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Sample records for central eastern desert

  1. Pollen spectrum, a cornerstone for tracing the evolution of the eastern Central Asian desert

    Lu, Kai-Qing; Xie, Gan; Li, Min; Li, Jin-Feng; Trivedi, Anjali; Ferguson, David K.; Yao, Yi-Feng; Wang, Yu-Fei

    2018-04-01

    The temperate desert in arid Central Asia (ACA) has acted as a thoroughfare for the ancient Silk Road and today's Belt and Road, linking economic and cultural exchanges between East and West. The interaction between human sustainable development and the dynamic change in the desert ecosystem in this region is an area of concern for governments and scientific communities. Nevertheless, the lack of a pollen spectrum of the dominant taxa within the temperate desert vegetation and a corresponding relation between pollen assemblages and specific desert vegetation types is an obstacle to further understanding the formation and maintenance of this desert ecosystem. In this work, we link pollen assemblages to specific desert vegetation types with a new pollen spectrum with specific pollen grains, specific plant taxa and related habitats, providing a solid foundation for further tracing the evolution of the desert ecosystem in eastern arid Central Asia.

  2. Significance of Airborne Gamma-ray spectrometric data of Umm bisilla Area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Rabie, S I [Nuclear materials authority, Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Umm bisilla area, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, consists mainly of basement rocks. The present investigation of the airborne spectrometric data is to define the meaningful anomalies from the raw data by applying the significance factor techniques, by calculating the significant radioactive provinces. Determination of the gross structural pattern and broad variations in composition of the crystalline basement, to define the relationships between the tectonic features of the area as interpreted from aeromagnetic data, with the significant anomalies revealed from spectrometric data was carried out through the application of different magnetic techniques. Five significant uraniferous zones were detected associated with Umm Bisilla granite, amphibolite, and grey granite. The intersection of the structural lineaments interpreted from aeromagnetic data illustrated good correlation with the significant uranium anomalous zones interpreted from spectrometric data, and indicated that the concentration is structurally. 15 figs.

  3. Natural radioactivity and Rare Earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia, E-mail: nadia_walley5@hotmail.co [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt); El-Shershaby, Amal [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt); Afifi, Sofia [Nuclear Materials Authority (Egypt); Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman [Department of physics, Faculty of girls for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150 km{sup 2} of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg{sup -1} has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 0 to 7894.6 BqKg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), dose rate (D{sub R}) and external hazard (H{sub ex}) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  4. Natural radioactivity and Rare Earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-01-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150 km 2 of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg -1 has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7 BqKg -1 for 238 U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2 BqKg -1 for 232 Th and from 0 to 7894.6 BqKg -1 for 40 K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), dose rate (D R ) and external hazard (H ex ) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  5. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of ophiolitic metaultramafics from Um Halham and Fawakhir, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Ali, Shehata; El-Shafei, Shaimaa A.

    2018-03-01

    This study is focused on ophiolitic metaultramafics from Um Halham and Fawakhir, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The rocks include serpentinized peridotites, serpentinites together with talc- and quartz-carbonates. The primary spinel relict is Al-chromite [Cr# > 60], which is replaced by Cr-magnetite during metamorphism. The high Cr# of Al-chromites resembles supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites and suggests derivation from the deeper portion of the mantle section with boninitic affinity. These mantle rocks equilibrated with boninitic melt have been generated by high melting degrees. The estimated melting degrees ( 19-24%) lie within the range of SSZ peridotites. The high Cr# of spinel and Fo content of olivine together with the narrow compositional range suggest a mantle residual origin. Serpentinized peridotite and serpentinites have low Al2O3/SiO2 ratios (mostly serpentinization process. Moreover, they have very low Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf concentrations along with sub-chondritic Nb/Ta (0.3-16) and Zr/Hf (mostly 1-20) ratios further confirming that their mantle source was depleted by earlier melting extraction event. The high chondrite normalized (La/Sm)N ratios (average 10) reflect input of subduction-related slab melts/fluids into their mantle source.

  6. Mineralogical Characterization of The Alteration Facies at Gabal El-Missikat Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    El-Sherif, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the alteration facies zones recognized around the shear zone at Gabal El-Missikat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Petrographically, the fresh granitic samples are composed mainly of quartz, K-feldspars (microcline and microcline perthite), plagioclase, biotite. The secondary minerals are sericite, kaolinite, muscovite, chlorite and epidote as well as zircon, apatite, fluorite, titanite and iron oxides as accessory minerals. Two alteration facies zones are recognized and namely as propylitic and advanced argillic. The propylitic facies zone is composed mainly of sericite with minor kaolinite, muscovite, quartz, relics of plagioclases, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite, columbite and fluorite and secondary uranium minerals, the advanced argillic facies zone is composed mainly of kaolinite with minor sericite, quartz, muscovite, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite and garnet of spessartine type as accessory minerals. The identified minerals in the studied two alteration facies zones can be grouped into three mineral groups which are: the primary minerals (pyrite, magnetite, galena, columbite and gold), the secondary minerals (uranophane, kasolite and wulfenite) and the gangue minerals (anhydrite, barite, celestine, hematite, goethite and fluorite). The identified mineral assemblage of the studied propylitic alteration facies zone may be attributed to strongly alkaline hydrothermal solutions at ph value of more than 7 with temperature varying between 350 and 450°C, while the advanced argillic alteration facies zone is essentially associated with strongly acidic hydrothermal solutions at ph value less than 7 with temperature varying between 150 and 400°C

  7. Genesis of the Abu Marawat gold deposit, central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Zoheir, Basem A.; Akawy, Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Gold mineralisation at the Abu Marawat mine, central Eastern Desert of Egypt, is related to a system of massive and sheared, milky quartz veins cutting a sequence of Neoproterozoic island arc metavolcanic/volcaniclastic rocks and related banded iron formation (BIF). Sulphide-bearing quartz veins and related hydrothermal breccia bodies display a range of textures including sheared, boudinaged and recrystallised quartz, open space filling and microbreccia. These variable textures imply a complex history of crack-seal mechanism characterising the relation between mineral deposition and a major N-S-trending shear zone, during a late brittle-ductile deformation event which affected the area at about 550 Ma. Gold-base metal mineralisation is associated with brecciation and fracturing of the iron ore bands, close to silicified shears and related quartz veins. The auriferous quartz lodes are characterised by the occurrence of visible pyrite-chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± sphalerite ± galena mineralisation. Gold is refractory in pyrite and chalcopyrite, but rare visible gold/electrum and telluride specks were observed in a few samples. Hydrothermal alteration includes pervasive silicification, pyritisation, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins and altered shears, and a more widespread propylitic alteration assemblage (quartz + chlorite + pyrite + calcite ± epidote). Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometric studies suggest heterogeneous trapping of a low-salinity (1.4-6.7 wt.% eq. NaCl) aqueous solution and a carbonic fluid. Evidence for fluid immiscibility during ore formation includes variable liquid/vapour ratios in inclusions along individual trails and bulk inclusion homogenisation into liquid and occasionally to vapour at comparable temperatures. The trapping conditions of intragranular aqueous-carbonic inclusions approximate 264-378 °C at 700-1300 bar. Similar temperature estimates have been obtained from Al

  8. Application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Elemental Characterization of Wadi El-Nakhil Alabaster, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Zain M. Alamoudi; A. El-Taher

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful technique for trace element determination in rocks. Nine alabaster samples were collected from Wadi El-Nakhil located at the intersection of lat. 26°10′50′′N and long. 34°03′40′′E, central Eastern Desert, Egypt, for investigation by INAA and Energy Depressive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7 × 1011 n/cm2·s. Twenty-two elements were...

  9. Genetic Affiliation of Gold and Uranium Mineralization in El-Missikat Granite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Ammar, F.A.; Omar, S.A.M.; El Sawey, El.H.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal El-Missikat granitic pluton is affected by two fault systems trending NW-SE (the oldest) and ENE-WSW directions. It is one of the uranium occurrences in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The northwestern margins of El-Missikat pluton, along its contact with the gneissose quartz diorite, are dissected by numerous reactivated fractured shear zones running generally ENE-WSW to NE-SW and dipping about 60°-70° to SE. Many white (oldest), smoky or black and jasperoid (youngest) silica veinlets fill the fractures of these shear zones. These veins are of irregular shape and variable thickness ranging from few centimeters to about three meters. They are chiefly affected by silicification, sericitization, hematitization , kaolinization and hydrothermal alterations processes. The smoky black veins are hosting secondary uranium and fluorite-, sulphide-gold mineralizations. Polished surface studies, ICP-ES and Atomic Absorption as well as Scanning Electron Microscope measurements recorded galena, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite and molybdenite in the black and jasperoid mineralized veins. Gold associated with ore mineral assemblage as pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, sheelite and iron oxides. The identified sulphide minerals not bearing gold are recorded. Gold are relatively coarse-grained, massive and metallic yellow or stretched bronze colored particles. The recorded secondary U minerals associates the sulphide gold-mineralization in the black and jasperoid silica veins. Regarding the mobility of both uranium and gold, U 4+ mobilized in oxidizing medium and migrate and transport as U 6+ , then deposited later as U 4+ when the medium changes to be reducing characterized by high /O 2 . On contrary, gold mobilized when the medium is complex AuCl 3- ion bearing. Consequently, El- Missikat granitic pluton affected by oxidizing Au and Cl 3- bearing high temperature hydrothermal solutions that leached U 4+ , W and Mo from the granitic mass as U 6 + , later decrease of

  10. Structural elements and incremental strain history of the basement rocks of Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Akawy, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt shows a regional stretching in the NW-SE and a contraction in the NE-SW direction. Major NW-SE folds, small recumbent folds, and local thrusts and reverse faults were recognized. Complicated relation between folds and boudinage was identified. This stretching amount ranges from 1.282 to 1.309. Earlier coaxial and later non-coaxial strains were inferred. The change from axial to non-coaxial stress regime was gradual and the latter was associated with minor clockwise and anticlockwise rotation of structural elements. During the non-coaxial strain, strain fringes were formed as a consequence of the high circulation of fluids in low temperature and high pressure conditions. Superimposed strain fringes indicating right- and left-lateral senses of movement were recognized. At least three generations of fringes were recognized, implying three stages of non-coaxial stretching. Each generation has about 15 increments which show irregular strain gradient and intensity over the different increments. Eastwards, the strain increments became mature and westwards, the finite strain increases. The strongest finite strain was found in a narrow belt delimiting the basement rocks on the west and underlying the Phanerozoic sediments. Chocolate-tablet structure was recorded and indicates later multidirectional tension. Not all Nubia Sandstone exposures are overlying the basement rocks and some are separated by NW-SE normal faults. Major NW-SE normal faults are cutting basement rocks of different ages. (author)

  11. Application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Elemental Characterization of Wadi El-Nakhil Alabaster, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Zain M. Alamoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA is a powerful technique for trace element determination in rocks. Nine alabaster samples were collected from Wadi El-Nakhil located at the intersection of lat. 26°10′50′′N and long. 34°03′40′′E, central Eastern Desert, Egypt, for investigation by INAA and Energy Depressive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF. The samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7 × 1011 n/cm2·s. Twenty-two elements were determined, namely, As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Sc, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, U, Zn, Zr, Lu, Ce, Sm, La, Yb, and Eu. The chemical analysis of alabaster indicated having high contents of CaO and MgO and LOI and low contents of SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, MnO, and Fe2O3.

  12. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  13. Thrusting and transpressional shearing in the Pan-African nappe southwest El-Sibai core complex, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    El-Wahed, Mohamed A. Abd.

    2008-01-01

    The Wadi El-Shush area in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt is occupied by the Sibai core complex and its surrounding Pan-African nappe complex. The sequence of metamorphic and structural events in the Sibai core complex and the enveloping Pan-African nappe can be summarized as follows: (1) high temperature metamorphism associated with partial melting of amphibolites and development of gneissic and migmatitic rocks, (2) between 740 and 660 Ma, oblique island arc accretion resulted in Pan-African nappe emplacement and the intrusion of syn-tectonic gneissic tonalite at about 680 ± 10 Ma. The NNW-SSE shortening associated with oblique island arc accretion produced low angle NNW-directed thrusts and open folds in volcaniclastic metasediments, schists and isolated serpentinite masses (Pan-African nappe) and created NNE-trending recumbent folds in syn-tectonic granites. The NNW-SSE shortening has produced imbricate structures and thrust duplexes in the Pan-African nappe, (3) NE-ward thrusting which deformed the Pan-African nappe into SW-dipping imbricate slices. The ENE-WSW compression event has created NE-directed thrusts, folded the NNW-directed thrusts and produced NW-trending major and minor folds in the Pan-African nappe. Prograde metamorphism (480-525 °C at 2-4.5 kbar) was synchronous with thrusting events, (4) retrograde metamorphism during sinistral shearing along NNW- to NW-striking strike-slip shear zones (660-580 Ma), marking the external boundaries of the Sibai core complex and related to the Najd Fault System. Sinistral shearing has produced steeply dipping mylonitic foliation and open plunging folds in the NNW- and NE-ward thrust planes. Presence of retrograde metamorphism supports the slow exhumation of Sibai core complex under brittle-ductile low temperature conditions. Arc-accretion caused thrusting, imbrication and crustal thickening, whereas gravitational collapse of a compressed and thickened lithosphere initiated the sinistral movement

  14. Geology of wadi atalla - el missikat area, eastern desert, egypt.

    El Kassas, I. A. [ابراهيم علي القصاص; Bakhit, F. S.

    1989-01-01

    Wadi Atalla-El Missikat area covers about 2,000 Km2 in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, between latitudes 26° 10' and 26° 40' N, and longitudes 33° 15' and 33° 40' E. The area is mainly formed of basement complex except its extreme south-western corner where it is covered by foreland sediments of Nubian sandstone. The area is structurally complicated where it has been subjected to various stages of successive tectonic movements since the Precambrian times. The basement complex in the stud...

  15. Measurement of natural radioactivity in granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    M.A.M. Uosif

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt were measured by using γ-ray spectroscopy [NaI (Tl 3″ × 3″]. X-Ray Fluorescence technique was used for chemical analyses of the studied samples. The specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K values are in range (3 ± 0.5 to 43 ± 2 Bqkg−1, (5 ± 0.7 to 41 ± 2 Bqkg−1 and (128 ± 6 to 682 ± 35 Bqkg−1 respectively. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 13.8 to 58.4 nGy h−1, where the total effective dose rates were determined to be between 16.7 and 70.9 μSvy−1. The maximum external hazard index (Hex is 0.3 nGyh−1. The calculated values of the excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR and annual effective dose rate values are in between (8.48 × 10−5 and 2.63 × 10−4 and (24.2 and 72.9 μSvy−1 respectively. Geochemically, the studied granites consist of major oxides, they are characterized by SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3, and depleted in CaO, MgO, TiO2, and P2O5. The average absorbed dose rate (Do in air is 37.8 nGyh−1 for the whole studied samples, this value is about 3.78% of the 1.0 mSvy−1 recommended by (ICRP-60,1991 to the public, so there is no radiological risk for the workers in that area.

  16. Application of kinematic vorticity and gold mineralization for the wall rock alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mining, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.; El Nashar, EL Said R.; AL Kahtany, Kaled M.

    2016-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in wall rocks alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mine. Furthermore, it shows the relationship between the gold mineralization and deformation and also detects the orientation of rigid objects during progressive deformation. The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. The kinematic vorticity number for the metavolcanic and metasedimentary samples in the Dungash area range from 0.80 to 0.92, and together with the strain data suggest deviations from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the underthrusting event probably by brittle imbrication and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure during thrusting. Furthermore, we conclude that disseminated mineralization, chloritization, carbonatization and silicification of the wall rocks are associated with fluids migrating along shearing, fracturing and foliation of the metamorphosed wall rocks.

  17. Finite strain analysis of metavolcanics and metapyroclastics in gold-bearing shear zone of the Dungash area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.

    2014-11-01

    The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures, which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. Field geology, finite strain and microstructural analyses were carried out and the relation-ships between the lithological contacts and major/minor structures have been studied. The R f/ϕ and Fry methods were applied on the metavolcano-sedimentary and metapyroclastic samples from 5 quartz veins samples, 7 metavolcanics samples, 3 metasedimentary samples and 4 metapyroclastic samples in Dungash area. Finite-strain data show that a low to moderate range of deformation of the metavolcano-sedimentary samples and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.70 to 4.80 for the R f/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.50 for the Fry method. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. Furthermore, the contact between principal rock units is sheared in the Dungash area under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. In this case, the accumulated finite strain is associated with the deformation during thrusting to assemble nappe structure. It indicates that the sheared contacts have been formed during the accumulation of finite strain.

  18. Biology of the Central Desert of Oman

    GHAZANFAR, Shahina A

    2004-01-01

    A biological survey of the central desert of Oman was done using long distance transects. Vegetation was sparse and consisted of 200+ plant species, 22 species of mammals, 17 species of reptiles and amphibians, and more than 50 species of birds (migratory and resident). Three main vegetation types were identified based on ground substrate and the dominance of species. These were communities with Acacia Willd., Zygophyllum L., and open woodlands of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce. Over-grazing a...

  19. Central and eastern European activities

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  20. Vegetation - Central Mojave Desert [ds166

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Department of Defense and the other desert managers are developing and organizing scientific information needed to better manage the natural resources of the...

  1. Data measured on water collected from eastern Mojave Desert, California

    Rose, Tim P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    In March of 2000 field collection of water from the Eastern Mojave Desert resulted in the measurement of stable isotope, radiocarbon, tritium, and limited dissolved noble gases. This work was follow-on to previous studies on similar systems in southern Nevada associated with the Nevada Test Site (Davisson et al., 1999; Rose and Davisson, 2003). The data for groundwater from wells and springs was never formally published and is therefore tabulated in Table 1 in order to be recorded in public record. In addition 4 years of remote precipitation data was collected for stable isotopes and is included in Table 2. These studies, along with many parallel and subsequent ones using isotopes and elemental concentrations, are all related to the general research area of tracing sources and quantifying transport times of natural and man-made materials in the environment. This type of research has direct relevance in characterizing environmental contamination, understanding resource development and protection, designing early detection in WMD related terrorism, and application in forensics analysis.

  2. Flotation of beryl from milky white quartz veins of Igla area, eastern desert of egypt

    Abdel Monem, H.M.; Aly, M.M.; Abdel Aty, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Several milky white quartz veins and lenses occur at the Igla area of the central eastern desert. These veins are beryl-bearing and are introduced into breociated rhyolite and porphyritic dolerites as country rock. An effort has been made to up-grade such a low-grade ore material and therefore a head sample assaying about o.28% Be O was prepared. Flotation technique using sodium alkyl-aryl sulfonate as a collector has proven most satisfactory for separating beryl grains at ph value less than 3.5. indeed, a best recovery exceeding 90% Be O could be obtained by adding an activator of some metal chlorides; viz Fe Cl 3 , and Pb Cl 2 and Ca Cl 2 at various PH value. The study has made possible the elaboration of a proposed flow sheet whereby a beryl concentrate assaying 9.35% Be o was obtained with an overall recovery of about 93%

  3. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Conte, Pierfranco

    2016-01-01

    In Central and Western Europe, cancer mortality is declining at slower rates as compared with rates in the rest of the world. More than a generation has now passed since the end of nonmarket economies in Central and Eastern Europe. It is time for this area of the continent to close the gap in cancer incidence and mortality rates between it and Western Europe and other high-income areas of the world.

  5. Orbital radar studies of paleodrainages in the central Namib Desert

    Lancaster, N.; Schaber, G.G.; Teller, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Orbital radar images of the central Namib Desert show clearly the extent of relict fluvial deposits associated with former courses of the Tsondab and Kuiseb rivers. South of the Kuiseb River, radar data show the existence of a drainage network developed in calcrete-cemented late Tertiary fluvial deposits. The sand-filled paleovalleys are imaged as radar-dark tones in contrast to the radar-bright interfluves where the calcreted gravels occur. The drainage network developed as a result of local runoff from indurated gravels and channeled surface and subsurface flow to the sites of the many interdune lacustrine deposits found in the area. (C) Elsevier Science Inc., 2000.Orbital radar images of the central Namib Desert show clearly the extent of relict fluvial deposits associated with former courses of the Tsondab and Kuiseb rivers. South of the Kuiseb River, radar data show the existence of a drainage network developed in calcrete-cemented late Tertiary fluvial deposits. The sand-filled paleovalleys are imaged as radar-dark tones in contrast to the radar-bright interfluves where the calcreted gravels occur. The drainage network developed as a result of local runoff from indurated gravels and channeled surface and subsurface flow to the sites of the many interdune lacustrine deposits found in the area.

  6. Desert tortoise use of burned habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert

    Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires burned 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native annual grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use burned and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, burned habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering burned habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained burned habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% burned). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into burned habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in burned habitats that had abundant annual plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes burned areas declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the burned areas. Health and egg production were similar between burned and unburned areas indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both areas. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat burned once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this burned habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss.

  7. Palynology in a polar desert, eastern North Greenland

    Funder, Svend Visby; Abrahamsen, Niels

    1988-01-01

    history back to c. 7,000 years calBP (6,000 years convBP) in this·extreme environment, which presents the coldest thermal regime where vascular plants can grow. The diagram shows that polar desert developed from sparse high arctic tundra at c. 4,300 years calBP (3,900 years convBP), owing...... to reduced summer heat. Also adjacent parts of high arctic Greenland, Canada and Svalbard suffered environmental decline, and polar deserts- presently restricted to a narrow fringe of land at the shores of the Arctic Ocean-were even more restricted before this time. Like other arctic vegetation types, polar...... desert is highly sensitive to summer temperatures, and its southern limit coincides with the isotherm for mean July temperatures of 3.5'C, A comparison with the Northwest European ice-age pollen record shows no evidence of summers as cold as those now prevailing in the extreme north, and the results...

  8. Deserts

    Belnap, Jayne; Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd; Brooks, Matthew L.; DeFalco, Lesley; MacMahon, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The deserts of California (Lead photo, Fig. 1) occupy approximately 38% of California’s landscape (Table 1) and consist of three distinct deserts: the Great Basin Desert, Mojave Desert, and Colorado Desert, the latter of which is a subdivision of the Sonoran Desert (Brown and Lowe 1980). The wide range of climates and geology found within each of these deserts result in very different vegetative communities and ecosystem processes and therefore different ecosystem services. In deserts, extreme conditions such as very high and low temperatures and very low rainfall result in abiotic factors (climate, geology, geomorphology, and soils) controlling the composition and function of ecosystems, including plant and animal distributions. This is in contrast to wetter and milder temperatures found in other ecosystems, where biotic interactions are the dominant driving force. However, despite the harsh conditions in deserts, they are home to a surprisingly large number of plants and animals. Deserts are also places where organisms display a wide array of adaptations to the extremes they encounter, providing some of the best examples of Darwinian selection (MacMahon and Wagner 1985, Ward 2009). Humans have utilized these regions for thousands of years, despite the relatively low productivity and harsh climates of these landscapes. Unlike much of California, most of these desert lands have received little high-intensity use since European settlement, leaving large areas relatively undisturbed. Desert landscapes are being altered, however, by the introduction of fire following the recent invasion of Mediterranean annual grasses. As most native plants are not fire-adapted, they Many do not recover, whereas the non-native grasses flourish. Because desert lands are slow to recover from disturbances, energy exploration and development, recreational use, and urban development will alter these landscapes for many years to come. This chapter provides a brief description of where the

  9. Percolation leaching and uranium recovery of El erediya granitic rocks, eastern desert, Egypt

    Abdel Monem, H.M.; Ali, M.M.; Hassan, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    El erediya uranium occurrence is located in the vicinity of qena-safaga road, central eastern desert. A bulk head sample of about 50 kg was prepared for this study. mineralogically, uranophane is the essential uranium mineral identified in the studied bulk head sample. It occurs as yellow flakes and acicular grains filling fractures, whereas the gangue minerals are mainly composed of quartz, altered potash feldspar, and minor plagioclase. The head sample assays as 74.36% SiO 2 , 13.81% Al 2 O 3 and 0.091% U. Percolation leaching utilizing H 2 SO 4 was performed at a fairly low Ph value. The examined factors include Ph of the leach solution, the grain size beside the duration time. More than 97% leaching of the uranium was reported after percolating the leach solution for 6 weeks at ph 1.4. Thus it could be possible to produce a pregnant leach solution assaying more than 1.2 g U/L by using a multi-stage leaching system. For recovering uranium, tri-octyl-phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene was found to be the most powerful U-extractant. Good U-distribution coefficient (E) of 103 has been obtained with 0.1 M TOPO in the presence of 0.1 M HNO 3

  10. Prospecting for the ferromagnetic mineral accumulations using the magnetic method at the Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Rabeh, Taha

    2009-01-01

    In this study we delineate the subsurface structures within an area of about 145 000 km 2 in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt (CED), using magnetic methods. The main goal is to establish the tectonic framework of the study area and to understand the role of tectonics in the mineralization process. Aeromagnetic data covering the study area were used, and also detailed land magnetic surveys were carried out along profiles. More than 300 rock samples were collected for laboratory measurements of magnetic susceptibility. The data set was processed using a series of techniques, namely trend analysis, 3D Euler deconvolution, Werner deconvolution and 2.5 direct modelling. Results indicate that the most predominant tectonic trends are E–W, N15°–25°W and N45°W. The depth to the basement estimates range from the surface to 1.8 km. These results agree with the drilled well data. The measured magnetic susceptibility values range between 0.0001 SI and 5 SI. The high susceptibility values strongly suggest that ferromagnetic minerals accompany the mafic metavolcanics along the shear zones at Barramiya, Hafafit, Dawi and Abu Swayel. We show a good correlation between the structures deduced from the magnetic analysis and the known mineral distributions. Most of these ore accumulations are restricted to the major tectonic shear zones with a NW–SE direction. We conclude that mineralization is structurally controlled by faulting, probably as a result of hydrothermal circulation along fault planes

  11. Genetic diversity in the desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus delameri) population of eastern Africa

    Muwanika, Vincent B.; Kock, Richard; Masembe, Charles

    2012-01-01

    in a population of the desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) sampled from 12 localities in its natural range in eastern Africa. From the total sample (30 individuals), at the six microsatellite loci that were analysed, a total of 43 alleles was observed averaging seven alleles per locus. Expected...... heterozygosity (HE) per locus was high, ranging from 0.53 to 0.87. At the mitochondrial loci, nucleotide diversity was low (p = 0.12%) with two unique haplotypes observed from the 19 individuals that amplified successfully. The diversity indices observed in the desert warthog are comparable to those previously...... reported for the closely related but widespread species, the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus). These results suggest that the desert warthog is not genetically depauperate despite the rinderpest epidemic of the 1880s that eliminated it from most of its natural range....

  12. Nuclear insurance in Central and Eastern Europe

    Warren, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry. These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)

  13. Soil seed bank in different habitats of the Eastern Desert of Egypt.

    Gomaa, Nasr H

    2012-04-01

    The floristic composition and species diversity of the germinable soil seed bank were studied in three different habitats (desert salinized land, desert wadi, and reclaimed land) in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Moreover, the degree of similarity between the seed bank and the above-ground vegetation was determined. The seed bank was studied in 40 stands representing the three habitats. Ten soil samples (each 25 × 20 cm and 5 cm depth) were randomly taken per stand. The seed bank was investigated by the seedling emergence method. Some 61 species belonging to 21 families and 54 genera were identified in the germinable seed bank. The recorded species include 43 annuals and 18 perennials. Ordination of stands by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) indicates that the stands of the three habitats are markedly distinguishable and show a clear pattern of segregation on the ordination planes. This indicates variations in the species composition among habitats. The results also demonstrate significant associations between the floristic composition of the seed bank and edaphic factors such as CaCO3, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture. The reclaimed land has the highest values of species richness, Shannon-index of diversity and the density of the germinable seed bank followed by the habitats of desert wadi and desert salinized land. Motyka's similarity index between the seed bank and the above-ground vegetation is significantly higher in reclaimed land (75.1%) compared to desert wadi (38.4%) and desert salinized land (36.5%).

  14. Genetic Aspects of Gold Mineralization at Some Occurrences in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Abd El Monsef, M.; Slobodník, M.; Salem, I. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Eastern Desert of Egypt is well known as a gold-mining area since ancient times, there're more than 95 gold deposits and occurrences spread the whole area covered by the basement rocks of Precambrian age. The basement rocks of the Eastern Desert of Egypt constitute the Nubian Shield that has formed a continuous part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield before the opening of Red Sea (Oligocene-Early Miocene). Commonly, the system of gold-bearing quartz veins in the Eastern Desert is clearly structural controlled related to brittle-ductile shear zones that mostly developed during late deformational stages of the evolution history for basement rocks in the Eastern Desert. This running study principally aims to contribute the mineral resource potential of the gold deposits in Egypt, so particularly Fatira, Gidami and Atalla occurrences have been involved into a comprehensive study based on field, structural, mineralogical, geochemical and genetic investigations. It is intended to better understanding for the characteristics, distribution controls, conditions and age of mineralization in relation to the age of the hosting rocks intrusion to find if there're genetic links between the gold mineralization and the evolution of the host intrusive complex. Several authors suggested that the gold mineralization was related to the intrusion of the (postorogenic) Younger granites. Other authors interpret these deposits as products of hydrothermal activity induced either by metamorphism or cooling effects of early Paleozoic magmatism or as combined metamorphic/magmatic episodes. The prime focus will be directed to the ore itself and the associated hydrothermal alteration zones based on detailed maps and well-distributed samples network and geochemical anomalies distribution. The laboratory studies included microscopic examination (reflecting and transmitting microscopy) to allow for determination of the hosting rocks types and mineralogical changes related to the gold mineralization

  15. Leaching characteristics of Wadi Belih uraniferous Hammamat sediments,eastern desert,Egypt

    Mahdy, M.A.; EL-Hazek, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    This work deals with the direct chemical treatment of Wadi Belih uraniferous ore material using the agitation leaching technique. The study ore is mainly localized in siltstones belonging to the Hammamat sediments situated in the northern part of the eastern desert. The uranium mineral in the ore are mainly represented by the silicate mineral uranophane, the vanadate mineral tyuyamunite and to a laser extent the sulphate mineral shroekingerite, both acid (sulphuric acid) alkaline (sodium carbonate and bicarbonate) leaching methods have been applied beside sodium and ferric chlorides. The latter leaching reagents are greatly beneficial in removing radium together with uranium, a matter which is greatly important for environmental concerns

  16. Sediment grain-size characteristics and relevant correlations to the aeolian environment in China's eastern desert region.

    Zhang, Chunlai; Shen, Yaping; Li, Qing; Jia, Wenru; Li, Jiao; Wang, Xuesong

    2018-06-15

    To identify characteristics of aeolian activity and the aeolian environment in China's eastern desert region, this study collected surface sediment samples from the main desert and sandy lands in this region: the Hobq Desert and the Mu Us, Otindag, Horqin, and Hulunbuir sandy lands. We analyzed the grain-size characteristics and their relationships to three key environmental indicators: drift potential, the dune mobility index, and vegetation cover. The main sediment components are fine to medium sands, with poor (Hulunbuir) to moderate (all other areas) sorting, of unimodal to bimodal distribution. This suggests that improved sorting is accomplished by the loss of both relatively coarser and finer grains. Since 2000, China's eastern desert region has generally experienced low wind energy environmental conditions, resulting in decreased dune activity. In the Hobq Desert, however, the dry climate and sparse vegetation, in conjunction with the most widely distributed mobile dune area in the eastern desert region, have led to frequent and intense aeolian activity, including wind erosion, sand transport, and deposition, resulting in conditions for good sediment sorting. In the Mu Us, Otindag, and Horqin sandy lands, mosaic distribution has resulted from wind erosion-dominated and deposition-dominated aeolian environments. In the Hulunbuir Sandy Land, high precipitation, low temperatures, and steppe vegetation have resulted in well-developed soils; however, strong winds and flat terrain have created an aeolian environment dominated by wind erosion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Berglund, T.; Hanousek, Jan; Mramor, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2006), s. 280-282 ISSN 1566-0141. [ Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries. Prague, 26.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial markets * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  18. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznan, Poland

    Gadher, S. J.; Marczak, L.; Luczak, M.; Stobiecki, M.; Widlak, P.; Kovářová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-7 ISSN 1478-9450. [Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) /9./. Poznaň, 15.06.2015-18.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Central and Eastern Proteomic Conference * proteomics * mass spectrometry imaging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.849, year: 2016

  19. Biology of larks (Aves: Alaudidae) in the central Namib Desert ...

    The biology of six species of larks in the Namib Desert near Walvis Bay, South West Africa, was studied in 1964, 1965 and 1966. 2. All species reproduced following rainfall in summer and autumn months, with the appearance of green grass and abundant insects on which the birds fed. 3. The primarily insectivorous species ...

  20. Nannobiostrat1graphy Of The Late Cretaceous Paleocene Succession In Esh El-Mallaha Range, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    El Dawoddy, Ahmed Sami [احمد سامي الداودي

    1990-01-01

    This paper emphasis the biostratigraphic significance of thirty nannofossil species recorded from the Maestrichtian - Paleocene succession in Esh El-Mellaha Range, Eastern Desert, Egypt. These species participated in making up three nannobiostratigraphic zones, arranged from top to base as follows: 3. Discoaster multiradiatus Zone (Late Paleocene) 2. Lithraphidites quadratus Zone (Maestrichtian) 1. Arkhangelskiella cymbitormis Zone (Maestrichtian) In comparison with the planktonic foram...

  1. Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe

    2001-04-01

    Nuclear safety is one of the critical issues with respect to the enlargement of the European Union towards the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of the enlargement process, the European Commission overall strategy on nuclear safety matters has been to bring the general standard of nuclear safety in the pre-accession countries up to a level that would be comparable to the safety levels in the countries of the European Union. In this context, the primary objective of the project was to develop a common format and general guidance for the evaluation of the current nuclear safety status in countries that operate commercial nuclear power plants. Therefore, one of the project team first undertakings was to develop an approach that would allow for a consistent and comprehensive overview of the nuclear safety status in the CEEC, enabling an equal treatment of the countries to be evaluated. Such an approach, which did not exist, should also ensure identification of the most important safety issues of the individual nuclear power plants. The efforts resulted in the development of the ''Performance Evaluation Guide'', which focuses on important nuclear safety issues such as plant design and operation, the practice of performing safety assessments, and nuclear legislation and regulation, in particular the role of the national regulatory body. Another important aspect of the project was the validation of the Performance Evaluation Guide (PEG) by performing a preliminary evaluation of nuclear safety in the CEEC, namely in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. The nuclear safety evaluation of each country was performed as a desktop exercise, using solely available documents that had been prepared by various Western institutions and the countries themselves. Therefore, the evaluation is only of a preliminary nature. The project did not intend to re-assess nuclear safety, but to focus on a comprehensive summary

  2. Geomorphologic and geologic overview for water resources development: Kharit basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Mosaad, Sayed

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic assessment as an efficient approach for water resources development in the Kharit watershed. Kharit is one of largest watersheds in the Eastern Desert that lacks water for agricultural and drinking purposes, for the nomadic communities. This study aims to identify and evaluate the geomorphologic, geologic and hydrogeologic conditions in the Kharit watershed relative to water resource development using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results reveal that the watershed contains 15 sub-basins and morphometric analyses show high probability for flash floods. These hazards can be managed by constructing earth dikes and masonry dams to minimize damage from flash floods and allow recharge of water to shallow groundwater aquifers. The Quaternary deposits and the Nubian sandstone have moderate to high infiltration rates and are relatively well drained, facilitating surface runoff and deep percolation into the underlying units. The sediments cover 54% of the watershed area and have high potential for groundwater extraction.

  3. Characteristics and significance of uranium bearing pan african younger granite in the eastern desert, Egypt

    Hassan, M.A.; Dabbour, G.A.; Mohammden, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    Surficial uranium mineralization was discovered in four pan african younger granite plutons in the eastern desert of egypt. The present study revealed great similarity between these plutons both in petrography and geochemistry. They are two-feldspar, two-mica peraluminous granites which have been formed by melting of crustal materials and emplaced during the late stage stage of a late proterozoic orogenic cycle. Radiometric and geochemical investigations indicate that these granites are fertile with respect to U and form a potential target for primary uranium deposits. Four models are suggested to explain the source and mechanism of the surficial uranium mineralization in these granites. The most applicable model is the oxidation of U +4 found in minute disseminated uraninite grains and its subsequent mobilization. This is supported by petrographic and autoradiographic studies. The bearings of the present study on further exploration for uranium deposits in granites of the arabian- Nubian shield in general are discussed

  4. Leachability Of The Rare Earth Elements From G-II Occurrence, Gabal Gattar, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Kamal, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gabal Gattar area is one of the most promising uranium mineralization occurrence located in the north eastern desert of Egypt at the intersection of latitude 27° 7' 30'' N and longitude 33° 17' 5'' E covering about 2 km 2 . The hydrothermal alterations of Gabal Gattar granitic mass at G-II occurrence exhibited an increase in Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mo, Nb, Rb and HREE. The sample from G-II occurrence was subjected to extraction of rare earth elements (REE) through both leaching and precipitation processes. The optimum leaching conditions were found to be: 40 g/l HNO 3 acid, 12 hours contact time, 1:2 ore / acid ratio, -60 mesh grain size and 25°C which give REE leaching efficiency of about 97%. REE were directly precipitated using sodium hydroxide where REE hydroxide was obtained.

  5. Petrographic and mineralogical features of the uraniferous pink granites in the north eastern desert of egypt

    Atawiya, M.Y.; Salman, A.B.; El-Bayyomi, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of some uranium bearing younger granites in the north eastern desert of egypt particularly Gebel Gattar area. The area around Gebel Gattar comprises the following rock units (starting from the oldest): meta volcanic, diorite-grano-diorite complex- Dokhan volcanics- Hammamat sediments, younger granites and dykes. The most significant structural features are represented by NNE-ENE dominantly trending faults and joints. Petrographicaly, the pink granites are divided into normal and mineralized (uraniferous) granites. Normal granites are classified into three types; a) leucocratic perthitic granite, b) hornblende- biotite perthitic granite and c) two feldspars perthitic granite. Mineralized granites are sheared, deformed, pinkish brown in colour and strongly altered. A remarkable secondary uranium mineralization has been recorded along fault and fracture zones

  6. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  7. Environmental Studies of Natural Radioactivity at Nugrus -Sikait Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Sroor, A.; EI-Shershaby, A.; EI- Bahi, S.; Ali, N.; Ibrahim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven representative samples were collected from two locations; Wadi Nugrus and Wadi Sikait, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. The area is characterized by abnormal radioactivity and has several archaeological sites (Sikait Temple). Emerald mining is a wide spread activity since Pharonic times at Sikait - Nugrus area. The concentration of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K) are measured in all the rock samples by two techniques (HpGe detector and NaI(TI) detector). The Ra e q, and H e x for all samples are also determined. A comparative study between NaI and HpGe- detectors were carried out. The present work indicated that the equilibrium/disequilibrium ratios by using HpGe detector are more precise than that of Nal detectors. The radioactivity at Wadi Nugrus is higher than Wadi Sikait and also higher than the permissible level

  8. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  9. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  10. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  11. Relation between uranium mineralization and structural features, Gebel Gattar, north eastern desert, Egypt

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Abuzaid, M.M.; Ragab, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gebel Gattar area is situated in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt, SW Hurghada city and is considered as an area of high potentialities for uranium deposits. The area is covered by Hammamat sediments and Gattarian granites. The Hammamat sediments are dissected by different types of dykes, while Gebel Gattar granites are cut only by basic dykes. These granites are mentioned as the younger pink granites, perthitic leucogranites, calc-alkaline and within plate granites. The structural deformations of the study area are represented by primary structures and secondary ones. The most prevailing structures are folding, faulting and jointing. The faults, especially those trending in the NNE-SSW and N-S directions played as pass ways to the ascending uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions carrying uranium mineralizations. Most of them are located within a large pull apart basin. It is found from the relation between structures and uranium mineralization within the highly pro missing shear zones that uranium mineralizations are located within a large pull-apart basin, having about 2 km length and 0.5 km width. This idea is based up on the distribution of uranium mineralized lenses as shown in a block diagram. This conclusion is based on the structural framework of the area, the shape of mineralization and its distribution and their mutual relationships of Gl, Gll and GVl shear zones

  12. Occupational Exposures during the U-Exploration Activities at Seila Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Abdel-Razek, Y.A.; Masoud, M.S.; Hanfi, M.Y.; El-Nagdy, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty trenches distributed over a shear zone at Seila area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt were chosen to study the occupational exposures during the U-exploration activities in these trenches. The average value of the activity concentration of "2'3"8 U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K in the studied granites are 866 , 57 and 1380 Bq.kg"-"1 respectively. These values are higher than the worldwide average of 33, 45 and 412 Bq/kg. According to these activity concentrations , trenches are divided into the non-regulated and regulated categories. The average value of the annual effective dose due to the terrestrial radionuclides is 0.306 mSv for the non-regulated trenches and 0.958 mSv for the regulated trenches corresponding to the absorbed dose rate 219 nGy.h"-"1 for the non-regulated trenches and 684 nGy.h"-"1 for the regulated trenches. The average measured annual effective dose for non-regulated and regulated trenches is 0.81 and 1.42 mSv respectively. This difference is ascribed to the geometry of the studied trenches. However, the total annual effective dose in the non-regulated and the regulated trenches is lower than the recommended value of 20 mSv

  13. Kinematic analysis of the Migif area in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Kassem, Osama M. K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in penetratively deformed rocks. The kinematic vorticity number determined for high temperature mylonitic gneisses in the Migif area in the Eastern Desert of Egypt range from ∼0.6 to 0.9. The results from vorticity and strain analyses indicate that deformation in the area deviated from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the thrusting event, probably by brittle imbrications, and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure at high-pressure as shown by a penetrative subhorizontal foliation is developed subparallel to the tectonic contacts with the under- and overlying nappes. The accumulation of ductile strain during underplating was not by simple shear but involved a component of vertical shortening, which caused the subhorizontal foliation in the Migif area. In most cases, this foliation was formed during thrusting of the nappes onto each other, suggesting that nappe stacking was associated with vertical shortening.

  14. Contribution to the radioactivity of Um Ara granitic pluton, south-eastern desert, Egypt

    El Reedy, M.W.; Kamel, A.F.; Mansour, S.E.I.

    1988-01-01

    Um Ara area lies in the southern part of the eastern desert between latitudes 22 0 30' and 22 0 41'N and longitudes 33 0 46' and 33 0 54'E. Several types of granitic varieties ranging from high silica granite (SiO 2 >75%) to low silica granite (SiO 2 68-70%) occur in Um Ara granitic pluton. Surface samples were collected from the high anomalous locations in the pluton together with trenches samples (about 50cm in depth). The U content in the surface samples ranges from 69 to 7 ppm while in trenches samples, it ranges from 38 to 759 ppm. The thorium content on the other hand ranges from 34 to 402 ppm in surface samples and from 158 to 316 ppm in trenches samples. Some samples show no Th contents. The Th/U ratios ranges from 0.065 to 3.137 in surface samples and from 0.386 to 2.590 in trenches samples. An enrichment of U content is the main feature characterising this granitic pluton, it is mainly connected with the fractured zones. Uranium is mostly present as secondary U mineralization accompanied by Fe, Mn and to some extent by carbonate materials. A hydrothermal origin could be considered for this U mineralization in the pluton. Primary U mineralization (pitchblende) together with secondary mineralization was observed in some locations in the area disseminated in the granite, this reflects the syngenetic origin of this granitic type

  15. Aeromagnetometry and aeroradiometry of Gabal El Kahfa ring complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Meleik, M.L.; Ammar, A.A.; Fouad, K.M.; Rabie, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of Gabal El Kahfa ring complex, located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, has been ascertained from aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric survey data as well as by aerial photography. Two maps for the net aerial radiometric measurements reduced to ground level and aerial magnetic data corrected for the regional normal gradient of the earth's magnetic field have been constructed. The aeroradioactivity data have been interpreted geologically and analyzed statistically to outline various radiometric units and compute their characteristic statistics. The ring complex showed a circular radiometric feature and yielded a radiometric mean background and a standard deviation of 6.48 and 0.89 μR/h respectively. Besides, the observations showed a normal distribution. The aeromagnetic data have been reduced to the north magnetic pole, then filtered to produce the regional-and residual-component maps. Statistical trend analysis was conducted for the tectonic lineaments resulting from the three magnetic maps, to define the structural framework of the area under study. This statistical study proved the existence of trends in the east-west, northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest and north-south directions. The ring complex is characterized by a circular magnetic feature, whose average relief is 2150 nT. It is included within a high east-west trending magnetic zone. The latter represents a deep-seated uplift or anticline which is bordered from all sides by some faults of different trends. 14 refs., 14 figs

  16. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Assessment of Ground Water in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Atiti, S.Y.; Ali, M.M.; Yousef, L.A.; Dessouki, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The recharge rate is the most critical factor to ground water resources especially in semi- arid and arid areas. Fourteen representative ground water samples were collected from South Eastern Desert of Egypt and subjected to chemical and isotopic composition. The chemical data reported that, the alkalinity (ph) ranges between 6.5 and 8.5, the salinity of water ranges between 396 and 7874 ppm, sodium is the most dominant cation and chloride is the most dominant anion. The concentration of trace elements (Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mn) was analyzed to evaluate the suitability for drinking and irrigation. Uranium and thorium concentrations were found within the safe limit. Most of ground water was found suitable for drinking water, laundry, irrigation, building, industrial, livestock and poultry. The environmental stable isotopes (D and 18 O) and the radioactive isotope 3 H were evaluated for water samples of the investigated area to focus on the origin of the ground water, sources of recharging and the water rock interaction between aquifers and water. The isotopic compositions of these ground water samples indicated that, there are three different sources of recharge; paleo-water, local precipitation and rain water

  17. Prospects of the power industry in central and eastern Europe

    Dubslaff, E.; Tillmann, H.B.; Lehmann, R.; Denk, P.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the Central and Eastern European countries is dependent to a large extent on the development of their national power industry. Until 1990, the development of the power industry of these countries was comparable to that of East Germany. After presenting an assessment of the upgrading of the power station park and grid in East Germany, we outline, by means of examples, the current situation in several Central and Eastern European countries and particularly in Russia. We discuss both the status quo of liberalisation and privatisation efforts made in these countries and the development of European transmission grids. (orig.) [de

  18. MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND BANKING CONSOLIDATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Andreea Nicoleta Popovici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquisitions and mergers are the growth and expansion strategies that are commonly used by the companies in all over the world because of several reasons such as increasing the profit, sales and market share, entering into new markets, operating with economics of scale, coping with managerial problems and so on. This article underlines the characteristics of mergers and acquisitions (M&A, the different types of M&A, the challenges and opportunities for the banking system in Central and Eastern Europe and we analyze the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries.

