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Richert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss grass Coleanthus subtilis (Tratt. Seidl is a rare, diminutive grass which grows on wet muddy bottoms of drained water bodies displaying a high degree of water level dynamics, such as fishponds or water reservoirs. Due to the temporal character of its habitat, C. subtilis has a very short life cycle of only a few weeks. Therefore, the species and its habitats are legally protected on both national and international levels. This paper focuses on habitats and the conservation of C. subtilis in Central and Western Europe. For the period of 2000–2013, the Czech Republic with more than 200 sites represents the main distribution area of this species in Central and Western Europe. During the same period, C. subtilis was recorded from 45 sites in three regions of Germany (33 Lusatia, 11 Ore Mountains, 1 Mid-Elbe River, 16 sites in France, 13 sites in Poland, and four sites in Austria. Since 2000, the number of records within these seven regions seems to have followed different trends: whereas two regions (Lusatia, Germany and southern Poland became newly colonized and many populations established, in one region (Ore Mountains, Germany the number of records diminished. Owing to its specific life cycle, both reproduction success and maintenance of C. subtilis populations are closely linked to the prevailing water level regime, mainly dependent on the management of the water body. Management for the conservation of C. subtilis populations should consider the entire complex of water bodies, as well as individual ponds. For the preservation of the species, at least one pond in each complex should be drained every year and each pond should be drained at least once within 5 years. Depending on local climatic conditions, ponds should be drained for 8–10 weeks during the time period from mid-March to mid-November.

  8. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF......), and waist circumference (¿WC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates.Significant GI X sex X physical activity interactions for ABSTRACTBackground: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemicload (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase therisk of weight gain...

  9. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  10. Diversity and distribution patterns of the Oligocene and Miocene decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca) of the Western and Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats throughout the Cenozoic when the major diversification of the group occurred. In this respect, the circum-Mediterranean area is of particular interest due to its complex palaeogeographic history. During the Oligo-Miocene, it was divided in two major areas, Mediterranean and Paratethys. Decapod crustaceans from the Paratethys Sea have been reported in the literature since the 19th century, but only recent research advances allow evaluation of the diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Altogether 176 species-level taxa have been identified from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Western and Central Paratethys. Using the three-dimensional NMDS analysis, the composition of decapod crustacean faunas of the Paratethys shows significant differences through time. The Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod associations were similar to each other both taxonomically and in the mode of preservation, and they differed taxonomically from the Badenian ones. The Early Badenian assemblages also differed taxonomically from the Late Badenian ones. The time factor, including speciation, immigration from other provinces and/or (local or global) extinction, can explain temporal differences among assemblages within the same environment. High decapod diversity during the Badenian was correlated with the presence of reefal settings. The Badenian was the time with the highest decapod diversity, which can, however, be a consequence of undersampling of other time slices. Whereas the Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod assemblages are preserved virtually exclusively in the siliciclastic “Schlier”-type facies that originated in non-reefal offshore environments, carbonate sedimentation and the presence of reefal environments during the Badenian in the Central Paratethys promoted thriving of more diverse reef-associated assemblages. In general, Paratethyan decapods exhibited homogeneous distribution during the Oligo

  11. The spatial distribution of known predictors of autism spectrum disorders impacts geographic variability in prevalence in central North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unknown and widely debated; however, evidence increasingly points to the importance of environmental exposures. A growing number of studies use geographic variability in ASD prevalence or exposure patterns to investigate the association between environmental factors and ASD. However, differences in the geographic distribution of established risk and predictive factors for ASD, such as maternal education or age, can interfere with investigations of ASD etiology. We evaluated geographic variability in the prevalence of ASD in central North Carolina and the impact of spatial confounding by known risk and predictive factors. Methods Children meeting a standardized case definition for ASD at 8 years of age were identified through records-based surveillance for 8 counties biennially from 2002 to 2008 (n=532. Vital records were used to identify the underlying cohort (15% random sample of children born in the same years as children with an ASD, n=11,034, and to obtain birth addresses. We used generalized additive models (GAMs to estimate the prevalence of ASD across the region by smoothing latitude and longitude. GAMs, unlike methods used in previous spatial analyses of ASD, allow for extensive adjustment of individual-level risk factors (e.g. maternal age and education when evaluating spatial variability of disease prevalence. Results Unadjusted maps revealed geographic variation in surveillance-recognized ASD. Children born in certain regions of the study area were up to 1.27 times as likely to be recognized as having ASD compared to children born in the study area as a whole (prevalence ratio (PR range across the study area 0.57-1.27; global P=0.003. However, geographic gradients of ASD prevalence were attenuated after adjusting for spatial confounders (adjusted PR range 0.72-1.12 across the study area; global P=0.052. Conclusions In these data, spatial variation of ASD

  12. Diversity and distribution patterns of the Oligocene and Miocene decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca) of the Western and Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-10-01

    Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats throughout the Cenozoic when the major diversification of the group occurred. In this respect, the circum-Mediterranean area is of particular interest due to its complex palaeogeographic history. During the Oligo-Miocene, it was divided in two major areas, Mediterranean and Paratethys. Decapod crustaceans from the Paratethys Sea have been reported in the literature since the 19th century, but only recent research advances allow evaluation of the diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Altogether 176 species-level taxa have been identified from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Western and Central Paratethys. Using the three-dimensional NMDS analysis, the composition of decapod crustacean faunas of the Paratethys shows significant differences through time. The Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod associations were similar to each other both taxonomically and in the mode of preservation, and they differed taxonomically from the Badenian ones. The Early Badenian assemblages also differed taxonomically from the Late Badenian ones. The time factor, including speciation, immigration from other provinces and/or (local or global) extinction, can explain temporal differences among assemblages within the same environment. High decapod diversity during the Badenian was correlated with the presence of reefal settings. The Badenian was the time with the highest decapod diversity, which can, however, be a consequence of undersampling of other time slices. Whereas the Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod assemblages are preserved virtually exclusively in the siliciclastic "Schlier"-type facies that originated in non-reefal offshore environments, carbonate sedimentation and the presence of reefal environments during the Badenian in the Central Paratethys promoted thriving of more diverse reef-associated assemblages. In general, Paratethyan decapods exhibited homogeneous distribution during the Oligo

  13. Distribution and community structure of fish in Obitsu-gawa River Estuary of inner Tokyo Bay, central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeppette J. Hermosilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and community structure of fish in Obitsu-gawa River Estuary of inner TokyoBay, central Japan was studied from May to December 2005 and March to April 2006. A total of 19,006individuals, represented by 25 species and some unidentified species under family Clupeidae, Cyprinidae,Gobiidae, Hemiramphidae, Mugilidae, Platycephidae, Pleuronectidae and Triglidae were collected. FamilyGobiidae had the most number of taxa with 13 genera and 10 species. Greatest fish abundancehappened in August and secondarily in April and May. Species richness was evident in the warmermonths particularly in May (17 taxa, August (21 taxa, September (15 taxa and October (17 taxa.Marine teleosts significantly contributed to the species richness and abundance of fish, whichcorresponded to 52.9% (10,046 individuals of the total catch while the estuarine fishes were the secondmost abundant group with 33.5% (6,372 individuals of the total catch. Species dominance was acoherent feature of this community. The proportional contribution of marine teleosts to the fishcommunity decreased with increase distance upstream while that of estuarine fishes increased withincrease distance upstream. The developmental stages of gobies range from larvae to adult but juvenilesconstitute 77.06% of the total sample. The distribution of developmental stage of estuarine gobies wasinfluenced to a greater extent by variation in monthly water temperature and station or the interaction ofboth. Adult estuarine gobies had the tendency to aggregate in the middle estuary reflecting their hightolerance to a wide range of water salinity inherent in this station but avoided the lower estuary mostlikely due to the predominance of high salinity waters.

  14. On the correlation of atmospheric aerosol components of mass size distributions in the larger region of a central European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A.; Galambos, Z.; Ctyroky, P.; Frühauf, P.; Hitzenberger, R.; Gomišček, B.; Hauck, H.; Preining, O.; Puxbaum, H.

