WorldWideScience

Sample records for central energy source

  1. Spherical explosion with central energy source

    CERN Document Server

    Masuyama, Miyu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution describing the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements to satisfy boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus derived applicable range, and compare with the semi-analytic solutions.

  2. Spherical explosion with a central energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Miyu; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution that describes the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements needed to satisfy the boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus-derived applicable range, and compare the results with the semi-analytic solutions.

  3. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  4. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  5. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  6. Spontaneous ash tree reforestation in the Central Pyrenees: a future local energy source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Elyakime

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the agricultural economy of the Central Pyrenees in steady decline, natural forest stands are colonising abandoned agricultural meadows. The present study seeks to define the economic conditions for a new fuel-wood local economy based on these extensions of the forest cover. Farmer/forest owners are capable of exploiting this resource, involving logging, hauling and cutting the wood to size, to meet their own heating needs. In this way, owners could thus recuperate a maximum unit value estimated at 11.2 to 22.3 € per stere (1 cubic metre, or an average value of 16.8 € per stere after deduction of all costs. An economy based on wood energy, using wood from spontaneously generated forest growth on private land, is therefore possible. A development policy for such an activity could be envisaged with appropriate initiatives to stimulate the owners of land where spontaneous ash reforestation has occurred to harvest this potential resource.

  7. Spontaneous ash tree reforestation in the Central Pyrenees: a future local energy source?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Elyakime; Laurent Larrieu; Alain Cabanettes; Laurent Burnel

    2012-01-01

    With the agricultural economy of the Central Pyrenees in steady decline, natural forest stands are colonising abandoned agricultural meadows. The present study seeks to define the economic conditions for a new fuel-wood local economy based on these extensions of the forest cover. Farmer/forest owners are capable of exploiting this resource, involving logging, hauling and cutting the wood to size, to meet their own heating needs. In this way, owners could thus recuperate a maximum unit value e...

  8. Central solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  9. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  10. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  11. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles.

  12. CHINA AND ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Pan

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.

  13. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  14. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. 污水源热泵中心能源站设计研究%Design of central energy station with sewage source heat pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灵艳; 朱清宇; 路宾; 沈亮

    2012-01-01

    作为区域能源中心,污水源热泵中心能源站的设计特点与小型污水源热泵系统设计不同,设计过程中要从安全性、经济性和节能性进行综合考虑.以一个实际污水源热泵站项目为例,探讨了大型污水源热泵站设计过程中,污水侧低温热源、外网布置、机组配置、用户侧末端设置等值得注意的相关问题,总结了污水源热泵站的设计特点.并将实际项目与传统的电制冷加锅炉供热方式进行比较,其经济性、节能环保效果十分显著.%As a district energy centre, the station is different from a small-scale one in design characteristics, requiring that the safety, cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency be comprehensively considered during the designing. Based on a practical project, discusses several noteworthy points including the low temperature heat source in the sewage side, heat/cold supply network arrangement, units configuration, user-side terminal settings, etc., and summarizes the design characteristics of the central station. Compares it with the traditional HVAC systems in the mode of power-driven refrigeration plus boiler heating, showing that it is more advantageous in the effects of economics, environmental protection and energy efficiency.

  16. Uranium: inexhaustible energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exist two social worries in reference with the use of energy, to know, the first is the availability of energy resources for the near future, in terms that the main energy sources at the present, petroleum has a foreseeable limit, and the other, the possible negative effects that the use of fossil fuels, coal among them could have on the environment, the ecology and the life conditions for the human being in general. This two worries take us to consider the availability of uranium, as an alternate energy source for the future of the mankind, considering its lesser ecological impact, since it can be controlled. in this study, the results of several investigations concerning to the abundance, energetic content, extraction costs and the appropiate use of the uranium existing in the earth crust determining the period of time that this fuel can be used as energy source to satisfy the demand of a growing population of human beings on the eart, are re-examined. It is concluded that the utilization of this fuel in the so caled breeder reactors, could satisfy the energy demand for the whole humanity for a long period of time comparable to the life of the sunas a yellow star. (Author)

  17. A New Energy Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign energy companies are flocking to China to participate in the development of a potentially meaningful new energy source, coalbed methane, which is found in coal deposits. China United Coalbed Methane Co. Ltd. signed a contract with U.S.-based Orion Energy International Inc. on April 5 to jointly exploit the resource in the Sanjiao region of coal-rich Shanxi Province. Covering an area of some 462 square km, Sanjiao is home to rich coalbed methane reserves with thick, multi-level coalbeds that have ...

  18. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  19. Central solar-energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  20. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded.

  1. Energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to an energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source, wherein said electrochemical energy source comprises at least one assembly of a first electrode, a second electrode, and an intermediate solid-state electrolyte separating said first electrode and said second elec

  2. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  3. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  4. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  5. Economics and energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2013-01-01

    Energy-based instrumentation has not only facilitated the rapid adoption of laparoscopic surgery, but could be considered essential for the completion of abdominal and pelvic procedures under endoscopic guidance. For decades, relatively simple and generic reusable monopolar and bipolar systems were the only options available. More recently, the available options for energy-based surgical instrumentation have become more crowded with the introduction of ultrasound-based cutting and sealing instruments and proprietary, impedance monitoring radiofrequency coagulation devices. Such instrumentation is presented as being easier to use as well as providing greater safety and efficacy. However, these new instruments typically require the expenditure of capital for proprietary energy generators and are usually designed to be for single use, a circumstance that increases per case costs, a circumstance that begs the question of value. Do the additional costs expended for the more expensive devices translate into reduced complications, faster operating time, or even wider access to minimally invasive procedures because they enable more surgeons to offer the service? Herein is explored the complex economic issues associated with the use of energy-based surgical devices as they apply to minimal access surgery in general and to laparoscopic procedures specifically. PMID:23659752

  6. Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 98, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional Meeting for Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 63 articles from Slovenia, sorounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: Research Reactors, Nuclear Methods, Reactor Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Structural Analysis, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Severe Accidents, NPP Operation and Nuclear Waste disposal

  7. Economy of Alternative Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Pincová, Olga

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is about electricity production generated from renewable energy sources and their relation to investors and to the objectives of Czech Republic set by European Union. First part of this theses introduces renewable energy sources and conditions for their usage. Second part evaluates, by means of econometrics and three predefined scenarios, whether it is possible to meet objectives given by Strategy Europe 2020. In the third part, these scenarios are evaluated by mi...

  8. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  9. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U.S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer.

  10. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  11. CHINA’S STRATEGY OF ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U.S.recently launched strategy of rebalancing to Asia worsens the atmosphere forChina’s energy security and increases the risks for energy transportation from Africa and theMiddle East. The diversification of energy sources is a reasonable strategic choice, so the importance of the Eurasian continent forChinaincreases. Central Asia does not play anymore a supporting role in the agenda ofChina’s energy security strategy. It is rather becoming a region of major strategic importance.

  12. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  13. Development of Renewable Energies in the liberation of the energy market in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the diagnostic of the current situation on renewable energy in Central America, including socio-economical situation, with economical index, supply and demand of energy and planning of wind resources. The experience of Europe in the promotion for the market of renewable energy, discussing the policies and cooperation between private sector and the government is included. A list of potential projects of renewable energy in each country of Central America based on biomass, hydro power, wind and other energy sources for power generation is presented

  14. Attitudes Concerning Wind Energy in Central Illinois

    OpenAIRE

    Theron, Sophie; Winter, J. Randy; David G. Loomis; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United Sates has been increasing and the cost of fossil fuels has been unstable in recent years. Expanding investment in renewable energy is one way to reduce the nation’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the Not-In-My-Back- Yard (NIMBY) opposition and various concerns raised at public hearings may inhibit the expansion of wind energy in Illinois. This study aims to characterize the public beliefs and opinions toward wind energy in central Illinois.

  15. Modeling contaminant concentration distributions in China's centralized source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Qian, Song S; Hao, Fanghua; Cheng, Hongguang; Zhu, Dangsheng; Zhang, Jianyong

    2011-07-15

    Characterizing contaminant occurrences in China's centralized source waters can provide an understanding of source water quality for stakeholders. The single-factor (i.e., worst contaminant) water-quality assessment method, commonly used in Chinese official analysis and publications, provides a qualitative summary of the country's water-quality status but does not specify the extent and degree of specific contaminant occurrences at the national level. Such information is needed for developing scientifically sound management strategies. This article presents a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach for estimating contaminant concentration distributions in China's centralized source waters using arsenic and fluoride as examples. The data used are from the most recent national census of centralized source waters in 2006. The article uses three commonly used source water stratification methods to establish alternative hierarchical structures reflecting alternative model assumptions as well as competing management needs in characterizing pollutant occurrences. The results indicate that the probability of arsenic exceeding the standard of 0.05 mg/L is about 0.96-1.68% and the probability of fluoride exceeding 1 mg/L is about 9.56-9.96% nationally, both with strong spatial patterns. The article also discusses the use of the Bayesian approach for establishing a source water-quality information management system as well as other applications of our methods. PMID:21692445

  16. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  17. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  18. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Vyacheslav Vasilievich; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Rostovshchikova, А.; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative a...

  19. Nuclear energy options for Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The five countries of Central Asia have a strong basis for the development of commercial nuclear energy. Several test reactors have operated within the region, including the Ak tau BN350 - a very advanced fast breeder reactor combined with a large water desalination plant. The Central Asian countries have a large cadre of well-trained nuclear scientists and engineers who could operate and maintain nuclear power plants and expanded nuclear fuel infrastructure as they evolve. The Central Asia region experiences significant demand for base-load energy in major population centers and industrial development areas. A well-developed electricity transmission grid could transmit nuclear-generated electricity from the power stations to the load centers. Finally, given the large land area and the relatively small population (in relation to the size of the region) there exist many remote and stable sites where nuclear generation centers can be sited and connected to the transmission grid. A good example is the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (STS) whose vast area could easily contain several nuclear power plants, which would be cooled by the water flow of the Irtish River. The Kazakhstan authorities have already identified several potential nuclear power plant sites within the national transmission system, the STS being one such prospective site. The large-scale availability of uranium in the region affords the uranium exporting countries - particularly Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan - significant leverage with international nuclear reactor vendors in establishing the terms for nuclear plant imports into the region. Such leverage could further be increased if multiple reactor orders are submitted, for instance by two or more countries ordering similar types of plants to be installed at various sites in their territories. The added value of the uranium exports from Central Asia does not have to be measured only in terms of supporting the development of fuel cycle

  20. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  1. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Marconi, M.; Frosini, D.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; di Sarra, A.; Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; Bommarito, C.; Monteleone, F.; Anello, F.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E; 45 m a.s.l.), which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by ion chromatography (IC), the soluble metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). Data from 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was applied to the 2-year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulfate due to ship emissions was estimated and found to contribute by about one-third to the total sulfate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent approaches, leading to an

  2. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  3. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  4. Scheduling under non-reversible energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ngueveu, Sandra Ulrich; Artigues, Christian; Lopez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address a preemptive scheduling problem involving multiple non-reversible energy sources. To the classical scheduling issue, an additional decision level is added regarding the selection of the energy source used to satisfy the total power demand of tasks processed at each instant. Different non-reversible energy sources are available, with different characteristics in terms of efficiency and power range. The objective is to identify the best combination between scheduling a...

  5. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  6. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Calzolai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions, and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E, 45 m a.s.l., which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away. After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by Ion Chromatography (IC, the soluble metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES, and the total (soluble + insoluble elemental composition by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE. Data from years 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF model was applied to the 2 year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the Central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea-salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea-salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulphate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulphate due to ship emissions was estimated, and found to contribute by about one third to the total sulphate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent

  7. Possibility of accumulation of energy from renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hanuš, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses issues of renewable sources energy accumulation. The first part describes possibilities of gaining energy from renewable sources, especially in our climatic conditions. In the second part a summary of energy accumulation methods is presented. The last part in detail analyses energy accumulation process at a pumped-storage power plant in conditions of the Czech Republic.

  8. Simulation of energy scan of pion interferometry in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a systematic analysis of two-pion interferometry for the central Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 3, 5, 7, 11, 17, 27, 39, 62, 130 and 200 GeV/c with the help of a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. Emission source-size radius parameters Rlong, Rout, Rside and the chaotic parameter λ are extracted and compared with the experimental data. Transverse momentum and azimuthal angle dependencies of the HBT radii are also discussed for central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV/c. The results show that the HBT radii in central collisions do not change much above 7 GeV/c. For central collisions at 200 GeV/c, the radii decrease with the increasing of transverse momentum pT but are not sensitive to the azimuthal angle. These results provide a theoretical reference for the energy scan program of the RHIC-STAR experiment. (authors)

  9. Thorium is an ultimate source of energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, HungGeun; Lee, Sangcheol

    2013-01-01

    This article is written for readers to help the understanding of thorium as an alternative source of nuclear energy. Thorium (Thorium) can be applied for reactor fuels and thorium energy development such as ADSR; Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor. This particle explains the thorium as a possible choice to replace of uranium to supply enormous energy could be the energy source. A Korean article published in "Science Times" in South Korea. The article is based on an interview ...

  10. Sustainable Energy Sources and Developing Clean Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, A. Heitor; Miguel, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    Energy and sustainability are issues in the global agenda. The concern for the impacts of energy use, which adds to the alarm for the scarcity of primary sources of energy has triggered new research on sustainable primary energy sources and on clean and efficient energy systems and processes. Due to the current global warming, the link between energy and environment becomes inescapable in such a way that researchers have to deal both with efficiency and environmental impacts.

  11. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2009-01-01

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of f...

  12. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortino, S.E. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  13. Energy sources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  14. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puzzle is prepared for primary-school students aiming at teaching of energy sources as a supplementary source. In the mean time, the puzzle we prepared reveals the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and fossil energy sources. Here, the student’s aim is to complete the puzzle by answering the questions respectively. .

  15. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  16. Renewable Energy Sources on the Polish Electrical Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Bućko

    2014-01-01

    Production of electricity from renewable energy sources in Poland is presented in the paper. The mechanism of energy origin certificates market and the proposal of mechanism modification are discussed. Perspectives of electricity production from renewable energy sources are indicated and discussed.

  17. Green Certificates – the Symbol Renewable Energy Sources (Clean Energy)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Ghicajanu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper present one alternative solution as regards of the suplimentary power generation - renerawable energy sources. Are present a few words about renewable energy sources and green certificates; policy European Union of the renewable energy power and situation green certificates market on Romania.

  18. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash; Young, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  19. High resolution mapping of dust sources in Central Asia using MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht, Mohamad; Shahgedanova, Maria; White, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Dust impacts the energy balance of the Earth via absorption and scattering of radiation in the atmosphere and through the mechanism by which aerosols modify the optical properties of clouds and land surfaces. It is now established that the deposition of mineral dust significantly affects high-altitude environments, including both snow pack and glacier ice. Central Asia is a region where large deserts are located in close proximity to the mountains whose extensive glaciers and snow pack provide runoff supporting agriculture in the densely populated foothills. More than 75% of the territory in Central Asia is desert lowland varying from sandy to stony, salt, and clay deserts. Significant amounts of wind-blown desert dust, originating from these deserts, are deposited on glaciers of Tian Shan Mountains in Central Asia. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery has provided us with a powerful tool for identification and characterization of dust emission sources. In this study we investigated the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of dust emissions in surrounding lowlands of the Tian Shan Mountains using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Seasonality of dust emission is studied by analyzing MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth, acquired over a period of 12 years from January 2003 to December 2014. We analyzed the spatial distribution and frequency of occurrence of dust optical depth to identify the main dust sources in this region. In order to produce a detailed map of dust emission sources, we also employed a dust enhancement algorithm to obtain high resolution (1km) dust enhancement products from MODIS imageries. The high resolution of MODIS dust enhancement products enabled us to identify several small, eroding point sources within the dust source areas. Different seasonal patterns of dust emissions were observed in northern, western and southern deserts around the Tian Shan Mountains and their relation to climatological

  20. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  1. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions.

  2. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  3. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held in Prague on 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas, and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, of which 3 were inputted in INIS. Topics covered include: a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector.

  4. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Peter [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Under the umbrella of RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren (Ibbenbueren, Federal Republic of Germany), the RAG Montan Immobilien (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Mining Solutions (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) are unified. With their activities in the German coal mining industry RAG contributes to the national energy security and create employment effects far beyond the mining regions.

  5. Renewable energy sources in CR

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorný, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá klasifikací obnovitelných zdrojů energie a jejich porovnáním s ostatními energetickými zdroji. Vyjmenovává a charakterizuje zdroje sluneční, vodní, větrné, geotermální energie a biomasy, tedy energie vyráběné z obnovitelných zdrojů. Popisuje využití těchto jednotlivých zdrojů v rámci České republiky. Další část se zabývá legislativou a to zejména zákonem 180/2005 sb. Na závěr jsou uvedeny další zákony a vyhlášky, které s výrobou elektřiny z obnovitelných zdrojů a její dis...

  6. Central Energy System Modernization at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; Dirks, James A.

    2006-11-29

    An evaluation of technology options was conducted for the central energy systems at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. There were two objectives in conducting this study. From a broader viewpoint, the Army would like to develop a systematic approach to management of its central energy systems and selected Fort Jackson for this ''pilot'' study for a prospective Central Energy System Modernization Program. From a site-specific perspective, the objective was to identify the lowest life-cycle cost energy supply option(s) at Fort Jackson for buildings currently served by central boilers and chillers. This study was co-funded by the Army's Southeast Region and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program.

  7. Renewable energy sources '91. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, out of which 3 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and with the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector. (M.D.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

  8. GASAHOL: a potential energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, R.J.

    1978-04-01

    The production of GASOHOL and/or a synthetic fuel using any agricultural product as a portion of a mixture with gasoline is presently held in a fanaticism/mania context by both the proponents and opponents. There is a tremendous interest in GASOHOL throughout the country as shown by the enormous amount of material that has been written on the subject both pro and con. In addition, a variety of legislation at the state and Federal levels concerning an ethanol-gasoline mix either has been passed or is pending. This extensive amount of activity has been going on for the past 3 or 4 years and yet nothing really positive has happened. One reason is the lack of capital to get started. Congress is working on this problem and, coupled with some of the state legislatures, this hurdle should soon be overcome. Another reason and/or reasons are often vociferously pointed out by the opponents - those being the poor economics of such an advanture and a negative input-output energy ratio in producing ethanol. On the economics both sides will agree that a public subsidy, probably in the form of tax credits, is necessary in order for GASOHOL to be competitive with gasoline. The amount of this subsidy varies under different assumptions and by region. Whether the production of ethanol from grain is energy-efficient or not remains a question of debate, and it is in this area that the pros and cons are in most disagreement. There are regional exceptions to the energy balance - Hawaii being one of them. Current plans in the State of Hawaii consist of utilizing molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, to product ethanol. Since molasses is a byproduct, one can supposedly start the distilling process with a zero energy input. It is generally agreed that the mixing of ethanol and gasoline is technically possible. Thus, it seems likely, that there is or will be some Federal and state money available for plant construction, and that one or more demonstration projects will be undertaken.

  9. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  10. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  11. 3.1 $\\mu$m H$_{2}$O Ice Absorption in LINER-Type Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies with Cool Far-Infrared Colors the Centrally-Concentrated Nature of Their Deeply Buried Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, M; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Maloney, Philip R.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-based 2.8--4.1 $\\mu$m slit spectra of the nuclei of seven ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) that are classified optically as LINERs and have cool far-infrared colors are presented. All the nuclei show 3.3 $\\mu$m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, with equivalent widths that are systematically lower than those in starburst galaxies. Strong 3.1 $\\mu$m H$_{2}$O ice absorption, with optical depth greater than 0.6, is also detected in five nuclei, and 3.4 $\\mu$m carbonaceous dust absorption is detected clearly in one of the five nuclei. It is quantitatively demonstrated that the large optical depths of the H$_{2}$O ice absorption in the five sources, and the 3.4 $\\mu$m absorption in one source, are incompatible with a geometry in which the energy sources are spatially mixed with dust and molecular gas, as is expected for a typical starburst, but instead require that a large amount of nuclear dust (including ice-covered grains) and molecular gas be distributed in a screen in front of the ...

  12. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  13. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 μm of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  14. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  15. High Energy Sources Monitored with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Alfonso-Garzon, J; Mas-Hesse, J M

    2008-01-01

    The Optical Monitoring Camera on-board INTEGRAL (OMC) provides Johnson V band photometry of any potentially variable source within its field of view. Taking advantage of the INTEGRAL capabilities allowing the simultaneous observation of different kind of objects in the optical, X and gamma rays bands, we have performed a study of the optical counterparts of different high-energy sources. Up to now, OMC has detected the optical counterpart for more than 100 sources from the High Energy Catalog (Ebisawa et al., 2003). The photometrically calibrated light curves produced by OMC can be accessed through our web portal at: http://sdc.laeff.inta.es/omc

  16. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Fu; Binghui Zheng; Xingru Zhao; Lijing Wang; Changming Liu

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009.The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces,5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated.The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater.The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 t0 2008,while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources.The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions.In river drinking water sources,the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally.The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region,while the lowest value was found in Southwest region.In lake/reservoir drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions.In underground drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions.In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels,there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  17. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puz...

  18. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the

  19. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable

  20. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations of...... integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA).......Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching this...

  1. Fourth Regional Meeting: Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourth Regional Meeting for Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 89 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: Research Reactors, Reactor Physics, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Severe Accidents, Ageing and Integrity, Thermal Hydraulics, NPP Operation Experiance, Radioactive Waste Management, Environment and Other Aspects, Public and Nuclear Energy, SG Replacement and Plant Uprating.

  2. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  3. Extra galactic sources of high energy neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the construction of large volume, high energy neutrino telescopes is the detection of extra-Galactic neutrino sources. The existence of such sources is implied by observations of ultra-high energy, >10^{19} eV, cosmic-rays (UHECRs), the origin of which is a mystery. The observed UHECR flux sets an upper bound to the extra-Galactic high energy neutrino intensity, which implies that the detector size required to detect the signal in the energy range of 1 TeV to 1 PeV is >=1 giga-ton, and much larger at higher energy. Optical Cerenkov neutrino detectors, currently being constructed under ice and water, are expected to achieve 1 giga-ton effective volume for 1 TeV to 1 PeV neutrinos. Coherent radio Cerenkov detectors (and possibly large air-shower detectors) will provide the >> 1 giga-ton effective volume required for detection at ~10^{19} eV. Detection of high energy neutrinos associated with electromagnetically identified sources will allow to identify the sources of UHECRs, will provide a uniq...

  4. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing, and in combination with survey, analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city. There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures, to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents, improve rural ecological environment, realize sustai...

  5. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M. [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear energy - a source of sustainable, clean and safe energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses various factors which make nuclear energy an attractive source of cheap, reliable and clean power in Indian scenario, with a special reference to Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP)

  7. Open Source Energy Simulation for Elementary School

    CERN Document Server

    Lye, Sze Yee

    2012-01-01

    With the interactivity and multiple representation features, computer simulations lend itself to the guided inquiry learning. However, these simulations are usually designed for post-elementary students. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate how the use of guided inquiry approach with customized energy simulation can improve students' understanding of this topic. In this ongoing research, the case study is adopted. In the first phase of the study, we have modified open source energy simulation based on principles for reducing extraneous processing, existing energy simulation and guided inquiry approach. The modified simulation is sent to teachers for evaluation and the feedback is encouraging. In the next phase of the study, the guided inquiry lesson package involving the energy simulation would be designed and deployed in an elementary classroom. Multiple data sources would be collected to seek a deeper understanding on how this learning package can possibly impact students' understanding of the phys...

  8. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: focus on the central melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong; Elmquist, Joel K.; Fukuda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose and energy balance. In addition, we will discuss distinct neuronal populations that respond to central melanocortins to regulate food intak...

  9. New renewable energy sources: Strategies and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the technological reliability, and environmental and economic benefits of biomass, wind and photovoltaic energy sources in meeting the world's ever increasing demand for electric power. This assessment favours R ampersand D investment for the commercialization of processes involving the production of hydrogen through photovoltaic energy conversion. These plants are especially recommended for oil importing third world countries located in tropical areas

  10. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  11. Olive cake used as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce global warming, biomass is expected to become one of the key energy resources. The solid wastes of olives are called as olive cake. This has been in use as an energy source. After the oil crisis in 1970s, there has been increase in studies of alternative and renewable energy resources as well as fuel technologies. However fossil fuels still preserve the predominant position satisfying 90% of the world energy consumption. On the basis of the sustainable development principle and suggestions of Kyoto protocol, their has been an emphasis on the urgent need for reduction of the emission of green house gases the generates negative impact on ozone and replacing current energy resources with renewable energy

  12. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed. (topical review)

  13. CENTRAL ASIA AND AZERBAIJAN:LONG-TERM ENERGY STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov, Stanislav; Reznikova, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the current state of and prospects for development of the energy sector in the post-Soviet countries of Central Asia and Azerbaijan and gives forecasts of the possibilities of implementing long-term energy projects in these regions.

  14. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  15. Power conversion from environmentally scavenged energy sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druxman, Lee Daniel

    2007-09-01

    As the power requirements for modern electronics continue to decrease, many devices which were once dependent on wired power are now being implemented as portable devices operating from self-contained power sources. The most prominent source of portable power is the electrochemical battery, which converts chemical energy into electricity. However, long lasting batteries require large amounts of space for chemical storage, and inevitably require replacement when the chemical reaction no longer takes place. There are many transducers and scavenging energy sources (SES) that are able to exploit their environment to generate low levels of electrical power over a long-term time period, including photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric generators, thermionic generators, and kinetic/piezoelectric power generators. This generated power is sustainable as long as specific environmental conditions exist and also does not require the large volume of a long lifetime battery. In addition to the required voltage generation, stable power conversion requires excess energy to be efficiently stored in an ultracapacitor or similar device and monitoring control algorithms to be implemented, while computer modeling and simulation can be used to complement experimental testing. However, building an efficient and stable power source scavenged from a varying input source is challenging.