  19. Vertisols (as paleosols) with its related gigants land cracks as a disaster in central Iran deserts

    Akhavan Ghalibaf, M.; Alhoseini Almodarresi, B. B. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuses the genesis of land cracks and land depression as one of the clayey desert futures in Central Iran. The origin of this future has been issued after downfall of ground water pressure. The clay mineralogy showed that the swelling clays of smectite groups (like as beidellite) as vertisols can be mainspring for this limitation future in Central Iran. It concluded that pedogenesis in the paleoclimates was effective to form these smectite groups of minerals in paleosoils of Yarzd, Central Iran. (Author) 6 refs.

  20. REGIONALIZATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE: OBSTACLES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Gyula Horváth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional policy depends on efficient administrative systems for designing and implementing strategies, and places considerable demands on Member States’ public administrations in terms of e.g. financial management and monitoring; project selection procedures; ex ante environmental impact assessments and cost-benefit analyses; and the monitoring and evaluation of outputs, results and impacts. EU member states have taken a range of different approaches to the administration of regional policy.The construction of regions in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe became one of the important debate topics for preparation for EU membership. Despite the numerous similarities in the changes that have taken place in the territorial structures of the Eastern and Central European countries, the differences in the responses individual countries gave to the challenges of regional development and the varied results of their development efforts demonstrate that the “Eastern European Bloc” is at least as heterogeneous as the former member states of the European Union. EU accession opened up a Pandora’s Box in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe. The fundamental issue of how unitarily structured states can be set on a decentralised path became the centre of debate. The paper introduces the Central and Eastern European achievements of region building processes and searches for an explanation of the reasons for the difficulties of Eastern and Central Europe in regional construction; it summarises the administrative and political development pre-requisites of the transition to a regional outline of the possible advantages of a regional institutional system in the creation of the Cohesion Policy ensuring a decrease in regional differences.

  1. The Neandertal extinction in eastern Central Europe

    Svoboda, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 137, - (2005), s. 69-75 ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Central Europe Neandertals * early modern humans * extinction Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.210, year: 2005

  2. Large-scale gravity sliding in the Miocene Shadow Valley Supradetachment Basin, Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    Davis, G. A.; Friedmann, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Miocene Shadow Valley basin in the eastern Mojave Desert of California developed above the active west-dipping Kingston Range-Halloran Hills extensional detachment fault system between 13.5 and ca. 7 mybp. Although mass-wasting processes are common phenomena in supradetachment basins, the Shadow Valley basin is an exceptional locale for the study of such processes, especially rock-avalanches and gravity sliding. A score of megabreccias, interpreted as rock-avalanche deposits, and half that number of very large (> 1 km 2, up to 200 m thick), internally intact gravity-driven slide sheets are interbedded with various sedimentary facies. The slide sheets, variably composed of Proterozoic crystalline rocks and Proterozoic, Paleozoic, and Tertiary sedimentary strata, moved across both depositional and erosional surfaces in the basin. Although the majority consist of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, the largest slide sheet, the Eastern Star crystalline allochthon, contains Proterozoic gneisses and their sedimentary cover and is now preserved as klippen atop Miocene lacustrine and alluvial fan deposits over an area > 40 km 2. Estimates of slide sheet runouts into the basin from higher eastern and northern source terranes range from approximately a few km to > 10 km; in most cases the exact provenances of the slide blocks are not known. The basal contacts of Shadow Valley slide sheets are characteristically knife sharp, show few signs of lithologic mixing of upper- and lower-plate rocks, and locally exhibit slickensided and striated, planar fault-like bases. Pronounced folding of overridden Miocene lacustrine and fan deposits beneath the Eastern Star allochthon extends to depths up to 40 m at widely scattered localities. We conclude that this slow moving slide sheet encountered isolated topographic asperities (hills) and that stress transfer across the basal slide surface produced folding of footwall strata. Synkinematic gypsum veins in footwall playa sediments, with fibers

  3. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  4. Scenarios for economy and environment in Central and Eastern Europe

    Bollen, J.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Maas, R.

    1993-01-01

    This draft report was produced within the framework of the Environmental Action Plant for Central and Eastern Europe on the request of the World Bank. A number of scenarios for this environment; Western Europe, Central Europe (the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary and Poland) and Eastern Europe (the former USSR) were developed. The environmental results related to scenarios applying future Western European techniques in future CEE (Environmental Action Plan for Central and Eastern Europe) investments were predicted - based on estimates of differences of energy efficiency and emission factors of techniques currently applied in CEE and Western Europe. The focus of the analysis is to reflect the effects on environmental quality in CEE assuming a gradual introduction of Western control technology. The results (in the form of maps, graphs and tables) of the analysis are given in detail, preceded by sections on socio-economic background and descriptions of scenarios and models. It is concluded that the main problem for Central and Eastern Europe will be to generate funds to restart economic growth after a difficult transition process. A more efficient use of energy should be encouraged and installations and industrial complexes should be retrofitted to help achieve this aim. Episodic peak concentrations of energy consumption should be reduced. (AB)

  5. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  6. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa ...

    The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Eastern and Central Africa ... Results: Only results that answer the objective(s) should be presented in a logical manner. ... Titles of table and figure titles should be descriptive enough to allow ...

  7. Evolving Privatization in Eastern and Central European Higher Education

    Levy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    With the fall of communism in 1989, Eastern and Central Europe would quickly become part of an already strong global tide of privatization in higher education. Nowhere else did private higher education rise so suddenly or strongly from virtual nonexistence to a major regional presence. A fresh database allows us to analyze the extent and…

  8. Assessing Child Welfare Outcomes in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Herczog, Maria

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need to examine effectiveness of services to children and families in central and eastern Europe, focusing on programs in Hungary. Notes that financial considerations and differences in objectives have increased the importance of outcomes measurement. Reports that the pilot implementation of "Looking After Children"…

  9. Relationship between climate and vegetation and the stable carbon isotope chemistry of soils in the eastern Mojave Desert, Nevada

    Amundson, R.G.; Chadwick, O.A.; Sowers, J.M.; Doner, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the stable C-isotope composition of the soil environment and modern climate and vegetation was determined empirically along a present-day climatic transect in the eastern Mojave Desert. The δ 13 C of the soil CO 2 and carbonates decreased with increasing elevation and plant density, even though plant assemblages at all elevations were isotopically similar. Several factors, including differences in the ratios of pedogenic of limestone calcite and differences in past vegetation, were considered as explanations of this trend, However, it appears that in the sparsely vegetated Mojave Desert, the δ 13 C of pedogenic carbonate is controlled by differences in plant density and biological activity. This relationship may provide a tool for assessing past vegetational densities, as long as the vegetation is isotopically homogeneous. (author)

  10. Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

    Alexandra Bitušíková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study brings an overview of selected transdisciplinary theoretical approaches to the study of urban movements and activism placed within the framework of civil society and social movements, focused on the region of Central and Eastern Europe, and seen from a social anthropological perspective. It attempts to challenge older academic writings that described civil society in Central and Eastern Europe as underdeveloped and weak, and presents research that points out a specific nature of activism in the countries of the region. It builds primarily on the concepts of civil society, social movements, urban movements and urban activism as presented by scholars both from “Western” and “Central and Eastern” European countries and demonstrates that after more than two decades since the fall of communism it is still important to take different historic, political, economic, social and cultural contexts into account when comparing urban movements and activism within Europe.

  11. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  12. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  13. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior to health......The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior......, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully...

  14. A simple formula for estimating global solar radiation in central arid deserts of Iran

    Sabziparvar, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last two decades, using simple radiation models has been an interesting task to estimate daily solar radiation in arid and semi-arid deserts such as those in Iran, where the number of solar observation sites is poor. In Iran, most of the models used so far, have been validated for a few specific locations based on short-term solar observations. In this work, three different radiation models (Sabbagh, Paltridge, Daneshyar) have been revised to predict the climatology of monthly average daily solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in various cities in central arid deserts of Iran. The modifications are made by the inclusion of altitude, monthly total number of dusty days and seasonal variation of Sun-Earth distance. A new height-dependent formula is proposed based on MBE, MABE, MPE and RMSE statistical analysis. It is shown that the revised Sabbagh method can be a good estimator for the prediction of global solar radiation in arid and semi-arid deserts with an average error of less than 2%, that performs a more accurate prediction than those in the previous studies. The required data for the suggested method are usually available in most meteorological sites. For the locations, where some of the input data are not reported, an alternative approach is presented. (author)

  15. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    Hornok, Sándor; Fedák, András; Baska, Ferenc; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Basso, Walter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. FINDINGS: Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region re...

  16. Corporate Finance and Restructuring: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe

    Köke, F. Jens; Salem, Tanja

    2000-01-01

    After the end of communism enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) were marked by low levels of labor productivity, mainly because of too high employment levels. According to economic theory, the corporate capital structure can be an important element in the restructuring process. But both, empirical evidence on corporate finance in CEE countries and its relation to employment is still sparse. This study describes the patterns of the corporate capital structure for ten CEE countries o...

  17. Locational Strategies of International Hotel Corporations in Eastern Central Europe

    Johnson, Colin; Dembinski, Paul; Vanetti, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated expansion strategies of international hotel operators in Eastern Central Europe. Due to the growing importance of services in economic development, there is an impressive body of knowledge on the process of internationalization and service industries. The last comprehensive academic study on internationalization and the hotel industry was undertaken at the beginning of the 1990’s, however, and we believed that with the major changes impacting upon the industry due to t...

  18. The changing nature of jobs in Central and Eastern Europe

    Lewandowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Job polarization can pose serious problems for emerging economies that rely on worker reallocation from low-skilled to middle-skilled jobs to converge toward advanced economies. Evidence from Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries shows that structural change and education expansion can prevent polarization, as they enable a shift from manual to cognitive work and prevent the “hollowing out” of middle-skilled jobs. However, in CEE countries they have also led to a high routine cognitive...

  19. VEIN-TYPE URANIUM MINERALIZATION IN THE EASTERN DESERT OF EGYPT

    M. M. Ghoneim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vein type uranium deposits where uranium minerals fill cavities veins, fractures, fissures, pore spaces, shear zone, breccia and stockworks in igneous, meta-sediments and metamorphic rocks are common source of uranium mineralization all over the wold. In Egypt, El-Erediya, El-Missikat and El Sela uranium mineralization occur in younger granite plutons in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These plutons are considered as good examples of intra-granitic vein-type uranium mineralization. The goal of this review article is to study the characteristics of granites and Th-U vein mineralization El Sela area. Main tasks are characteristics of vein type uranium mineralization in the world and Egypt, characteristics of ore-bearing intrusive rocks in the El Sela area, mineralogy of Th-U vein-type mineralization in El Sela area and secondary U and Th minerals in granites. Results. The article revealed that El Sela granite is a peraluminous, high-K Calc-Alkaline (HKCA granite. Two-mica leucogranitic pluton is considered the source rock of U-mineralization at El-Sela area, while the altered microgranite and dolerite dikes are good traps for these mineralizations. The reactivated faults system trending ENE-WSW and NNW-SSE make favorable condition to form uranium mineralization associated with polymetallic mineralization that are redeposited in the two mica granite, microgranite and dolerite dikes. The metallic mineral assemblages in the veins mainly consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and fluorite that are associated with primary (uraninite, coffinite and secondary U-mineralization (uranophane and autunite that occur either as disseminated clusters or as microfracture filling and coating joint surface. Five types of thorite-group minerals can be distinguished: thorite, Zr-rich thorite, phosphothorite, uranothorite and Zr-rich uranothorite. ThO2 content of uraninite vary from (1.1 to 3 wt.%, for PbO contents from 1.16 to 2.35 wt.%, P2O5 contents from

  20. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.

    2004-12-01

    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  1. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  2. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  3. Personal Bankruptcy Regulations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from Central and Eastern Europe are in different stages of development andimplementation of personal bankruptcy legislation. Austria has regulations comparable to those inWestern Europe, while the Czech Republic and Poland have recently developed regulationsregarding the bankruptcy of individuals. The solutions identified in countries that have followed asimilar path, namely the abandonment of a centrally planned economy and transition to afunctioning market economy, which consequently led to the problem of individual bankruptcy, canalso be applied selectively in Romania in the next period.

  4. Desert Dust and Health: A Central Asian Review and Steppe Case Study

    Troy Sternberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe. In the Gobi Desert, our case study in Khanbogd, Mongolia addressed large-scale mining’s potential dust risk to the health of the local population. Dust traps showed variable exposure to particulates among herder households and town residents; dust density distribution indicated that sources beyond the mine need to be considered when identifying particulate sources. Research suggests that atmospheric dust from multiple causes may enhance human particulate exposure. Greater awareness of dust in greater Central Asia reflects community concern about related health implications. Future human well-being in the region will require more thorough information on dust emissions in the changing environment.

  5. Desert Dust and Health: A Central Asian Review and Steppe Case Study.

    Sternberg, Troy; Edwards, Mona

    2017-11-03

    In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe. In the Gobi Desert, our case study in Khanbogd, Mongolia addressed large-scale mining's potential dust risk to the health of the local population. Dust traps showed variable exposure to particulates among herder households and town residents; dust density distribution indicated that sources beyond the mine need to be considered when identifying particulate sources. Research suggests that atmospheric dust from multiple causes may enhance human particulate exposure. Greater awareness of dust in greater Central Asia reflects community concern about related health implications. Future human well-being in the region will require more thorough information on dust emissions in the changing environment.

  6. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  7. Vegetation Analysis in the Red Sea-Eastern Desert Ecotone at the Area between Safaga and South Qusseir, Egypt

    Mohamed G. Sheded

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work is concerned with the studying the impact of environmental conditions on the vegetation in the arid ecotone located between Red Sea and Eastern Desert from Safaga to south Qusseir. Ninety eight quadrats inside 13 transects were selected to cover the environmental gradient across the ecotone, from the coastal region to the boundary of Eastern Desert. Forty five species were recorded belonged to 24 different families and 38 genera. The perennial species were 38 while the annuals were seven species. Zygophyllum coccineum had the highest presence value (89.8% followed by Tamarix nilotica (56.1% and Zilla spinosa (51.02%. Chamaephytes and Hemicryptophytes were the most prevailed life-forms. Chrological analysis exhibited that SaharoSindian and Sahro-Sindian with its extension to Sudano-Zambezian elements were the most dominant. TWINSPAN classification technique produced three vegetation groups include nine clusters at the fourth level. These groups identified according to the first and second dominant species as follows: Convolvulus hystrix - Panicum turgidum, Tamarix aphylla - Limonium pruinosum and Nitraria retusa - Tamarix nilotica. DECORANA results indicated a reasonable segregation among these groups along the ordination axis 1 and 2. Vegetation analysis showed that ecotonal clusters have highest number of species/cluster, high species richness and high species turnover. Therefore, the largest group existed in the ecotone (34 species while the desert group contained eight species and the coastal group included three species. Among the estimated soil variables in this study, pH, coarse sand, HCO3-, SO42- , clay and PO43- have the highest effect on species distribution. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR was the effective factor in detecting the ecotonal species, Aeluropus lagopoides and Limonium pruinosum.

  8. Energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - The first year

    1991-01-01

    The first stages of the energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - taking stock of the heritage of the past and conceptualizing the nature of reforms - were accomplished in 1990. While two countries - the USSR and Albania -introduced some market economy elements into central energy planning and basically maintained the latter, all other countries of central and eastern Europe opted for a replacement of central energy planning by market-oriented energy policies and practices. In those latter countries, a typical policy of market adaptation emerged consisting of a change of policies, institutions, economic instruments and relations. Differences in the conditions prevailing in the various countries resulted in the emergence of specific national ''models'' of market adaptation. The reforms, if successful, would imply: greater energy efficiency, reduced pollution, enhanced nuclear safety, a reduced impact on the climate, greater business opportunities, the closure of uneconomic capacities, a decline of coal production, a rise in unemployment; a rise of the energy trade dependence coupled with a rise of gas and oil imports; but practically no change of the net energy exports of the USSR. By the end of 1990 developed market economies agreed to co-ordinate assistance (within the ''Group of 24'') and determined the type and modalities of support. This support would enable and encourage the economies in transition to finalize reform, stimulate their practical implementation and address side effects (disinvestments, unemployment) and systematic risks (e.g. trade dependence) and opportunities (e.g. trade diversification). The business community and lending institutions would have to assess and support investments opportunities more actively. Intergovernmental organizations will play an important role in improving the conditions for business involvement. In 1990, the frameworks for energy reforms in central and eastern Europe, short term assistance, long term business

  9. Scenarios for economy and environment in Central and Eastern Europe

    Bollen, J.C.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Maas, R.J.M.

    1996-10-01

    In 1993 an integrated assessment of the World Bank developed economic scenarios of Central and Eastern European countries was carried out, primarily for emissions, deposition and concentrations of SO x , NO x Particulates, Cadmium en VOCs. Other topics dealt with were quality of soils, groundwater and rivers in Europe. The report forms a background document to the World Bank's 'Environmental Action Programme or Central and Eastern Europe' (EAP). Economic development in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is far from favorable. Production and consumption have declined by 70% compared to 1990. However, economic prospects seem to be better. The World Bank expects that economic growth will be supported by structural shifts in the production process towards less material-intensive production and reliance on resources. Emissions have been reduced significantly compared to 1990. If in a period of economic recovery, the newly installed capital stock is geared to Western European standards, further reductions may be achieved. To improve the energy efficiency of CEE countries, energy prices will have to increase. It has been assumed that they will harmonize with Western European energy prices. Hot spots are defined as those regions which, by 2010, are still expected to suffer from an exceedance of particulates, SO 2 or cadmium concentrations with respect to WHO air quality guidelines. These regional hot spots can be assisted by locally accelerating investments in new capital equipment in such a way that the whole capital stock will operate with Western European Standards by 2010. Not all environmental problems can be resolved by 2010. Implementation of all best available technologies in CEE is necessary, if all the environmental problems are to be solved. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Investing in the gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    Mulder, H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation explains what are the most common bottlenecks for foreign investments in the gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe. Taking into account the investment needs arising in economies in transition, from investor's point of view the issue of great importance is the risk when prices are not yet at market equivalent levels. Changes in the policy (regulatory, legal, financial) environment should stimulate investments. Privatization and liberalization are also driven by lack of public capital. Foreign investment would need a predictable investment environment. The investment needs of the gas industry would compete with other investments that might be more attractive

  11. SKODA JS in Central and Eastern European markets

    Luptacik, P.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, SKODA JS a.s. gained a leading position in the manufacture of equipment for the nuclear power sector in Central and Eastern Europe. The company benefited from its experience accumulated during the construction of VVER 440 and VVER 1000 NPPs at a time that saw a global decrease in popularity of the nuclear power sector. The company is building its success on a comprehensive understanding of the function of the primary coolant circuit and efforts to upgrade the equipment and processes so as to reflect new requirements in terms of safety and reactor unit service life. (orig.)

  12. Oil and gas in Central and Eastern Europe

    Doeh, D.

    1994-01-01

    A lawyer's view of oil and gas activity in Central and Eastern Europe is presented. General observations include: the regional interdependence which stems from the persistence of the influence of Russian price subsidies and the transport infrastructure; the difference between the region's organization of the oil and gas industry from that of the West; political and historical dimensions; the difficulties of coming to terms with both the cultural elements of the law and the flood of new legislation; the search of the oil companies for a stable legal environment; and taxation. Brief country reports follow this overview. (UK)

  13. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15......The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...

  14. Nuclear Research and Development Institutes in Central and Eastern Europe

    2009-06-01

    The science and technology (S and T) sector is faced today with complex and diverse challenges. National science budgets are under pressure, and many countries are changing how research and development (R and D) is funded, reducing direct subsidies and introducing competition for both governmental and alternative sources of revenue. On the other hand, the transition toward knowledge-based economies is creating new opportunities in the S and T sector as governments look to it to foster economic growth through innovation. A number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe have recently joined the European Union (EU) which has defined the Lisbon Strategy to create a 'knowledge triangle' of research, education and innovation to underpin the European economic and social model, and economic growth. This strategy seeks to increase investment in science and technology across the EU to a target of 3% of GDP by 2010, with two-thirds of funds coming from the private sector. By comparison, funding for R and D in most Central and Eastern European countries is only around 1% GDP, of which about 90% is provided by the governments. R and D has become more international, reflecting a more interdependent and globalized world. R and D progress is not only of interest to individual countries but also tries to respond to the needs of a broader society. Governments still maintain national networks, but increasingly emphasize international cooperation, both to avoid duplication of expensive infrastructure, and because scientific excellence requires an exchange of ideas and cooperation that crosses borders. These challenges and opportunities directly impact the research and development institutes (RDIs), including the nuclear RDIs. It is important for the nuclear RDIs to take account of these trends in the broader S and T sector in their vision and strategy. Several nuclear RDIs have become very successful, but others are struggling to adapt. The challenges have been particularly severe

  15. Higher assimilation than respiration sensitivity to drought for a desert ecosystem in Central Asia.

    Gu, Daxing; Otieno, Dennis; Huang, Yuqing; Wang, Quan

    2017-12-31

    Responses of ecosystem assimilation and respiration to global climate change vary considerably among terrestrial ecosystems constrained by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, net CO 2 exchange between ecosystem and atmosphere (NEE) was measured over a 4-year period (2013-2016) using eddy covariance technology in a desert ecosystem in Central Asia. Ecosystem assimilation (gross primary production, GPP) and respiration (R eco ) were derived from NEE by fitting light response curves to NEE data based on day- and nighttime data, and their responses to soil water content (SWC) and evaporative fraction (EF) were assessed during the growing season. Results indicated that both GPP and R eco linearly decreased with declining SWC, with the sensitivity of GPP to SWC being 3.8 times higher than that of R eco during the entire growing season. As a result, ecosystem CO 2 sequestration capacity decreased from 4.00μmolm -2 s -1 to 1.00μmolm -2 s -1 , with increasing soil drought . On a seasonal scale, significant correlation between GPP and SWC was only found in spring while that between R eco and SWC was found in all growing seasons with the sensitivity increasing steadily from spring to autumn. EF had a low correlation with SWC, GPP and R eco (R 2 =0.03, 0.02, 0.05, respectively), indicating that EF was not a good proxy for soil drought and energy partitioning was not tightly coupled to ecosystem carbon exchanges in this desert ecosystem. The study deepens our knowledge of ecosystem carbon exchange and its response to drought as well as its coupling with ecosystem energy partitioning in an extreme dry desert. The information is critical for better assessing carbon sequestration capacity in dryland, and for understanding its feedback to climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecological problems in Central Europe and Eastern Europe

    Schreiber, H.

    1989-01-01

    Owing to the very restrictive information policy of the socialist governments, little is known of the ecological situation in these countries. Attention has been drawn to their ecological problems by a number of accidents (Chernobyl, forest decline along the western frontier of East Germany and Czechoslovakia, pollution of the Elbe river, smog situations in West Germany). Of the Western nations, West Germany is the most concerned as it borders on East Germany and Czechoslovakia. The book intends to help close the information gap concerning ecological problems and environmental policy in the socialist countries. It comprises three sections: Part 1 presents central characteristics of environmental policy in the socialist states, with a view to their specific ideological and administrative aspects. Part 2 compares selected fields of environmental policy in the different socialist countries. Part 3 presents case studies of some countries in Central and Eastern Europe. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Microfacies analysis of foraminifera rich sedimentary rocks from the Desert Plateau, central Egypt.

    Karnitschar, C.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    Microfacies analysis on some samples from the Thebes Group have been carried on by means of thin sections. The study area is included in the Libyan Desert Plateau (central Egypt) at following coordinates N27° 36'30.58" E29° 44'58.34", near the biggest dune of Egypt, the Ghard Abu Muharik. Because of the round shape of the rocks and the desert patina on the surface they could easily be classified as the so called "Melonstones", which are located more southwards and mainly composed by stromatolites. On the contrary, the investigated samples show a completely different fauna and therefore have been separated from the "Melonstones". Even if shape and size are very similar and the desert patina covers all surfaces the same way the differences are impressive. To investigate the samples, two thin-sections have been prepared and analyzed at the microscope. The observed fauna is composed by: agglutinated benthic foraminifera (e.g., Dictyoconus egypticus), complex larger miliolids (e.g., Pseudolacazina cf. danatae, Fabularia sp.), alveolinids (Alveolina vredenburgi), green algae (Dasycladaceae), echinoids and corals. Because of the presence of symbionts bearing larger benthic foraminifera, which need light to feed photosymbionts, the rock was formed in a shallow water environment. With the abundant rock-building benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae the limestone shows a tendency to the packstone/wackestone facies. Based on the presence of Alveolina vredenburgi, the age of the samples can be estimate as lowermost Eocene belonging to the shallow benthic zone 5 (sensu Serra-Kiel et al., 1998). According the obtained data on stratigraphy and palaeoecology, a partial palaeoenvironmental reconstruction is possible for the Libyan Desert Plateau where outcrops are largely missing. Because of the round shape of the samples and the patina which covers them all around it can be assumed that they have been transported from longer distance. According to the geological map of the

  18. Geology, petrography, Geochemistry, and geochronology of the old granite batholith between Quen and Safaga, eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    Attawiya, M.Y.; Nossair, L.M.; El-Debeiky, A.; Ragab, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    A suite of tonalite-granodiorite and monzogranite forms a huge old granite batholith between qena and Safaga, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The batholith was originated from the fractional crystallization of a peraluminous calk-alkaline magma rich in silica and of low potassium content. It is developed in an island arc tectonic setting. The rocks forming the batholith are depleted in both U and Th elements. However, a gradual increase in these two elements from tonalite to monzogranite was observed. Zircon and sphene are responsible for U and Th contents in these rocks. Rh/Sr isotope age determination reported an age of 632.8 ± 4.6 Ma for these old granitoids. The low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio in these rocks suggested their mantle origin or derivation from lower crustal materials with low Rb/Sr ratios and short residence in the crust. 10 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Geology, petrography, Geochemistry, and geochronology of the old granite batholith between Quen and Safaga, eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3.

    Attawiya, M Y; Nossair, L M; El-Debeiky, A [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Ragab, A I [Ain Sahms Univ., Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A suite of tonalite-granodiorite and monzogranite forms a huge old granite batholith between qena and Safaga, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The batholith was originated from the fractional crystallization of a peraluminous calk-alkaline magma rich in silica and of low potassium content. It is developed in an island arc tectonic setting. The rocks forming the batholith are depleted in both U and Th elements. However, a gradual increase in these two elements from tonalite to monzogranite was observed. Zircon and sphene are responsible for U and Th contents in these rocks. Rh/Sr isotope age determination reported an age of 632.8 {+-} 4.6 Ma for these old granitoids. The low initial{sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr ratio in these rocks suggested their mantle origin or derivation from lower crustal materials with low Rb/Sr ratios and short residence in the crust. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAXATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Cristina BOROVINA (COJOCARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis that started in the United States in 2007, economic growth has become of great importance for the countries affected by the crisis further to their confrontation with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. At national level, governments are searching for that mix of optimal economic policies that would revive economies on the upward and also sustainable trend. One of the key policies in this regard, especially for the countries in Central and Eastern Europe which intend to adopt the euro currency, is the tax policy. Its main instruments are taxes. In this paper, we pay special attention to these instruments and to the connection that they have with the economic growth. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part presents a few ideas related to the importance of taxes at national level, the second part is an analysis in terms of taxation of the Central and Eastern Europe countries, while the third part consists of a panel-type assessment of the relation between economic growth and taxation level.

  1. Variations in Vegetation Structure, Species Dominance and Plant Communities in South of the Eastern Desert-Egypt

    Fawzy SALAMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For two successive years, the floristic diversity and vegetation composition in the southern part of the Eastern Desert ofEgypt were investigated through four transects (3 crossing the Eastern Desert and one along the Red Sea. The data collected from 142 stands covering the study area included the species composition, functional groups, chorology and occurrences (Qvalues. A total of 94 plant species belonging to 33 different families were recorded, with Asteracea, Zygophyllaceae, Fabaceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae as the largest families. Shrubs represented the largest functional group (39.4%, while perennial herbs represented the smallest ones (12.8%. Species occurrence (Q-value revealed that Zilla spinosa, Acacia tortilis subsp raddiana, Morettia philaeana, Caroxylon imbricatum, Zygophyllum coccineum and Citrullus colocynthis had wide ecological range of distribution (dominant species, Q-values 0.2. Saharo-Arabian chorotype was highly represented (72.6 % in the flora of this area, eventually as mono, bi or pluriregional. Classification of the data set yielded 7 vegetation groups included: (A Zilla spinosa-Morettia philaeana, (B1 Zilla spinosa-Citrullus colocynthis-Morettia philaeana, (B2 Zilla spinosa, (C1Zygophyllum album-Tamarix nilotica, (C2 Zygophyllum coccineum-Tamarix nilotica, (D1 Zilla spinosa-Zygophyllum coccineum and (D2 Zilla spinosa-Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana-Tamarix aphylla-Balanites aegyptiaca. Certain vegetation groups were assigned to one or more transects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed that electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, moisture content, sulphates, pH, organic matter and gravel were the soil variables that affect the species distribution in this study.

  2. Near Eastern Neolithic Genetic Input in a Small Oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert

    Kujanová, Martina; Pereira, L.; Fernandes, V.; Pereira, J. B.; Černý, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 2 (2009), s. 336-346 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Egyptian Western Desert * complete mtDNA sequences * T haplogroup * Neolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.756, year: 2009 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122377292/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

  3. Central eastern Europe approach to the security over nuclear materials

    Smagala, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents an overview of the national approaches to physical protection of nuclear materials in Central Eastern Europe (CEE), with an emphasis on Poland. Soviet influence in the past led to inadequate safety culture in nuclear activities and insufficient security of nuclear materials and facilities in the region. In the centralized economies all aspects of nuclear activities, including ownership of the nuclear facilities, were the responsibility of the state with no clear separation between regulating and promoting functions. During the last decade a significant progress has been made in the region to clean up the legacy of the past and to improve practices in physical protection of nuclear materials. The countries of Central Eastern Europe have had many similar deficiencies in nuclear field and problems to overcome, but cannot be viewed as a uniform block. There are local variations within the region in a size of nuclear activities, formulated respective regulations and adopted measures to secure nuclear materials and facilities. Nevertheless, all twelve nations, with nuclear reactors and without nuclear facilities, have joined the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material and most of them declare that they have followed the IAEA recommendations INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 to elaborate and implement their physical protection systems of nuclear materials and facilities. The largest request for an international advisory mission (IPPAS) to review states' physical protection systems and to address needs for improvement was received from the countries of Central Eastern Europe. Poland belongs to the beneficiaries where the IPPAS mission and later follow-up consultations resulted in physical protection upgrade of the research reactor under the IAEA/US/UK technical assistance project. A powerful incentive to the progress made in a number of CEE countries was the goal of accession to the European Union. The physical protection of nuclear

  4. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  5. FDI and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.

  6. Forest decline research in Eastern Central Europe and Bavaria

    Reuther, M.; Kirchner, M.; Kirchinger, E.; Reiter, H.; Roesel, K.; Pfeifer, U.

    1991-07-01

    In 26 conference contributions, the condition of the forest in eastern central Europe (new Federal German laender, CSFR, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland) and in Bavaria and Austria is described. The methodics of the countries' comprehensive monitoring and ecosystem analyzes in selected sites with their results are presented, mostly for the 80s. Possibilities and advantages of the modelling of forest ecosystems by computer are indicated as well as the gain of knowledge from extensive screening. For some regions, especially the Sudeten, maps showing the spatial distribution of airborne pollutants are presented. Pollutant concentrations are, in part, related to emittors. In almost all cases, indirect effects of acidic gaseous pollutants via changes in soil chemism are blamed for tree disease jointly with other factors or their outcome (silvicultural mistakes, drought, insect infestation). A striking fact is that in Hungary and Romania, unlike other European countries, oak-trees not conifers are most seriously affected. (UWA) [de

  7. Uranium exploration in Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Greece)

    Kampanellos, John; Persianis, Demetrios.

    1986-02-01

    In accordance with the Greek AEC Project for Uranium Exploration in Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Greece) car-borne scintillometer, ground scintillometer and geochemical stream sediment surveys along with reconnaissance geological mapping have been carried out within the area of map sheets 2523-2522 (Alexandroupolis-Aesymi, Evros Dept., Thrace). The results of these surveys, presented in a series of 15 maps, indicate that five areas totalling 632 km 2 require further detailed examination in order to test their potential of economic uranium deposits. Of these areas Nea Santa-Kechros-Chloi-Goniko-Kallithea-Leptokarya, Kirki-Kizari-Aesymi and Drosia-Fillyra-Darmeni should be given first priority and be further investigated by detailed stream sediment and bank soil sampling, detailed ground scintillometer measurements, grid soil and radon soil gas samplings, as well as by detailed geological mapping. (author)

  8. Central and Eastern Europe aim to protect their ecological backbone

    Cohn, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    Important environmental issues face the newly democratic countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The problems of habitat and wildlife conservation are given less attention than other issues such as air and water pollution. However, a variety of opportunities exist to protect the remaining wild areas. Existing national parks, undeveloped lands especially along borders, and the Danube delta ecosystem still retain wild character, at least in part. Lack of money and equipment, the rush to privatization, lack of government priority, small core areas of wild land, and the effects of pollution all stand in the way of conservation efforts. Technical aid is coming from aid funding through US agencies and environmental and conservation organizations, but the future remains a concern.

  9. Uranium exploration in Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Greece)

    Kampanellos, John; Persianis, Demetrios.

    1985-01-01

    In accordance with the Greek AEC Project for Uranium Exploration in Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Greece) car-borne scintillometer, ground scintillometer and geochemical stream sediment surveys along with reconnaissance geological mapping have been carried out within the area of map sheets 2623(II,III)-2622 (Feres-Lefkimmi, Evros Dept., Thrace). The results of these surveys, presented in a series of 15 maps, indicate that three areas totalling 380 km 2 require further detailed examination in order to test their potential of economic uranium deposits. Of these areas Kotronia and Dadia-Nipsa-Loutros covering 325 km 2 should be given first priority and be further investigated by detailed stream sediment and bank soil sampling, detailed ground scintillometer measurements, grid soil and radon soil gas samplings, as well as by detailed geological mapping. (author)

  10. Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    facilities there. These processes result in intensive penetration of companies through foreign direct investment into the CEE region. Simultaneously, the foreign investing companies face the specific context of a region that poses new requirements to their investment strategies, approaches and practices....... Covering a diverse range of CEE countries, as well as referring to the characteristics of the region as a whole, this book examines the inflow and outflow of foreign direct investment from both home and host company and country perspectives. By analyzing foreign direct investment in terms of process......, content and context, the book provides a holist approach towards foreign direct investment in the transitional context of CEE. The book includes a comprehensive study of the motives of multi-national companies for investing in Central and Eastern Europe through various investment modes and the degree...

  11. Application of K0-NAA in the Determination of Gold and other Trace Elements in Mineralized Rocks from El-Sid Gold District, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    El Abd, A.; Hamdy, M.; Mostafa, M.; El-Amir, M.

    2009-01-01

    K 0 - neutron activation analysis is an important method for multi-element analysis . The NAA k - 0 was used to determine the concentration of gold and some other trace elements in the mineralized mafic (gabro) and ultramafic (serpentinite) rocks from El-Sid gold district, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt . The samples were properly prepared together with the standards Au, Zr and Ni and simultaneously irradiated in the irradiation position 2, which is characterized with the neutron spectrum parameters a = -0.01 and f =20. After activation, the samples were subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry, using a high-purity germanium detection system and computerized multichannel analyzer. The concentrations of 25 elements, beside gold were determined. The results showed that the concentrations of incompatible elements including rare earth elements, large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, Sr, Th, Ba, Cs and Na) and high field strength elements (Ta, Hf and Zr), and the compatible elements (transition elements Co and Cr) are different from one sample to another. The results were briefly discussed within the text of this research work.

  12. Regional and temporal variability of melts during a Cordilleran magma pulse: Age and chemical evolution of the jurassic arc, eastern mojave desert, California

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, David; Howard, Keith A.; Fox, Lydia; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Jacobson, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Intrusive rock sequences in the central and eastern Mojave Desert segment of the Jurassic Cordilleran arc of the western United States record regional and temporal variations in magmas generated during the second prominent pulse of Mesozoic continental arc magmatism. U/Pb zircon ages provide temporal control for describing variations in rock and zircon geochemistry that reflect differences in magma source components. These source signatures are discernible through mixing and fractionation processes associated with magma ascent and emplacement. The oldest well-dated Jurassic rocks defining initiation of the Jurassic pulse are a 183 Ma monzodiorite and a 181 Ma ignimbrite. Early to Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks comprising the main stage of magmatism include two high-K calc-alkalic groups: to the north, the deformed 183–172 Ma Fort Irwin sequence and contemporaneous rocks in the Granite and Clipper Mountains, and to the south, the 167–164 Ma Bullion sequence. A Late Jurassic suite of shoshonitic, alkali-calcic intrusive rocks, the Bristol Mountains sequence, ranges in age from 164 to 161 Ma and was emplaced as the pulse began to wane. Whole-rock and zircon trace-element geochemistry defines a compositionally coherent Jurassic arc with regional and secular variations in melt compositions. The arc evolved through the magma pulse by progressively greater input of old cratonic crust and lithospheric mantle into the arc magma system, synchronous with progressive regional crustal thickening.

  13. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    using a grid of 160*120*30 points. The obtained meteorological fields were used in the HYPACT model; the source of Lagrangian particles was located over the Aral Sea region. As the result for 2008 11 days were detected when aerosol from the Aral Sea was actively transported to the observation sites. Comparative chemical analysis of aerosol samples at the stations of observation and soil samples from the Aral Sea region would confirm the presence of emissions and regional transport. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

  14. Modeling and forecasting office investment markets in Central and Eastern Europe

    Hoefmans, M.P.; Janssen, I.I.; Chorus, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Property markets in Central and Eastern Europe experienced turbulent developments since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ensuing abolition of communism in the Central and Eastern European region. This paper examines the evolution of office investment markets in Prague, Budapest, Warsaw, and

  15. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  16. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary line between eastern and central zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.5 Boundary line between eastern and central zones. (a) Minnesota-Michigan-Wisconsin. From the junction of the western boundary of the State of Michigan with the boundary between the United States and...

  17. Nuclear legislation in central and eastern europe and the NIS

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the current state of legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the central and eastern European countries (CEEC) and the New Independent States (NIS). It also contains information on the national bodies responsible for the regulation and control of nuclear energy. The nuclear energy sector has not escaped from the changes that have affected the political, economic and social climates over the past fifteen years. Under the former socialist regime, activities in this field came within the sole remit of the State administration. In the legal area, it had not been deemed necessary in most of these countries to enact laws guaranteeing democratic control of electronuclear programmes and establishing a clear distinction between activities promoting this source of energy and regulatory control, while ensuring that safety imperatives take priority over all other considerations. With the arrival of new political forces came the will to remedy this situation promptly by creating new regulatory structures and drafting legislative texts based on those used in western countries. This evolution was all the more necessary given that, at the same time, the new policy of accountability had revealed safety defects in numerous nuclear installations in these countries, thus rendering international assistance indispensable. From the legal point of view, the outcome of these years of effort is remarkably positive: almost all countries of Eastern Europe pursuing electronuclear programmes have established institutions capable of exercising efficient control over nuclear power plants and other installations. Accession to the international conventions which form the backbone of nuclear law has become widespread. Modern legislation is henceforth in place in almost all of these states. (author)

  18. Concentrations of mineral aerosol from desert to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, western United States

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Goldstein, Harland L.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral dusts can have profound effects on climate, clouds, ecosystem processes, and human health. Because regional dust emission and deposition in western North America are not well understood, measurements of total suspended particulate (TSP) from 2011 to 2013 were made along a 500-km transect of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA. The TSP concentrations in μg m−3 adjusted to a 24-h period were relatively high at the two westernmost, dryland sites at Canyonlands National Park (mean = 135) and at Mesa Verde National Park (mean = 99), as well as at the easternmost site on the Great Plains (mean = 143). The TSP concentrations at the two intervening montane sites were less, with more loading on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, mean = 68) closest to the desert sites compared with the site on the eastern slope (Niwot Ridge, mean = 58). Dust concentrations were commonly highest during late winter-late spring, when Pacific frontal storms are the dominant causes of regional wind. Low concentrations (10), as revealed by relatively low average daily concentrations of fine (<5 μg m−3; PM2.5) and coarse (<10 μg m−3; PM2.5–10) fractions monitored at or near four sites. Standard air-quality measurements for PM2.5 and PM10 apparently do not capture the large majority of mineral-particulate pollution in the remote western interior U.S.

  19. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  20. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RECENT TRENDS ACROSS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Mihut Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  1. Canopy Transpiration and Stomatal Responses to Prolonged Drought by a Dominant Desert Species in Central Asia

    Daxing Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid lands, canopy transpiration and its dynamics depend largely on stomatal sensitivity to drought. In this study, the sap flow of a dominant species, Haloxylon ammodendron growing in Central Asian deserts, was monitored using Granier-type sensors, from which the canopy stomatal conductance was derived. The responses of canopy transpiration and stomatal conductance to environmental variables during the second half of the growing season, when annual prolonged drought occurred, was analyzed for four continuous years, from 2013 to 2016. A soil water content (SWC of 3% was identified as the lower soil water threshold for this species, below which the plant lost the ability for stomatal regulation on water loss and suffered the risk of mortality. Above this threshold, the sensitivity of canopy transpiration to vapor pressure deficit, VPD (K, was linearly correlated with SWC, which mainly resulted from different stomatal behaviors at varying drought intensities. Stomatal sensitivity to VPD (m/Gsref increased linearly with soil moisture deficit, inducing a shift from more anisohydric to a more isohydric stomatal behavior. The flexibility of stomatal behavior regarding soil drought was one key element facilitating the survival of H. ammodendron in such an extreme dry environment.

  2. Breasts, Bodies, Art: Central Desert Women’s Paintings and the Politics of the Aesthetic Encounter

    Jennifer L Biddle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a culturally distinctive relationship between breasts and contemporary art from Central Desert Aboriginal women. Contra to the dominant interpretation of these paintings as representations of ‘country’—cartographic ‘maps’ of the landscape, narratives of Dreaming Ancestors, flora, fauna, species—my argument is that these works bespeak a particular breasted experience and expression, a cultural way of doing and being in the world; what I want to call a breasted ontology.

  3. Pedological and geological relationships with soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    Belnap, Jayne; Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The cover of lichens and mosses on ‘available ground’ (L + Mav; available ground excludes ground covered by rocks or plant stems) was higher on limestone and quartzite-derived soils than granite-derived soils. Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces (Qya2, Qya3, Qya4) and cutbanks than on very young (Qya1), older-aged surfaces (Qia1, Qia2), or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. When all sites and parent materials were combined, soil texture was the most important factor predicting the occurrence of L + Mav, with cover positively associated with higher silt, very fine sand, and fine sand fractions and negatively associated with the very coarse sand fraction. When parent materials were examined separately, nutrients such as available potassium, iron, and calcium became the most important predictors of L + Mav cover.

  4. Investigation of Six Geological Samples From Wady Sitra Eastern Desert - Egypt Using K0 Neutron Activation Method

    Soliman, N.F.; Ashmawy, L.S.; Walley El-Dine, N.; Sroor, A.; Mohamed, T.El.

    2010-01-01

    k 0 - Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -NAA) is applied to investigate six geological samples collected from Wady Sitra at Eastern desert of Egypt during the survey of gold presence in this area. The samples together with a group of standard (Mo, Fe, Sb and W) are irradiated for 3 hours in one of the inner irradiation site of the Second Egyptian Training and Research Reactor (ETRR-2) operating at power of 19 MW. Mo, Fe and Sb are used to measure the neutron spectrum parameters α(epithermal non-ideality factor) and f (the thermal to epithermal flux ratio) while W is used to test the obtained results. The α( and f parameters are measured using the so-called bare triple monitor method and the obtained results was found to be f = 17.5 ± 0.35 and α(= 0.03±0.002. A Fortran computer program is designed and used to calculate the values of Q 0 (α)for the analyzed elements . The concentration values of 25 elements in the present rock samples have been presented

  5. Nuclear power in eastern and central Europe. Background paper

    Myers, L.C.

    1993-11-01

    The breakup of the former Soviet Union and other political changes in eastern and central Europe have opened up the area to closer scrutiny than was previously possible. Because of the accident at Chernobyl, nuclear power is one of the subjects that western nations have had a great deal of interest in exploring. The former Soviet Union designed and/or helped build more than 60 civilian reactors in the region. Most of these reactors follow one of two distinctly different designs: the VVER, or pressurized water reactor series; and the RBMK, which is a graphite-moderated, multi-channel reactor (the so-called Chernobyl type). In addition, there are two fast-breeder reactors and four graphite-moderated boiling water reactors for combined heat and power in operation in Russia. These last two designs are not widely distributed and so are not discussed in detail in this report. As noted above, the safety of Soviet-designed reactors has been of great concern around the world since the catastrophic events at Chernobyl in 1986. This paper will briefly describe the technology involved. It will also examine the main safety concerns, both technical and organizational, associated with each reactor type. In addition, the paper will review the nuclear power programs in the new countries emerging from the former Soviet Union and its satellites and discuss the international efforts underway to address the most pressing problems. (author). 1 tab

  6. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  7. Multifunctional optimised scope simulators in Central and Eastern Europe

    Bartak, J.; Hauesberger, P.; Dalleur, J.P.; Houard, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the field of operator training, multiple functions have to be covered such as basic principles training, training on specific systems, operations training addressing operating procedures in normal, incidental and accidental situations, plant physical phenomena analysis. Training simulators are appropriate tools to meet theses needs. Optimisation of the scope of simulation is required to meet specific training objectives and produce cost-effective solutions that allow for possible future extensions. Training needs and training programs have to be identified with the participation of final users, leading to the development of appropriate training materials: 'multifunctional' (also called analytical) optimised scope simulators are a concrete solution to meeting this challenge. For these simulators, the quality of physical models used is equivalent to that used in the full-scope replica-type simulators. Moreover, all state-of-the-art technical requirements in terms of development of training simulators, must be satisfied: realism of modelling, tolerances, simulated incidents and accidents. Examples of this concept will be illustrated in the paper through the presentation of recent developments of simulators in Central and Eastern European NPPs (VVER-1000, VVER-440, RBMK, BN600, PWR 600). A brief presentation of the software workshop used to develop these simulators concludes the paper. (author)

  8. Nuclear power in eastern and central Europe. Background paper

    Myers, L C [Library of Parliament, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Science and Technology Div.