    Mass size distributions of atmospheric aerosols have been sampled in the region of Vienna, a typical city in central Europe, at an urban and a rural site. The aerosol was collected simultaneously by cascade impactors. Two experiments which had a duration of 4 weeks each, were performed in August 1999 and in January/February 2000. Daily sampling periods were from 8:00 to 20:00, and from 20:00 to 8:00. An evaluation of the mass size distributions is represented in this paper. Emphasis is on the relationships of different aerosol components in a local and a regional context. The main results are as follows. The main components of the atmospheric aerosol are a fine aerosol, the accumulation aerosol, and a coarse aerosol. Specific coarse modes with modal diameters of 4.7 μm average and geometric standard deviations of about 3 occur at the urban and at the rural site, some times surprisingly strong. The fine and the coarse modes are very likely related to motor-car traffic. Usually the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols are regionally strongly correlated. Occasionally, this correlation is effectively disturbed by local and/or regional emissions. Time series of correlation coefficients reveal an episodic character of the atmospheric aerosol. Periods of strong inter-site correlations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 indicate the dominance and the co-variation of the accumulation aerosols or the dominance and the co-variation of the coarse modes.

  15. A Fat Higgs with a Fat Top

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, A; Delgado, Antonio; Tait, Tim M.P.

    2005-01-01

    A new variant of the supersymmetric Fat Higgs model is presented in which the MSSM Higgses as well as the top quark are composite. The underlying theory is an s-confining SU(3) gauge theory with the MSSM gauge groups realized as gauged sub-groups of the chiral flavor symmetries. This motivates the large Yukawas necessary for the large top mass and SM-like Higgs of mass>>M_Z in a natural way as the residual of the strong dynamics responsible for the composites. This removes fine-tuning associated with these couplings present in the original Fat Higgs and New Fat Higgs models, respectively.

  16. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes.

  17. Multistation template matching to characterize frequency-magnitude distributions of induced seismicity in the Central and Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Skoumal, R.; Currie, B.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the frequency-magnitude distribution (FMD) of recent seismic sequences thought to be induced by wastewater injection and hydraulic fracturing in the Central and Eastern U.S. to investigate their physical origin and improve hazard estimates. Multistation template matching is utilized to increase the number of events analyzed by lowering the magnitude of detection. In cases where local deployments are available, we demonstrate that the FMD obtained through template matching using regional data are comparable to those obtained from traditional detection using the local deployment. Since deployments usually occur after seismicity has already been identified, catalogs constructed with regional data offer the advantage of providing a more complete history of the seismicity. We find two primary groups of FMDs for induced sequences: those that generally follow the Gutenberg-Richter power-law and those that generally do not. All of the induced sequences are typically characterized by swarm-like behavior, but the non-power-law FMDs are also characterized by a clustering of events at low magnitudes and particularly low aftershock productivity for a continental interior. Each of the observations in the non-power law FMD cases is predicted by numerical simulations of a seismogenic zone governed by a viscoelastic damage rheology with low effective viscosity in the fault zone. Such a reduction in effective viscosity is expected if fluid injection increases fluid pressures in the fault zone to the point that the fault zone begins to dilate.

  18. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  19. Time distribution of the precipitable water vapor in central Saudi Arabia and its relationship to solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Dajani, H. M.

    2014-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. It plays a major role in the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, radiation exchange within the atmosphere, and climate variability. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor is important for understanding climate change and global warming. In this study, radiosonde data from 1985 to 2012 were used to examine the monthly, interannual, and annual variations and trends of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in central Saudi Arabia in the city of Riyadh (24° 43‧N; 46° 40‧E, 764 m a.s.l.). The results revealed a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with a maximum during the summer months (June-August) and a minimum during the winter (December-February). This variation follows the mean monthly variation of air temperature. The PWV displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. We could not attribute the variations to the air temperature because no relationship was found between the two variables when the interannual variations were examined. Study of the annual variations of the PWV showed cyclic variations with a period of approximately 10-11 years. The two maximums and minimums were in 1996 and 2007 and 1989 and 2000, respectively. The results showed that the annual PWV values are anticorrelated with solar activity, represented by sunspot number, during solar cycles 22 and 23. The physical mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This finding is preliminary, and future investigations are recommended.

  20. Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, and Physical Activity in School-age Children: an Urban and Rural Comparison in Valparaíso, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, Pablo A; Paula, Cisternas-Vallejos; Araya, Leonel; Aguilera, Francisco; Mora, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    This study analyze the relation between body composition, physical activity (PA), and sex in Chilean children from rural and urban public educational institutions. The prevalence of obesity (according to BMI) was 30.88% in urban children and 28.93% in rural children. Central obesity presented mainly in the rural girls. Approximately 90% of the participants reported child urban-rural population.

  1. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  2. The experimental validation of free fat grafts in thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masataro; Kondo, Tomoko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the viability of free fat grafts in the thoracic cavity using 3-month old male swine (n = 2). After left caudal lobectomy, 1-3 g of subcutaneous fat tissue harvested via the thoracotomy site was implanted in the chest cavity. At re-thoracotomy 6 weeks after implantation, all of the implanted fat grafts (n = 15) were found to have closely adhered to the parietal pleura and visceral pleura. There was a significant decrease by ∼30% in the weight of the fat grafts after implantation. Regardless of the weight loss, the implanted fat graft showed normal structuring without scar formation in the central area. Our results may suggest that free fat pads, which weighed up to 3 g, were successfully cultured in the thoracic cavity until the implanted tissues integrated into the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the free fat pad can be used as a biomaterial for some purposes in thoracic surgery.

  3. Associations between ultrasound measures of abdominal fat distribution and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the ADDITION-PRO study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelotte Philipsen

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed.Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt's index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll's index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p≤0.0004 and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr

  4. Prognostic Impact of CT-Quantified Muscle and Fat Distribution before and after First-Line-Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattenmüller, Johanna; Wochner, Raoul; Muley, Thomas; Steins, Martin; Hummler, Simone; Teucher, Birgit; Wiskemann, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Wielpütz, Mark Oliver; Heussel, Claus Peter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cachexia and sarcopenia are associated with poor outcome and increased chemotherapy-induced toxicity in lung cancer patients. However, the complex interplay of obesity, sarcopenia and cachexia, and its impact on survival in the context of first-line-chemotherapy is not yet understood. Methods In 200 consecutively recruited lung cancer patients (70 female, mean age 62y; mean BMI 25 kg/m2; median follow-up 15.97 months) with routine staging-CT before and after chemotherapy (CTX, mean interval: 4.3 months), densitometric quantification of total (TFA), visceral (VFA), and subcutaneous-fat-area (SFA), inter-muscular-fat-area (IMFA), muscle-density (MD), muscle-area (MA) and skeletal-muscle-index (SMI) was performed retrospectively to evaluate changes under chemotherapy and the impact on survival. Results We observed increases in TFA, VFA, SFA, VFA/SFA, and IMFA (p<0.05–0.001), while there were decreases in MA, MD and BMI (p<0.05–0.001) after chemotherapy. High pre-therapeutic VFA/SFA was a predictive factor for poor survival (HR = 1.272; p = 0.008), high pre-therapeutic MD for improved survival (HR = 0.93; p<0.05). Decrease in BMI (HR = 1.303; p<0.001), weight (HR = 1.067; p<0.001) and SMI (HR = 1.063; p<0.001) after chemotherapy were associated with poor survival. Patients with ≥4 CTX-cycles showed increased survival (17.6 vs. 9.1months), less muscle depletion (SMIdifference: p<0.05) and no BMI loss (BMIdifference: p<0.001). Conclusions After chemotherapy, patients exhibited sarcopenia with decreased muscle and increased adipose tissue compartments, which was not adequately mirrored by BMI and weight loss but by imaging. Particularly sarcopenic patients received less CTX-cycles and had poorer survival. As loss of BMI, weight and muscle were associated with poor survival, early detection (via imaging) and prevention (via physical exercise and nutrition) of sarcopenia may potentially improve outcome and reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity. PMID

  5. Under-ice distribution of polar cod Boreogadus saida in the central Arctic Ocean and their association with sea-ice habitat properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Carmen; Lange, Benjamin; Krumpen, Thomas; Schaafsma, F.L.; Franeker, van J.A.; Flores, H.