  16. Energy source possibilities in underwater technics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Juho

    1991-04-01

    Underwater energy source possibilities are treated. The power demand of underwater vehicles is restricted to approximately 0.5 MW. Besides well known primary and secondary batteries as well as conventional diesel engines and closed cycle diesels, fuel cells, radio nuclear isotopes and small nuclear reactors have already been installed or tested in conditions representative of underwater.

  17. CIVIL REGULATION OF USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with civil regulation of using renewable energy sources. To deal with such items we need to understand a clear definition of this concept and to consider the specifics of Public-Private Partnership in such claims

  18. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  19. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL)

  20. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  1. An overview on source rocks and the petroleum system of the central Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf; Forster, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    activation energies. These sediments are considered as most important source rocks of numerous high wax oils (oil family B) in addition to the coaly source rocks from the (Lower) Pechelbronn-Schichten (Late Eocene). Migration pathways are significantly influenced by the early graben evolution. A major erosion period occurred during the latest Cretaceous. The uplift center was located in the northern URG area, resulting in SSE dipping Mesozoic strata in the central URG. During Middle Eocene times a second uplift center in the Eifel area resulted in SW-NE-directed shore lines in the central URG and contemporaneous south-southeastern depocenters during marine transgression from the south. This structural setting resulted in a major NNW-NW-directed and topography-driven migration pattern for expelled Liassic oil in the fractured Mesozoic subcrop below sealing Dogger α clays and basal Tertiary marls.

  2. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  3. Third Regional Meeting: Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third Regional Meeting for Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 71 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: Research Reactors, Reactor Physics, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Severe Accident management, Thermal Hydraulics, NPP Operation, Radioactive Waste Management, Main Components Integrity, Environment and Other Aspects and Public Information

  4. Use of renewable energy sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia has made success in the implementation of energy conservation programme and bio fuel programmes. The basis for promoting the use of biofuels and peat are identified in the first National Energy Conservation Programme (approved by the government in 1992) and in the National Long Term Energy Development Programme (approved by the parliament in 1998). The first National Energy Conservation Programme has set up the following goals: reduction of the share of imported fuels in national primary energy balance through implementation of energy conservation projects and through conversion from imported fuels to local fuels (peat and wood); solving the ownership problems of heating enterprises; financial support for implementation of energy conservation and fuel conversion projects; to stop the subsidies of energy tariffs; promotion of energy conservation awareness campaign. The National Long Term Energy Development Programme identified the promotion of the use of biofuels and peat as one of the main tasks of national energy policy. According to the development plan, the share of renewable energy sources in national primary energy balance shall reach the percentage of 13 in the year 2010. The government approved the new National Energy Conservation Programme in January 2000. One part of the programme is the analyses of the results of the first programme. The conclusion is that the main tasks of the first energy conservation programme (from 1992) are fulfilled: the total use of primary energy has decreased from 1991 to 1998 from 390,6 PJ to 214 PJ; the total amount of imported fuels has decreased from 173 PJ in 1991 to 80 PJ in 1998; the total share of peat and wood in primary energy balance has increased from 14,8 TJ in 1991 to 24,3 TJ in 1998. This is from 3,6 % to 11,3 % accordingly. Since the annual growth of peat resources is bigger than the annual consumption, in Estonian conditions, peat could be considered as renewable energy source. The increase of the share

  5. Orbit Steering and Central Frequency for LEP2 Energy Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J

    2000-01-01

    "The central frequency is an important parameter of the LEP beam energy model. It is a direct measurementof the LEP circumference and is used to evaluate the contribution of the quadrupoles to field integral relevant forthe LEP beam ebergy. Its evolution over a run is tracked using direct frequency measurementscombined with radial beam position measurements in the LEP arcs.The influence of orbit corrections on the central frequency measurement techniques was evaluatedand a model allowing to correct for changes of corrector settings was developped.The central frequency data for the LEP2 runs between 1996 and 1999 was re-analysed to includecorrections due to the closed orbit steering."

  6. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  7. Conventional versus Alternative Energy Sources and their Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jirková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis is to deliver a complex and understandable knowledge about the issue of renewable sources of energy and its comparison to conventional sources of energy. For that reason the first part of this work contains theoretical background about renewable energy: definition of alternative sources of energy and conventional sources of energy, different options of alternative energy, pros and cons of alternative energy, analysis of the situation on the market with alternativ...

  8. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied from 23.7 to 29.5 % in DM and the HCN from 610 to 1840 mg/kg DM. Chopping, washing and wilting the leaves are simple ways to process the. There was a 58% reductio...

  9. Energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - The first year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first stages of the energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - taking stock of the heritage of the past and conceptualizing the nature of reforms - were accomplished in 1990. While two countries - the USSR and Albania -introduced some market economy elements into central energy planning and basically maintained the latter, all other countries of central and eastern Europe opted for a replacement of central energy planning by market-oriented energy policies and practices. In those latter countries, a typical policy of market adaptation emerged consisting of a change of policies, institutions, economic instruments and relations. Differences in the conditions prevailing in the various countries resulted in the emergence of specific national ''models'' of market adaptation. The reforms, if successful, would imply: greater energy efficiency, reduced pollution, enhanced nuclear safety, a reduced impact on the climate, greater business opportunities, the closure of uneconomic capacities, a decline of coal production, a rise in unemployment; a rise of the energy trade dependence coupled with a rise of gas and oil imports; but practically no change of the net energy exports of the USSR. By the end of 1990 developed market economies agreed to co-ordinate assistance (within the ''Group of 24'') and determined the type and modalities of support. This support would enable and encourage the economies in transition to finalize reform, stimulate their practical implementation and address side effects (disinvestments, unemployment) and systematic risks (e.g. trade dependence) and opportunities (e.g. trade diversification). The business community and lending institutions would have to assess and support investments opportunities more actively. Intergovernmental organizations will play an important role in improving the conditions for business involvement. In 1990, the frameworks for energy reforms in central and eastern Europe, short term assistance, long term business

  10. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  11. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THIRD GENERATION UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, entrepreneurs are able to use the innovations at the universities in order to set up their own business. That collaboration is part of the concept of the “Third Generation University”. The aim of this paper is to outline some possibilities for innovative business development in the Ruse region, Bulgaria that are aimed at supporting technostarters who use biomass for energy production. It describes the need of renewable energy sources in EU context, giv...

  13. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M.; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; BERRY, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and play essential roles for the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of these nitrifying microbes has been intensively studied since the first experiments of Sergei Winogradsky more than a century ago. Urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic ...

  14. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  15. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The Fourth International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held at Prague Technical University from 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 3 of the proceedings contains a report on the conference and 10 contributions, of which 2 were inputted in INIS: one deals with the economic problems of wind-, solar- and oil-driven water pumps, the other deals with the decrease in sunshine brought about by the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants.

  16. Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Centralization for Significant Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Dale

    2010-09-15

    Cost effective predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies and basic energy calculations can mine energy savings form processes or maintenance activities. Centralizing and packaging this information correctly empowers facility maintenance and reliability professionals to build financial justification and support for strategies and personnel to weather global economic downturns and competition. Attendees will learn how to: Systematically build a 'pilot project' for applying PdM and tracking systems; Break down a typical electrical bill to calculate energy savings; Use return on investment (ROI) calculations to identify the best and highest value options, strategies and tips for substantiating your energy reduction maintenance strategies.

  17. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  18. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  19. Maturity of carboniferous source rocks in Central Onshore Netherlands. the impact of the Permian thermal anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-Westphalian layers are considered as potential source rocks in the Netherlands. However, there is little amount of information available on their maturity. 3D basin modelling is carried out on Central Onshore Netherlands to investigate the maturity of the deep Carboniferous source rocks. A detai

  20. SOME SOLUTIONS TO THE CENTRAL ASIAN REGION'S ENERGY COOPERATION PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatulina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    It stands to reason that the resource-rich Central Asian Region (CAR), which is located at the crossroads between the Near and Middle East, South Asia, China, and Russia and is also in direct proximity to the countries experiencing "energy starvation," is of important geostrategic significance. It is a well-known fact that CAR has vast energy potential. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have large supplies of oil and gas resources, which enjoy demand on the world market. In particular,...

  1. Comparison of radial flow effects on partitions of multifragmenting sources formed in symmetric and asymmetric central collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Frankland J.D.; Gruyer D.; Bonnet E.; Chbihi A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of collective radial expansion in determining multifragmentation partition properties has previously been explored by comparing different-sized sources of the same excitation energy per nucleon formed by very different reaction mechanisms: excited quasi-projectiles from semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions and quasi-fused sources from central Xe+Sn collisions. New data has been obtained with INDRA on 181Ta+66Zn collisions in order to allow comparison of Xe+Sn data with quasi-fused system...

  2. Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade also containing cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite oxidizers supply cyanase-lacking ammonia oxidizers with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this microbial consortium through reciprocal feeding. By screening a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples, we reveal that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microorganisms, and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate in cycling of nitrogen compounds in the environment.

  3. Biochar As a Renewable Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Biochar is a form of charcoal prepared by heating biomass in limited air. It is porous and has high surface area, maintaining much of the morphology of the biomass. The heat for its preparation arises primarily from burning volatiles emitted upon heating. About half the chemical energy in the biomass is contained in the biochar, about 40% is used for the conversion, and about 10% may be used as a local heat source. The biochar can serve as a soil additive where it acts as a template for the growth of bacteria and fungi which then lead to improved growth of biomass by as much as several hundred percent. It remains inert in the soil for many years. Thus, it sequesters the carbon, originally coming from the carbon dioxide absorbed during the photosynthesis occurring during the growth of the biomass. Its use reduces fertilizer and water needs and to pollution arising from the run-off of fertilizer and emission of noxious vapors. Its use is best done at a local level, close to sources of biomass from farm and forest waste. The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative along with the Center of Agriculture of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst is promoting the use of biochar on local farms which reduces their dependence on energy arising from fossil fuel and nuclear sources.

  4. Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade also containing cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite oxidizers supply cyanase-lacking ammonia oxidizers with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this microbial consortium through reciprocal feeding. By screening a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples, we reveal that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microorganisms, and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate in cycling of nitrogen compounds in the environment. PMID:26222031

  5. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, ATALAY; Vardar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are incr...

  6. Centrality and energy dependence of rapidity correlation patterns in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centrality and energy dependence of rapidity correlation patterns are studied in Au + Au collisions by using AMPT with string melting, RQMD and UrQMD models. The behaviors of the short-range correlation (SRC) and the long-range correlation (LRC) are presented clearly by two spatial-position dependent correlation patterns. For centrality dependence, UrQMD and RQMD give similar results as those in AMPT, i.e., in most central collisions, the correlation structure is flatter and the correlation range is larger, which indicates a long range rapidity correlation. A long range rapidity correlation showing up in RQMD and UrQMD implies that parton interaction is not the only source of long range rapidity correlations. For energy dependence, AMPT with string melting and RQMD show quite different results. The correlation patterns in RQMD at low collision energies and those in AMPT at high collision energies have similar structures, i.e. a convex curve, while the correlation patterns in RQMD at high collision energies and those in AMPT at low collision energies show flat structures, having no position dependence. Long range rapidity correlation presents itself at high energy and disappears at low energy in RQMD, which also indicates that long range rapidity correlations may come from some trivial effects, rather than the parton interactions. (authors)

  7. Centrality and energy dependence of rapidity correlation patterns in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Tian; XU Ming-Mei; WU Yuan-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The centrality and energy dependence of rapidity correlation patterns are studied in Au+Au collisions by using AMPT with string melting,RQMD and UrQMD models.The behaviors of the shortrange correlation(SRC)and the long-range correlation(LRC)are presented clearly by two spatial-position dependent correlation patterns.For centrality dependence.UrQMD and RQMD give similar results as those in AMPT,i.,e., in most central collisions,the correlation structure is flatter and the correlation range is larger,which indicates a long range rapidity correlation.A long range rapidity correlation showing up in RQMD and UrQMD implies that patton interaction is not the only source of long range rapidity correlations.For energy dependence,AMPT with string melting and RQMD show quite different results.The correlation patterns in RQMD at low collision energies and those in AMPT at high collision energies have similar structures,i.e.aconvex curve.while the correlation patterns in RQMD at high collision energies and those in AMPT at low collision energies show fiat structures,having no position dependence.Long range rapidity correlation presents itself at high energy and disappears at low energy in RQMD,which also indicates that long range rapidity correlations may come from some trivial effects,rather than the parton interactions.

  8. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K. [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M. [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  9. SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ENERGY POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta NOWAKOWSKA-KRYSTMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Central Asia region in energy market creates certain approach of Russian Federation. It infl uences not only situation in the region but also short and long term prospects of economic development of adjacent regions, i.e. North, East and South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Russian economic policy determines and defi nes certain forms of international cooperation, which, in turn, results in its importance for international political relations. The article points out the essence of Russian Federation policy towards Central Asia and adjacent regions which consists in conducting geo-economic activities determining geo-political activities.

  10. Interaction between the intergalactic medium and central radio source in the NGC 4261 group of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Ewan; Birkinshaw, Mark; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Wolter, Anna; Zezas, Andreas; Giacintucci, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Using observations from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories, we examine the interaction between the intra-group medium and central radio source in the nearby NGC 4261 galaxy group. We confirm the presence of cavities associated with the radio lobes and estimate their enthalpy to be ~2.4x10^58 erg. The mechanical power output of the jets is >=10^43 erg/s, at least a factor of 60 greater than the cooling luminosity in the region the lobes inhabit. We identify rims of compressed gas enclosing the lobes, but find no statistically significant temperature difference between them and their surroundings, suggesting that the lobe expansion velocity is approximately sonic (Mach<=1.05). The apparent pressure of the radio lobes, based on the synchrotron minimum energy density argument, is a factor of 5 lower than that of the intra-group medium. Pressure balance could be achieved if entrainment of thermal gas provided additional non-radiating particles in the lobe plasma, but the energy required to heat thes...

  11. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  12. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs.

  13. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  14. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  15. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  16. Microalgae: An Alternative Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. A. Saifullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients.

  17. Central region design for a 10 MeV internal ion source cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Bin; LIU Kai-Feng; FENG Yi-Zhang; FAN Ming-Wu

    2009-01-01

    Internal ion sources are widely adopted in commercial cyclotrons used for short-life isotopes produc-tion. Without beam manipulation provided by the external beam injection line, the central region of this type of cyclotron is more sensitive and should be carefully designed. A design study and beam dynamics simulation for the central region of a 10 MeV compact cyclotron is presented. The OPERA3D/TOSCA code was used to calculate the electric field from a parameterized three dimensional (3D) central region model. With iterative structure optimizations of the central region, the beam centering and vertical focusing is well controlled, and the RF phase acceptance is around 25° A c++ code for beam simulation in the central region was developed and tested.

  18. Energy Performance Database of Building Heritage in the Region of Umbria, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Household energy consumption has been increasing in the last decades; the residential sector is responsible for about 40% of the total final energy use in Europe. Energy efficiency measures can both reduce energy needs of buildings and energy-related CO2 emissions. For this reason, in recent years, the European Union has been making efforts to enhance energy saving in buildings by introducing various policies and strategies; in this context, a common methodology was developed to assess and to certify energy performance of buildings. The positive effects obtained by energy efficiency measures need to be verified, but measuring and monitoring building energy performance is time consuming and financially demanding. Alternatively, energy efficiency can also be evaluated by specific indicators based on energy consumption. In this work, a methodology to investigate the level of energy efficiency reached in the Umbria Region (Central Italy is described, based on data collected by energy certificates. In fact, energy certificates, which are the outcomes of simulation models, represent a useful and available tool to collect data related to the energy use of dwellings. A database of building energy performance was developed, in which about 6500 energy certificates of residential buildings supplied by Umbria region were inserted. On the basis of this data collection, average energy and CO2 indicators related to the building heritage in Umbria were estimated and compared to national and international indicators derived from official sources. Results showed that the adopted methodology in this work can be an alternative method for the evaluation of energy indicators; in fact, the ones calculated considering simulation data were similar to the ones reported in national and international sources. This allowed to validate the adopted methodology and the efficiency of European policies.

  19. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M.; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and play essential roles for the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of these nitrifying microbes has been intensively studied since the first experiments of Sergei Winogradsky more than a century ago. Urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 on cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, which is a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and CO2 by this archaeon using a cyanase that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade that also contains cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite-oxidizers supply ammonia-oxidizers lacking cyanase with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this consortium through reciprocal feeding. Screening of a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples revealed that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microbes and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate for N-cycling in the environment. PMID:26222031

  20. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  1. Positive and Negative Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Vezmar, Stanislav; Spajić, Anton; Topić, Danijel; Šljivac, Damir; JOZSA, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, positive and negative impacts of renewable energy sources are presented. Impacts of solar power, biomass power, fuel cells, hydro power, wind power and geothermal power are described. Ecological, social and political impacts of different renewable energy sources are described. Impacts of power plants using different renewable energy sources on the power grid are also described.

  2. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Global sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions peaked around the mid- 1970s, after which they declined. However, with the growth of specifically China, emissions are on the rise again. In 2008, global anthropogenic SO2 emissions totalled 127 Mt, with energy production accounting for 63.2 Mt and metal......-related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas....... Gaseous emissions of SO2 can therefore be cleaned up with the simultaneous production of hydrogen, an energy store or carrier, which provides an economic offset to the overall cost of this potential remediation process. This process forms part of the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle as well as the once...

  3. Target technology of high energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a facility of high energy neutron source for materials research and development, Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) is a strong candidate. The FMIT is designed to study the irradiation effect of fusion neutron on a fusion reactor materials. The FMIT generates a high-flux, high-energy neutron, which is produced in a stripping reaction by impinging a 3.5 MeV-0.1A beam of deuterons on a flowing lithium target. Target technology obtained in the FMIT will be useful for Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test Facility (ESNIT) and IFMIF of D-Li stripping reaction facility. In the first report (I), the flowing lithium target of the FMIT was reviewed, and some technical considerations in design were pointed out. In the second report (II), the target assembly and target material were proposed as the option of the HEDEL reference design of FMIT in order to improve the hazard and economy for the Li system: Firstly, the exchangeable target back wall and the measures to minimize the outside device damage in case of back wall breaking, and secondly, the option of molten fluoride salt as target material were proposed. (M.T.)

  4. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  5. Drinking water and pregnancy outcome in central North Carolina: source, amount, and trihalomethane levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Savitz, D A; Andrews, K W; Pastore, L M

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the recognition of potentially toxic chemicals in chlorinated drinking water, few studies have evaluated reproductive health consequences of such exposure. Using data from a case-control study of miscarriage, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in central North Carolina, we evaluated risk associated with water source, amount, and trihalomethane (THM) concentration. Water source was not related to any of those pregnancy outcomes, but an increasing amount of ingested water was as...

  6. Comparison of radial flow effects on partitions of multifragmenting sources formed in symmetric and asymmetric central collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankland J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of collective radial expansion in determining multifragmentation partition properties has previously been explored by comparing different-sized sources of the same excitation energy per nucleon formed by very different reaction mechanisms: excited quasi-projectiles from semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions and quasi-fused sources from central Xe+Sn collisions. New data has been obtained with INDRA on 181Ta+66Zn collisions in order to allow comparison of Xe+Sn data with quasi-fused systems having the same mass, charge and excitation energy per nucleon formed in mass-asymmetric reactions, for which a smaller initial compression is expected. Preliminary results confirm that, ceteris paribus, smaller radial flow leads to less fragments with more asymmetric partitions.

  7. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-01-01

    Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able ...

  8. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  9. Essential role of UCP1 modulating the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Alvarez-Crespo

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that UCP1 is essential for mediation of the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance, and we suggest that similar UCP1-dependent effects may underlie central energy balance effects of other agents.

  10. Economic impulses to the implementation of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors are considered of macroeconomic regulation and microeconomic incentives of the implementation of alternative energy sources in condition of prevailing utilization of conventional energy sources. The analysis concludes that both state regulation and microeconomic incentives shift a time horizon of effective implementation of alternative sources nearer to the present. (author) 6 figs

  11. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay ÇETİN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are increasingly continue around theworld. As a matter of fact, when it is compared to the 2011 rates, the consumption rate of hydro-electricity and other renewable energy sources has increased to 4.3% and % 15.2 respectively in 2012 in the world, is verifying that view.The aim of this study is to investigate the present potential and sufficiency of the main sources of renewable energy such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal andbiomass at Turkey. In this regard, even Turkey has a remarkable potential especially in hydro, wind, solar and geothermal energies among Europe, renewable energy sources ratio in Turkey’s total energy consumption is not rising at desired level. Furthermore becauseTurkey hasn’t got a rich fossil fuel reserves, it needs to import fossil energy sources to meet its rapidly growing energy needs. In related to this, Turkey’s current deficit has beengrowing due to the increase in fossil fuel sources prices at international energy markets. On the other side Turkey’s Green House Gases (GHGs emission has grown more thantwo times as a result of its rapidly using of fossil fuel sources due to its growing economy, industrialization and urbanization process since 1990. Within this context, as a foreigndependent country on fossil fuel energy sources (especially on crude oil and natural gas, Turkey should rapidly change its energy policy from fossil fuels to renewable energysources which are domestic, clean and much more cheaper

  12. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  13. Domestic energy sources urged as Middle East situation heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the alternatives to foreign oil as an energy source for the US in the light of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Topics addressed include the responses of organizations representing various energy sources, the public response of the Department of Energy, the response of conservation advocates, and the Administration's reaction

  14. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  15. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources. Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  16. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zupa; Ivan Herec

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  17. Estimation of source parameters according to microseismic monitoring of the central part of the East-European platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedina, Alina

    2016-04-01

    Microseismic monitoring of active fault allows one to quickly assess the seismicity of the study area. In platform conditions it requires more time to accumulate of representative data of occurrence of seismic endogenous events. The graphics repeatability, based on data from microseismic monitoring, correlate well with the dependence obtained during long-term regional observations. The focal parameters are assessed for sources of weak seismicity of the central part of East-European platform with the help of small-aperture array. Sensor bandwidth limitations can lead to underestimation of radiated seismic energy due to losses in high-frequency part of signal. Seismometers with enhance amplitude-frequency response in high-frequency part of the spectrum allow avoiding this instrumental problem. This provides records seismic oscillations from events with Mw ~ -2 - 1 and more correct estimation of seismic source parameters. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 16-35-00508).

  18. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion

  19. Evidence for a common central-engine mechanism in all extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extragalactic radio sources produce radio waves and narrow emission lines by very different physical processes: synchrotron radio emission arises from lobes filled with magnetized plasma extending over scales of kiloparsecs to megaparsecs, fed by the total kinetic power, Q, of jets driven by a central engine, whereas narrow-lines luminosity LNLR arises from gas, typically concentrated in the inner few kiloparsecs, that has been photoionized by a nuclear source. We report here the discovery of a close relationship between Q and LNLR - an approximate proportionality which extends over four orders of magnitude from low-Q radio sources with relaxed structures to high-Q, radio-luminous classical double-lobe radio galaxies. Objects with broad Balmer lines follow the same trend as those without, showing that quasar-like photoionizing sources are ubiquitous but not always obvious. Moreover, all radio-source central engines channel at least as much power into the jets as is radiated by accretion: this high efficiency implies that the engine is a massive spinning black hole which both powers the jets and controls the accretion rate. (author)

  20. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Chen; Lan Li; Hongbin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), the cluster analysis (CA) and the discriminant analysis (DA) were used to assess the water pollutio...

  1. Early experience in centralized real time energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current structure of the California Independent System Operator (ISO) was described. The study provided an outline of California's transition from a decentralized pool operation to a forward bilateral market through the implementation of a centralized real time market. Details of the institutional, economic and technological history of the power system were provided. Although the California real time market was implemented in order to simplify the power system, a number of operational challenges were observed. Discontinuities in the energy curve resulted in the implementation of a target price process, which aimed to resolve the overlap in energy bids. The design of the ISO's real time market did not provide a mechanism for bidders to execute real time energy trades. Regulation bidders also internalized energy in their regulation capacity bids. The real time market application (RTMA) provided the ISO with a substantial computer program to determine and account for nearly all aspects of generation unit scheduling and physical characteristics with a multiple ramp rate. The program combined optimal power flow (OPF) logic for energy flows in addition to mixed-integer nonlinear optimization of trading schedules, and system and security constraints. The RTMA used a multi-period security constrained economic dispatch (SCED) function to optimize energy dispatch schedules. Other features of the RTMA included security constrained unit commitment, security constrained economic dispatch, and dispatch schedule post processes. It was concluded that implementation of the RTMA has increased the efficiency of the ISO. A case study of the RTMA during an outage in November 2004 was provided. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  3. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  4. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia (Tish) P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  5. Geothermal energy resource: an alternative to energy source in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogala, J.S. [Nairobi Univ., Faculty of Science, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1999-07-01

    Kenya energy potential lies in the use of geothermal resources. Currently the country relies heavily on imported petroleum fuels and biomass. Electricity is derived from hydropower which is currently 570 MW with an additional 30MW imported from Uganda; thermal 136MW and geothermal 45MW. Geothermal potential in Kenya currently stands at 2000MW. Other potential areas include Suswa, Longonot, Menengai, Korosi, Paka, Silai, Emurungogolak, Namarunu, Barrier and Homa Hill. Geothermal exploration is taking place at Olkaria, Eburru and L. Bogoria, all in the Kenya rift valley. Other potential areas include the Nyanza rift. Exploitation of this potential would meet the current and future electricity needs of the country. Geothermal resources is a relatively environmentally friendly source of energy. The technology of production is well developed to minimise gas and water vapour emissions into the atmosphere. For example, at Olkaria Geothermal Station, the production system has a cooling tower where hot water steam mixture is cooled. Only 5% of the water, representing 70% of the condensed steam is lost from the cooling tower through evaporation. The cooled water, at a temperature of 23degC is injected back into the well for the recharge of the steam reservoir. (Author)

  6. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: survival probability of central exclusive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departemento de Fisica, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2016-04-15

    We estimate the value of the survival probability for central exclusive production in a model which is based on the CGC/saturation approach. Hard and soft processes are described in the same framework. At LHC energies, we obtain a small value for the survival probability. The source of the small value is the impact parameter dependence of the hard amplitude. Our model has successfully described a large body of soft data: elastic, inelastic and diffractive cross sections, inclusive production and rapidity correlations, as well as the t-dependence of deep inelastic diffractive production of vector mesons. (orig.)