    1993-11-01

    The breakup of the former Soviet Union and other political changes in eastern and central Europe have opened up the area to closer scrutiny than was previously possible. Because of the accident at Chernobyl, nuclear power is one of the subjects that western nations have had a great deal of interest in exploring. The former Soviet Union designed and/or helped build more than 60 civilian reactors in the region. Most of these reactors follow one of two distinctly different designs: the VVER, or pressurized water reactor series; and the RBMK, which is a graphite-moderated, multi-channel reactor (the so-called Chernobyl type). In addition, there are two fast-breeder reactors and four graphite-moderated boiling water reactors for combined heat and power in operation in Russia. These last two designs are not widely distributed and so are not discussed in detail in this report. As noted above, the safety of Soviet-designed reactors has been of great concern around the world since the catastrophic events at Chernobyl in 1986. This paper will briefly describe the technology involved. It will also examine the main safety concerns, both technical and organizational, associated with each reactor type. In addition, the paper will review the nuclear power programs in the new countries emerging from the former Soviet Union and its satellites and discuss the international efforts underway to address the most pressing problems. (author). 1 tab.

  9. Human Capital and FDI in Central and Eastern Europe

    Agnieszka Dorozynska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the role of human capital in attracting FDI in the light of selected empirical studies conducted in Poland and globally. The literature on factors determining FDI location, including those relating to the importance of human capital, is dominated with studies at national or supranational level. Attracting foreign investment has become a key component of national strategies for the CEE countries. The paper makes an attempt to assess the relevance of human capital for FDI inflow at regional and local levels in Poland. At the same time, results of analyses were contrasted with quantitative surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. Investing in education and human capital is important for creating good climate for investment. Evidence shows that achieving a certain minimum level of education is the precondition for a country to attract and maintain foreign direct investment and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital. We should also stress that such a minimum is different for different sectors of the economy. Results of the study conducted in the Lodz Region demonstrated that human capital is an important factor, which attracts FDI to the region.

  10. Energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - status and prospects

    Brendow, K [United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1992-01-01

    By the end of the winter 1991/92, the energy situation in central and eastern Europe had further deteriorated. Despite a significant fall in industrial demand, supply shortages occurred, pollution continued and safety problems remained potentially high. Top-down legislative and institutional reforms met with conflicting policies and structures. Energy trade declined and traditional trade patterns disintegrated. Western assistance had increased but had little impact on actual energy supplies, efficiency, pollution or safety as it was aimed at supporting structural reforms and securing a stable macro-economic famework. Also private sector investments while growing remained limited. Legislation on foreign investments, demonopolization and concessions, and energy policies were either still under debate or undergoing the first tests of their practicability and appeal. As 1992 unfolds the energy reform process appears at a critical stage. Its final success would seem to depend on a further special effort on the part of all concerned and on prioritisation. As the various initiatives depend on each other, their international co-ordination becomes a separate issue. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe. General information, favorable concepts and financing possibilities

    Ellenbroek, R.; Ballard-Tremeer, G.; Koeks, R.; Venendaal, R.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide information on the possibilities to invest and carry out biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe. In the first part of the guide background information is given on countries in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on bio-energy. A few cases are presented to illustrate different biomass energy concepts. Based on economic calculations an indication is given of the feasibility of those concepts. Also the most relevant sources of information are listed. In the second part an overview is given of Dutch, European and international financial tools that can be used in biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe

  12. Stratigraphy, age, and depositional setting of the Miocene Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, central Mojave Desert, California

    Leslie, Shannon R.; Miller, David M.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    New detailed geologic mapping and geochronology of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, 30 km east of Barstow, CA, help to constrain Miocene paleogeography and tectonics of the central Mojave Desert. A northern strand of the Quaternary ENE-striking, sinistral Manix fault divides the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill into two distinct lithologic assemblages. Strata north of the fault consist of: a green rhyolitic tuff, informally named the Shamrock tuff; lacustrine sandstone; partially silicified thin-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone to pebble conglomerate. Strata south of the fault consist of: lacustrine siltstone and sandstone; a rhyolitic tuff dated at 19.1 Ma (U-Pb); rock-avalanche breccia deposits; partially silicified well-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone and conglomerate. Our U-Pb zircon dating of the Shamrock tuff by SHRIMP-RG yields a peak probability age of 18.7 ± 0.1 Ma. Distinctive outcrop characteristics, mineralogy, remanent magnetization, and zircon geochemistry (Th/U) suggest that the Shamrock tuff represents a lacustrine facies of the regionally extensive Peach Spring Tuff (PST). Here we compare zircon age and geochemical analyses from the Shamrock tuff with those of the PST at Stoddard Wash and provide new insight into the age of zircon crystallization in the PST rhyolite. Results of our field studies show that Miocene strata at Harvard Hill mostly accumulated in a lacustrine environment, although depositional environments varied from a relatively deep lake to a very shallow lake or even onshore setting. Rock-avalanche breccias and alluvial deposits near the base of the exposed section indicate proximity to a steep basin margin and detrital studies suggest a southern source for coarse-grained deposits; therefore, we may infer a southern basin-margin setting at Harvard Hill during the early Miocene. Our geochronology demonstrates that deposition of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill extended from before

  13. Cigarette smoking among Thai Buddhist monks, central and eastern Thailand.

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2005-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December, 2003 among Thai Buddhist monks in 4 provinces of the central region (Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Saraburi and Chai Nat) and in 4 provinces of the eastern region (Chachoengsao, Rayong, Trat, and Sa Kaeo) of Thailand. Data were collected using face to face interviews, questionnaires, and physical examination reports (weight, height, heart rate, blood pressure, etc) as the research tools. This study focused on sociodemographics, history of illness, and smoking behavior. The proportion of the cigarette smoking was 47.6% of the total of 920 Buddhist monks. The age group 20-34 years, Maha Nikaya section and Public temple were the majority of the study subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that only four factors were related to smoking consumption: dharma education, Naktharm To (grade 2) (OR = 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4-0.9), Naktharm Aek (grade 3) or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.6); Lay education, secondary school (OR = 0.7, 95% Cl: 0.5-0.9), bachelor degree or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.8); systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg (OR = 1.8, 95% Cl: 1.1-2.8) and history of respiratory illness (OR = 3.2, 95% Cl: 1.5-6.9). As a result, dharma education and well educated persons were the crucial factors which led to success in decreasing cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation campaigns and education of the consequences of smoking are strongly recommended among risk groups.

  14. Health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic transition of the 1990s in the countries of central and eastern Europe has been accompanied by wide ranging health care reform. The initial Soviet model has given way to a variety of forms of health insurance. Yet, as this paper argues, reform has too often been preoccupied with ideological imperatives, such as provider autonomy and the creation of funds separate from government, and has given much less thought to the contribution that health care can make to population health. The paper begins by examining the changing nature of health care. It recalls how the Soviet model was able to provide basic care to dispersed populations at low cost but notes how this is no longer sufficient in the face of an increasingly complex health care environment. This complexity reflects several factors, such as the growth in chronic disease, the emergence of new forms of infectious disease, and the introduction of new treatments requiring integrated delivery systems. It reviews evidence on how the former communist countries failed to keep up with developments in the west from the 1970s onwards, at a time when the complexity of health care was becoming apparent. It continues by setting out a framework for the organisation of health care based on the goal of health gain. This involves a series of activities that can be summarised as active purchasing, and which include assessment of health needs, designing effective packages of care, and monitoring outcomes. It concludes by arguing that a new relationship is needed between the state and the organisations involved in funding and delivering health care, to design a system that will tackle the considerable health needs of the people who live in this region.

  15. The cattle sector in Central and Eastern Europe : developments and opportunities in a time of transition

    Peters, K.J.; Kuipers, A.; Keane, M.G.; Dimitriadou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Countries in Eastern-Europe are in a lengthy period of rapid changes. Ten Central and Eastern European countries entered the European Union in 2004 and two more entered in 2007. Surrounding countries to the east are in a similar process of change following the disintegration of the former Soviet

  16. Mapping Of The Hydrothermal Alteration Zones At Haimur Gold Mine Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    Madani, A.A.; Abdel Rahman, E.M.; FA WZY, Kh.M.; EMAM, A.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery and scanned aerial photograph for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at the Haimur gold mine area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt and the production of large scale geologic image map, scale 1 :20 000, using fusion technique are the main tasks of this article. The study area lies at the conjunction of two shear zones, namely the Allaqi shear zone (NW-SE) and the Haimur shear zone (NE-SW). The basement rocks covering Haimur gold mine area include ophiolitic blocks and sheets that were tectonically thrusted over and mixed within a matrix of island arc rocks. Principal Component Analysis, band ratios and data fusion are the main remote sensing techniques applied in the present work. The eigenvalue of the first principal component (PCl) includes 95.9% of the information content of the image whereas PC2 and PC5 mark 3.03% and 0.10%, respectively. The PC5 image was found to represent the highly altered rocks in the study area (serpentinites and carbonates), which display dark image signatures. The metagabbros and metapyroclastics can be easily discriminated on the PC1:R, PC2:G and PC5:B false color composite image in which they have dark red and blue image signatures, respectively. The talc carbonates and the serpentinites have bright image signatures on 5/7 band ratio image whereas metapyroxenites have dark image signatures. The talc carbonates are composed mainly of talc, magnesite and calcite with subordinate amounts of fibrous antigorite. These minerals have absorption features near 2.35 m which lead to increase 5/7 band ratio value. The false color composite ratio image 5/7:R, 4/5:G and 3/1:B was merged with scanned high spatial resolution aerial photograph using IHS transformation method. The resultant fused image was then used to delineate the hydrothermal alteration zones as well as listwaenite ridges exposed at the Haimur gold mine area

  17. Geology, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioactivity Studies on The Dyke Swarms of Gabal Al Aglab area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Eldabe, M.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal Al Aglab area is located in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt bounded by lat. 27° 14'-27° 19' N and long. 33° 00'-33° 05' E. It is covered by pan African basement rocks. The present study concern with the geology, petrography, geochemistry and radioactivity of various types of the dyke swarms in Gabal Al Aglab area. The field studies revealed that the area comprises the following litho-tectonic units ; Dokhan volcanic (oldest) and Hamammat sedimentary rocks and younger granites are represented by both Gabal Um Twier and Gabal Al Aglab syenogranites (youngest). Many dykes of acidic, intermediate and basic composition have a large extension and dissect all the mentioned rock units. The dyke swarms intruding Gabal Al Aglab area include the acidic (felsite and granite porphyry) dykes, while the intermediate comprise andesite and andesite porphyry and the basic dykes show basalt and dolerites. The chronologic relations of these dykes indicate the following sequence of emplacement beginning with the oldest acidic, followed by intermediate and then basic ones. The geochemical studies indicate that the acidic dykes were derived from a highly differentiated calc- alkaline magma, while the basic and intermediate dykes were developed from magma of subalkaline nature. The dykes were derived from separate magmas and not by magmatic differentiation of single mother magma. The radioactivity of the studied dyke rocks revealed that the high levels of radioactivity mainly linked to the acidity, differentiation and alkalinity characters. Radioactive granitic spot was observed along the contact with some basic dykes due to their thermal effect during its emplacement on the granite, at the northern part of the studied area. This radioactive spot display anomalies with higher values in U and Th contents, than the normal background value of the younger granite.

  18. Resistivity method contribution in determining of fault zone and hydro-geophysical characteristics of carbonate aquifer, eastern desert, Egypt

    Ammar, A. I.; Kamal, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Determination of fault zone and hydro-geophysical characteristics of the fractured aquifers are complicated, because their fractures are controlled by different factors. Therefore, 60 VESs were carried out as well as 17 productive wells for determining the locations of the fault zones and the characteristics of the carbonate aquifer at the eastern desert, Egypt. The general curve type of the recorded rock units was QKH. These curves were used in delineating the zones of faults according to the application of the new assumptions. The main aquifer was included at end of the K-curve type and front of the H-curve type. The subsurface layers classified into seven different geoelectric layers. The fractured shaly limestone and fractured limestone layers were the main aquifer and their resistivity changed from low to medium (11-93 Ω m). The hydro-geophysical properties of this aquifer such as the areas of very high, high, and intermediate fracture densities of high groundwater accumulations, salinity, shale content, porosity distribution, and recharging and flowing of groundwater were determined. The statistical analysis appeared that depending of aquifer resistivity on the water salinities (T.D.S.) and water resistivities add to the fracture density and shale content. The T.D.S. increasing were controlled by Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and then (SO4)2-, respectively. The porosity was calculated and its average value was 19%. The hydrochemical analysis of groundwater appeared that its type was brackish and the arrangements of cation concentrations were Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and anion concentrations were Cl- > (SO4)2- > HCO3 - > CO3 -. The groundwater was characterized by sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-sulfate genetic water types and meteoric in origin. Hence, it can use the DC-resistivity method in delineating the fault zone and determining the hydro-geophysical characteristics of the fractured aquifer with taking into account the quality of measurements and interpretation.

  19. Thrusting and multiple folding in the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement of Wadi Hodein area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Abdeen, M. M.; Sadek, M. F.; Greiling, R. O.

    2008-09-01

    Detailed field mapping and structural studies of the area around the mouth of Wadi Hodein, some 20 km west of Shalatein at the Red Sea coast in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt, revealed four phases of structural deformation (D1-D4) affecting the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement rocks. D1 is related to arc-arc collision and is represented by ENE-WSW oriented megascopic upright open folds associated with low angle thrusts and mesoscopic tight, overturned and recumbent F1 folds. Kinematic indicators indicate thrusting towards the SSE. D2 is represented by NNW-SSE oriented megascopic and mesoscopic folds, which are tight, verge towards the WSW and display a left-stepping en echelon pattern. D3 includes major NNW-SSE trending sinistral shear zones that show subordinate reverse fault components and dip steeply towards the ENE. These sinistral shear zones are comparable with the Najd Fault System, as they display a similar sense of movement and relationships to earlier structures. Therefore, they are interpreted to be the continuation of the Najd Shear System in southern Egypt. D2 and D3 are related to accretion of east and west Gondwana. D4 is represented by E-W oriented dextral faults with left-stepping segments. The first three deformation events are in agreement with the general evolutionary model for the East African Orogen in the Arabian-Nubian Shield that begins with NNW-SSE shortening, followed by ENE-WSW compression and subsequent deformation by the NNW-SSE striking Najd Fault System. The E-W dextral faults may be the conjugate shear fractures to the D3 NNW-SSE oriented sinistral wrench faults or are related to a subsequent event, D4. NW-SE oriented gold-bearing quartz veins originated during D1 and were subsequently deformed by D2-D4 events.

  20. Contrasting ERP absorption between transition and developed economies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    Bernroider, Edward W.N.; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates Enterprise Resource Planning absorption in transition and developed economies in Central and Eastern Europe. Using absorptive capacity theory and data envelopment analysis, we view organizational transformation in Enterprise Resource Planning absorption as an economic...

  1. Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons

    Padmavati, G.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Shiney, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea was investigated during the winter monsoon in 1995. Samples were analysed from discrete depth zones defined according to oxygen and temperature profiles of the water...

  2. Reports submitted by participants from central and eastern european countries and the new independent states

    Nersesyan, V.; Rozdyalovskaya, L.; Yatsevich, V.; Soljan, V.; Valcic, I.; Saar, J.; Abraitis, M.; Bieliauskas, V.; Szkultecka, E.; Cutoiu, D.; Chirica, M.T.; Karasev, A.V.; Pospisil, M.; Zlatnansky, J.; Kot, Y.; Shvytai, V.

    2000-01-01

    In this communication are grouped the reports submitted by participants from central and eastern European countries and the new independent states, concerning their government legislation relative to the nuclear liability in the event of a nuclear accident. (N.C.)

  3. Studies on the microzooplankton from the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Gauns, M; Mohanraju, R.; Madhupratap, M

    Numerical abundance and composition of microzooplankton in the upper 200 m were studied from the central and eastern Arabian Sea during three seasons. Protozoans, comprising of ciliates (loricates and aloricates), flagellates and sarcodines were...

  4. Interest Rate Policy Of Selected Central Banks In Central And Eastern Europe

    GRABIA TOMASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present and evaluate interest rate policies of three selected central banks in Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary from 2001 to 2013. The study consists of an introduction (Section 1 and three main parts. The introduction contains a theoretical description of the role of interest rate policy, the dilemmas connected with it, as well as an analysis of the strategies and goals of monetary policies of the National Bank of Poland (NBP, the Czech National Bank (CzNB, and the National Bank of Hungary (NBH in the context of existing legal and institutional conditions. In turn, the first empirical part (Section 2 examines how the analysed central banks responded to changes in inflation, unemployment, and economic growth rates. The tools of the analysis are the nominal and real interest rates of those banks. The subsequent research part (Section 3 attempts to evaluate the degree of the contractionary nature of interest rate policies in specific countries in the context of the Taylor rule. The text ends with a summary (Section 4 encompassing concise conclusions drawn from the earlier analyses.

  5. 4. International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe. Symposium Program

    1998-01-01

    The Fourth International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe was part of an on-going series of symposia which focus on the environmental problems of Central and Eastern Europe. The presentations concerned radiological contamination, hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring, modeling and computer applications for environmental studies, site remediation. Many works presented human health effects of environmental pollution by heavy metals, radionuclides and other xenobiotics

  6. TESTING STOCK MARKETS’ INTEGRATION FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITHIN EURO ZONE

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stock market integration gives the opportunity of risk diversification on international level. The main effects of this integration are the development of stock markets and economic growth. This paper analyses the integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe using convergence. Beta-convergence gives us information about integration’s speed and sigma-convergence presents information about the degree of integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe on the stock market of Euro Zone.

  7. Who is populist in Central and Eastern Europe? A comparative analysis of prime ministers' populist discourse

    Kocijan, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    This article measures populist discourse among prime ministers in new Central and Eastern European democracies using holistic grading as a specific type of textual analysis. The article first offers a definition of populism and then measures political discourse by grading political speeches of contemporary prime ministers in Central and Eastern Europe. Next, it presents descriptive data about prime ministers’ political discourse and discusses positive cases of populism in re...

  8. How effective is the invisible hand? Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe

    Brosig, Stephan; Hockmann, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    This volume of proceedings, available both as hard copy and pdf , is a compilation of selected contributions to the IAMO Forum 2005, which will be held in Halle (Saale), Germany, at the Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe from June 16-18, 2005. CONTENTS: Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe: An introduction; Stephan Brosig, Heinrich Hockmann. Agricultural markets in CEE - An overview; József Popp. Regoverning agrifood markets in CEEC - Po...

  9. Discriminations of Younger Granitic Masses at Gabal Qattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    Wasfi, S.A.; Lliase, E.L.; Mousa, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Gabal Qattar area is located in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt between Latitudes 26 degree 52 and 27 degree 08 N, and Longitudes 33 degree 13 and 33 degree 25 E. The exposed rock units, there, from the oldest to the youngest, are meta volcanics; granodiorites- diorite complex; Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Most of the area is densely traversed by felsic and mafic dykes. The Qattarian younger granites are divided into seven granitic areas according to their spectral characters to facilitate the studying and delineating physical characteristic differences between these areas as well as to throw a light about the best conditions of exploration for radioactive mineralizations. This study is based on brightness Digital Number values (DNs) of the granitic areas, predominant trends and densities of the structural lineaments, shape and type of weathering products. Three areas of these seven younger granite areas form Gabal (G.) Qattar, and designated Gr 1, Gr 3 and Gr 4, where the other granite areas which form the G. Urn Dissi (Gr 2), G. Thelma (Gr 5), G. Abu Samyuk (Gr 6) and G. Ayn AI Ruwayshed (Gr 7). Photo geologically, these seven granite areas show some differences in shape, texture, predominant trends and densities of structural lineaments and ability of weathering. This study shows that the seven granite areas could be gathered into three main groups according to their DNs values of Landsat ETM+ spectral bands especially of band 5, where these three main groups representing different, and mainly coincide with the three granite phases previously delineated according to chronological field relation, petrographic and geochemical studies. The Gr 1 area contains all uranium occurrences from locations I to V. This area is characterized by semi circular shape of NW trend, massive appearance with high relief peaks, and high fracture density, where the N 55 degree E, N 5 degree E, N 45 degree E and N 45 degree W are the predominant trends. Some of the N 55

  10. Neoproterozoic Evolution and Najd‒Related Transpressive Shear Deformations Along Nugrus Shear Zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt (Implications from Field‒Structural Data and AMS‒Technique)

    Hagag, W.; Moustafa, R.; Hamimi, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The tectonometamorphic evolution of Nugrus Shear Zone (NSZ) in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt was reevaluated through an integrated study including field-structural work and magnetofabric analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique, complemented by detailed microstructural investigation. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust within this high strain zone suffered an impressive tectonic event of left-lateral transpressional regime, transposed the majority of the earlier formed structures into a NNW to NW-directed wrench corridor depicts the northwestern extension of the Najd Shear System (NSS) along the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The core of the southern Hafafit dome underwent a high metamorphic event ( M 1) developed during the end of the main collisional orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The subsequent M 2 metamorphic event was retrogressive and depicts the tectonic evolution and exhumation of the Nugrus-Hafafit area including the Hafafit gneissic domes, during the origination of the left-lateral transpressive wrench corridor of the NSS. The early tectonic fabric within the NSZ and associated highly deformed rocks was successfully detected by the integration of AMS-technique and microstructural observations. Such fabric grain was checked through a field-structural work. The outcomes of the present contribution advocate a complex tectonic evolution with successive and overlapped deformation events for the NSZ.

  11. The evolution of deserts with climatic changes in China since 150 ka B.P.

    董光荣; 陈惠忠; 王贵勇; 李孝泽; 邵亚军; 金炯

    1997-01-01

    According to the bioclimatic zones, dune mobility and the fabric characteristics of stratigraphic sedimentary facies, the deserts in China are divided into Eastern, Western, Central and Northwestern deserts. Based on the records of stratigraphical facies, climatic proxies, historical data, etc. in each desert region, the evolution of deserts with climatic changes in time and space since 150 ka B. P. in China are dealt with; then the evolution of deserts in relation to the glacial climatic fluctuations caused by solar radiation changes, underlying surface variation and their feedback mechanism is discussed through comparison with global records; finally, in consideration of global wanning due to increasing of greenhouse gases such as CO2, the possible tendency of the evolution of deserts and the climatic changes is discussed.

  12. Radiation Oncology in the Developing Economies of Central and Eastern Europe.

    Esiashvili, Natia

    2017-04-01

    Eastern Europe is represented by 22 countries of significant variability in population density and degree of economic development. They have been affected by past geopolitical isolation due to their association with the "Soviet Block." Currently, all Eastern European countries except Slovenia are low- or middle-income level and 10 of them are part of European Union. Health care systems in Central and Eastern Europe have been influenced by the legacy of centralized soviet-era governance; however, most countries, particularly in European Union zone, have gone through health care reforms directed toward modernizing infrastructure and staffing. The level of health financing available through health insurance has increased in the region, although still lags behind the Western European levels. After adjusting for differing population age structures, overall incidence rates in both sexes are lower in Eastern and Central Europe compared with the Northern and Western European countries; however, mortality remains higher. There is an ongoing shortage of oncology services in Eastern Europe, including radiotherapy equipment and personnel. Eastern European radiotherapy field is highly diverse with large differences among countries regarding staffing structure, training, accreditation, and defined roles and responsibilities. The rapid diffusion of technological innovations has been identified as one of the most important factors driving the escalating health care expenses, and the need for better cost-effective solutions applicable to the local health care systems and levels of economic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    M. Astitha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the desert locust central nervous system: production and annotation of a Schistocerca gregaria EST database.

    Badisco, Liesbeth; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Simonet, Gert; Verlinden, Heleen; Marchal, Elisabeth; Huybrechts, Roger; Schoofs, Liliane; De Loof, Arnold; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2011-03-21

    The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) displays a fascinating type of phenotypic plasticity, designated as 'phase polyphenism'. Depending on environmental conditions, one genome can be translated into two highly divergent phenotypes, termed the solitarious and gregarious (swarming) phase. Although many of the underlying molecular events remain elusive, the central nervous system (CNS) is expected to play a crucial role in the phase transition process. Locusts have also proven to be interesting model organisms in a physiological and neurobiological research context. However, molecular studies in locusts are hampered by the fact that genome/transcriptome sequence information available for this branch of insects is still limited. We have generated 34,672 raw expressed sequence tags (EST) from the CNS of desert locusts in both phases. These ESTs were assembled in 12,709 unique transcript sequences and nearly 4,000 sequences were functionally annotated. Moreover, the obtained S. gregaria EST information is highly complementary to the existing orthopteran transcriptomic data. Since many novel transcripts encode neuronal signaling and signal transduction components, this paper includes an overview of these sequences. Furthermore, several transcripts being differentially represented in solitarious and gregarious locusts were retrieved from this EST database. The findings highlight the involvement of the CNS in the phase transition process and indicate that this novel annotated database may also add to the emerging knowledge of concomitant neuronal signaling and neuroplasticity events. In summary, we met the need for novel sequence data from desert locust CNS. To our knowledge, we hereby also present the first insect EST database that is derived from the complete CNS. The obtained S. gregaria EST data constitute an important new source of information that will be instrumental in further unraveling the molecular principles of phase polyphenism, in further establishing

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the desert locust central nervous system: production and annotation of a Schistocerca gregaria EST database.

    Liesbeth Badisco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria displays a fascinating type of phenotypic plasticity, designated as 'phase polyphenism'. Depending on environmental conditions, one genome can be translated into two highly divergent phenotypes, termed the solitarious and gregarious (swarming phase. Although many of the underlying molecular events remain elusive, the central nervous system (CNS is expected to play a crucial role in the phase transition process. Locusts have also proven to be interesting model organisms in a physiological and neurobiological research context. However, molecular studies in locusts are hampered by the fact that genome/transcriptome sequence information available for this branch of insects is still limited. METHODOLOGY: We have generated 34,672 raw expressed sequence tags (EST from the CNS of desert locusts in both phases. These ESTs were assembled in 12,709 unique transcript sequences and nearly 4,000 sequences were functionally annotated. Moreover, the obtained S. gregaria EST information is highly complementary to the existing orthopteran transcriptomic data. Since many novel transcripts encode neuronal signaling and signal transduction components, this paper includes an overview of these sequences. Furthermore, several transcripts being differentially represented in solitarious and gregarious locusts were retrieved from this EST database. The findings highlight the involvement of the CNS in the phase transition process and indicate that this novel annotated database may also add to the emerging knowledge of concomitant neuronal signaling and neuroplasticity events. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we met the need for novel sequence data from desert locust CNS. To our knowledge, we hereby also present the first insect EST database that is derived from the complete CNS. The obtained S. gregaria EST data constitute an important new source of information that will be instrumental in further unraveling the molecular

  16. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  17. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site

  18. CONTEMPORARY CHANGES OF THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE CASPIAN SEMI-DESERT LANDSCAPES OF THE EASTERN CISCAUCASIA

    Z. V. Ataev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the changes in the hydrothermal conditions within the pricaspian littoral plains accumulation and denudation-accumulative in places aeolian landscapes saltwort, saltwort-sagebrush deserts and semi-deserts in light chestnut soils based on data from weather stations "Makhachkala" for years 1945-2005.Tendencies of changes in temperature, precipitation, and hydrothermal coefficient and coefficient of moisture are shown. Tendency of modern fluctuations suggests that the climatic conditions of the last period contribute to the development of dry steppes and significant deviations from the conditions of the previous period do not occur.

  19. The competitiveness through taxes in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, many countries Central and Eastern European countrieshave reduced their corporate income tax rates with the purpose of attractingmultinational companies. Various studies indicate the fact that the level of the corporateincome tax represents an important advantage that drives the decisions to place foreigndirect investments. Many European Union member states have initiated corporateincome tax reforms, in order to generate the increase in the competitiveness of nationaleconomies. In the case of the Central and Eastern European countries, where thedecrease in the corporate income taxes was higher, these reforms brought profoundchanges in the economic environment.

  20. Dangerous liaisons: Western involvement in the nuclear power industry of central and eastern Europe

    1992-12-01

    The state of the nuclear industry in central and eastern Europe is an issue of global concern. However, despite all the political talk and corporate hype since the collapse of communist regimes in the region, this study demonstrates that little has so far been done to change the situation. Moreover, the limited level of finance and support which has been offered has tended to support the expansion of nuclear power programmes in central and eastern Europe, rather than address immediately safety concerns relating to existing nuclear reactors and develop more environmentally acceptable and economically efficient energy systems. (author)

  1. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  2. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite. Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of Nb-Ta multioxide minerals (ishikawaite, uranopyrochlore, and fergusonite, uraninite, thorite and cassiterite as numerous inclusions in the recorded Hf-zircon and ferrocolumbite minerals.Abu Rusheid pegmatites are found as small and large bodies that occur as simple and complex (zoned pegmatites.Abu Rusheid rare-metal pegmatites occur as steeply dipping bodies of variable size, ranging from 1 to 5 m in width and 10 to 50 m in length. The zoned pegmatites are composed of wall zone of coarser granitic gneisses, intermediated zone of K-feldspar and pocket of mica (muscovite and biotite, and core of quartz and pocket ofmica with lenses of rare metals.The zircon is of bipyramidal to typical octahedral form and short prisms. Because the zircon of the investigated Abu Rushied pegmatite frequently contains hafnium in amounts ranging between 2.31 and 11.11%, the studied zircon was designated as Hf-rich zircon. This zircon commonly exhibits a normal zoning with rims consistentlyhigher in Hf than cores. The bright areas in the crystal either in core or rim showed a remarkable enrichment in hafnium content (8.83–11.11% with respect to the dark zones (3.19%. The investigated ferroclumbite commonly exhibits zoning; the dark zone is low in the Ta and U but the light zone is enriched in Ta (13% and U (1%. EMPAanalyses indicate the chemical composition of ishikawaite with U ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 per formula unit.Uranopyrochlore species has dominant uranium in the A

  3. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  4. Stroke care in Central Eastern Europe: current problems and call for action.

    Lenti, Laura; Brainin, Michael; Titianova, Ekaterina; Morovic, Sandra; Demarin, Vida; Kalvach, Pavel; Skoloudik, David; Kobayashi, Adam; Czlonkowska, Anna; Muresanu, Dafin F; Shekhovtsova, Ksenia; Skvortsova, Veronica I; Sternic, Nadezda; Beslac Bumbasirevic, Ljiljana; Svigelj, Viktor; Turcani, Peter; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2013-07-01

    Stroke is a major medical problem and one of the leading causes of mortality and disability all over in Europe. However, there are significant East-West differences in stroke care as well as in stroke mortality and morbidity rates. Central and Eastern European countries that formerly had centralized and socialist health care systems have serious and similar problems in organizing health and stroke care 20 years after the political transition. In Central and Eastern Europe, stroke is more frequent, the mortality rate is higher, and the victims are younger than in Western Europe. High-risk patients live in worse environmental conditions, and the socioeconomic consequences of stroke further weaken the economic development of these countries. To address these issues, a round table conference was organized. The main aim of this conference was to discuss problems to be solved related to acute and chronic stroke care in Central and Eastern European countries, and also, to exchange ideas on possible solutions. In this article, the discussed problems and possible solutions will be summarized, and introduce 'The Budapest Statement of Stroke Experts of Central and Eastern European countries'. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  5. A Brief History of the Study of Fish Osmoregulation: The Central Role of the Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory

    Evans, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory (MDIBL) has played a central role in the study of fish osmoregulation for the past 80 years. In particular, scientists at the MDIBL have made significant discoveries in the basic pattern of fish osmoregulation, the function of aglomerular kidneys and proximal tubular secretion, the roles of NaCl cotransporters in intestinal uptake and gill and rectal gland secretion, the role of the shark rectal gland in osmoregulation, the mechanisms of salt secretion by the teleost fish gill epithelium, and the evolution of the ionic uptake mechanisms in fish gills. This short review presents the history of these discoveries and their relationships to the study of epithelial transport in general. PMID:21423356

  6. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  7. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  8. Contrasting serpentinization processes in the eastern Central Alps

    Burkhard, D.J.M.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope compositions have been determined for serpentinites from between Davos (Arosa-Platta nappe, Switzerland) and the Valmalenco (Italy). ??D and ??18O values (-120 to -60 and 6-10???, respectively) in the Arosa-Platta nappe indicate that serpentinization took place on the continent at relatively low temperatures in the presence of limited amounts of metamorphic fluids that contained a component of meteoric water. One sample of chrysotile has a ??18O value of 13??? providing evidence of high W/R ratios and low formation temperature of lizardite-chrysotile in this area. In contrast, relatively high ??D values (-42 to -34???) and low ??18O values (4.4-7.4???) for serpentine in the eastern part of the Valmalenco suggest a serpentinization process that took place at moderate temperatures in fluids that were dominated by ocean water. The antigorite in the Valmalenco is the first reported example of continental antigorite with an ocean water signature. An amphibole sample from a metasomatically overprinted contact zone to metasediments (??D=-36???) indicates that the metasomatic event also took place in the presence of ocean water. Lower ??D values (-93 to -60???) of serpentines in the western part of the Valmalenco suggest a different alteration history possibly influenced by fluids associated with contact metamorphism. Low water/rock ratios during regional metamorphism (and metasomatism) have to be assumed for both regions. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning, ECED 2015 - Book of Abstracts

    2015-01-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems of reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management in the Central Europe. The Conference included the following sessions: (1): Characterisation and Radioactive Waste Management; (2) Managerial Aspects of Decommissioning; (3) JAVYS Experience with Back-End of Nuclear Power Engineering - Progress in Last 2 Years; (4) Decommissioning Planning and Costing and Education; (5) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning; (6) Radioactive Waste Management; (4) Poster Session. The Book of Abstracts contains two invitation speeches and 30 abstracts.

  10. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  11. Foreign banks and credit stability in Central and Eastern Europe. A panel data analysis

    De Haas, Ralph; van Lelyveld, Iman

    We examine whether foreign and domestic banks in Central and Eastern Europe react differently to business cycles and banking crises. Our panel dataset comprises data of more than 250 banks for the period 1993-2000, with information on bank ownership and mode of entry. During crisis periods domestic

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis: An Emerging Pathogen in Hungary and Central Eastern Europe?

    Sréter, Tamás; Széll, Zoltán; Egyed, Zsuzsa

    2003-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is reported for the first time in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. This parasite may be spreading eastward because the population of foxes has increased because of human interventions, and this spread may result in the emergence of alveolar echinococcosis in Central Eastern Europe. PMID:12643838

  13. Housing markets in Central and Eastern Europe: is there a bubble in the Czech Republic?

    Zemčík, Petr

    -, č. 390 (2009), s. 1-37 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542; GA ČR GA402/09/1755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Central and Eastern Europe * house prices * panel data * unit root Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp390.pdf

  14. Keeping pace with the science: Seismic hazard analysis in the central and eastern United States

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Our evolving tectonic understanding of the causes and locations of earthquakes in the central and eastern US (CEUS) has been a challenge to probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) methodologies. The authors summarize some of the more significant advances being made in characterizing the location, maximum earthquake size, recurrence, and ground motions associated with CEUS earthquakes

  15. Entrepreneurship Opportunities after Military Career: Practice in Central and Eastern versus Western Europe

    Rasa SMALIUKIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    differences between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Western Europe (WE practice. The results indicate the lack of entrepreneurship development policies for early retired servicemen, while service in military often provides highly specific competencies that can be adapted as transferable expertise and knowledge for entrepreneurship.

  16. Proceedings of the 1. Energy regulation and investment conference for Central/Eastern Europe and CIS

    Energy Regulators Regional Association ERRA

    2002-01-01

    The conference's topics are: Privatization and competition in the on energy issues in Central and Eastern Europe, in Southeast Europe, in the Commonwealth of Independent States; Pricing and investment policies in the regions; Electricity and district heating; Natural gas; Regional electricity trade, 15 papers were indexed and abstracted for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  17. EU-China Trade Partnership: Strategic Importance of Central and Eastern European Members

    Loredana Jitaru

    2016-01-01

    the increase of Chinese investment in Europe. This paper aims to analyze trade flows betweenChina and the EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe in the framework of the EU-Chinatrade partnership and how these countries can be considered a strategic partner in EU-Chinatrade relations.

  18. Comparative politics in central and eastern europe: Mapping publications over the past 20 years

    Schneider, Carsten Q; Bochsler, Daniel; Chiru, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a new empirical perspective on the state of Comparative Politics (CP) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We present findings on the authors, methods, and epistemology of CP publications in the most relevant journals from eleven countries in the region. The major finding...

  19. Structural changes in Central and Eastern European economies: breaking news or breaking the ice?

    Égert, B.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, R.; Kočenda, Evžen; Morales-Zumaquero, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, 1-2 (2006), s. 85-103 ISSN 1573-9414 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries * multiple structural breaks * volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  20. Development tendencies of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries in transition

    Riesner, W.; Stuits, I.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1997. It outlines the changes in economical situation during this period. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country taken separately. (author)

  1. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  2. The challenges of attracting an retaining academic talent. Central and Eastern European perspectives

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Rose, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are currently facing strong imperatives to increase incoming academic staff mobility. In this article, we focus on barriers and facilitators of academic mobility. We provide examples of Lithuanian and Czech higher education systems that are based on

  3. Abundance of Armillaria within old-growth eastern hemlock stands in South-Central Pennsylvania

    Matthew S. Fromm; Donald D. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—In early summer 2002, 329 soil-sampling pits were dug within an old-growth, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carrière) stand in south-central Pennsylvania recently infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). For comparison, 199 similar pits were dug in an adjacent hardwood stand. Rhizomorphs of...

  4. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and distribution of Cenozoic rotations in Central and Eastern Anatolia

    Gürer, Derya; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Özkaptan, Murat; Creton, Iverna; Koymans, Mathijs R.; Cascella, Antonio; Langereis, Cornelis G.

    2018-01-01

    To quantitatively reconstruct the kinematic evolution of Central and Eastern Anatolia within the framework of Neotethyan subduction accommodating Africa-Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess the timing and amount of vertical axis rotations across the Uluklisla and Sivas regions. We show

  5. Possible thermal structure of the eastern part of the central Alps

    Pasquale, U.

    1987-01-01

    The trend of temperature in respect of depth in lithosphere under the eastern part of the Central Alps between Innsbruck and Graz, using a geothermal model based on the reduced heat production along the vertical and on the thermal conductivity dependence upon temperature and pressure is studied. A linear relationship has been found between the reduced heat flow and the mean surface heat flow

  6. The Transformation of University Governance in Central and Eastern Europe: its Antecendents and Consequences

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Bergan, Sjur; Egron-Polak, Eva; Kohler, Jürgen; Purser, Lewis; Spyropoulou, Athanassia

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the change in governance and management of universities in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries from a multi-level perspective, discussing the impact of changing institutional logics on university management capacities and university structures. The author draws on

  7. Psychology of democracy and democratization: Experience from Central and Eastern Europe

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Supplement (2012), s. 694-694 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : political psychology * democratization * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  8. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign

  9. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  10. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  11. Uranium distributions in the mineral constituents of granitoid rocks and the associated pegmatites at Wadi Abu Had, north eastern desert, Egypt

    Nossair, L.M.; Moharem, A.F.; Abdel Warith, A.

    2007-01-01

    Wadi Abu Had area is located at the northern part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. It covers about 55 km2 of the crystalline basement rocks stretching between latitudes 28o 15'- 28o 25' N and longitudes 32o 25' - 32o 35' E. Abu Had younger granites are fertile (uraniferous) granites as they possess U-contents greater than 11 ppm. Their associated pegmatites show higher U-contents than those of granitoid rocks and hosting secondary uranium minerals. Numerous unzoned and zoned pegmatite pockets are associated with the marginal parts of granodiorite and within younger granites. Zoned pegmatites are the most radioactive ones. They are composed of extremely coarse-grained milky quartz core, intermediate zone of mica and wall zone of feldspars. An alteration zone with secondary uranium minerals (uranophane and beta-uranophane) is found at the contact between quartz core and the intermediate zone.

  12. Development tendencies in the energy industries of the EU accession candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    Riesner, W.

    2000-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European Countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1999 and outline the changes in their economic situation. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country of the Central and Eastern European countries taken separately. (author)

  13. International Collaboration and Spatial Dynamics of US Patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010

    Lengyel, Balázs; Leskó, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia between 1981 and 2010 –a period that covers both the late socialist era and the post-socialist transition. Cleaning and analyzing the publicly available data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office we illustrate that Central and Eastern European patents made in international co-operations with partners outside the region receive more citations than those Central and Eastern European patents that lack international co-operation. Furthermore, the technological portfolio of the former patents has become increasingly independent from the technological portfolio of the latter class. A town-level analysis of the applicant-inventor ties reveals that inventors have started to work for foreign assignees in those towns where no innovation activity had been recorded before. However, the positive effect does not last long and patenting seems to be only periodic in the majority of these towns. Therefore, innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries, as well as in other less developed regions, shall foster synergies between international and domestic collaborations in order to decrease regional disparities in patenting. PMID:27846288

  14. International Collaboration and Spatial Dynamics of US Patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010.

    Lengyel, Balázs; Leskó, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia between 1981 and 2010 -a period that covers both the late socialist era and the post-socialist transition. Cleaning and analyzing the publicly available data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office we illustrate that Central and Eastern European patents made in international co-operations with partners outside the region receive more citations than those Central and Eastern European patents that lack international co-operation. Furthermore, the technological portfolio of the former patents has become increasingly independent from the technological portfolio of the latter class. A town-level analysis of the applicant-inventor ties reveals that inventors have started to work for foreign assignees in those towns where no innovation activity had been recorded before. However, the positive effect does not last long and patenting seems to be only periodic in the majority of these towns. Therefore, innovation policy in Central and Eastern European countries, as well as in other less developed regions, shall foster synergies between international and domestic collaborations in order to decrease regional disparities in patenting.

  15. Ultrastructure of GABA- and tachykinin-immunoreactive neurons in the lower division of the central body of the desert locust

    Uwe Homberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The central complex, a group of neuropils spanning the midline of the insect brain, plays a key role in spatial orientation and navigation. In the desert locust and other species, many neurons of the central complex are sensitive to the oscillation plane of polarized light above the animal and are likely involved in the coding of compass directions derived from the polarization pattern of the sky. Polarized light signals enter the locust central complex primarily through two types of -aminobutyric acid (GABA-immunoreactive tangential neurons, termed TL2 and TL3 that innervate specific layers of the lower division of the central body (CBL. Candidate postsynaptic partners are columnar neurons (CL1 connecting the CBL to the protocerebral bridge. Subsets of CL1 neurons are immunoreactive to antisera against locustatachykinin (LomTK. To better understand the synaptic connectivities of tangential and columnar neurons in the CBL, we studied its ultrastructural organization in the desert locust, both with conventional electron microscopy and in preparations immunolabeled for GABA or LomTK. Neuronal profiles in the CBL were rich in mitochondria and vesicles. Three types of vesicles were distinguished: small clear vesicles with diameters of 20-40 nm, dark dense-core vesicles (diameter 70-120 nm, and granular dense-core vesicles (diameter 70-80 nm. Neurons were connected via divergent dyads and, less frequently, through convergent dyads. GABA-immunoreactive neurons contained small clear vesicles and small numbers of dark dense core vesicles. They had both pre- and postsynaptic contacts but output synapses were observed more frequently than input synapses. LomTK immunostaining was concentrated on large granular vesicles; neurons had pre- and postsynaptic connections often with neurons assumed to be GABAergic. The data suggest that GABA-immunoreactive tangential neurons provide signals to postsynaptic neurons in the CBL, including LomTK-immunolabeled CL1

  16. Movements and landscape use of Eastern Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Central Asia

    Poessel, Sharon; Bragin, Evgeny A.; Sharpe, Peter B.; Garcelon, David K.; Bartoszuk, Kordian; Katzner, Todd E.

    2018-01-01

    Capsule: We describe ecological factors associated with movements of a globally declining raptor species, the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca.Aims: To describe the movements, habitat associations and resource selection of Eastern Imperial Eagles marked in Central Asia.Methods: We used global positioning system (GPS) data sent via satellite telemetry devices deployed on Eastern Imperial Eagles captured in Kazakhstan to calculate distances travelled and to associate habitat and weather variables with eagle locations collected throughout the annual cycle. We also used resource selection models to evaluate habitat use of tracked birds during autumn migration. Separately, we used wing-tagging recovery data to broaden our understanding of wintering locations of eagles.Results: Eagles tagged in Kazakhstan wintered in most countries on the Arabian Peninsula, as well as Iran and India. The adult eagle we tracked travelled more efficiently than did the four pre-adults. During autumn migration, telemetered eagles used a mixture of vegetation types, but during winter and summer, they primarily used bare and sparsely vegetated areas. Finally, telemetered birds used orographic updrafts to subsidize their autumn migration flight, but they relied on thermal updrafts during spring migration.Conclusion: Our study is the first to use GPS telemetry to describe year-round movements and habitat associations of Eastern Imperial Eagles in Central Asia. Our findings provide insight into the ecology of this vulnerable raptor species that can contribute to conservation efforts on its behalf.

  17. Moisture availability over the past five centuries indicated by carbon isotopes of Tamarix taklamakanensis leaves in a nebkha profile in the Central Taklimakan Desert, NW China

    Lang, Lili; Wang, Xunming; Hua, Ting; Zhang, Caixia

    2013-12-01

    We inferred moisture availability changes from 1555 to 2010 in the Central Taklimakan Desert (NW China) using Chinese tamarisk (Tamarix taklamakanensis) litter deposited within a nebkha that developed in this region. The litter δ13C trends revealed fluctuations of moisture availability: From 1555 to 1785, moisture availability was higher than the long-term average, but from 1555 to 1570, 1585 to 1620, 1640 to 1660, 1675 to 1700, and 1730 to 1755, this region experienced periods with lower than average moisture availability. From 1785 to 1850, significant moisture availability changes occurred, and the region experienced the lowest moisture availability since 1555. From 1850 to the present, the δ13C trends suggested that moisture availability increased. Our results also showed that although moisture availability in this region is controlled by precipitation and evaporation in the Central Taklimakan Desert, temperature variations in the adjacent Kunlun Mountains (whose glacier and snowmelt runoff are dominant water sources for the study area) were potentially more important. Water from these mountains plays an important role in moisture availability due the region’s extremely low precipitation. In addition, although previous studies suggested that the Tarim Basin and its adjacent areas experienced a wet climate for the past several centuries, this suggestion was inconsistent with the reconstructed moisture availability changes in the Central Taklimakan Desert. The moisture availability in the Central Taklimakan was more closely related to temperature variations in the adjacent mountain regions.