    2016-01-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, sea-ice habitats are undergoing rapid environmental change. Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is the most abundant fish known to reside under the pack-ice. The under-ice distribution, association with sea-ice habitat properties and origins of polar cod in the central Arctic Ocean, ho

  6. Reconstructing production technology and distribution, using thin section petrography: A pilot study of Roman pottery production in the Pontine region, Central Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, B.; Tol, G.; de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores aspects of production and distribution of local Roman pottery from the Pontine region, Central Italy, based on ceramics recovered in surveys carried out within the ‘Minor Centres’ project. The aim of this project was to investigate the role of minor centres in local economies of

  7. MRI findings, patterns of disease distribution, and muscle fat fraction calculation in five patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 F disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mileto, Achille; Minutoli, Fabio; Settineri, Nicola; Donato, Rocco; Ascenti, Giorgio; Blandino, Alfredo [Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Messina (Italy); Mazzeo, Anna; Di Leo, Rita [Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Scienze Psichiatriche ed Anestesiologiche, Messina (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern of muscle involvement and disease progression in five patients with late-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 F, due to a previously unknown mutation. Five patients (three males, two females) underwent MRI of the lower limbs to define the pattern of muscle involvement and evaluate the muscle fat fraction (MFF) of residual thigh muscle with gradient-echo (GRE) dual-echo dual-flip angle technique. Evaluation of fatty infiltration both by visual inspection and MFF calculation was performed. A proximal-to-distal gradient of muscle involvement was depicted in male patients with extensive muscle wasting of lower legs, less severe impairment of distal thigh muscles, and sparing of proximal thigh muscles. A peculiar phenotype finding was that no or only slight muscle abnormalities could be found in the two female patients. We described the pattern of muscle involvement and disease progression in a family with CMT disease type 2 F. GRE dual-echo dual-flip angle MRI technique is a valuable technique to obtain a rapid quantification of MFF. (orig.)

  8. Distribution of Aluminum and Fluoride in Tea Plant and Soil of Tea Garden in Central and Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of Al and F contents and the relationship between Al and F in tea plants and soils of 12 tea gardens in Central and Southwest China were investigated from October 31 to November 14, 2006. The results show that there were differences in pH, CEC, the contents of organic matter (OM), Al and F in the different soils of the tea gardens. The Al content ranged from 1196 to 7976mg/kg for old leaf, 370 to 2681mg/kg for young leaf and 285 to 525mg/kg for stem, whereas the content of F ranged from 221 to 1504mg/kg for old leaf, 49 to 602mg/kg for young leaf and 13.5 to 77.5mg/kg for stem. The concentrations of labile Al varied obviously in the different soils, but the distribution law of labile Al content for the same garden was Alexchangeable≈AlFe-Mn oxide>Alorganic>Alwater-soluble. The contents of different labile F fractions varied slightly in the different soils and the different soil layers, though the exchangeable F content was lowest among the labile F in the soils. The concentrations of Al and F in tea plants increased with increasing amount of water-soluble Al or F, especially the amount of water-soluble fractions in the soil layer of 0-20cm.The correlation between Al content and F content in the tea leaf was more significant than that in the tea stem. Furthermore, the correlation between Al content and F content in whole tea plant was strongly significant (r=0.8763,p<0.01, n=36). There were evident tendency that Al concentration increased with the increase of F concentration in different soil layers. The correlation of water-soluble Al with water-soluble F in all soils was also strongly significant (r=0.7029, p<0.01, n=34). The results may provide a proof that Al and F are jointly taken up by tea plants to some extent in natural tea gardens.

  9. The distribution of arsenic in shallow alluvial groundwater under agricultural land in central Portugal: insights from multivariate geostatistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A I A S S; Stigter, T Y

    2013-04-01

    In this study multivariate and geostatistical methods are jointly applied to model the spatial and temporal distribution of arsenic (As) concentrations in shallow groundwater as a function of physicochemical, hydrogeological and land use parameters, as well as to assess the related uncertainty. The study site is located in the Mondego River alluvial body in Central Portugal, where maize, rice and some vegetable crops dominate. In a first analysis scatter plots are used, followed by the application of principal component analysis to two different data matrices, of 112 and 200 samples, with the aim of detecting associations between As levels and other quantitative parameters. In the following phase explanatory models of As are created through factorial regression based on correspondence analysis, integrating both quantitative and qualitative parameters. Finally, these are combined with indicator-geostatistical techniques to create maps indicating the predicted probability of As concentrations in groundwater exceeding the current global drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. These maps further allow assessing the uncertainty and representativeness of the monitoring network. A clear effect of the redox state on the presence of As is observed, and together with significant correlations with dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, iron, manganese and alkalinity, points towards the reductive dissolution of Fe (hydr)oxides as the essential mechanism of As release. The association of high As values with rice crop, known to promote reduced environments due to ponding, further corroborates this hypothesis. An additional source of As from fertilizers cannot be excluded, as the correlation with As is higher where rice is associated with vegetables, normally associated with higher fertilization rates. The best explanatory model of As occurrence integrates the parameters season, crop type, well and water depth, nitrate and Eh, though a model without the last two parameters also gives

  10. Spatial distribution, blood feeding pattern, and role of Anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Kamau, Luna; Jacob, Benjamin G; Muriu, Simon; Mbogo, Charles M; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Novak, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the role of sibling species of Anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in three agro-ecosystems in central Kenya. Mosquitoes were sampled indoors and outdoors, and rDNA PCR was successfully used to identify 340 specimens. Anopheles parensis (91.8%), A. funestus (6.8%), and Anopheles leesoni (1.5%) were the three sibling species identified. A. parensis was the dominant species at all study sites, while 22 of 23 A. funestus were collected in the non-irrigated study site. None of the 362 specimens tested was positive for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The most common blood-meal sources (mixed blood meals included) for A. parensis were goat (54.0%), human (47.6%), and bovine (39.7%), while the few A. funestus s.s. samples had fed mostly on humans. The human blood index (HBI) for A. parensis (mixed blood meals included) in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem was 0.93 and significantly higher than 0.33 in planned rice agro-ecosystem. The few samples of A. funestus s.s. and A. funestus s.l. also showed a trend of higher HBI in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem. We conclude that agricultural practices have significant influence on distribution and blood feeding behavior of A. funestus complex. Although none of the species was implicated with malaria transmission, these results may partly explain why non-irrigated agro-ecosystems are associated with higher risk of malaria transmission by this species compared to irrigated agro-ecosystems.

  11. Distribution and health risk assessment of some organic and inorganic substances in a petroleum facility in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Serrano, R. M.; Torres, L. G.; Flores, C.; Castro, A.; Iturbe, R.

    An oil distribution and storage station was subjected to an Environmental Auditory and results showed soil contamination in part of the surface. An assessment of the site was required in order to fulfill a complete characterization of the contaminants present in soil and groundwater, as well as to establish the probable sources of contamination. Besides, a health risk assessment was performed to set remediation goals. The aim of this work is to show how the entire characterization and risk assessment process performed in this storage station from central Mexico, regarding to subsoil and groundwater. Thirty sample points were examined. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations in soil were in a very low range (20-268 mg/kg). Ethylbenzene, methyl tert-butyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, and lead were identified in one sampling point. Iron and zinc were found in all soil samples. There was no correlation between total petroleum hydrocarbons and any of the metals or between both metals. Only two out of four monitoring wells showed total petroleum hydrocarbons levels (1.4 and 66 mg/L, respectively). Regarding lead, all four monitored wells showed lead concentrations (0.043-0.15 mg/L). Results suggested that metal concentrations were not associated to petroleum contamination, but to iron scrap deposits placed over the soil; nevertheless more data is needed to make a clear conclusion. Health risk assessment showed that none of the evaluated contaminants represented a risk either for the on-site or the off-site receptors, since the hazardous quotients estimated did not exceed the acceptable values.

  12. Distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in Gabon, central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area.