  7. The Determination of Cognitive Structure of Candidate Teachers about Energy Centrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir; Topçu, Ersin; Aydinli, Bahattin

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the vital essence of every biotic and abiotic process. Energy is also in central position in human civilization. The famous energy centrals are the major way for production of energy with many diverse effects on environment. Therefore, the mitigation of these effects is extremely important and one of its way is education in this…

  8. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  9. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE PROSPECTS OF SOLAR ENERGY AND OTHER ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  11. On the Dynamics of Competing Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the dynamics of energy markets in which energy is derived from polluting (fossil) and clean (solar) resources. The analysis is based on geometric optimal control considerations. An important feature of solar energy technologies is that their cost of supply is predominantly due to upfront investment in capital infrastructure (rather than to actual supply rate) and this feature has important implications for the market allocation outcome. In particular, it gives rise to a thresh...

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  13. Distribution, source and chemical speciation of phosphorus in surface sediments of the central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianyu; Lin, Peng; Zhen, Yang; Yao, Xuying; Guo, Laodong

    2015-11-01

    The abundance of five forms of phosphorus (P) in surface sediments from the central Pacific Ocean (4.5-15ºN, 154-143ºW) was determined using a sequential extraction procedure (SEDEX) to examine the distribution and source of different P species. Total P (TP) concentrations ranged from 13.2 to 119 μmol-P/g with an average of 48.6±27.4 μmol-P/g. Within the TP pool, total inorganic P (TIP) concentrations varied from 11.1 to 121 μmol-P/g, while total organic P (TOP) concentrations ranged from undetectable to 4.8 μmol-P/g. Inorganic P was generally the predominant form in surface sediments, comprising on average up to 93% of sedimentary TP, leaving <16% as TOP. Among the five P species, the authigenic or CaCO3-bound P and detrital P were the two major P species (comprising on average 43.4±13.5% and 45.7±14.8% of TP, respectively), followed by the refractory organic P, representing 6.7±2.4% of TP. Fe-bound P accounted for 3.3±1.3% of TP, and exchangeable or adsorbed P made up less than 1% of TP. The spatial distribution of different sedimentary P species showed that higher concentrations of detrital P and Fe-bound P were both found at around 11°N, suggesting similar sources for these two P species. Much of the detrital P was derived from atmospheric sources in the study area, where heavy rainfall in the intertropical convergence zone between 3°N and 11°N has been widely reported. Compared with other marine environments, the central Pacific Ocean had relatively higher detrital P, but lower abundance of adsorbed-P and Fe-bound P. These unquine results suggested that most of the labile P could have been released into the water column during its settling from the surface to the seafloor, or that atmospheric inputs of refractory P were an important source for sedimentary P, accounting for an average of 63% of the TP, in the central Pacific Ocean. High proportions of authigenic P in deep-sea sediments, on the other hand, implied that oceanic sediments are an

  14. Proceedings of the Second Regional Meeting on Nuclear Energy in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second Regional Meeting for Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contains 75 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region

  15. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mattia Filippini; Marta Molinas; Eneko Olea Oregi

    2015-01-01

    A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of th...

  16. The Effects of Renewable Portfolio Standards on Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ohler, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs have experienced increased popularity at the state level with twenty-three states adopting policies. Policy makers implement these programs in the hopes of stimulating renewable energy generation and lessening the states reliance on nonrenewable sources, by requiring utility companies to provide a specified amount of electricity from renewable sources. I examine the use of renewable energy sources caused by the implementation of these programs, and ...

  17. Intermediate energy light sources and the SSRF project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Advances in insertion device technology, top-up operation and superconducting RF cavities make it possible to generate high brightness X-ray with intermediate energy light sources, which leads a new trend in designing and constructing third generation light sources around the world. The development status and the remarkable technical features of intermediate energy light sources are reviewed, and the main SSRF properties are described in this paper.

  18. The development of renewable energy sources must change its scale.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French orientation law on energy should be adopted very soon. It fixes ambitious objectives to develop renewable energy sources, in particular a 50% increase of the renewable heat by 2010. Despite an evident acceleration in the development of these energy sources, the path remains long before reaching the orientation law and Kyoto protocol objectives. In particular, several brakes remain to be released for the development of collective facilities (renewable heat networks). This article presents the objectives of the French government in terms of renewable energy sources development (solar thermal and photovoltaic, wood fueled and cogeneration systems) and the problems encountered so far in the implementation of this policy. (J.S.)

  19. Use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India being a developing country, cannot afford to meet the power and energy demand only from conventional sources. Power generation can be augmented by using non-conventional energy sources. Sufficient importance must be given for recovery of energy from industrial/urban waste. Solar heating system must replace industrial and domestic sectors. Solar photovoltaic, biogas plant, biomass based gasified system must also be given sufficient place in energy sector. More thrust has to be given for generation of power by using sugar cane which is a perennial source

  20. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Department of Food and Resource Economics; Parsons, George R. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). College of Marine and Earth Sciences and Department of Economics

    2007-06-15

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic ''green energy'' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources. (author)

  1. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems

  2. Analysis of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects from central and eastern United States earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, G.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the results from three studies of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects of central and eastern United States earthquakes. In the first study source parameter estimates taken from 27 previous studies were combined to test the assumption that the earthquake stress drop is roughly a constant, independent of earthquake size. 200 estimates of stress drop and seismic moment from eastern North American earthquakes were combined. It was found that the estimated stress drop from the 27 studies increases approximately as the square-root of the seismic moment, from about 3 bars at 10{sup 20} dyne-cm to 690 bars at 10{sup 25} dyne-cm. These results do not support the assumption of a constant stress drop when estimating ground motion parameters from eastern North American earthquakes. In the second study, broadband seismograms recorded by the United States National Seismograph Network and cooperating stations have been analysed to determine Q{sub Lg} as a function of frequency in five regions: the northeastern US, southeastern US, central US, northern Basin and Range, and California and western Nevada. In the third study, using spectral analysis, estimates have been made for the anelastic attenuation of four regional phases, and estimates have been made for the source parameters of 27 earthquakes, including the M{sub b} 5.6, 14 April, 1995, West Texas earthquake.

  3. Chloride sources in urban and rural headwater catchments, central New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Kristina; Jin, Li; Lautz, Laura; Shaw, Stephen B; Zhou, Xiaoli; Lu, Zunli

    2016-09-15

    Road salt used as a deicing agent in winter months has become an emerging contaminant to streams and groundwater. In central New York, road salts are applied heavily during winter months. Recognizing potential sources of salinity to a river may reveal processes controlling the salinization of freshwater systems, with implications for future management practices. The Tioughnioga River, located in central New York, is a headwater of the Susquehanna River, which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Salinity of the Tioughnioga River water has been increasing since the late 1930s. In this study, water samples were collected weekly at the East and West Branches of the Tioughnioga River from 2012 to 2014. We characterize natural and anthropogenic sources of salinity in the Tioughnioga River, using two independent approaches: (1) chloride to bromide ratios (Cl/Br) and (2) linear discriminant analysis. Ratios of Cl/Br suggest that road salt runoff influence is notable in both branches, but is more significant in the West Branch, consistent with a greater area of urban land. Linear discriminant analysis confirms the results of Cl/Br in the West Branch and further indicates presence of Appalachian Basin Brines in the East Branch, although their contribution may be volumetrically small. Longitudinal stream Cl concentration profiles indicate that sources of pollution are particularly concentrated around urban areas. Residence time of Cl in the watershed is estimated to be approximately 20 to 30years using a mixing model, suggesting that stream Cl concentrations likely will continue to rise for several decades.

  4. Chloride sources in urban and rural headwater catchments, central New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Kristina; Jin, Li; Lautz, Laura; Shaw, Stephen B; Zhou, Xiaoli; Lu, Zunli

    2016-09-15

    Road salt used as a deicing agent in winter months has become an emerging contaminant to streams and groundwater. In central New York, road salts are applied heavily during winter months. Recognizing potential sources of salinity to a river may reveal processes controlling the salinization of freshwater systems, with implications for future management practices. The Tioughnioga River, located in central New York, is a headwater of the Susquehanna River, which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Salinity of the Tioughnioga River water has been increasing since the late 1930s. In this study, water samples were collected weekly at the East and West Branches of the Tioughnioga River from 2012 to 2014. We characterize natural and anthropogenic sources of salinity in the Tioughnioga River, using two independent approaches: (1) chloride to bromide ratios (Cl/Br) and (2) linear discriminant analysis. Ratios of Cl/Br suggest that road salt runoff influence is notable in both branches, but is more significant in the West Branch, consistent with a greater area of urban land. Linear discriminant analysis confirms the results of Cl/Br in the West Branch and further indicates presence of Appalachian Basin Brines in the East Branch, although their contribution may be volumetrically small. Longitudinal stream Cl concentration profiles indicate that sources of pollution are particularly concentrated around urban areas. Residence time of Cl in the watershed is estimated to be approximately 20 to 30years using a mixing model, suggesting that stream Cl concentrations likely will continue to rise for several decades. PMID:27183460

  5. Analysis of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects from central and eastern United States earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results from three studies of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects of central and eastern United States earthquakes. In the first study source parameter estimates taken from 27 previous studies were combined to test the assumption that the earthquake stress drop is roughly a constant, independent of earthquake size. 200 estimates of stress drop and seismic moment from eastern North American earthquakes were combined. It was found that the estimated stress drop from the 27 studies increases approximately as the square-root of the seismic moment, from about 3 bars at 1020 dyne-cm to 690 bars at 1025 dyne-cm. These results do not support the assumption of a constant stress drop when estimating ground motion parameters from eastern North American earthquakes. In the second study, broadband seismograms recorded by the United States National Seismograph Network and cooperating stations have been analysed to determine QLg as a function of frequency in five regions: the northeastern US, southeastern US, central US, northern Basin and Range, and California and western Nevada. In the third study, using spectral analysis, estimates have been made for the anelastic attenuation of four regional phases, and estimates have been made for the source parameters of 27 earthquakes, including the Mb 5.6, 14 April, 1995, West Texas earthquake

  6. Hybrid energy sources for electric and fuel cell vehicle propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, N; Yap, H T; Bingham, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimi...

  7. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-01-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerob...

  8. Decarbonizing electricity generation with intermittent sources of energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, Stefan; Crampes, Claude

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of public policies that aim to decarbonate electricity production by replacing fossil fuel energy by intermittent renewable sources, namely wind and solar power. We consider a model of energy investment and production with two sources of energy: one is clean but intermittent (e.g. wind), whereas the other one is reliable but polluting (e.g. coal). A carbon tax decreases electricity production while simultaneously increasing investment in wind power. This tax may however ...

  9. Barriers for renewable energy sources development in Poland on the example of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of main priorities of energy policy in Poland. Wind energy is one of the most dynamically developing sectors within renewable energy segment. The installed capacity of wind installations in Poland in 2014 was twice as big as in 2010. Despite such a dynamic growth, wind energy sector constantly faces obstacles of various kind in its development. The article presents the current state, barriers and development perspectives of wind energy in Poland and its share in the renewable energy sources sector. Key words: Poland, Renewable Energy Sources, wind energy, electricity

  10. Seismic Source Parameters of Normal-Faulting Inslab Earthquakes in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Singh, Shri Krishna

    2016-08-01

    We studied 62 normal-faulting inslab earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone with magnitudes in the range of 3.6 ≤ M w ≤ 7.3 and hypocentral depths of 30 ≤ Z ≤ 108 km. We used different methods to estimate source parameters to observe differences in stress drop, corner frequencies, source dimensions, source duration, energy-to-moment ratio, radiated efficiency, and radiated seismic energy. The behavior of these parameters is derived. We found that normal-faulting inslab events have higher radiated seismic energy, energy-to-moment ratio, and stress drop than interplate earthquakes as expected. This may be explained by the mechanism dependence of radiated seismic energy and apparent stress reported in previous source parameter studies. The energy-to-moment ratio data showed large scatter and no trend with seismic moment. The stress drop showed no trend with seismic moment, but an increment with depth. The radiated seismic efficiencies showed similar values to those obtained from interplate events, but higher than near-trench events. We found that the source duration is independent of the depth. We also derived source scaling relationships for the mentioned parameters. The low level of uncertainties for the seismic source parameters and scaling relationships showed that the obtained parameters are robust. Therefore, reliable source parameter estimation can be carried out using the obtained scaling relationships. We also studied regional stress field of normal-faulting inslab events. Heterogeneity exists in the regional stress field, as indicated by individual stress tensor inversions conducted for two different depth intervals ( Z 40 km, respectively). While the maximum stress axis ( σ 1) appears to be consistent and stable, the orientations of the intermediate and minimum stresses ( σ 2 and σ 3) vary over the depth intervals. The stress inversion results showed that the tensional axes are parallel to the dip direction of the subducted plate. At depths

  11. Seismic Source Parameters of Normal-Faulting Inslab Earthquakes in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Singh, Shri Krishna

    2016-06-01

    We studied 62 normal-faulting inslab earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone with magnitudes in the range of 3.6 ≤ M w ≤ 7.3 and hypocentral depths of 30 ≤ Z ≤ 108 km. We used different methods to estimate source parameters to observe differences in stress drop, corner frequencies, source dimensions, source duration, energy-to-moment ratio, radiated efficiency, and radiated seismic energy. The behavior of these parameters is derived. We found that normal-faulting inslab events have higher radiated seismic energy, energy-to-moment ratio, and stress drop than interplate earthquakes as expected. This may be explained by the mechanism dependence of radiated seismic energy and apparent stress reported in previous source parameter studies. The energy-to-moment ratio data showed large scatter and no trend with seismic moment. The stress drop showed no trend with seismic moment, but an increment with depth. The radiated seismic efficiencies showed similar values to those obtained from interplate events, but higher than near-trench events. We found that the source duration is independent of the depth. We also derived source scaling relationships for the mentioned parameters. The low level of uncertainties for the seismic source parameters and scaling relationships showed that the obtained parameters are robust. Therefore, reliable source parameter estimation can be carried out using the obtained scaling relationships. We also studied regional stress field of normal-faulting inslab events. Heterogeneity exists in the regional stress field, as indicated by individual stress tensor inversions conducted for two different depth intervals (Z 40 km, respectively). While the maximum stress axis (σ 1) appears to be consistent and stable, the orientations of the intermediate and minimum stresses (σ 2 and σ 3) vary over the depth intervals. The stress inversion results showed that the tensional axes are parallel to the dip direction of the subducted plate. At depths

  12. Imaging of granular sources in high energy heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Huo, Lei; Zhang, Jing-Bo

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the source imaging for a granular pion-emitting source model in high energy heavy ion collisions. The two-pion source functions of the granular sources exhibit a two-tiered structure. Using a parametrized formula of granular two-pion source function, we examine the two-tiered structure of the source functions for the imaging data of Au+Au collisions at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We find that the imaging technique introduce...

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF CENTRAL QUEUE BASED REALTIME SCHEDULER FOR MULTIPLE SOURCE DATA STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kaviha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time data packet sources are required to remain robust against different security threats. This study proposes a real-time secure scheduling strategy for data transmission to enhance the communication throughput and reduce the overheads. The proposed system combines real-time scheduling with security service enhancement, error detection and realtime scheduler based on EDF algorithm using uc/os-II real time operating system, implemented on cortex M3 processor. The scheduling unit uses central queue management model and the security enhancement scheme adopts a blowfish encryption mechanism.

  14. Comparing nuclear power with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economics of electric generation of nuclear, hydro, oil and gas origin are compared. A similar comparison is also made from the health and environment standpoint for the fossil, nuclear, solar and wind generation. A risk assessment for energies of different origin is outlined and the significance of the greenhouse effect is emphasised. A comprehensive economic and environmental evaluation is recommended for the energy planning

  15. Energy Harvesting from Hydraulic and Vibration Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad pour, Nima

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis, is divided in two main parts. The former is about load optimisation for a hydraulic energy harvester while the latter focuses on the design and fabrication of piezoelectric energy harvesters for the single supply pre-biasing circuit. An abstract for each part is reported below: � Part I: The hydraulic power available in water pipes is usually wasted while it could be harvested and used to supply low power systems. To address this shortcoming, this study presents how load...

  16. A new energy source originating from extra dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Bi-Xiu; Ji Shi-Yin; Li Fang-Qiong

    2004-01-01

    In this work the Einstein gravitational field equations and the Lichnerowicz boundary formalism in the extra dimensions are used to build up our black hole model from 6-dimensional space-time. From the internal stress-energy tensor the solutions with energy levels and semiclassical space-quantization are obtained, which combines with only one metric condition outside the defect. We show a new type of energy source, which originates from extra dimensions. A part of the energy source of quasi-stellar object (QSO) maybe come from extra dimensions in that way. The theoretical arithmetic upper limit is identical to that of the output energy of QSO.

  17. Prospective energy sources and their comparison with current supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, B. V.

    1980-10-01

    The comparative physical-technical and economic characteristics of renewable energy sources are analyzed. The significant advantages of wind energy for future use over oil, gas, and coal are demonstrated. Costs of wind electrical energy are compared in the U.S., Denmark, and the U.S.S.R.

  18. Comparison of prospective energy sources with those in use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, B. V.

    1981-03-01

    The comparative physical-technical and economic characteristics of renewable energy sources are analyzed. The significant advantages of wind energy for future use over oil, gas, and coal are demonstrated. Costs of wind electrical energy are compared in the U.S., Denmark, and the U.S.S.R.

  19. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  20. ALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Тітлова, О.А.

    2015-01-01

    Today humanity is beginning to understand the consequences of ill-considered use of energy resources. In the last decade  a new direction of the economy is actively developing – «The Blue Economy». Its aim is to find innovative solutions that are safe for the environment and society. Bioenergy is one of the directions of the «Blue Economy» which is actively developing lately. The article discusses the possibility, advisability and examples of the algae use as a feedstock for the energy resour...

  1. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  2. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  3. Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

  4. Space Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources: Understanding the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAuley, Molly K.

    2002-01-01

    fossil fuels. In addition, a ground-based electricity generation system is now increasingly realized as also vulnerable to disruption. What advantages does space solar power (SSP) offer over other renewable energy sources (wind, terrestrial photovoltaics, biopower, and geothermal) in addressing these concerns? What are disadvantages? This paper discusses the economics of renewable energy in the United States' market in two geographic regions (the west coast and the north central regions) where renewable energy resources are abundant and relatively low cost (thus, aggressively competitive with SSP), but where the security and reliability advantages of SSP may indeed outweigh any generation cost advantage of the terrestrial technologies.

  5. Phenomenology of extragalactic high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The course is divided in two main bodies: Chapters 1 and 2 deal with some of the fundamental properties of the production of high energy radiation, while chapter 3 is devoted to the observations of active galaxies; chapter 4 presents the X-ray emission of clusters of galaxies and the sky background

  6. Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as for the energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored support system of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energy markets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contribution is to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley. We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesis is the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valley and determination of the best possible variant of it. (authors)

  7. Energy-Efficient Sensing and Communication of Parallel Gaussian Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xi; Erkip, Elza

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a key requirement in the design of wireless sensor networks. While most theoretical studies only account for the energy requirements of communication, the sensing process, which includes measurements and compression, can also consume comparable energy. In this paper, the problem of sensing and communicating parallel sources is studied by accounting for the cost of both communication and sensing. In the first formulation of the problem, the sensor has a separate energy budget for sensing and a rate budget for communication, while, in the second, it has a single energy budget for both tasks. Assuming that sources with larger variances have lower sensing costs, the optimal allocation of sensing energy and rate that minimizes the overall distortion is derived for the first problem. Moreover, structural results on the solution of the second problem are derived under the assumption that the sources with larger variances are transmitted on channels with lower noise. Closed-form solutions are als...

  8. Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

  9. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  10. Foreign Direct Investments in Central Asian Energy: A CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. BARRY

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan have adopted significant legislative changes since the fall of the former Soviet Union in an effort to attract foreign direct investment into their energy sectors. Of the three republics, Kazakhstan has been the most successful in attracting foreign interest, but all three republics face significant challenges in further development of oil and gas infrastructure. Even if these countries are completely successful in bringing in foreign investment, a question will remain: who wins and who loses in these countries. Using updated data, this paper will use a computable general equilibrium model to measure the effects of FDI into Central Asia. Results of the model suggest that the region would be better off overall from foreign investment in its natural gas sector, due mostly to improvements in overall production efficiency and its overall terms of trade. However, the gain in the natural gas sector would come at the expense of production and net exports of non-petroleum related industries.

  11. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of Different Methods for Computing Source Energy in the Context of Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A.; Bonnema, Eric; Goldwasser, David; Pless, Shanti

    2016-08-26

    Building energy consumption can only be measured at the site or at the point of utility interconnection with a building. Often, to evaluate the total energy impact, this site-based energy consumption is translated into source energy, that is, the energy at the point of fuel extraction. Consistent with this approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) definition of zero energy buildings uses source energy as the metric to account for energy losses from the extraction, transformation, and delivery of energy. Other organizations, as well, use source energy to characterize the energy impacts. Four methods of making the conversion from site energy to source energy were investigated in the context of the DOE definition of zero energy buildings. These methods were evaluated based on three guiding principles--improve energy efficiency, reduce and stabilize power demand, and use power from nonrenewable energy sources as efficiently as possible. This study examines relative trends between strategies as they are implemented on very low-energy buildings to achieve zero energy. A typical office building was modeled and variations to this model performed. The photovoltaic output that was required to create a zero energy building was calculated. Trends were examined with these variations to study the impacts of the calculation method on the building's ability to achieve zero energy status. The paper will highlight the different methods and give conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied.

  13. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only...... organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family...

  14. Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner

  15. A problem of stand-off energy sources for MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D D

    1999-04-09

    Fusion devices based on the adiabatic (or shock) compression of the plasma by electromagnetically driven liner need specific energy sources capable of delivering a high current (~10 MA) in the pulses 0.1 - 1 microsecond long. In the present experimental facilities, the plasma load is situated very close to the pulse-power energy source. In the future fusion devices, one would have to place a plasma load at a considerable distance from the energy source (to avoid strong neutron and thermo-mechanical damage to the source). Several versions of the stand-off energy sources are considered. All are based on the idea of an "assembly" - an object where the plasma load is nested and which contains all necessary circuitry that allows conversion of the energy delivered to the assembly into the magnetic energy. Such "assemblies" will be dropped (or inserted) into the reaction chamber at a desired rate and energized by a stand-off energy source. Four specific concepts have been mentioned.

  16. ENEGY FORESTRY A SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Margareta RUSU

    2014-01-01

    Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation s...

  17. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    weather type with strong pressure gradients over Central Europe is identified as potential source for the skill for wind energy potentials, showing similar forecast skill and a high correlation with Eout anomalies. These results are promising regarding the establishment of a decadal prediction system for wind energy for Central Europe.

  18. Marine energies, the new wave of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro-kinetic power, wave energy, thermal energy of seawater, all these techniques have a low notoriety for the moment but are progressively gaining ground thanks to technological progress, to public support, but first of all to the mobilization of companies and regions in concern. This article shows that France is still within the time to build up its renewable marine energies industry

  19. Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, T.

    2007-12-14

    This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

  20. Chemical energy sources transformations by remote experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tkáč, Lukáš; Schauer, František; Gerhátová, Žaneta

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the first experience with the set up, functioning and data evaluation of the remote experiment "Energy transformation" accessible via Internet (http://remotelab10.truni.sk ) as a part of the e-laboratory at the Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Trnava University in Trnava, Slovakia. The remote experiment control and data acquisition is based on the system ISES (Internet School Experimental System) and its control program and www page are built using the environm...

  1. Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.)

  2. Financial incentives for renewable energy sources: how much?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article is assessed the costs and effectiveness of financial incentives policies to stimulate the development of renewable energy sources for electricity production in view of the European goals for the year 2020

  3. Geochemistry of the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian transition in Central Iberia: Tectonic setting and isotopic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenlabrada, José Manuel; Pieren, Agustín P.; Díez Fernández, Rubén; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Arenas, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    A complete Ediacaran-Early Cambrian stratigraphic transition can be observed in the southern part of the Central Iberian Zone (Iberian Massif). Two different stratigraphic units, underlying Ordovician series, display geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic features in agreement with an evolving geodynamic setting. Pusa Shales (Early Cambrian) rest unconformably on greywackes of the Lower Alcudian Formation (Late Ediacaran). Both sequences present minor compositional variations for major and trace element contents and similar REE patterns, close to those of PAAS (Post Archean Australian Shale). Trace element contents and element ratios suggest mixed sources, with intermediate to felsic igneous contributions for both units. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams for the Ediacaran greywackes indicate that these turbiditic series were deposited in a sedimentary basin associated with a mature active margin (volcanic arc). However, the compositions of the Cambrian shales fit better with a more stable context, a back-arc or retro-arc setting. εNd(T) and TDM ages are compatible with dominance of a similar cratonic source for both sequences, probably the West Africa Craton. εNd565 values for the Ediacaran greywackes (- 3.0 to - 1.4) along with TDM ages (1256-1334 Ma) imply a significant contribution of juvenile material, probably derived from the erosion of the volcanic arc. However, εNd530 values in the Cambrian shales (- 5.2 to - 4.0) together with older TDM ages (1444-1657 Ma), suggest a higher contribution of cratonic isotopic sources, probably derived from erosion of the adjacent mainland. Coeval with the progressive cessation of arc volcanism along the peri-Gondwanan realm during the Cambrian, there was a period of more tectonic stability and increasing arrival of sediments from cratonic areas. The geochemistry of the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition in Central Iberia documents a tectonic switch in the periphery of Gondwana, from an active margin to a more stable context

  4. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  5. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  6. Energy sources and power plants; Energiequellen und Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ. / Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Schulz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [German] Energie wird aus verschiedenen Energietraegern gewonnen (Kohle, Erdoel, Erdgas, Kernbrennstoffe, Windenergie, Solarenergie, Wasserkraft, Biomasse, Geothermie). Diese unterscheiden sich jeweils hinsichtlich ihrer Verfuegbarkeit, der Methoden ihrer Gewinnung und der benoetigten Kraftwerkstechnologien. Als Zukunftstechnologien werden Brennstoffzellen und Kernfusion gehandelt.