  18. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The empirical record on PPP tests for transition economies is far from being so opulent as it is for the developed market economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by scrutinizing the theory of PPP on a sample of Central and Eastern European economies. The paper has two main advances with respect to previous PPP studies. First, it employs a monthly data base on real exchange rates for a panel of 12 Central and Eastern European economies by testing the theory separately with respect to US dollar and with respect to Euro. Second, we utilise a panel unit root test that involves the estimation of the ADF regression in a SUR framework. Since our study found support for the validity of PPP in some reforming European economies, special attention should be devoted to individual country-specific factors that cause PPP deviations.

  19. Land Mobility in a Central and Eastern European Land Consolidation Context

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    in a Central and Eastern European land consolidation context. The term land mobility is defined and the limited theory available is reviewed. Case studies of land mobility in land consolidation pilot projects in Moldova, Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina show the correlation between land mobility and the success......In most of the Central and Eastern European countries, land reforms after 1989 have resulted in extensive land fragmentation. The majority of the countries have during the two recent decades introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems with land fragmentation...... or failure of voluntary land consolidation projects. In situations with low land mobility, land consolidation instruments need in order to be successful to be supported by other land policy tools such as land banks. The use of existing state agricultural land is an obvious foundation for establishing a state...

  20. Uncovered Interest Parity in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence and the Global Financial Crisis

    Fabio Filipozzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents tests of uncovered interest parity in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania; all countries in Central and Eastern Europe with floating exchange rates. Data are monthly and the trading horizon is three months. The estimations show that the UIP hypothesis is rejected for the full sample from 1999 to 2011 for all five countries. A number of reasons for the rejection were investigated. Rolling regressions show that standard versions of the UIP essentially lose all explanatory power in 2008-10, which was a period in which the global financial crisis led to instability in currency and interest markets in Central and Eastern Europe. Two indicators of global risk aversion were also found to enter significantly in the many UIP estimations. Finally, the size of the interest rates spread also seems to be of importance, at least for Poland and Romania

  1. The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge

    Mišík, Matúš; Nosko, Andrej

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the 2009 natural gas crisis, energy security has been a crucial priority for countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Escalating in 2014, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia further fuelled negative expectations about the future development of energy relations for the region predominantly supplied by Russia. As a response to the planned cessation of gas transit through the Brotherhood pipeline, which brings Russian gas to Europe via Ukraine and Slovakia, the Slovak transmission system operator Eustream proposed the Eastring pipeline. This Perspective analyses this proposal and argues that neither the perceived decrease in Slovak energy security nor the loss of economic rent from the international gas transit should be the main policy driver behind such a major infrastructure project. Although marketed as an answer to current Central and Eastern European gas supply security challenges, the Eastring pipeline is actually mainly focused on issues connected to the Slovak gas transit.

  2. Income inequality in post-communist Central and Eastern European countries

    Sara ROSE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Income inequality has become an important issue in Central and Eastern European countries during their transition process. This study constructs a model incorporating different categories of factors that impact inequality and tests whether the wealth of a country makes a difference in these relationships. This article shows that different income categories of Central and Eastern European transition countries do experience different relationships between income inequality and its contributing factors: economic, demographic, political, and cultural and environmental. The resulting Random Effects models of the best fit incorporate economic and political factors and show differences in magnitude, direction, and in their significance. These findings add to the literature by taking a cross-country and cross-income view on the impact of various factors.

  3. Contagion among Central and Eastern European stock markets during the financial crisis

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2013), s. 443-453 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wavelets * financial crisis * Central and Eastern European stock markets * comovement * contagion Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/barunik-0396416.pdf

  4. Measuring Corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia : A Critique of the Cross-Country Indicators

    Knack, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses corruption levels and trends among countries in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) based on data from several sources that are both widely used and cover most or all countries in the region. Data from firm surveys tend to show improvement in most types of administrative corruption, but little change in "state capture" in the region. Broader, subjective corruption indicators tend to show somewhat greater improvement in ECA than in non-ECA coun...

  5. Constitutional Politics, Constitutional Texts and Democratic Variety in Central and Eastern Europe

    Blokker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, it is argued that democratization in Central and Eastern Europe involves important forms of differentiation of democracy, rather than merely convergence to a singular – liberal-democratic, constitutional - model. One way of taking up democratic differentiation in post-communist societies is by analysing the constitutional documents of the new democratic orders, and the constitutional politics leading to the foundational documents. In a first step, the paper analyses constitution...

  6. THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON THE ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES

    CUCOŞ PAULA – ROXANA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the positive impact that foreign direct investments have on occupancy rate, on government revenue and economic growth of Central and Eastern Europe countries. The period of time that was analyzed is conducted from 1993 to 2012. Results have validated what the literature says, namely that FDI exerts a positive influence on economic growth in the FDI receiving countries.

  7. Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...

  8. Financing of renewable energy from biomass in the Central and Eastern Europe

    Vajda, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper author presents activities of International Finance Corporation in the field of renewable energy. Author is focused on a description of one of last program called 'Commercializing Energy Efficiency Finance' (CEEF) than to cover all available related products or programs. The CEEF program represents an innovative approach leading to sustainable financing of EE projects including RE biomass projects. Financing of some EE projects in the Central and Eastern Europe is described

  9. Language and Ethnicity in Central and Eastern Europe: Some Theoretical Aspects

    Schöpflin, George

    1997-01-01

    The author defines ethnicity as a community which enables a reproduction of culture. i.e. a system of moral regulation within communities. Cultural identity of a community is a means by which it affirms its moral value vis-à-vis others. The elements of culture (language, religion, customs, historical legacy) serve to an ethnic community for defining borders towards other communities. Nationalism (particularly in Central and Eastern Europe) makes use of the mobilization of ethnic identities. A...

  10. Behavioral Determinants of Russian Nuclear State-Owned Enterprises in Central and Eastern European Region

    Vlcek, Tomas; Jirusek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rosatom State Nuclear Corporation play a substantial role in the energy sector of the Central and Eastern European region and the behavioral characteristics of the company forms the basis of this article. Rosatom is positioned as the dominant provider of nuclear technology and fuel supplies to the region, in large part stemming from the Soviet legacy in CEE countries. Compounding this challenge, nuclear energy is one of the major sources of power generation in CEE. Given the long-time, near m...

  11. Systematic review on the evaluation criteria of orphan medicines in Central and Eastern European countries

    Zelei, Tam?s; Moln?r, M?ria J.; Szegedi, M?rta; Kal?, Zolt?n

    2016-01-01

    Background In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. Objectives To e...

  12. THE PLACE OF BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE AMONGST THE CAPITAL MARKETS FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Iulia-Oana Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study performs a thorough comparative analysis over the last five years on the activity of Bucharest Stock Exchange compared to that of the major stock exchanges in Central and Eastern Europe, respectively, the Bulgarian Stock Exchange, the Bratislava Stock Exchange, the CEESEG Budapest Stock Exchange, the CEESEG Ljubljana Stock Exchange, the CEESEG Prague Stock Exchange and the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Thus, through a correlated interpretation of both the evolution of the main stock marke...

  13. Co-movement of Foreign Direct and Portfolio Investments in Central and Eastern Europe

    Yaman O. Erzurumlu; Giray Gozgor

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically examines short- and long-run relationships between foreign direct investments (FDI) and volatility of foreign portfolio investments (FPI) in 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. We use the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity models to calculate volatility of the FPIs. We utilize the second generation panel unit root test, panel-Wald causality test procedure and panel cointegration analysis allowing for structural breaks, and cross-secti...

  14. Regulating the grid-based energies in Central and Eastern Europe: models, status, issues

    Brendow, K.

    2000-01-01

    As the electricity, gas and heat industries of the economies in transition move towards more market-oriented frameworks, regulators are established to secure fair competition, protection of the customers and a minimum of public service. The paper describes the various models used or contemplated in the autumn of 2000 in central and eastern Europe and identifies fifteen issues, some falling under the competence of governments, others challenging the regulators, again others relating to international co-operation. (author)

  15. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  16. Internationalisation of firms from Central and Eastern Europe: a systematic literature review

    Caputo, Andrea; Pellegrini, Massimiliano M.; Dabic, Marina; Dana, Leo-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature addressing internationalisation of firms from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud This paper presents an inter-disciplinary systematic review of literature about the internationalisation of firms from CEE.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud Three different clusters of research were identified. In the “Internationalisation Processes” cluster, containing many comparative studies, the foc...

  17. Exchange Rate Regimes and Macroeconomic Stability in Central and Eastern Europe

    Paul De Grauwe; Gunther Schnabl

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the exchange rate regime on inflation and output in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) EU candidate countries. The panel estimations for the period between 1994 and 2002 show that de facto measures of exchange rate stability have a better explanatory power than the de jure measures in the inflation and growth equations. For the whole observation period the estimations reveal a significant impact of exchange rate stability on low inflation as well as a hig...

  18. Spatial and temporal trends in distribution of forest fires in Central and Eastern Europe

    Ryszard Szczygieł; Barbara Ubysz; Tomasz. Zawiła-Niedźwiecki

    2009-01-01

    Forest in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) covers 56,285,000 ha (5% of European total forested area). Forest cover in CEE makes 30% of land use. Almost 50% of the forest under study is formed by coniferous species and only 30% by deciduous ones. Forest younger than 60 years old grows on 57% of that area. These factors, together with climate conditions cause that on the...

  19. The Impact of Bribery on Firm Performance: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries

    Anna Kochanova

    2012-01-01

    I examine the relation between bureaucratic corruption ('to get things done') and firm performance in Central and Eastern European countries. While previous re- search relies on data from the BEEPS survey, which suffers from excessive non- reporting of corporate performance, I combine the information on bribery practices from the BEEPS with reliable firm performance data from the Amadeus database. The estimates, identified from within-firm variation, suggest that bureaucratic cor- ruption neg...

  20. The legacy of uranium mining in Central and Eastern Europe - a view from the European Union

    Webster, S.; Vrijen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the countries of Central and Eastern Europe there was widespread mining and processing of uranium which has left a huge environmental and public health problem requiring urgent remedial action. The present paper outlines the situation from the perspective of the European Union by presenting a description of the assistance provided through Community funding and a summary of relevant European Union legislation in this field. (author)

  1. IAEA activities to improve occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe

    Gustafsson, M.; Webb, G.A.M.; )

    1998-01-01

    The following aspects are highlighted: developing standards, ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure), providing assistance, and intercomparisons. By means of these coordinated efforts, the IAEA aims at improving occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe. The objective is not only transfer of knowledge and technology but also encouraging cooperation between health physicists in those countries as well as with health physicists in Western countries. (P.A.)

  2. European future natural gas demand and supply diversification: key issues for Central and Eastern Europe

    Mueller-Elschner, E.

    1996-01-01

    After the breakdown of the former Soviet Union and the COMECON the demarcation line between western Europe and central/eastern Europe has disappeared. The central and eastern European economies as a whole and their gas industries as well as the western European gas companies are preparing for the future enlarged market in creating the prerequisites to participate successfully in such a market and to seize the opportunities this market is offering. The framework for this future European Gas Market has to be created now. The European gas industries and gas markets are in transition and are in a process of reshaping, with the following challenges: (1) In Central and Eastern European countries: To complete the privatization and restructuring process from centrally-planned economies to market-oriented structures with deregulated prices, market-oriented tariff systems and new legal and regulatory frameworks. These are the essential prerequisites for an integration of the central and eastern European countries into a single European gas market and the basis for an effective and successful trans border gas co-operation between east and west. (2) In western European countries: To pursue nearly similar processes of restructuring which are underway: privatization by reducing state participation and influence in gas and energy companies, with the accent on liberalization and deregulation of market structures with fewer market entry barriers, and more competition by reducing the influence of state or private monopolies. Gas companies are undertaking cost-efficiency measures to be prepared to meet the requirements of more competitive market structures and also of a more advanced internationalized gas business. The fundamental rules on which western European gas industries based their operations up to now have to be reconsidered. The old western European structures which have developed under the shelter of governmental protection are under pressure from several sources. EU energy

  3. Seismic evaluation of buildings in the Eastern and Central United States

    Malley, J.O.; Poland, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    The vast majority of the existing buildings in the Central and Eastern United States have not been designed to resist seismic forces, even though it is becoming widely accepted that there is a potential for damaging earthquakes in these regions for the country. These buildings, therefore, may constitute a serious threat to life safety in the event of a major earthquake. The ATC-14 procedure for the seismic evaluation of existing buildings has begun to gain wide acceptance since its publication in 1987. The National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) funded a project to critically assess the applicability of ATC-14 to buildings in the Eastern and Central United States. This NCEER project developed a large volume of recommended modifications to ATC-14 which are intended to improve the modifications to ATC-14 procedure's recommendations for the seismic evaluation of buildings in regions of low siesmicity. NCEER is sponsoring a second project which will produce a separate document for the seismic evaluation of existing buildings which specifically focuses on structures in these areas of the country. This report, which should be completed in 1991, will provide a valuable tool for practicing engineers performing these evaluations in the Eastern and Central United States. This paper will present the results of these NCEER projects and introduce the revised ATC-14 methodology

  4. The development of academic family medicine in central and eastern Europe since 1990.

    Krztoń-Królewiecka, Anna; Švab, Igor; Oleszczyk, Marek; Seifert, Bohumil; Smithson, W Henry; Windak, Adam

    2013-03-19

    Since the early 1990s former communist countries have been reforming their health care systems, emphasizing the key role of primary care and recognizing family medicine as a specialty and an academic discipline. This study assesses the level of academic development of the discipline characterised by education and research in central and eastern European (CEE) countries. A key informants study, using a questionnaire developed on the basis of a systematic literature review and panel discussions, conducted in 11 central and eastern European countries and Russia. Family medicine in CEE countries is now formally recognized as a medical specialty and successfully introduced into medical training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Almost all universities have FM/GP departments, but only a few of them are led by general practitioners. The specialist training programmes in all countries except Russia fulfil the recommendations of the European Parliament. Structured support for research in FM/GP is not always available. However specific scientific organisations function in almost all countries except Russia. Scientific conferences are regularly organised in all the countries, but peer-reviewed journals are published in only half of them. Family medicine has a relatively strong position in medical education in central and eastern Europe, but research in family practice is less developed. Although the position of the discipline at the universities is not very strong, most of the CEE countries can serve as an example of successful academic development for countries southern Europe, where family medicine is still not fully recognised.

  5. Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia.

    Asa'ad, Farah A; Rahman, Ghousia; Al Mahmoud, Noura; Al Shamasi, Ebtehaj; Al Khuwaileidi, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding periodontal disease and its effects on pregnancy among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional survey, self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to 300 pregnant women who were chosen randomly from attendees of maternity health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. The questions were developed from literature reviews of articles. The questionnaire addressed personal and sociodemographic variables, periodontal health awareness, and knowledge of pregnant women. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and was pretested during the pilot study on a random sample of 50 pregnant women. Data were analyzed by χ(2) -tests, with the level of significance set at P disease could be prevented through toothbrushing and flossing. Approximately 97% of the respondents knew the negative effect of smoking, while only 12% knew there was a possible relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results of this cross-sectional study found that there is limited knowledge and awareness about periodontal disease and its possible effects on pregnancy among pregnant women attending maternal health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. [Trophic niche partitioning of pelagic sharks in Central Eastern Pacific inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Li, Yun Kai; Gao, Xiao di; Wang, Lin Yu; Fang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    As the apex predators of the open ocean ecosystems, pelagic sharks play important roles in stabilizing the marine food web through top-down control. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the feeding ecology. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to trace food source and evaluate the trophic position of marine organisms. In this study, the isotope values of 130 pelagic sharks from 8 species in Central Eastern Pacific were analyzed and their trophic position and niche were calculated to compare the intra/inter-specific resource partitioning in the Central Eastern Pacific ecosystem. The results exhibited significant differences in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values among the shark species. The trophic levels ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 in the Central Eastern Pacific shark community. The trophic niche of blue sharks and shortfin mako sharks showed no overlap with the other shark species, exhibiting unique ecological roles in the open ocean food web. These data highlighted the diverse roles among pelagic sharks, supporting previous findings that this species is not trophically redundant and the trophic niche of pelagic sharks can not be simply replaced by those of other top predator species.

  7. Geophysical exploration for gold and associated minerals, case study: Wadi El Beida area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Sultan, Sultan Awad; Mansour, Salah Ahmed; Santos, Fernando Monteiro; Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2009-01-01

    The occurrences of gold and disseminated sulfides lie as a part of the shearing fault zone that extends from the north to the south of the study area for a length of about 25 km. The gold and disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of quartz–feldspathic highly ferruginated rock (gossans) occupying the eastern and central parts of the area. Mineralogical analyses that were done on bedrock samples of the oxidized and alteration zones indicated that there are two anomalous spots of gold contents; the first one has values ranging from 5 to 49 g ton −1 and the second anomaly has values ranging from 150 to 502.5 g ton −1 . Magnetic, self-potential, resistivity and induced polarization surveys were applied at Wadi El Beida area to delineate the mineral ore deposits in terms of depths and extensions through the structural shearing zone. The quantitative interpretation of magnetic data was carried out by using two techniques; the first is 3D magnetic inversion using Euler deconvolution and the second is magnetic models using the MAGMOD program. The results of the magnetic interpretation indicated that the depths of such ore deposits range from 35.9 to 52.7 m and the half width ranged from 27.2 to 87.8 m. The SP contour maps show negative anomalies with ranges from −70 to 20 mV. Most of these anomalies occupy the shear, silicified zones, alterations and rock contacts. The SP anomalies are correlated with other geophysical ones and also with the geological sources. Quantitative interpretation was done on the selected anomalies along the coded lines on the normal SP contour map. The quantitative interpretation of self-potential anomalies (SP) was carried out using two techniques; the first is a new algorithm constructed by Monteiro Santos (2009) using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the second is the code constructed by Caglar (2000). The depths range from 20 to 60 m. The gradient resistivity survey was carried out

  8. Gas price policies in Central and Eastern Europe. Papers and proceedings of the Seminar

    1996-01-01

    The seminar on the topic of gas pricing and its future supply to Central and Eastern European countries was organised by the United Nations Gas Centre, part of the Economic Commission for Europe, and sponsored by the Slovenian gas company Geoplin, the N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie and ABN-AMRO Bank. The purpose was to analyse natural gas pricing as the major prerequisite for further integration of the Eastern, Central and Western European gas markets. Almost 150 representatives of gas industries and government officials of 36 different countries presented and discussed their experiences, know-how and visions on the themes of gas pricing and, in relation to these, future supply options. A total of 19 Central and Eastern European countries were represented, 11 western European countries and two from other parts of the world. The large number of participating countries and the high level of participants present witnessed the general acceptance of the importance of sharing views and information as a step towards further integration of the European gas industry. Establishment of commercial price structures and policies was identified as a main concern of Central and Eastern European countries. At present, in many cases in economies in transition the current end user prices are not sufficient to cover import European border prices. Once introduced, the commercial prices will facilitate a country's diversification, which is not only important for diminishing dependency on one supplier, but its also important for the growth of the European market as a whole. Countries that can rely on a diversified supply will allow themselves to have a larger share of gas in their primary energy supply and will be able to support necessary investment. Future market growth in the European gas market as a whole is of great importance for reducing Europe's environmental burden. Experience over the past 20 years in the western European gas industry demonstrated that the market integration is based

  9. An analysis of Central America and Eastern Europe Revealed Comparative Advantages

    Mauricio Garita Gutierrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The present study applies the revealed comparative advantages through the Balassa Index to determine the comparative advantages, disadvantages, and intra-product commerce tendencies between Central America and Eastern Europe with the purpose of determining the possibility of a free trade agreement for Central America. The approach of the study is through the connection between the European Economic Union and the Central American Common market, which shares a common background and relates them to research of Bela Balassa (1965 to determine how commerce between Central America and Eastern Europe has performed and the possibilities of growth that this commerce has through a free trade agreement. The study demonstrates the importance of analyzing competitive advantages. This paper presents the difference in competitive advantage between Eastern Europe and Central American establishing the benefits when negotiating a free trade agreement between both economic blocks. Therefore, analyzing and negotiating between products of competitive advantages may lead to a more sustainable economic growth.

  10. Micronutrient intake and status in Central and Eastern Europe compared with other European countries, results from the EURRECA network

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Bekkering, G.E.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Glibetic, M.; Golesorkhi, M.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Satalic, Z.; Geelen, A.; Serra Majem, L.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values. Design: Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature source

  11. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed substantially (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over Central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  13. Blood cigarettes: cigarette smuggling and war economies in central and eastern Africa.

    Titeca, Kristof; Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2011-05-01

    To analyse cigarette smuggling practices in central and eastern Africa. Primary data were gathered during long-term qualitative field research in which about 400 interviews were conducted. Analysis of secondary sources included academic literature and reports from non-government organisations, multilateral organisations and the press. Our research suggests that the following factors play an important role in cigarette smuggling in eastern and central Africa: (1) government officials encounter difficulties monitoring the long and porous borders; (2) there is a general problem of corrupt government officials and particularly those who allow large-scale smugglers to operate; (3) criminal elements also play an important role in smuggling--cigarette smuggling has helped rebel groups to finance their activities, something illustrated through examples from the war economy in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our research suggests that cigarette smuggling in this region is not primarily the result of different taxation levels in neighbouring states, but rather the outcome of weak state capacity, high levels of corruption and the activities of rebel groups. Under these conditions smuggling cigarettes becomes an attractive option as taxation is so easily avoided. This explains why in the low-income countries in this study there are high levels of smuggling in spite of low cigarette prices. Comprehensive supply control and enforcement legislation, and cooperation at national, regional and global level are needed to tackle fraudulent practices facilitated by corruption at state level, and to effectively punish interaction between cigarette traders and rebel groups.

  14. Insights into cancer surveillance in Central and Eastern Europe, Israel and Turkey.

    Vrdoljak, E; Torday, L; Sella, A; Leyman, S; Bavbek, S; Kharkevich, G; Mardiak, J; Szczylik, C; Znaor, A; Wilking, N

    2015-01-01

    The current cancer landscape within transitional economies in central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean area is not particularly optimistic. Current perceptions are often based on extrapolations from other countries and regions; and hence the authors collaborated with the South Eastern Europe Oncology Group (SEEROG) to collect information on cancer registration in Central and Eastern Europe, Israel and Turkey. Healthcare authorities and specialist oncology centres in 21 countries in the region were contacted for information on cancer registries in their countries. Based on this information, the authors believe that the recording and reporting of data on cancer in the region is at an acceptable level. The authors discuss and compare institution- and population-based registries, and present opinions on elements of an 'ideal registry' based on the survey replies and comparisons with other registries. A comparison with the sources used for GLOBOCAN 2008 illustrates the need for consistent data to be communicated, published and utilised throughout the region and the oncology community. The authors conclude by considering the potential value of collaboration between health authorities across the region, as well as between the clinical and epidemiological communities, to ensure that cancer data are consistently collected, verified and made public. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Analysis of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects from central and eastern United States earthquakes

    Lindley, G.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the results from three studies of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects of central and eastern United States earthquakes. In the first study source parameter estimates taken from 27 previous studies were combined to test the assumption that the earthquake stress drop is roughly a constant, independent of earthquake size. 200 estimates of stress drop and seismic moment from eastern North American earthquakes were combined. It was found that the estimated stress drop from the 27 studies increases approximately as the square-root of the seismic moment, from about 3 bars at 10 20 dyne-cm to 690 bars at 10 25 dyne-cm. These results do not support the assumption of a constant stress drop when estimating ground motion parameters from eastern North American earthquakes. In the second study, broadband seismograms recorded by the United States National Seismograph Network and cooperating stations have been analysed to determine Q Lg as a function of frequency in five regions: the northeastern US, southeastern US, central US, northern Basin and Range, and California and western Nevada. In the third study, using spectral analysis, estimates have been made for the anelastic attenuation of four regional phases, and estimates have been made for the source parameters of 27 earthquakes, including the M b 5.6, 14 April, 1995, West Texas earthquake

  16. Optimization of Different Physical Parameters For Bio leaching of Uranium and Rare Earth Elements From Nubia Sandstones, Wadi Natash, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Ibrahim, H.E.; Mira, H.I.; Amin, M.M.; MORSY, W.M.; Abdel Aziz, Z.K.

    2013-01-01

    Five fungal species were isolated from two Nubia sandstone samples at Wadi Natash, Eastern Desert, These species were then tested for their ability in bio leaching of uranium and rare earth elements he two ore samples (G1 and G2) whose assay of U attains 65 and 150 ppm respectively while their assay Es attains 1590 and 1152 ppm respectively. Among the isolated fungi both Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus have been the only species that give the highest leaching efficiencies .Thus in case of G2 sample the leaching of U has reached up to 90% of uranium by using A. niger while that of REEs has attained 84% by A flavus under the studied optimum conditions .The latter involved shaking at 100 rpm for 7 days incubation time, 2% pulp density,> 0.2 mm grain size and 35°C incubation temperature. Production of organic acids (oxalic and, citric acids) by two fungal species in their culture filtrate represents the key realized bio leaching processes

  17. Geochemistry of U-Th- REE bearing minerals, in radioactive pegmatite in Um Swassi-Dara area, north eastern desert, Egypt

    Ali, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the pegmatites in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt have high radioactive values, between them the studied radioactive pegmatites which are clustered just in the western margin of Um Swassi-Dara hosted monzogranites. In zoned pegmatite the alteration zones locate between quartz core and intermediate zone are characterizing with the abundance of rare-earth minerals, anderbergite, cenosite, Y-allanite and uranium, thorium minerals such as euxenite, ferro-columbite and complex titanium-yetrum oxides (Kobbite). This zone is a result of many alteration processes developed from volatile-rich magmatic fluids and/or hydrothermal solution which evolved from late differentiated magmatic fluid and lead to increase of U, Th, Zr, Nb, Ti and REE bearing minerals. Such a distinctive alkaline mineralization suite, possibly related to an alkali fluid phase, is superimposed on a more normal, less alkaline group of minerals such as cassiterite, chalcopyrite, and galena. Nb-Ta-Ti minerals bearing U and Th, define a sequence of oxide, cyclosilicate and silicate minerals, showing the effect of hydrothermal overprinting with extreme REE enrichment of the fluids. It can be concluded that the studied mineralization took place in three overlapping stages

  18. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Resolving Bad Loans in Central and Eastern Europe: The Cases of Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic

    Jeong-Chul Han

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of transformation in old socialist country in Eastern Europe in 1989, a large scale insolvent debenture emerges. Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic which drove Eastern Europe's economy, use insolvent loan to solve this insolvent debenture and these three countries also make the government bonds as money supply funding patterns. But Hungary and Poland use decentralized solution and leading banks to deal with the bad creditor. On the contrary, Czech has no special way of dealing with that, but let some certain bank mainly focusing on the bad creditor which is called centralized solution. Now, Korean government is using the similar method like Czech. In this point of view, in order avoid insolvent debenture becoming the burden of economy, Korea has to work out the same plan to deal with insolvent debenture with Poland.

  20. Natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazard indices in granite from aswan to wadi el-allaqi south eastern desert, Egypt

    El-Taher, A.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Orabi, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in granite from Aswan to Wadi El-Allaqi area which is located in southeastern desert of Egypt were undertaken. The samples collected from five locations: Gabal El Mesala, Umm Hibal, Abu Herigle, Abu Marw and Deneibit El Quleib. The purpose of this study is to provide a baseline map of radioactivity background levels in the investigated area environment and will be used as reference information to assess any changes in the radioactive background level due to geological processes. The highest average values of 226 R a and 232 T h concentration (24.003 and 31.227 Bq/kg respectively) was observed at Abu Herigle region whereas the highest average value of 40 K concentration 589.984 Bq/kg were detected in Umm Hibal location. The absorbed dose rate in air was found to be in the range between 5.400- 45.109 nGy/h and radium equivalent activity concentration was found in the range between 29.570 - 71.855 Bq/Kg. Also the representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples was also estimated and given

  1. Livestock grazing, habitat protection and diversity of bees and wasps in the Central Monte desert

    Diego P. VÁZQUEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de las reservas es prevenir o mitigar los impactos humanos sobre los ecosistemas naturales. Es importante evaluar cuán bien las reservas alcanzan este objetivo. Evaluamos si la protección del hábitat que brinda la Reserva de la Biósfera de Ñacuñán (Monte Central, Argentina resulta en cambios detectables en la estructura del hábitat, y en la riqueza y la composición de especies de abejas y avispas. Realizamos muestreos con trampas bandeja y observaciones de visitantes florales en seis pares de sitios dentro y fuera de la reserva. Nuestros resultados sugieren que los treinta y cinco años de exclusión del ganado vacuno en Ñacuñán han tenido efectos detectables sobre la estructura del hábitat. Sin embargo, estos cambios en el hábitat se tradujeron sólo en efectos parciales y conflictivos sobre la riqueza de himenópteros, y no tuvieron efectos detectables sobre la composición de himenópteros. Nuestro estudio debería repetirse en el futuro, con un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo y a lo largo de varios años antes que estos resultados puedan ser aplicados como guía de decisiones de manejo.

  2. Microbial Community and Biochemical Dynamics of Biological Soil Crusts across a Gradient of Surface Coverage in the Central Mojave Desert.

    Mogul, Rakesh; Vaishampayan, Parag; Bashir, Mina; McKay, Chris P; Schubert, Keith; Bornaccorsi, Rosalba; Gomez, Ernesto; Tharayil, Sneha; Payton, Geoffrey; Capra, Juliana; Andaya, Jessica; Bacon, Leonard; Bargoma, Emily; Black, David; Boos, Katie; Brant, Michaela; Chabot, Michael; Chau, Danny; Cisneros, Jessica; Chu, Geoff; Curnutt, Jane; DiMizio, Jessica; Engelbrecht, Christian; Gott, Caroline; Harnoto, Raechel; Hovanesian, Ruben; Johnson, Shane; Lavergne, Britne; Martinez, Gabriel; Mans, Paul; Morales, Ernesto; Oei, Alex; Peplow, Gary; Piaget, Ryan; Ponce, Nicole; Renteria, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Veronica; Rodriguez, Joseph; Santander, Monica; Sarmiento, Khamille; Scheppelmann, Allison; Schroter, Gavin; Sexton, Devan; Stephenson, Jenin; Symer, Kristin; Russo-Tait, Tatiane; Weigel, Bill; Wilhelm, Mary B

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we expand upon the biogeography of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and provide molecular insights into the microbial community and biochemical dynamics along the vertical BSC column structure, and across a transect of increasing BSC surface coverage in the central Mojave Desert, CA, United States. Next generation sequencing reveals a bacterial community profile that is distinct among BSCs in the southwestern United States. Distribution of major phyla in the BSC topsoils included Cyanobacteria (33 ± 8%), Proteobacteria (26 ± 6%), and Chloroflexi (12 ± 4%), with Phormidium being the numerically dominant genus. Furthermore, BSC subsurfaces contained Proteobacteria (23 ± 5%), Actinobacteria (20 ± 5%), and Chloroflexi (18 ± 3%), with an unidentified genus from Chloroflexi (AKIW781, order) being numerically dominant. Across the transect, changes in distribution at the phylum ( p < 0.0439) and genus ( p < 0.006) levels, including multiple biochemical and geochemical trends ( p < 0.05), positively correlated with increasing BSC surface coverage. This included increases in (a) Chloroflexi abundance, (b) abundance and diversity of Cyanobacteria, (b) OTU-level diversity in the topsoil, (c) OTU-level differentiation between the topsoil and subsurface, (d) intracellular ATP abundances and catalase activities, and (e) enrichments in clay, silt, and varying elements, including S, Mn, Co, As, and Pb, in the BSC topsoils. In sum, these studies suggest that BSCs from regions of differing surface coverage represent early successional stages, which exhibit increasing bacterial diversity, metabolic activities, and capacity to restructure the soil. Further, these trends suggest that BSC successional maturation and colonization across the transect are inhibited by metals/metalloids such as B, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, and Pb.

  3. Microbial Community and Biochemical Dynamics of Biological Soil Crusts across a Gradient of Surface Coverage in the Central Mojave Desert

    Rakesh Mogul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we expand upon the biogeography of biological soil crusts (BSCs and provide molecular insights into the microbial community and biochemical dynamics along the vertical BSC column structure, and across a transect of increasing BSC surface coverage in the central Mojave Desert, CA, United States. Next generation sequencing reveals a bacterial community profile that is distinct among BSCs in the southwestern United States. Distribution of major phyla in the BSC topsoils included Cyanobacteria (33 ± 8%, Proteobacteria (26 ± 6%, and Chloroflexi (12 ± 4%, with Phormidium being the numerically dominant genus. Furthermore, BSC subsurfaces contained Proteobacteria (23 ± 5%, Actinobacteria (20 ± 5%, and Chloroflexi (18 ± 3%, with an unidentified genus from Chloroflexi (AKIW781, order being numerically dominant. Across the transect, changes in distribution at the phylum (p < 0.0439 and genus (p < 0.006 levels, including multiple biochemical and geochemical trends (p < 0.05, positively correlated with increasing BSC surface coverage. This included increases in (a Chloroflexi abundance, (b abundance and diversity of Cyanobacteria, (b OTU-level diversity in the topsoil, (c OTU-level differentiation between the topsoil and subsurface, (d intracellular ATP abundances and catalase activities, and (e enrichments in clay, silt, and varying elements, including S, Mn, Co, As, and Pb, in the BSC topsoils. In sum, these studies suggest that BSCs from regions of differing surface coverage represent early successional stages, which exhibit increasing bacterial diversity, metabolic activities, and capacity to restructure the soil. Further, these trends suggest that BSC successional maturation and colonization across the transect are inhibited by metals/metalloids such as B, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, and Pb.

  4. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    L′ubica Argalášová-Sobotová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 papers on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults were identified by literature search. The authors reviewed scientific international and local journals, conference proceedings, and local reports published in national languages. The major endpoints were high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction. The target populations were adults. Experimental and exposure-assessment studies, field, empirical studies, social surveys, and epidemiological studies are presented. The major sources of environmental noise were road and air traffic. The results were presented in tables and the most relevant articles were briefly discussed. The importance of this review is that it refers to some countries that no longer exist in the same political and governmental systems. The strength of this paper is that it includes publications that were not evaluated in earlier systematic reviews. Strategies for future noise-related research on national and global level are proposed.

  5. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  6. Noise and children's health: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Paunovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children's health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children's health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children's health in relation to noise exposure.

  7. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and distribution of Cenozoic rotations in Central and Eastern Anatolia

    Gürer, Derya; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Özkaptan, Murat; Creton, Iverna; Koymans, Mathijs R.; Cascella, Antonio; Langereis, Cornelis G.

    2018-03-01

    To quantitatively reconstruct the kinematic evolution of Central and Eastern Anatolia within the framework of Neotethyan subduction accommodating Africa-Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess the timing and amount of vertical axis rotations across the Ulukışla and Sivas regions. We show paleomagnetic results from ˜ 30 localities identifying a coherent rotation of a SE Anatolian rotating block comprised of the southern Kırşehir Block, the Ulukışla Basin, the Central and Eastern Taurides, and the southern part of the Sivas Basin. Using our new and published results, we compute an apparent polar wander path (APWP) for this block since the Late Cretaceous, showing that it experienced a ˜ 30-35° counterclockwise vertical axis rotation since the Oligocene time relative to Eurasia. Sediments in the northern Sivas region show clockwise rotations. We use the rotation patterns together with known fault zones to argue that the counterclockwise-rotating domain of south-central Anatolia was bounded by the Savcılı Thrust Zone and Deliler-Tecer Fault Zone in the north and by the African-Arabian trench in the south, the western boundary of which is poorly constrained and requires future study. Our new paleomagnetic constraints provide a key ingredient for future kinematic restorations of the Anatolian tectonic collage.

  8. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and distribution of Cenozoic rotations in Central and Eastern Anatolia

    D. Gürer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantitatively reconstruct the kinematic evolution of Central and Eastern Anatolia within the framework of Neotethyan subduction accommodating Africa–Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess the timing and amount of vertical axis rotations across the Ulukışla and Sivas regions. We show paleomagnetic results from ∼ 30 localities identifying a coherent rotation of a SE Anatolian rotating block comprised of the southern Kırşehir Block, the Ulukışla Basin, the Central and Eastern Taurides, and the southern part of the Sivas Basin. Using our new and published results, we compute an apparent polar wander path (APWP for this block since the Late Cretaceous, showing that it experienced a ∼ 30–35° counterclockwise vertical axis rotation since the Oligocene time relative to Eurasia. Sediments in the northern Sivas region show clockwise rotations. We use the rotation patterns together with known fault zones to argue that the counterclockwise-rotating domain of south-central Anatolia was bounded by the Savcılı Thrust Zone and Deliler–Tecer Fault Zone in the north and by the African–Arabian trench in the south, the western boundary of which is poorly constrained and requires future study. Our new paleomagnetic constraints provide a key ingredient for future kinematic restorations of the Anatolian tectonic collage.

  9. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Parízková, J

    2000-03-01

    The overall situation as regards dietary intake and nutritional status in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has varied considerably during previous decades; however, after the political, social and economic changes during the nineties these differences have increased further, especially in the areas with low GDP and war, and in the regions affected by radionuclides etc. No systematic surveillance systems in representative samples of adolescents were in effect at the beginning of the nineties in Central and Eastern Europe. There exists relatively more data on nutritional status characterized by body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness measurements. Food intake has mainly been followed in smaller samples of adolescents, and or in special groups (athletes, obese, vegetarians, allergies, Romanies, pupils of special schools etc.). In the countries and/or areas with sufficient GDP and income the food intake has most often been too abundant when considering the real needs of the growing organism, especially from the point of view of energy output. The composition of the diet is not adequate, i.e. too much protein, fats, sugar etc. This situation is similar to that in Western countries, USA etc. On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries. This is mainly due to bad eating habits and nutritional traditions in the families, but also due to the changes of the prices of the mentioned foodstuffs after political and economic changes in this part of the world. Certain nutritional deficiencies were also shown as factors increasing the health risks from the Chernobyl disaster, mainly in the Ukraine, Belorussia and certain parts of Poland.

  10. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries.

    Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Zatonski, Witold

    2007-01-01

    To give an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, beverage preference, and patterns of drinking among adults (people 15 years and older) in central and eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and to compare it to southern and western Europe, Russia and Ukraine. Secondary data analysis. Consumption and preferred beverage type data for the year 2002 were taken from the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and the WHO Global Alcohol Database. Average consumption in central and eastern Europe is high with a relatively large proportion of unrecorded consumption ranging from one litre in Czech Republic and Estonia to 10.5 l in Ukraine. The proportion of heavy alcohol consumption (more than 40 g of pure alcohol per day) among men was the lowest in Bulgaria (25.8%) and the highest in Czech Republic (59.4%). Among women, the lowest proportion of heavy alcohol consumption was registered in Estonia (4.0%) and the highest in Hungary (16.0%). Patterns of drinking are detrimental with a high proportion of binge drinking, especially in the group of countries traditionally drinking vodka. In most countries, beer is now the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Other studies suggest that the population drinking levels found in central and eastern Europe are linked with higher levels of detrimental health outcomes. Known effective and cost-effective programs to reduce levels of risky drinking should, therefore, be implemented, which may, in turn, lead to a reduction of alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

  11. Precipitation history of the central Atacama Desert since the Miocene as reconstructed from clay pan records of the Costal Cordillera/ N Chile

    Wennrich, V.; Melles, M.; Diederich, J. L.; Fernández Galego, E.; Ritter, B.; Brill, D.; Niemann, K.; Rolf, C.; Dunai, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperaridity is a major limitation of Earth-surface processes and biological activity in the Atacama Desert of N Chile, one of the oldest and the driest deserts on Earth. But even the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert of N Chile has experienced sever precipitation events, e.g., during the flash floods in 2015. On geological timescales, the overall aridity that is postulated to have lasted at least since the early Miocene was punctuated by distinct pluvial events. Such wetter conditions, e.g. during the Miocene, caused widespread lake-formation in the Central Depression and Coastal Cordillera, but also caused amplified surface processes, changes in vegetation dynamics, and enabled the dispersal of species. Unfortunately, due to the limited number and heterogeneous appearance of climate archives from the central Atacama, it's longer-scale precipitation history is still a matter of controversy. This study aims to study continuous longterm (Pleistocene-Miocene) paleoclimatic and environmental records from the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert covering the last >10 Ma. Therefor we investigate clay pans records from endorheic basins in the Coastal Cordillera mostly formed by blocking of drainage by tectonic movement. The clay pans under study are located along a latitudinal transect across the hyperarid core of the Atacama, and thus, are assumed to have recorded local and regional precipitation variations on different timescales. The investigated sequences exhibit significant changes in the sedimentological, geochemical, and mineralogical properties due to changes in precipitation, but also in the weathering and erosion in the catchments. Diatom and phytolith remains preserved in these records clearly point to significant water bodies during the wettest periods and a significant vegetation cover. The results shed a new light on the timing, frequency, and the driving mechanisms of the intervening pluvial phases.

  12. Acquits communautaire in quality management in the energy sector -Central and Eastern European Countries

    Ristikj, Julija

    1997-01-01

    Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)

  13. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  14. Undergraduate teaching of nuclear medicine: a comparison between Central and Eastern Europe and European Union countries

    Lass, P.; Scheffler, J.; Bandurski, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper overviews the curricula of nuclear medicine (NM) undergraduate training in 34 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and 37 European Union (EU) medical faculties. The data show enormous variation in the number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine, varying between 1-2 to 40 hours and highly differentiated concepts/ideas of nuclear medicine training in particular countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. (author)

  15. Real Estate Appraisal in Central-Eastern Europe: Comparative Analysis of Poland and Slovakia

    Adamuscin Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The countries in Central-Eastern Europe have been subjected to dynamic economic changes. Researchers from Poland and Slovakia study the history of the creation of and rules by which the real estate appraiser’s profession functions. They also present the methodological basics for property appraisals. The original value of this article is a comparative analysis depicting the similarities and differences occurring in the research area, in two countries from the same region of Europe. The analysis may also influence the methodological discussions of specialists concerning the correctness and purpose of certain approaches, methods or techniques of property appraisal.

  16. Mandatory waiting periods and biased abortion counseling in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Hoctor, Leah; Lamačková, Adriana

    2017-11-01

    Several Central and Eastern European countries have recently enacted retrogressive laws and policies introducing new preconditions that women must fulfill before they can obtain legal abortion services. Mandatory waiting periods and biased counseling and information requirements are particularly common examples of these new prerequisites. The present article considers these requirements in light of international human rights standards and public health guidelines, and outlines the manner in which, by imposing regressive barriers on women's access to legal abortion services, these new laws and policies undermine women's health and well-being, fail to respect women's human rights, and reinforce harmful gender stereotypes and abortion stigma. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. The economic recovery in the Central and Eastern European EU countries

    Elena GURGU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the recession in 2008-09, the economies of the eight EU countries in central and Eastern Europe outside the euro area (CEE are recovering gradually, albeit with significant differences across countries. The expansion in economic activity is currently being driven primarily by exports as domestic demand remains subdued. Those countries that accumulated relatively more substantial internal and external imbalances before the financial crisis suffered more severe contractions in output during the crisis, and most of them face a more sluggish economic recovery.

  18. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S

    2017-01-01

    country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. RESULTS: In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE...... and one in five the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) Panel guidelines from 2012. CONCLUSIONS: Participants declared their will to promote the widespread use of EACS guidelines for HIV infection in the CEE region and neighbouring countries by signing the Warsaw Declaration. They also...

  19. Foreign direct investment and income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Svilena MIHAYLOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI on income inequality in ten countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE in the period 1990 – 2012. First, the theoretical and empirical literature on the distributional effect of FDI is outlined. Second, we discuss briefly general trends in FDI inflow and income inequality in the countries from CEE after 1990. Third, we estimate several fixed effects regression models and find that FDI has the potential to exert influence on income inequality but this effect varies depending on the level of education and economic development of the host countries.

  20. New records of long-legged flies (Diptera, Dolichopodidae from Central and North-Eastern Iran

    I. Ya. Grichanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During a 2016-2017 survey conducted in Isfahan, Lorestan, Markazi, North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan, South Khorasan and Tehran provinces located in the Central and North-Eastern Iran, about 1000 specimens of Dolichopodidae were collected and identified. Eight dolichopodid species [Dolichopus jaxarticus Stackelberg, 1927, Hydrophorus viridis (Meigen, 1824, Medetera diadema (Linnaeus, 1767, M. lamprostoma Loew, 1871, M. roghii Rampini et Canzoneri, 1979, Tachytrechus kowarzi Mik, 1864, Tachytrechus sogdianus Loew, 1871, and Thinophilus flavipalpis (Zetterstedt, 1843] are recorded for the first time in Iran. Dolichopus subimmaculatus Kazerani, Pollet, Khaghaninia, 2017, is placed in synonymy with Dolichopus perversus Loew, 1871 (syn. nov.. Lectotype is designated for D. perversus.

  1. Phytosociological Survey on the Central Coastal Lowlands of Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Farghali, Kotb Amer; Zareh, Moumn Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    The vegetation composition of the central coastal low lands of Eastern Saudi Arabia was analyzed. The appearance and distribution of the studied plant groupings were affected by atmospheric, by edaphic conditions as well as topography. Eighty seven species belonging to (33) families of flowering plants were recorded in the following seven plant communities which are dominated and co-dominated by (Zygophyllum qatarense), (Lasiurus scindicus and Lycium shawii), (Alhagi graecorum and Cynodon dactylon), (Phoenix dactelifera and Tamarix aphylla),(Aeluropuslagopoides and Sporobolous ioclados), ( Halocnemum strobilacium and Arthrocenemum macrostachyum) and (Avicennia marina). (author)

  2. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES

    Cristina Mihaela Amarandei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment inflows for ten Central and Eastern European states. The paper attempts to answer the question: what is the role of corruption in attracting foreign direct investments? Using the data from UNCTAD for foreign direct investment and Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International, for a period of 12 years, 2000-2012, we evaluate the specific impact of corruptions on FDI using GDP as control variable. Our results confirm the majority of literature and show a negative significant relation between the variables analyzed, but at a lower intensity than expected.