  13. Distribution model of understory vegetation in beech forests from Central Apennines (Italy in relation to edaphic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nicola C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first results of a study of monitoring species and habitats in the framework of the Life 04NAT/IT/000190 "Tutela dei siti Natura 2000 gestiti dal Corpo Forestale dello Stato" are presented. This study was carried out by the Department of Plant Biology of the University of Rome (La Sapienza and the National Forest Service. We focused the investigation on the relationships between herbaceous species and pedological parameters (humus and soil in Central-Apennine beech forests. Data have been collected through 40 phytosociological relevés, 15 soil profiles and 40 humus profiles in 40 forest plots, between March 2005 and September 2006. In this paper we presented data elaborated on a subset of 15 plots where soil profiles were available. The species of undergrowth showed different ecological requirements to some edaphic and humus parameters (pH, sand, loam, clay, organic matter, nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio, Ca++, K+;thickness and carbon content of the organic layers: significant correlations have been found using Pearson correlation test. The multiple regression analysis allowed to identify the factors more influencing the species distribution: thickness of the organic layers, carbon content (% C and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N. Basing on the thickness of humus horizons (OL, OF, OH, and on carbon content, two species groups with different ecology have been recognized: (a nemoral species typical of shady beech stands on oligomull/dysmull/thin amphimull (0 < 1cm.; 5.7 < %C < 9.9; (b heliophilous species of more xeric stands on thick amphimull (1.25 < 11.5 cm.; 9.9 < %C < 13.7. The relationships among species and soil parameters and humus forms allow to recognize small differences within a homogeneous habitat and therefore they can provide management indications also at micro-scale level.

  14. Identifying the Distribution of Alteration Zone Using Very Low Frequency Method in Candi Gedong Songo, Ungaran, Semarang, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfianto, A. D.; Sari, D. P.; Almas, S. A.; Kurniawan, W. S.; Ambariani, S. G.; Suyanto, I.

    2016-09-01

    The alteration zone could be a key link and a proof to know where the paleo heat source was previously located. An electromagnetic survey to identify and to map the lateral and vertical distribution of alteration zone had been done at geothermal area Candi Gedong Songo, Ungaran, Central Java, from 9th - 19th of June 2014, using VLF method. The survey consisted of 6 profiles, with NW - SE direction, which were located nearby the fumaroles spots and then went down to the observed alteration zone. Each profile was 600 m long and the distance between each profile was 20 m. The space between each measurement point of a profile was 20 m. In this study, tilt and ellipticity data with frequency of 19.8 kHz (Japan) and 24 kHz (Panama) were used. First, the data was processed to get the cross features anomaly between tilt and ellipticity data on the chart. Then, the derivative fraser and the relative current density pseudosection were also made to support the cross features anomaly. The interpretation of this data was done qualitatively using fraser and relative current density pseudosection. The result shows that the alteration zone gives high response of conductivity compared to its surrounding area. This is supported by the anomaly cross features between tilt and ellipticity data on the chart, also by high value of fraser and relative current density. Thus, the alteration zone are located in meter 150 - 250 in V1 and V2 profiles, also in meter 180 - 250 in V5 and V6 profiles. This result indicates that the ancient heat source was previously located nearby the fumaroles area and it is physically shown by the presence of sulphuric clay mineral content at the alteration surface area.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Soil Organic Matter Using Geostatistics: A Key Indicator to Assess Soil Degradation Status in Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.MARCHETTI; C.PICCINI; R.FRANCAVIGLIA; L.MABIT

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) content is one of the main factors to be considered in the evaluation of soil health and fertility.As timing,human and monetary resources often limit the amount of available data,geostatistical techniques provide a valid scientific approach to cope with spatial variability,to interpolate existing data and to predict values at unsampled locations for accurate SOM status survey.Using geostatistical and geographic information system (GIS) approaches,the spatial variability of some physical and chemical soil parameters was investigated under Mediterranean climatic condition in the Abruzzo region of central Italy,where soil erosion processes accelerated by human induced factors are the main causes of soil degradation associated with low SOM content.Experimental semivariograms were established to determine the spatial dependence of the soil variables under investigation.The results of 250 soil sampling point data were interpolated by means of ordinary kriging coupled with a GIS to produce contour maps distribution of soil texture,SOM content related to texture,and C/N ratio.The resulting spatial interpolation of the dataset highlighted a low content of SOM in relation with soil texture in most of the surveyed area (87%) and an optimal C/N ratio for only half of the investigated surface area.Spatial location of degraded area and the assessment of its magnitude can provide decision makers with an accurate support to design appropriate soil conservation strategies and then facilitate a regional planning of agri-environmental measures in the framework of the European Common Agricultural Policy.

  16. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  17. 浅谈中亚文献在国外的分布情况%Talking about the Distribution of Central Asian Literature in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞娥; 张沛黎

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, along with the rise of Central Asian countries' international strategic position, domestic scholars have intensified the research on political, historical, economic, cultural and other fields of Central Asian countries. Scholars have also paid more and more attention to Central Asian literature. They have the same important guiding significance to understand the distribution and collection status of Central Asian literature in China and to understand the distribution status of Central Asian literature in foreign countries. This paper introduces the distribution of Central Asian literature in foreign countries from two aspects od geographical area and collection system in order to provide a reference for vast scholars' research in this filed.%近年来,随着中亚国家国际战略地位的提升,国内加大了对中亚国家政治、历史、经济、文化等领域的研究力度,学者们对中亚文献的重视程度亦与日俱增,在了解国内中亚文献分布和收藏情况的同时,从宏观上了解中亚文献信息资源在国外的分布情况,同样具有重要的指导意义. 从地理区域和收藏系统两方面介绍了国外中亚文献的分布情况,以期为广大学者在该领域的研究提供参考.

  18. Centrality dependence of the pseudorapidity density distribution for charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Ehab; Adam, Jaroslav; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Das, Debasish; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanuel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Gros, Philippe; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Ramni; Gupta, Anik; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Han, Byounghee; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Pier Giorgio; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kaidalov, Alexei; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Kamal Hussain; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Mimae; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kompaniets, Mikhail; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kvaerno, Henning; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Ke; Ma, Rongrong; Madagodahettige-Don, Dilan Minthaka; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Mangotra, Lalit Kumar; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mizuno, Sanshiro; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Ochirov, Alexander; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; 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Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polak, Karel; Polichtchouk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauch, Wolfgang; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schuster, Tim; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; 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Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Yury; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Alexander; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Sergey; Voloshin, Kirill; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Shiming; Yang, Ping; Yang, Hongyan; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    We present the first wide-range measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density distribution, for different centralities (the 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, and 20-30% most central events) in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV at the LHC. The measurement is performed using the full coverage of the ALICE detectors, -5.0 < $\\eta$ < 5.5, and employing a special analysis technique based on collisions arising from LHC ' satellite' bunches. We present the pseudorapidity density as a function of the number of participating nucleons as well as an extrapolation to the total number of produced charged particles ($N_{ch}$ = 17165 +/- 772 for the 0-5% most central collisions). From the measured d$N_{ch}$/d$\\eta$ distribution we derive the rapidity density distribution, d$N_{ch}$/dy, under simple assumptions. The rapidity density distribution is found to be significantly wider than the predictions of the Landau model, which reproduce data well at RHIC energies. We assess the validity of longitudinal sca...

  19. Centrality dependence of the pseudorapidity density distribution for charged particles in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, E. [Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT), Cairo (Egypt); Abelev, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Adam, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Adamová, D. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež u Prahy (Czech Republic); Adare, A.M. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Aggarwal, M.M. [Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Aglieri Rinella, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Agnello, M. [Sezione INFN, Turin (Italy); Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Agocs, A.G. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Agostinelli, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Ahammed, Z. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmad, N. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Ahn, S.U.; Ahn, S.A. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Aimo, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università and Sezione INFN, Turin (Italy); Sezione INFN, Turin (Italy); Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Ajaz, M. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Akindinov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, D. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alessandro, B. [Sezione INFN, Turin (Italy); and others

    2013-11-04

    We present the first wide-range measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density distribution, for different centralities (the 0–5%, 5–10%, 10–20%, and 20–30% most central events) in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV at the LHC. The measurement is performed using the full coverage of the ALICE detectors, −5.0<η<5.5, and employing a special analysis technique based on collisions arising from LHC ‘satellite’ bunches. We present the pseudorapidity density as a function of the number of participating nucleons as well as an extrapolation to the total number of produced charged particles (N{sub ch}=17165±772 for the 0–5% most central collisions). From the measured dN{sub ch}/dη distribution we derive the rapidity density distribution, dN{sub ch}/dy, under simple assumptions. The rapidity density distribution is found to be significantly wider than the predictions of the Landau model. We assess the validity of longitudinal scaling by comparing to lower energy results from RHIC. Finally the mechanisms of the underlying particle production are discussed based on a comparison with various theoretical models.