  7. SINGLE - PHASE INVERTER CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR INTERFACING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    C.Nallasivam

    2015-01-01

    A novel current control technique is proposed to control power flow from a renewable energy source feeding a microgrid system through a three - phase parallel - connected inverter. The parallel - connected inverter ensures that the power flow from the grid with low - current total harmonic distortion even in the presence of nonlinear load. The renewable energy sources ar e paralleled, and the average of this constant sup...

  8. Optimum target source term estimation for high energy electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, M. K.; Sahu, T. K.; Nair, Haridas G.; Nandedkar, R. V.; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R. M.; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2016-05-01

    Optimum target for bremsstrahlung emission is defined as the thickness of the target material, which produces maximum bremsstrahlung yield, on interaction of electron with the target. The bremsstrahlung dose rate per unit electron beam power at a distance of 1 m from the target material gives the optimum target source term. In the present work, simulations were performed for three different electron energies, 450, 1000 and 2500 MeV using EGSnrc Monte-Carlo code to determine the optimum thickness. An empirical relation for optimum target as a function of electron energy and atomic number of the target materials is found out from results. Using the simulated optimum target thickness, experiments are conducted to determine the optimum target source term. For the experimental determination, two available electron energies, 450 MeV and 550 MeV from booster synchrotron of Indus facility is used. The optimum target source term for these two energies are also simulated. The experimental and simulated source term are found to be in very good agreement within ±3%. Based on the agreement of the simulated source term with the experimental source term at 450 MeV and 550 MeV, the same simulation methodology is used to simulate optimum target source term up to 2500 MeV. The paper describes the simulations and experiments carried out on optimum target bremsstrahlung source term and the results obtained.

  9. Intracluster Supernova as a Possible Extra Energy Source of Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Shin

    2000-01-01

    The observed luminosity -- temperature relation of clusters is considerably steeper than that expected from a simple scaling relation. Although extra energy input is a likely solution, its source has not been identified. We propose intracluster supernova as a possible source, and also predict the supernova rate in intracluster space as a critical test.

  10. Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  11. High-energy Neutrinos from Sources in Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by the accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structures, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report the cumulative cosmic-ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters, including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and γ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.

  12. High-energy neutrinos from sources in clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structure, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report the cumulative cosmic ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and $\\gamma$ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.

  13. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-04-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.

  14. Assessing the efficiency versus the inefficiency of the energy sectors in formerly centrally planned economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorsatz, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    As much the extreme inefficiency of Eastern European energy sectors is emphasized, as little attention their relatively efficient aspects receive. Indeed, a few efficiency indicators show the highest global efficiencies for the formerly centrally planned economies, such as the overall primary to useful energy efficiency. These figures draw the attention to an underestimated feature of former socialist energy sectors and to crucial policy implications: in some respects central planning lead to a more efficient use of energy than the market economy. Consequently, if transitions from the central planning to the market economy are not managed carefully, further reductions in energy efficiency can be expected in some sectors of the economy.

  15. Paleosols in central Illinois as potential sources of ammonium in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessner, J.J.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Glacially buried paleosols of pre-Holocene age were evaluated as potential sources for anomalously large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater in East Central Illinois. Ammonium has been detected at concentrations that are problematic to water treatment facilities (greater than 2.0 mg/L) in this region. Paleosols characterized for this study were of Quaternary age, specifically Robein Silt samples. Paleosol samples displayed significant capacity to both store and release ammonium through experiments measuring processes of sorption, ion exchange, and weathering. Bacteria and fungi within paleosols may significantly facilitate the leaching of ammonium into groundwater by the processes of assimilation and mineralization. Bacterial genetic material (DNA) was successfully extracted from the Robein Silt, purified, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to produce 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) community analyses. The Robein Silt was found to have established diverse and viable bacterial communities. 16S rRNA TRFLP comparisons to well-known bacterial species yielded possible matches with facultative chemolithotrophs, cellulose consumers, nitrate reducers, and actinomycetes. It was concluded that the Robein Silt is both a source and reservoir for groundwater ammonium. Therefore, the occurrence of relatively large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater monitoring data may not necessarily be an indication of only anthropogenic contamination. The results of this study, however, need to be placed in a hydrological context to better understand whether paleosols can be a significant source of ammonium to drinking water supplies. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  16. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  17. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Santini, P; Wuyts, S; Rosario, D; Brisbin, D; Cooray, A; Franceschini, A; Gruppioni, C; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hwang, H S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Popesso, P; Pozzetti, L; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) Far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PEP and HerMES programs is combined with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields. Based on this rich dataset, we reproduce the restframe UV to FIR ten-colors distribution of galaxies using a superposition of multi-variate Gaussian modes. The median SED of each mode is then fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an AGN. The defined Gaussian grouping is also used to identify rare sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z~1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, an...

  18. Development of a high-energy distributed energy source electromagnetic railgun with improved energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vought Corporation in cooperation with the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas (CEM-UT) has developed under sponsorship by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) a high-energy distributed energy source (DES) electromagnetic (EM) railgun accelerator. This paper discusses the development and current status of the DES railgun which has the design capability to launch projectile masses up to 60 grams to the 3-4 km/sec velocity regime with energy conversion efficiencies above 35 percent. These goals are being accomplished through utilization of scaled-energy CEM-UT railgun experiments for sequenced timing/staging and a full energy (575 kJ) design at Vought for high efficiency capability. The operational Vought single-pulse railgun forms the baseline for the full energy testing

  19. Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Selected Arable Farms in Central and South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Moitzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the project “Mechanization and Energy use in selected arable farms in Central and South Eastern Europe (CASEE” was to analyse energy characteristics of arable farming in Slovak Republic, Romania, Serbia and Austria, to compare results and identify possibilities of its improvements. The large scale farms are: the university farm of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SK with 1.112 ha arable land, a cooperative farm in Risnovice (SK with an arable land of 1.266 ha, a family farm in Apahida-Transylvania (RO with 400 ha, a farm in Viisoara-Transylvania (RO with 600 ha, a family farm in Sremska Mitrovica (SRB with an arable land of 115 ha, a family farm near Novi Sad (SRB with an arable land of 450 ha and a family farm in Ansfelden/Linz (A with 368 ha. The farms were visited by the interviewer once or more times and the relevant data, used machinery, quantity of inputs, e.g. fuel, pesticides, fertilizer, seed and yields of harvested crops, were recorded, for the production season 2012. After collection of the basic data all energy inputs and outputs, energy content of crops, were calculated in accordance with data and procedure defined by CIGR (International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Handbook Volume V – Energy and Biomass Engineering (1999. Energy input and net energy gain, expressed in MJ/ha, were used to calculate energy characteristics of crops’ production: energy productivity - kg/MJ, energy efficiency index, energy ratio, energy intensity - MJ/kg, fuel intensity - L/kg. The intensity of all used farm inputs (fuel, seeds, fertilizer and pesticide in crop production systems influences the energy efficiency. The fuel consumption for winter wheat production of the analysed farms ranges between 54 and 91 l/ha. The mean energy ratio (energy-output/energy-input for winter wheat is 5.6 with ranges between 4.8 and 7.1. Besides the fuel consumption the energy-input via the nitrogen-fertilizer is

  20. Comparison of Source Time Functions Retrieved from Various Regional Waves and Coda Using Moderate Earthquakes in East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Torpey, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Source time functions may vary with various P and S wave types. Regional Lg waves have been used to estimate radiated energy and apparent stress. In nuclear explosion seismology, the practice of discriminating Earthquake and explosions using regional wave spectra and spectral ratios relies on a fundamental assumption that Earthquakes and explosions excite various regional waves in a systematically-different manner. We have been carrying out a systematic study to retrieve source time functions (STFs) from seismic sources using the empirical Green's function (EGF) approach. In phase 1 of the study, we focus on retrieving STFs from moderate earthquakes in east and central Asia using regional Lg, Pg, Lg coda, and Sn and Pn waves to see whether or not the shape of the STFs varies with the wave type. We explored various methods to reduce the noise in the deconvolved STFs which tend to be higher for the relatively weaker Pg, Sn, Pn and coda waves. For example, an array-stacking method is used to enhance source pulses and reduce the level of side-lobes. Preliminary results suggest that Lg and Lg coda STFs may be similar, as generally believed. Pg STF is less similar to Lg STF. For example, when a stacked Lg STF is clearly asymmetric with a sharp-rise time, the stack Pg STF seems to be fairly symmetric. In general, our confidence on this kind of dissimilarity is still limited by the non-diminishing deconvolution noise in the retrieved Pg STFs, and by the small number of events studied. We are trying to further reduce the deconvolution noise for each regional wave, and find and analyze more moderate events. We will present newly-retrieved STFs from each of the various regional waves and coda, and compare the pulse widths and shapes of the STFs from different waves. We will also present estimates of source-radiated energy and apparent stresses using the estimated Lg STFs without using various simplified source models and Q corrections.

  1. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée;

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...

  2. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan;

    2013-01-01

    management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  3. Preparatory assistance project alternative energy sources. Summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the forest areas and the artificial forest wood survey carried out in the alternative energy sources framework project. The use of wood as fuel in Uruguay requires specific actions of the State to ensure the balanced management of natural energy resources

  4. New, more effective methods of exploiting energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares Huici, E.

    1986-01-01

    The energy crisis has made it necessary both to rationalise and improve old technology and to seek new sources of energy. This article reviews new, more efficient methods of using conventional fuels, new combustion technology, fluidised beds, use of heat produced by residual water processing plant, etc.

  5. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.;

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...

  6. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...

  7. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  8. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2015-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability.

  9. OCLC as a source for copy cataloguing in the Central Technological Library?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Petek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Central Technological Library (CTK, we tried to find out whether cataloguing of monographs could be economized by using outside cataloguing source.A short survey of the availability of a catalog copy on OCLC was conducted. A sample of 50 items of cataloging records, created by the CTK for COBISS was searched for matching records in OCLC, and a catalog copy was found in 74% of the cases. The records were compared and only slight differences were assessed,in spite of different cataloging rules and different machine readable formats used.The downloading of the records from OCLC into COBISS from the perspective of time efficiency should be tested as well.

  10. Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.

  11. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  12. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  13. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  14. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  15. Phase 1 report: investigation of geothermal energy information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-14

    A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.

  16. Energy Economics and Policy of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Wadim Strielkowski; Štěpán Krška; Evgeny Lisin

    2013-01-01

    European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In ...

  17. THE PLACE OF RENEWABLE SOURCES AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE ENERGY POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Cvetanović , Miljan Jovanović

    2014-01-01

    The increasing renewable source usage and energy efficiency enhancement represent the key aims of the energy sector's development in EU countries. The purpose of their implementation is at the same time the creation of the renewable sources concept as a new development paradigm.Thus, this points to the conclusion that all the projects of renewable source usage and energy efficiency enhancement must be viewed from the perspective of the manifestation of economic, environmental and social effec...

  18. The central engine of GRB 130831A and the energy breakdown of a relativistic explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S. R.; Racusin, J. L.; Kann, D. A.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Volnova, A. A.; Trotter, A.; Frank, N.; Cucchiara, A.; Troja, E.; Sbarufatti, B.; Butler, N. R.; Schulze, S.; Cano, Z.; Page, M. J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Lien, A.; Fox, O.; Littlejohns, O.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; de Diego, J. A.; Gonzalez, J.; Richer, M. G.; Román-Zúñiga, C.; Watson, A. M.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Kutyrev, A.; Zane, S.; Hoette, V.; Russell, R. R.; Rumyantsev, V.; Klunko, E.; Burkhonov, O.; Breeveld, A. A.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, yet the nature and physical properties of their energy sources are far from understood. Very important clues, however, can be inferred by studying the afterglows of these events. We present optical and X-ray observations of GRB 130831A obtained by Swift, Chandra, Skynet, Reionization And Transients Infra-Red camera, Maidanak, International Scientific Optical-Observation Network, Nordic Optical Telescope, Liverpool Telescope and Gran Telescopio Canarias. This burst shows a steep drop in the X-ray light curve at ≃105 s after the trigger, with a power-law decay index of α ˜ 6. Such a rare behaviour cannot be explained by the standard forward shock (FS) model and indicates that the emission, up to the fast decay at 105 s, must be of `internal origin', produced by a dissipation process within an ultrarelativistic outflow. We propose that the source of such an outflow, which must produce the X-ray flux for ≃1 d in the cosmological rest frame, is a newly born magnetar or black hole. After the drop, the faint X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical emission, on the other hand, shows no break across the X-ray steep decrease, and the late-time decays of both the X-ray and optical are consistent. Using both the X-ray and optical data, we show that the emission after ≃105 s can be explained well by the FS model. We model our data to derive the kinetic energy of the ejecta and thus measure the efficiency of the central engine of a GRB with emission of internal origin visible for a long time. Furthermore, we break down the energy budget of this GRB into the prompt emission, the late internal dissipation, the kinetic energy of the relativistic ejecta, and compare it with the energy of the associated supernova, SN 2013 fu.

  19. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: Focus on the central melanocortin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiologi...

  20. ENEGY FORESTRY A SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta RUSU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation should be targeted to deliver sustainability, biodiversity and economic growth. Romanian has a high potential and can develop energy forestry in order to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure an alternative energy solution and an energy reserve. This paper aims to analize the challenges and opportunities the biomass energy industry creates in the context of climate change mitigation which must be seen from an entrepreneurial perspective in Romania.

  1. A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

  2. Drinking water and pregnancy outcome in central North Carolina: source, amount, and trihalomethane levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Andrews, K W; Pastore, L M

    1995-06-01

    In spite of the recognition of potentially toxic chemicals in chlorinated drinking water, few studies have evaluated reproductive health consequences of such exposure. Using data from a case-control study of miscarriage, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in central North Carolina, we evaluated risk associated with water source, amount, and trihalomethane (THM) concentration. Water source was not related to any of those pregnancy outcomes, but an increasing amount of ingested water was associated with decreased risks of all three outcomes (odds ratios around 1.5 for 0 glasses per day relative to 1-3 glasses per day, falling to 0.8 for 4+ glasses per day). THM concentration and dose (concentration x amount) were not related to pregnancy outcome, with the possible exception of an increased risk of miscarriage in the highest sextile of THM concentration (adjusted odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.7), which was not part of an overall dose-response gradient. These data do not indicate a strong association between chlorination by-products and adverse pregnancy outcome, but given the limited quality of our exposure assessment and the increased miscarriage risk in the highest exposure group, more refined evaluation is warranted. PMID:7556013

  3. Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central Himalaya: impact of anthropogenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M M

    2015-01-15

    In the present-day scenario of growing anthropogenic activities, carbonaceous aerosols contribute significantly (∼20-70%) to the total atmospheric particulate matter mass and, thus, have immense potential to influence the Earth's radiation budget and climate on a regional to global scale. In addition, formation of secondary organic aerosols is being increasingly recognized as an important process in contributing to the air-pollution and poor visibility over urban regions. It is, thus, essential to study atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous species (EC, OC and WSOC), their mixing state and absorption properties on a regional scale. This paper presents the comprehensive data on emission sources, chemical characteristics and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from selected urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and from a high-altitude location in the central Himalaya. The mass concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC exhibit large spatio-temporal variability in the IGP. This is attributed to seasonally varying emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning, their source strength, boundary layer dynamics and secondary aerosol formation. The high concentrations of OC and SO4(2-), and their characteristic high mass scattering efficiency, contribute significantly to the aerosol optical depth and scattering coefficient. This has implications to the assessment of single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative forcing on a regional scale. PMID:25199599

  4. Luminosity distribution in the central regions of Messier 87: Isothermal core, point source, or black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of photographic and photoelectric photometry with the McDonald 2 m reflector is used to derive a precise mean luminosity profile μ/sub B/(r*) of M87 (jet excluded) at approx.0''.6 resolution out to r*=70''. Within 8'' from the center the luminosity is less than predicted by extrapolation of the r/sup 1/4/ law defined by the main body of the galaxy (8''0=30.5) the structural length of the underlying isothermal is α=2''.78=170 pc, the mass of the ''black hole'' M0 =1.7.109M/sub sun/ and the luminosity of the point source (B0 =16.95, M0=-13.55) equals 4.2% of the integrated luminosity B (6'') =13.52 of the galaxy within r*=6''. These results agree closely with and confirm the work of the Hale team. Comparison of the McDonald and Hale data suggests that the central source may have been slightly brighter (approx.0.5 mag) in 1964 than in 1975--1977

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA, the cluster analysis (CA and the discriminant analysis (DA were used to assess the water pollution status and analyze its spatio-temporal variation. Ten sites were classified by the high pollution (HP region and the low pollution (LP region, while 12 months were divided into the wet season and the dry season. It was found that the HP region was mainly in the small tributaries with small drainage areas and low average annual discharges, and it was also found that most of these rivers went through urban areas with industrial and domestic sewages input into the water body. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA was applied to reveal potential pollution sources, whereas absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR was used to identify their contributions to each water quality variable. The study area was found as being generally affected by industrial and domestic sewage. Furthermore, the HP region was polluted by chemical industries, and the LP region was influenced by agricultural and livestock sewage.

  6. Constraining High-Energy Cosmic Neutrino Sources: Implications and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kohta

    2016-01-01

    We consider limits on the local ($z=0$) density ($n_0$) of extragalactic neutrino sources set by the nondetection of steady high-energy neutrino sources producing $\\gtrsim30$ TeV muon multiplets in the present IceCube data, taking into account the redshift evolution, luminosity function and neutrino spectrum of the sources. We show that the lower limit depends weakly on source spectra and strongly on redshift evolution. We find $n_0\\gtrsim{10}^{-7}~{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$ for standard candle sources evolving rapidly, $n_s\\propto{(1+z)}^3$, and $n_0\\gtrsim{10}^{-5}~{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$ for nonevolving sources. The corresponding upper limits on their neutrino luminosity are $L_{{\

  7. Comparing Energy Use and Efficiency in Central Iowa Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rachael; Wiedenhoeft, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Energy is relevant to all areas of human life; energy sustains us through food, drives our transportation, warms and cools our buildings, and powers our electrical gadgets. In nature, ecosystems function by capturing and transforming energy. Agroecosystems are formed when humans manipulate the capture and flow of energy for food, fiber, and fuel…

  8. Towards Design of Sustainable Energy Systems in Developing Countries: Centralized and Localized Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursun, Berrin

    Energy use in developing countries is projected to equal and exceed the demand in developed countries in the next five years. Growing concern about environmental problems, depletion and price fluctuation of fossil fuels pushes the efforts for meeting energy demand in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. Hence, it is essential to design energy systems consisting of centralized and localized options that generate the optimum energy mix to meet this increasing energy demand in a sustainable manner. In this study, we try to answer the question, "How can the energy demand in Rampura village be met sustainably?" via two centralized clean coal (CCC) technology and three localized energy technology options analyzed. We perform the analysis of these energy technologies through joint use of donor-side analysis technique emergy analysis (EA) and user-side analysis technique life cycle assessment (LCA). Sustainability of such an energy combination depends on its reliance on renewable inputs rather than nonrenewable or purchased inputs. CCC technologies are unsustainable energy systems dependent on purchased external inputs almost 100%. However, increased efficiency and significantly lower environmental impacts of CCC technologies can lead to more environmentally benign utilization of coal as an energy source. CCC technologies supply electricity at a lower price compared to the localized energy options investigated. Localized energy options analyzed include multi-crystalline solar PV, floating drum biogas digester and downdraft biomass gasifier. Solar PV has the lowest water and land use, however, solar electricity has the highest price with a high global warming potential (GWP). Contrary to general opinion, solar electricity is highly non-renewable. Although solar energy is a 100% renewable natural resource, materials utilized in the production of solar panels are mostly non-renewable purchased inputs causing the low renewability of solar electricity. Best

  9. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  10. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  11. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  12. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  13. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kolker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg speciation – reactive gaseous Hg (RGM, elemental Hg (Hg°, and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5, were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1 a 1114 megawatt (MW coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2 a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3 a smaller (465 MW coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg° and Hg-PM2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m−3 measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site. The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1 the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2 the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3 RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  14. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in alluvial basins in arid central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzalm, J. L.; Jeuken, B. M.; Wischusen, J. D. H.; Pavelic, P.; Le Gal La Salle, C.; Knapton, A.; Dillon, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    SummaryIt is necessary to define the role of various sources of recharge in the surficial alluvial aquifer system in arid Alice Springs in central Australia, for future management of water resources in the region. Multiple sources of natural recharge include infiltration from ephemeral stream flow in the Todd River; groundwater throughflow between connected alluvial basins; regional groundwater flow from the underlying Tertiary aquifer; and diffuse recharge. In addition treatment, storage and irrigation reuse of Alice Springs' waste water has resulted in additional recharge of effluent, via infiltration. Water resource management plans for the region include effluent reuse through Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) within one of the connected alluvial basins, with the purpose of managing the excess waste water overflows while also supplementing groundwater resources for irrigation and protecting their quality. Hydrogeochemical tracers, chloride and the stable isotopes of water, were used in a three-member mixing model to define and quantify the major recharge sources. The mixing model was not sensitive enough to quantify minor contributions from effluent in groundwater that were identified only by an evaporated isotopic signature. The contribution of the multiple recharge sources varied spatially with proximity to the recharge source; with Todd River, effluent and Town Basin throughflow contributing to the Inner Farm Basin groundwater. The Outer Farm Basin was largely influenced by the Todd River, the Inner Farm Basin throughflow and the older Tertiary aquifer. While Inner Farm groundwater throughflow contains an effluent component, only Outer Farm Basin groundwater near the interface between the two basins clearly illustrated an effluent signature. Aside from this, effluent recharge was not evident in the Outer Farm Basin, indicating that past unmanaged recharge practices will not mask signs of Managed Aquifer Recharge through the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) operation

  15. Centrality Dependence of Flow in High-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红艳; 周代翠; 杨纯斌; 蔡勖

    2002-01-01

    Directed flow and elliptic flow of final state particles in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions in the EMU01 experiment have been studied. The dependences of directed flow and elliptic flow on incident energy and impact centrality of outgoing particles are presented. The results exhibit strong dependence of flow on centrality and energy. We also suggest a more reliable way to determine the event plane resolution here.

  16. Renewable sources of energy. Principles, social acceptance, and state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    name a few. There are contradictions about the use of energy in terms of carbon credits, agrofuels and the subsidy of the generation with oil. The followers of the ER promote energy efficiency, bioclimatic architecture, respect for nature, the conservation and protection of biodiversity. Today has been the ethical problems of the use of power and the exploitation of the FRE depending on the market which brings concentration, centralized generation, use of food to produce energy, class exploitation of sources which adds to the crisis. On the other hand new technologies and materials have been developed to make more efficient and cost-effective avenues of exploitation of renewables which include the development of new selective materials, the use of hydrogen cells and wind power by induction

  17. Low-energy point source searches with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the overwhelming background of atmospheric muons, the traditional IceCube point source search in the Southern Hemisphere is mainly sensitive to neutrinos with energies above 100TeV. A new approach focuses on events starting inside the instrumented volume. By utilizing different veto techniques we are able to significantly reduce the energy threshold and can now for the first time explore the entire Southern Hemisphere at neutrino energies as low as 100GeV. We present the results of two analyses targeting slightly different energy ranges. Both use one year of data taken with the completed IceCube detector in 2011/12.

  18. Note: Localization based on estimated source energy homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Eriksen, Fredrik Kvalheim; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic signal localization is a complex problem with a wide range of industrial and academic applications. Herein, we propose a localization method based on energy attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison (termed estimated source energy homogeneity, or ESEH). This inversion is tested on both synthetic (numerical) data using a Lamb wave propagation model and experimental 2D plate data (recorded with 4 accelerometers sensitive up to 26 kHz). We compare the performance of this technique with classic source localization algorithms: arrival time localization, time reversal localization, and localization based on energy amplitude. Our technique is highly versatile and out-performs the conventional techniques in terms of error minimization and cost (both computational and financial).

  19. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  20. Energy-Based Collaborative Source Localization Using Acoustic Microsensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensor network source localization method based on acoustic energy measurements is presented. This method makes use of the characteristics that the acoustic energy decays inversely with respect to the square of distance from the source. By comparing energy readings measured at surrounding acoustic sensors, the source location during that time interval can be accurately estimated as the intersection of multiple hyperspheres. Theoretical bounds on the number of sensors required to yield unique solution are derived. Extensive simulations have been conducted to characterize the performance of this method under various parameter perturbations and noise conditions. Potential advantages of this approach include low intersensor communication requirement, robustness with respect to parameter perturbations and measurement noise, and low-complexity implementation.

  1. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O. Olotuah; Olabosipo I Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

    Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research metho...