  3. HIV care in Central and Eastern Europe: How close are we to the target?

    Deniz Gokengin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this survey was to describe the current status of HIV care in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and to investigate how close the region is to achieving the UNAIDS 2020 target of 90–90–90. Methods: In 2014, data were collected from 24 Central and Eastern European countries using a 38-item questionnaire. Results: All countries reported mandatory screening of blood and organ donors for HIV. Other groups subjected to targeted screening included people who inject drugs (PWID (15/24, 62.5%, men who have sex with men (MSM (14/24, 58.3%, and sex workers (12/24, 50.0%. Only 14 of the 24 countries (58.3% screened pregnant women. The percentages of late presentation and advanced disease were 40.3% (range 14–80% and 25.4% (range 9–50%, respectively. There was no difference between countries categorized by income or by region in terms of the percentages of persons presenting late or with advanced disease. The availability of newer antiretroviral drugs (rilpivirine, etravirine, darunavir, maraviroc, raltegravir, dolutegravir tended to be significantly better with a higher country income status. Ten countries reported initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART regardless of CD4+ T cell count (41.7%, five countries (20.8% used the threshold of <500 cells/μl, and nine countries (37.5% used the threshold of <350 cells/μl. Initiation of ART regardless of the CD4+ T cell count was significantly more common among high-income countries than among upper-middle-income and lower-middle-income countries (100% vs. 27.3% and 0%, respectively; p = 0.001. Drugs were provided free of charge in all countries and mostly provided by governments. There were significant discrepancies between countries regarding the follow-up of people living with HIV. Conclusions: There are major disparities in the provision of HIV care among sub-regions in Europe, which should be addressed. More attention in terms of funding, knowledge and experience

  4. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  5. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Broga, Mindaugas; Mijaljica, Goran; Waligora, Marcin; Keis, Aime; Marusic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union. The most common ethical issues addressed by all journals in the region were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright or licensing details. Image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials were the least common ethical policies. Three aspects were significantly more common in journals published outside the EU: statements on the endorsement of international editorial standards, contributorship policy, and image manipulation. On the other hand, copyright or licensing information were more prevalent in journals published in the Eastern EU. The existence of significant differences among biomedical journals' ethical policies calls for further research and active measures to harmonize policies across journals.

  6. Review of Research into Enterprise Bankruptcy Prediction in Selected Central and Eastern European Countries

    Błażej Prusak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the first studies on forecasting bankruptcy date to the early 20th century. In Central and Eastern Europe, due to, among other factors, the geopolitical situation and the introduced economic system, this issue became the subject of researcher interest only in the 1990s. Therefore, it is worthwhile to analyze whether these countries conduct bankruptcy risk assessments and what their level of advancement is. The main objective of the article is the review and assessment of the level of advancement of bankruptcy prediction research in countries of the former Eastern Bloc, in comparison to the latest global research trends in this area. For this purpose, the method of analyzing scientific literature was applied. The publications chosen as the basis for the research were mainly based on information from the Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases during the period Q4 2016–Q3 2017. According to the author’s knowledge, this is the first such large-scale study involving the countries of the former Eastern Bloc—which includes the following states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Bulgaria, and Belarus. The results show that the most advanced research in this area is conducted in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Estonia, Russia, and Hungary. Belarus Bulgaria and Latvia are on the other end. In the remaining countries, traditional approaches to predicting business insolvency are generally used.

  7. The recent avifauna of the central and eastern Civilian Control Zone near the Demilitarized Zone in Republic of Korea

    Seunghwa Yoo; Dongwon Kim; Youngmin Moon; Jeongyeon Yi; Taebong Choi

    2016-01-01

    Our survey of the avifauna in the eastern and central parts of the Civilian Control Zone (CCZ) in 2012 and 2013 found a total of 14,390 individuals of 159 species belonging to 17 orders, 44 families and 88 genera. The 159 species of birds found in the central and eastern CCZ constitute 29.4% of the 540 bird species recorded in the Korean Peninsula, showing considerable biodiversity in the bird species that inhabit the surveyed regions. In the central CCZ, we found 9,916 individuals of 117 bir...

  8. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  9. Strategies to address climate change in central and Eastern Euopean countries

    Simeonova, K. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents analyses based on information mainly from the National Communications of nine Central and Eastern European countries that are undertaking radical transition from centrally planned to market driven economics (EIT). It is designed primarily to provide an overview of the policies and measures to address climate change that have been implemented, or under implementation or planned. In order to better understand the objective of policies and measures and the way they have been implemented in EIT countries that analysis has been supplemented by a review of the national circumstances and overall policy contexts in EIT countries that are relevant to climate change policies and measures problems. Therefore, these issues will be discussed in the paper along with analysis of mitigation policies and measures by sector.

  10. The energy system of Central and Eastern European Countries: what does the future hold

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have inherited an energy supply and demand system that was forged by centralized command planning and an administrative-type organization and management mode. The two strongest features of this landscape are without doubt the energy-intensive economic growth and over-investment in the energy sector, that is becoming more and more difficult to sustain in light of declining economic performance. In this context, one of the stakes in the economic transition and reforms is to push for new energy management on both the supply and demand sides. Although the objectives are clear, the ways and means of achieving them are less so, because they depend essentially on the broader economic reform options that are currently in the making

  11. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... influence of Russia, and the war in Ukraine? What could comparative post-communist media studies add to our analysis and understanding of the new CEE realities? These were some of the questions tackled by a recent public roundtable discussion entitled "Media, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Central......), Péter Bajomi-Lázár (Professor of Media Communications, and Head of the Institute of Social Science at the Budapest Business School, Hungary), and Václav Štětka (Senior Researcher, Institute of Communication Studies and Journalism, Faculty of Social Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic...

  12. TopoGreenland: Lithospheric structure and topography in Central-Eastern Greenland

    Thybo, H.; Shulgin, A.; Kraft, H. A.; Vinnik, L. P.

    2017-12-01

    We present models of the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle in the interior of Greenland based on new seismological data from the TopoGreenland experiment. Until this experiment, all seismic data in Greenland was acquired close to the coast, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up. The TopoGreenland data acquisition programme in central-eastern Greenland included the first controlled source seismic experiment in interior Greenland and deployment of 24 broadband (BB) onshore stations for 3 years, partly on the ice cap. The 320 km long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile was acquired on the ice cap by a team of six people during two-months in summer of 2011. We present a 2D velocity model of the crust based on tomographic inversion and forward ray tracing modelling of the controlled source data. It shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western to 40 km in its eastern part of the profile. High lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3 km/s) below central Greenland may result from past collision tectonics or be related to the passage of the Iceland mantle plume. Crustal receiver functions in the surrounding area demonstrate constant structure along the coast and pronounced, relatively sharp variation in crustal thickness around the mountains at the edge of the ice cap. Surprisingly the thickest crust is observed below the lowest topography under the ice cap, whereas the crust is thin below the high mountains at its edge, and thins further below elevated topography out to the coast. Receiver Function interpretation of the mantle and transition zone structure shows a complicated mosaic variation that cannot be correlated to the variation in topography. The origin of the pronounced mountain ranges around the North Atlantic Ocean with average elevation above 1500 m and peak elevations of more than 3.5 km near Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland, is unknown. Our new results demonstrate

  13. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  14. Status of groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Parsons, Mary C.; Hancock, Tracy Connell; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 963-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 52 wells (49 grid wells and 3 understanding wells) and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, not the

  15. HIV care in Central and Eastern Europe: How close are we to the target?

    Gokengin, Deniz; Oprea, Cristiana; Begovac, Josip; Horban, Andrzej; Zeka, Arzu Nazlı; Sedlacek, Dalibor; Allabergan, Bayjanov; Almamedova, Esmira A; Balayan, Tatevik; Banhegyi, Denes; Bukovinova, Pavlina; Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Damira, Alymbaeva; Deva, Edona; Elenkov, Ivaylo; Gashi, Luljeta; Gexha-Bunjaku, Dafina; Hadciosmanovic, Vesna; Harxhi, Arjan; Holban, Tiberiu; Jevtovic, Djorje; Jilich, David; Kowalska, Justyna; Kuvatova, Djhamal; Ladnaia, Natalya; Mamatkulov, Adkhamjon; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Nikolova, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Rüütel, Kristi; Shunnar, Azzaden; Stevanovic, Milena; Trumova, Zhanna; Yurin, Oleg

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this survey was to describe the current status of HIV care in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and to investigate how close the region is to achieving the UNAIDS 2020 target of 90-90-90. In 2014, data were collected from 24 Central and Eastern European countries using a 38-item questionnaire. All countries reported mandatory screening of blood and organ donors for HIV. Other groups subjected to targeted screening included people who inject drugs (PWID) (15/24, 62.5%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (14/24, 58.3%), and sex workers (12/24, 50.0%). Only 14 of the 24 countries (58.3%) screened pregnant women. The percentages of late presentation and advanced disease were 40.3% (range 14-80%) and 25.4% (range 9-50%), respectively. There was no difference between countries categorized by income or by region in terms of the percentages of persons presenting late or with advanced disease. The availability of newer antiretroviral drugs (rilpivirine, etravirine, darunavir, maraviroc, raltegravir, dolutegravir) tended to be significantly better with a higher country income status. Ten countries reported initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4+ T cell count (41.7%), five countries (20.8%) used the threshold of Eastern Europe. The exact needs should be defined and services scaled up in order to achieve a standard level of care and provide an adequate and sustainable response to the HIV epidemic in this region. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Obesity and education in three countries of the Central and Eastern Europe: the HAPIEE study.

    Pikhart, Hynek; Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubínová, Růzena; Marmot, Michael

    2007-12-01

    The international pattern of obesity is only partly understood. While in developed countries the association between education and obesity is inverse, in the developing world social distribution of obesity is less predictable. We examined obesity patterns in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic, middle-income post-communist countries undergoing social and economic transition. The prevalence of obesity was inversely associated with education of individuals in our three samples of Central and Eastern European populations. In agreement with previous findings, the inverse socioeconomic gradient was more pronounced in the Czech Republic and Poland, countries with higher Gross National Product (GNP) than Russia. In addition, obesity was more common in Russian women than in Czech or Polish women while Russian men were less obese than Czech or Polish men. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the social gradient in obesity differs between populations--it is more likely to find a reverse association between socioeconomic position and prevalence of obesity in the more westernized countries with higher population income.

  17. Occupational radiation exposure in Central and Eastern European countries - ESOREX EAST -. Proceedings

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1999-02-01

    On behalf of the European Commission, the BfS is currently executing a project entitled 'European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure - ESOREX'. The project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In each of these countries the - 1. administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, - 2. numbers and dose distributions of occupationally radiation exposed persons in 1995 are surveyed. The aim is to describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the distributions of the workers and their doses. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyse the possibilities for a European harmonization. Because of the intention of numerous Central and Eastern European countries to join the European Community, the harmonization theme is also of considerable importance for these countries. The workshop served the preparing works to execute the ESOREX study also in ten Central and Eastern European countries. In order to establish the necessary contacts and to prepare the co-operation with the respective institutions of these states, the BfS organised, together with the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, an international introductory workshop in Prague in September 1998. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  18. Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption in a sample of 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. Several different measures of financial development are examined including bank related variables and stock market variables. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between financial development and energy consumption when financial development is measured using banking variables like deposit money bank assets to GDP, financial system deposits to GDP, or liquid liabilities to GDP. Of the three stock market variables investigated, only one, stock market turnover, has a positive and statistically significant impact on energy consumption. Both short-run and long-run elasticities are presented. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Research Highlights: → Financial development affects energy consumption in 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. → Bank variables have a larger impact on energy consumption than do stock market variables. → Long run bank elasticities range from 0.117 to 0.276. → These results have implications for energy demand forecasts and greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Web of science coverage and scientific performance of Central and Eastern European countries

    Ploszaj, A.; Olechnicka, A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper put forward the hypothesis that changes in the list of journals, particularly in the number of periodicals published in specific Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, have a significant impact on bibliometric indicators and, consequently, on the convergence levels they are used to measure. The analyses presented in the article support the argument that countries from Central and Eastern Europe, despite showing fairly consistent convergence trends, achieve noticeably weaker results than Western Europe regarding research and development and scientific activity. The evident impact made by the inclusion of numerous CEE journals in WoS on the values of the indicator analysed, directly supports the hypothesis put forward in this article. The results of the study are important because data on the number of publications and citations in the Web of Science are increasingly used as development indicators of national R&D sectors. By showing how modifications in these databases influence the results obtained, we can better understand and thus make better use of data from these sources. The article concludes with listing the possibilities for furthering and deepening selected themes pointed out in the paper. (Author)

  20. Phenotypes of COPD patients with a smoking history in Central and Eastern Europe: the POPE Study

    Koblizek, Vladimir; Milenkovic, Branislava; Barczyk, Adam; Tkacova, Ruzena; Somfay, Attila; Zykov, Kirill; Tudoric, Neven; Kostov, Kosta; Zbozinkova, Zuzana; Svancara, Jan; Sorli, Jurij; Krams, Alvils; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major health problem in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries; however, there are no data regarding clinical phenotypes of these patients in this region. Participation in the Phenotypes of COPD in Central and Eastern Europe (POPE) study was offered to stable patients with COPD in a real-life setting. The primary aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of phenotypes according to predefined criteria. Secondary aims included analysis of differences in symptom load, comorbidities and pharmacological treatment. 3362 patients with COPD were recruited in 10 CEE countries. 63% of the population were nonexacerbators, 20.4% frequent exacerbators with chronic bronchitis, 9.5% frequent exacerbators without chronic bronchitis and 6.9% were classified as asthma–COPD overlap. Differences in the distribution of phenotypes between countries were observed, with the highest heterogeneity observed in the nonexacerbator cohort and the lowest heterogeneity observed in the asthma–COPD cohort. There were statistically significant differences in symptom load, lung function, comorbidities and treatment between these phenotypes. The majority of patients with stable COPD in CEE are nonexacerbators; however, there are distinct differences in surrogates of disease severity and therapy between predefined COPD phenotypes. PMID:28495687

  1. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries

    Grażyna Adler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and i AA homozygote (n = 650, giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588; the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559, mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819; the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410. Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791, between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17. We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  2. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries.

    Adler, Grażyna; Clark, Jeremy S C; Loniewska, Beata; Czerska, Ewa; Salkic, Nermin N; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia), Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria) European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y) from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and 1 AA homozygote (n = 650), giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588); the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559), mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819); the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410). Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791), between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17). We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  3. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  4. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Ristovska, Gordana; Lekaviciute, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight ) for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study). Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  5. Vegetation history along the eastern, desert escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate A.

    2011-01-01

    Plant macrofossils from 38 packrat middens spanning the last ~ 33,000 cal yr BP record vegetation between ~ 650 and 900 m elevation along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, northern Baja California. The middens span most of the Holocene, with a gap between ~ 4600 and 1800 cal yr BP, but coverage in the Pleistocene is uneven with a larger hiatus between 23,100 and 14,400 cal yr BP. The midden flora is relatively stable from the Pleistocene to Holocene. Exceptions include Pinus californiarum, Juniperus californica and other chaparral elements that were most abundant > 23,100 cal yr BP and declined after 14,400 cal yr BP. Despite being near the chaparral/woodland-desertscrub ecotone during glacial times, the midden assemblages reflect none of the climatic reversals evident in the glacial or marine record, and this is corroborated by a nearby semi-continuous pollen stratigraphy from lake sediments. Regular appearance of C4 grasses and summer-flowering annuals since 13,600 cal yr BP indicates occurrence of summer rainfall equivalent to modern (JAS average of ~ 80–90 mm). This casts doubt on the claim, based on temperature proxies from marine sediments in the Guaymas Basin, that monsoonal development in the northern Gulf and Arizona was delayed until after 6200 cal yr BP.

  6. A new look on Imperial Porphyry: a famous ancient dimension stone from the Eastern Desert of Egypt—petrogenesis and cultural relevance

    Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Lorenz, Joachim; Ali, Kamal A.; von Seckendorff, Volker; Okrusch, Martin; Schüssler, Ulrich; Brätz, Helene; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Imperial Porphyry, a famous dimension stone of spectacular purple color, was quarried in the Mons Porphyrites area north of Jabal Dokhan in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, from the beginning of the first until the middle of the fifth century AD. During this period, the valuable material was processed as decorative stone and was used for objects of art, reserved exclusively for the Imperial court of the Roman Empire. Later on, only antique spoils of smaller or bigger size have been re-used for these purposes. The Imperial Porphyry is a porphyritic rock of trachyandesitic to dacitic composition that occurs in the uppermost levels of shallow subvolcanic sill-like intrusions, forming a member of the Dokhan Volcanic Suite. Its purple color is mainly due to dispersed flakes of hematite, resulting from hydrothermal alteration of a dark green Common Porphyry of similar composition, underlying the Imperial Porphyry. Both, the Common Porphyry and the purple Imperial Porphyry', are extensively exposed in the Roman quarries. Contacts between Common and Imperial Porphyry are irregular and gradational. In both rock types, intrusive breccias are frequent, indicating a complex intrusion history. U-Th-Pb zircon geochronology on two samples of Imperial Porphyry and one sample of the Common Porphyry yielded an age range of 609-600 Ma, thus confirming earlier results of radiometric dating. Geochemical evidence indicates that both the Imperial and the Common Porphyry are of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The magmas have formed by partial melting of a subduction-modified upper mantle. The subsequent intrusion took place within a highly extended terrane (HET).

  7. An approach to locate and map swelling soils around Sohag – Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt using remote sensing techniques for urban development

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental consequences of swelling soils are most apparent in arid and semi-arid regions. Sedimentary clays are mixtures of illite, kaolinite and some montmorillonite. There are various soil types liable to swell such as shale, mudstone, siltstone and marl due to the presence of Smectite group in these soils. Large volume changes of these types of soils can cause extensive damages to civil engineering infrastructures; roads, airport pavements, pipelines and shallow foundations. A number of localities in Egypt are well-known by the presence of swelling soils. Sohag – Safaga highway in the Eastern Desert of Egypt is considered to be an investable transportation road and one of the most important lateral connections between Upper Egypt and the Red Sea area. The study area is located in a buffer zone of 25 km from both sides of the highway. This area is believed to be more influenced by the road and could be fully utilized to share in developing areas in the road vicinity. The research objectives are to use recent ASTER satellite imageries with the aid of field samples to map different swelling clay minerals and compare between the different sensors accuracy in locating them within the buffer zone. Certain engineering measures should be considered to enable construction over these types of swelling soils. The results confirmed the presence of montmorillonite in this buffer zone and in the 5 km buffer around the road which represents a hazard especially for the future planned projects within this area.

  8. Geochemistry, Radioactivity and Gamma-Ray Dose Assesment of Igneous Rocks, of Abu El Hassan El Aswad Area, North Egypt Eastern Desert

    Abdel-Monem, A.A.; Moussa, E.M.; Abd El Fattah, M.M.G.; Wetait, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abu El Hassan Al Aswad area, Northern Eastern Desert, Egypt, is located between lat. 26 degree 45/ and 26 degree 58 / N and long. 33 degree 0/ and 33 degree 11 /50// E, covering approximately 270 km 2 . It is covered by a suite of igneous rocks, which are classified according to their silica and potash contents into ultra basic rock class with the least silica and potash contents, basic rock class, intermediated rock class and acidic rock class with the highest silica and potash contents. The ultra basic rocks with SiO 2 2 (42-57%), K (0.15-0.5), U (0.8-3 ppm) and Th (1-7 ppm), produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.266 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.1475 mSv/y). The intermediate rocks with SiO 2 (57-65%), K (0-8-2.5%), U (2-8 ppm) and Th (3.5-14.5 ppm) produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.083 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.4784 mSv/y). The acidic rocks with SiO 2 (65-75%), K (2.6-4.3%), U (4.5-10 ppm) and Th (13-26 ppm) produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.1692 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.9571 mSv/y).It is suggested that the ultra basic, basic and the intermediated rock classes can be used safely as building materials as well as for indoor and outdoor decorations. The acidic rock class may be used for outdoor decorations but not as building materials or indoor decoration due to its high AGDE values, which when added to the other gamma ray exposure source may exceed the International Accepted Radiation Dose Limit to member of the public which is (1-3 mSv/y)

  9. Natural attenuation of uranium and formation of autunite at the expense of apatite within an oxidizing environment, south Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Abd El-Naby, Hamdy H.; Dawood, Yehia H.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), back scattered electron imaging (BSE), wavelength-dispersion spectral scan (WDS), X-ray compositional mapping and quantitative electron probe micro analyses (EPMA) have been used to examine a natural attenuation of U during low temperature alteration of the Sela granite, south Eastern Desert of Egypt. The data confirmed that a pre-existing hydroxyapatite was transformed to autunite through an unidentified intermediate phase. The boundaries between these three phases are not sharp and are generally interfering indicative of the replacement of Ca by U. The hydroxyapatite, intermediate phase and autunite show similar chondrite normalized rare earth elements (REE) patterns suggesting a genetic relationship. Alteration processes have enriched the three phases with heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and Eu and caused Ce, Dy and Yb negative anomalies. Based on the pH of the aqueous solutions, two mechanisms may explain the conversion of hydroxyapatite to autunite: (1) the dissolution of hydroxyapatite and precipitation of autunite which would happen when the uranyl bearing solutions were acidic enough (pH = 3-6.8) to be able to dissolve the pre-existing hydroxyapatite and (2) sorption of the uranyl ion on the surface of hydroxyapatite followed by substitution of (UO 2 ) 2+ at the expense of Ca 2+ . The latter mechanism would have happened if the pH of the aqueous solutions were near neutral and at low dissolved concentrations of uranyl ion. The genesis of uranyl mineralization in the Sela area supports the use of apatite-based technologies for U remediation in an oxidizing environment

  10. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe: Current Situation and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Vrdoljak, Eduard; Bodoky, Gyorgy; Jassem, Jacek; Popescu, Razvan A; Mardiak, Jozef; Pirker, Robert; Čufer, Tanja; Bešlija, Semir; Eniu, Alexandru; Todorović, Vladimir; Kubáčková, Kateřina; Kurteva, Galia; Tomašević, Zorica; Sallaku, Agim; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Bajić, Žarko; Šikić, Branimir I

    2016-10-01

    : The incidence of many cancers is higher in Western European (WE) countries, but mortality is frequently higher in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. A panel of oncology leaders from CEE countries participating in the South Eastern European Research Oncology Group (SEEROG) was formed in 2015, aiming to analyze the current status and trends of oncology care in CEE and to propose recommendations leading to improved care and outcomes. The SEEROG panel, meeting during the 11th Central European Oncology Congress, proposed the following: (a) national cancer control plans (NCCPs) required in all CEE countries, defining priorities in cancer care, including finance allocation considering limited health care budgets; (b) national cancer registries, describing in detail epidemiological trends; (c) efforts to strengthen comprehensive cancer centers; (d) that multidisciplinary care should be mandated by the NCCPs; (e) that smaller hospitals should be connected to multidisciplinary tumor boards via the Internet, providing access to specialized expertise; (f) nationwide primary prevention programs targeting smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption and centrally evaluated secondary prevention programs for cervical, colorectal, and breast cancers; (g) prioritize education for all involved in cancer care, including oncology nurses, general practitioners, and palliative care providers; (h) establish outpatient care in day hospitals to reduce costs associated with the current inpatient model of care in CEE countries and to improve patients' quality of life; (i) long-term pharmacoeconomic evaluations of new therapies in CEE countries; (j) increase national oncology budgets in view of the higher mortality rates in CEE compared with WE countries; and (k) CEE countries urgently need help from the European Union to increase and monitor overall investment in cancer care. Significant differences in cancer incidence and mortality have been observed between European countries

  11. Introduction: Legal Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Challenges and Prospects

    Antal Szerletics

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal education in Central and Eastern Europe is often criticised for its inefficiency, outdated models of teaching, discrepancy between market needs and educational offer, strong power relations within institutions or distorted professional ethos of academics. Many of the institutional problems seem to stem from the peculiar historical past of the region, including the socialist heritage of higher education. Law is a particularly sensitive discipline in this respect as its education was – and arguably, has still remained – deeply overpoliticized. Although direct political influence ceased after the political transition in 1989, the professional ethos and the power relations of legal academia have hardly changed in the last twenty years. The papers gathered in the OSLS monographic issue Legal Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Challenges and Prospects discuss these problems of legal education and propose alternative solutions, which could bring about a change in the field. La educación jurídica de Europa central y oriental es objeto de crítica por su ineficiencia, sus modelos obsoletos de enseñanza, su discrepancia con respecto a las demandas del mercado, las fuertes relaciones de poder en las instituciones y la distorsionada ética profesional de los académicos. Muchos de los problemas institucionales parecen provenir del pasado histórico de la región, incluida la herencia socialista en la educación superior. El Derecho es una disciplina especialmente delicada a este respecto, ya que su enseñanza ha estado -y, probablemente, sigue estando- profundamente politizada. A pesar de la transición política de 1989, la ética profesional y las relaciones de poder que rigen el estrato académico apenas han cambiado en los últimos veinte años. Los artículos reunidos en el monográfico Legal Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Challenges and Prospects analizan los problemas de la enseñanza del Derecho y proponen soluciones

  12. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    2010-02-17

    ...] Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C. Stillwater... & Eastern Railroad L.L.C. (H&E), 14 miles of H&E's rail line between milepost 0.0 at Duke, OK and milepost... available on our Web site at http://www.stb.dot.gov . Decided: By the Board, Rachel D. Campbell, Director...

  13. Analytical results and sample locality map for rock, stream-sediment, and soil samples, Northern and Eastern Coloado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    King, Harley D.; Chaffee, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1996-1998 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geochemical study of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area (usually referred to as the NECD in this report), Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, southeastern California (figure 1). This study was done in support of the BLM's Coordinated Management Plan for the area. This report presents analytical data from this study. To provide comprehensive coverage of the NECD, we compiled and examined all available geochemical data, in digital form, from previous studies in the area, and made sample-site plots to aid in determining where sample-site coverage and analyses were sufficient, which samples should be re-analyzed, and where additional sampling was needed. Previous investigations conducted in parts of the current study area included the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program studies of the Needles and Salton Sea 1? x 2? quadrangles; USGS studies of 12 BLM Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) (Big Maria Mountains, Chemehuevi Mountains, Chuckwalla Mountains, Coxcomb Mountains, Mecca Hills, Orocopia Mountains, Palen-McCoy, Picacho Peak, Riverside Mountains, Sheephole Valley (also known as Sheep Hole/Cadiz), Turtle Mountains, and Whipple Mountains); and USGS studies in the Needles and El Centro 1? x 2? quadrangles done during the early 1990s as part of a project to identify the regional geochemistry of southern California. Areas where we did new sampling of rocks and stream sediments are mainly in the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range and in Joshua Tree National Park, which extends into the west-central part of the NECD, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2. This report contains analytical data for 132 rock samples and 1,245 stream-sediment samples collected by the USGS, and 362 stream-sediment samples and 189 soil samples collected during the NURE program. All samples are from the Northern and Eastern Colorado

  14. The recent avifauna of the central and eastern Civilian Control Zone near the Demilitarized Zone in Republic of Korea

    Seunghwa Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our survey of the avifauna in the eastern and central parts of the Civilian Control Zone (CCZ in 2012 and 2013 found a total of 14,390 individuals of 159 species belonging to 17 orders, 44 families and 88 genera. The 159 species of birds found in the central and eastern CCZ constitute 29.4% of the 540 bird species recorded in the Korean Peninsula, showing considerable biodiversity in the bird species that inhabit the surveyed regions. In the central CCZ, we found 9,916 individuals of 117 bird species. And in the eastern CCZ, 4,474 individuals of 127 species were found. There were a particularly large number of Gruiformes and Anseriformes because much of the CCZ, with the exception of mountain land, has been developed as reservoirs and arable farmland. Species diversity appeared high in mountain regions, while regions that included the coast and farmlands showed low diversity.

  15. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  16. China’s Trade Policy Towards Central and Eastern Europe in the 21St Century, Example of Poland

    Drelich-Skulska Bogusława

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present China’s economic model and discuss, in this context, bilateral trade and investment relations between China and Poland. The analysis presented herein is based on the strategy of cooperation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as presented by China’s Prime Minister, and on the growing importance of Poland as a main partner of China in the Central and Eastern Europe region. The paper describes main premises of the Chinese economic model, followed by a diagnosis of Chinese economy. The authors analyze the main directions of China’s foreign cooperation, placing the emphasis on relations with Poland.

  17. A decade of proteomics accomplished! Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) celebrates its 10th Anniversary in Budapest, Hungary.

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Drahos, László; Vékey, Károly; Kovarova, Hana

    2017-07-01

    The Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) proudly celebrated its 10th Anniversary with an exciting scientific program inclusive of proteome, proteomics and systems biology in Budapest, Hungary. Since 2007, CEEPC has represented 'state-of the-art' proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe and these series of conferences have become a well-recognized event in the proteomic calendar. Fresher challenges and global healthcare issues such as ageing and chronic diseases are driving clinical and scientific research towards regenerative, reparative and personalized medicine. To this end, proteomics may enable diverse intertwining research fields to reach their end goals. CEEPC will endeavor to facilitate these goals.

  18. Characterization of a Novel Chimeric Swine Enteric Coronavirus from Diseased Pigs in Central Eastern Europe in 2016

    Belsham, Graham; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Normann, Preben

    2016-01-01

    During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these co......During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both...

  19. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1–2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%. Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to align in an ENE–WSW direction marking a zone of activity verse the Red Sea. The nucleation of the seismic activity beneath the southern part of the Abu-Dabbab crust is more consistent with the obtained crustal deformation result by increasing the crustal movement in the south part than the northern part. Then, based on the obtained results of the above mentioned studies; seismic tomography; source mechanisms, and crustal deformation we conclude that these seismic activities that are associated by crustal deformation are owing to some magma activity beneath the crust of the Abu-Dabbab area.

  20. Center for Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe: a platform for co-operation

    Tomik, L.; Kichev, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the current status and the activities of the Centre of Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe (CENS). The CENS is a non-profit and independent association supported by the Swiss and Slovak Governments. The main mission of the CENS is to provide an independent platform for technical co-operation between the regulatory authorities of the Western and Eastern countries. The key partners of the CENS are the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the US Department of Energy (US DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD), the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Germany and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), France. The CENS programs for 2003-2004 are presented. It can be considered as a complement to the IAEA activities in the area of short-term and event urgent planning. CENS projects as an example are presented. CENS proposals for co-operation with the Bulgarian institutions are made in connection with the topics of the forum round table discussions

  1. Subtropical Low Cloud Responses to Central and Eastern Pacific El Nino Events

    Rapp, A. D.; Bennartz, R.; Jiang, J. H.; Kato, S.; Olson, W. S.; Pinker, R. T.; Su, H.; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Pacific El Niño event in 2006-2007 and the central Pacific El Niño event during 2009-2010 exhibit opposite responses in the top of atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects. These responses are driven by differences in large-scale circulation that result in significant low cloud anomalies in the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Both the vertical profile of cloud fraction and cloud water content are reduced during the eastern Pacific El Niño; however, the shift in the distribution of cloud characteristics and the physical processes underlying these changes need further analysis. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Clouds and Radiation Working Group will use a synthesis of NEWS data products, A-Train satellite measurements, reanalysis, and modeling approaches to further explore the differences in the low cloud response to changes in the large-scale forcing, as well as try to understand the physical mechanism driving the observed changes in the low clouds for the 2006/07 and 2009/10 distinct El Niño events. The distributions of cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties over the southeast Pacific will first be compared for these two events using a combination of MODIS, CloudSat/CALIPSO, and CERES data. Satellite and reanalysis estimates of changes in the vertical temperature and moisture profiles, lower tropospheric stability, winds, and surface heat fluxes are then used to identify the drivers for observed differences in the clouds and TOA radiative effects.

  2. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations.

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2011-04-01

    To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40-60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21,326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII)=2.02-5.17) and women (RII=2.09-3.57). The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position.

  3. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    Meyer, A.S. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  4. Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    instruments are well on the way in the region, land banking instruments have largely failed in the region, at least as tools for supporting land consolidation programs. Based on the limited theory available, the analysis has revealed how limited land mobility is often hampering the outcome of land...... are not competitive in the globalized economy. Drawing on the classical theory on land fragmentation, this PhD study explores the coherence between the land reform approaches applied in 25 study countries and the outcome in form of farm structures and land fragmentation. Most of the Central and Eastern European...... countries have introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems in agriculture. The PhD study analyses the experiences from introduction of land consolidation and land banking instruments and provides the first full overview of the experiences achieved. While land consolidation...

  5. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  6. Promoting cleaner and safer industrial production in Central and Eastern Europe

    1995-01-01

    The current transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union provides an unique opportunity to integrate environmental considerations into the process of economic restructuring. The use of environmental audits in industry to identify savings in energy, water, and other raw materials is a particularly cost-effective approach for promoting more efficient industrial production and improvements in environmental performance. This volume brings together the papers given at a seminar on ''Auditing to Improve Safety, Environmental Performance and Economic Efficiency'', where the chemical Industry in the Ukraine was a particular focus of discussion. The practical experiences described in these papers demonstrate how environmental and economic performance can be enhanced at little or no cost. Later on, only the article concerning the chemical industry of Ukraine has been analysed. (authors). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Katherine J. Chase

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Projected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21% for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75% for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15% for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44% for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  8. Integration of Capital Markets from Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU Investors

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the extent of capital market co-movements between three emerging markets Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland and three developed markets from the European Union – Austria, France and Germany. We test whether an increase in correlations between the six markets took place in recent years, as revealing higher integration of capital markets in the region. We find a statistically significant positive trend in cross-market correlations between 1999 and 2008, before the emergence of the global financial crisis. Movements in national stock markets are not fully synchronized, but increases in market volatilities lead to increases in cross-country correlations. There is a long-term relationship between some of these countries capital markets, and information is transmitted from one market to the other. Our findings confirm previous studies and lead to the conclusion that stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe became more integrated with the developed markets in European Union.

  9. Seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle in central-eastern Greenland

    Kraft, Helene Anja

    Geophysical and geological knowledge of the interior of Greenland is very limited. The lack of knowledge arises mainly due to the logistical challenges related to conducting geophysical fieldwork on the up to 3400 m thick ice sheet, which covers around 80% of the land area. This PhD thesis is based...... on the very first regional passive seismic study in central-Eastern Greenland, focusing on the area between Scoresby Sund and Summit. The study aims to image the structure of subsurface Greenland starting from the crust and down to the mantle transition zone. Furthermore, the thesis links these observations....... The receiver functions were jointly inverted for the velocity structure of the crust and delay times, and shapes of signals originating at the mantle transition zone discontinuities, P410s and P660s, were analysed. The crustal models show a deepening of the Moho from east to west from less than 20 km depth...

  10. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  11. Determinants of non-performing loans in Central and Eastern European countries

    Bruna Škarica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.

  12. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  13. Determinants of banks’ net interest margins in Central and Eastern Europe

    Tomislav Rizdak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the main determinants of the net interest margin of banks operating in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries in the period from 1999 to 2010. The results reveal several main drivers of net interest margins in the CEE. Prior to 2008 the net interest margins declined primarily due to strong capital inflows and stable macroeconomic environment. In the crisis period, significant rise in government debt accompanied by the increase in macroeconomic risks and abating capital inflows were pushing margins up while other factors such as low credit demand, higher capitalization and significantly increased share of non-performing loans pressured banks’ margins down. The results also confirm the important contribution of higher efficiency to lowering banks’ margins.

  14. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  15. Pricing and reimbursement frameworks in Central Eastern Europe: a decision tool to support choices.

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Kalo, Zoltan; Hornby, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Given limited financial resources in the Central Eastern European (CEE) region, challenges in obtaining access to innovative medical technologies are formidable. The objective of this research was to develop a decision tree that supports decision makers and drug manufacturers from CEE region in their search for optimal innovative pricing and reimbursement scheme (IPRSs). A systematic literature review was performed to search for published IPRSs, and then ten experts from the CEE region were interviewed to ascertain their opinions on these schemes. In total, 33 articles representing 46 unique IPRSs were analyzed. Based on our literature review and subsequent expert input, key decision nodes and branches of the decision tree were developed. The results indicate that outcome-based schemes are better suited to deal with uncertainties surrounding cost effectiveness, while non-outcome-based schemes are more appropriate for pricing and budget impact challenges.

  16. Chances and risks in the future E and P of Eastern-Central Europe (ECE)

    Dobrova, H.; Kolly, E. [IHS Energy, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmitz, U. [LO and G Consultants, Essen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Eastern-Central Europe is a mature region in terms of hydrocarbon exploration and production. Its oil and gas reserves and production are in decline. Reserves replacement requires the identification of new opportunities. Several opportunities are being reviewed for their volume potential and economic viability and, in particular, for their chances and risks. Adequate opportunities in this respect are exploration for hydrocarbons in the region's thrust belts, the drilling of offshore plays of the Black Sea, and the delivery of smaller gas reserves to spot markets and/or independent power plants. The latter opportunities require the implementation of new approaches. As to the exploration-driven opportunities, risk lowering will obviously be achieved by the application of 3D seismic. Several of the identified opportunities will require substantial financial exposure. (orig.)

  17. Europe in Movement: Migration from and into Eastern and Central Europe

    Marek Okólski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two historical events have had a fundamental importance in shaping the new migration trends in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE: the collapse of the Soviet block and the region’s return to Europe, when the first eight countries became full members of the European Unionon 1 May 2004 as a point of inflection. Before 1990, and for several decades, international migration was contained by the totalitarian regimes of the ECE. Based on this scenario, the study describes the different kinds of migration movements that have taken place inthe region since 1989; it analyses migration processes from and into the ECE following its incorporation into the European Union, as well as examining the possible causes for the size, dynamics and geographic direction of the migration flows that took place between EU-8 and EU-15, since the EU carried out its eastward enlargement.

  18. EUPOS - Satellite multifunctional system of reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Sledzinski, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) of establishment of a system of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe is described in the paper. Fifteen countries intend to participate in the project: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. One common project will be prepared for all countries, however it will include the existing or developed infrastructure in particular countries. The experiences of establishing and operating of the German network SAPOS as well as experiences gained by other countries will be used. The European network of stations will be compatible with the system SAPOS and future European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide signal for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be delivered.

  19. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    The 1990s have been a period of extraordinary politics in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This chapter discusses how the transition from state to market has created bureaucratic barriers to entry, but also windows of opportunity for foreign direct investment (FDI). The high costs and high...... investment risks associated with FDI in CEE are a reflection the institutional development. Thus, inflows of FDI have been largest in those countries that made most progress in establishing a market-oriented institutional framework. After outlining trends of institutional change and their impact on FDI......, this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional...

  20. Inequality, Economic Growth and Trade Openness: a Study Case for Central and Eastern Countries (ECE

    Olimpia Neagu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of income inequality in ten countries from Eastern and Central Europe (ECE, by highlighting two aspects: (1 the link between growth and income inequality; (2 the effects of trade openess and other key factors on income inequality, such as: foreign direct investment (FDI, market capitalization and educational level of labour force. The method used was the Panel Data Analysis with statistical data from the period of 2000-2014. An increasing effect in income inequality was identified due to the trade openess, the inward stock of ISD and the market capitalization and an equalizing effect in the income distribution generated by the educational level of labour force. A positive association was also found between the growth of PIB per capita level and the increase of income inequality in the examined countries.

  1. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  2. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  3. Stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in central and eastern European countries

    Giray Gozgor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in eleven central and eastern European (CEE countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The heterogeneous panel unit root tests are used to account for cross-sectional dependence and the Modified Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test over the period March 1997-September 2012. The half-lives are also calculated as to find the strong mean-reversion in the consumption income ratio for nine of eleven CEE economies; and the exceptions are Croatia and Slovenia. In other words, empirical findings provide significant support for the existence of hypothesis that the consumption-income ratio is a mean reversion. Accordingly, the policy implications have permanent effects on the consumption of households only in Croatia and Slovenia.

  4. Financial development and energy consumption in Central and Eastern European frontier economies

    Sadorsky, Perry [Schulich School of Business, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption in a sample of 9 Central and Eastern European frontier economies. Several different measures of financial development are examined including bank related variables and stock market variables. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between financial development and energy consumption when financial development is measured using banking variables like deposit money bank assets to GDP, financial system deposits to GDP, or liquid liabilities to GDP. Of the three stock market variables investigated, only one, stock market turnover, has a positive and statistically significant impact on energy consumption. Both short-run and long-run elasticities are presented. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. (author)

  5. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of Mesozoic intrusive and Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Central Mojave Desert, Kern and San Bernardino counties, California

    Leedom, S.H.; Kiloh, K.D.

    1978-02-01

    Numerous, small, low-grade, supergene uranium deposits are found in Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks in the central Mojave Desert of southern California. Large thorium-to-uranium ratios in samples of Mesozoic intrusive rocks exposed in the area indicate that these rocks have been extensively weathered, eroded, and subsequently leached by ground waters, and that they may have been the primary source of uranium for the deposits. The uranium content of samples of volcanic intrusive and extrusive rocks is average for intermediate to silicic rocks, but samples of basalt flows in the area contain six times the average uranium content of mafic igneous rocks. Devitrified tuffs and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, interbedded with calcareous units, are additional sources of uranium for supergene uranium deposits found in calcareous units. Uranium is also found in accessory minerals in a few Mesozoic quartz-rich pegmatite dikes. Uranium deposits in the central Mojave Desert have been formed by enrichment during diagenetic replacement of Tertiary carbonate rocks; by supergene enrichment along fractures, joints, and bedding planes in Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks; during formation of Holocene caliche; and by deposition within hydrothermally altered shear zones. Within the area, the diagenetic replacement type of deposit has the greatest potential for large, low-grade uranium occurrences. The other type of uranium deposits are small, erratically distributed, and extensively covered by alluvium

  6. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Mohamed, Abdel-Monem S.; Hosny, A.; Abou-Aly, N.; Saleh, M.; Rayan, A.

    2013-06-01

    A local geodetic network consisting of eleven benchmarks has been established to study the recent crustal deformation in the Abu-Dabbab area. Seven campaigns of GPS measurements have been collected started from October 2008 and ended in March 2012. The collected data were processed using Bernese version 5.0, and the result values were adjusted to get the more accurate positions of the GPS stations. The magnitudes of horizontal displacements are variable from one epoch to another and in the range of 1-3 (±0.2) mm/yr. Due to the differences in rates of the horizontal displacement; the area is divided into two main blocks. The first one, moves to the east direction of about 3 mm/yr, while the second block, moves to the SW direction of about 6 mm/yr. According to the strain fields that were calculated for the different epochs of measurement, the main force is compression force and is taken the NW-SE to NWW-SEE direction. This force could be because of local and regional tectonic processes affecting on the study area. The maximum values of compression stress are found in the southern central and western part of study area. Estimated accumulation of this strain energy may be considered as an indicator of the possibility of earthquake occurrence. From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1-2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%). Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to

  7. PROJECTED PRECIPITATION CHANGES IN CENTRAL/EASTERN EUROPE ON THE BASIS OF ENSEMBLE SIMULATIONS

    Erika Miklos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected precipitation changes in Central/Eastern Europe on the basis of ENSEMBLE simulations. For building appropriate local/national adaptation and mitigation strategies, detailed analysis of regional climate change is essential. In order to estimate the climate change for the 21st century, both global and regional models may be used. However, due to the coarse horizontal resolution, global climate models are not appropriate to describe regional scale climate processes. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs provide more realistic regional climate scenarios. A wide range of RCM experiments was accomplished in the frame of the ENSEMBLES project funded by the EU FP6 program, which was one of the largest climate change research project ever completed. All the RCM experiments used 25 km horizontal resolution and the A1B emission scenario, according to which CO2 concentration by 2100 is estimated to exceed 700 ppm, i.e., more than twice of the preindustrial level.The 25 km spatial resolution is fine enough to estimate the future hydrology-related conditions in different parts of Europe, from which we separated and analyzed simulated climate data sets for the Central/Eastern European region. Precipitation is an especially important climatological variable because of agricultural aspects and flood-related natural hazards, which may seriously affect all the countries in the evaluated region. On the basis of our results, different RCM simulations generally project drier summers and wetter winters (compared to the recent decades. The southern countries are more likely to suffer more intense warming, especially, in summer, and also, more intense drought events due to the stronger Mediterranean impact.

  8. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report.

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S; Pozniak, A; Gökengin, D; Youle, M; Lundgren, J D; Horban, A

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize the outcomes of the Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference held in Warsaw in February 2016. The main aim of this conference was to facilitate a discussion on European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines implementation across the region and neighbouring countries and to present the current obstacles in benchmarking HIV care in Europe. During a 2-day meeting, there were country-based presentations using a predefined template so as to make the data comparable and focus the discussion. Areas covered were country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and neighbouring countries were represented at the conference: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. EACS guidelines version 7.1 were used in 14 (87%) countries. In 11 (69%) countries, national guidelines were available, of which eight had been recently updated. Half of the countries declared that they use World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) guidelines, over one-third the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV testing guidelines and one in five the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) Panel guidelines from 2012. Participants declared their will to promote the widespread use of EACS guidelines for HIV infection in the CEE region and neighbouring countries by signing the Warsaw Declaration. They also emphasized the need to increase publishing of data from national cohorts in that region. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  9. Health Care Performance and Health Financing Systems in Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of all health systems from emerging economies is the shortage of financial resources. This fact is currently exacerbated by the economic crisis that has led many governments to reconsider the level of public spending in the health sector. Starting from the Romanian experience, the paper aims to highlight the linkage between the performance of the health system and the total health spending for selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Romania has the lowest level of health expenditure as percentage of GDP in Europe, even if its growth rate for 2003-2008 was the highest. In addition, empirical evidence shows that these resources are used inefficiently. Despite the increasing resources allocated to the health sector, statistical analysis shows that health system efficiency, as measured by under-5 (child mortality rate, is still low. We use regression analysis based on crosssection data in order to explain the differences in health expenditure and their implication on the system efficiency. Health data have been provided by international organizations. Crosssection regression results suggest that totalhealth spending and GDP per capita are the most important factors explaining differences in health status across Central and Eastern European countries, though other lifestyle factors could play important roles.