  20. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to

  1. Chemical composition and mass size distribution of PM1.0 at an elevated site in central east China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions were measured continuously for one and half years with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS to characterize the mass and size distributions (MSDs of each component in bulk, fresh and aged submicron particles (approximately PM1.0 at Mountain Tai, an elevated site in Central East China (CEC from June 2010 to January 2012. The majority of the regionally-dispersed aerosols were found to be contributed from short distance mixed aerosol, mostly from its south with organics and sulfate as the major components. The annual mean mass concentrations of organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride were 11.2, 9.2, 7.2, 5.8 and 0.95 μg m−3, respectively, which are much lower for organics and sulfate, and slightly lower for nitrate, ammonium and chloride than those at the nearby surface rural sites. High organics were observed for all four seasons, and the relatively fresh organic aerosol (OA containing high proportion of less-photo chemically OA, were found from long-range transported aerosol from northwest. Semi-volatile and low-volatile oxidized OAs together contributed approximately 49%, 55% in spring and 72% and 51% in winter of total OA, showing at least 50% of OA can be attributable to SOA. Seasonally, the chemical components at the elevated site showed a "winter high and autumn low" pattern, with organics, sulfate and ammonium peaking in summer. Though no obvious differences of MSDs were seen for various chemical components in the planetary boundary layer (PBL and free troposphere (FT, the concentrations were a factor of 5–7 higher in PBL than in FT. The averaged MSDs of particles between 30–1000 nm for organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium are approximately log-normal with similar mass median diameters (MMDs of 539, 585, 542, and 545 nm, respectively, which were slightly larger than those in ground sites within North China Plain (NCP. Obvious differences in MMDs were found between fresh and aged

  2. Distribution, migration and derivation of Mesozoic-Cenozoic regional fault systems in the central continental margin of eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaomeng; HAO Fujiang; BIAN Weihua; GAO Yi; BAO Yafan

    2007-01-01

    Deep-large faults in the central continental margin of eastern China are well developed. Based on the regularity of spatial and temporal distribution of the faults,four fault systems were divided: the Yanshan orogenic belt fault system, the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt fault system, the Tanlu fault system and the East China Sea shelfbasin-Okinawa trough fault system. The four fault systems exhibit different migration behaviors. The Yanshan orogenic belt fault system deflected from an EW to a NE direction,then to a NNE direction during the Indo-Chinese epoch-Yanshanian epoch. The thrust-nappe strength of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt fault system showed the tendency that the strength was greater in the south and east, but weaker in the north and west. This fault system faulted in the east and folded in the west from the Indo-Chinese epoch to the early Yanshanian epoch. At the same time, the faults also had a diachronous migration from east to west from the Indo-Chinese epoch to the early Yanshanian epoch. On the con-trary, the thrust-nappe strength was greater in the north and west, weaker in the south and east during the late Yanshanian epoch-early Himalayan epoch. The Tanlu fault system caused the basin to migrate from west to east and south to north. The migration regularity of the East China Sea shelf basin-Okinawa trough fault system shows that the for mation age became younger in the west. The four fault systems and their migration regularities were respectively the results of four different geodynamic backgrounds. The Yanshan orogenicbelt fault system derived from the intracontinental orogeny.The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt fault system derived from the collision of plates and intracontinental subduction.The Tanlu fault system derived from the strike-slip movement and the East China Sea shelf basin-Okinawa trough fault system derived from plate subduction and retreat of the subduction belt.

  3. Streamlined subglacial bedforms on the Närke plain, south-central Sweden - Areal distribution, morphometrics, internal architecture and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Per; Dowling, Thomas P. F.

    2016-08-01

    A flow set of close to 1000 drumlins has been mapped by means of LiDAR-derived digital elevation models and investigated by trenching. The area is situated on the SW part of the Närke plain and its surrounding uplands in south-central Sweden, which was deglaciated in the early Preboreal in a glacioaquatic setting. We find that there is considerable morphological difference in drumlin distribution patterns over crystalline basement areas compared to streamlined terrain over Palaeozoic sedimentary rock basement. The former area is characterized by thin Quaternary drift and the drumlins are all of the rock-cored type, built due to active deposition of sediment around obstacles to glacier flow. The latter area is characterized by deep Quaternary drift and the drumlins are more elongate and also larger in all dimensions, as compared to rock-cored drumlins. Irrespective of these geomorphological differences on local landscape scale we find that drumlin morphometric values remain part of a morphological continuum at the regional scale. Based on the internal sediment architecture as revealed in two cross-drumlin sections we find that the soft-cored drumlins were formed by compressional constructive deformation, along with excavational deformation along the flanks of the emerging drumlins, which shaped the separating troughs. Intermediate-type drumlins are those that demonstrate a coupling between underlying Palaeozoic sediment strata in areas of shallow drift sheet. These are the result of differing rheological response between incorporated sedimentary rock and a deforming bed below the ice-bed interface. An overall conclusion is that we find geomorphic and architectural compositional differences between the drumlins and the flowset they form. We can closely relate these differences to contextual geological variations with respect to basement type and drift depth. We argue that drumlin formation is better explained not by one single 'unifying' process but rather a set of

  4. Role of heart rate in the relation between regional body fat and subendocardial viability ratio in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Hadri, Omar

    2016-09-01

    Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) is a measure of left ventricular function, specifically; it is an index of myocardial perfusion relative to left ventricular workload. Women have lower SEVR than men, partly due to a faster resting heart rate that reduces diastolic time (i.e., time for myocardial perfusion). It is unclear if body fat relates to SEVR, thus the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between body fat and SEVR in women. Twenty-eight middle-aged (31-45 years) and 31 older (60-80 years) women were examined. Radial artery applanation tonometry was used to calculate SEVR from a synthesized central aortic pressure wave. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition including fat in the trunk, legs, android and gynoid regions. Body fat was not related (P>.05) with SEVR in older women. In middle-aged women, all measures of regional fat were correlated with heart rate (range, r=.49-.59, P≤.01) and SEVR (range, r=.43-.53, P≤.01). Android-to-gynoid ratio was identified as the strongest predictor (r(2) =-.26, Pfat. Middle-aged women with lower android-to-gynoid fat ratio had higher SEVR (1.96±0.33 vs 1.66±0.20, P=.009) than women with higher fat ratio, even after adjusting for age, height, daily physical activity, and aortic mean pressure (P=.02). Adjusting for heart rate or diastolic time abolished the difference in SEVR between groups (1.80±0.09 vs 1.82±0.09, P=.56). These results suggest that middle-aged women with a greater distribution of fat in the abdomen have poorer left ventricular function that is dependent on the negative influence of heart rate on diastolic time.

  5. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  6. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  7. The effect of semi-permanent eddies on the distribution of mesozooplankton in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.

    species richness diminished with the dwindling dissolved oxygen concentrations north of 15N. It is inferred that in the intensely stratified surface waters of the central BoB, cold-core eddies are important for promoting considerable biological production...

  8. Nature and distribution of manganese nodules from three sediment domains of the Central Indian Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    from northern and central region, dominatEd. by terrigenous and terrigenous-siliceous mixed sediments, respectively. Effects of lysocline and sediment diagenesis are envisaged for trace metal enrichment in rough nodules of the southern region. Influence...

  9. Combining a finite mixture distribution model with indicator kriging to delineate and map the spatial patterns of soil heavy metal pollution in Chunghua County, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Cheng, Bai-You; Shyu, Guey-Shin; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the natural background, anthropogenic background and distribution of contamination caused by heavy metal pollutants in soil in Chunghua County of central Taiwan by using a finite mixture distribution model (FMDM). The probabilities of contaminated area distribution are mapped using single-variable indicator kriging and multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) with the FMDM cut-off values and regulation thresholds for heavy metals. FMDM results indicate that Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn can be individually fitted by a mixture model representing the background and contamination distributions of the four metals in soil. The FMDM cut-off values for contamination caused by the metals are close to the regulation thresholds, except for the cut-off value of Zn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve validates that indicator kriging and MVIK with FMDM cut-off values can reliably delineate heavy metals contamination, particularly for areas lacking background information and high heavy metal concentrations in soil.