  2. Sulfur isotopic composition and source identification of atmospheric environment in central Zhejiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere are significant factors leading to acidification of the atmospheric environment and worsening the pollution of acid deposition. Because of the "fingerprint" characteristics of the stable sulfur isotopic composition, sulfur isotope has been widely adopted in environmental researches concerning sulfur cycle and source identification. In this study, the atmospheric environment of Jinhua City, central Zhejiang Province, was continuously monitored, and the sulfur isotopic composition of SO2 and sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere was analyzed. The results indicate that the variation of δ34S values for SO2 ranges from 1.0‰ to 7.5‰, and annual average is 4.7‰±2.3‰, whereas that of sulfate aerosols ranges from 6.4‰ to 9.8‰,and annual average is 8.1‰±1.0‰. The δ 34S values for SO2 have significant seasonal variations, which are 7.0‰ in winter and 3.3‰ in summer. These variations cannot be attributed to a single factor, and we suggest a temperature-dependent isotope equilibrium fractionation and elevated biogenic sulfur emissions of isotopically light S in summer may be the main controlling mechanisms. Furthermore, we also discuss the δ 34S model of atmospheric SO2 oxidation to form sulfate, and suggest that heterogeneous oxidation dominates in the oxidation reactions of atmospheric SO2 in the central Zhejiang Province. We further suggest that the relative humidity in the atmosphere plays an important role in the oxidation mechanism of atmospheric SO2.

  3. Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

  4. Diversification of Energy Supply: Prospects for Emerging Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Michael M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Asia’s burgeoning energy demand has stimulated interest in photovoltaics, wind power, and unconventional gas (shale gas, tight gas, coal-bed methane, and coal-mine methane). For each of these, the resource, current status, future prospects, environmental implications, investment and infrastructure requirements, and risks are examined. Shale gas has revolutionized North American gas supply, but may develop slowly in Asia due to challenging geological conditions, lack of geological data, dense ...

  5. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs

  6. China-Russia relations in Central Asia. Energy policy, Beijing's new assertiveness and 21{sup st} century geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Thomas Stephan [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Ostasienwissenschaften

    2014-07-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. As China rises to global power status, its relations with other major powers, including Russia, are constantly renegotiated. Energy figures prominently in both countries' foreign policy. An extensive analysis of Chinese language sources - academic debate 1997-2012 - confirms a collision of interests over Central Asian reserves. While unanimous appeals to compromise render previous predictions of impending confrontation unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian energy relations as ''central to energy security'', and the explicit rejection of a Russian ''sphere of influence'', also exclude a retreat. In the long term, China will likely replace Russia as the dominant force in Central Asia's energy sector, causing the Kremlin to perceive another ''encroachment''. The current notion of a ''strategic partnership'' will inevitably be challenged.

  7. Sensibility of grey particle production system to energy and centrality in 60A and 200A GeV 16O-Nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, A.; El–Nagdy, M. S.; Badawy, B. M.; Osman, W.; Fayed, M.

    2016-06-01

    The grey particle production following 60 A and 200A GeV 16O interactions with emulsion nuclei is investigated at different centralities. The evaporated target fragment multiplicity is voted as a centrality parameter. The target size effect is examined over a wide range, where the C, N and O nuclei present the light target group while the Br and Ag nuclei are the heavy group. In the framework of the nuclear limiting fragmentation hypothesis, the grey particle multiplicity characteristics depend only on the target size and centrality while the projectile size and energy are not effective. The grey particle is suggested to be a multisource production system. The emission direction in the 4π space depends upon the production source. Either the exponential decay or the Poisson’s peaking curves are the usual characteristic shapes of the grey particle multiplicity distributions. The decay shape is suggested to be a characteristic feature of the source singularity while the peaking shape is a multisource super-position. The sensibility to the centrality varies from a source to other. The distribution shape is identified at each centrality region according to the associated source contribution. In general, the multiplicity characteristics seem to be limited w.r.t. the collision system centrality using light target nuclei. The selection of the black particle multiplicity as a centrality parameter is successful through the collision with the heavy target nuclei. In the collision with the light target nuclei it may be qualitatively better to vote another centrality parameter.

  8. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  9. Prices and costs of energy sources; Les prix et les couts des sources d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie (CNRS- UPMF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    An evaluation of the complete social energy cost should result from the sum of the production marginal cost, of the external marginal cost and of the marginal cost of substitution of non-renewable energy sources. This last parameter is difficult to estimate because of theoretical and methodological obstacles. The two others are evaluated for different energy sources, in the present day situation, and in the perspective of a probable evolution. Today, fossil fuels have the lowest internal costs whatever their use. Thus, in 'business as usual' energy scenarios, fossil fuels represent more than 80% of the energy supply at the 2050 prospects. However, several uncertainties can affect the future evolution of these costs, some are of geopolitical origin (political fragility of some exporting countries), and some are of environmental origin (internalized costs of CO{sub 2} emissions). Finally, the depletion of some resources should be anticipated. (J.S.)

  10. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo project in summer 2012. Data was collected from 22 July–18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at ~ 02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to zero, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources, including postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 with NO2 and photolysis of HNO3, increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant extra daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity, with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2, in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. The effect of the missing HONO to OH radical production is also investigated and it is shown that the model needs to be constrained to measured HONO in order to accurately reproduce the OH radical measurements.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in central Poland: Sources and seasonal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Kurzyca, Iwona; Siepak, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition of total mercury was studied at two sites in central Poland, between April 2013 and October 2014. Hg in rainwater (bulk deposition) was analyzed in relation to meteorological parameters and major ions (H+, NO3-, Cl-, SO42 -) in order to investigate seasonal variation, identify sources and determine factors affecting atmospheric Hg chemistry and deposition. Total mercury concentrations varied between 1.24 and 22.1 ng L- 1 at the urban sampling site (Poznań) and between 0.57 and 18.3 ng L- 1 in the woodland protected area (Jeziory), with quite similar mean values of 6.96 and 6.37 ng L- 1, respectively. Mercury in precipitation exhibited lower spatial variability within the study domain (urban/forest transect) than the concentrations determined during other similar observations, reflecting the predominant influence of the same local sources. In our study, a significant seasonal pattern of Hg deposition was observed at both sampling sites, with higher and more variable concentrations of Hg reported for the urban area. In particular, deposition values of Hg were higher in the samples attributed to relatively large precipitation amounts in the summer and in those collected during the winter season (the result of higher contributions from combustion sources, i.e. intensive combustion of fossil fuels in residential and commercial boilers, individual power/heat-generating plants). In addition, a significant relationship between Hg concentration and precipitation amount was found while considering different types of wintertime samples (i.e. rain, snow and mixed precipitation). The analysis of backward trajectories showed that air masses arriving from polluted regions of western Europe and southern Poland largely affected the amount of Hg in rainwater. A seasonal variation in Hg deposition fluxes was also observed, with the maximum value of Hg in spring and minimum in winter. Our results indicated that rainwater Hg and, consequently, the wet deposition

  12. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole

  13. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  15. A source of energy : sustainable architecture and urbanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestvik, Harald N.

    2011-07-01

    An update on the environmental challenges. Meant to inspire and be a source of energy.Tearing down myths and floodlighting paradoxes. Particularly relevant for students of architecture, architects and concerned citizens. Training tasks, recommendations for further source books and web sites, are included. From the content: Climate change and consensus, Population growth, Food production, The sustainable city, Transportation myths and facts, A mini history of environmental architecture, Architects' approach to sustainable design, The failure of western architects; a case study; China, The passive, zeb and plus energy building, Natural ventilation, Sustainable materials, Plastics in building, Nuclear energy, Solar energy, The grid of the future, Indoor climate and health. The sick building syndrome, Radon, Universal design, Paradoxes, Bullying techniques, Trust yourself, Timing, Which gateway will you choose?, On transience. (au)

  16. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  17. A Novel Source of Tagged Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Tenzing H. Y.

    2011-01-01

    For sufficiently wide resonances, nuclear resonance fluorescence behaves like elastic photo-nuclear scattering while retaining the large cross-section characteristic of resonant photo-nuclear absorption. We show that NRF may be used to characterize the signals produced by low-energy nuclear recoils by serving as a novel source of tagged low-energy nuclear recoils. Understanding these signals is important in determining the sensitivity of direct WIMP dark-matter and coherent neutrino-nucleus s...

  18. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  19. Methane as an energy source for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Nakicenovic, N.

    2002-01-01

    Today, fossil fuels supply about 80% of global primary energy. The consequences are severe for human health from indoor and regional air pollution, acidification due to sulphur and nitrogen oxide emissions and climate change due to rapidly growing greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the efficiency and the environmental compatibility of fossil technologies, shift to fossil energy sources with lower environmental impacts such as natural gas, or shift awa...

  20. Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development and

  1. Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Selected Arable Farms in Central and South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Moitzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false DE-AT X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The main objective of the project “Mechanization and Energy use in selected arable farms in Central and South Eastern Europe (CASEE” was to analyse energy characteristics of arable farming in Slovak Republic, Romania, Serbia and Austria, to compare results and identify possibilities of its improvements. The large scale farms are: the university farm of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SK with 1.112 ha arable land, a cooperative farm in Risnovice (SK with an arable land of 1.266 ha, a family farm in Apahida-Transylvania (RO with 400 ha, a farm in Viisoara-Transylvania (RO with 600 ha, a family farm in Sremska Mitrovica (SRB with an arable land of 115 ha, a family farm near Novi Sad (SRB with an arable land of 450 ha and a family farm in Ansfelden/Linz (A with 368 ha. The farms were visited by the interviewer once or more times and the relevant data, used machinery, quantity of inputs, e.g. fuel, pesticides, fertilizer, seed and yields of harvested crops, were recorded, for the production season 2012. After collection of the basic data all energy inputs and outputs, energy content of crops, were calculated in accordance with data and procedure defined by CIGR (International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Handbook Volume V

  2. Energy efficiency: a source of savings; a priority objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency is defined as consumption of less energy whilst delivering the same service. Significant progress has been made through the impact of technology, price increases and awareness of waste. Too often viewed as a constraint, energy efficiency nonetheless constitutes the leading potential source of domestic energy for the 2020 goal. Energy efficiency is or will be (depending on the will of the stakeholders, public authorities and society as a whole) a key market for the future and a pathway to creative innovation. Everything is pointing in that direction: the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fourfold, the new European Directive on Energy Efficiency to be incorporated, the expected increase in energy prices, the presence in France of industry leaders and of a small-scale but important industry in this sector. The goals in energy efficiency entail: - at Community level, that the objective of 20% energy savings for the 2020 goal becomes binding; - at national level, that public policies for energy efficiency are part of a long-term vision, based on the achievements of the Grenelle Environment Forum and avoid sending out any wrong signals which might adversely affect progress. The ESEC proposals are built around the following four themes: - (residential and service sector) buildings: Make energy efficiency into a real sector and a new opportunity 'work together', Optimise tools and regulations, Be innovative in terms of financial support; - fuel poverty; - industry and agriculture; - the particular situation of the overseas departments

  3. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  4. Intake-to-delivered-energy ratios for central station and distributed electricity generation in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous work, we showed that the intake fraction (iF) for nonreactive primary air pollutants was 20 times higher in central tendency for small-scale, urban-sited distributed electricity generation (DG) sources than for large-scale, central station (CS) power plants in California [Heath, G.A., Granvold, P.W., Hoats, A.S., Nazaroff, W.W., 2006. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a shift toward distributed electricity generation. Atmospheric Environment 40, 7164-7177]. The present paper builds on that study, exploring pollutant- and technology-specific aspects of population inhalation exposure from electricity generation. We compare California's existing CS-based system to one that is more reliant on DG units sited in urban areas. We use Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based exposure analysis to assess 25 existing CSs and 11 DG sources hypothetically located in the downtowns of California's most populous cities. We consider population intake of three pollutants - PM2.5, NOx and formaldehyde - directly emitted by five DG technologies - natural gas (NG)-fired turbines, NG internal combustion engines (ICE), NG microturbines, diesel ICEs, and fuel cells with on-site NG reformers. We also consider intake of these pollutants from existing CS facilities, most of which use large NG turbines, as well as from hypothetical facilities located at these same sites but meeting California's best-available control technology standards. After systematically exploring the sensitivity of iF to pollutant decay rate, the iFs for each of the three pollutants for all DG and CS cases are estimated. To efficiently compare the pollutant- and technology-specific exposure potential on an appropriate common basis, a new metric is introduced and evaluated: the intake-to-delivered-energy ratio (IDER). The IDER expresses the mass of pollutant inhaled by an exposed population owing to emissions from an electricity generation unit per quantity of electric

  5. Optical access network using centralized light source, single-mode fiber + broad wavelength window multimode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Scott S.-H.; Kim, Jaedon; Gutierrez, David; Achten, Frank

    2006-08-01

    Access networks based on a single-mode fiber (SMF) using a centralized light source (CLS) have attracted much attention recently due to their wavelength management flexibility and potential for cost reduction at customers' premises. Future networks, in addition, are likely to contain segments of multimode fiber (MMF), whose core dimension is relatively large in comparison with its single-mode counterpart, substantially reducing fiber alignment constraints and the subsequent network construction and installation cost. In this study, a CLS-based passive optical network (PON) is proposed, which will use a new generation of high-performance MMF optimized for a broad wavelength transmission window spanning from 1300to1550 nm, with a bandwidth distance product (BDP) of 40 Gbit/s-km. The proposed architecture is implemented in a test bed, and its performance is verified by bit error ratio (BER) measurement. Results show that we can implement high-performance CLS-based PONs containing both an SMF and an MMF infrastructure, simultaneously.

  6. CONTAMINATION OF INDIVIDUAL SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER LOCATED IN ENVIRONMENTALLY POLLUTED CENTRAL SPIŠ REGION (SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naďa Sasáková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate individual sources of drinking water in a village located in environmentally polluted Central Spiš region (Slovakia which has been affected negatively by mining activities and subsequent processing of complex Fe and Cu ores. Altogether 20 wells were examined chemically (pH, NH3, NO2, NO3, Cl-, Cl2, CODMn and 71 elements including heavy metals and microbiologically focusing on selected indicators of contamination (KM22, KM36, KB and E. coli. The results obtained were evaluated on the basis of a Statutory order of SR 354/2006 of the Civil Code (of May 10, 2006 on requirements on water intended for human consumption. Limits for heavy metals were exceeded in 3 wells (Ni, Sb and Sb and As. The acceptable concentration of NH3 was exceeded in one well, of NO2 in 3, NO3 in 3 and Cl- in 10 wells. Higher concentrations of Cl2 were determined in 1 well and of COD in 5 wells. In the majority of cases only 1 or 2 parameters were exceeded with the exception of 3 wells (3 parameters in two and 5 in one well. Some of the wells could present risk from the chemical point of view. None of the wells could be considered completely safe from the bacteriological point of view.

  7. Multiple source components in gas manifestations from north-central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minissale, A.; Evans, William C.; Magro, G.; Vaselli, O.

    1997-01-01

    Gas manifestations in north-central Italy consist of CO2-rich gases with minor N2-rich emissions and discharge either along with thermal springs or into cold and stagnant waters. 'Cold' gases are prevalently CO2-dominated (> 90%) while gases related to the thermal waters have variable composition: from CO2 > 99.5% to N2 > 90%. The variable composition of 'thermal' gases is caused by differences in the thermal regime and lithology of the ascent paths, where there is mixing of gases from multiple sources, such as N2-rich atmospheric and deep CO2-rich metamorphic end-members. Elevated concentrations of CH4 and H2 in these gases are generally related to the presence of active geothermal systems at shallow depth, such as the Larderello-Travale field in Tuscany. The ??13C values between coexisting CH4 and CO2 in all samples analyzed suggest that CH4 originates abiogenically in 200-400??C hydrothermal systems. Far from geothermal areas, where the thermal gradient is lower or the water/gas ratio is high because of large inflow of meteoric waters, H2 and CH4 are usually lower. In some cases, they can be scrubbed or oxidized (especially H2), while the residual rising gas becomes indirectly enriched in N2 and CO2. Carbon dioxide is also enriched in some discharged gases because it is produced at shallow depth in lower temperature conditions (deep magmatic body. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Giussani, A.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Lanchais, A. L.; Marini, P.; Moroni, A.; Nannini, A.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Vannini, G.; Nucl-Ex Collaboration

    2007-11-01

    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for deeper knowledge of the structure of exotic nuclei.

  9. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, E; Bardelli, L; Barlini, S; Bini, M; Bruno, M; Cannata, F; Casini, G; Chiari, M; D'Agostino, M; De Sanctis, J; Giussani, A; Gramegna, F; Kravchuk, V L; Lanchais, A L; Marini, P; Moroni, A; Nannini, A; Olmi, A; Ordine, A; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Poggi, G; Vannini, G

    2006-01-01

    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for structure of exotic nuclei.

  10. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  11. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-06-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  12. Contribution of electric energy to the process of elimination of low emission sources in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, J.; Mejer, T.; Wybranski, A. [Power Distribution Plant, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    At present energy supply belongs to the most important global problems. A significant part of energy is consumed for residential heating purposes. Depending on climatic conditions, fuel distribution and the level of technological development, the contribution of these purposes ranges between ca. 50% (Poland) and ca. 12% (Spain). The power engineering structure in Poland is based almost exclusively upon solid fuels, i.e. hard and brown coal. Chemical compounds (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) produced in combustion process influence negatively the natural environment. The contribution of residential heating in this negative effect is rather significant. Because of the fact, that the resources of fossil fuels (the most important source of energy at present) are limited and their influence on natural environment is negative, efforts are made to find out more effective ways of energy consumption and to reduce the pollutant emission from heating sources. This problem is a topical issue in Cracow, especially during the heating season because the coal-fired stoves situated in the central part of the town remain the most important source of pollutant emission. These sources cause serious menace to the health of inhabitants; furthermore the pollutants destroy Cracow monuments entered in the UNESCO world list of human heritage.

  13. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  14. System Development and Practice of Central Heating Engineering by Solar Energy Integrated with Air Source Heat Pumps%太阳能与空气源热泵联合集热工程系统开发与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀峰; 柳佳力; 贺国凌

    2014-01-01

    In the crowdedly inhibited buildings, it is an effective energy-saving approach to massively produce the domestic hot water from solar energy. However, the stability of the single solar energy system is confined by the climate and weather factors. It is necessary to find an aux-energy to ensure the stable heat supply in all weather. In this paper, the compression heat pump of air source as the aux-energy source for large scale solar collector system was discussed of technological and economic feasibility. Then the systematic engineering practice was carried out. The research proved that compression heat pump of air source can be an ideal aux-energy for large scale solar heating engineering, and it can better balance the bottleneck problems in the stability and economical efficiency of the system energy supply.%在人员居住密集的建筑物中利用太阳能规模化集热制取生活热水是一种有效的建筑节能手段,但单纯的太阳能热利用受制于气候因素无法稳定供热,因此需要寻找一种辅助能量供应形式,以保证系统能够全天候稳定供热。本文探讨了使用压缩式空气源热泵技术作为规模化太阳能集热系统辅助热源的技术与经济可行性,并开展了系统的工程实践工作。研究工作表明,压缩式空气源热泵是太阳能规模化热利用系统比较理想的一种辅助热源形式,能够解决系统能量供应的稳定性和经济性双重瓶颈问题。

  15. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kolker

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg speciation- reactive gaseous Hg (RGM, elemental Hg (Hg°, and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5, were determined from June to November, 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1 a 1114 megawatt (MW coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2 a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3 a smaller (465 MW coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. Median concentrations of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were 1.3–1.4 ng m−3, 2.6–5.0 pg m−3, and 0.6–0.8 pg m−3, respectively. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3 measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.4 ppbv; measured at 50 km site. The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1 the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2 the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3 RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  16. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Marylynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John (Ryan)

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  17. Nitrification and Anammox with urea as the energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliekers, A.O.; Haaijer, S.C.M.; Schmid, M.C.; Harhangi, R.H.; Verwegen, K.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Urea is present in many ecosystems and can be used as an energy source by chemolithotrophic aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Thus the utilization of urea in comparison to ammonia, by AOB as well as anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (Anammox) bacteria was investigated, using enrichments cultures,

  18. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  19. Strategy for regenerative energy sources. Status and development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without doubt, in the future, we shall have to cover a growing proportion of our energy requirements by utilizing regenerative energy sources such as the sun, wind, water and biomass. The indisputable advantages of inexhaustibility and environment friendliness are, however, compared with the disadvantages of non-uniform demand as well as partially small potential and high costs. In spite of these facts, there are, in the minds of the public, high expectations and great demands on the electricity supply industry in relation to the further development of regenerative power generation. In the future, RWE Energie AG will strongly intensify its efforts towards improving the economics of regenerative power generation. (orig.)

  20. Efficiency of utilization of various sources of energy for growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Donato, K.; Hegsted, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The relative efficiency of dietary sucrose, protein sources, and fats in depositing body protein and fat (total energy) was directly estimated in young rats by feeding graded levels of each as supplements to a fixed amount of a basal diet that was presumably adequate in all essential nutrients except for energy. Under these conditions, the net gain in total body energy was a linear function of the amount of supplement added and the data fulfill the criteria of a valid slope-ratio bioassay. Th...

  1. Renewable Energy Sources in International and EU Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róża Miklaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues relating to international and EU regulations in the field of renewable energy sources (RES. It discusses in a comprehensive manner the most important acts specific for the both regulatory platforms. Also presented are the most important objectives and premises, which these acts implement. The RES development, at both the international and Community levels, is presented in the context of activities undertaken within the energy policy framework at each of the concerned platforms. The description of the characteristics of international and EU legislation also refers to their significant impact on Polish legislation on renewable energy.

  2. Pyrophosphate as a central energy carrier in the hydrogen-producing extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielen, A.A.M.; Willquist, K.; Engman, J.; Oost, van der J.; Niel, van E.W.J.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) as an energy carrier in the central metabolism of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated. In agreement with its annotated genome sequence, cell extracts were shown to exhibit PPi-dependent phosphofructokina

  3. Search for high energy cosmic neutrino point sources with ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is the search for high energy cosmic neutrinos emitted by point sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The detection of high energy cosmic neutrinos can bring answers to important questions such as the origin of cosmic rays and the γ-rays emission processes. In the first part of the thesis, the neutrino flux emitted by galactic and extragalactic sources and the number of events which can be detected by ANTARES are estimated. This study uses the measured γ-ray spectra of known sources taking into account the γ-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light. In the second part of the thesis, the absolute pointing of the ANTARES telescope is evaluated. Being located at a depth of 2475 m in sea water, the orientation of the detector is determined by an acoustic positioning system which relies on low and high frequency acoustic waves measurements between the sea surface and the bottom. The third part of the thesis is a search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data. The search algorithm is based on a likelihood ratio maximization method. It is used in two search strategies; 'the candidate sources list strategy' and 'the all sky search strategy'. Analysing 2007+2008 data, no discovery is made and the world's best upper limits on neutrino fluxes from various sources in the Southern sky are established. (author)

  4. Comparative Analysis of China’s Energy Strategy in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Poshtich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of the energy factor on formulating China’s political and economic strategy towards Central Asia. Therefore, the article provides the profound analysis of the PRC energy strategy in the region, namely its principles, goals, objectives and mechanisms. The article also examines the key areas of energy cooperation between China and the five Central Asian states, as well as the major joint energy projects. Moreover, the article takes a close look at the Silk Road Economic Belt as one of the largest and most ambitious Chinese economic projects, for it is directly relevant to the development of energy cooperation in the region. The author also analyses the prospects as well as possible problems of further energy cooperation between China and Central Asian states. 

  5. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 1: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were examined their potential for terrestrial application and future development. Photovoltaic technology, existing and potential photovoltaic applications, and the National Photovoltaics Program are reviewed. The competitive environment for this electrical source, affected by the presence or absence of utility supplied power is evaluated in term of systems prices. The roles of technological breakthroughs, directed research and technology development, learning curves, and commercial demonstrations in the National Program are discussed. The potential for photovoltaics to displace oil consumption is examined, as are the potential benefits of employing PV in either central-station or non-utility owned, small, distributed systems.

  6. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  7. THE NEED FOR THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals main reasons for developing tendencies to the using of new types of energy, which are limited supply of traditional fuels and environmental problems associated with its processing. It is shown that new forms of energy plays an important role in the energy supply of many countries of the world, and in the future they can become the main sources of energy to meet the growing needs of the global economy. We reveal main reasons of the increasing interest in renewable energy, and we show the obvious prospects of their use, due to two factors. First, according to experts, the global reserves of traditional fuels are limited, and secondly, this was evidenced by the investments of leading countries in this promising industry. The article lists reasons for the need for the use of renewable energy sources in Russia. Increased consumption of natural resources has become a real threat to the security of the life of human society. The basis of solving modern social and environmental problems is a transition to a regulated process of safe use of natural energy potential to meet the vital needs of people not only in the coming decades, but in the long run. It is concluded, that the determining condition for the development of the human civilization at present and in the future would be the level of natural resources which ensures the needs of the population without making harm to the environment

  8. An Approach to Develop Embedded System For Web Based Monitoring & Controlling of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha S. Fating

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The widespread application of Renewable Energy Sources (RESrequires centralized monitoring and controlling System. To makethese operations control room independent, there is need todevelop smart servers and web based applications. Cost is anessential factor of any embedded system design. This paperdiscusses a novel concept of designing of cost effective server/client embedded system Renewable Energy sources. Hereembedded server is developed with ARM9 controller loaded withwindows CE operating system. Low cost client are designedusing Atmega32 microcontroller with LAN connection. Server/client are connected in LAN system and server basedapplications has been developed to monitor/ controlling the clientoperation. The server has web based applications that can beaccessed via internet. Author has presented developed systemand results.