  10. Policy framework and legal forms of social enterprise in Central and Eastern Europe

    Staicu Daniela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Central and Eastern European countries, the transition to a market economy stimulated civil society initiatives that in the past had been either discouraged or had become part of the Communist state system, and opened new pathways to entrepreneurial initiatives. The 1990s was an open window to the creation of a significant number of non-profit organizations, including the pioneering establishment of the first social enterprises. When these countries became members of the European Union, the process of legal institutionalization of social enterprises started to be discussed and has taken place at various stages. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the policy frameworks and the legal forms and of social enterprises in eight countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The research seeks to determine the extent to which the development of national policy frameworks influences the development of legal forms under which social enterprises operate. For the purpose of this analysis, data were collected from relevant to this subject country reports, studies, laws released between 2009 and 2016. The research shows that European social enterprises are often ‘hidden’ among existing legal forms either as associations and foundations with commercial activities, cooperatives serving general or collective interests and mainstream enterprises pursuing an explicit and primary social aim. Further research needs to be done to determine the potential for growth of entities operating as associations and foundations with commercial activities. Furthermore, the research concluded that the countries with specific laws on social entrepreneurship generate 61 % of the social economy activity in Central and Eastern European countries. Further research needs to be done to determine if introducing a social enterprise specific legal form, will stimulate the development of the

  11. TopoGreenland: crustal structure in central-eastern Greenland along a new refraction profile

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans; Field Team TopoGreenland

    2013-04-01

    We present the seismic structure in the interior of Greenland based on the first measurements by the seismic refraction/wide angle reflection method. Previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up and may not be representative of the interior of the island. Acquisition of geophysical data in onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The EW-trending profile extends 310 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund across the center of the ice cap. The planned extension of the profile by use of OBSs and air gun shooting in Scoresbysund Fjord to the east coast of Greenland was unfortunately canceled, because navigation was prevented by ice drift. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 125 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Two-dimensional velocity model based on tomographic inversion and forward ray tracing modeling shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the center of Greenland in the western part to 40 km in the eastern part of the profile. Earlier studies show that crustal thickness further decreases eastward to ca. 30 km below the fjord system, but details of the changes are unknown. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may indicate past collision tectonics or may be related or to the passage of the Iceland mantle plume. The origin of the pronounced circum-Atlantic mountain ranges in Norway and eastern Greenland

  12. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe. A central and eastern European perspective. The implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    Chioncel, N.E.; Jansen, T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, "Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective" is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project "Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe". The ETGAGE

  13. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE

  14. Integration of remote sensing, geochemical and field data in the Qena-Safaga shear zone: Implications for structural evolution of the Eastern Desert, Egypt

    El-Din, Gamal Kamal; Abdelkareem, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    The Qena-Safaga shear zone (QSSZ) represents a significant structural characteristic in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Remote Sensing, field and geochemical data were utilized in the present study. The results revealed that the QSSZ dominated by metamorphic complex (MC) that intruded by syn-tectonic granitoids. The low angle thrust fault brings calc-alkaline metavolcanics to overlie MC and its association. Subsequently, the area is dissected by strike-slip faults and the small elongated basins of Hammamat sediments of Precambrian were accumulated. The MC intruded by late-to post-tectonic granites (LPG) and Dokhan Volcanics which comprise felsic varieties forming distinctive columnar joints. Remote sensing analysis and field data revealed that major sub-vertical conspicuous strike-slip faults (SSF) including sinistral NW-SE and dextral ca. E-W shaped the study area. Various shear zones that accompanying the SSF are running NW-SE, NE-SW, E-W, N-S and ENE-WSW. The obtained shear sense presented a multiphase of deformation on each trend. i.e., the predominant NW-SE strike-slip fault trend started with sinistral displacement and is reactivated during later events to be right (dextral) strike slip cutting with dextral displacement the E-W trending faults; while NE-SW movements are cut by both the N-S and NNW - SSE trends. Remote sensing data revealed that the NW-SE direction that dominated the area is associated with hydrothermal alteration processes. This allowed modifying the major and trace elements of the highly deformed rocks that showed depletion in SiO2 and enrichments in Fe2O3, MnO, Al2O3, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, Cu, Zn and Pb contents. The geochemical signatures of major and trace elements revealed two types of granites including I-type calc-alkaline granites (late-to post-tectonic) that formed during an extensional regime. However, syn-tectonic granitoids are related to subduction-related environment.

  15. The evaluation of radon concentration and working levels using SSNTD in the U-exploration galleries in the eastern desert, Egypt

    Abdel-hafez, A.I.; Eissa, H.M.; Abdel-Monem, A.A.; Abdel-Razek, Y.A.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-fiki, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Radon gas concentrations and the working levels (radon daughters concentrations) were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) namely Cr-39, Mk, Lr 115 and CN 85, in three U-exploration galleries at Qattar-1, El Missikat, and El-Erediya areas, eastern desert, Egypt. In each U-exploration gallery 10 monitoring stations were chosen for measurements. The locations covered the differing intensities of the U-mineralization as well as ventilation conditions. Two sets of measurements were for the time intervals and 50 days). Calibration experiments on the SSNTD were performed using 238 Pu source (6.06/MeV), to find the optimum conditions for etching the detectors. The ranges of alpha track densities (t/mm 2 day) measured for Qattar-1 gallery are 23.7-46.6 (CR-39), 13.4-30.9 (MK), 11.1-22.9 (CN-85) and 8.8-15.4 (LR-115) for 27 day monitoring, whereas the ranges for the 50 days experiment are 8.8-25.8 (CR-39), 8.3-15.4 (MK) and 3.9-8.2 (LR-115). In el Missikat gallery, the alpha track densities ranges are 17.1-128.8 (CR-39), 11.4-73.1 (MK), 8.0-74.4 (CN.85) and 5.7-37.8 (LR-115) for the 27 day interval, whereas the ranges are (CR-39), 6.3-38.0 (MK) and 3.4-21.0 (LR-115) for the 50 days experiments. Alpha tracks densities for El-Erediya gallery ranges are 14.1-39.9 (CR-39), 8.9-20.0 (MK), 7.9-23.1 (CN-85), and 2.7-17.6 (LR-115) for the 27 days experiment. whereas the ranges are 8.5-22.7 (CR-39), 6.4-13.4 (MK), and 2.4-9.3 (LR-115)for the 50 days experiment. Working level measurements are compared with 1 W L equivalent to 16.28 tracks/ mm 2 day. Evaluation of the measurements at each monitoring station is discussed in terms of U-concentration and ventilation conditions. Also, the efficiency of the different SSNTD are discussed as well as the optimum time of monitoring at each U-exploration gallery. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  16. The evaluation of radon concentration and working levels using SSNTD in the U-exploration galleries in the eastern desert, Egypt

    Abdel-hafez, A I; Eissa, H M [National Institute of Measurement and Standards, Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Monem, A A; Abdel-Razek, Y A; El-Naggar, A M [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo (Egypt); El-fiki, S A [Physicsics Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Ain Shams University. Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Radon gas concentrations and the working levels (radon daughters concentrations) were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) namely Cr-39, Mk, Lr 115 and CN 85, in three U-exploration galleries at Qattar-1, El Missikat, and El-Erediya areas, eastern desert, Egypt. In each U-exploration gallery 10 monitoring stations were chosen for measurements. The locations covered the differing intensities of the U-mineralization as well as ventilation conditions. Two sets of measurements were for the time intervals and (50 days). Calibration experiments on the SSNTD were performed using {sup 238} Pu source (6.06/MeV), to find the optimum conditions for etching the detectors. The ranges of alpha track densities (t/mm{sup 2} day) measured for Qattar-1 gallery are 23.7-46.6 (CR-39), 13.4-30.9 (MK), 11.1-22.9 (CN-85) and 8.8-15.4 (LR-115) for 27 day monitoring, whereas the ranges for the 50 days experiment are 8.8-25.8 (CR-39), 8.3-15.4 (MK) and 3.9-8.2 (LR-115). In el Missikat gallery, the alpha track densities ranges are 17.1-128.8 (CR-39), 11.4-73.1 (MK), 8.0-74.4 (CN.85) and 5.7-37.8 (LR-115) for the 27 day interval, whereas the ranges are (CR-39), 6.3-38.0 (MK) and 3.4-21.0 (LR-115) for the 50 days experiments. Alpha tracks densities for El-Erediya gallery ranges are 14.1-39.9 (CR-39), 8.9-20.0 (MK), 7.9-23.1 (CN-85), and 2.7-17.6 (LR-115) for the 27 days experiment. whereas the ranges are 8.5-22.7 (CR-39), 6.4-13.4 (MK), and 2.4-9.3 (LR-115)for the 50 days experiment. Working level measurements are compared with 1 W L equivalent to 16.28 tracks/ mm{sup 2} day. Evaluation of the measurements at each monitoring station is discussed in terms of U-concentration and ventilation conditions. Also, the efficiency of the different SSNTD are discussed as well as the optimum time of monitoring at each U-exploration gallery. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. NPM Can Work: An optimistic review of the impact of New Public Management reforms in central and eastern Europe

    S. Dan (Sorin); Ch. Pollitt (Christopher)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews the New Public Management (NPM) literature in central and eastern Europe (CEE) with the aim of assessing whether reforms have 'worked'. Increasingly, academics have tended to argue against the suitability of NPM instruments in this region. To understand the impact of

  18. Dairy farmers’ business strategies in Central and Eastern Europe based on evidence from Lithuania, Poland and Slovenia

    Verhees, Frans; Malak-Rawlikowska, Agatsa; Stalgiene, Aldona; Kuipers, Abele; Klopčič, Marija

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate market-oriented strategic decision-making by farmers in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) farm development paths of dairy farmers in Slovenia, Poland and Lithuania were analysed. The influence of internal strengths and weaknesses, external opportunities and threats, and farmer goals on

  19. Challenges for regional innovation policies in Central and Eastern Europe: spatial concentration and foreign control of US patenting

    Lengyel, B.; Sebestyén, T.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of patent information available online at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) we point at two major and interconnected challenges that policy-makers face in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) when combating the lagging innovation performance. First, we address the spatial

  20. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called "Partium"

    Fényes, Hajnalka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of "The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development" project (N = 602, 2010). We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify…

  1. Status of the initiative to create a nuclear-weapon-free space in Central and Eastern Europe

    Sychou, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aims of Belarus proposal for creating the nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central and Eastern Europe which has already been reflected in official documents of the 51st session of the UN General Assembly are described. This could reaffirm the intention of the European States to move towards the final goal of achieving general and complete nuclear disarmament under efficient international control

  2. Retreating or standing: Responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid eastern central Asia

    Hong-Xiang Zhang; Ming-Li Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2013-01-01

    The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively...

  3. A decade of Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC): Credibility, cohesion and vision for the next decade.

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Kovarova, Hana

    2017-02-05

    The Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC), has reached a special milestone as it celebrates its 10th anniversary. Today, an expansive network of proteomics in Central and Eastern Europe stands established to facilitate scientific interactions and collaborations in and around Central and Eastern Europe, as well as with international research institutions worldwide. Currently, when many conferences are struggling to attract participants, CEEPC is thriving in its status and stature as well as expanding by attracting newer member countries. CEEPC's success is driven by mutual respect between scientists sharing interest in proteomics and its applications in multidisciplinary research areas related to biological systems. This effort when interwoven with exciting ambience steeped with culture, and tradition is also a reason why participants enjoy it. CEEPC's careful balance between excellence and cohesion holds the key to its success. It is evident that CEEPC is ready for the next decade of excitement and expectations of multifaceted proteomics in Central and Eastern Europe. Additionally, in the era of emerging personalized medicine where treatment selection for each patient is becoming individualized, CEEPC and proteomics is expected to play a significant role moving forward for the benefit of mankind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Variability and distribution of COL1A2 (type I collagen) polymorphisms in the central-eastern Mediterranean Basin.

    Scorrano, Gabriele; Lelli, Roberta; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Scano, Giuseppina; Contini, Irene; Hafez, Hani S; Rudan, Pavao; Rickards, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant of the collagen protein family, type I collagen is encoded by the COL1A2 gene. The COL1A2 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) EcoRI, RsaI and MspI in samples from several different central-eastern Mediterranean populations were analysed and found to be potentially informative anthropogenetic markers. The objective was to define the genetic variability of COL1A2 in the central-eastern Mediterranean and to shed light on its genetic distribution in human groups over a wide geographic area. PCR-RFLP analysis of EcoRI, RsaI and MspI polymorphisms of the COL1A2 gene was performed on oral swab and blood samples from 308 individuals from the central-eastern Mediterranean Basin. The genetic similarities among these groups and other populations described in the literature were investigated through correspondence analysis. Single-marker data and haplotype frequencies seemed to suggest a genetic homogeneity within the European populations, whereas a certain degree of differentiation was noted for the Egyptians and the Turks. The genetic variability in the central-eastern Mediterranean area is probably a result of the geographical barrier of the Mediterranean Sea, which separated European and African populations over time.

  5. Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau?

    You Qinglong; Kang Shichang; Xu Yanwei; Huang Jie; Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Yan Yuping

    2009-01-01

    The 'weekend effect' method (defined here as the average for Saturday through Monday minus the average for Wednesday through Friday) has been used to identify fingerprints of anthropogenic emissions. Based on daily maximum and minimum temperature series from the China Meteorological Administration homogenized dataset, the weekend effect in diurnal temperature range (DTR) at 71 stations with elevations above 2000 m asl in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1961-2004 is examined, and principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to cluster series into four subregions with similar weekend effect variability. The DTR demonstrates a much stronger negative weekend effect in autumn and shows larger positive values in winter, which provides a strong evidence of anthropogenic activity in this region, especially in the central TP. Analysis by topographic type and degree of urbanization shows a clear weekly cycle which cannot be explained by a microclimate effect. We hypothesize that the interaction with anthropogenic aerosols from local emissions and transported by atmospheric circulation may account for the weekly cycle in the TP. More caution should be paid to the driving mechanism of the weekend effect in the most remote and clear regions in the world.

  6. Shallow crustal structure of eastern-central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Ramón, V. M.; Lermo-Samaniego, J.

    2015-12-01

    Central-eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is featured by large basins (i.e., Toluca, Mexico, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Libres-Oriental). It has been supposed that major crustal faults limit these basins. Sierra de Las Cruces range separates the Toluca and Mexico basins. The Sierra Nevada range separates Mexico basin from the Puebla-Tlaxcala basin. Based in gravity and seismic data we inferred the Toluca basin is constituted by the Ixtlahuaca sub-basin, to the north, and the Toluca sub-basin to the south, which are separated by a relative structural high. The Toluca depression is more symmetric and bounded by sub-vertical faults. In particular its eastern master fault controlled the emplacement of Sierra de Las Cruces range. Easternmost Acambay graben constitutes the northern and deepest part of the Ixtlahuaca depression. The Toluca-Ixtlahuaca basin is inside the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault system, and limited to the west by the Guerrero terrane which continues beneath the TMVB up to the Acambay graben. Mexico basin basement occupies an intermediate position and featured by a relative structural high to the north-east, as established by previous studies. This relative structural high is limited to the west by the north-south Mixhuca trough, while to the south it is bounded by the east-west Copilco-Xochimilco-Chalco sub-basin. The Puebla-Tlaxcala basin basement is the shallowest of these 3 tectonic depressions. In general, features (i.e., depth) and relationship between these basins, from west to east, are controlled by the regional behavior of the Sierra Madre Oriental fold and thrust belt basement (i.e., Oaxaca Complex?). This study indicates that an active east-west regional fault system limits to the south the TMVB (from the Nevado de Toluca volcano through the Popocatepetl volcano and eastward along southern Puebla-Tlaxcala basin). The Tenango and La Pera fault systems constituting the western part of this regional fault system coincide with northern

  7. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  8. Seasonal changes in antifreeze protein gene transcription and water content of beetle Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Gurbantonggut desert in Central Asia.

    Hou, F; Ma, J; Liu, X; Wang, Y; Liu, X N; Zhang, F C

    2010-01-01

    Desert beetle Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebriondae) is a special species in Gurbantonggut Desert in Central Asia. To investigate the possible strategy it employs for cold survival, seasonal changes in supercooling point (SCP), body water content, haemolymph osmolality and antifreeze protein gene (Mpafp) expression were measured over 13 months. Our results show SCPs in M. punctipennis adults changed from -8.0°C in summer to -18.7°C in winter. During winter, adults endured modest water loss; total water decreased from 65.4 percent in summer to 55.9% in winter. Mpafp mRNAs level increased by 13.1 fold from summer to early winter, and haemolymph osmolality increased accordingly from 550 mOsm to 1486 mOsm. Correlation coefficient of Mpafp mRNAs level and SCP indicates that Mpafp mRNA explained 65.3 percent of the variation in SCPs. The correlation between Mpafp mRNA level and total water reflected an indirect influence of antifreeze protein on water content via reducing SCP.

  9. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-07-27

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations.

  10. Genesis of Uranium in the younger granites of gabal abu hawis area, central eastern desert of Egypt

    Ahmed, F.Y.; Moharem, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    The younger granites cropping out in gabal abu hawis area are considered as uraniferous (fertile) granites (the fertile is mainly is mainly attributed to presence of radioactive zircon). Abu hawis granitic pluton is dissected by joints faults of different trends forming two mineralized shear zones in the northern peripheries and southern border. The younger granites hosting uranium mineralizations along the two mineralized shear zones. The uranium minerals include uranophane and carnotite. The altered granites have much lower Th/U ratios (0.03-0.10) than those of the fresh granites (1.69-2.05), indicating strong mobilization of uranium in this pluton by super-heated solutions that resulted from supergence meteoric water as well as U-addition by hypogene fluids. These solutions could pass through the structural network of fractures, joints and fault planes and have leached some of labile uranium from the surrounding rocks and/or the younger granites themselves. Then, changing in the physicochemical conditions of these solutions caused uranium precipitation as uranium minerals filling the cracks in the rock and/or adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and iron oxides in the two shear zones

  11. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Ibrahim Gaafar

    2015-06-01

    Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E–W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm, Hf (51 ppm, Nb (340 ppm, Ta (44 ppm, and U (90 ppm. Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric, geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two main structural trends in the NW- and ENE-directions.

  12. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of uranium-rich fluoriteinEl-Missikat mineralized granite,Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A unique, highly radioactive variety of fluor it emineral has been recorded in the uranium occurrence of El-Missikat sheared granite pluton. In this occurrence, the uranium assumes different forms, including its presence as discrete, visible, secondary minerals, rare uraninite and its association with the jasperoid and silica veinlets. However,in some other parts of the sheared zone, the uranium was found to be solely incorporated with fluorite crystals,filling veinlet sand fractures with out any other manife station.This paper focuses ont her elevant mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of this unique fluorite variety.In addition to an investigation with binocular and polarizing microscopes, the separated fluorite grains were analyzed usingan environmental scanning electronmicroscope(ESEM and a field-emission scanning electron microscope.In addition to this,some fluorite crystals were subjected to electron microprobe analyses. While the fluorite accounted for as much as 20% of the sheared granite samples studied, it was found to range from 82 to 96 % in the different size fractions of the separated heavy mineral content. In some parts of the separated fluorite crystals,uranium inquantities of up to 2200 ppm was found to be heterogeneously distributed in the fluoritelattice,regardless of its coloration.

  13. Phanerozoic extensional faulting and alteration control on uranium mineralization in trachytes of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Hamdy, Mohamed M.; Waheeb, Anton G.; Aly, Samir M.; Farag, Nagdy M.; Sadek, Adel F.

    2017-12-01

    The Gabal Nasb El Atshan Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian altered trachytes include uranium up to 3165 ppm. The paleostress and resolved shear stress analyses of the deformation systems in Gabal Nasb El Atshan area indicate that the trachyte was subjected to WNW-ESE to E-W tensile shear stress directed extensional regimes. The low-stress regions in the vicinity of extensional faults and their associated joints were favorable locations for fluid flow and the consequence alteration and U-mineralization. This occurred more extensively along the contacts between the sills of trachyte and the Hammamat sedimentary rocks; where the latter acted as a physical barrier for the alteration fluids migration outward. Alteration styles include albitization, aegirinization, arfvedsonization, chloritization and ferruginisation. The albitization is the most common sodic metasomatism, giving sanidine from Or98.8Ab0.7 to Or62.3Ab37.6, anorthoclase from Or51.4Ab48.0 to Or12.2Ab87.6 and albite from Or11.0Ab89.0 to Or0.8Ab99.2. Aegirine and arfvedsonite formed due to decreasing sodium activity in the metasomatic fluids. Sodic metasomatism may be the source of uranium-enrichment, taking place during the late magmatic to deuteric processes. This was followed by a retrograde alteration of chloritization between 175 and 42 °C toward precipitation of Fe-oxides and alteration of primary uranium. Surficial low-temperature alteration remobilized and redistributed the produced uranylhydroxides and ferruginisation caused the reduction and adsorption of U forming betafite, uranophane, soddyite, umohoite, uranotile and uranopilite.

  14. Assessment And Management Of Natural Hazards And Disasters Along Qena-Safaga Road, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Azab, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard assessment studies are necessary to identify the investigated area along Qena-Safaga road, between km 20 - km 30 from Qena City, where extensive damage has constantly been reported. This damage includes, asphalt road, breaking of the potable water pipeline, tilting of tower line and telephone poles, as well as of Safaga-Abu Tartur railroad. These types of damage result from tectonic activity around the Qena-Safaga district. The structural and seismic maps are used to interpret and evaluate the deep-seated structures and the tectonic setting of the study area. Strong ground motion is the most important phenomenon of natural hazard. It has an effect on the nature, human life and man-made structures. Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing are useful tools in disaster management for the study area. These automated tools are used for the storage, analysis and visualization all geological and geophysical data of the investigated area to the decision support. Also, by using the Landsat image acquired in 2001 and Aerial photograph dated 1955 reveals that, the spatial deformation of the recent surface features has been estimated during 46 years

  15. Finite-strain analysis of Metavolcano-sedimentary rocks at Gabel El Mayet area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.

    2010-09-01

    Finite strain was estimated in the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks, which surround by serpentinites of Gabel El Mayet area. Finite strain shows a relationship to nappe contacts between the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks and serpentinite and sheds light on the nature of the subhorizontal foliation typical for the Gable Mayet shear zone. We used the Rf/ ϕ and Fry methods on feldspar porphyroclasts and mafic grains from 10 metasedimentary and six metavolcanic samples in Gabel El Mayet region. Our finite-strain data show that the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks were moderately deformed and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.9 to 3.9. The long axes of the finite-strain ellipsoids trend W/WNW in the north and W/WSW in the south of the Gabel El Mayet shear zone. Furthermore, the short axes are subvertical to a subhorizontal foliation. The strain magnitudes increase towards the tectonic contacts between the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks and serpentinite. The data indicate oblate strain symmetry in the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. Hence, our strain data also indicate flattening strain. We assume that the metasedimentary and metavolcanics rocks have similar deformation behaviour. The fact that finite strain accumulated during the metamorphism indicates that the nappe contacts formed during the accumulation of finite strain and thus during thrusting. We conclude that the nappe contacts formed during progressive thrusting under brittle to semi-brittle deformation conditions by simple shear and involved a component of vertical shortening, which caused the subhorizontal foliation in the Gabel El Mayet shear zone.

  16. Spatial patterns in gravel habitats and communities in the central and eastern English Channel

    Coggan, Roger; Barrio Froján, Christopher R. S.; Diesing, Markus; Aldridge, John

    2012-10-01

    The distribution of sediment type and benthic communities in the central and eastern English Channel is shown to be polarised around a distinctive local hydrodynamic feature. The seabed in the region includes an extensive area of gravel substrate which is both an important habitat for benthic marine fauna and a valuable source of material for the marine aggregate industry. Effective management of the area is predicated on an understanding of whether it represents a single homogeneous unit, or several different units that may need to be managed in different ways. The aim of this study was to provide information that would inform such management decisions. Spatial patterns in gravel habitats and communities were studied by investigating the physical environment through modelled and empirical data, and the distribution of infauna and epifauna along an east-west trending transect. A common spatial pattern was observed in both physical and biological parameters, but rather than indicating a simple longitudinal gradient, there was a distinct polarisation around a central feature, a bedload parting (BLP) zone situated between the Isle of Wight and Cotentin peninsula. Sediments and communities at the eastern and western ends of the transect were more similar to each other than to those in the middle. The strong hydrodynamic regime in the BLP area controls sediment distribution, transporting finer material, mainly sand, away from the mid transect area. The pattern in sand content of the substrate mirrors the magnitude of the potential bedload transport, which is complex in this region due to the interplay between the M2 and M4 tidal constituents and produced a series of erosional and depositional zones. The structure of benthic communities reflected the local substrate and hydrodynamic conditions, with sponges observed among the stable substrates and stronger currents that characterised the mid transect area, while infauna became more diverse towards the ends of the

  17. The Central and Eastern U.S. Seismic Network: Legacy of USArray

    Eakins, J. A.; Astiz, L.; Benz, H.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Reyes, J. C.; Sharer, G.; Vernon, F.; Woodward, R.

    2014-12-01

    As the USArray Transportable Array entered the central and eastern United States, several Federal agencies (National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy) recognized the unique opportunity to retain TA stations beyond the original timeline. The mission of the CEUSN is to produce data that enables researchers and Federal agencies alike to better understand the basic geologic questions, background earthquake rates and distribution, seismic hazard potential, and associated societal risks of this region. The selected long-term sub-array from Transportable Array (TA) stations includes nearly 200 sites, complemented by 100 broadband stations from the existing regional seismic networks to form the Central and Eastern United States Network (CEUSN). Multiple criteria for site selection were weighed by an inter-agency TA Station Selection (TASS) Working Group: seismic noise characteristics, data availability in real time, proximity to nuclear power plants, and homogeneous distribution throughout the region. The Array Network Facility (ANF) started collecting data for CEUSN network stations since late 2013, with all stations collected since May 2014. Regional seismic data streams are collected in real-time from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). TA stations selected to be part of CEUSN, retain the broadband sensor to which a 100 sps channel is added, the infrasound and environmental channels, and, at some stations, accelerometers are deployed. The upgraded sites become part of the N4 network for which ANF provides metadata and can issue remote commands to the station equipment. Stations still operated by TA, but planned for CEUSN, are included in the virtual network so all stations are currently available now. By the end of 2015, the remaining TA stations will be upgraded. Data quality control procedures developed for TA stations at ANF and at the DMC are currently performed on N4 data. However

  18. Crustal structure of the Central-Eastern Greenland: results from the TopoGreenland refraction profile

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Until present, seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coasts of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up. We present the deep seismic structure of the crust of the interior of Greenland, based on the new and the only existing so far seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass, made acquisition of geophysical data logistically complicated. The profile extends 310 km inland in E-W direction from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near the Scoresby Sund across the center of the ice cap. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 125 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Given that the data acquisition was affected by the thick ice sheet, we questioned the quality of seismic records in such experiment setup. We have developed an automatic routine to check the amplitudes and spectra of the selected seismic phases and to check the differences/challenges in making seismic experiments on ice and the effects of ice on data interpretation. Using tomographic inversion and forward ray tracing modelling we have obtained the two-dimensional velocity model down to a 50 km depth. The model shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western part of the profile to 40 km in its eastern part. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3 km/s) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may result from past collision tectonics or, alternatively, may be related to the speculated passage of the Iceland mantle plume. Comparison of our results

  19. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  20. The Impact of International Financial Crisis on Bank Performance in Eastern and Central European Countries

    Alin-Marius Andrieș

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the determinants of bank profitability in 10 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, in the period between 2004 and 2013. We proxy the profitability of banks with more commonly used ratio: the return on assets (ROA, computed as a ratio of the net profit to the total bank assets. We used multiple regression with bank specific variables, banking industry variables and macroeconomic variables. Moreover, we added a global financial crisis dummy to highlight the crisis impact on asset return. OLS is the main estimation method, but we also used difference-in-difference in order to test if the crisis impact was amplified or diminished by the bank specific characteristics. The evidence shows significant differences between the profit levels of the CEEC banks. Our results are in line with the empirical literature. The impact of the international financial crisis on ROA was negative and statistically significant, as expected. The second part of the analysis we separate the banks sample in three categories: banks with high capital adequacy, large banks by total assets and foreign-owned banks. Our findings show that the three selected variables both amplified and decreased the crisis effect.

  1. CORRUPTION, POVERTY AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE:EASTERN EUROPEAND CENTRAL ASIA CASE

    Mustafa Ildırar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption, defined as “the misuse of public power for private benefit.” TheWorld Bank describes corruption as one of the greatest obstacles to economic andsocial development. It undermines development by distortingthe rule of law andweakening the institutional foundation on which economic performance depends.In pastdecades, many theoretical and empirical studies have presented corruptionhinders investment, reduces economicgrowth, restricts trade, distorts governmentexpenditures and strengthens the underground economy. In addition,they haveshown a strong connection between corruption and poverty and incomeinequality. On the other hand,theliterature on corruption points to the conclusionthat corruption by itself does not lead to poverty. Rather,corruption has directconsequences on economic and governance factors, intermediaries that in turn producepoverty. Although corruption is seen inmany countries in the world, it ishigher and widespread in developingcountries. This study investigates relationbetween corruption, poverty, and economic performance by using apanelconsisting of countries in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia countries. It wasshown that corruptionaffected directly economic performance and low economicperformance leads to poverty. Additionally, resultsimply that rules againstcorruption could affect economic growth indirectly through their impact on thelevel ofc orruption.

  2. Central and Eastern Europe After the Boom - Time for a Stragegy Change for Foreign Multinationals?

    Arnold Schuh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial and economic crisis ended a six-year-long boom period with an average growth rate well above 5% in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Although not the originators of the crisis some CEE countries such as the Baltic States and Ukraine were among the worst hit by this economic downturn. The crisis did not only shatter the financial markets, banks and the real economy but also the growth image of CEE. The huge market potential and expected higher growth rates resulting from the catching-up process to West European standards have been the main reason for the flood of foreign direct investments into the countries of the region in the two decades before. Suddenly, foreign direct investors were confronted with stalled and even collapsing market growth, shrinking disposable household income, business customers and partners on the verge of bankruptcy and no real sign of a quick recovery. While the situation improved a little in 2011, the economic outlook and the sentiment of foreign investors have remained gloomy, at least for parts of the region. It is obvious that when faced with such a huge economic downturn companies stop geographic expansion and put the brakes on investments.

  3. Crustal structure of the Central-Eastern Greenland: results from the Topo Greenland refraction profile

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Until present, seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coasts of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up. We present the deep seismic structure of the crust of the interior of Greenland, based on the new and the only existing so far seismic...... refraction/wide-angle reflection profile. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass, made...... acquisition of geophysical data logistically complicated. The profile extends 310 km inland in E-W direction from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near the Scoresby Sund across the center of the ice cap. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along...

  4. Long-term ice phenology records from eastern-central Europe

    Takács, Katalin; Kern, Zoltán; Pásztor, László

    2018-03-01

    A dataset of annual freshwater ice phenology was compiled for the largest river (Danube) and the largest lake (Lake Balaton) in eastern-central Europe, extending regular river and lake ice monitoring data through the use of historical observations and documentary records dating back to AD 1774 and AD 1885, respectively. What becomes clear is that the dates of the first appearance of ice and freeze-up have shifted, arriving 12-30 and 4-13 days later, respectively, per 100 years. Break-up and ice-off have shifted to earlier dates by 7-13 and 9-27 days/100 years, except on Lake Balaton, where the date of break-up has not changed significantly. The datasets represent a resource for (paleo)climatological research thanks to the strong, physically determined link between water and air temperature and the occurrence of freshwater ice phenomena. The derived centennial records of freshwater cryophenology for the Danube and Balaton are readily available for detailed analysis of the temporal trends, large-scale spatial comparison, or other climatological purposes. The derived dataset is publicly available via PANGAEA at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881056" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881056.

  5. Survey of otolaryngology services in Ukraine and neighbouring Central and Eastern European countries.

    Verkerk, M M; Wagner, R; Fishchuk, R; Fagan, J J

    2017-11-01

    The present humanitarian crisis in Ukraine is putting strains on its healthcare system. This study aimed to assess services and training in otolaryngology, audiology and speech therapy in Ukraine and its geographical neighbours. Survey study of 327 otolaryngologists from 19 countries. Fifty-six otolaryngologists (17 per cent) from 15 countries responded. Numbers of otolaryngologists varied from 3.6 to 12.3 per 100 000 population (Ukraine = 7.8). Numbers of audiologists varied from 0, in Ukraine, to 2.8 per 100 000, in Slovakia, and numbers of speech therapists varied from 0, in Bulgaria, to 4.0 per 100 000, in Slovenia (Ukraine = 0.1). Ukraine lacks newborn and school hearing screening, good availability of otological drills and microscopes, and a cochlear implant programme. There is wide variation in otolaryngology services in Central and Eastern Europe. All countries surveyed had more otolaryngologists per capita than the UK, but availability of audiology and speech and language therapy is poor. Further research on otolaryngology health outcomes in the region will guide service improvement.

  6. Mechanized systems for early stand tending in central and eastern Canada

    Ryans, M.; St-Amour, M. [Forest Engineering Research Inst. of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Machines are currently being used for early stand tending in central and eastern Canada, but account for only 1 to 2% of the annual total for mechanical treatments (including manual and motor-manual operations). Selective and non-selective systems are used, depending on the application and stand conditions. Plantation cleaning operations and precommercial thinning (spacing) of naturally regenerated and seeded stands have been mechanized. Selective methods, primarily for plantation cleaning, use equipment with specialized prime movers, booms and controls, and cutting heads. This paper describes the Canadian experience to date based on FERIC`s studies of successful and unsuccessful operations, and lists the key features of a machine suitable for use in selective treatments. Strip precommercial thinning is used in denser natural stands, but limited improvements in crop-tree growth occur unless a motor-manual follow-up releases crop trees in the leave strips. Most off-the-shelf brushcutting equipment is not optimal for this application, primarily because it is too wide to meet local spacing prescriptions. Some applications such as the spacing of older natural stands have proven difficult to mechanize. Technical, biological, operational , regulatory, economic and social constraints prevent wider use of mechanized systems. Nonetheless, some machines are in operational use, and mechanized plantation cleaning is tested in some regions as an alternative to herbicides. 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Characterization of drilling waste from shale gas exploration in Central and Eastern Poland.

    Mikos-Szymańska, Marzena; Rusek, Piotr; Borowik, Krzysztof; Rolewicz, Maciej; Bogusz, Paulina; Gluzińska, Joanna

    2018-05-28

    The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate the chemical properties of drilling waste from five well sites in Central and Eastern Poland. It was found that spent drilling fluids can contain high values of nickel and mercury (270 and 8.77 mg kg -1 , respectively) and can exceed the maximum permissible limits recommended by the EC regulations for safety of soils (75 mg kg -1 for nickel and 1.5 mg kg -1 for mercury). The heavy metal concentrations in the studied drill cuttings did not exceed the maximum permissible limits recommended by the EC regulation. Drilling wastes contain macroelements (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and potassium) as well as trace elements (e.g., copper, iron, zinc, and manganese) that are essential for the plant growth. It was stated that water extracts of drilling fluids and drill cuttings, according to anions presence, had not any specific constituents of concern based on FAO irrigation guidelines, the USEPA WQC, and toxicity values. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to understand the structure and texture of waste drilling fluid solids and drill cuttings. Analysis of the mineralogical character of drilling fluid solids revealed that they contained calcite, quartz, muscovite, sylvite, barite, dolomite, and orthoclase. Drill cuttings contained calcite quartz, muscovite, barite, dolomite, and barium chloride.

  8. Social Progress in Romania and other Central and Eastern European Non- Eurozone States

    VIRGINIA CÂMPEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our research paper refers to the social progress achieved in the last 10 years by Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Poland and Hungary as non- Eurozone members (CEE-6, compared to the minimum and maximum levels in the EU-28, depending on their economic development levels. This analysis isa part of the larger-scale study regarding the readinessassessment of Romania and other five Central and Eastern European countries (CEE-6 for accession to the Eurozone in terms of the real convergence. We extended the analysis of the real economic convergence to the sphere of social convergence. The purpose of the extended analysis is to compare the living standards in Romania, CEE-6 and other European Union member states (EU-28 and to draw conclusions on the social convergence as a complement to real economic convergence. Using a new analytical tool, the global composite index “Social Progress Index” at different levels of disaggregation, this article reveals the social gaps between CEE-6 and the EU and identifies strengths, and weaknesses for these countries to achieve social progress on the road to real economic and social convergence with the EU.The aim is to provide to the national decision-makers some milestones to remove weaknesses and to turn threats into opportunities in the future social and economic policies.

  9. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  10. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  11. Various mental images about the geographical extension of Central, Southeast and Eastern Europe

    Tamás Hardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Central Europe, Eastern Europe, the Balkans and Southeast Europe as macro- region space concepts are not regions designable by physical geography; the geographical content of these concepts is drawn and re-drawn by historical, cultural and geopolitical processes. Debates on the extension and content of the macro-regions featured intensify every now and then, especially in crisis periods - it is enough to think of the years before, during and after the world wars, the regime change, and these days. Our paper, with the brief summary of the preliminaries, highlights, from the perspective of our age, the geopolitically determined transformation and demonstrates the findings of our empirical research. During our research we made a questionnaire survey in which we recorded mental maps of the university students of Hungary and its seven neighbour countries, looking at where the respondents put their own countries and what image of the respective macro-regions lived in their minds. Our findings may be subject to debates but clearly show the convergent or divergent directions of the respective countries, at least as regards the judgement by the youth.

  12. IS TAXATION AFFECTING THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES FOR FDI?

    Popovici Oana Cristina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to determine whether taxation affects the attractiveness of Central and EasternEurope (CEE countries for foreign investors. In this scope, the paper analyzes the impact of taxation for thelocation decision of foreign direct investment (FDI in CEE countries both in 2007 and 2010. A taxation indexinvesting the effect of multiple host country taxes is developed in order to draw the attractiveness matrix for thecountries taken into account. The taxation level comprises the corporate income tax rate, representing directtaxation, the value-added tax (VAT and the social security contributions expressing indirect taxation and finally theease of paying taxes, as provided in Doing Business report. The results indicate that relieving the burden of payingtaxes by tackling the taxation issue is a mean for improving the FDI attractiveness of a country. Still, there are otherfactors that have higher influence on FDI inflows. The main finding is that there is no perfect correspondencebetween the shifts in taxation rankings and the FDI inflows performance.

  13. High-Speed Rail for Central and Eastern European Countries: A Conference Report

    Jandová Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.

  14. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  15. Restructuring and privatising the coal industries in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS

    Brendow, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews coal industry reforms in central and Eastern Europe (CEE), including the former GDR and Estonia (oil shale), and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). It describes achievements and failures during the last ten years on the road to an efficient, viable and environmentally acceptable coal industry playing the various roles assigned to it by governments as part of their energy policies. Obeying to conflicting objectives, coal-restructuring policies can best be described as stop-go policies. As a result, between 1990 and 1998, production declined by 41%, the number of pits by 26% and the number of employees by 45%. Productivity rose by only 8% in the region as a whole. At present, 80 to 90% of coal production is actually or virtually profitable under local or national circumstances. Turning virtual into actual profitability depends as much on continued reforms (unbundling of profitable from unprofitable mines, customerization of mines, equity privatisation) as on a fresh assessment, by investors, of two major opportunities: mine-utility partnerships and untapped productivity gains. These opportunities are growingly recognised by the business community: by 1998, 20% of coal production in the region are owned by equity investors, domestic and foreign. With, these opportunities in mind and assuming economic recovery, WEC, IIASA, IEA, DOE* (*World Energy Council, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, International Energy Agency, US Department of Energy) and national governments project a medium-term (2010,2020) increase of coal production against 1998 of about 20%, mostly in the CIS. (author)

  16. 222Rn determination in some thermal baths of a central eastern Italian area

    Desideri, D.; Bruno, M.R.; Roselli, C.

    2004-01-01

    Some recent Italian laws, based on the Euratom Directive 26/96, introduce the obligation of monitoring the exposition to natural radioactivity in particular worksites (thermal baths, mines, basements, etc.). Results of 222 Rn measurements in some thermal baths of Rimini and Pesaro-Urbino provinces (Central Eastern Italy), by Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha-track detectors are reported. Some areas where radon could accumulate (bathing, reaction, muddy, inhalation, insufflation rooms and swimming pools) were selected for the investigation. The dosimeters have been exposed for 98 days. The results show that 222 Rn concentrations are very low in the considered thermal baths (7-71 Bq x m -3 ). Moreover, no difference was observed between the concentrations measured in the therapy rooms (bathing, muddy, inhalation and insufflation rooms, swimming pools) and in the normal areas (passages, reaction rooms, dressing rooms, etc.). The calculated dose contribution to workers was about one tenth of the legally suggested value. (author)

  17. Ground Motion Prediction Equations for the Central and Eastern United States

    Seber, D.; Graizer, V.

    2015-12-01

    New ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) G15 model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) is presented. It is based on the modular filter based approach developed by Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009) for active tectonic environment in the Western US (WUS). The G15 model is based on the NGA-East database for the horizontal peak ground acceleration and 5%-damped pseudo spectral acceleration RotD50 component (Goulet et al., 2014). In contrast to active tectonic environment the database for the CEUS is not sufficient for creating purely empirical GMPE covering the range of magnitudes and distances required for seismic hazard assessments. Recordings in NGA-East database are sparse and cover mostly range of Mindustry (Vs=2800 m/s). The number of model predictors is limited to a few measurable parameters: moment magnitude M, closest distance to fault rupture plane R, average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m of the geological profile VS30, and anelastic attenuation factor Q0. Incorporating anelastic attenuation Q0 as an input parameter allows adjustments based on the regional crustal properties. The model covers the range of magnitudes 4.010 Hz) and is within the range of other models for frequencies lower than 2.5 Hz

  18. Specifics of IFRS Adoption by Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Research

    Procházka David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent literature on the specifics of adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS by the new EU members from the Central and Eastern Europe. Despite being members of the EU or OECD, the transition to a standard developed economy has not yet finished. The first part of the paper presents macroeconomic statistics and capital market data, which underline a unique economic structure of the region (relative unimportance of capital markets for raising capital, strong dependence on foreign direct investments combined with the lacks in institutional environment. Under such conditions, the economic consequences of IFRS adoption can be unpredictable and adverse. The second part of the paper analyses the reflection of specifics of the IFRS adoption in the CEE region in research studies covered by the Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science database. The analysis reveals (a cross-country disproportion in the research coverage of the area; (b relatively low coverage of the IFRS research focusing on these transition countries in top journals.

  19. Implementation of personalized medicine in Central-Eastern Europe: pitfalls and potentials based on citizen's attitude.

    Balicza, Peter; Terebessy, Andras; Grosz, Zoltan; Varga, Noemi Agnes; Gal, Aniko; Fekete, Balint Andras; Molnar, Maria Judit

    2018-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing is increasingly utilized worldwide as a research and diagnostic tool and is anticipated to be implemented into everyday clinical practice. Since Central-Eastern European attitude toward genetic testing, especially broad genetic testing, is not well known, we performed a survey on this issue among Hungarian participants. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among patients and patient relatives at our neurogenetic outpatient clinic. Members of the general population were also recruited via public media. We used chi-square testing and binary logistic regression to examine factors influencing attitude. We identified a mixed attitude toward genetic testing. Access to physician consultation positively influenced attitude. A higher self-determined genetic familiarity score associated with higher perceived genetic influence score, which in turn associated with greater willingness to participate in genetic testing. Medical professionals constituted a skeptical group. We think that given the controversies and complexities of the next-generation sequencing field, the optimal clinical translation of NGS data should be performed in institutions which have the unique capability to provide interprofessional health education, transformative biomedical research, and crucial patient care. With optimization of the clinical translational process, improvement of genetic literacy may increase patient engagement and empowerment. The paper highlights that in countries with relatively low-genetic literacy, a special strategy is needed to enhance the implementation of personalized medicine.

  20. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  1. Seismomagnetic models for earthquakes in the eastern part of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan

    Y. Ishikawa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Seismomagnetic changes accompanied by four damaging earthquakes are explained by the piezomagnetic effect observed in the eastern part of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan. Most of the data were obtained by repeat surveys. Although these data suffered electric railway noise, significant magnetic changes were detected at points close to earthquake faults. Coseismic changes can be well interpreted by piezomagnetic models in the case of the 1978 Near Izu-Oshima (M 7.0 and the 1980 East Off Izu Peninsula (M 6.7 earthquakes. A large total intensity change up to 5 nT was observed at a survey point almost above the epicenter of the 1976 Kawazu (M 5.4 earthquake. This change is not explained by a single fault model; a 2-segment fault is suggested. Remarkable precursory and coseismic changes in the total force intensity were observed at KWZ station along with the 1978 Higashi-Izu (M 4.9 earthquake. KWZ station is located very close to a buried subsidiary fault of the M 7.0 Near Izu-Oshima earthquake, which moved aseismically at the time of the M 7.0 quake. The precursory magnetic change to the M 4.9 quake is ascribed to aseismic faulting of this buried fault, while the coseismic rebound to enlargement of the slipping surface at the time of M 4.9 quake. This implies that we observed the formation process of the earthquake nucleation zone via the magnetic field.

  2. SOVEREIGN WEALTH FUNDS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: SCOPE AND METHODS OF FINANCIAL PENETRATION

    Piotr Wiśniewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European (CEE capital markets (of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine and, to a limited extent, Belarus are gradually evolving towards increased breadth (diversity and depth (liquidity, however, they are still exposed to considerable cross-country volatility and interdependence spill-overs – especially in times of capital flight to more established asset classes (“safe havens”. Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs have widely been censured for their undesirable political interference and chronic operational opacity. This paper demonstrates that in CEE, contrary to widespread perceptions attributable to developed markets, SWFs can act as natural and powerful risk mitigators (contributing to a more stable capital base and reduced systemic volatility. Such a proposition is premised on several factors specific to SWFs oriented to CEE. They comprise: strategic long-termism and patience in overcoming interim pricing deficiencies, commitments to elements of a broadly interpreted infrastructure, and absence of overt conflicts of interest with the CEE host economies. The paper, besides reviewing the utilitarianism of SWFs in the CEE’s risk mitigation context, highlights regulatory and technical barriers to more SWF funding for CEE. It also recommends policy measures to the CEE economies aimed at luring more host-friendly SWF investment into the region.

  3. Studying the Factors of Economic Growth in Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    Cherkas Nataliia I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the impact of macroeconomic, technological and institutional indicators on economic growth of countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE using a panel data model. A sample of 12 CEE countries for the period 2006-2015 is analyzed. The following methods are used: 1 ordinary least squares (OLS, 2 fixed effects model (FE; 3 random effects model (RE. As a dependent variable there selected GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity, as an independent one — the exchange rate, export of high- and low-tech products, import of high-tech products, innovations. There used additional control variables: foreign direct investment, government efficiency, human capital, the Gini index, and public debt. The results of the study show that the devaluation of the monetary unit adversely affects the economic growth. Asymmetric results of the impact of high-technology and low-technology exports on GDP are obtained. The development of innovation and the improvement of the quality of human capital demonstrate a positive significant impact in terms of all specifications. The obtained results confirm that European integration supports non-price competition of CEE countries in the world market of high-tech products through participation in production networks of the EU-15.