  10. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relaci

  11. Injeção de gordura na prega vocal: efeitos do local de injeção sobre a configuração glótica e a distribuição espacial da gordura injetada Fat injection into the vocal fold: effects of the place of injection on the configuration of the glottis and the spatial distribution of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Imamura

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A injeção intracordal de gordura tem sido utilizada para medializar a prega vocal em casos de paralisia laríngea, com resultados variáveis. A ausência de consenso entre os autores em relação a diversos aspectos técnicos, como o local de injeção, pode contribuir, em parte, para essa variação. OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito do local de injeção em relação à distribuição espacial da gordura dentro da prega vocal e à configuração glótica após essas injeções. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Seis laringes adultas excisadas foram utilizadas. Gordura colhida por lipoaspiração foi injetada, por meio de uma seringa de pressão, no ponto médio da prega vocal em três laringes e lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide em outras três. Fotografias digitais em vista cranial da glote foram obtidas antes e após as injeções. Após fixação e descalcificação, as laringes foram cortadas no plano frontal nos terços anterior, médio e posterior da prega vocal e no nível da cartilagem aritenóide, para estudar a distribuição da gordura. RESULTADOS: Somente a injeção de gordura lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide permitiu o fechamento da glote posterior. A gordura tendeu a ocupar um espaço cilíndrico dentro do músculo tireoaritenóideo, ao longo do maior eixo da prega vocal, mesmo quando injetada próximo ao processo vocal. CONCLUSÕES: O local de injeção da gordura teve influência sobre a configuração glótica após a injeção, apesar da gordura tender a ocupar um espaço cilíndrico ao longo da prega vocal em ambos os grupos.Intracordal fat injection has been used for vocal fold medialization in cases of laryngeal paralysis with variable results. A lack of consensus among the authors concerning various technical aspects, such as the site of injection, may contribute, in part, to this variation. AIM: To study the effects of the place of fat injection on the spatial distribution of fat and

  12. CeCaFDB: a curated database for the documentation, visualization and comparative analysis of central carbon metabolic flux distributions explored by 13C-fluxomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengdong; Shen, Tie; Rui, Bin; Zhou, Wenwei; Zhou, Xiangfei; Shang, Chuanyu; Xin, Chenwei; Liu, Xiaoguang; Li, Gang; Jiang, Jiansi; Li, Chao; Li, Ruiyuan; Han, Mengshu; You, Shanping; Yu, Guojun; Yi, Yin; Wen, Han; Liu, Zhijie; Xie, Xiaoyao

    2015-01-01

    The Central Carbon Metabolic Flux Database (CeCaFDB, available at http://www.cecafdb.org) is a manually curated, multipurpose and open-access database for the documentation, visualization and comparative analysis of the quantitative flux results of central carbon metabolism among microbes and animal cells. It encompasses records for more than 500 flux distributions among 36 organisms and includes information regarding the genotype, culture medium, growth conditions and other specific information gathered from hundreds of journal articles. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the CeCaFDB supports a common text search function among the data and interactive visualization of the curated flux distributions with compartmentation information based on the Cytoscape Web API, which facilitates data interpretation. The CeCaFDB offers four modules to calculate a similarity score or to perform an alignment between the flux distributions. One of the modules was built using an inter programming algorithm for flux distribution alignment that was specifically designed for this study. Based on these modules, the CeCaFDB also supports an extensive flux distribution comparison function among the curated data. The CeCaFDB is strenuously designed to address the broad demands of biochemists, metabolic engineers, systems biologists and members of the -omics community.

  13. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  14. Environmental Suitability and Distribution of the Caucasian Rock Agama, Paralaudakia caucasia (Sauria:Agamidae) in Western and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Saeed HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI; Gentile Francesco FICETOLA; Nasrullah RASTEGAR-POUYANI; Natalia B ANANJEVA; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI; Rafaqat MASROOR

    2013-01-01

    Predictive potential distribution modeling is crucial in outlining habitat usage and establishing conservation management priorities. In this paper we provide detailed data on the distribution of the Caucasian rock agama Para-laudakia caucasia, and use species distribution models (MAXENT) to evaluate environmental suitability and potential distribution at a broad spatial scale. Locality data on the distribution of P. caucasia have been gathered over nearly its entire range by various authors from ifeld surveys. The distribution model of P. caucasia showed good performance (AUC=0.887), and predicted high suitability in regions mainly located in Tajikistan, north Pakistan, Afghanistan, southeast Turkmenistan, northeast Iran along the Elburz mountains, Transcaucasus (Azerbajan, Armenia, Georgia), northeastern Turkey and northward along the Caspian Sea coast in Daghestan, Russia. The identiifcation of suitable areas for this species will help to assess conservation status of the species, and to set up management programs.

  15. Variation in the distribution of wintering anchovy Engraulis japonicus and its relationship with water temperature in the central and southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingxiang; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a shift in the spatial distribution of wintering anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and its relationship with water temperature, using data collected by bottom trawl surveys and remote sensing in the central and southern Yellow Sea, during 2000-2015. Our results indicate that the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy varied between years, but there was no consistent pattern in the direction of change (north or south). Wintering anchovy did not move northward with increasing water temperature. However, the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy correlated well with 10°C and 11°C isotherms. The results of both a one-step and a two-step generalized additive model indicated that water temperature was associated with both presence and biomass of wintering anchovy. This paper is the first to systematically examine the relationship between anchovy distribution and water temperature using a variety of techniques. All the findings confirm the impact of water temperature on wintering anchovy distribution, which has important implications for the continued management of the anchovy resource and the enhancement of marine fishery resources in the Yellow Sea, especially as the climate changes. However water temperature only partly explains the species distribution of anchovy, and stock characteristics also affect fishery distribution. Therefore, other factors should be considered in future research.

  16. Atmospheric deposition and soil vertical distribution of {sup 7}Be in a semiarid region of central Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohaiza, Flavia A.; Velasco, Hugo; Ayub, Jimena Juri; Rizzotto, Marcos; Valladares, Diego L. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis, Universidad Nacional de San Luis - CONICET, Ejercito de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    Beryllium-7 is a potentially powerful tracer of soil erosion but poor information on {sup 7}Be atmospheric deposition and associated soil inventories in a semiarid region of Central Argentina exists. We estimated the {sup 7}Be atmospheric wet deposition and {sup 7}Be inventory in undisturbed soils north of the City of San Luis (S 33 deg. 9'; W 66 deg. 16') and explored its seasonal variation. Rain and soil samples were collected during 2006-2008 and 2009-2012, respectively. The atmospheric wet deposition was estimated considering both the mean activity concentration in rainwater and the precipitation regime of the region. Using the assessed monthly wet deposition of {sup 7}Be, the expected {sup 7}Be areal activity in soil was estimated applying a simple model. These estimated values were confronted with the experimental measurements in soil. The {sup 7}Be rainwater activity concentration ranged from 0.7 to 3.2 Bq l{sup -1}, with a mean of 1.7 Bq l{sup -1} (sd = 0.53 Bq l{sup -1}). A good linear relationship between {sup 7}Be wet deposition and rain magnitude was obtained (R=0.92, p<0.0001). The wet deposition on soil ranged from 1.1 to 120 Bq m{sup -2} with a mean value of 32.7 Bq m-2 (sd = 29.9 Bq m-2). The annual depositional flux was estimated at 1140 ± 120 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. The {sup 7}Be mass activity (Bq kg{sup -1}) values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). A typical decreasing exponential function of {sup 7}Be areal activity (Bq m{sup -2}) with soil mass depth (kg m{sup -2}) was found and the distribution parameters for each month were determined. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m{sup -2} in August, reaching the maximum of 438 Bq m{sup -2} in February. The relaxation mass depth ranged from 2.9 kg m{sup -2} in March to 1.3 kg m{sup -2} in August. The confrontation of experimental measurements in soil with the estimated values using the model showed a good agreement

  17. The time-space distribution of Eocene to Miocene magmatism in the central Peruvian polymetallic province and its metallogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Thomas; Ullrich, Thomas D.; Tosdal, Richard M.; Friedman, Richard; Ebert, Shane