  9. High energy neutron source for materials research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for neutron source for nuclear materials research are reviewed and ESNIT, Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test facility proposed by JAERI is discussed. Its principal aims of a wide neutron energy tunability and spectra peaking at each energy to enable characterization of material damage process are demanding but attractive goals which deserve detailed study. It is also to be noted that the requirements make a difference in facility design from those of FMIT, IFMIF and other high energy intense neutron sources built or planned to date. Areas of technologies to be addressed to realize the ESNIT facility are defined and discussed. In order to get neutron source having desired spectral characteristics keeping moderate intensity, projectile and target combinations must be examined including experimentation if necessary. It is also desired to minimize change of flux density and energy spectrum according to location inside irradiation chamber. Extended target or multiple targets configuration might be a solution as well as specimen rotation and choice of combination of projectile and target which has minimum velocity of the center of mass. Though relevant accelerator technology exists, it is to be stressed that considerable efforts must be paid, especially in the area of target and irradiation devices to get ESNIT goal. Design considerations to allow hands-on maintenance and future upgrading possibility are important either, in order to exploit the facility fully for nuclear materials research and development. (author)

  10. International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 99, V. 1. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 101 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: Reactor Physics, Research Reactors, Thermal Hydraulics, Structural Analysis, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Severe Accidents, NPP Operation, Nuclear Energy and Public, Radioactive Waste, Radiological Protection and Environmental Issues, Nuclear Methods and Monte Carlo and Deterministic Transport Calculations

  11. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  12. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  13. Safety Assessment Of The Centralized Storage Facility For Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources In United Republic Of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Vitus [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, JaeSeong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    SRS are no longer in use, they are declared as disused, and they are transferred to the central radioactive management facility (CRMF) belonging to Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (regulatory body) and managed as radioactive waste. In order to reduce the risk associated with disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS), the first priority would be to bring them to appropriate controls under the regulatory body. When DSRS are safely managed, regulatory body need to make assessment of the likelihood and potential impact of incidents, accidents and hazards for proper management plan. The paper applies Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for assessing and allocating weights and priorities for solving the problem of mult criteria consideration for management plan. Using pairwise comparisons, the relative importance of one criterion over another can be expressed. The method allows decision makers to provide judgments about the relative importance of each criterion and to estimate radiological risk by using expert's judgments or probability of occurrence. AHP is the step by step manner where the resulting priorities are shown and the possible inconsistencies are determined. The Information provided by experts helps to rank hazards according to probability of occurrence, potential impact and mitigation cost. The strength of the AHP method lies in its ability to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative data in decision making. AHP present a powerful tool for weighting and prioritizing hazards in terms of occurrence probability. However, AHP also has some weak points. AHP requires data based on experience, knowledge and judgment which are subjective for each decision-maker.

  14. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  15. Ghrelin and the central regulation of feeding and energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Abizaid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as growth hormone secretagouge released from the gut. Soon after it was recognized that ghrelin is a fundamental driver of appetite in rodents and humans and that its mode of action requires alteration of hypothalamic circuit function. Here we review aspects of ghrelin′s action that revolve around the central nervous system with the goal to highlight these pathways in integrative physiology of metabolism regulation including ghrelin′s cross-talk with the action of the adipose hormone, leptin.

  16. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  17. Current state and utilization of nontraditional and renewable energy sources in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Daniela; Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse and assess the use of renewable energy sources in the Polish energy balance for the period 2006-2010. In Poland, in according to the Energy Law (1997), renewable energy sources are sources using the processing power: wind energy, solar radiation, geothermal energy, waves power, energy of currents and tides, energy of river gradient, biogas and biomass. Biomass could be divided into forest biomass, agricultural biomass (mainly energy crops, but also consumer ...

  18. The Central Carbon and Energy Metabolism of Marine Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Nunes-Nesi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms are heterokont algae derived from a secondary symbiotic event in which a eukaryotic host cell acquired an eukaryotic red alga as plastid. The multiple endosymbiosis and horizontal gene transfer processes provide diatoms unusual opportunities for gene mixing to establish distinctive biosynthetic pathways and metabolic control structures. Diatoms are also known to have significant impact on global ecosystems as one of the most dominant phytoplankton species in the contemporary ocean. As such their metabolism and growth regulating factors have been of particular interest for many years. The publication of the genomic sequences of two independent species of diatoms and the advent of an enhanced experimental toolbox for molecular biological investigations have afforded far greater opportunities than were previously apparent for these species and re-invigorated studies regarding the central carbon metabolism of diatoms. In this review we discuss distinctive features of the central carbon metabolism of diatoms and its response to forthcoming environmental changes and recent advances facilitating the possibility of industrial use of diatoms for oil production. Although the operation and importance of several key pathways of diatom metabolism have already been demonstrated and determined, we will also highlight other potentially important pathways wherein this has yet to be achieved.

  19. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kulkarni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD values (annual mean value ∼0.2 in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 μg m−3 also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2–90 μg m−3. Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC (mean value ∼0.1 μg m−3 show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST and Bishkek. The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  20. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  1. New impetus to the economy through renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows that the renewable energy sources offer a unique chance: to replace the 'deus ex machina' philosophy by the 'deus ex sole' approach. The reasons why the energy industry refuses to consider exploitation of renewable energy sources are quite obvious. Any deep-cutting change in energy policy priorities would imply likewise deep cuts in the utilities' returns from investments made for existing, conventional power generation systems and transmission infrastructure, which would entail losses in a branch of industry never seen before. It is high time, however, to demand a basic switch in policy and to pave the way for solar energy by appropriate political and economic incentives now, as Germany as one of the highly industrialised countries must not turn a blind eye to its responsability for the global environment. Even if there were not the risk of a global environmental crisis as a consequence of current resource squandering, good economic reasoning and a sense of responsability for the developing economies of the world be reason enough to alter the energy policy approach without hesitation. (orig./CB)

  2. A Source of Energy for Any Kind of Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a recently predicted mechanism whereby energy is produced by the background space non-holonomic field (the global space rotation in Thomson dispersion of light in free electrons. We compare the mechanism to the relations of observational astrophysics — the mass-luminosity relation and the stellar energy relation. We show that by such a mechanism generating energy in a star, the luminosity of a star L is proportional to its volume, with a progression associated with increasing radius. The obtained relation L ≈ R^3.4 explains why there are no stars of a size close to that of the bulky planets. This also explains the extremely high thermal flow from within Jupiter, which most probably has the same energy sources as those within a star, but with a power much less than that required to radiate like a star. The theory, being applied to a laboratory condition, suggests new energy sources, working much more effectively and safely than nuclear energy.

  3. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basis of theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, description of the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources, reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesis is reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the company is implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air), the mission of the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic side of it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes t he questionnaire offer for effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance (benefits) from the government and EU funds. (authors)

  4. Kes 73: A Young Supernova Remnant with an X-ray Bright, Radio-quiet Central Source

    OpenAIRE

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Vasisht, G.

    1997-01-01

    We clarify the nature of the small-diameter supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 73 and its central compact source, 1E 1841-045, using X-ray data acquired with the ASCA Observatory. We introduce a spatio-spectral decomposition technique necessary to disentangle the ASCA spectrum of the compact source from the barely resolved shell-type remnant. The source spectrum (1 - 8 keV) is characterized by an absorbed power-law with a photon index ~ 3.4 and N_H ~ 3.0E22 cm^-2, possibly non-thermal in nature. Thi...

  5. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  6. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  7. 1,500 Year Periodicity in Central Texas Moisture Source Variability Reconstructed from Speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. I.; James, E. W.; Silver, M. M.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. Presently, there are few high-resolution Holocene climate records for this region, which limits the assessment of precipitation variability during a relatively stable climatic interval that comprises the closest analogue to the modern climate state. To address this, we present speleothem growth rate and δ18O records from two central Texas caves that span the mid to late Holocene, and assess hypotheses about the climate processes that can account for similarity in the timing and periodicity of variability with other regional and global records. A key finding is the independent variation of speleothem growth rate and δ18O values, suggesting the decoupling of moisture amount and source. This decoupling likely occurs because i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and ii) speleothem δ18O variations reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific- vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount. Furthermore, we document a 1,500-year periodicity in δ18O values that is consistent with variability in the percent of hematite-stained grains in North Atlantic sediments, North Pacific SSTs, and El Nino events preserved in an Ecuadorian lake. Previous modeling experiments and analysis of observational data delineate the coupled atmospheric-ocean processes that can account for the coincidence of such variability in climate archives across the northern hemisphere. Reduction of the thermohaline circulation results in North Atlantic cooling, which translates to cooler North Pacific SSTs. The resulting reduction of the meridional SST gradient in the Pacific

  8. TOWARDS A RESILIENT ENERGY SYSTEM IN EASTERN ROMANIA – FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLE SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂNICĂ Alexandru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into account the two Romanian Eastern regions (North East and South East trying to emphasize the post-communist dynamics of the energy sector in order to draw a general perspective for the future evolution towards both energy security and a clean environment. Before 1989, the energy sector, that had to sustain not only the population needs, but also an oversized manufacturing industry, was based on big power plants usually using coal and oil and highly polluting the environment. The hydropower had a rather small share in the total energy production. This inherited system was very much resistant after the end of the centralized political system, therefore after the general industrial decline the energy sector remained the main source of air pollution in many towns and cities from Romania. Meanwhile, in the last 6-7 years, due to a favourable national political context, we assisted, especially in the analysed area, to an important emergence of renewable energy investments (mainly wind and solar energy, but also biomass or hydro-energy. Our purpose is to evaluate, from a geographical point of view, the extent and the implications of a desirable progressive shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy that could radically change the territorial relations and sustain development on the long term.

  9. Energy-Aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Local Betweenness Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Hui Li; Zhi-Hong Guan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an energy-aware dynamic routing strategy in order to provide balanced energy consumption in wireless sensor networks, hence, prolonging the lifetime of the network. The proposed routing algorithm uses local betweenness centrality to estimate the energy consumption of the neighboring nodes around a given local sensor node, without requiring global information about the network topology or energy consumption, and to divert traffic from nodes that are more heavily used. Because nodes ...

  10. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  11. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

  12. Tracking potential source areas of Central European loess: examples from Tokaj (HU), Nussloch (D) and Grub (AT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Ann-Kathrin; Qi, Yue; Siebel, Wolfgang; Wu, Jiade; Zöller, Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    There are several competing hypotheses for the origin of loess in Europe but quantitative evidence is still rare. Here, Sr-Nd isotopic and bulk elemental composition of loess from Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 from three study regions in Central Europe - Nussloch (Germany), Grub (Austria) and Tokaj (Hungary) - are analyzed. This study aims at examining differences and similarities of loess deposits throughout Europe, correlating loess with potential source rocks from major mountain ranges and comparing loess with floodplain sediments from main rivers as integrated samples of the drainage areas. The results show that European loess deposits are largely uniform and that sediment sources have been rather stable in the Southern and Eastern parts of Central Europe and more variable in West Central Europe. However, the methods used are not sufficient to unequivocally confirm and reject potential sediment sources but, in combination, help to identify the most likely sediment origins. While a direct correlation of loess and potential source rocks is dif- ficult, the comparison with floodplain sediments is most promising and confirms previous hypotheses. Loess from Tokaj and Grub is most likely a mix of material transported by the Danube River and sediments from the surrounding mountains. Rhine River sediments are probably the main source of loess at Nussloch.

  13. A high intensity dc H- source for low energy injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, T.; Baartman, R.; Dutto, G.; Hahto, S.; ńrje, J.; Liukkonen, E.

    2002-02-01

    While a 20 mA dc H- source system at 25-30 keV beam energy has been developed at TRIUMF several years ago, another recent demand on the system is to provide a 4 to 5 mA H- at the 4-6 keV energy range. We found that at this low energy range, the existing source/extraction system can only give ˜1 mA with poor emittance due to strong space-charge effect. Fortunately, a very special source/extraction mechanism together with the use of neutralization was discovered and developed to overcome this difficulty. Up to 4 mA with a normalized rms emittance of 0.15 π mm mr has been achieved at 6 keV. This performance finds its usefulness for injection systems where lower beam energy and higher beam intensity are required. A copy of the TRIUMF system was constructed and successfully tested in the summer of 2000 for the "H- Acceleration Project" for the K130 cyclotron at Jyväskylä University, Finland.

  14. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  15. Analysis of the Appropriateness of the Use of Peltier Cells as Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Hájovský

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the possibilities of using Peltier cells as an energy source to power the telemetry units, which are used in large-scale monitoring systems as central units, ensuring the collection of data from sensors, processing, and sending to the database server. The article describes the various experiments that were carried out, their progress and results. Based on experiments evaluated, the paper also discusses the possibilities of using various types depending on the temperature difference of the cold and hot sides.

  16. Analysis of the Appropriateness of the Use of Peltier Cells as Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájovský, Radovan; Pieš, Martin; Richtár, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the possibilities of using Peltier cells as an energy source to power the telemetry units, which are used in large-scale monitoring systems as central units, ensuring the collection of data from sensors, processing, and sending to the database server. The article describes the various experiments that were carried out, their progress and results. Based on experiments evaluated, the paper also discusses the possibilities of using various types depending on the temperature difference of the cold and hot sides. PMID:27231913

  17. Energy Management Policies for Energy-Neutral Source-Channel Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglione, Paolo; Erkip, Elza; Zemen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In cyber-physical systems where sensors measure the temporal evolution of a given phenomenon of interest and radio communication takes place over short distances, the energy spent for source acquisition and compression may be comparable with that used for transmission. Additionally, in order to avoid limited lifetime issues, sensors may be powered via energy harvesting and thus collect all the energy they need from the environment. This work addresses the problem of energy allocation over source acquisition/compression and transmission for energy-harvesting sensors. At first, focusing on a single-sensor, energy management policies are identified that guarantee a maximal average distortion while at the same time ensuring the stability of the queue connecting source and channel encoders. It is shown that the identified class of policies is optimal in the sense that it stabilizes the queue whenever this is feasible by any other technique that satisfies the same average distortion constraint. Moreover, this class...

  18. Low power energy harvesting and storage techniques from ambient human powered energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    Conventional electrochemical batteries power most of the portable and wireless electronic devices that are operated by electric power. In the past few years, electrochemical batteries and energy storage devices have improved significantly. However, this progress has not been able to keep up with the development of microprocessors, memory storage, and sensors of electronic applications. Battery weight, lifespan and reliability often limit the abilities and the range of such applications of battery powered devices. These conventional devices were designed to be powered with batteries as required, but did not allow scavenging of ambient energy as a power source. In contrast, development in wireless technology and other electronic components are constantly reducing the power and energy needed by many applications. If energy requirements of electronic components decline reasonably, then ambient energy scavenging and conversion could become a viable source of power for many applications. Ambient energy sources can be then considered and used to replace batteries in some electronic applications, to minimize product maintenance and operating cost. The potential ability to satisfy overall power and energy requirements of an application using ambient energy can eliminate some constraints related to conventional power supplies. Also power scavenging may enable electronic devices to be completely self-sustaining so that battery maintenance can eventually be eliminated. Furthermore, ambient energy scavenging could extend the performance and the lifetime of the MEMS (Micro electromechanical systems) and portable electronic devices. These possibilities show that it is important to examine the effectiveness of ambient energy as a source of power. Until recently, only little use has been made of ambient energy resources, especially for wireless networks and portable power devices. Recently, researchers have performed several studies in alternative energy sources that could provide

  19. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks using asymmetric distributed source coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Murlidhar

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are networks of sensor nodes deployed over a geographical area to perform a specific task. WSNs pose many design challenges. Energy conservation is one such design issue. In literature a wide range of solutions addressing this issue have been proposed. Generally WSNs are densely deployed. Thus the nodes with the close proximity are more likely to have the same data. Transmission of such non-aggregated data may lead to an inefficient energy management. Hence the data fusion has to be performed at the nodes so as to combine the edundant information into a single data unit. Distributed Source Coding is an efficient approach in achieving this task. In this paper an attempt has been made in modeling such a system. Various energy efficient codes were considered for the analysis. System performance in terms of energy efficiency has been made.

  20. The energetic playground : A feasibility study applying energy sources on a Playground: Green Energy alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rey-Siso, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the feasibility of using energy generated by the physical activity of children playing in playgrounds. More particular, the goal is to generate clean energy by playing games and showing them the effort about how energy is produced. The ease of turning on lights or using electrical appliance by simply pushing one button causes unawareness of the actual effort and negative impacts of the generation, transmission and distribution behind energy sourcing. The idea of t...

  1. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pucar Mila; Nenković-Riznić Marina

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy poli...

  2. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  3. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  4. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  5. Sources of hydrogen for power supply in Germany. Central findings of the roadmap study for Germany; Woher kommt der Wasserstoff? Zentrale Ergebnisse der Roadmap-Studie fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Ulrich [Ludwig Boelkow Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany); Fichtner, Maximilian [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nanotechnologie; Joest, Steffen [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (dena), Berlin (Germany); Merten, Frank [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany); Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Carried out on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs and in cooperation with the Nationale Organisation Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellentechnologie (NOW), the GermanHy project provided answers to the central questions concerning the introduction of hydrogen for mobile applications: How much of the future fuel demand can be covered by hydrogen? What energy sources are available for economically efficient production of hydrogen to meet the increasing demand (time horizons: 2020, 2030, 2050)? How can H2 be transported from the production site to the consumers? What will be the effects of hydrogen in the transportation sector in terms of mobility cost, emissions, the share of renewable energy, and the further dependence on imported energy? The study focuses on the introduction of hydrogen as an alternative fuel for the German traffic sector. Other alternatives were not looked into. (orig.)

  6. Fatty Acids in Energy Metabolism of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we analyze the current hypotheses regarding energy metabolism in the neurons and astroglia. Recently, it was shown that up to 20% of the total brain’s energy is provided by mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. However, the existing hypotheses consider glucose, or its derivative lactate, as the only main energy substrate for the brain. Astroglia metabolically supports the neurons by providing lactate as a substrate for neuronal mitochondria. In addition, a significant amount of neuromediators, glutamate and GABA, is transported into neurons and also serves as substrates for mitochondria. Thus, neuronal mitochondria may simultaneously oxidize several substrates. Astrocytes have to replenish the pool of neuromediators by synthesis de novo, which requires large amounts of energy. In this review, we made an attempt to reconcile β-oxidation of fatty acids by astrocytic mitochondria with the existing hypothesis on regulation of aerobic glycolysis. We suggest that, under condition of neuronal excitation, both metabolic pathways may exist simultaneously. We provide experimental evidence that isolated neuronal mitochondria may oxidize palmitoyl carnitine in the presence of other mitochondrial substrates. We also suggest that variations in the brain mitochondrial metabolic phenotype may be associated with different mtDNA haplogroups.

  7. Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

  8. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  9. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices: An Alternative Energy Source for Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action Nechibvute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in ultralow power device integration, communication electronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology have fuelled the emerging technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The spatial distributed nature of WSNs often requires that batteries power the individual sensor nodes. One of the major limitations on performance and lifetime of WSNs is the limited capacity of these finite power sources, which must be manually replaced when they are depleted. Moreover, the embedded nature of some of the sensors and hazardous sensing environment make battery replacement very difficult and costly. The process of harnessing and converting ambient energy sources into usable electrical energy is called energy harvesting. Energy harvesting raises the possibility of self-powered systems which are ubiquitous and truly autonomous, and without human intervention for energy replenishment. Among the ambient energy sources such as solar energy, heat, and wind, mechanical vibrations are an attractive ambient source mainly because they are widely available and are ideal for the use of piezoelectric materials, which have the ability to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical energy. This paper presents a concise review of piezoelectric microgenerators and nanogenerators as a renewable energy resource to power wireless sensors.

  10. THE INVESTMENT PROBLEMATIC FOR PRODUCING ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Gavriletea; Mihaela Gavriletea

    2009-01-01

    The higher energy consumption, the increasing of the price for primary energy sources and the continuous worldwide debates for carbon emission in the atmosphere determined the reorientation to energy production from renewable sources (biomass, solar energy, wind, hydro, geothermal etc). Taking into account the low capacity that produce energy from renewable sources, we conclude that there are needed important investment in this sector.

  11. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  12. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  13. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  14. Energy problems of the central systems of air conditioning; Problemas energeticos de los sistemas centrales de climatizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardero Corria, Gaspar [Cubanacan, S.A., Varadero (Cuba)

    2003-07-01

    The central systems of air conditioning are widely used in air conditioning production for several reasons among which excel: 1) Better aesthetic of the building, 2) Less noise in the air conditioning premises and 3) Greater yield of the consumed energy. This is indeed the third reason in which this paper will try to contribute with elements that will allow reveal the problem and to identify some possible causes that originate it. The centralized systems of air conditioning must produce conditioned air with lesser power cost than the individual systems, it is that saving which allows to recover an investment that normally surpasses them in 3 to 5 times. Nevertheless, the real numbers do not demonstrate that. [Spanish] Los sistemas centrales de climatizacion son ampliamente usados en la produccion de aire acondicionado por varias razones entre las que sobresalen: 1) Mejor estetica del edificio, 2) Menor ruido en los locales climatizados y 3) Mayor rendimiento de la energia consumida. Es precisamente la tercera razon en la cual este trabajo intentara aportar elementos que permitan develar el problema e identificar algunas posibles causas que lo originan. Los sistemas centralizados de climatizacion deben producir aire acondicionado con un menor gasto energetico que los sistemas individuales, es precisamente ese ahorro lo que permite recuperar una inversion que normalmente los supera en 3 a 5 veces. Sin embargo, los numeros reales no demuestran eso.

  15. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  16. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  17. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  18. Consumption dynamics of primary-energy sources: The century of alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Matias, Joao Carlos de; Devezas, Tessaleno Campos [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, P-6201-001 Covilha (Portugal)

    2007-07-15

    The present article characterizes economically and socially the two past centuries, focusing the consumption development of several primary-energy sources, linking it with this century's reality. The main objective is to demonstrate the relationship between the substitution process of primary-energy sources and the socio-economic development. Our analysis focuses on four technological transformations that have already occurred, emphasizing some aspects of present technological transformations. Thus, the role of primary-energy sources in the development of each long economic wave is analysed, as well as its geopolitical, commercial and social importance. Finally, bearing in mind the past dynamics associated with long structural waves, and making use of technological forecasting tools (Logistic Substitution and Delphi Technique), a future perspective is presented in which the substitution process points toward alternative-energy sources. (author)

  19. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  20. Materials and neutronic research at the Low Energy Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, David V.

    2016-04-01

    In the decade since the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM) produced its first neutrons, the facility has made important contributions to the international neutron scattering community. LENS employs a 13MeV proton beam at up to 4kW beam power onto one of two Be targets to produce neutrons for research in fields ranging from radiation effects in electronics to studies of the structure of fluids confined in nanoporous materials. The neutron source design at the heart of LENS facilitates relatively rapid hands-on access to most of its components which provides a foundation for a research program in experimental neutronics and affords numerous opportunities for novel educational experiences. We describe in some detail a number of the unique capabilities of this facility.

  1. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, L. [La Ferla Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized using US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.

  2. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)

    2007-07-15

    There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.

  3. Did high energy astrophysical sources contribute to Martian atmospheric loss?

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Mars is believed to have had a substantial atmosphere in the past. Atmospheric loss led to depressurization and cooling, and is thought to be the primary driving force responsible for the loss of liquid water from its surface. Recently, MAVEN observations have provided new insight into the physics of atmospheric loss induced by ICMEs and solar wind interacting with the Martian atmosphere. In addition to solar radiation, it is likely that its atmosphere has been exposed to radiation bursts from high-energy astrophysical sources which become highly probable on timescales of ~Gy and beyond. These sources are capable of significantly enhancing the rates of photoionization and charged particle-induced ionization in the upper atmosphere. Here, we explore the possibility of damage from Galactic Gamma Ray Bursts, nearby supernovae, encounter with dense interstellar clouds and extreme solar events. We use Monte Carlo simulations to model the interaction of charged particles and photons from astrophysical sources in th...

  4. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  5. Optimization of Gas Supply of CHP Sources of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Odiņeca, T; Zēbergs, V

    2008-01-01

    The article contains reviews the method of optimization of gas supply of CHP sources of energy - the method of calculation of permissible IRR. It is effective for analyzing the projects of CHP plants’ gasification (also in reconstruction of existing boiler houses). IRR is an effective criterion of profitability of gasification, if the forecast of the consumption of gas is precise. Using the method of calculation of permissible IRR it is possible to find the load limits in which CH...

  6. Impact of Renewable Energy Sources Penetration in a Microgrid

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ravi,; Y. Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several types of Distributed Generators (DGs) have been connected together to form a small power system called a microgrid (MG). MG usually operates in normal connecting mode and is connected to the main grid. This paper presents the performance enhancement of microgrid with RES (Renewable Energy Sources) penetration in grid connected and islanded operation, and also shows the effect of wind and solar penetration individually and as well as coupled along with backup ...

  7. Prioritizing Energy Sources to Generate Electricity (Application of Fuzzy Logic)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Hashemlou; Hossein Sadeghi; Arashk Masaeli; Mohammadhadi Hajian; Shima Javaheri

    2015-01-01

    Organizations, institutions, and different sectors of manufacturing, services and agriculture are constantly making decisions. Each of the aforementioned sectors, have strategies, tactics, and various functions that play a basic role in reaching the objectives. On the other hand, energy demand in developing countries is increasing day by day. The exact calculation of the cost per unit of electricity generated by power plants is not easy. Therefore, this study according to four sources of natu...

  8. Influence of Renewable Energy Sources on Distribution Network Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulec, Ana; Mikuličić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of production facilities from renewable energy sources which especially influence the power system with variable production. The paper describes some basic ways of connection and technical data relevant for the design of production plants, as well as the most important influences on the power system, especially with respect to the following: voltage, short circuit current, operation of the system, losses and power quality. Basic concepts of reliability, mathe...

  9. High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, C. D.; Schlickeiser, R.; Mastichiadis, A.

    1992-01-01

    We propose that the important relationship between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at over 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a kinematic focusing mechanism, based on Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet, that preferentially emits gamma rays in the superluminal direction.