  4. Comparative Party System Analysis in Central and Eastern Europe: the Case of the Baltic States

    Tõnis Saarts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the party systems in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE has puzzled many scholars. High instability of the party systems and their specific evolution makes the application of theoretical models designed predominately for Western European party politics problematic. The paper puts forward the argument that we should further elaborate and specify the models for a small N comparative party system analysis in CEE countries and to incorporate some region specific components into the framework. The essential dimensions included into proposed comparative framework are as follows: (1 the stability of the party system, (2 party system fragmentation, (3 parties´ penetration into society, (4 the ideology and origins of the major parties, (5 the dominant cleavage constellations framing the party competition (6 the strength of the party organizations. The above-mentioned dimensions are expected to capture the most important aspects that make the difference between the party systems in general, and each dimension is complemented with the specific additional variables suitable for party system analysis in CEE in particular. The framework will be tested on the Baltic States, which party systems are often regarded to be very similar to each other. However, the analysis will demonstrate that based on the above-mentioned framework, very significant and noteworthy differences will be revealed.

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance in the Airline Industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    Roman Asatryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the knowledge on corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives of by businesses and its ability to influence their financial performance. Consequently, the main objective is to examine the relationship between CSR and financial performance in the airline industry in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper does not attempt to establish causality between CŚR and financial performance. The paper attempts to contribute to the existing knowledge in the field by examining the extent to which CSR relates to financial performance of airline firms. A sample of 20 audited financial statements of airline firms were selected randomly. The study analyzed the impact of CSR activities on the financial performance of firms. The Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA were used as indicators to measure financial performance of firms whiles the independent variables were Community Performance (CP, Environment Management System (EMS and Employee Relations (ER. The study found that there is a significant positive relationship between CSR initiatives and financial performance measures. More specifically, there was found to be a positive relationship between the independent variables of CSR thus, CP, EMS and ER and the financial performance of airline firms in terms of the ROE and ROA.

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND IMPACT FACTORS IN COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Bogdan Florin FILIP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the premise that the performance of the economies of different countries, respectively their economic growth, is sinthtically expressed by the GDP growth indicator, whose dynamics evolves under the impact of a variety of determining factors, including some of financial-monetary nature. Thus, there are highlighted specific causal linkages and influences of economic and financial factors represented by certain indicators (inflation, unemployment, exports as percentage of GDP, imports as percentage of GDP, domestic credit as percentage of GDP, non-performing loans rate to GDP growth rate, by using econometric methods. Much of the paper is focused on on shaping an econometric model in which GDP growth rate is dependent variable and the other mentioned indicators are impact factors, respectively determinant variables. Along the mentioned determining factors, in our model is evaluated also the impact of the manifestation of the recent financial crisis, considering it as an additional determinant dummy variable. By processing the data for a group of countries of Central and Eastern Europe over the period 2000-2013, there result findings on the impact of each of the determining factors on the economic growth in the countries concerned and are formulated the appropriate assessments and conclusions.

  7. Strain histories from the eastern Central Range of Taiwan: A record of advection through a collisional orogen

    Mondro, Claire A.; Fisher, Donald; Yeh, En-Chao

    2017-05-01

    In the eastern Central Range of Taiwan there is a regional variation in the orientation of maximum finite stretch across the slate belt, with down-dip maximum stretch found in the western Central Range and along-strike maximum stretch in the eastern Central Range. Incremental strain histories from syntectonic fibers in pyrite pressure shadows indicate a progressive change in extension direction from down dip to along strike during deformation, there is a corresponding temporal variation in stretching direction shown in samples from the eastern edge of the Central Range, a pattern that mimics the regional west-to-east spatial variation. These observed temporal and spatial strain distributions are used to evaluate the kinematics associated with slaty cleavage development during advection through the Taiwan orogenic system. The subduction zone beneath the island of Taiwan is influenced by two types of obliquity that have the potential to generate the observed along-strike stretching. First, the plate motion vector of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate is slightly oblique to the regional strike of the mountain range, which could result in partitioning of strike slip shearing into the interior of the collision. Second, the north-south Luzon volcanic arc on the Philippine Sea Plate is obliquely oriented relative to the northeast-southwest edge of the Eurasian continental margin, which could result in lateral extrusion of the ductile core of the range. Incremental strain histories in cleavage-parallel samples represent a time-for-space equivalence where the stretching direction is fixed relative to the position within the mountain belt architecture (e.g., the topographic divide), and temporal variations in the eastern central Range reflect lateral advection through the strain field in response to accretionary and erosional fluxes. Incremental strain histories in cleavage perpendicular samples show both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of

  8. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  9. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  10. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality in three Central and Eastern European urban populations: the HAPIEE study.

    Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Grosso, Giuseppe; Stefler, Denes; Topor-Madry, Roman; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Nikitin, Yuri; Bobak, Martin; Pająk, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between individual-level dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three Central and Eastern European (CEE) populations. Data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe cohort study were used. At the baseline survey, between 2002 and 2005, 28,945 men and women aged 45-69 years were examined in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between vitamin consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) disease and cancer mortality. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, there were no clear inverse associations between antioxidant vitamin intakes and mortality, although in some groups, several hazard ratios (HRs) were significant. For example, in men, compared with the lowest quintile of vitamin C intake, all-cause mortality in the third and fourth quintiles was lower by 28 % (HR 0.72; 95 % CI 0.61-0.85) and by 20 % (HR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68-0.95), respectively. CVD mortality was lower by 35 % (HR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.50-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.59-0.99) in third and fourth quintile of vitamin C intake, respectively. In women, the third and fourth quintiles of dietary intake of vitamin E were associated with reduced risk of all-cause death by 33 % (HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.53-0.84) and by 23 % (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.61-0.97), respectively. Consumption of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene was not related to CVD mortality in women and to cancer mortality in either gender. This large prospective cohort study in CEE populations with low prevalence of vitamin supplementation did not find a strong, dose-response evidence for protective effects of antioxidant vitamin intake.

  11. Disparities in Mortality Rates of Working-Age Population in Eastern, Central and Western Europe – A Comparative Quantitative Analysis

    Lackó Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Even two decades after the start of transition, mortality rates in Central and Eastern Europe are much higher than in Western Europe. This study presents and quantifies the impact on mortality of factors beyond the usual explanations. These factors are the advantageous and disadvantageous health effects of the geographical location of individual countries, as well as the economic structure, price structure and political priorities of the pre-transition systems in Central and Eastern Europe associated with anomic, self-destructive lifestyles. For adult males, mortality results show significant impact from level of development, health expenditure, latitude of countries, spirit consumption, education and air pollution. The impact of development, health expenditure, latitude, air pollution appear the same for both gender’s mortality.

  12. ECED 2013: Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning. International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. Conference Guide and Book of Abstracts

    2013-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: (I) Opening session (2 contributions); (II) Managerial and Funding Aspects of Decommissioning (5 contributions); (III) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning I (6 contributions); (IV) Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects (4 contributions); (V) Poster Session (14 contributions); (VI) Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning - Panel Discussion; (VII) Release of Materials, Waste Management and Spent Fuel Management (6 contributions); (VIII) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning II (5 contributions).

  13. Division of Labour or Sharing the Burden? State Support for Competing Family Models in Central and Eastern Europe

    Mitchell, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, 7-8 (2010), s. 12-17 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB700280901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : work - life balance * family policy * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/181_pdf%202010%2007%2008.pdf

  14. A decade of Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC): Credibility, cohesion and vision for the next decade

    Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, S1 (2017), s. 2-7 ISSN 1874-3919. [Central and Eastern European Proteomics Conference /10./. Budapest, 11.10.2016-14.10.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : CEEPC * protein diveristy * proteome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  15. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2017-07-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  16. GOPHERUS AGASSIZII (Desert Tortoise)

    JAMES L. BOONE, DANNY L. RAKESTRAW, AND KURT R. RAUTENSTRAUCH

    1997-01-01

    GOPHERLTS AGAISSIZII (Desert Tortoise). Predation. A variety of predators, most notably coyotes (Canis Iatrans) and Common Ravens (Corvis corau) have been reported to prey on hatchling desert tortoises (Emst et al. 1994). Turtles of the United States and Canada (Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 578 pp.). Here, we report an observation of a hatchling tortoise, fitted with a radiotransmitter, that was preyed upon by native fire ants (Solenopsis sp.) in the eastern Mojave Desert at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (36 degrees 50 minutes N, 116 degree 25 minutes E). On 8/27/94, tortoise No.9315 (carapace length = 45 mm, age = 5 d) was found alive with eyes, chin, and parts of the head and legs being eaten by ants. The tortoise was alive, but lethargic, and responded little when touched. Eight of 74 other radiomarked hatchlings monitored at Yucca Mountain during 1992-1994 were found dead with fire ants on their carcass 3-7 days after the hatchlings emerged from their nests. It is not known whether those tortoises were killed by ants or were being scavenged when found. While imported fire ants (S. invicta) have long been known to kill hatchling gopher tortoises (G. polyphemus; Mount 1981. J. Alabama Acad. Sci. 52: 71-78), native fire ants have previously not been implicated as predators of desert tortoises. However, only 1 of 75 (or at worst 9 of 75) was killed by fire ants, suggesting that although fire ants do kill hatchlings, they were not important predators on desert tortoises during this study. Tortoise specimens were deposited at the University of California at Berkeley

  17. The Determinants and the Size of International Migration in Central and Eastern Europe After 2004

    Organiściak-Krzykowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a very important socio‑economic issue in the contemporary world. One of the interesting and pertinent research problems worth considering concerns the scale and nature of migration from countries which entered the European Union in 2004 and in the subsequent years. As a result of integration within the European Community, the citizens of member states acquired citizenship within the entire European Union (which is complementary to citizenship in the country of origin. The right of free movement led to the emergence of the migration phenomenon within the territory of the European Union. A well educated and young labour force may be an influential factor in the social and economic development of the European Union members. The enlargement of the EU led to a significant increase in the number of part‑time/temporary migrants. According to statistical data, the number of emigrants from the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEE to the more prosperous European countries increased from 1,66 million in 2004 to 7,3 million in 2016. Within the context of the scale of economic migration from the CEE, questions should be asked about the determinants and economic consequences of this mobility. The main objective of this article is a diagnosis and evaluation of the determinants and size of migration from the CEE. The analyses are based on Eurostat data. The determinants of migration are presented from the point of view of the push and pull factors theory and related to the situation in the European labour market. An analysis of the size of migration outflow from the CEE countries made it possible to classify them into three groups: countries with a high emigration potential (Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, a moderate emigration potential (Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Estonia, Slovakia and a low emigration potential (the Czech Republic, Slovenia. The economic consequences of migration are shown from the perspective of remittances received from

  18. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values.

  19. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    Molnár, Ágnes; Ádám, Balázs; Antova, Temenujka; Bosak, Lubos; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mileva, Hristina; Pekarcikova, Jarmila; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Gulis, Gabriel; Ádány, Róza; Kósa, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: ► Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies – in light of current evidence – is low. ► Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. ► Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. ► HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  20. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered. Five NUTS-2 (Nomenclature d'Unites Territoriales Statistiques) regions with high biomass production potentials in Poland, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic were analysed for biofuel export options. From these regions pellets from willow can be provided to destination areas in Western European countries (WEC) at costs of 105.2-219.8 EUR t -1 . Ethanol can be provided at 11.95-20.89 EUR per GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at the destination areas in the WEC or at 14.84-17.83 EUR GJ -1 J if the biomass to ethanol conversion takes place (at small scale) at the CEEC region where the biomass is produced. Short sea shipping shows most cost advantages for longer distance international transport compared to inland waterway shipping and railway. Another reason for lower biofuel supply costs are shorter distances between the regions of biomass production and the destination areas. Therefore the Szczecin region in Poland, closely located to the Baltic Sea, shows a better economic performance for long distance trade of biomass production than the selected region in Hungary ('land-locked'). It is concluded that in future key CEEC regions can supply (pre-treated) biomass and biofuels to the European market at cost levels, which are sound and attractive to current and expected diesel and gasoline prices. (author)

  1. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  2. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Eastern and Central groups of the Azores - Portugal

    Fontiela, João; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Borges, José; Rodrigues, Francisco; Caldeira, Bento

    2017-04-01

    Azores islands of the Eastern and Central groups are located at the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and Nubian plates inducing a large number of low magnitude earthquakes. Since its settlement in the 15th century, 33 earthquakes with intensity ≥ VII have caused severe damage and high death toll. The most severe ones occurred in 1522 at São Miguel Island with a maximum MM intensity of X; in 1614 at Terceira Island (X) in 1757 at São Jorge Island (XI); 1852 at São Miguel Island (VIII); 1926 at Faial Island (Mb 5.3-5.9); in 1980 at Terceira Island (Mw7.1) and in 1998 at Faial Island (Mw6.2). The analysis of the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) were carried out using the classical Cornell-McGuire approach using seismogenic zones recently defined by Fontiela et al. (2014). We create a new earthquake catalogue merging local and global datasets with a large time span (1522 - 2016) to calculate recurrence times and maximum magnitudes. In order to reduce the epistemic uncertainties, we test several ground motion prediction equations in agreement with the geological heterogeneities typical of young volcanic islands. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps are proposed for 475 and 975 years returns periods as well as hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra for the main cities. REFERENCES: Fontiela, J. et al., 2014. Azores seismogenic zones. Comunicações Geológicas, 101(1), pp.351-354. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 of Regional Science Fund of the Regional Government Azores and this study is co-funded by the European Union through the European fund of Regional Development, framed in COMPETE 2020 (Operational Competitiveness Programme and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID/GEO/04683/2013) with the reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690.

  3. INNOVATION VERSUS INCOME CONVERGENCE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. IS THERE A CORRELATION?

    Pop Silaghi Monica

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of response of the different economies facing the world economic crisis has brought into attention once again the issue of convergence inside the European Union. The high growth rates experienced by CEEC during the last decade created an optimistic view of rapid convergence towards Western Europe. But the crisis showed that the sources of economic growth in the region were not appropriate for a long run growth. Innovation is a key source of competitiveness and a contributor to a sustainable growth path. Even though CEEC lag behind other European countries in terms of R'D investment, a certain progress can be observed. The objective of the present paper is to establish if there is a correlation between the convergence in terms of GDP and the convergence in terms of innovation for the CEEC. Based on yearly Eurostat data for the period 1998-2008, we quantify the progress of each of the 10 CEEC both in closing the income gap and the innovation gap. We then rank the countries according to their speed of convergence and perform a Spearman rank correlation analysis. The results show that, on average, convergence in R'D is not correlated with convergence in GDP. The Czech Republic is the only country with a positive correlation between R'D intensity and GDP growth. Bulgaria, Hungary and Slovakia show a negative relationship between investment in R'D and economic growth. This implies that for most of the countries in Central and Eastern Europe, economic growth during the period 1998-2008 was mostly driven by non-innovation factors.

  4. Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Fischer, G.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for the assessment of biomass potentials was developed and applied to Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). Biomass resources considered are agricultural residues, forestry residues, and wood from surplus forest and biomass from energy crops. Only land that is not needed for food and feed production is considered as available for the production of energy crops. Five scenarios were built to depict the influences of different factors on biomass potentials and costs. Scenarios, with a domination of current level of agricultural production or ecological production systems, show the smallest biomass potentials of 2-5.7 EJ for all CEEC. Highest potentials can reach up to 11.7 EJ (85% from energy crops, 12% from residues and 3% from surplus forest wood) when 44 million ha of agricultural land become available for energy crop production. This potential is, however, only realizable under high input production systems and most advanced production technology, best allocation of crop production over all CEEC and by choosing willow as energy crops. The production of lignocellulosic crops, and willow in particular, best combines high biomass production potentials and low biomass production costs. Production costs for willow biomass range from 1.6 to 8.0 EUR/GJ HHV in the scenario with the highest agricultural productivity and 1.0-4.5 EUR/GJ HHV in the scenario reflecting the current status of agricultural production. Generally the highest biomass production costs are experienced when ecological agriculture is prevailing and on land with lower quality. In most CEEC, the production potentials are larger than the current energy use in the more favourable scenarios. Bulk of the biomass potential can be produced at costs lower than 2 EUR/GJ. High potentials combined with the low cost levels gives CEEC major export opportunities. (author)

  5. Paleoenvironmental conditions across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in central-eastern Mexico

    Martínez-Yáñez, Mario; Núñez-Useche, Fernando; López Martínez, Rafael; Gardner, Rand D.

    2017-08-01

    The Padni section of central-eastern Mexico is characterized by pelagic, organic-rich carbonates and shales dated in this study by calpionellid biostratigraphy to the late Tithonian-late Berriasian time interval. Microfacies, pyrite framboid size, spectrometric gamma-ray and mineralogical data are herein integrated in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental change during the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. Deposits of the late Tithonian-early Berriasian are characterized by laminated, organic-rich facies with abundant radiolarian, tiny pyrite framboids and low Th/U ratios. They are linked to upwelling in a semi-restricted basin, high marine productivity and anoxic bottom waters. The early incursions of Tethyan oceanic waters into the proto-Gulf of Mexico occurred during late Tithonian as attested the appearance of calpionellids. Short and intermittent accumulations of saccocomids during early Berriasian suggest episodes of sporadic connection between the Tethys, the proto-Atlantic and the Pacific ocean during sea-level rise events. A full and stable connection between the Tethys and proto-Gulf of Mexico was established until the late Berriasian. This event is supported by the presence of open marine and bioturbated facies with a framboid population typical of dysoxic conditions, higher Th/U ratios and a decreasing pattern of the total organic carbon content. In addition to highlighting the replenishment of the oxygen supply to the basin, this facies also points to a younger age for the finalization of the Yucatán Block rotation and the end of the Gulf of Mexico opening. Deposition of the studied section occurred mostly during a Tithonian-Berriasian arid phase reported in other Tethyan and Atlantic regions. The similarity between the discrete segments of the standard gamma-ray curve defined in the studied outcrop and those reported from subsurface implies their regional continuity allowing their use for correlation purposes.

  6. Characterization of design ground motion for the central and eastern United States: licensing implications

    Litehiser, J.; Carrato, P.

    2005-01-01

    For the first time in decades several US utilities are exploring the possibility of building new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) generating capacity in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Among the many topics that must be considered to license a nuclear plant (NPP) is appropriate design to mitigate the potential effects of vibratory ground motion from earthquakes. Agreement on seismic design ground motion was not always easy during licensing of the last generation of NPPs. Therefore, over the last few decades both industry and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) have worked to find ground motion criteria that recognize and overcome earlier licensing difficulties. Such criteria should be stable and easily implemented. Important and complementary programs under the direction of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) were part of this effort, and these studies resulted in probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) for a number of CEUS NPP sites. These results and the concepts underlying them are now incorporated into both USNRC regulation and regulatory guidance. Nevertheless, as the utilities and the NRC begin a renewed licensing dialog, issues of regulatory interpretation of earthquake ground motion design criteria have emerged. These issues are as fundamental as the shape and amplitude of ground motion design response spectra and as significant as the impact of these spectra on structural design. Successful and timely resolution of these issues will significantly impact the future of nuclear power in the US. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe some of these issues and the approaches that have been proposed for their resolution. (authors)

  7. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: Access in Central and Eastern Europe

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn’s disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  8. MAIN TRENDS OF DERIVATIVES’ MARKET DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Kostiantyn Vozianov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the factors of formation and development of the derivatives market in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, to analyze the features of the organization and functioning of these markets, as well as to identify modern trends of development of the derivatives markets of CEE. The methodological basis of the study are historical and logical and systematic approach to the analysis of economic phenomena and processes in national and global environment. The study was conducted using the methods: qualitative and quantitative comparison, factor and structural analysis. Results. The development of the CEE derivatives market is characterized by: rapid growth of derivatives trading for the past two decades; high concentration of trading volumes on the stock market; offering a wide range of derivative products allowing investors to effectively hedge risk or get exposure; exchange consolidation; tendency to increased use of modern telecommunication technologies etc. The key problems of CEE derivatives market are low liquidity and international profile of exchanges and the lack of domestic investors for achieving the desired depth of the market. Practical implications. Research of the derivatives market makes it possible to understand more about the mechanism of functioning of the modern financial sector. In our opinion, special attention should be paid to CEE countries, where the development of the derivatives market began in the 1990s. To date, they are understudied, although they have considerable growth potential and in the future can compete on equal terms with Western European and American markets. Moreover, the starting conditions of development of the derivatives market in the CEE countries are more similar to the market of Ukraine and could be useful in terms of adapting good practices.

  9. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  10. Denmark's environmental assistance to Central and Eastern Europe 1991-1996

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    Denmark’s Environmental Assistance to Eastern Europe 1991-1996, an assessment of project achievements, environmental policy performance and the role of foreign assistance. Main report October 1998 by Mikael Skou Andersen, Aarhus University in cooperation with PLS Consult and KPMG: The report...... is a summary and synthesis of the results of the external evaluation of the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) in 1997. It provides the principles for environmental assistance in the period 1991-96 and contains...... activities and improvements in the existing framework for Danish environmental assistance to Eastern Europe....

  11. A new species of the neopterygian fish Enchodus from the Duwi Formation, Campanian, Late Cretaceous, Western Desert, central Egypt

    Waymon L. Holloway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neopterygian fish Enchodus was a widespread, speciose genus consisting of approximately 30 recognized species that were temporally distributed from the late Early Cretaceous through the Paleocene. Many Enchodus specimens are fragmentary cranial remains or isolated dental elements, as is the case for previously reported occurrences in Egypt. Here, we present the most complete specimen of Enchodus recovered from the Late Cretaceous of northeast Africa. The specimen was collected from the upper Campanian Duwi Formation, near the village of Tineida (Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The new species, Enchodus tineidae sp. nov., consists of right and left dentaries, a partial ectopterygoid, and other cranial bones. The size of the specimen places it into the upper body-size range for the genus. The palatine tooth, an element often useful for diagnosing Enchodus to the species level, is not preserved, but a combination of other cranial characters supports the referral of this specimen to Enchodus. In particular, the dentary preserves three symphysial rostroventral prongs and two tooth rows, the lateral of which consists of small denticles, whereas the medial row comprises large, mediolaterally-compressed teeth. The rostral-most tooth exhibits the highest crown, whereas the rest of the teeth are of lower, variable crown heights. The eight robust, caudal-most medial-row teeth are distributed in a cluster pattern never before observed in Enchodus. Additionally, the dentary and preopercle are both without dermal ornamentation, and the mandibular sensory canal is closed. Phylogenetic analysis recovers this new species as the sister species to E. dirus from North America. Along with previously described materials from Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Italy, Morocco, and Libya, this specimen represents a thirteenth species from the northwestern Tethyan geographic distribution of Enchodus.

  12. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  13. The Possibility of Central and Eastern European Countries' Joining the EMU: Prospects and Implications for Korea

    Jeong-Cheol Han

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The old socialistic states of Middle and Eastern Europe is positively trying to accede to the EMU in order to enjoy the manifold rights of joining currency combination, not mention the political and diplomatic purposes. The EU brought forward the regulation of macro-economic reduction, system and law terms as the requirement of the entrance of those Middle and Eastern Europe countries. According to a survey, including Poland and Hungary, countries which took the lead in reforming agreed with EU on most of EU’ requirements about acceding to EMU. However, because of the domestic and foreign economic conditions, in the next 1 or 2years, none of the Middle and Eastern Europe countries could meet the requirement of reducing macro-economy. Whereas the degree of fulfillment of the economy reducing requirement and the factor that the Middle and Eastern Europe countries could accede to EU after 2003, it was predicted that those countries could accede to EMU only after 2005. With the coming on of EMU, the Middle and Eastern countries will accelerate the activity of currency combination. The South Korean government and enterprises also should intensify the prediction and precaution to the systems, policy change and other economic effects of these Middle and Eastern Europe countries.

  14. Comparaison of last centuries variability in the eastern and central Pacific reconstructed from massive coral geochemical tracers

    Moreau, Melanie; Corrège, Thierry; Cole, Julie; Le Cornec, Florence; Edwards, Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Charlier, Karine

    2014-05-01

    The tropical Pacific is under the influence of different climate modes (from the seasonal to the decadal scale) and, through teleconnections, affects the global climate. At the seasonal scale the latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) drive the hydrological dynamic of the tropical zone. The tropical Pacific is also a place of strong and variable zonal gradients due to the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) at the interannual scale. A good amount of data is available in the western and the central part of the Pacific to reconstruct climatic parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) while there is a striking lack of data in the eastern part. To better estimate the zonal gradients in the tropical Pacific and the different climatic processes in the last two centuries, we present geochemical results (Sr/Ca and δ18O) obtained from aragonitic coral skeletons (Porites genus) from Clipperton atoll (10° N, 109° W) and the Marquesas Islands (10° S, 140° W). Clipperton being the only atoll located in the northern part of the ITCZ latitudinal migration area, information about eastern Pacific hydrological cycle and advection can be obtained. On the other hand, the precise chronology of the Clipperton coral and the comparaison with the records from the Marquesas Islands allows us to calculate SST gradients between the eastern and central Pacific. We will discuss about the recent theory of an El Niño-like condition triggered by a slowdown of the equatorial Walker circulation under global warming. We will also discuss about the evolution (frequency and intensity) of the two differents 'flavours' of El Niño (e.g. the canonical eastern El Niño and the central El Niño Modoki) through the 20thcentury. Indeed the canonical El Niño is characterised by a maximum SST anomaly in the eastern Pacific while the El Niño Modoki is characterised by a maximum SST anomaly persisting in the central Pacific. A

  15. Advancing human rights in patient care through higher education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Ezer, Tamar; Overall, Judy

    2013-12-12

    In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, for society's most marginalized people, health systems are too often places of violations of basic rights, rather than of treatment and care. At the same time, health practitioners are largely unaware of how to incorporate human rights norms in their work. Additionally, they may face abuses themselves, such as unsafe working conditions and sanctions for providing evidence-based care. Similarly, legal professionals have limited experience working in the health sector, trying to address abuses that occur. Republics of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have emerged from communism and experienced continued restructuring of their health care systems. As faculties of law, public health, and medicine have sought to incorporate these rapid changes into their curricula, this period of reform and openness to new approaches presented a particular opportunity to integrate human rights education. The Open Society Foundations have attempted to respond to the need to build health and human rights capacity by supporting the development of over 25 courses in human rights in patient care in nine countries. Targeted at different audiences, these courses are now part of the regular offerings at the academic institutions where they are taught. Student evaluations point to the strength of the interdisciplinary approach and the need to integrate practical examples and exercises. Faculty response has led to the development of a virtual community of practice and series of workshops to gain exposure to new ideas, strengthen interactive teaching, and share materials and experiences. Critical to this initiative has been working with faculty champions in each university, who shaped this initiative to meet the needs in their context. It quickly became apparent that teaching methodology is as important as content in human rights education. Meaningful engagement with health practitioners has entailed connections to day-to-day practice, participatory

  16. Alternative (G-16v2) Ground Motion Prediction Equations for the Central and Eastern North America

    Graizer, V.

    2016-12-01

    Introduced is the ground motion prediction equations model for the Central and Eastern North America that represents an alternative more physically justified approach to ground motion attenuation modeling then previous Graizer (2016) G-16 model. The new model has a bilinear slope of R-1 within 70 km from the fault with a slope of R-0.5 at larger distances corresponding to the geometrical spreading of body and surface waves. The new (G-16v2) model is based in part on the NGA-East database for the horizontal peak ground acceleration and 5%-damped pseudo spectral acceleration (SA) and also on comparisons with the Western U.S. data and ground motion simulations. Based on data, I estimated the average slope of the distance attenuation within the 50-70 km distance from the fault to be -1.0 at most of the frequencies supporting regular geometrical spreading of body waves. Multiple inversions are performed to estimate apparent (combined intrinsic and scattering) attenuation of SA amplitudes from the NGA-East database for incorporation into the model. These estimates demonstrate a difference between seismological Q(f) and the above mentioned attenuation factor that I recommend calling QSA(f). I adjusted previously developed site correction which was based on multiple runs of representative VS30 (time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) profiles through SHAKE-type equivalent-linear codes. Site amplifications are calculated relative to the hard rock definition used in nuclear industry (VS=2800 m/s). These improvements resulted in a modest reduction in standard deviation in the new G-16v2 relative to the G-16 model. The number of model predictors is limited to a few measurable parameters: moment magnitude M, closest distance to fault rupture plane Rrup, VS30, and apparent attenuation factor QSA(f). The model is applicable for the stable continental regions and covers the following range: 4.0≤M≤8.5, 0≤Rrup≤1000 km, 450≤VS30≤2800 m/s and frequencies 0.1

  17. Pricing and Reimbursement of Biosimilars in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Tesar, Tomas; Skoupa, Jana; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka I.; Rugaja, Zinta; Männik, Agnes; Harsanyi, Andras; Draganic, Pero

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country. Data on the extent of reimbursement of biologic drugs (separately for original products and biosimilars) in the years 2014 and 2015 were also collected for each country, along with data on the total pharmaceutical and total public health care budgets. Results: Our survey revealed that no specific criteria were applied for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars in the selected CEE countries; the price of biosimilars was usually reduced compared with original drugs and specific price discounts were common. Substitution and interchangeability were generally allowed, although in most countries they were at the discretion of the physician after a clinical assessment. Original biologic drugs and the corresponding biosimilars were usually in the same homogeneous group, and internal reference pricing was usually employed. The reimbursement rate of biosimilars in the majority of the countries was the same and amounted to 100%. Generally, the higher shares of expenditures were shown for the reimbursement of original drugs than for biosimilars, except for filgrastim, somatropin, and epoetin (alfa and zeta). The shares of expenditures on the reimbursement of biosimilar products ranged from 8.0% in Estonia in 2014 to 32.4% in Lithuania in 2015, and generally increased in 2015. The share of expenditures on reimbursement of biosimilars in the total pharmaceutical budget differed between the

  18. SOSPES: SPIRIVA® observational study measuring SGRQ score in routine medical practice in Central and Eastern Europe

    Fležar M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Matjaž Fležar,1 Karina Jahnz-Rózyk,2 Gloria Enache,3 Tatiana Martynenko,4 Peter Kristufek,5 Sanda Škrinjaric-Cincar,6 Pavla Kadlecová,7 Goran Martinovic81University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, Golnik, Slovenia; 2Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Immunology and Allergology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Saint John Clinical Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania; 4Municipal Medical Institution City Hospital, Barnaul, Russian Federation; 5SACCME, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia; 6Clinical Hospital Center, Osijek, Croatia; 7ADDS Sro, Jana Uhra, Brno, Czech Republic; 8Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Vienna, AustriaPurpose: The long-acting inhaled anticholinergic agent, tiotropium, is recommended as first-line maintenance therapy for moderate to very severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD to improve symptoms, exercise tolerance, health status, and to reduce exacerbations. Few studies have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of tiotropium in patients in routine clinical conditions. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of tiotropium delivered via the HandiHaler® device on the health status of patients with COPD with Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD disease classification 2–4 in six central and eastern European countries in a real-life clinical setting.Methods: The study was an open-label, prospective, uncontrolled, and single-arm surveillance study with three clinic visits during a 6-month observation period (baseline, and months 3 and 6. Health status was measured using the disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline in SGRQ total score at the end of the 6-month observational period.Results: Patients treated with tiotropium 18 µg once daily showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction (improvement of 21

  19. Characteristics and mode of emplacement of gneiss domes and plutonic domes in central-eastern Pyrenees

    Soula, Jean-Claude

    Gneiss domes and plutonic granitoid domes make up almost 50% of the pre-Hercynian terrains in the Central and Eastern Pyrenees. From a structural study of the shape and internal structure of the domes and of their relationships with the enclosing rocks, it can be shown that both types of domes were emplaced diapirically during the major regional deformation phase and the peak of regional metamorphism. The study also shows that the internal structure, the overall shape and general behaviour relative to the host rocks are similar for plutonic domes and for gneiss domes. This appears to be in good agreement with H. Ramberg's (1967, Gravity Deformation and the Earth's Crust. Academic Press, London; 1970, Model studies in relation to intrusion of plutonic bodies. In: Mechanisms of Igneous Intrusion (edited by Newall, G. & Rast, N.) Geol. J. Spec. Issue2, 261-286.) model studies showing that dome or mushroom-like structures, similar to those observed, develop when there is a small viscosity ratio between the rising body and its enclosing medium. This implies a high crystal content for the granitoid magma. This crystal content has been estimated by (i) calculating the viscosity and density in natural conditions from petrological data for the magma considered as a suspension, using the model and program of J. P. Carron et al. (1978 Bull Soc. géol. Fr.20, 739-744.); (ii) using the recent results of experimental deformation of partially melted granites of I. van der Molen & M. S. Paterson (1979, Contr. Miner. Petrol.70, 299-318.) and (ii) comparing the preceding results with the data obtained by deformation experiments on rocks similar to those enclosing the domes. The minimum crystal content for the development of a dome-like structure has been, thus, estimated to about 70%, i.e. a value very close to that estimated by van der Molen & Paterson (1979) to be the critical value separating the granular framework flow from suspension-like behaviour. The effect of small

  20. Polyfluorinated and perfluorinated chemicals in precipitation and runoff from cities across eastern and central China.

    Zhao, Lijie; Zhou, Meng; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-three polychlorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in water phase and particulate matters of 19 precipitation samples (18 snow samples and 1 rain sample) from different cities across eastern and central China collected in February 2010. The PFCs in samples of 9e precipitation events during more than half a year at 1 site in Tianjin and 6 successive samples during 1 precipitation event were measured to elucidate the change of PFC in precipitation. In addition, PFCs in 3 runoffs at different kinds of sites in Tianjin were compared with those in the corresponding precipitation. The results showed that the particulate matters separated from the precipitation contained undetectable PFCs. The total PFC concentration ranged between 4.7 and 152 ng L(-1) in water phase of the precipitation samples, with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being detected at all of the sampling sites and the dominant PFC at most of the sampling sites. Some potential precursors of environmentally concerned PFCs and their degradation intermediates were measured simultaneously, among which 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 8:2 FTUCA, and  × (3, 4, 5, 7):3 acid [F(CF(2))xCH(2)CH(2)COOH] were measured for the first time in Chinese precipitations; however, their concentrations were all lower than the limits of detection except that 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA could be detected in 3 and 8 precipitation samples, respectively. No clear seasonal variation in PFC concentrations in precipitation was observed during half a year; however, a relatively greater average concentration of total PFCs was observed during winter and summer compared with spring. The concentration of individual PFCs showed an obvious descending trend in the successive samples of the precipitation event. PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid in runoffs collected from different sites showed the following similar pattern-gas station > highway > university campus-whereas the other

  1. Opportunistic acoustic recordings of (potential) orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus in the Central Eastern Atlantic

    Peña, Marian; Villanueva, Roger; Escánez, Alejandro; Ariza, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    Squids are fast swimmers that are difficult to catch by nets and to record with echosounders in the open ocean. A rare detection of orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus in the Central Eastern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Senegal was accomplished during the MAFIA oceanographic survey carried out between Brazil and the Canary Islands in April 2015. Although net sampling did not yield any subadult or adult individuals, dozens were visually detected from the vessel jumping out of the water at night and displaying their characteristic dorsal photophore patch. A few squids were caught with fishing lines and identified at the species level. The acoustic echograms revealed distinctive previously unobserved acoustic echotraces that seemed to be caused by those squids, which were the only new species detected at that station (over a bottom depth ranging from 4010 to 5215 m, between 10° 45‧ N 22° 41‧ W and 10° 53‧ N 22° 40‧ W). The acoustic response and swimming behaviour shown by those echotraces reinforced this hypothesis. The (potentially) squid recordings dove rapidly (0.19 m/s to 0.48 m/s) from around 10 m below the mesopelagic fish layer, which had migrated to the subsurface at night (35 m depth), to depths of 70-95 m, and swam upward, apparently attacking fish from below. The morning squid migration to deeper waters (250-300 m) was also recorded acoustically. Downward movements of squid swimming at speeds of 0.22 m/s were calculated from the echogram, while the mesopelagic migrating fish swam at 0.27 m/s reaching 250 m depth. Sv120 - Sv38 averaged 2.7 ± 3.2 dB for the squid echotraces while the mesopelagic layer showed values of -8.8 ± 0.9 dB. These ranges agreed with values in the literature and from theoretical models. This study provides more insight into the migrating behaviour of oceanic squids, a species group that is poorly represented in the acoustic literature due to challenges in studying them.

  2. Systematic review on the evaluation criteria of orphan medicines in Central and Eastern European countries.

    Zelei, Tamás; Molnár, Mária J; Szegedi, Márta; Kaló, Zoltán

    2016-06-04

    In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. To explore and summarize the recent scientific evidence on value drivers related to the health technology assessment of ODs with a special focus on the perspective of third party payers in CEE countries. The review aims to list all potentially relevant value drivers in the reimbursement process of orphan drugs. A systematic literature review was performed; PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant publications until April 2015. Extracted data were summarized along key HTA elements. From the 2664 identified publications, 87 contained relevant information on the evaluation criteria of orphan drugs, but only 5 had direct information from the CEE region. The presentation of good clinical evidence seems to play a key role especially since this should be the basis of cost-effectiveness analyses, which have more importance in resource-constrained economies. Due to external price referencing of pharmaceuticals, the relative budget impact of orphan drugs is expected to be higher in CEE than in Western European (WE) countries unless accessibility of patients remains more limited in poorer European regions. Equity principles based on disease prevalence and non-availability of alternative treatment options may increase the price premium, however, societies must have some control on prices and a rationale based on multiple criteria in reimbursement decisions. The evaluation of orphan medicines should include multiple criteria to appropriately measure the clinical added value of orphan

  3. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma synoviae strains originating from Central and Eastern Europe.

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Grózner, Dénes; Sulyok, Kinga M; Nilsson, Kristin; Hrivnák, Veronika; Benčina, Dušan; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2017-11-17

    Mycoplasma synoviae causes infectious synovitis and respiratory diseases in chickens and turkeys and may lead to egg shell apex abnormalities in chickens; hence possesses high economic impact on the poultry industry. Control of the disease consists of eradication, vaccination or medication. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to 14 different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of M. synoviae strains originating from Hungary and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of a total of 41 M. synoviae strains were determined by the microbroth dilution method. The strains were collected between 2002 and 2016 and originated from Hungary (n = 26), Austria (n = 3), the Czech Republic (n = 3), Slovenia (n = 3), Ukraine (n = 3), Russia (n = 2) and Serbia (n = 1). Tetracyclines (with MIC 50 values of 0.078 μg/ml, ≤0.25 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml for doxycycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline, respectively), macrolides (with MIC 50 values of ≤0.25 μg/ml for tylvalosin, tylosin and tilmicosin), pleuromutilins (with MIC 50 values of 0.078 μg/ml and ≤0.039 μg/ml for tiamulin and valnemulin) and the combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin (MIC 50 1 μg/ml (0.333/0.667 μg/ml)) were found to be the most effective antibiotic agents against M. synoviae in vitro. High MIC values were detected in numerous strains for fluoroquinolones (with MIC 50 values of 1.25 μg/ml and 2.5 μg/ml for enrofloxacin and difloxacin), neomycin (MIC 50 32 μg/ml), spectinomycin (MIC 50 2 μg/ml), lincomycin (MIC 50 0.5 μg/ml) and florfenicol (MIC 50 4 μg/ml). Nevertheless, strains with elevated MIC values were detected for most of the applied antibiotics. In the medical control of M. synoviae infections the preliminary in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing and the careful evaluation of the data are crucial. Based on the in vitro examinations

  4. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 12,103-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (CLUB) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from December 2008 to March 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CLUB study unit was the twenty-eighth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA CLUB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) are defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CLUB study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CLUB study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 52 wells in 3 study areas (Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts) in San Bernardino, Riverside, Kern, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. Forty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and three wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile

  5. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. from the Itremo and Andringitra mountains of central eastern Madagascar (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae).

    Manuel, Michaël; Ramahandrison, Andriamirado T

    2017-06-01

    Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Itremo mountain range and from the Andringitra massif in central eastern Madagascar. The new species is the second one of the genus Canthyporus Zimmermann, 1919 to be recorded from Madagascar, the other being C. pauliani Guignot, 1951, so far endemic to the northern massif of Tsaratanana. The habitus and male and female reproductive structures of the new species are illustrated. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. differs from C. pauliani notably by larger size, less parallel-sided and more evenly convex habitus, paler pronotum, more weakly impressed body surface reticulation, and a different shape of the median lobe of aedeagus. Differences with similar C. hottentottus-group species from mainland Africa are also discussed. Data on habitat preferences of C. reebae sp. nov. and a distribution map of Malagasy Canthyporus are presented and discussed.

  6. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  7. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia (Tish) P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  8. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Salomone, Lawrence A.; Fuller, Chris W.; Glaser, Laura L.; Hanson, Kathryn L.; Hartleb, Ross D.; Lettis, William R.; Lindvall, Scott C.; McDuffie, Stephen M.; McGuire, Robin K.; Stirewalt, Gerry L.; Toro, Gabriel R.; Youngs, Robert R.; Slayter, David L.; Bozkurt, Serkan B.; Cumbest, Randolph J.; Falero, Valentina Montaldo; Perman, Roseanne C.; Shumway, Allison M.; Syms, Frank H.; Tuttle, Martitia P.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  9. The underlying physiological basis of the desert rodent Meriones shawi's survival to prolonged water deprivation: Central vasopressin regulation on peripheral kidney water channels AQPs-2.

    Elgot, A; El Hiba, O; Belkouch, M; Gamrani, H

    2018-02-01

    Meriones shawi (M. shawi) is a particular semi-desert rodent known by its resistance to long periods of thirst. The aim of the present investigation is to clarify the underlying mechanisms allowing M. shawi to resist to hard conditions of dehydration. For this reason we used two different approaches: i) a morphometric study, which consists in measuring the effect of dehydration on body and kidneys weights as well as the report kidney weight/body weight, ii) By immunohistochemistry, we proceed to study the effect of dehydration on the immunoreactivity of central vasopressin (AVP) and the kidney aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) which is a channel protein that allows water to permeate across cell membranes. Our results showed both a body mass decrease accompanied by a remarkable kidneys hypertrophy. The immunohistochemical study showed a significant increase of AQP-2 immunoreactivity in the medullar part of Meriones kidneys allowing probably to Meriones a great ability to water retention. Consistently, we demonstrate that the increased AQP-2 expression occurred together with an increase in vasopressin (AVP) expression in both hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which are a major hub in the osmotic control circuitry. These various changes seen either in body weight and kidneys or at the cellular level might be the basis of peripheral control of body water homeostasis, providing to M. shawia strong resistance against chronic dehydration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  11. Meeting of the Central and Eastern U.S. (CEUS) Earthquake Hazards Program October 28–29, 2009

    Tuttle, Martitia; Boyd, Oliver; McCallister, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    On October 28th and 29th, 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program held a meeting of Central and Eastern United States investigators and interested parties in Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the Central and Eastern United States earthquake-hazards community to present and discuss recent research results, to promote communication and collaboration, to garner input regarding future research priorities, to inform the community about research opportunities afforded by the 2010–2012 arrival of EarthScope/USArray in the central United States, and to discuss plans for the upcoming bicentennial of the 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The two-day meeting included several keynote speakers, oral and poster presentations by attendees, and breakout sessions. The meeting is summarized in this report and can be subdivided into four primary sections: (1) summaries of breakout discussion groups; (2) list of meeting participants; (3) submitted abstracts; and (4) slide presentations. The abstracts and slides are included “as submitted” by the meeting participants and have not been subject to any formal peer review process; information contained in these sections reflects the opinions of the presenter at the time of the meeting and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. Difference in luminescence sensitivity of coarse-grained quartz from deserts of northern China

    Zheng, C.X.; Zhou, L.P.; Qin, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence sensitivity of coarse quartz extracted from desert sands in northern China was investigated. In general, the western deserts' samples are shown to be less sensitive than samples from the eastern deserts with respect to both OSL and the 110 deg. C TL peak. However, internal scatter among different aliquots of the same sample is observed for these two signals, which have already been normalized by weight. Laboratory dosing/bleach experiments indicate that earth surface processes, such as repeated burial and transportation can cause the sensitivity change and suggest that they may be responsible for the internal scatter. An intrinsic property of quartz was explored via the luminescence response to thermal activation to a maximum temperature of 700 deg. C. The thermal activation curves obtained with quartz from western and central deserts are similar, except one sample from Gurbantungut, which follows the pattern of eastern samples. The differences in quartz luminescence sensitivity exhibited by OSL/110 deg. C TL sensitivity and response to thermal activation are in accordance with the published results of geochemical studies.

  13. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai; Grapengiesser, S.; Bennerstedt, T.

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs

  14. Are mixed electoral systems the best choice for central and Eastern Europe or the reason for defective party systems?

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    incentives of mixed electoral systems might hamper the stabilization and institutionalization of party systems in young democracies. Empirical results from 19 democracies in Central and Eastern Europe suggest that the learning and stabilization effect that is exerted through simple electoral systems fails...... under mixed systems. Using a variance model analysis, this study rejects the common belief that mixed systems lead to more moderate party systems with regards to party system fractionalization. Rather, outcomes under mixed systems vary much more widely than under proportional representation...