    2008-07-01

    rocks west of Tarma (21-20 Ma). A relationship between the Oligocene intrusions and polymetallic mineralization at Uchucchacua is possible, but evidence remains inconclusive. Widespread magmatism resumed in the middle Miocene and includes large igneous complexes in the Cordillera Occidental to the south of Domo de Yauli, and smaller scattered intrusive centers to the north thereof. Ore deposits of modest size are widely associated with middle Miocene intrusions along the Cordillera Occidental, north of Domo de Yauli. However, small volcanic centers were also active up to 50 km east of the continental divide and include dacitic dikes and domes, spatially associated with major base and precious metal mineralization at Cerro de Pasco and Colquijirca. Basaltic volcanism (14.54 ± 0.49 Ma) is locally observed in the back-arc domain south of Domo de Yauli approximately 30 km east of the Cordillera Occidental. After about 10 Ma intrusive activity decreased throughout Central Perú and ceased between 6 and 5 Ma. Late Miocene magmatism was locally related to important mineralization including San Cristobal (Domo de Yauli), Huarón and Yauricocha. Overall, there is no evidence for a systematic eastward migration of the magmatic arc through time. The arc broadened in the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and thereafter ceased over wide areas until the early Miocene, when magmatism resumed in a narrow arc. A renewed widening and subsequent cessation of the arc occurred in the late middle and late Miocene. The pattern of magmatism probably reflects two cycles of flattening of the subduction in the Oligocene and late Miocene. Contrasting crustal architecture between areas south and north of Domo de Yauli probably account for the differences in the temporal and aerial distribution of magmatism in these areas. Ore deposits are most abundant between Domo de Yauli and Cerro de Pasco and were generally emplaced in the middle and late Miocene during the transition to flat subduction and

  18. Dietary patterns associated with anthropometric indicators of abdominal fat in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Freitas Vilela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and assess their association with abdominal fat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central West Region of Brazil with a probabilistic sample of 208 adults of both sexes. Data on food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis (principal components was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were used to assess abdominal fat. The association between dietary patterns and body fat distribution was examined using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, regional traditional, and prudent. A positive association was found between the Western pattern and WC (p = 0.04 and WHR (p = 0.001 and between the regional traditional pattern and WHR (p = 0.05 among women. A slight association was also found between the latter pattern and WC (p = 0.07 also among women. An association was found between the Western and regional traditional dietary patterns and a larger concentration of abdominal fat among women.

  19. One-, two-, and three-particle distributions from 158A GeV/c central Pb+Pb collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggarwal, MM; Angelis, ALS; Antonenko, [No Value; Arefiev, [No Value; Astakhov, [No Value; Avdeitchikov, [No Value; Awes, TC; Baba, PVKS; Badyal, SK; Bathe, S; Batiounia, B; Bernier, T; Bhalla, KB; Bhatia, VS; Blume, C; Bucher, D; Busching, H; Carlen, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Decowski, MP; Delagrange, H; Donni, P; Majumdar, MRD; El Chenawi, K; Enosawa, K; Fokin, S; Frolov, [No Value; Ganti, MS; Garpman, S; Gavrishchuk, O; Geurts, FJM; Ghosh, TK; Glasow, R; Guskov, B; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, HH; Hrivnacova, [No Value; Ippolitov, M; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Karadjev, K; Karpio, K; Kolb, BW; Kosarev, [No Value; Koutcheryaev, [No Value; Kugler, A; Kulinich, P; Kurata, M; Lebedev, A; Lohner, H; Mahapatra, DP; Manko, [No Value; Martin, M; Martinez, G; Maximov, A; Miake, Y; Mishra, GC; Mohanty, B; Mora, MJ; Morrison, D; Mukhanova, T; Mukhopadhyay, DS; Naef, H; Nandi, BK; Nayak, SK; Nayak, TK; Nianine, A; Nikitine, [No Value; Nikolaev, S; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nomokonov, P; Nystrand, J; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, [No Value; Peitzmann, T; Peressounko, D; Petracek, [No Value; Plasil, F; Purschke, ML; Rak, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Rao, NK; Reygers, K; Roland, G; Rosselet, L; Roufanov, [No Value; Rubio, JM; Sambyal, SS; Santo, R; Sato, S; Schlagheck, H; Schutz, Y; Shabratova, G; Shah, TH; Sibiriak, [No Value; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Sinha, BC; Slavine, N; Soderstrom, K; Sood, G; Sorensen, SP; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Sumbera, M; Svensson, T; Tsvetkov, A.; Tykarski, L; v d Pijll, EC; v Eijndhoven, N; v Nieuwenhuizen, GJ; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, YP; Vodopianov, A; Voros, S; Wyslouch, B; Young, GR

    2003-01-01

    Several hadronic observables have been studied in central 158A GeV Pb+Pb collisions using data measured by the WA98 experiment at CERN: single pi(-) and K- production, as well as two- and three-pion interferometry. The Wiedemann-Heinz hydrodynamical model has been fitted to the pion spectrum, giving

  20. Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Minke whales were recorded in the central North Sea in an area characterised by frontal features and high productivity northeast of the Dogger Bank (4677 km2). Survey efforts were carried out from 28 March to 2 July 2007, at a finer scale than in earlier studies in the region, using 2 vessels as pla

  1. Estimating regional pore pressure distribution using 3D seismic velocities in the Dutch Central North Sea Graben

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthaegen, P.L.A.; Verweij, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The application of the empirical Eaton method to calibrated sonic well information and 3D seismic interval velocity data in the southeastern part of the Central North Sea Graben, using the Japsen (Glob. Planet. Change 24 (2000) 189) normal velocitydepth trend, resulted in the identification of an un

  2. The relationship between body mass index, total body fat, body fat distribution, and dyslipidemia in the elderly%老年人体质量指数、体脂总量及分布与血脂异常的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安奇志; 马婧; 于康; 李融融; 李春微

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察老年人体质量指数、总体脂肪及分布与血脂异常的相关性.方法 连续定点抽取2013年10月至2014年3月在北京协和医院接受年度体检的395名健康老年人进行调查.采用多频生物电阻抗测定体质量、总体脂肪(TBF)、腹部脂肪(AF)、内脏脂肪(VF)、内脏脂肪面积(VFA)和腰臀围比值(WHR),并测定血清三酰甘油(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C).分析体质量指数(BMI)、TBF及分布与血脂异常的相关性.结果 老年男性肥胖(17.8%比9.6%,P=0.036)、超重(49.6%比30.4%,P=0.000)和血脂异常(67.0%比44.8%,P=0.000)发生率均显著高于女性.女性表现为TBF%显著增高(60.0%比41.1%,P=0.001).TC分别与TBF (P =0.020)、AF (P =0.018)、VF (P=0.015)和VFA (P =0.017)呈正相关;TG分别与BMI(P=0.000)、TBF(P=0.000)、WHR(P=0.000)、AF(P=0.000)、VF (P =0.000)和VFA (P=0.000)呈正相关;LDL-C分别与BMI (P =0.049)、TBF (P =0.005)、AF(P=0.004)、VF (P=0.003)和VFA (P=0.004)呈正相关,而HDL-C分别与BMI(P=0.000)、TBF(P=0.020)、WHR(P=0.000)、AF (P=0.021)、VF (P=0.024)和VFA (P=0.022)呈负相关.BMI、TBF、WHR、AF、VF和VFA预测血脂异常风险的受试者工作特征曲线均在参考线上方.超重和肥胖组TBF(P=0.000)、WHR(P=0.000)、AF (P=0.000)、VF (P=0.000)、VFA (P=0.000)、TG (P =0.000)和LDL-C(女性:P=0.021)均显著高于体质量正常组.结论 肥胖/超重和体脂总量超标及腰围增大,可增加老年人血脂异常的发生风险.%Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI),total body fat (TBF),body fat distribution,and dyslipidemia in the elderly.Methods A total of 395 healthy elderly people who had annual examination at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were consecutively enrolled from October 2013 to March 2014.Body weight (BW),TBF,abdominal fat (AF),visceral fat (VF),visceral fat area (VFA) and waist

  3. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans fats Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are known ... your own salads instead of using commercial dressings. Saturated fats and trans fats are known as the “harmful ...

  4. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper......% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  5. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biscuits, sweet rolls, and donuts Breads and crackers Frozen foods, such as frozen dinners, pizza, ice cream, frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and ...

  6. How to Lose Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Maxwell; 钱俊

    2005-01-01

    Here is yet another article about losing body fat. The Interact is riddled with such articles, Some propose complex diets; others give worth while valuable advice and most are trying to sell something.

  7. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  8. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and coconut oils, cheese, and red meat have high amounts of ... pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm kernel oils (found in packaged ...