  10. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Johnson, B M; Batalin, V A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Kulevoy, T V; Kolomiets, A A; Pershin, V I; Petrenko, S V; Rudskoy, I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Gushenets, V I; Litovko, I V; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Masunov, E S; Polozov, S M; Poole, H J; Storozhenko, P A; Svarovski, A Ya

    2008-02-01

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P(2+) [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P(3+) (1.9 pmA), and P(4+) (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb(3+)Sb(4+), Sb(5+), and Sb(6+) respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  11. Large-scale use of solar energy with central receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1983-12-01

    The working principles of solar central receiver power plants are outlined and applications are discussed. Heliostat arrays direct sunlight into a receiver cavity mounted on a tower, heating the working fluid in the tower to temperatures exceeding 500 C. The formulation for the image plane and the geometric concentration ratio for a heliostat field are provided, noting that commercial electric power plants will require concentration ratios of 200-1000. Automated controls consider imperfections in the mirrors, tracking errors, and seasonal insolation intensity and angular variations. Membranes may be used instead of rigid heliostat mirrors to reduce costs, while trade-offs exist between the efficiencies of cavity and exterior receivers on the tower. Sensible heat storage has proved most effective for cloudy or nighttime operations. Details of the DOE Solar One 10 MW plant, which began operation in 1982, are provided, with mention given to the 33.6 continuous hours of power generation that have been achieved. Projected costs of commercial installations are $700/kWt, and possible applications include recovering and refining oil, processing natural gas, uranium ore, and sugar cane, drying gypsum board, and manufacturing ammonia.

  12. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole

    2011-08-11

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use hydrogen to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use hydrogen as an energy source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where hydrogen is abundant. PMID:21833083

  13. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: survival probability of the central exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Gotsman, E; Maor, U

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the value of the survival probability for central exclusive production, in a model, which is based on the CGC/saturation approach. Hard and the soft processes are described in the same framework. At LHC energies, we obtain a small value for the survival probability ($ \\leq\\,1\\%$). The source of the small value, is the impact parameter dependence of the hard amplitude. Our model has successfully described a large body of soft data: elastic, inelastic and diffractive cross sections inclusive production and rapidity correlations, as well as t21he $t$-dependence of deep inelastic diffractive production of vector mesons

  14. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy policy in Serbia and their achievement are also given by that strategy. Serbia's energy policies are designed to allow new legislative, structural, organizational, institutional, and economic frames and visions of unification of Serbian energetics into regional and Pan-European integrations. One of the key factors is the inclusion of sustainable development and energy efficient design concerned policies. Application of these, almost completely neglected, energy sources, for which there is high potential in Serbia, would allow preservation of primary energy sources and local environment. This potential hasn't seen significant research, and therefore, neither the technical improvement. Apart from that, one of the goals of wider application of renewable energy sources is lowering the poverty level. This helps avoiding the already used “dirty development” method. .

  15. ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

  16. Energy sources for the next 35-50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next 35-50 years will be a period of great change around the world with respect to energy resources. Problems such as global warming, the loss of forests, the growth of the population and the availability of energy in various forms will become more urgent and will have to be faced. There is a vocal group which raises doubts regarding the overall effects of adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in large quantities in terms of global warming and are therefore not taking seriously the commitments made at the 1992 Rio Summit on the Environment and Development. These attitudes need to be challenged. Forests continue to be destroyed in certain areas to provide farmland and fuel for 1.25 billion people. The need for a strong reforestation programme is evident. The world population now at 5.3 billion, continues to grow and is predicted to reach 8.3 billion by 2030. Where will the additional 3 billion people find living space, fuelwood and food? There is also the need for much more energy, but the emphasis needs to be on sources which are renewable so that global warming is not enhanced. There is steady progress being made in the development of photovoltaic sources, their costs closely approaching traditional generating methods. A rapid acceleration in the application of these devices in the next decade is to be expected. Wind power is playing a larger role and hydropower continues to provide a significant portion of society's needs for energy along with nuclear power. The relative amounts of the total energy 'pie' which will be required will depend on the availability of power from each of these sources and the political pressures brought to bear as a result of environmental, sociological and resource availability factors

  17. Solar Energy within the Central Valley, CA: Current Practices and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Utility-scale solar energy (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) systems are rapidly being deployed in the Central Valley of California, generating clean electricity and new job opportunities. Utility-scale solar energy systems require substantial quantities of land or space, often prompting an evaluation of environmental impacts and trade-offs when selecting their placement. Utilizing salt-contaminated agricultural land (as the sodium absorption and electrical conductivity values are unsuitably high), unsuitable for food production, and lands within the built environment (developed), can serve as a co-benefit opportunity when reclamation of these lands for USSE development is prioritized. In this study, we quantify the theoretical and generation-based solar energy potential for the Central Valley according to land-cover type, crop type, and for salt-contaminated lands. Further, we utilize the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility (CEEC) model to identify and prioritize solar energy, integrating environmental resource opportunities and constraints most relevant to the Central Valley. We use the CEEC model to generate a value-based environmental compatibility output for the Central Valley. The Central Valley extends across nearly 60,000 km2 of California with the potential of generating 21,800 - 30,300 TWh y-1 and 41,600 TWh y-1 of solar energy for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP), respectively. Pasture, hay, and cultivated crops comprise over half of the Central Valley, much of which is considered prime agriculture or of statewide or local importance for farming (28,200 km2). Together, approximately one-third of this region is salt-contaminated (16%) or developed (11%). This confers a generation-based potential of 5713 - 7891 TWh y-1 and 2770 TWh y-1 for PV and CSP, respectively. As energy, food, and land are inextricably linked, our study shows how land favorable for renewable energy systems can be used more effectively in places where land is

  18. Forest energy project in Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergia -projekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M. [Association of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is one of the topleading regional demonstration project in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilization. It is a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains are formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they are also demonstrated. The project offers hence a wide test field for regional and national techno/economical wood fuel development. The target of this provincial project is to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilization of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co-operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organizations. An essential target of the project is to direct the know-how, concentrated in the project, to development of the energy field. The project is directed to international information delivery, to concrete widening of cooperation, on transfer of testing and training activities and utilization experiences in the field of wood energy. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project is a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels, e.g. energy wood suppliers, energy producers, communes, forest industry, forestry boards, forestry associations, wood delivery contractors, and equipment producers, take part in the project

  19. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, P. R.; Vandyke, J. W.; Tesche, F. M.; Zaininger, H. W.

    1994-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. 2, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  20. Numerical simulation and decomposition of kinetic energy in the Central Mediterranean: insight on mesoscale circulation and energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgente, R.; A. Olita; P. Oddo; L. Fazioli; A. Ribotti

    2011-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of eddy and mean kinetic energy of the Central Mediterranean region has been investigated, from January 2008 to December 2010, by mean of a numerical simulation mainly to quantify the mesoscale dynamics and their relationships with physical forcing. In order to understand the energy redistribution processes, the baroclinic energy conversion has been analysed, suggesting hypotheses about the drivers of the mesoscale activity in this area. The ocean model us...

  1. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  2. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios de Postrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Coyoacan (Mexico); Ruiz, B.J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electrical sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided in three parts. The first part consists of a chronology of institutional background related to RES. The second part is an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electrical sector, which can facilitate the promotion of RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (orig.)

  3. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  4. Prioritizing Energy Sources to Generate Electricity (Application of Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Hashemlou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Organizations, institutions, and different sectors of manufacturing, services and agriculture are constantly making decisions. Each of the aforementioned sectors, have strategies, tactics, and various functions that play a basic role in reaching the objectives. On the other hand, energy demand in developing countries is increasing day by day. The exact calculation of the cost per unit of electricity generated by power plants is not easy. Therefore, this study according to four sources of natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy and other fossil fuels other than natural gas that are used in a variety of electricity production plants is trying to clarify the ranking of generation electricity approach using "fuzzy preference relations" analysis. Accordingly, three models were used and the results showed that natural gas, with regard to the four criteria of low investment cost, low power, lack of pollution and the safety and reliability of electrical energy has priority over other alternatives. Full preferred model results also suggested that the energy of natural gas, renewable energies, nuclear and other fossil fuels should be considered in a priority for power generation. Sensitivity analysis results moreover demonstrated that the above models are not affected by the threshold values ​​and the full stability of the models is observed.

  5. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is

  6. AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

  7. OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model. - Highlights: → OSeMOSYS is a new free and open source energy systems. → This model is written in a simple, open, flexible and transparent manner to support teaching. → OSeMOSYS is based on free software and optimizes using a free solver. → This model replicates the results of many popular tools, such as MARKAL. → A link between OSeMOSYS and LEAP has been developed.

  8. OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, Mark, E-mail: mark.i.howells@gmail.com [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden); Rogner, Holger [Planning and Economic Studies Section, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria); Strachan, Neil [Energy Institute, University College London (United Kingdom); Heaps, Charles [Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI) (United States); Huntington, Hillard [Stanford University (United States); Kypreos, Socrates [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Hughes, Alison [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Silveira, Semida [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden); DeCarolis, Joe [North Carolina State University (United States); Bazillian, Morgan [United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (Austria); Roehrl, Alexander [United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) (United States)

    2011-10-15

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model. - Highlights: > OSeMOSYS is a new free and open source energy systems. > This model is written in a simple, open, flexible and transparent manner to support teaching. > OSeMOSYS is based on free software and optimizes using a free solver. > This model replicates the results of many popular tools, such as MARKAL. > A link between OSeMOSYS and LEAP has been developed.

  9. Environmental impacts of energy utilization and environmental energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited and lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Due to increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Because of this and the fact that it has limited fossil fuel resources, a gradual shift from fossil fuels to renewables seems to be serious and the sole alternative for Turkey. This article presents a review of the present energy situation and sustainability, technical and economical potential of renewable energy sources and future policies for energy sector in Turkey. Throughout the paper several problems relating to energy sources, environment and sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives. (author)

  10. Panorama 2012 - Marine renewable energy sources: their place in energy policy, projects and players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine energy sources are now a reality in the scientific landscape and, from now on, will be an increasingly important feature of the industry. Driven by public policy and renewable energy development targets, projects are multiplying, and industry players are jostling for maximum advantage in the first bidding rounds. (author)

  11. Energy sources and energy generation in the future; Fuentes de energia y la generacion del futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2001-07-01

    With this article, that gathers the conference imparted inside of the cycle Technologies and Power Supply Development: Gas or Coal, complementary alternatives, organized by the Spanish Club of the Energy (ENERCLUB), the author plants a series of questions over the sources of energy and the its generation in the future, in order to wake the reflections over the theme. (Author)

  12. Towards fusion energy as a sustainable energy source: Activities at DTU Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Christensen, Alexander Simon; Dam, Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    a fusion plasma) and to confine it within magnetic fields. Learning how such plasmas behave and can be controlled is a crucial step towards realizing fusion as a sustainable energy source.At the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy (PPFE) section at DTU Physics, we are exploring these issues,focusing on areas...

  13. Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 98 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and severe accidents, nuclear materials, NPP and research reactor operation, environmental issues and radiation measurement, fusion, radioactive waste and regulatory issues and public relations

  14. Research on frost formation in air source heat pump at cold-moist conditions in central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ►A dynamic evaporator model is built up. ► The model involves the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air. ►A correlation considering deq is shown below to predict frost accumulation: (Mfrv3)/(Ψdeq2) =((Ta)/(Tw) )0.1((vτ)/(deq) )0.7(l/(deq) )1.378Xa1.228. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of system performance. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of frost accumulation. -- Abstract: A dynamic evaporator model of air source heat pump (ASHP), considering the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air, is presented to analyze the performance of ASHP under frosting. The performance parameters, such as the heating capacity, COP and the outlet temperature of compressor, are simulated with CYCLEPAD. Then a semi-empirical correlation that predicts frost accumulation on the air-side of fin-tube heat exchanger is developed with dimensionless analysis and also modified by a test conducted under cold-moist conditions in winter. In addition, eight influence factors are considered involving the ambient conditions and structures of heat exchanger, whose effects are analyzed as well. Among them, the equivalent diameter of air flow cross-section in fin-tube deq is especially proposed. Lastly, the relationships between the ratio, the performance parameters and the frost accumulation are discussed in this paper, followed by an evaluation of an optimal defrosting time interval to improve the ASHP’s energy efficiency and operational reliability at cold-moist conditions in central-south China.

  15. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  16. The Influence of Typical Forest Types on Soil Erosion Resistance in the Water Source Areas of Central Yunnan

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, Yangyi; Duan, Xu; SHU, Shumiao

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of different forest types on soil erosion resistance in water source area of Central Yunnan, with the soils under three different kinds of typical forest in Yizhe watershed as the research object, this paper uses field simulation method and principal component analysis to analyze the soil erosion resistance of three kinds of soils. The results show that there is a significant difference in the shear strength of soil among three types of typical forest, and th...

  17. Cyanate - An overlooked energy and nitrogen source in soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Palatinszky, Márton; Herbold, Craig; Han, Ping; Daims, Holger; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Cyanate (NCO-) is a reduced nitrogen compound that is toxic to organisms due to its reactivity with nucleophilic groups in proteins. To lower cyanate concentrations within cells, a wide range of microorganisms possess a cyanase, which catalyzes the conversion of cyanate to ammonium and carbon dioxide. However, cyanate can also be useful for microbes by serving as a nitrogen source for cyanase-encoding microorganism, such as marine cyanobacteria (Kamennaya et al., 2008). Unexpectedly, we could recently demonstrate that at least one ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote as well as nitrite-oxidizers thriving in consortia with ammonia-oxidizers can grow aerobically on cyanate as only energy and nitrogen source (Palatinszky et al., 2015). Furthermore, published metagenomes revealed that cyanase-encoding genes closely related to those of nitrifiers (ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers) are widespread in the environment and encompass also cyanases affiliated with anammox organisms. Therefore, cyanate presumably presents an alternative nitrogen and also energy source for many microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, cyanate concentrations and fluxes in natural environments are largely unknown, and environmental cyanate concentrations have only been studied in seawater so far, where it occurs in the nanomolar-range (Widner et al. 2013). No information about the importance of cyanate in soils is available, although urea that spontaneously decomposes to cyanate is the most used agricultural fertilizer on a global scale. Cyanate can have many fates in soils - it can be (1) used as nitrogen and/or energy source by cyanase-encoding microorganisms, (2) abiotically hydrolysed to ammonium and carbon dioxide, (3) adsorbed to soil particles, or (4) complexed with other compounds. Here we present the first measurements of cyanate concentrations in natural soils and results of experiments designed to differentiate between biotic and abiotic degradation of cyanate in

  18. Potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia are discussed. This presentation was part of the research project entitled "Opportunities and Methods for Energy Substitution, Savings and Efficiency Improvements in the Hotel Industry" funded by the University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia. It was prsented at the joint workshop between University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia and the Bashkent Un...

  19. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  20. A low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2007-01-08

    A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.

  1. Multi-wavelength identification of high-energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2009-01-01

    The nature of most of the ~300 high-energy gamma-ray sources discovered by the EGRET instrument aboard the Gamma-ray Observatory (GRO) between 1991 and 1999 is one of the greatest enigmas in high-energy astrophysics. While about half of the extragalactic sources have been optically identified with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), only a meagre 10% of the galactic sources have a reliable identification. This low success rate has mainly to be ascribed to the local crowding of potential optical counterparts and to the large gamma-ray error boxes (of the order of one degree in radius) which prevented a straightforward optical identification. Indeed, a multi-wavelength identification strategy, based on a systematic coverage of the gamma-ray error boxes, has been the only do-able approach. The situation is now greatly improving thanks to the observations performed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope which, thanks to the LAT instrument, provides a factor of 50 improvement in sensitivity and a factor of 10 improvemen...

  2. Testing SPI imaging of high-energy and extended sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vunderer, C.B.; Schonfelder, V.; Strong, A.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Connell, P. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Hammer, J.W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenphysik

    2003-11-01

    INTEGRAL's main instruments employ coded apertures to obtain directional information on the incoming radiation. In order to experimentally better determine the imaging capabilities of the spectrometer SPI, the SPI Imaging Test Setup (SPITS) has been built at MPE. It consists of the SPI coded mask and two SPI-identical Ge detectors on an XY-table which allows us to move them to cover the 19 Ge detector positions. The SPI flight model imaging calibration only covered the energy range up to 2.7 MeV and did not include extended emission. SPITS was used to explore the performance of such a coded aperture system - combined with the SPI image analysis software - for higher-energy point sources and extended sources. We find that a 2.4 degrees diameter disk emitting 511 keV emission is reconstructed well. For the high signal-to-noise ratios of laboratory measurements, positions of point sources above 4 MeV could be reconstructed to better than 0.1 degrees. (authors)

  3. Sources of methane and nitrous oxide in California's Central Valley estimated through direct airborne flux and positive matrix factorization source apportionment of groundbased and regional tall tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhinav

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two major greenhouse gases that contribute significantly to the increase in anthropogenic radiative-forcing causing perturbations to the earth's climate system. In a watershed moment in the state's history of environmental leadership and commitment, California, in 2006, opted for sharp reductions in their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adopted a long-term approach to address climate change that includes regulation of emissions from individual emitters and source categories. There are large CH4 and N2O emissions sources in the state, predominantly in the agricultural and waste management sector. While these two gases account for Transects) study. Next, a one-year continuous field campaign (WGC 2012-13, June 2012 - August 2013) was conducted at the Walnut Grove tall tower near the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in the Central Valley. Through analysis of these field measurements, this dissertation presents the apportionment of observed CH4 and N2O concentration enhancements into major source categories along with direct emissions estimates from airborne observations. We perform high-precision measurements of greenhouse gases using gas analyzers based on absorption spectroscopy, and other source marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using state of the art VOC measurement systems (e.g. proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry). We combine these measurements with a statistical source apportionment technique called positive matrix factorization (PMF) to evaluate and investigate the major local sources of CH4 and N2O during CalNex and Walnut Grove campaigns. In the CABERNET study, we combine measurements with an airborne approach to a well-established micrometeorological technique (eddy-covariance method) to derive CH4 fluxes over different source regions in the Central Valley. In the CalNex experiments, we demonstrate that dairy and livestock remains the largest source sector of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the San

  4. Transverse mass distributions in central heavy-ion collisions at high energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Jie; YANG De; WANG Cui-Ping; WANG Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    The transverse mass spectra of protons, pions, kaons, Lambda and Antilambda produced in cen- tral nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies are described by using one-temperature and two-temperature emission pictures. The calculated results are compared and found to be in good agreement with the experimen- tal data of the E895, E866 and E917 Collaborations measured in central Au-Au collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) energies and the NA49 Collaboration measured in central Pb-Pb collisions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies. It is demonstrated that the transverse mass distributions of protons, kaons, Lambda and Antilambda, except for Lambda hyperons produced in central Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV, can be described by using the one-temperature emission picture, and for pions, we need to use the two-temperature emission picture.

  5. Can renewable and unconventional energy sources bridge the global energy gap in the 21st century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy experts project that global oil supplies will only meet demand until global oil production has peaked sometime between 2013 and 2020. Declining oil production after peak production will cause a global energy gap to develop, which will have to be bridged by unconventional and renewable energy sources. Nuclear, solar and hydrogen are destined to become major energy sources during the 21st century, but only if their enabling technologies improve significantly to ensure affordability and convenience of use. This paper will argue that global oil production will probably peak between 2004 and 2005, causing a serious energy gap to develop sometime between 2008 and 2010 rather than 2013-2020 as the energy experts projected. It will also argue that a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is inevitable. The paper will conclude, however, that fossil fuels with a growing contribution from nuclear energy, will still be supplying the major part of the global energy needs for most, perhaps all, of the 21st century. (author)

  6. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  7. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar; G Rodrigues; U K Rao; C P Safvan; D Kanjilal; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion beams ranging from a few keV to a few MeV for research in materials sciences, atomic and molecular physics is described. One of the important features of this facility is the availability of relatively large currents of multiply charged positive ions from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source placed entirely on a high voltage platform. All the electronic and vacuum systems related to the ECR source including 10 GHz ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter, high voltage power supplies for extractor and Einzel lens are placed on a high voltage platform. All the equipments are controlled using a personal computer at ground potential through optical fibers for high voltage isolation. Some of the experimental facilities available are also described.

  8. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  9. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  10. A retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distributions of liquid metal ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the setup and use of a retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distribution of LMIS will be presented. An introduction in the technology and mechanism of LMIS will be given in chapter 2. The experimental configuration of the retarding field energy analyser, together with an error estimation and a computer program, to control the energy analyser and to calculate the energy distribution, will be discussed in chapter 3. To test the energy analyser an electron source, consisting of a tungsten thermoionic cathode, will be used. Energy distribution measurements of a gallium LMIS will be presented in chapter 4. Finally in chapter 5, the accuracy of the energy analyser and suggestions for improvement will be presented. (orig.)

  11. Status report on the Low Energy Neutron Source for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, D. V.; Rinckel, T.

    2016-11-01

    The Low Energy Neutron Source at Indiana University first produced cold neutrons in April of 2005. Ten years after first reaching this milestone, the facility has three instruments in operation on its cold target station, and a second target station is devoted to thermal and fast neutron physics offers capabilities in radiation effects research (single-event effects in electronics) and radiography. Key elements in our success over these last ten years have been the diversity of activities we have been able maintain (which often involves using each of our instruments for multiple different activities), the close relationship we have developed with a number of major sources, and the focus we have had on innovation in neutron instrumentation. In this presentation, we will introduce some of the highlights from our most recent activities, provide an update on some of our technical challenges, and describe some of our ideas for the future.

  12. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described. PMID:26932065

  13. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  14. Essential role of UCP1 modulating the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Csikasz, Robert I.; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Diéguez, Carlos; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Classically, metabolic effects of thyroid hormones (THs) have been considered to be peripherally mediated, i.e. different tissues in the body respond directly to thyroid hormones with an increased metabolism. An alternative view is that the metabolic effects are centrally regulated. We have examined here the degree to which prolonged, centrally infused triiodothyronine (T3) could in itself induce total body metabolic effects and the degree to which brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis was essential for such effects, by examining uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) KO mice. Methods Wildtype and UPC1 KO mice were centrally-treated with T3 by using minipumps. Metabolic measurements were analyzed by indirect calorimetry and expression analysis by RT-PCR or western blot. BAT morphology and histology were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results We found that central T3-treatment led to reduced levels of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and elevated body temperature (0.7 °C). UCP1 was essential for the T3-induced increased rate of energy expenditure, which was only observable at thermoneutrality and notably only during the active phase, for the increased body weight loss, for the increased hypothalamic levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and for the increased food intake induced by central T3-treatment. Prolonged central T3-treatment also led to recruitment of BAT and britening/beiging (“browning”) of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Conclusions We conclude that UCP1 is essential for mediation of the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance, and we suggest that similar UCP1-dependent effects may underlie central energy balance effects of other agents. PMID:27069867

  15. Computational methods for high-energy source shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computational methods for high-energy radiation transport related to shielding of the SNQ-spallation source are outlined. The basic approach is to couple radiation-transport computer codes which use Monte Carlo methods and discrete ordinates methods. A code system is suggested that incorporates state-of-the-art radiation-transport techniques. The stepwise verification of that system is briefly summarized. The complexity of the resulting code system suggests a more straightforward code specially tailored for thick shield calculations. A short guide line to future development of such a Monte Carlo code is given

  16. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  17. Quasars as Sources of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented that were obtained by analyzing arrival directions for cosmic rays that the Yakutsk array for studying extensive air showers recorded between 1974 and 2002 in the energy region E0 ≥5x1017 eV for zenith angles in the region θ ≤60 deg. . It is shown that quasars for which the redshift lies in the region z≤2.5 can be sources of these cosmic rays. Ordered structures are observed in the disposition of quasars and in the cosmic-ray arrival directions. These structures can be associated in one way or another with the large-scale structure of the Universe

  18. Prospects for inertial fusion as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program has been very rapid in the last few years. Target physics experiments with laboratory lasers and in underground nuclear tests have shown that the drive conditions necessary to achieve high gain can be achieved in the laboratory with a pulse-shaped driver of about 10 MJ. Requirements and designs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been formulated. Research on driver technology necessary for an ICF reactor is making progress. Prospects for ICF as an energy source are very promising. 11 refs., 5 figs

  19. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  20. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Helbra Tenrini; Sidiq Suryo Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil ind...

  1. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  2. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility...

  3. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  4. The Spatial Planning for the Renewable Energy Sources in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, E.

    2009-04-01

    This work defines the Special Framework for the Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development for the Renewable Energy Sources(RES) in Greece. This planning is very important for the development of the renewable energy because - Identifies criteria and guidelines for the location of RES projects, per RES category and type of geographic area, with emphasis on wind systems and hydropower units. - seeks to provide a clear framework to the competent authorities and the companies concerned, so be oriented suitably in terms of spatial installation areas and thus limit the ambiguities on land uses conflicts. - Determines the key prerequisites for the harmonisation and coherence between all other spatial and urban plans subject to the Special Framework for RES, contributing to the achievement of the targets set under national and EU policies with a further increase of RES participation to power supply.

  5. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  6. Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordmann, S.; Cheng, Y.F.; Carmichael, G.R.; Yu, M.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Zhang, Q.; Saide, P.E.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Particles containing black carbon (BC), a strong absorbing substance, exert a rather uncertain direct and indirect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. To investigate the mass concentration and absorption properties of BC particles over central Europe, the model WRF-Chem was used at a resolution of

  7. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier. PMID:25836452

  8. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.

  9. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chinhao Chong; Weidou Ni; Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Zheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indica...

  10. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs

  11. Swift monitoring of the central X-ray source in RCW 103

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, P.; Turolla, R.; De Luca, A; Israel, G.L.; Possenti, A.; Burrows, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray source 1E 161348-5055 lies at the centre of the 2-kyr-old supernova remnant RCW 103. Owing to its 24-ks modulation, orders-of-magnitude flux variability over a few months/years, and lack of an obvious optical counterpart, 1E 161348-5055 defies assignment to any known class of X-ray sources. Starting from April 2006, Swift observed 1E 161348-5055 with its X-ray telescope for 2 ks approximately once per month. During the five years covered, the source has remained in a quiescent state...