  15. BANKING ON MULTINATIONALS: THE DETERMINANTS OF CROSS-BORDER CREDITS TO CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, 1990-2015

    Roksolana Zapotichna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the rising dependence of Central and Eastern Europe on multinational banks’ credits, the main purpose of the article is to identify and examine the determinants of cross-border credits through a methodology based on “push” and “pull” factors. The author presents the results of a regression analysis on the determinants of cross-border credits provided by multinational banks from EU-15 to Central and Eastern Europe over the period of 1990-2015 by using the statistical data compiled and published by the Bank for International Settlements. The obtained results suggest that global as well as home and host country level determinants influence cross-border credits but to a different extent. According to our results, higher stability and predictability of global economic environment contribute to higher cross-border credit growth. The results of the host country determinants analysis indicate that more effective and profitable economies receive more credits from multinational banks. We also find that multinational banks provide more credits to countries with small markets, low inflation rate, high external debt burden, high capital account deficit, fixed exchange rate regime, and developed institutional environment. Regarding home level determinants, we find the existence of a negative correlation between home country economic cycle and the amount of cross-border credits received by the host country, which can be explained by low economic growth in continental Europe over the period under consideration that stimulated European banks to expand lending on foreign markets with higher profit opportunities. Thus, cross-border credits appear to have been countercyclical to growth in home countries and procyclical to growth in host countries. Finally, it is found that host country level determinants play the most important role in explaining changes in cross-border credits on host countries in Central and Eastern Europe during

  16. Against Any Theory: Rapid Consolidation of Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe

    Wolggang Merkel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author polemises with once infl uential theories of transformation – whose greats are Jon Elster and Claus Off e – which were based on the theorem that a simultaneous successful economic and political – and, somewhere, state – transformation in Eastern Europe is not possible. Contrary to these theories, in most post-communist countries of Eastern Europe democracy has consolidated rather quickly. The author demonstrates this proposition by measuring the consolidation of new democracies according to Bertelsmann’s transformation index (BTI at four levels: the constitutional and representative level, and the levels of behaviour of actors and political culture. Failures in the analysis of transformation processes are blamed on the theories of action that simply transplanted the ‘transitional paradigm’ from Southern Europe and Latin America into Eastern Europe. Theories of actors seek to deduce highly complex changes of systems in this region from highly formalised and oversimplifi ed constellations of actors, ignoring the very diff erent democratisation potentials of individual countries. Thus, three variables are left in ‘theoretical obscurity’ – modernity, statehood and external actors – which are placed in the focus of modernisation theories, system theories and structuralist theories, and which prove to be extremely important for the understanding of transformation processes in Eastern Europe.

  17. Foreign bank entry and performance with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe

    Naaborg, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Fall of the Wall in 1989, large international banks have been opening branches in former Eastern Bloc countries with high expectations. Ilko Naaborg investigated how these banks function in eleven different countries. In 1995, on average, foreign banks made up about 25 percent of the total

  18. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  19. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  20. The constraints to the economic development in the former socialist EU countries from the Central and Eastern Europe

    Vasile Dinu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years, most Central and Eastern European states have become detached from the centralized economy system thus demonstrating the reliability of the market economy. The unequivocal effect of the free market, with ups and downs, forces researchers to undertake increasingly complex economic analysis and further the profile of the new economy. With the accession of a number of countries from this region to the European Union there were some constraints and limitations in adopting the European acquis, whose knowledge and solution involves the use of specific policies and tools. We consider the problems related to the resolution of economic, social and technological discrepancies and gaps, of mitigating the negative impact of unfavourable demographic trends, of elucidating the role of the state amid the erosion of its duties due to the process of integration and globalization, of increasing pressure interdependencies interstate and others.

  1. MONETARY POLICY BEFORE AND AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS. EVIDENCE FROM INFLATION TARGETING COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Ioana Plescau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to review the monetary framework and instruments adopted by the inflation-targeting countries in Central and Eastern Europe, from 2005-ownwards. We employ a qualitative approach and develop a comparative analysis of the changes that occurred in the conduct of monetary policy after the 2008 financial crisis. The results highlight that the central banks in our sample have adjusted their policy in order to counteract the effects of the financial crisis and adopt different instruments to fulfill this aim. The contribution of our study is twofold. First, we offer a review of the literature regarding the adjustments in the monetary policy after the crisis and their effectiveness. Second, we make a comparative analysis between countries with respect to the path of monetary policy from conventional to unconventional and assess the (potential way back.

  2. Increasing magnitude of Hurricane Rapid Intensification in the central-eastern Atlantic over the past 30 years

    Leung, L. R.; Balaguru, K.; Foltz, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, several hurricanes underwent rapid intensification (RI) in the central-eastern Atlantic. This motivates an analysis of trends in the strength of hurricane RI during the 30-year post-satellite period of 1986-2015. Our results show that in the eastern tropical Atlantic, to the east of 60W, the mean RI magnitude averaged during 2001-2015 was 3.8 kt per 24 hr higher than during 1986-2000. However, in the western tropical Atlantic, to the west of 60W, changes in RI magnitude over the same period were not statistically significant. We examined the large-scale environment to understand the causes behind these changes in RI magnitude and found that various oceanic and atmospheric parameters that play an important role in RI changed favorably in the eastern tropical Atlantic. More specifically, changes in SST, Potential Intensity, upper-ocean heat content, wind shear, relative humidity and upper-level divergence enhanced the ability for hurricanes to undergo RI in the eastern tropical Atlantic. In contrast, changes in the same factors are inconsistent in the western tropical Atlantic. While changes in SST and Potential Intensity were positive, changes in upper-ocean heat content, wind shear and upper-level divergence were either insignificant or unfavorable for RI. Finally, we examined the potential role of various climate phenomena, which are well-known to impact Atlantic hurricane activity, in causing the changes in the large-scale environment. Our analysis reveals that changes in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation over the 30-year period are predominantly responsible. These results provide important aspects of the large-scale context to understand the Atlantic hurricane season of 2017.

  3. Uniparental genetic heritage of belarusians: encounter of rare middle eastern matrilineages with a central European mitochondrial DNA pool.

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups - a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations - Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively.

  4. South America Monsoon variability on millennial to multi-centennial time scale during the Holocene in central eastern Brazil

    Strikis, N. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Cheng, H.; Karmann, I.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Wang, X.; Paula, M. S.; Novello, V. F.; Auler, A.

    2011-12-01

    A paleoprecipitation reconstruction based on high resolution and well-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records shows that the monsoon precipitation over central eastern Brazil underwent to strong variations on millennial to multi-centennial time-scales during the Holocene. This new record indicates that abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation are correlated to Bond events 6, 5 and 4 and also with 8.2 ky event during the early and mid-Holocene, with a mean amplitude of 1.5 % (PDB). The pacing and structure of such events are general consistent with variations in solar activity suggested by atmospheric Δ14 C records. In the late-Holocene, abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation peaking at 3.2, 2.7 and 2.3 ky B.P. are approximately synchronous with periods of low solar minima. In this regard, the most prominent event occurred during the late Holocene occurred at ~2.7 ky B.P. In addition, these positive anomalies of the precipitation recorded in central eastern Brazil are also in good agreement with variations in Titicaca lake level. The good correspondence between the speleothem and marine records imply that the variations in the north Atlantic sea surface temperature is the main forcing for abrupt millennial to multi-centennial precipitations variation within the region under influence of South American Monsoon.

  5. DYNAMIC TRENDS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTEMENTS AND MACROECONOMIC CHANGES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN COUNTRIES DURING 2000-2010

    DENISIA VINTILA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the transition economies, foreign direct investments (FDI were considered the engine of theireconomic transformation. The purpose of this article is to highlight the evolution of FDI during 2000-2010 for 7countries of Central and Eastern Europe, precisely: Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia,Romania and Bulgaria (CEE-7 and the changes in the patterns of the FDI received. There are large differencesamong these countries regarding the investments received and we tried to identity the determinants thatcontributed to this uneven distribution of FDI .We analyzed the boom of FDI registered by these countriesduring 2000-2008 and the structure and dynamics of FDI after the break out of the crisis in 2008. FDI inCentral and Eastern Europe experienced a collapse in 2009, after 8 year of impressive increase, which followeda strong economic growth. Poland was the most attractive country of the region, even during the financial crisis.Romania and Bulgaria, which experienced an impressive increase of FDI during 2004-2008, were severelyaffected by the crisis. The collapse of FDI, which coincides with the economic recession, brought also somechanges in the structure and form of the FDI received.

  6. Overview of Iodine Deficiency Prevention Strategies in the South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region: 2009–2016

    Gregory A. Gerasimov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Universal salt iodization (USI strategies gained strong momentum in countries of the Southern Europe and Central Asia (SECA region during the 2000–2009 decade. By the end of the first decade, several countries in the region had already reached the goal of optimum iodine nutrition; other countries were quickly approaching this goal, and in only a few countries the progress toward USI had remained slow. This paper reports an overview of the two Sub-Regional workshops (for countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and South-Eastern Europe conducted in 2015 and 2016. Both workshops demonstrate that the SECA region remains on track in the pursuit of USI for sustainable IDD elimination. Notwithstanding the noted imperfections, none of the data or information from countries of the region suggested that the conquest of iodine deficiency is seriously threatened. However, more efforts should be made to develop and streamline USI strategies in Russia and Ukraine, two major countries that are lagging behind.

  7. The role of commercial banks in enterprise restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe

    Long, Millard; Rutkowska, Izabela

    1995-01-01

    Many countries in Eastern Europe assigned banks the responsibility for restructuring enterprises. Such restructuring had five components: 1) triage of enterprises into three classes -- viable, viable with debt relief, and nonviable; 2) work with management of overindebted firms on a restructuring plan before granting debt relief; 3) trigger the bankruptcy liquidation process on nonviable firms; 4) fund new investments needed as part of physical restructuring; and 5) provide corporate governan...

  8. Aeromycobiota of Western Desert of Egypt | Ismail | African Journal ...

    The prevalence of airborne mycobiota at six different regions of Western desert (5 regions) and Eastern desert (1) of Egypt was determined using the exposed-plate method. A total of 44 genera, 102 species and one variety in addition to some unidentified yeasts and dark sterile mycelia were collected. Of the above, only 5 ...

  9. Attractiveness of Central and Eastern European Countries for Foreign Direct Investment in the Context of European Integration: The Case of Estonia

    Andresson, Kairi; Reiljan, Janno; Reiljan, Ele

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in the world have increased rapidly during the last decade. Most of the FDI inflows are targeted to developed countries (78% in 1999, about fifth of the flows are going to developing countries and Central and Eastern European transition countries are the host countries for only 2% of the world FDI. The necessity of foreign investments in the transition countries is the result of industrial restructuring in post-socialist Eastern Europe and the Baltic coun...

  10. A contribution to the SHA of Eastern Thessaly, Central Greece: archaeological and historical evidences

    Helly, B.; Caputo, R.; Tsafalias, A.

    2003-04-01

    Eastern Thessaly region (Central Greece) shows numerous evidences of seismic activity ranging from structural, morphological, palaeoseismological, archaeological and historical. In the present note, we focus on the latter two aspects. A fundamental source of historic data are the "Chronicles" of the monasteries of the area. Doubtless, the most important ones are those located in the Meteora region (western Thessaly). In the "Chronicles" of these monasteries few events are reported relative to the investigated region and particularly the August 1668, occurred in the area of Larissa, the 1731, the November 9, 1766 and the August 28, 1781. Maximum inferred intensity of the three latter earthquakes has been estimated of the VIII degree. Based on the tectonic setting of the possible seismogenic structures, these events are tentatively located in the Tyrnavos Basin, while no other events are known in this sector neither before the 16th century nor in more recent times, except the March 1941 earthquake occurred East of Larissa. Archaeological information from the broader area concerns several sectors. i) Along the Rodià Fault, which is the major antithetic structure bordering to the north the Tyrnavos Basin, near the Arghyropouli village, the ancient site of Leimoné has been occupied since Neolithic times but it also represents an important Mycenaean site (13th-10th century BC). According to the historian Rhianos (3rd century BC), the town was still there during the Classical Period (5th-4th century BC) but according to Strabo it was disappeared at the end of the 1st century BC. ii) In Larissa, an inscription of the end of the 3rd century BC ascertain the bad conditions of a certain number of shrines and public buildings, reporting several damages like fallen columns. iii) Along the Tyrnavos Fault, the ancient settlement and ruins found on the rocky hill of the present-day Damasi village has been correlated to the ancient town of Phalanna and the alluvial plain

  11. Fiscal Sustainability: Does EU Membership Change Policy Behavior? Empirical Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe

    Bettina Bökemeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies fiscal policy behavior with regard to sustainability for the group of the eight eastern new member states which joined the European Union in 2004. Using the approach of Bohn (1995, 998 the fiscal reaction function is estimated for the years 1996 until 2013. Further, separating the response in periods before and after accession studies potential changes in fiscal sustainability. The results of the panel regressions reveal a positive statistically significant reaction coefficient, indicating sustainable behavior. Moreover, once the responses are split in 2004 the reaction coefficient is somewhat larger in size ahead of the accession. Accounting for the crisis reveals that these years challenge fiscal sustainability.

  12. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  13. Non-rainfall water sources in the topsoil and their changes during formation of man-made algal crusts at the eastern edge of Qubqi Desert, Inner Mongolia.

    Lan, ShuBin; Hu, ChunXiang; Rao, BenQiang; Wu, Li; Zhang, DeLu; Liu, YongDing

    2010-09-01

    In arid and semiarid areas, water uptake (non-rainfall water) serves as an important water source for plants, biological soil crusts, insects and small animals. In this study, a measurement program was undertaken to investigate water uptake and its changes during formation of man-made algal crusts in the Qubqi Desert. In the study region, water uptake from the atmosphere accounted for 25.07%-39.83% of the total water uptake, and was mainly taken up by a water vapor adsorption mechanism; the proportion of water uptake from the soil substrate was much higher (60.17%-74.93%). The formation of crusts promoted water uptake, but the increased uptake did not occur immediately after inoculation or crusts formation. The water taken up from the atmosphere increased significantly from day 15 after inoculation, and the soil water content was markedly enhanced from day 20 after inoculation. It is considered that the growth of algal filaments and their secretions were the main factors increasing the amount of water uptake and water content in the crusts, and these variables increased even during dry periods when some algae are likely to have died.

  14. Use of ERS-2 Sar and Landsat TM Images for Geological Mapping and Mineral Exploration Of Sol Hamid Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Ramadan, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Sol hamid area is chiefy occupied by neo proterozoic rocks, partly covered by miocene sediments and recent sand sheets and dunes. The neo proterozoic rocks include ophiolitic ultramafic to mafic rocks, meta volcano-sedimentary rocks, meta volcanics, gabbros-diorite rocks, granodiorites, biotite granites and alkali granites. Magnesite, chromite, iron ores, manganese and barite ore deposits are hosted in different at the study area. ERS-2 SAR data enabled to obtain an image that reveals some buried fluvial features beneath the surface cover of desert sand. These features are not observable in Landsat TM image of similar resolution. In this work, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was used for merging ERS-2 SAR and Landsat TM images to make use of the potential of data fusion technique of image processing in the interpretation of geological features. This procedure has resulted in enhancing subsurface structure such as faults that control distribution of several deposits in the study area. This study represents an example to demonstrate the utility of merging various remote sensing data for exploring mineral deposits in arid region

  15. Reference intervals and physiologic alterations in hematologic and biochemical values of free-ranging desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert

    Christopher, Mary M.; Berry, Kristin H.; Wallis, I.R.; Nagy, K.A.; Henen, B.T.; Peterson, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations have experienced precipitous declines resulting from the cumulative impact of habitat loss, and human and disease-related mortality. Evaluation of hematologic and biochemical responses of desert tortoises to physiologic and environmental factors can facilitate the assessment of stress and disease in tortoises and contribute to management decisions and population recovery. The goal of this study was to obtain and analyze clinical laboratory data from free-ranging desert tortoises at three sites in the Mojave Desert (California, USA) between October 1990 and October 1995, to establish reference intervals, and to develop guidelines for the interpretation of laboratory data under a variety of environmental and physiologic conditions. Body weight, carapace length, and venous blood samples for a complete blood count and clinical chemistry profile were obtained from 98 clinically healthy adult desert tortoises of both sexes at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural area (western Mojave), Goffs (eastern Mojave) and Ivanpah Valley (northeastern Mojave). Samples were obtained four times per year, in winter (February/March), spring (May/June), summer (July/August), and fall (October). Years of near-, above- and below-average rainfall were represented in the 5 yr period. Minimum, maximum and median values, and central 95 percentiles were used as reference intervals and measures of central tendency for tortoises at each site and/or season. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance for significant (P < 0.01) variation on the basis of sex, site, season, and interactions between these variables. Significant sex differences were observed for packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, aspartate transaminase activity, and cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations. Marked seasonal variation was observed in most parameters in conjunction with reproductive cycle, hibernation, or seasonal

  16. The value of innovation in decision-making in health care in Central Eastern Europe - The Sixth International Conference, 2 June 2017, Belgrade, Serbia.

    Novakovic, Tanja; Martin, Antony P; Parker, Mark; Ferrario, Alessandra; Vukovic, Simo; Łanda, Krzysztof; Duba, Jaroslav; Dankó, Dávid; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Godman, Brian; Ristic, Jelena; Stefanovic, Danka; Tesic, Danka

    2017-12-01

    The Pharmacoeconomics Section of the Pharmaceutical Association of Serbia organised a one day international conference on the value of innovation in decision-making in health care in Central and Eastern Europe. The focus of the conference was on reimbursement decisions for medicines using health technology assessment and the use of managed entry agreements (MEAs). The objectives of this conference were firstly to discuss the challenges and opportunities with the use of MEAs in Central and Eastern European countries; secondly the role of patient registries especially with outcome based schemes, and finally new approaches to improve accessibility to new medicines including better managing their entry.

  17. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  18. Do Countries Export Their Corruption? A Micro Analysis of Russia’s Trade Partners in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Felicia Belostecinic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a probit and dprobit model to examine the domestic determinants of corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In addition, it also looks at whether economic links with a country that is perceived as corrupt—Russia—leads to an increase or decrease in the level of domestic corruption. Using a dataset at the firm level provided by the World Bank, this paper finds that the “Control Rights Hypothesis,” the “Bargaining Power Hypothesis”, and the “Grease the Wheels Hypothesis” are statistically significant at the domestic level and also shows that increased commerce links with Russia leads to a statistically significant correlation with the instance of corruption via the “Grease the Wheels Hypothesis” channel.

  19. Job Search Strategies and Labour Market Outcomes of Young Recent Migrants from Central & Eastern Europe in EU15 Member States

    Leschke, Janine; Weiss, Silvana

    regulation and institutional settings and language and cultural proximity among others which in turn might impact on the importance and role of social networks in labour market outcomes. Our analysis shows that in all European country clusters recent NMS13 migrants more often found their current job through......This paper examines the use of social networks and its impact on the qualitative labour market integration of young recent EU migrants from Central and Eastern European member states to EU15 countries as well as Switzerland and Norway. The literature points to both positive and negative impacts...... of social networks on migrant workers’ outcomes. Social networks can facilitate access to employers and information on labour regulation and rights and thereby improve the quantitative and qualitative labour market outcomes of migrant workers. On the other hand, social networks can also contribute...

  20. Oil-Price Volatility and Macroeconomic Spillovers in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence from a Multivariate GARCH Model

    Hegerty Scott W.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent commodity price declines have added to worldwide macroeconomic risk, which has had serious effects on both commodity exporters and manufacturers that use oil and raw materials. These effects have been keenly felt in Central and Eastern Europe—particularly in Russia, but also in European Union member states. This study tests for spillovers among commodity-price and macroeconomic volatility by applying a VAR(1-MGARCH model to monthly time series for eight CEE countries. Overall, we find that oil prices do indeed have effects throughout the region, as do spillovers among exchange rates, inflation, interest rates, and output, but that they differ from country to country—particularly when different degrees of transition and integration are considered. While oil prices have a limited impact on the currencies of Russia and Ukraine, they do make a much larger contribution to the two countries’ macroeconomic volatility than do spillovers among the other macroeconomic variables.

  1. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    Nitu Antonie Renata

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions and internal type (Greenfield investments in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy for the owned market shares through increasing the efficiency of the production network at global level. This paper aims to present the less evident aspects of tax optimization of the applied business strategy by implemented MNEs in the automobile industry in CEE, and in this context, the necessity to establish transfer prices in accordance with the OECD recommendations, as an obligation assessed by the tax legislations of the considered countries, but also from the necessity of efficient run of these enterprises.

  2. Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.

    Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative Evaluations of Foreign Direct Investments Impact on Productivity Development of Companies from Central and Eastern Europe

    Marilen Pirtea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The approach of the foreign direct investments impact belonging to multinational companies on host country companies and on national economy is an extremely complex and present-day interest issue in the context of globalization phenomena, which at this time puts a mark on the human society evolution. During this period of rapid changes, the economies of those countries, which find them crossing a development process, can benefit a significant increase of productivity and an enhanced access to new resources and commodity markets, but at the same time they are subject to considerable risks. The purpose of this paper is to bring an empirical support at the current level of research, taking into consideration a set of Central and Eastern European countries, including Romania.

  4. Changes in the importance of work-related values in Central and Eastern Europe: Slovenia and Hungary against the trend?

    Agnes Borgulya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen significant political, economic and social changes in several Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. The reasons for the most important transformation processes were the EU membership and the global recession of the late 2000’s. Our study focuses on the effects of these circumstances on people’s work-related values and attitudes. This longitudinal comparative analysis is based on the results of the European Values Study of 1999/2000 and 2008/2009. Our aim is to detect the priorities that determine employees' attitudes to work in ten CEE countries of the EU. Slovenia and Hungary will be paid special attention since these two countries seem not to be followingthe main direction of changes found in the CEE region.

  5. The Penetration of Foreign Capital into the Banking Sector in Central and Eastern Europe’s Countries

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the degree of the penetration of foreign banks in the banking system of some countries in Central and Eastern Europe, with special reference to Romania. This is done using two significant indicators, such as: the share of foreign banks in the total of the banks in a country and the share of foreign bank assets in the total bank assets in a country. It will also analyze the global character of the activity of foreign banks in Romania and their international character, with the focus on how these two aspects have evolved over time. This will be achieved by analyzing the indicator: FOREIGN claims of BIS reporting banks towards Romania.

  6. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  7. A view on ''On-the-Job Training'' in the central and eastern European countries, Russia and Ukraine

    Deffrennes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The G-24 Training Working Group visited the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEESs), Russia and Ukraine in the course of 1993/94, in order to define priorities for further financial support by the Donor Countries. As a result, it appeared that Nuclear Training needed strong improvements since it is mainly based on OJT (On the Job Training), not SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) oriented and relying essentially on the line supervisor of the trainee. Recommendations were provided to support a SAT based approach development and to provide adequate equipment. In view of the importance of OJT in the training courses, and that probably for some more years, a specific effort should be made in better defining the goals and objectives of the OJT and its coherent integration in the overall training system. In addition, the OJT ''instructors'' have to be trained in the specific teaching skills required to successfully run OJT. (author). 3 figs

  8. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we look at migration flows from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2007. We exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement......, and Finland and Iceland from year 2006, the other Nordic countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. The results based on a differences-in-differences estimator show that the estimated effect of the opening of the Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic labour markets on migration from...... the CEECs that entered the EU in 2004 is not significantly different from zero. However, the effect of the opening of the Swedish and Finnish labour markets in 2007 on migration from the 2007 EU entrants, Bulgaria and Romania, is significantly positive. Further, we are interested in the overall effect...

  9. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pedersen, Peder J.

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  10. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investments and Remittances on Economic Growth: A Case Study in Central and Eastern Europe

    Calin-Adrian Comes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and remittances on Economic Growth (EG, using panel data of seven countries from Central and Eastern Europe with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita under 25,000 $. The empirical literature stressed the relationships between FDI and remittances and economic growth, and our purpose is to identify if there are significant relationships between FDI, remittances and economic growth in the seven analyzed countries. We find a positive impact of both FDI and remittances on GDP, but the influence of FDI is higher in all analyzed states, with accepting the assumption of ceteris paribus principles in limiting research caused by other possible determinants.

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF E.U. ADHERING

    Adrian\tLiviu\tSCUTARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a negative phenomenon that manifests itself in any economy with varying degrees of intensity. In this paper we propose to analyze the evolution of unemployment in the EU. There are countries where economic recession was felt more intense and harder recovered from it, such as Greece or Spain. Within the European Union one notes some differences in unemployment between Member States but also in terms of age groups. In the EU youth unemployment rate is approximately double that the general unemployment rate, but the situation is worse in some countries where youth unemployment rate is even higher. Our analysis also focuses on trends recorded at regional level in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the context of their accession to the EU, highlighting positive developments, which were maintained in the coming years. The unemployment rate decrease is one of the objectives followed by the EU through its policies.

  12. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITY OF BANKS WITH FOREIGN CAPITAL IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    RADULESCU MAGDALENA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The privatization has as purpose to reestablish the functionality of a type of property under the public agreement. The privatization of banks brings both positive and beneficial aspects, but also some notions with a negative impact that influence the capital markets and banking system. Among the benefits we can include: the increase of the effectiveness and performance of the banking operations, the implementation of some effective structures that lead to the gradual integration of the banking system into the greatly developed economies, the improvement and perfecting of the bank services. In Romania, the privatization of banks started rather late and in some cases it turned up to be very difficult. Romanian banking system is dominated by the Austrian and Greek investors. The Romanian banking system is very concentrated, but the intermediation level is still lower than in other European or Eastern European countries.

  14. A new leaf-tailed gecko of the Uroplatus ebenaui group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar's central eastern rainforests.

    Ratsoavina, Fanomezana Mihaja; Ranjanaharisoa, Fiadanantsoa Andrianja; Glaw, Frank; Raselimanana, Achille P; Miralles, Aurélien; Vences, Miguel

    2015-08-21

    We describe a new leaf-tailed gecko species of the Uroplatus ebenaui group from the eastern central rainforests of Madagascar, which had previously been considered as a confirmed candidate species. Our description of Uroplatus fiera sp. nov. relies on integrating evidence from molecular and morphological characters and is based on newly collected material from two localities. A phylogenetic analysis based on multiple mitochondrial DNA fragments places the new species as sister to a lineage of uncertain status (Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca8]), and the clade consisting of these two lineages is sister to a further undescribed candidate species (U. ebenaui [Ca1]). This entire clade is sister to U. phantasticus plus another candidate species. The new species differs from these close relatives, and all other congenerics, by strong differences in DNA sequences of mitochondrial genes (>8.5% uncorrected p-distance in 16S rDNA to all nominal species of the genus) and lacks shared alleles with any of the nominal species in the nuclear CMOS gene. From its closest relatives the new species further differs in its much smaller tail size (relative to U. phantasticus), and a narrower tail, fewer supralabials, and more toe lamellae (relative to U. ebenaui [Ca1]). Morphologically the new species is most similar to U. ebenaui but differs in its larger body size and unpigmented oral mucosa. Given its distribution in central eastern Madagascar, with records from near Fierenana and Ambatovy, its range overlaps with that of U. phantasticus. Based on examination of the U. phantasticus holotype, we confirm that this latter has a blackish pigmented oral mucosa as do those specimens typically attributed to this nomen, thereby confirming its distinctness from U. fiera sp. nov., in which the mucosa is unpigmented.

  15. Energy consumption, human well-being and economic development in central and eastern European nations: A cautionary tale of sustainability

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Alekseyko, Alina; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is fundamentally a challenge of tradeoffs. In order to improve human well-being through economic development we consume nonrenewable energy and other natural resources, relying on a broad range of ecosystem services. Enhancing sustainability requires reducing the “energy intensity of human well-being (EIWB)”: the amount of energy used per unit of human well-being. In this study we employ longitudinal analysis techniques to assess the temporally dynamic relationship between EIWB and economic development for a sample of 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations for the 1992 to 2010 period. These are nations that have recently transitioned, which is still an ongoing process, from socialist command economies to market demand economies. During this ongoing transition, many of them have experienced declines in energy intensity, coupled with increased energy efficiency, while human well-being has improved considerably. The results of the analysis indicate that the relationship between EIWB and economic growth in CEE nations is complex and has changed dramatically through time. Of particular importance, the later years of the study exhibit an increasingly sustainable relationship between EIWB and economic development. The findings point to future possibilities for relatively more harmonious relationships between development, human well-being, and the natural environment. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy intensity of well-being in Central and Eastern European nations. • The effect of economic development is time-dynamic. • Other factors influence the energy intensity of well-being. • The results highlight possibilities for enhanced sustainability policies

  16. Transferability of results of cost utility analyses for biologicals in inflammatory conditions for Central and Eastern European countries.

    Gulácsi, László; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Lopert, Ruth; Hevér, Noémi V; Baji, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries require cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to support reimbursement formulary listing. However, CUAs informed by local evidence are often unavailable, and the cost-effectiveness of the several currently reimbursed biologicals is unclear. To estimate the cost-effectiveness as multiples of per capita GDP/quality adjusted life years (QALY) of four biologicals (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) currently reimbursed in six CEE countries in six inflammatory rheumatoid and bowel disease conditions. Systematic literature review of published cost-utility analyses in the selected conditions, using the United Kingdom (UK) as reference country and with study selection criteria set to optimize the transfer of results to the CEEs. Prices in each CEE country were pro-rated against UK prices using purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted per capita GDP, and local GDP per capita/QALY ratios estimated. Central and Eastern European countries list prices were 144-333% higher than pro rata prices. Out of 85 CUAs identified by previous systematic literature reviews, 15 were selected as a convenience sample for estimating the cost-effectiveness of biologicals in the CEE countries in terms of per capita GDP/QALY. Per capita GDP/QALY values varied from 0.42 to 6.4 across countries and conditions (Bulgaria: 0.97-6.38; Czech Republic: 0.42-2.76; Hungary: 0.54-3.54; Poland: 0.59-3.90; Romania: 0.77-5.07; Slovakia: 0.55-3.61). While results must be interpreted with caution, calculating pro rata (cost-effective) prices and per capita GDP/QALY ratios based on CUAs can aid reimbursement decision-making in the absence of analyses using local data.

  17. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R. [Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth & Atmospheric Science

    2002-07-01

    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. (3) Shortening and exhumation of the suture zone peaked from 65 to 60 Ma on the basis of metamorphic and geochronologic data. (4) From 60 to 54 Ma, about 3 km of volcanic strata were deposited over deformed sedimentary strata of the Cantwell basin, and several granitic plutons (the McKinley sequence) were emplaced along the suture zone. (5) Following igneous activity, strike-slip displacement occurred from ca. 54 to 24 Ma along the Denali fault system, which had developed in the existing suture zone. (6) Regional transpressive shortening characterized the suture zone from ca. 24 Ma to the present. Regional subsidence resulted in Miocene coal seams up to 20 m thick and well-developed lacustrine deposits. Overlying the Miocene deposits are about 1.2 km of Pliocene and Holocene conglomeratic deposits. These mapping relationships provide evidence that regional shortening continues to the present in the eastern and central Alaska Range.

  18. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  19. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean-potential impacts

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier Gon, H.A.C. van der

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size

  20. Reflections on a ‘shop’ melodic model in wedding and St George’s day songs from eastern and Central Serbia

    Jovanović Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a melodic model that characterizes Serbian ‘Shop’ musical idiom both in eastern and central Serbia, where it was disseminated through migrations from the ‘Shop’ cultural region to the west and northwest. In some of the ‘Shop’ areas and in neighbouring regions in East Serbia, as well as in more remote central Serbia, examples of this model are consistent in their main characteristics, while in more remote areas in central Serbia these characteristics appear in various forms of the model. The goal of this paper is to contribute to knowledge of the distribution of elements of ‘Shop’ musical culture in eastern and central Serbian areas. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development: Identities of Serbian music from local to global frameworks; traditions, changes, challenges

  1. Differential cooling and uplift of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    Steenken, A; Martino, R.; Wemmer, K.; Siegesmund, S.; Drobe, M.; Lopez de Luchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampean as are constituted by the Neo proterozoic to early Cambrian basement of the Sierras de Cordoba, San Luis and eastern La Rioja (29grades 00seconds - 33grades 30seconds, 64grades 00seconds - 6 00W) outcropping in the east of the Chaco-Parana basin. High-grade metamorphic gneisses and schists dominate the basement. The intrusion of magmatic rocks took place during the Pampean, Famatinian and Achalian cycles. The basement is divided in different lithological and structural domains by N-S trending ductile shear-zones. The east-dipping compressive Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones at the western limit of the Sierras de Cordoba are the most important with respect to the exhumation history of the Sierras. An extensive survey on the cooling history by K/Ar biotite and muscovite dating of the basement rocks of the Sierras de Cordoba and San Luis was carried out and interpreted in terms of a differential exhumation history of the different blocks. Beginning of cooling in the Sierra de San Luis is documented by large muscovite booklets from pegmatites yielding ages between 438 Ma and 448 Ma. Slow cooling rates (3grades/Ma) led to a systematic reset of the K/Ar ages in the fine-grained muscovites forming two groups between 430 Ma and 410 Ma and 410 Ma and 380 Ma resulting from the Achalian deformation in the upper Silurian-Upper Devonian. In contrast to the Upper Ordovician/-Llandoverian cooling onset in the Sierra de San Luis, large pegmatitic muscovites from the Sierras de Cordoba record late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ages between 493 Ma and 474 Ma. The limit between those age domains is marked by the Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones accommodating the vertical displacement responsible for the different ages. Cooling ages from the shear-zone rocks at 430 Ma define the upper limit for the contraction that is related to the collision with the Cuyania Terrane to the western outboard of Gondwana

  2. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific.

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (F ST = 0.08-0.44, P eastern Pacific Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary "graveyards", serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation.

  3. The program for Central and Eastern Europe organized by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment

    Gelfort, E.; Wolf, J.; Weil, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, within the overall concept of the Federal Government to help establish democracy and a social market economy in Eastern Europe, is to contribute to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety evaluations of Soviet-type reactors in the former German Democratic Republic have given rise to findings since 1990 which resulted in qualified cooperation especially in Russia and Ukraine. These activities mainly serve to strengthen the role of supervisory authorities in the interest of nuclear safety, and to make available technical inspection systems for nuclear power plants. German experts also conducted safety analyses and radioactivity measurements in situ. The financial expenditure between 1990 and 1995 totaled approx. DM 150 million. The money was spent on some 75 different projects for which contracts were awarded to qualified German firms. All measures, from analyses to the provision of equipment to training seminars, serve the purpose of providing help towards self-help, together with an adequate transfer of know-how. (orig.) [de

  4. Geology and uranium mineralization in the eastern part of the Kani Basin, Gifu, Central Japan

    Kobayashi, Takao

    1989-01-01

    The Misano and Utozaka uranium deposits in the eastern part of the Kani Basin are within Miocene nonmarine sediments which unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Mesozoic sediments and Cretaceous-Paleogene granites. These deposits are classified as sandstone type deposits structurally controlled by palaeo-channel structures formed on the pre-Miocene basement rocks. The host rock is the Kani lignite-bearing formation which is the lowermost sequence of the Kani Group. The age of the formation was estimated to be 20-19 Ma by fission track dating. The mineralized host sediments consist of conglomerates, arkosic, tuffaceous and carbonaceous sandstones. Although no primary uranium mineral was identified to date, it is considered that uranium is present in uranous form. The mineralization was strongly controlled by a fault structure within the basement granites as well as the channel structure formed on the basement rocks, especially on the granites. The enriched ore zone of the Misano deposit distributes within the basal part of the Kani lignite-bearing formation above the basement fault structure and in the palaeo-channel downward from the fault structure. The basement granites were also mineralized along the fault structure. Groundwater leached uranium form the basement granites, and migrated along the fault structure to the host sediments to form the deposite. (Kako, I.)

  5. NATO Nuclear Reductions and the Assurance of Central and Eastern European Allies

    2013-10-01

    Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security Between NATO and the Russian Federation, signed in Paris , May 27, 1997, Section IV. Political...in Central Europe,” in Bruno Tertrais, ed., Perspectives on Extended Deterrence, Researches and Documents No. 3 ( Paris : Fondation pour la Rescherche...I. • • • • • • Wrodaw 0 Lo~t Radom L bl’ o u 1n ·= ... 0 Brest 0 Pinsk

  6. Etnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin deseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.; Villanelli, M.L.; Mangino, P.; Sabbatini, G.; Santini, L.; Boccetti, T.; Profili, M.; Ciccioli, T.; Rampa, L.G.; Antonini, G.; Girolamini, C.

    2004-01-01

    An ethnopharmaceutical Study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented

  7. Records of human occupation from Pleistocene river terrace and aeolian sediments in the Arneiro depression (Lower Tejo River, central eastern Portugal)

    Cunha, Pedro P.; Almeida, Nelson A.C.; Aubry, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    In the uppermost reach of the Lower Tejo River (eastern central Portugal), where the river crosses two quartzite ridges that separate the Ródão (upstream) and Arneiro (downstream) depressions, Palaeolithic artefacts have been recovered from three lower river terrace levels and a cover unit of aeo...

  8. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  9. Technical cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries with special focus on engineering aspects of lifetime optimisation

    Trampus, P.

    2002-01-01

    A regional Technical Cooperation project for Central and Eastern European countries was established and funded by the IAEA as a response to the region's need. Majority of these countries are now in the process of establishing/strengthening their infrastructure for assessment of structural integrity of primary circuit components for an appropriate level of safety and reliability. Moreover, extension of the operational life of the WWER nuclear power plants (NPPs) became part of the generation strategy in most of these countries. The overall objective of the project is to improve long term integrity of primary circuit components as a fundamental technical prerequisite to ensure plant operation until and beyond the design lifetime. In a series of workshops and technical meetings issues relevant to primary circuit component structural integrity with special regard to operational life optimization have been being addressed. The works under the project are coordinated with the European Commission's integrity related assistance projects, and some of the activities are jointly organized with the WANO Moscow Center. Main conclusions of the central topics are summarized in this paper

  10. Application of high-pass filtering techniques on gravity and magnetic data of the eastern Qattara Depression area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Hesham Shaker Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a reconnaissance study is presented to delineate the subsurface tectonics and lithological inferences of the eastern area of Qattara Depression using the Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic data. To achieve this goal, several transformation techniques and filtering processes are accomplished on these maps. At first, the total intensity aeromagnetic map is processed through the application of reduction to the magnetic north pole technique. The fast Fourier transform is carried out on the gravity and RTP magnetic data for establishing and defining the residual (shallow sources. The frequency high-pass filtering is used to enhance the anomaly wavelengths associated with the shallow sources. The used processing techniques are the polynomial surface fitting enhancement, Laplacian, Strike Filtering, Enhancement Utilization, Suppression Utilization, Butterworth Filtering Utilization, Butterworth high-pass filter, Euler’s deconvolution and forward modeling. The equivalent depths of the isolated short wavelength anomalies are 0.759 and 0.340 km below the flight surface, and the depths of the intermediate wavelength anomalies are 1.28 and 2.00 km for the gravity and magnetic data, respectively. Finally, the quantitative interpretations of the Bouguer gravity and RTP magnetic maps of the study area, reflect the occurrence of the various types of structures and their components. The main tectonic deformations of the study area have NNW–SSE, NNE–SSW, NE–SW, NW–SE and E–W trends.

  11. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of a peridotite body in Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments (Sedlice, eastern Slovakia

    Koppa Matúš

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied representative samples from a peridotite body situated NE of Sedlice village within the Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments in the Central Western Carpathians. The relationship of the peridotite to the surrounding Paleogene sediments is not clear. The fractures of the brecciated peridotite margin are healed with secondary magnesite and calcite. On the basis of the presented bulk-rock and electron microprobe data, the wt. % amounts of mineral phases were calculated. Most of calculated “modal” compositions of this peridotite corresponds to harzburgites composed of olivine (∼70-80 wt. %, orthopyroxene (∼17-24 wt. %, clinopyroxene ( < 5 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 1 wt. %. Harzburgites could originate from lherzolitic protoliths due to a higher degree of partial melting. Rare lherzolites contain porphyroclastic 1-2 mm across orthopyroxene (up to 25 wt. %, clinopyroxene (∼ 5-8 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 0.75 wt. %. On the other hand, rare, olivine-rich dunites with scarce orthopyroxene porphyroclasts are associated with harzburgites. Metamorphic mineral assemblage of low-Al clinopyroxene (3, tremolite, chrysotile, andradite, Cr-spinel to chromite and magnetite, and an increase of fayalite component in part of olivine, indicate low-temperature metamorphic overprint. The Primitive Mantle normalized whole-rock REE patterns suggest a depleted mantle rock-suite. An increase in LREE and a positive Eu anomaly may be consequence of interactive metamorphic fluids during serpentinization. Similar rocks have been reported from the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe overlying the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge since the Late Cretaceous, and they could be a potential source of these peridotite blocks in the Paleogene sediments.

  13. Where Did Central- and Eastern-European Emigrants Go and Why?

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    Central European countries, and Romania and Bulgaria, while immigrants from the Baltic countries seem to rely much less on networks. Income gaps have a positive effect on migration flows, particularly from the Southeastern countries, while employment opportunities in destination countries are main...... an important role in international migration from those countries. The disaggregated results show that there are large differences between the CEE countries with respect to emigration patterns. The lagged stock of immigrants, which may reflect networks has a strong and positive effect for immigrants from...

  14. Pathways from and Crises after Communism: the Case of Central Eastern Europe

    SZELENYI, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from socialist redistributive economy to capitalist markets has proved to be a rockier road that anticipated. The degree and character of difficulties that the countries faced during the transition depended on the nature of the pathways taken. In this paper I distinguish three major trajectories various countries followed: Central European neo-liberalism; post USSR neo-patrimonial regime and the East Asian (Chinese and Vietnamese transformation from below. Rather than distinguishing the “right way” from the “wrong way” I explore what the different costs and benefits of the various pathways were at various stages of the transformation.

  15. Investigation of the climate-driven periodicity of shallow groundwater level fluctuations in a Central-Eastern European agricultural region

    Garamhegyi, Tamás; Kovács, József; Pongrácz, Rita; Tanos, Péter; Hatvani, István Gábor

    2018-05-01

    The distribution and amount of groundwater, a crucial source of Earth's drinking and irrigation water, is changing due to climate-change effects. Therefore, it is important to understand groundwater behavior in extreme scenarios, e.g. drought. Shallow groundwater (SGW) level fluctuation under natural conditions displays periodic behavior, i.e. seasonal variation. Thus, the study aims to investigate (1) the periodic behavior of the SGW level time series of an agriculturally important and drought-sensitive region in Central-Eastern Europe - the Carpathian Basin, in the north-eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain, and (2) its relationship to the European atmospheric pressure action centers. Data from 216 SGW wells were studied using wavelet spectrum analysis and wavelet coherence analyses for 1961-2010. Locally, a clear relationship exists between the absence of annual periodic behavior in the SGW level and the periodicity of droughts, as indicated by the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index and the Aridity Index. During the non-periodic intervals, significant drops in groundwater levels (average 0.5 m) were recorded in 89% of the wells. This result links the meteorological variables to the periodic behavior of SGW, and consequently, drought. On a regional scale, Mediterranean cyclones from the Gulf of Genoa (northwest Italy) were found to be a driving factor in the 8-yr periodic behavior of the SGW wells. The research documents an important link between SGW levels and local/regional climate variables or indices, thereby facilitating the necessary adaptation strategies on national and/or regional scales, as these must take into account the predictions of drought-related climatic conditions.

  16. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv >Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  17. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  18. Production potential in the “bread baskets” of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Swinnen, Johan; Burkitbayeva, Saule; Schierhorn, Florian

    2017-01-01

    How to select locations for biofuel production is still a critical consideration for balance of crop and biofuel productions as well as of energy consumption and environmental conservation. Biofuels are widely produced all over the world, but this practice in China is still at the initial stage....... Based on China's current stage on food security and changing biofuel demands, this paper selected agro-environmental and socio-economic factors of biofuel production, and simulated and spatially allocated areas suited for biofuel production under the two scenarios of planning-oriented scenario (Po......S) and biofuel-oriented scenario (BoS) by the target year 2020. It also estimated biofuel production potentials and zones across China's provinces. The results show that land suited for biofuel production is primarily located in Northwestern, Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southwestern China...

  19. First Report of the Occurrence of Trichinella-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Pigs in Central and Eastern Uganda

    Nöckler, Karsten; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Fries, Reinhard; Dione, Michel M.; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on trichinellosis in Africa focused on isolating Trichinella from wildlife while the role of domestic pigs has remained highly under-researched. Pig keeping in Uganda is historically recent, and evidence on zoonotic pig diseases, including infection with Trichinella species, is scarce. A cross-sectional survey on Trichinella seroprevalence in pigs was conducted in three districts in Central and Eastern Uganda from April 2013 to January 2015. Serum from a random sample of 1125 pigs from 22 villages in Eastern and Central Uganda was examined to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) against any Trichinella spp. using a commercially available ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. ELISA positive samples were confirmed using Western Blot based on somatic antigen of Trichinella spiralis as recommended in previous validation studies. Diaphragm pillar muscle samples (at least 5 g each) of 499 pigs from areas with high ELISA positivity were examined using the artificial digestion method. Overall, 78 of all 1125 animals (6.9%, 95% CI: 5.6–8.6%) tested positive for antibodies against Trichinella spp. in the ELISA at significantly higher levels in Kamuli district compared to Masaka and Mukono districts. Thirty-one percent of the ELISA positive samples were confirmed IgG positive by the Western Blot leading to an overall seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4–3.2%). The large proportion of ELISA positive samples that could not be confirmed using Western blot may be the result of cross-reactivity with other gastrointestinal helminth infections or unknown host-specific immune response mechanisms in local pig breeds in Uganda. Attempts to isolate muscle larvae for species determination using the artificial digestion method were unsuccessful. Due to the large number of muscle samples examined we are confident that even if pigs are infected, the larval burden in pork is too low to pose a major risk to consumers of developing trichinellosis. This was the first large

  20. First Report of the Occurrence of Trichinella-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Pigs in Central and Eastern Uganda.

    Roesel, Kristina; Nöckler, Karsten; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Fries, Reinhard; Dione, Michel M; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on trichinellosis in Africa focused on isolating Trichinella from wildlife while the role of domestic pigs has remained highly under-researched. Pig keeping in Uganda is historically recent, and evidence on zoonotic pig diseases, including infection with Trichinella species, is scarce. A cross-sectional survey on Trichinella seroprevalence in pigs was conducted in three districts in Central and Eastern Uganda from April 2013 to January 2015. Serum from a random sample of 1125 pigs from 22 villages in Eastern and Central Uganda was examined to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) against any Trichinella spp. using a commercially available ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. ELISA positive samples were confirmed using Western Blot based on somatic antigen of Trichinella spiralis as recommended in previous validation studies. Diaphragm pillar muscle samples (at least 5 g each) of 499 pigs from areas with high ELISA positivity were examined using the artificial digestion method. Overall, 78 of all 1125 animals (6.9%, 95% CI: 5.6-8.6%) tested positive for antibodies against Trichinella spp. in the ELISA at significantly higher levels in Kamuli district compared to Masaka and Mukono districts. Thirty-one percent of the ELISA positive samples were confirmed IgG positive by the Western Blot leading to an overall seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2%). The large proportion of ELISA positive samples that could not be confirmed using Western blot may be the result of cross-reactivity with other gastrointestinal helminth infections or unknown host-specific immune response mechanisms in local pig breeds in Uganda. Attempts to isolate muscle larvae for species determination using the artificial digestion method were unsuccessful. Due to the large number of muscle samples examined we are confident that even if pigs are infected, the larval burden in pork is too low to pose a major risk to consumers of developing trichinellosis. This was the first large