  9. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  10. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  11. Merging plot and Landsata data to estimate the frequency distribution of Central Amazon mortality event size for landscape-scale ecosystem simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    Mitigation strategies and estimates of land use change emissions assume initial states of landscapes that respond to prescribed scenarios. The Amazon basin is a target for both mitigation (e.g. maintenance of old-growth forest) and land use change (e.g. agriculture), but the current states of its old-growth and secondary forest landscapes are uncertain with respect to carbon cycling. Contributing to this uncertainty in old-growth forest ecosystems is a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the areal fraction of any particular stage relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Old-growth mosaics are generally created through ongoing effects of tree mortality, with the Central Amazon mosaic generated primarily by wind mortality. Unfortunately, estimation of generalizable frequency distributions of mortality event size has been hindered by limited spatial and temporal scales of observations. To overcome these limitations we merge field and remotely sensed tree mortality data and fit the top two candidate distributions (power law and exponential) to these data to determine the most appropriate statistical mortality model for use in landscape-scale ecosystem simulations. Our results show that the power law model better represents the distribution of mortality event size than the exponential model. We also use an individual-tree-based forest stand model to simulate a 100 ha landscape using the best fit of each candidate distribution to demonstrate the effects of different mortality regimes on above ground biomass in the Central Amazon forest mosaic. We conclude that the correct mortality distribution model is critical for robust simulation of patch succession dynamics and above ground biomass.

  12. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  13. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the central Baltic Sea: seasonal phenology and hydrographic influence on spatio-temporal distribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, M.; Haslob, H.; Huwer, Bastian;

    2011-01-01

    the invasion and related to ambient hydrographic parameters. Results show a clear seasonal pattern. In contrast to the majority of other native and exotic habitats, the seasonal phenology showed highest abundances in spring and autumn months and only sporadic or even no appearance during summer. Vertical...... distribution was mostly confined to water layers below the permanent halocline and significantly influenced by ambient temperature. Our results indicate that there is no self-sustaining population of M. leidyi in the central Baltic Sea. Instead, the species is most likely re-introduced into the Bornholm Basin...

  14. Parasite loads and altitudinal distribution of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes Cargas parasitarias y distribución de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN H. CAROTHERS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the distributions of ten species of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes to the distributions of four types of parasites: malaria-causing Plasmodium, gut nematodes, ticks, and mites. We wanted to see if parasite numbers might be a factor in determining distributional limits of the lizards. We found that there was no evidence of malarial infestation of the lizards, that ticks were almost absent, that more often than not mite numbers decreased at the distributional limits of the lizards, and that gut nematodes confined to the herbivorous lizards in our sample may well be beneficial rather than detrimental. Rather than parasitism, other biotic interactions (e.g., predation or competition are more likely candidates as factors influencing lizard elevational distributions, as are abiotic characteristics such as microhabitat availabilities and thermal factorsEste estudio compara las distribuciones de diez especies de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central, con las distribuciones de cuatro tipos de parásitos: Plasmodium causantes de malaria, nemátodos intestinales, garrapatas y ácaros. Quisimos verificar si los números de parásitos pudieran ser un factor determinante de los límites de distribución de las lagartijas. Encontramos que no había evidencia de infestación por malaria en las lagartijas; que las garrapatas estaban casi ausentes; que los números de ácaros más a menudo decrecían que aumentaban en los límites distribucionales de las lagartijas; y que los nemátodos intestinales confinados a las lagartijas herbívoras en nuestra muestra bien podían ser beneficiosos antes que dañinos. Más bien que parasitismo, otras interacciones bióticas (e.g., depredación o competencia son candidatos más probables como factores que influyen las distribuciones altitudinales de las lagartijas, además de características abióticas tales como la disponibilidad de microhábitats y los factores térmicos

  15. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has...

  16. Influence of lipid type on water and fat mobility in fermented sausages studied by low-field NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklos, R; Mora-Gallego, H; Larsen, F H; Serra, X; Cheong, L-Z; Xu, X; Arnau, J; Lametsch, R

    2014-01-01

    The effects of diacylglycerols (DAG), pork back fat and sunflower oil on water and fat mobility in fermented sausages were studied with (1)H NMR relaxometry. The added fat affected the physicochemical parameters weight loss, water activity, moisture content and moisture content on a defatted-dry-matter basis of reduced-fat non-acid fermented sausages. The weight losses were the lowest in sausages prepared with DAG and sunflower oil, which resulted in higher water activity compared to sausages prepared with back fat. The relaxation times related to fat mobility differed between fat types and increased in the order: controlfatfat mobility were ascribed to differences in the fat distribution caused by deviations in the physicochemical properties of the fat types.

  17. Cuspy No More: How Outflows Affect the Central Dark Matter and Baryon Distribution in Lambda CDM Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, F; Pontzen, A; Christensen, C; Oh, S H; Brooks, A M; Quinn, T; Shen, S; Wadsley, J

    2012-01-01

    We examine the evolution of the inner dark matter (DM) and baryonic density profile of a new sample of simulated field galaxies using fully cosmological, Lambda CDM, high resolution SPH + N-Body simulations. These simulations include explicit H2 and metal cooling, star formation (SF) and supernovae (SNe) driven gas outflows. Starting at high redshift, rapid, repeated gas outflows following bursty SF transfer energy to the DM component and significantly flatten the originally `cuspy' central DM mass profile of galaxies with present day stellar masses in the 10^4.5 -- 10^9.8 Msolar range. At z=0, the central slope of the DM density profile of our galaxies (measured between 0.3 and 0.7 kpc from their centre) is well fitted by rhoDM propto r^alpha with alpha \\simeq -0.5 + 0.35 log_10(Mstar/10^8Msolar) where Mstar is the stellar mass of the galaxy and 4 < log_10 Mstar < 9.4. These values imply DM profiles flatter than those obtained in DM--only simulations and in close agreement with those inferred in galaxi...

  18. Fat-Tailed Distributions and Levy Processes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The notion that natural disasters can be controlled is, of course, farcical; history is permeated with examples of countless failed attempts at this pointless task; it is synonymous with trying to build a perpetual motion machine. Nonetheless, there are ways to reduce their impact on human communities, particularly by looking away from the normal hypothesis.

  19. Distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy and its implication in larvicidal application in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    Distribution of mosquito larvae in inundated rice fields is poorly known despite its profound implications in implementation of vector control programs. Based on oviposition behavior of gravid females and biotic and abiotic conditions of the rice field, distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy may vary greatly. As a guide to implementation of mosquito vector control program targeting the aquatic stages in the rice fields in Mwea, studies were conducted to determine the distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy. Twenty-eight cages measuring 50 cm3 were distributed randomly within the paddy during the transplanting stage of the rice growth cycle, and were examined twice per week up to the flowering stage to determine mosquito oviposition pattern. A total of 17,218 mosquito larvae were collected at the periphery and a further 17,570 at the center of the paddy. These comprised 7,461 larvae from the genus Anopheles and 27,327 from genus Culex. The number of pupae collected at the periphery was 1,004 and 1.5 times greater than the number collected at the center. Significantly higher counts of Anopheles larvae were collected at the center (1.00 +/- 0.11) than at the periphery (0.55 +/- 0.05) of the paddy during transplanting stage, but the difference was not significant during the tillering stage. In contrast, significantly higher numbers of Culex larvae were collected from the periphery (3.09 +/- 0.39) than at the center (2.81 +/- 0.24) of the paddy. More pupae were also collected at the center than at the periphery of the paddy. These findings indicate the distribution of Anopheles and Culex larvae in rice fields to be nonrandom; however, for successful achievement of an integrated vector control program targeting the diverse mosquito fauna occurring in rice fields, there is need to target the whole paddy for larvicidal application.

  20. Dynamical fat link fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

  1. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  2. Centrality dependence of the pseudorapidity density distribution for charged particles in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; An, Mangmang; Andrei, Cristian; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Esumi, Shinichi; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Garg, Prakhar; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Grull, Frederik Rolf; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Isakov, Vladimir; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lazaridis, Lazaros; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Mishra, Tribeni; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palni, Prabhakar; 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Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; 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    2016-01-01

    We present the charged-particle pseudorapidity density in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02\\,\\mathrm{Te\\kern-.25exV}$ in centrality classes measured by ALICE. The measurement covers a wide pseudorapidity