  12. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Mu' taz A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jordan, PO Box 961060, Amman 11196 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO{sub x} and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources. (author)

  13. Laticiferous taxa as a source of energy and hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, S.; Subramanian, R.B.; Kothari, I.L.; Inamdar, J.A. (Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India))

    Twenty-nine laticiferous taxa of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Sapotaceae were screened for suitability as alternative sources of renewable energy, rubber, and phytochemicals and to select the most promising ones for large-scale cultivation. Of these, Allamanda violacea (14.9% protein, 13.8% polyphenol, 8.6% oil, 3.2% hydrocarbon), Catharanthus roseus (15.4% protein, 10.4% polyphenol, 11.5% oil, 1.9% hydrocarbon), and Holarrhena antidysenterica (14.2% protein, 16.4% polyphenol, 5,4% oil, 4.8% hydrocarbon) of Apocynaceae; Asclepias curassavica (19.3% protein, 6.5% polyphenol, 3.9% oil, 2.0% hydrocarbon), Calotropis gigantea (18.5% protein, 6.8% polyphenol, 7.0% oil, 2.8% hydrocarbon) of Asclepiadaceae; Mimusops elengi (11.3% protein, 9.7% polyphenol, 7.2% oil, 4.0% hydrocarbon) of Sapotaceae show promising potential for future petrochemical plantations; of all these taxa, Holarrhena antidysenterica yielded an unusually high percentage (4.8%) of hydrocarbon fraction followed by Mimusops elengi (4.0%). NMR spectra confirmed the presence of cis-polyisoprene in all species studied except Nerium indicum (white-flowered var.). These data indicate that the majority of the species under investigation may be considered for large-scale cultivation as an alternative source of rubber, intermediate energy, and other phytochemicals.

  14. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NOx and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 deg. C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources.

  15. Feasibility and impact analysis of a renewable energy source (RES)-based energy system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we analyze the feasibility and impacts of a renewable energy source (RES)-based electricity supply system of future Korea. To achieve this goal, we first developed different scenarios for increasing the contribution of RES by lowering the rate of i) nuclear power, ii) thermal power, iii) both nuclear and thermal power, and iv) these scenarios with real-world constraints. Based on the generated scenarios, we then specified the established systems with practical strategies which encourage different renewable sources (wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass, and waste). Finally, we analyzed the impacts of the established RES-based systems according to various criteria: the total required cost, the dependence on imported energy, CO2 emissions, and land use. The results show that the RES-based system that utilizes wind energy as its main source by steadily decreasing the rate of thermal power for electricity generation is the most affordable for future Korean electricity system. We also identify the merits and drawbacks of the analyzed systems and provide relevant recommendations for the establishment of a sustainable energy system for Korea. These findings will support policy makers in integrating quantitative assessments into energy-related policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • We model and analyze RES-based electricity supply system in Korea. • Impact analysis includes: economic, energy security, environmental protection aspects. • We also evaluate different strategies to establish RES-based system. • We show that wind energy-based system is the most affordable for Korea

  16. Depth to the bottom of magnetic sources (DBMS) from aeromagnetic data of Central India using modified centroid method for fractal distribution of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, A. R.; Anand, S. P.; Rajaram, Mita; Rao, V. K.; Dimri, V. P.

    2013-09-01

    The depth to the bottom of the magnetic sources (DBMS) has been estimated from the aeromagnetic data of Central India. The conventional centroid method of DBMS estimation assumes random uniform uncorrelated distribution of sources and to overcome this limitation a modified centroid method based on scaling distribution has been proposed. Shallower values of the DBMS are found for the south western region. The DBMS values are found as low as 22 km in the south west Deccan trap covered regions and as deep as 43 km in the Chhattisgarh Basin. In most of the places DBMS are much shallower than the Moho depth, earlier found from the seismic study and may be representing the thermal/compositional/petrological boundaries. The large variation in the DBMS indicates the complex nature of the Indian crust.

  17. Energy analysis of a central domestic hot water heating system equipped with condensing boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Caliari, R. (Servizio Energia, Provincia Autonoma di Trento (IT))

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on a central plant for the heating of domestic hot water for a block of 143 flats and 15 offices. The behaviour of the condensing boilers serving the plant was examined and the energy costs of recirculation and distribution were analysed. Since the losses due to recirculation are of the same order as the useful energy, the influence of the various parameters on the losses has been studied, and some methods of lowering them are proposed. (author).

  18. The Central Point Source in G76.9+1.0

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. R. Marthi; J. N. Chengalur; Y. Gupta; G. C. Dewangan; D. Bhattacharya

    2011-12-01

    We describe the serendipitous discovery of a very steep-spectrum radio point source in low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) images of the supernova remnant (SNR) G76.9+1.0. The steep spectrum, as well as the location of the point source near the centre of this SNR confirm that this indeed is the pulsar J2022+3842. Archival Chandra X-ray data shows a point source coincident with the radio point source. However, no pulsed radio emission was detected despite deep searches at 610 MHz and 1160 MHz – which can be understood to be due to temporal broadening of the pulses. Weak pulsed emission has indeed been seen at 2 GHz with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), establishing the fact that scattering is responsible for its non-detection at low radio frequencies. We underline the usefulness of low-frequency radio imaging as a good technique to prospect for pulsar candidates.

  19. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  20. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  1. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  2. Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

  3. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions. (author)

  4. MARKAL Application for Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Economic Activities of the Republic of Moldova and Feasible use of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Robu S.; Bicova E.; Siakkis P.; Giannakidis G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of analyses of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources implementation in the Republic of Moldova using MARKAL model. Detailed analyses of four scenarios are presented for: Reference Scenario; Energy Efficiency Scenario; Renewable Energy Sources Scenario; Energy Efficiency&Renewable Energy Scenario. Energy savings and costs are identified for implementation of renewable energy sources and Energy efficiency measures.

  5. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Í. Aniel-Quiroga; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and D...

  6. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and determinis...

  7. Energy efficient and robust rhythmic limb movement by central pattern generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, B.W.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Helm, van der F.C.T.

    2006-01-01

    Humans show great energy efficiency and robustness in rhythmic tasks, such as walking and arm swinging. In this study a mathematical model of rhythmic limb movement is presented, which shows that tight local coupling of Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) to limbs could explain part of this behavior.

  8. Energy efficient walking with central pattern generators: from passive dynamic walking to biologically inspired control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, B.W.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Like human walking, passive dynamic walking—i.e. walking down a slope with no actuation except gravity—is energy efficient by exploiting the natural dynamics. In the animal world, neural oscillators termed central pattern generators (CPGs) provide the basic rhythm for muscular activity in locomotion

  9. Energy and Centrality Dependences of Charged Multiplicity Density in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA; Ben-hao; Bonasera; A; TAI; An

    2002-01-01

    Using a hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, the energy and centrality dependences of chargedparticle pseudo rapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions were studied. Within the framework ofthis model, both the relativistic p + p experimental data and the PHOBOS and PHENIX Au + Au data at

  10. SN 1986J VLBI: II. The Evolution of the Shell and the Central Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, M F; Rupen, M P

    2010-01-01

    We present new VLBI images of supernova 1986J, taken at 5, 8.4 and 22 GHz between t=22 to 25 yr after the explosion. The shell expands as t^(0.69+-0.03). We estimate the progenitor's mass-loss rate at (4 ~ 10) * 10^-5 Msol/yr (for v_w = 10 km/s). Two bright spots are seen in the images. The first, in the northeast, is now fading. The second, very near the center of the projected shell and unique to SN1986J, is still brightening relative to the shell, and now dominates the VLBI images. It is marginally resolved at 22 GHz (diameter ~0.3 mas; ~5 * 10^16 cm at 10 Mpc). The integrated VLA spectrum of SN1986J shows an inversion point and a high-frequency turnover, both progressing downward in frequency and due to the central bright spot. The optically-thin spectral index of the central bright spot is indistinguishable from that of the shell. The small proper motion of 1500+-1500 km/s of the central bright spot is consistent with our previous interpretation of it as being associated with the expected black-hole or n...

  11. Radioistopes to Solar to High Energy Accelerators – Chip-Scale Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk will present MEMS based power sources that utilize radioisotopes, solar energy, and potentially nuclear energy through advancements in integration of new structures and materials within MEMS. Micro power harvesters can harness power from vibration, radioisotopes, light, sound, and biology may provide pathways to minimize or even eliminate batteries in sensor nodes. In this talk work on radioisotope thin films for MEMS will be include the self-reciprocating cantilever, betavoltaic cells, and high DC voltages. The self-reciprocating cantilever energy harvester allows small commercially viable amounts of radioisotopes to generate mW to Watts of power so that very reliable power sources that last 100s of years are possible. The tradeoffs between reliability and potential stigma with radioisotopes allow one to span a useful design space with reliability as a key parameter. These power sources provide pulsed power at three different time scales using mechanical, RF, and static extraction of energy from collected charge. Multi-use capability, both harvesting radioisotope power and local vibration energy extends the reliability of micro-power sources further

  12. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays from a Magnetized Strange Star Central Engine for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, O

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been tried to be related to the most varied and powerful sources known in the universe. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are natural candidates. Here, we argue that cosmic rays can be accelerated by large amplitude electromagnetic waves (LAEMWs) when the MHD approximation of the field in the wind generated by the GRB's magnetized central engine breaks down. The central engine considered here is a strange star born with differential rotation from the accretion induced conversion of a neutron star into a strange star in a low-mass X-ray binary system. The LAEMWs generated this way accelerate light ions to the highest energies $E = q\\eta\\Delta\\Phi_{max}$ with an efficiency $\\eta \\sim 10^{-1}$ that accounts for all plausible energy losses. Alternatively, we also consider the possibility that, once formed, the LAEMWs are unstable to creation of a relativistically strong electromagnetic turbulence due to an overturn instability. Under this assumption, a lower limit to the efficien...

  13. Ground source energy in crystalline bedrock - increased energy extraction by using hydraulic fracturing in boreholes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstad, Randi Kalskin

    2004-01-01

    The use of improved equipment and methodology can result in considerable reductions in the drilling costs for medium- to large sized ground source heat pump system in crystalline bedrock. The main point has been to use special techniques within hydraulic fracturing to create a larger heat exchange area in the bedrock, and thus a greater energy extraction per borehole. The energy extraction is based on circulating groundwater.Stimulation with hydraulic fracturing is a well known technique in o...

  14. Renewable Energy Sources in the Frame of New Croatian Energy Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreseen changes in the market of network energy systems in the Republic of Croatia, that include restructuring, privatisation and changes in the whole energy sector are going to have significant influence on the possibilities of introduction and use of renewable energy sources (RES). After recognition of Energy Law and three laws on markets (electric energy, gas, oil and oil derivatives) and Energy Activities Regulation Law, there is still a demanding job to be undertaken regarding numerous sub law acts, that are to define precisely all instruments of the state policy considering RES. The application of new laws and sub laws on RES projects in Croatia will create stabile and complete framework through incentive measures that are going to evaluate environmental and all other positive outcomes from RES. In accordance with other European countries Croatia will create a transparent platform to accommodate expected increase in the RES sector.(author)

  15. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  16. Portal. Making a portal site. INIS Web Services and energy information sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) provides links to useful nuclear related information sources in Internet by the name of 'INIS Web Services' and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) also provides links to useful energy related information sources in Internet by the name of Energy Information Source'. This paper outlines these two services. (author)

  17. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  18. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  19. Quantitative sediment source attribution with compound-specific isotope analysis in a C3 plant-dominated catchment (central Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Schindler Wildhaber, Yael; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-03-01

    As sediment loads impact freshwater systems and infrastructure, their origin in complex landscape systems is of crucial importance for sustainable management of agricultural catchments. We differentiated the sediment source contribution to a lowland river in central Switzerland by using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). We found a clear distinction of sediment sources originating from forest and agricultural land use. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the uncertainty of sediment source attribution in: (i) using compound content (in our case, long-chain fatty acids; FAs) rather than soil organic matter content to transfer δ13C signal of FAs to soil contribution and (ii) restricting the investigation to the long-chain FAs (> C22 : 0) not to introduce errors due to aquatic contributions from algae and microorganisms. Results showed unambiguously that during base flow, agricultural land contributed up to 65 % of the suspended sediments, while forest was the dominant sediment source during high flow. This indicates that connectivity of sediment source areas within the river changes between base and high flow conditions. Uncertainty, which might occur in complex, large-scale studies due to undetected source attribution and/or CSSI signature degradation, is low because of limited data complexity in our study (i.e., two-three sources and two tracers). Our findings are the first published results highlighting (i) significant differences in compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) signature of sediment sources from land uses dominated by C3 plant cultivation and (ii) the use of these differences to quantify sediment contribution to a small river.

  20. Propagation and Source Energy Spectra of Cosmic-Ray Nuclei at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M; Hoeppner, C; Marshall, J; Müller, D

    2008-01-01

    A recent measurement of the TRACER instrument on long-duration balloon has determined the individual energy spectra of the major primary cosmic-ray nuclei from oxygen (Z=8) to iron (Z=26). The measurements cover a large range of energies and extend to energies beyond 10^14 eV. We investigate if the data set can be described by a simple but plausible model for acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays. The model assumes a power-law energy spectrum at the source with a common spectral index alpha for all nuclear species, and an energy dependent propagation pathlength (Lambda proportional to E^-0.6) combined with an energy-independent residual pathlength Lambda_0. We find that the data can be fit with a fairly soft source spectrum alpha=2.3-2.4), and with a residual pathlength Lambda_0 as high as 0.3 g cm^-2. We discuss this model in the context of other pertinent information, and we determine the relative abundances of the elements at the cosmic-ray source.

  1. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made. Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016 Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24 

  2. Usage of Unconventional Energy Sources against Reducing Impact on Environment. Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rubnicu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyse the building reducing environmental impact by using unconventional energy sources (in this case solar energy) will calculate the annual energy necesary for the studied building (annual energy needs for heating and will add one for hot water and household electric consumers). Then it is calculated the energy consumption and CO2 emissions when using conventional energy sources (solid fuel boiler and the national energy system). Due to excessive amount of produced surplus ene...

  3. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  4. Source characteristics of 2000 small earthquakes nucleating on the Alto Tiberina fault system (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, I.; Malagnini, L.; Tinti, E.; Chiaraluce, L.; Di Stefano, R.; Valoroso, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) is a 60 km long east-dipping low-angle normal fault, located in a sector of the Northern Apennines (Italy) undergoing active extension since the Quaternary. The ATF has been imaged by analyzing the active source seismic reflection profiles, and the instrumentally recorded persistent background seismicity. The present study is an attempt to separate the contributions of source, site, and crustal attenuation, in order to focus on the mechanics of the seismic sources on the ATF, as well on the synthetic and the antithetic structures within the ATF hanging-wall (i.e. Colfiorito fault, Gubbio fault and Umbria Valley fault). In order to compute source spectra, we perform a set of regressions over the seismograms of 2000 small earthquakes (-0.8 < ML< 4) recorded between 2010 and 2014 at 50 permanent seismic stations deployed in the framework of the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory project (TABOO) and equipped with three-components seismometers, three of which located in shallow boreholes. Because we deal with some very small earthquakes, we maximize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) with a technique based on the analysis of peak values of bandpass-filtered time histories, in addition to the same processing performed on Fourier amplitudes. We rely on a tool called Random Vibration Theory (RVT) to completely switch from peak values in the time domain to Fourier spectral amplitudes. Low-frequency spectral plateau of the source terms are used to compute moment magnitudes (Mw) of all the events, whereas a source spectral ratio technique is used to estimate the corner frequencies (Brune spectral model) of a subset of events chosen over the analysis of the noise affecting the spectral ratios. So far, the described approach provides high accuracy over the spectral parameters of earthquakes of localized seismicity, and may be used to gain insights into the underlying mechanics of faulting and the earthquake processes.

  5. Evaluation of Economic, Energy-Environmental and Societal Effects of Non-Renewable Energy Substitution with Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Kozioł; Barbara Mendecka

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of effects of non-renewable energy (reference fuel) substitution with renewable energy sources of interest (RES) was conducted with the use of social indicator for each effect arising from production of a given utility product in communal and living power industry. The aforementioned effect may be of energy-environmental, economic or social nature, etc. This means it affects elements of living standard ratios. Reference fuel should be the most common one in the area in terms o...

  6. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a

  7. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded

  8. Energy mix in Central European countries of the V4 group: The quest for stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicek, Frantisek; Smitkova, Miroslava; Kubica, Juraj

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the development of the energy mix in the countries of the V4 region (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). Trends over the past two decades are summarised and critically examined but mainly possible energy scenarios by 2030 are presented. Based on existing scenarios for the V4 countries, the impacts are assessed of potential developments for various ratios between domestic and imported fossil fuels, nuclear sources and RES. The analysis spans the development in energy intensity of the national economies, structural changes in energy consumption in various areas in view of the liberalisation of energy markets.

  9. Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Central Anatolian Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Genc, Mustafa Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Clean and renewable energies obtaining from sunlight, wind or water around the earth do not make a net contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Therefore, these energy sources should be used to protect our world, because of global warming and the injurious effects of carbon emissions. And so, it should be estimated the windy and sunny fields in Turkey, the unit cost of energy output of various wind and solar energy conversion systems. Today, wind energy seems to be reasonable due to...

  10. Central energy equipartition in multi-mass models of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Miocchi, P

    2006-01-01

    In the construction of multi-mass King-Michie models of globular clusters, an approximated central energy equipartition between stars of different masses is usually imposed by scaling the velocity parameter of each mass class inversely with the stellar mass, as if the distribution function were isothermal. In this paper, this 'isothermal approximation' (IA) has been checked and its consequences on the model parameters studied by a comparison with models including central energy equipartition correctly. It is found that, under the IA, the 'temperatures' of a pair of components can differ to a non-negligible amount for low concentration distributions. It is also found that, in general, this approximation leads to a significantly reduced mass segregation in comparison with that given under the exact energy equipartition at the centre. As a representative example, an isotropic 3-component model fitting a given projected surface brightness and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles is discussed. In this exampl...

  11. Comparing centralized and decentralized bio-energy systems in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the dual pressures of an energy crisis and rising greenhouse gas emissions, biomass energy development and utilisation has become part of the national energy strategy in China. The last decade has witnessed a strong promotion of both centralised and decentralised bio-energy systems in rural China. The government seems to have a strong preference for centralised (village-based) bio-energy systems in recent years. However, these government-driven systems have not worked without difficulties, particularly regarding economic and technological viability and maintenance. Studies on the advantages and disadvantages of decentralised and centralised bio-energy systems are rare. This study aims to shed light on the performances of these two systems in terms of social, economic and environmental effects. Through interviewing local officials and village leaders and surveying farmers in 12 villages in Shandong Province, it was found that bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances. The diversity of the local natural, economic and social situations determines the size, place, technology and organisational model of the bio-energy system. - Highlights: • Biomass energy development has become part of the national energy strategy in China. • The dis-/advantages of decentralized and centralized bio-energy systems are evaluated. • Bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances

  12. Health and economic costs of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National energy policy requires realistic totalling of costs in assessing energy alternatives. The Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division (BEAD) at Brookhaven is estimating health and environmental costs of energy production and use. It was estimated that the production of electric power from all sources in the USA in 1975 was associated with 2000-19,000 deaths and 29,000-48,000 disabilities; this is roughly 0.2-2% of total deaths in the USA for ages 1-74. The estimated health effects associated with a total fuel cycle standardized to produce 1010kWh electric power were: from coal, estimated deaths 10-200, estimated disabilities 300-500; from oil, estimated deaths 3-150, estimated disabilities 150-300; from gas, estimated deaths 0.2, estimated disabilities 20; from nuclear power, estimated deaths 1-3, estimated disabilities 8-30. The differences in the year 2000 between health impacts of the US energy system under normal growth expectations and under conditions of a nuclear moratorium were estimated. On the assumption that the nuclear moratorium would require 200 additional 1000-MW(e) coal-fired power plants and that, with improved control technology, sulphur emissions were equivalent to 0.5% sulphur coal (12,500Btu/lb), additional estimated deaths were 1500-18,000 annually. By the same assumptions, it turns out that a nationwide nuclear moratorium could lead to low economic losses initially that would rise rapidly after the year 2000, so that the cost to the USA in 2010 would be US $109x109. Summing the costs for 1975 through 2050, the present value of these losses would be US $77x109 or US $595x109, depending on whether public decisions are to be based on a 10% or 5% discount rate. (author)

  13. Renewable energy sources at decisive turning; Le energie rinnovabili a una svolta decisiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, S.

    2000-11-01

    The renewable energy sources will be very important for planetary environmental emergency and for technological evolution. [Italian] Marginali da molti anni, le rinnovabili diverranno di primaria importanza grazie all'emergenza ambientale planetaria e all'evoluzione tecnologica. Siamo giunti finalmente a una vera svolta epocale?.

  14. Microscopic study of energy and centrality dependence of transverse collective flow in heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bravina, L. V.; Faessler, Amand; Fuchs, C.; Zabrodin, E. E.(Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia)

    2000-01-01

    The centrality dependence of directed and elliptic flow in light and heavy systems of colliding nuclei is studied within two microscopic transport models at energies from 1 AGeV to 160 A GeV. The pion directed flow has negative slope in the midrapidity range irrespective of bombarding energy and mass number of the colliding ions. In contrast, the directed flow of nucleons vanishes and even develops antiflow in the midrapidity range in (semi)peripheral collisions at energies around 11.6 A GeV ...

  15. Neutron leakage from Pb and Bc spherical shells with 14 MeV central neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of measuring neutron leakage from spherical shells of different thickness, made of Pb and Be with a point neutron source in the sphere centrum are presented. The experiment results are compared to calculations according to different programs using data of various nuclear data libraies. The comparison has shown that all the calculations understate the neutron leakage from Pb assmebly. 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. Impact of interannual variations in aerosol particle sources on orographic precipitation over California's Central Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, J. M.; Ault, A. P.; White, A. B.; Neiman, P. J.; Ralph, F. M.; Minnis, P.; Prather, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) have the potential to profoundly influence precipitation processes. Furthermore, changes in orographic precipitation have broad implications for reservoir storage and flood risks. As part of the CalWater field campaign (2009-2011), the variability and associated impacts of different aerosol sources on precipitation were investigated in the California Sierra Nevada using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer for precipitation chemistry, S-band profiling radar for precipitation classification, remote sensing measurements of cloud properties, and surface meteorological measurements. The composition of insoluble residues in precipitation samples collected at a surface site contained mostly local biomass burning and long-range transported dust and biological particles (2009), local sources of biomass burning and pollution (2010), and long-range transport from distant sources (2011). Although differences in the sources were observed from year-to-year, the most consistent source of dust and biological residues were associated with storms consisting of deep convective cloud systems with significant quantities of precipitation initiated in the ice phase. Further, biological residues were dominant (up to 40%) during storms with relatively warm cloud temperatures (up to -15 °C), supporting the important role bioparticles can play as ice nucleating particles. On the other hand, lower percentages of residues from local biomass burning and pollution were observed over the three winter seasons (on average 31 and 9%, respectively). When precipitation quantities were relatively low, these residues most likely served as CCN, forming smaller more numerous cloud droplets at the base of shallow cloud systems, and resulting in less efficient riming processes. The correlation between the source of aerosols within clouds and precipitation type and quantity will be further probed in models to understand the

  17. Impact of interannual variations in aerosol particle sources on orographic precipitation over California's Central Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Creamean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and ice nuclei (IN have the potential to profoundly influence precipitation processes. Furthermore, changes in orographic precipitation have broad implications for reservoir storage and flood risks. As part of the CalWater field campaign (2009–2011, the variability and associated impacts of different aerosol sources on precipitation were investigated in the California Sierra Nevada using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer for precipitation chemistry, S-band profiling radar for precipitation classification, remote sensing measurements of cloud properties, and surface meteorological measurements. The composition of insoluble residues in precipitation samples collected at a surface site contained mostly local biomass burning and long-range transported dust and biological particles (2009, local sources of biomass burning and pollution (2010, and long-range transport from distant sources (2011. Although differences in the sources were observed from year-to-year, the most consistent source of dust and biological residues were associated with storms consisting of deep convective cloud systems with significant quantities of precipitation initiated in the ice phase. Further, biological residues were dominant (up to 40% during storms with relatively warm cloud temperatures (up to −15 °C, supporting the important role bioparticles can play as ice nucleating particles. On the other hand, lower percentages of residues from local biomass burning and pollution were observed over the three winter seasons (on average 31 and 9%, respectively. When precipitation quantities were relatively low, these residues most likely served as CCN, forming smaller more numerous cloud droplets at the base of shallow cloud systems, and resulting in less efficient riming processes. The correlation between the source of aerosols within clouds and precipitation type and quantity will be further probed in models to

  18. Geothermal energy systems assessment. - A strategic assessment of technical, environmental, institutional and economic potentials in Central and Eastern European countries. Vol. 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite considerable effort, the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) still face serious environmental problems related to their heating sectors. This is mainly due to the fact that most CEECs continue to rely heavily on conventional and polluting energy sources such as lignite, coal and heavy fuel-oil. However, increasing awareness and interest in converting to renewable and non-traditional energy sources are emerging in the region, strongly encouraged by the international community. Within the CEECs, geothermal energy is considered to be one of the most promising local energy sources. Geothermal water is found in significant quantity underground in the CEECs aspiring to become an important future environmentally friendly energy source for heating purposes. In view of this, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) commissioned Kvistgaard Consult to prepare a strategic study of economic, environmental, technical and institutional potentials of geothermal energy systems in the CEECs. As part of the study, an international workshop was held. An important conclusion from the workshop as well as from the study, is that the CEECs possess highly promising environmental and technical potentials for further development of geothermal energy systems for heating purposes. The study recommends concrete action proposals to be considered by DEPA. Volume 1 is the main report presenting the results of the Geothermal Energy Systems Assessment Project (GESA). (BA)

  19. Capitalization of renewable energy sources: Romanian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major challenges of the recent integration of Romania in the European Union is the extension of use, at national scale, of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Targeting private operators and municipalities, authors have as objective to deliver an investigation on the interesting 'Acquis' in financing and implementing RES projects in Romania. Using as method of investigation the accurate screening of their experience as well as the extended international experience in the field, authors have reviewed in the present paper different possibilities in RES investment financing, frequent obstacles and barriers, and ways for overcoming them. Recent results are motivating authors to consider the national experience of an encouraging success and to act towards the capitalization of such investments replication potential to a national and regional scale. (authors)

  20. HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.